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Sample records for mining chemistry geology

  1. Geology, petrology, and chemistry of the Leadville Dolomite: host for uranium at the Pitch Mine, Saguache County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch Mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester reverse fault zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only lithology that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse fault zone. Other lithologies tend to either remain unbroken or undergo ductile deformation. Chemical controls are subtle and appear to involve chiefly formation of FeS2 as pyrite and marcasite, which accompany uranium. Leadville Dolomite in the area is about 130 m thick and is predominantly nonfossiliferous dolomicrite. In the Pitch Mine, Leadville Dolomite is bound by faults and maximum known thickness is about 17 m. Mud texture, paucity of fossils and other allochems, thin laminations, and probable algal mat structures suggest sedimentation in a tidal-flat (possibly supratidal) environment. Preservation of mud texture and lack of replacement features indicate that dolomitization was an early, prelithification process, as in modern tidal flats, and produced a chemically and texturally uniform rock over tens of meters with relatively few limestone beds surviving. The sedimentary and diagenetic environment of the tidal-flat dolomite, apparently most favorable for uranium deposits, probably obtained over a large area and should consistute an exploration target over a broad area of central Colorado. Carbonate rocks of the Belden Formation, in contrast to those of the Leadville, contain calcite in great excess of dolomite, more than 5 percent silt-size quartz and clay, and abundant fossils and oolites. Belden limestones

  2. Estimating natural background groundwater chemistry, Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Phillip L.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Walker, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    This 2 1/2 day field trip will present an overview of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project whose objective was to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry at the Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico. Because of intense debate among stakeholders regarding pre-mining groundwater chemistry standards, the New Mexico Environment Department and Chevron Mining Inc. (formerly Molycorp) agreed that the USGS should determine pre-mining groundwater quality at the site. In 2001, the USGS began a 5-year, multidisciplinary investigation to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry utilizing a detailed assessment of a proximal natural analog site and applied an interdisciplinary approach to infer pre-mining conditions. The trip will include a surface tour of the Questa mine and key locations in the erosion scar areas and along the Red River. The trip will provide participants with a detailed understanding of geochemical processes that influence pre-mining environmental baselines in mineralized areas and estimation techniques for determining pre-mining baseline conditions.

  3. Gold and other mines - History, Chemistry and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Carla; Moutinho, Amélia

    2016-04-01

    The Castromil gold mines is near to our school, and they were explored by the Romans around 2000 years ago, which sows the seeds of an eTwinning project about mines. Although an important source of resources, mines and their industry can lead to a negative impact on the environment. It is important for students to understand the pros and cons of the mining industry using the Castromil gold mine as an example. With a European project as eTwinning, students can share the stories of "their" mines from different countries and since it is a trans-disciplinary subject, it can involve different subjects, from Chemistry to Environment Education, from Geology to ITC. The project's profile can be found at https://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/profile.cfm?f=2&l=en&n=121456 and because the project is ongoing, we expect that more schools will join us.

  4. Mine roof geology information system

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2005-05-01

    A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Environmental geology of the Summitville mine, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Atkinson, William W.

    1994-01-01

    Although altered and mineralized rocks at Summitville mine in Colorado contain minimal amount of sulfide minerals, acid mine problems existed primarily because of the pervasive alteration of the surrounding rocks, through hydrothermal process, to highly siliceous and argillized rocks that are incapable of buffering acidic waters during weathering. The problems are compounded by the continued exposure of altered and mineralized rocks in open pit, heap leach pad and waste piles to oxygenated waters. Inadequate subsurface structural control and underground mine workings also greatly affect water quality and the location of acid mine drainage output. It is expected that with these initial results, geological studies on constrained acid-generation from ore and altered rocks will be pursued.

  6. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  7. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  8. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  9. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    SciTech Connect

    Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-10-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky, is next analyzed, using both the new baseline mine concept and traditional geologic investigative approach. The baseline mine concept presented is intended as a framework, providing a consistent basis for further analyses to be subsequently conducted in other geographic regions. The baseline mine concept is intended as a tool to give system designers a more realistic feel of the mine environment and will hopefully lead to acceptable alternatives for advanced coal extraction system.

  10. Water chemistry-based classification of streams and implications for restoring mined Appalachian watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Merovich, G.T.; Stiles, J.M.; Petty, J.T.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Fulton, J.B.

    2007-07-15

    We analyzed seasonal water samples from the Cheat and Tygart Valley river basins, West Virginia, USA, in an attempt to classify streams based on water chemistry in this coal-mining region. We also examined temporal variability among water samples. Principal component analysis identified two important dimensions of variation in water chemistry. This variation was determined largely by mining-related factors (elevated metals, sulfates, and conductivity) and an alkalinity-hardness gradient. Cluster analysis grouped water samples into six types that we described as reference, soft, hard, transitional, moderate acid mine drainage, and severe acid mine drainage. These types were statistically distinguishable in multidimensional space. Classification tree analysis confirmed that chemical constituents related to acid mine drainage and acid rain distinguished these six groups. Hard, soft, and severe acid mine drainage type streams were temporally constant compared to streams identified as reference, transitional, and moderate acid mine drainage type, which had a greater tendency to shift to a different water type between seasons. Our research is the first to establish a statistically supported stream classification system in mined watersheds. The results suggest that human-related stressors superimposed on geology are responsible for producing distinct water quality types in this region as opposed to more continuous variation in chemistry that would be expected in an unimpacted setting. These findings provide a basis for simplifying stream monitoring efforts, developing generalized remediation strategies, and identifying specific remediation priorities in mined Appalachian watersheds.

  11. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  12. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-06-08

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval.

  13. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  14. Geology and mining industry of Leadville, Colorado, with atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, Samuel Franklin

    1886-01-01

    The present work was undertaken at the instance of the Ron. Clarence King, first Director of the United States Geological Survey, in 1879. Itwas his intention that it should form part of a series of monographs which would in time include all the important mining districts of the country, and thus furnish an accurate and permanent record of the manner of occurrence and geological relation of the metallic deposits of the United States, as well a of all substantial improvement in the methods of obtaining the metals from their ores.

  15. Interface management for the Mined Geologic Disposal System

    SciTech Connect

    Ashlock, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the interface management process that is to be used for Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) development. As part of the systems engineering and integration performed on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), interface management is critical in the development of the potential MGDS. The application of interface management on the YMP directly addresses integration between physical elements of the MGDS and the organizations responsible for their development.

  16. Current Mined Geologic Disposal System concept of operations

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of operations for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) provides an integrated, conceptual description of the physical architecture and operating concept of the potential repository. The document facilitates a common understanding of the operations among system planners, developers and implementors by summarizing design solutions and operating concepts. During this past year, the MGDS Concept of Operations document was updated to reflect the Viability Assessment (VA) design and operating concept. Previously, this document reflected the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). This paper presents a description of the significant operational changes from ACD to VA design that are now captured in the concept of operations document.

  17. Seismology program; California Division of Mines and Geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherburne, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The year 1980 marked the centennial of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) and a decade of the Division's involvement in seismology. Factors which contributed to the formation of a Seismology Group within CDMG included increased concerns for environmental and earthquake safety, interest in earthquake prediction, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and the 1973 publication by CDMG of an urban geology master plan for California. Reasons to be concerned about California's earthquake problem are demonstrated by the accompanying table and the figures. Recent seismicity in California, the Southern California uplift reflecting changes in crustal strain, and other possible earthquake precursors have heightened concern among scientific and governmental groups about the possible occurrence of a major damaging earthquake )M>7) in California. 

  18. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  19. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  20. Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

    1972-01-01

    The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be

  1. Remote sensing evaluation of the Klondike Mining District, Nevada. Part 1: Geology, photography and infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Chapman, P. E.; Chipp, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    During August of 1970 Mission 140 was flown with the NASA P3A aircraft over the Klondike Mining District, Nevada. High quality metric photography, thermal infrared imagery, multispectral photography and multichannel microwave radiometry were obtained. Geology and ground truth data are presented and relationships of the physical attributes of geologic materials to remotely sensed data is discussed. It is concluded that remote sensing data was valuable in the geologic evaluation of the Klondike Mining District and would be of value in other mining districts.

  2. Engineering geology applied to the design and operation of underground coal mines. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    The primary goal of this report is to present, in a systematic outline format, information gained from studies and experience of many geologists, engineers, and miners in the US and other countries in order to: (1) Help geologists, engineers, and other mine planners design underground coal mines that are safer, more efficient, and compatible with the environment by incorporating the information presented; (2) Ensure that mine planners are more aware of some of the more important geologic and geotechnical factors that control of affect mining; and (3) Show how geologic, geotechnical, and mining factors, commonly important to proper mine design, may be incorporated into the planning and design phase of the coal mining operations.

  3. Hydrogeologic inferences from geophysical and geologic investigation of the Standard Mine site, Elk Basin, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Caine, J. S.; Ball, L. B.; Burton, B.; Curry-Elrod, E.; Manning, A. H.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geophysical and geologic data were collected at the Standard Mine in Elk Basin near Crested Butte, CO, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic controls in the basin and how they influence surface and groundwater interactions with nearby mine workings. The Tertiary Ohio Creek and Wasatch formations are the bedrock geologic units; both are primarily sandstones, but with differences in weathering and fracturing. Dikes, near-vertical normal faults, and polymetallic quartz veins with varying degrees of lateral continuity cut the sedimentary units. The net impact of these features, along with basin topography, makes it difficult to predict the behavior of the surface and groundwater systems. This integrated study utilizes geologic observations to help constrain subsurface information obtained from the analysis of surface geophysical measurements. This is a critical step toward using the geophysical data in a meaningful hydrogeologic framework. The approach combines the benefit of direct, but sparse, field observations with spatially continuous, but indirect, measurements of physical properties through the use of geophysics. Surface geophysical data includes electrical resistivity profiles aimed at imaging variability in subsurface structural properties and fluid content; self-potentials, which are sensitive to mineralized zones at this site and, to a lesser extent, shallow flow patterns; and magnetic measurements, which provide information on lateral variability in near-surface geologic features, although the minerals at this site are not strongly magnetized. Downhole caliper and optical televiewer logs were acquired in one well and provide valuable information on fracture properties. Field geologic observations include hand sample mineralogy and detailed mapping and characterization of faults, joints, and veins. Analyses of representative rock samples include magnetic susceptibility, mercury injection capillary pressure, semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction

  4. The structural geology of boulby (potash) mine, Cleveland, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, C. J.; Tully, C. P.; Woods, P. J. E.

    1982-05-01

    This is the first description of the structural geology of the Upper Permian potash and salt of the third Zechstein Cycle exposed in Boulby Mine. The near seam lithologies are described briefly and the associated veins, vein networks, shear zones and slides are introduced. It is argued that the Boulby Potash migrated from lower levels to those at which it is now found to fill fractures which developed in a grey anhydrite shale produced by the reduction and wetting of the lower parts of the Carnallitic (Rotten) Marl. Continued introduction of chlorides of Na and K into vein networks dispersed the shale as clasts of ever decreasing size in a sub-horizontal zone of gneissose sylvinite which, when it reached a significant thickness, began to flow in an extraordinary manner. Hundreds of asymmetric sub-horizontal lobes of gneissose sylvinite root to and repeat the first formed layer in structures which developed to various degrees in different parts of the mine. These are shown to represent small-scale movement cells (e.g. 15 × 30 to 100m in axial section) in which the movements integrate within a pattern of larger-scale movement cells ( 15 × 200 to 400 m). Where the sylvinite was thickest these movement cells progressed to a stage which involved the complete circulation of a compound layer of sylvinite and grey shale. Continued circulation almost homogenised this compound layer to sylvinite in which the grey shale has been disrupted and dispersed to small aggregates and individual clay particles included within the chloride grains. The circulation cells in the sylvinite are rectilinear rolls close to where thin but extensive sub-horizontal lobes of Boulby Halite moved through and over them late in the structural history. Away from such salt lobes, the small-scale circulation cells are concentric within the boundaries of larger cells which have polygonal planforms. After rejecting explanations invoking near surface slumping for the small-scale circulation cells it is

  5. GEOLOGIC AND ATMOSPHERIC INPUT FACTORS AFFECTING WATERSHED CHEMISTRY IN UPPER MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships between watershed variables and lakewater chemistry were examined for 53 lakes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to identify factors influencing lake sensitivity to atmospheric inputs. The lakes lie in three distinct geologic/geomorphic regions. Acid neutraliza...

  6. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing "live" process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  7. Geology of the Midnite uranium mine area, Washington: maps, description, and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Bedrock geology of about 12 km2 near the Midnite mine has been mapped at the surface, in mine exposures, and from drilling, at scales from 1:600 to 1:12,000 and is presented here at 1:12,000 to provide description of the setting of uranium deposits. Oldest rocks in the area are metapelitic and metacarbonate rocks of the Precambrian (Y) Togo Formation. The chief host for uranium deposits is graphitic and pyritic mica phyllite and muscovite schist. Ore also occurs in calc-silicate hornfels and marble at the western edge of a calcareous section about 1,150 m thick. Calcareous rocks of the Togo are probably older than the pelitic as they are interpreted to be near the axis of a broad anticline. The composition and structural position of the calcareous unit suggests correlation with less metamorphosed carbonate-bearing rocks of the Lower Wallace Formation, Belt Supergroup, about 200 km to the east. Basic sills intrusive into the Togo have been metamorphosed to amphibolite. Unmetamorphosed rocks in the mine area are Cretaceous(?) and Eocene igneous rocks. Porphyritic quartz monzonite of Cretaceous age, part of the Loon Lake batholith, is exposed over one third of the mine area. It underlies the roof pendant of Precambrian rocks in which the Midnite mine occurs at depths of generally less than 300 m. The pluton is a two-mica granite and exhibits pegmatitic and aplitic textural features indicative of water saturation and pressure quenching. Eocene intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area provide evidence that the Eocene surface was only a short distance above the present uranium deposits. Speculative hypotheses are presented for penesyngenetic, hydrothermal, and supergene modes of uranium emplacement. The Precambrian Stratigraphy, similar in age and pre-metamorphic lithology to that of rocks hosting large uranium deposits in Saskatchewan and Northern Territory, Australia, suggests the possibility of uranium accumulation along with diagenetic pyrite in carbonaceous muds in

  8. Deep-Sea Mining: Integrating Geology, Oceanography, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. Michael; Halbach, Peter E.; Martens, Peer N.; Hein, James R.; Scott, Steve

    2008-09-01

    Shaping the Future: Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining Congress; Aachen, Germany, 9-13 March 2008; A strong increase in the global demand for metallic raw materials, coupled with rising market prices, has heightened interest in marine seabed mineral deposits and the feasibility of their extraction for many marine scientists, engineers, and mining companies. This interest focuses not only on base and precious metals but also on strategically important elements needed for high-technology applications, such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, gallium, selenium, telurium, indium, and the rare earth elements.

  9. Geology of the Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, S.C.

    1954-01-01

    The Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Wash., is about 5 airline miles west of Tonasket in the north-central part of the State. The mineralized zone has been explored to a depth of 250 feet by means of three adit levels, one sublevel, and a raise which connects two of the adits and the sublevel. In all, there are about 2,700 feet of underground workings. The mine has neither machinery nor a developed water supply adequate for any work other than a small exploratory program.

  10. Lessons learned from the U.S. Geological Survey abandoned mine lands initiative: 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Church, Stanley E.; Besser, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the United States has been facilitated, in part, by hard-rock mining in the Rocky Mountains. Abandoned and inactive mines cause many significant environmental concerns in hundreds of watersheds. Those who have responsibility to address these environmental concerns must have a basic level of scientific information about mining and mine wastes in a watershed prior to initiating remediation activities. To demonstrate what information is needed and how to obtain that information, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative from 1997 to 2002 with demonstration studies in the Boulder River watershed in Montana and the Animas River watershed in Colorado. The AML Initiative included collection and analysis of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and biological data. The synergy of this interdisciplinary analysis produced a perspective of the environmental concerns that could not have come from a single discipline. Two examples of these perspectives include (1) the combination of hydrological tracer techniques, structural geology, and geophysics help to understand the spatial distribution of loading to the streams in a way that cannot be evaluated by monitoring at a catchment outlet, and (2) the combination of toxicology and hydrology combine to illustrate that seasonal variability of toxicity conditions occurs. Lessons have been learned by listening to and collaborating with land-management agencies to understand their needs and by applying interdisciplinary methods to answer their questions.

  11. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  12. Multisource geological data mining and its utilization of uranium resources exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear energy as one of clear energy sources takes important role in economic development in CHINA, and according to the national long term development strategy, many more nuclear powers will be built in next few years, so it is a great challenge for uranium resources exploration. Research and practice on mineral exploration demonstrates that utilizing the modern Earth Observe System (EOS) technology and developing new multi-source geological data mining methods are effective approaches to uranium deposits prospecting. Based on data mining and knowledge discovery technology, this paper uses multi-source geological data to character electromagnetic spectral, geophysical and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors, and provides the technical support for uranium prospecting integrating with field remote sensing geological survey. Multi-source geological data used in this paper include satellite hyperspectral image (Hyperion), high spatial resolution remote sensing data, uranium geological information, airborne radiometric data, aeromagnetic and gravity data, and related data mining methods have been developed, such as data fusion of optical data and Radarsat image, information integration of remote sensing and geophysical data, and so on. Based on above approaches, the multi-geoscience information of uranium mineralization factors including complex polystage rock mass, mineralization controlling faults and hydrothermal alterations have been identified, the metallogenic potential of uranium has been evaluated, and some predicting areas have been located.

  13. Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from southwestern New Mexico, and Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report details chemistry data derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P.A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1998, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts in southwestern New Mexico (CAR and PET) and near Leadville, Colorado (TUC and MII). Resulting leachate pH values for the four composites ranged from 5.45 to 8.84 and ranked in the following order: CAR < TUC < MII < PET. Specific conductivity values ranged from 85 uS/cm to 847 uS/cm in the following order: PET < MII < CAR < TUC. Geochemical data generated from this investigation reveal that leachate from the CAR composite contains the highest concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Al

  14. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment. PMID:21814815

  15. Economic geology of the Bingham mining district, Utah, with a section on areal geology, and an introduction on general geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boutwell, J.M.; Keith, Arthur; Emmons, S.F.

    1905-01-01

    The field work of which this report represents the final results was first undertaken in the summer of the year 1900. This district had long been selected by the writer as worthy of special economic investigation, as well on account of the importance of its products as because of its geological structure and the peculiar relations of its ore deposits. It was not, however, until the summer mentioned above that the means at the disposal of the Survey, both pecuniary and scientific, justified its undertaking. As originally planned, the areal or surface geology was to have been worked out by Mr. Keith, who had already spent many years in unraveling the complicated geological structure of the Appalachian province, while Mr. Boutwell, who had more recently become attached to the Survey, was to have charge of the underground geology, or a study of the ore deposits, under the immediate supervision of the writer. When the time came for actually taking the field, it was found that the pressure of other work would not permit Mr. Keith to carry out fully the part allotted to him, and in consequence a part of his field work has fallen to Mr. Boutwell. Field work was commenced by the writer and Mr. Boutwell early in July, 1900. Mr. Keith joined the party on August 10, but was obliged to leave for other duties early in September. Mr. Boutwell carried on his field work continuously from July until December, taking up underground work after the snowfall had rendered work on the surface geology impracticable. The geological structure had proved to be unexpectedly intricate and complicated, so that, on the opening of the field season of 1901, it was found necessary to make further study in the light of results already worked out, and Mr. Boutwell spent some weeks in the district in the early summer of 1901. His field work that year, partly in California and partly in Arizona, as assistant to Mr. Waldemar Lindgren, lasted through the summer and winter and well into the spring of 1902

  16. MINED GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEM (MGDS) MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEMS CENTRALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McGrath

    1998-03-31

    The objective of this report is to identify and document Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) requirements for centralized command and control. Additionally, to further develop the MGDS monitoring and control functions. This monitoring and control report provides the following information: (1) Determines the applicable requirements for a monitoring and control system for repository operations and construction (excluding Performance Confirmation). (2) Makes a determination as to whether or not centralized command and control is required.

  17. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  18. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  19. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  20. Geological and anthropogenic factors influencing mercury speciation in mine wastes: An EXAFS spectroscopy study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The speciation of Hg is a critical determinant of its mobility, reactivity, and potential bioavailability in mine-impacted regions. Furthermore, Hg speciation in these complex natural systems is influenced by a number of physical, geological, and anthropogenic variables. In order to investigate the degree to which several of these variables may affect Hg speciation, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to determine the Hg phases and relative proportions of these phases present in Hg-bearing wastes from selected mine-impacted regions in California and Nevada. The geological origin of Hg ore has a significant effect on Hg speciation in mine wastes. Specifically, samples collected from hot-spring Hg deposits were found to contain soluble Hg-chloride phases, while such phases were largely absent in samples from silica-carbonate Hg deposits; in both deposit types, however, Hg-sulfides in the form of cinnabar (HgS, hex.) and metacinnabar (HgS, cub.) dominate. Calcined wastes in which Hg ore was crushed and roasted in excess of 600??C, contain high proportions of metacinnabar while the main Hg-containing phase in unroasted waste rock samples from the same mines is cinnabar. The calcining process is thought to promote the reconstructive phase transformation of cinnabar to metacinnabar, which typically occurs at 345??C. The total Hg concentration in calcines is strongly correlated with particle size, with increases of nearly an order of magnitude in total Hg concentration between the 500-2000 ??m and <45 ??m size fractions (e.g., from 97-810 mg/kg Hg in calcines from the Sulphur Bank Mine, CA). The proportion of Hg-sulfides present also increased by 8-18% as particle size decreased over the same size range. This finding suggests that insoluble yet soft Hg-sulfides are subject to preferential mechanical weathering and become enriched in the fine-grained fraction, while soluble Hg phases are leached out more readily as particle size decreases

  1. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed. PMID:23715732

  2. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases. PMID:26194581

  3. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases. PMID:26194581

  4. Application of geologic modeling to overburden characterization and special handling at a Texas lignite mine

    SciTech Connect

    Behum, P.T. Jr.; Joseph, W.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of the Interior Office of Surface Mining provides permit reviewers and reclamation specialists with a set of engineering and scientific software tools to assist in the regulation and reclamation of coal mines in the United States. This software is available on UNIX workstations in Federal, State, and Tribal regulatory agency offices in all coal producing states and is known as the Technical Information Processing System (TIPS). One of these software packages, earthVision by Dynamic Graphics, Inc. of Alameda, California, Can be used to visualize the three-dimensional characteristics of subsurface overburden units, modeling geologic characteristics such as texture or environmental factors like pH or concentrations of potentially toxic elements. The three-dimensional models allow not only visualization of the subsurface geochemistry, but can be used to accurately estimate the volumes of overburden materials that are potentially acid-forming.

  5. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  6. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  7. Assessing Recharge and Geological Model Uncertainty at the Climax Mine Area of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ye; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; G. Pohll

    2007-11-08

    Hydrologic analyses are commonly based on a single conceptual-mathematical model. Yet hydrologic environments are open and complex, rendering them prone to multiple interpretations and mathematical descriptions. Considering conceptual model uncertainty is a critical process in hydrologic uncertainty assessment. This study assesses recharge and geologic model uncertainty for the Climax mine area of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Five alternative recharge models have been independently developed for Nevada and the Death Valley area of California. These models are (1) the Maxey-Eakin model, (2 and 3) a distributed parameter watershed model with and without a runon-runoff component, and (4 and 5) a chloride mass-balance model with two zero-recharge masks, one for alluvium and one for both alluvium and elevation. Similarly, five geological models have been developed based on different interpretations of available geologic information. One of them was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model; the other four were developed by Bechtel Nevada for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). The Climax mine area is in the northern part of the Yucca Flat CAU, which is within the DVRFS. A total of 25 conceptual models are thus formulated based on the five recharge and five geologic models. The objective of our work is to evaluate the conceptual model uncertainty, and quantify its propagation through the groundwater modeling process. A model averaging method is applied that formally incorporates prior information and field measurements into our evaluation. The DVRFS model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is used as the modeling framework, into which the 25 models are incorporated. Conceptual model uncertainty is first evaluated through expert elicitation based on prior information possessed by two expert panels. Their perceptions of model plausibility are quantified as prior model probabilities, which are then updated

  8. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  9. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  10. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  11. Geology of the Humboldt region and the Iron King mine, Bigbug mining district, Yavapai County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, Saville Cyrus

    1951-01-01

    The Humboldt region is in central Yavapai County, Arizona. The intersection of the 112? 15' meridian and the 34? 30' N parallel is in the approximate geographical center of the region, and the Iron King mine is about 2000 feet west-northwest of the intersection. Pre-Cambrian rocks form the bedrock in the Humboldt region. Late Cenozoic unconsolidated river wash and valley fill, including some interbedded basalt, locally mantle the pre-Cambrian rocks, especially in the north-central part of the region (Lonesome Valley). The pre-Cambrian rocks consist of five newly defined metavolcanic formations derived from flows and tuff s, and of six intrusive units ranging in composition from granite to gabbro or perhaps more mafic types. Relic bedding-and pillow structures are locally prominent in the metavolcanics; geopetal structures are uncommon, but where present, generally indicate that the top is toward the west, though the evidence is too meager to be conclusive. Low-grade dynamothermal metamorphism altered the metavolcanics and to a lesser extent the intrusive rocks, forming textures, structures, and mineral assemblages characteristic of low temperature and moderate stress. The Texas Gulch formation, which is the easternmost metavolcanic formation, consists of five lithologic units. Arranged in the general order of their appearance from east to west they are meta-andesite breccia, purple slate, metarhyolite tuff, meta-andesite, and green slate. The boundary between the Texas Gulch formation and the Iron King meta-andesite is apparently gradational. The Iron King meta-andesite consists of three meta-andesite tuff units, two meta-andesite flow units and one metarhyolite tuff and conglomerate unit. The assemblage chlorite-albite-epitode with or without quartz is dominant in the meta-andesites. Mafic intrusive rocks, which may be approximately contemporaneous with metamorphism, may explain the presence of actinolitic hornblende in the central part of the formation. Toward

  12. Effects of iron on arsenic speciation and redox chemistry in acid mine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Concern about arsenic is increasing throughout the world, including areas of the United States. Elevated levels of arsenic above current drinking-water regulations in ground and surface water can be the result of purely natural phenomena, but often are due to anthropogenic activities, such as mining and agriculture. The current study correlates arsenic speciation in acid mine drainage and mining-influenced water with the important water-chemistry properties Eh, pH, and iron(III) concentration. The results show that arsenic speciation is generally in equilibrium with iron chemistry in low pH AMD, which is often not the case in other natural-water matrices. High pH mine waters and groundwater do not always hold to the redox predictions as well as low pH AMD samples. The oxidation and precipitation of oxyhydroxides deplete iron from some systems, and also affect arsenite and arsenate concentrations through sorption processes. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  14. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github

  15. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  16. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  17. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  18. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, Mae S.; Coolbaugh, M. F.; Engle, M. A.; Fitzgerald, B. C.; Keislar, R. E.; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Nacht, D. M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J. J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, Hong; Zehner, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 {micro}g Hg g{sup -1}). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) to tens of thousands of ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid western United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  19. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1954-01-01

    The geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah, was studied to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped, and uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Chinle formation of Late Triassic age. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uraninite, impregnate the rock. High-grade ore seams of uraninite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Uraninite formed later than, or simultaneous with, most sulfides, and the chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the more poorly sorted parts of siltstones. In the Seven Mile Canyon area guides to ore inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, carbonaceous matter, and copper sulfides. Results of spectrographic analysis indicate that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper, as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal.

  20. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1953-01-01

    The Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine is located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah. A study was made of the geology of the Shinarump No. 1 mine in order to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permain, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped. Uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Upper Triassic Chinle formation. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uranite, impregnate the rock. High-grade seams of uranite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Formation of unraninite is later than or simultaneous with most sulfides. Chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the poorer sorted parts of siltstones. Guides to ore in the Seven Mile Canyon area inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, copper sulfides, and carbonaceous matter. Results of spectrographic analysis indicated that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal, dated as later or early.

  1. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  2. Conditioning sulfidic mine waste for growth of Agrostis capillaris--impact on solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Viktor; Karlsson, Stefan; Grandin, Anna; Allard, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of the environment due to mining and mineral processing is an urgent problem worldwide. It is often desirable to establish a grass cover on old mine waste since it significantly decreases the production of leachates. To obtain sustainable growth, it is often necessary to improve several properties of the waste such as water-holding capacity, nutrient status, and toxicity. This can be done by addition of organic materials such as wood residues, e.g., compost. In this study, we focus on the solution chemistry of the leachates when a substrate containing historic sulfidic mine waste mixed with 30 % (volume) bark compost is overgrown by Agrostis capillaris. The pot experiments also included other growth-promoting additives (alkaline material, mycorrhiza, and metabolizable carbon) to examine whether a more sustainable growth could be obtained. Significant changes in the plant growth and in the leachates composition were observed during 8 weeks of growth. It was concluded that in this time span, the growth of A. capillaris did not affect the composition of the leachates from the pots. Instead, the composition of the leachates was determined by interactions between the bark compost and the mine waste. Best growth of A. capillaris was obtained when alkaline material and mycorrhiza or metabolizable carbon was added to the substrate. PMID:24519747

  3. Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.

    PubMed

    Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 μg/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests. PMID:23666684

  4. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J., III

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  5. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  6. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  7. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 {mu}g/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 {mu}g/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone.

  8. The geology and emplacement history of the Pigeon kimberlite, EKATI Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Barbara; Hetman, Casey; Nowicki, Tom; Baumgartner, Mike; Harrison, Sara

    2009-11-01

    The Pigeon kimberlite is located approximately 6 km to the northwest of the Koala cluster of the EKATI Diamond Mine, and is presently one of ten kimberlite occurrences in the EKATI resource development plan. It was emplaced along a regional lithological contact between syn-Yellowknife Supergroup granitoid rocks and Yellowknife Supergroup metasedimentary rocks that were covered by a now eroded veneer of poorly consolidated muddy sediments. Detailed age dating has not been undertaken, however the emplacement age is inferred from sedimentary xenoliths present within the pipe to range between 45-75 Ma. Pigeon is a small kimberlite body, estimated to be approximately 3.5 ha at surface, consisting of a steep-sided pipe that can be separated into four main geological domains that are characterized by contrasting textures, different diamond characteristics and unique mineral abundance and compositional signatures. The uppermost portion of the body consists of mud-rich resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite that was formed by the deposition of extra crater deposits by debris flow type processes into an open diatreme. Texturally complex kimberlite is present within the lower portion of the kimberlite and includes rocks that display a range of features consistent with coherent (magmatic) and less common volcaniclastic (fragmental) rocks. This texturally complex zone is interpreted to represent a clastogenic deposit formed by a low energy eruption within an open diatreme.

  9. Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

    2009-11-20

    Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  11. Methods of seismic zone localization in the highly stressed geological environment in mining natural-engineering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, A.; Fedotova, Iu.; Zhuravleva, O.

    2012-04-01

    During developing mineral deposits in the geological environment the anomalous energy-saturated zones (parts of highly stressed rocks) are being formed. As a result in the rock mass rockbursts and mining-induced earthquakes occur. The largest mining-induced earthquakes (M 4.0 - 4.2) were registered at the mines of the Khibiny and Lovozersky massifs of the Kola Peninsula. The energy-saturated zones migrate subject to displacement of front of working faces. Location and dimensions of the zones are estimated according to data of analytical investigations and experimental determinations in the rock mass. In some cases (for example, when developing blocks-pillars and transition zones between open and underground mining operations or adjacent mines) all the mining area is a united energy-saturated zone, where the main problems occur concerning mining workings stability management, and under rockbursts hazardous conditions there occur problems concerning mining-induced seismicity manifestations. Parameters of geological environment seismic emission are objective indicators of geological environment energy-saturation. The assessment of their changing is a basis of methods of seismic zones localization and detection of their migration during mining operations development. To assess a current state and determine conditions of transition of geological environment parts into the critical state there carried out investigations concerning space-time regularities of rock mass seismicity parameters changing in the mines' geomechanical space. The following parameters are considered as characteristics of rock mass seismicity: fractal criterion, dip angle criterion for seismic events recurrence graph, concentration criterion, and criterion of fissures' average length. A complex assessment of single parameters range is applied to get the better results. The analysis also takes into account influence of deterministic factors: fracture disturbances and stope face boundaries. Analysis

  12. Geological disaster survey based on Curvelet transform with borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Tonglushan old mine site.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinjian; Sun, Tao; Tang, Zhijie; Zhou, Zenghui; Wei, Baoming

    2011-06-01

    Tonglushan old mine site located in Huangshi City, China, is very famous in the world. However, some of the ruins had suffered from geological disasters such as local deformation, surface cracking, in recent years. Structural abnormalities of rock-mass in deep underground were surveyed with borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out whether there were any mined galleries or mined-out areas below the ruins. With both the multiresolution analysis and sub-band directional of Curvelet transform, the feature information of targets' GPR signals were studied on Curvelet transform domain. Heterogeneity of geotechnical media and clutter jamming of complicated background of GPR signals could be conquered well, and the singularity characteristic information of typical rock mass signals could be extracted. Random noise had be removed by thresholding combined with Curvelet and the statistical characteristics of wanted signals and the noise, then direct wave suppression and the spatial distribution feature extraction could obtain a better result by making use of Curvelet transform directional. GprMax numerical modeling and analyzing of the sample data have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. It is important and applicable for the analyzing of the geological structure and the disaster development about the Tonglushan old mine site. PMID:25084600

  13. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of streams with and without acid mine drainage impacts: A paired catchment study in karst geology, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Tang, Changyuan; Wu, Pan; Strosnider, William H. J.; Han, Zhiwei

    2013-11-01

    A paired catchment study was used to assess karst hydrogeochemistry of two streams.Chemistry of streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) was very different.The observation was supported by PHREEQC modeling of equilibrium conditions.Ionic fluxes of AMD-impacted water were higher than that of non-AMD-impacted water.The higher ionic fluxes were predominantly controlled by the oxidation of pyrite.

  14. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  15. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  16. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  17. Response of fish and macroinvertebrate bioassessment indices to water chemistry in a mined Appalachian watershed.

    PubMed

    Freund, Jason G; Petty, J Todd

    2007-05-01

    Multimetric indices based on fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are commonly used to assess the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. However, their response to specific stressors is rarely known. We quantified the response of a fish-based index (Mid-Atlantic Highlands Index of Biotic Integrity, MAH-IBI) and a benthic invertebrate-based index (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, WV-SCI) to acid mine drainage (AMD)-related stressors in 46 stream sites within the Cheat River watershed, West Virginia. We also identified specific stressor concentrations at which biological impairment was always or never observed. Water chemistry was extremely variable among tributaries of the Cheat River, and the WV-SCI was highly responsive across a range of AMD stressor levels. Furthermore, impairment to macroinvertebrate communities was observed at relatively low stressor concentrations, especially when compared to state water quality standards. In contrast to the WV-SCI, we found that the MAH-IBI was significantly less responsive to local water quality conditions. Low fish diversity was observed in several streams that possessed relatively good water quality. This pattern was especially pronounced in highly degraded subwatersheds, suggesting that regional conditions may have a strong influence on fish assemblages in this system. Our results indicate that biomonitoring programs in mined watersheds should include both benthic invertebrates, which are consistent indicators of local conditions, and fishes, which may be indicators of regional conditions. In addition, remediation programs must address the full suite of chemical constituents in AMD and focus on improving linkages among streams within drainage networks to ensure recovery of invertebrate and fish assemblages. Future research should identify the precise chemical conditions necessary to maintain biological integrity in mined Appalachian watersheds. PMID:17387548

  18. Response of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Bioassessment Indices to Water Chemistry in a Mined Appalachian Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jason G.; Petty, J. Todd

    2007-05-01

    Multimetric indices based on fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are commonly used to assess the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. However, their response to specific stressors is rarely known. We quantified the response of a fish-based index (Mid-Atlantic Highlands Index of Biotic Integrity, MAH-IBI) and a benthic invertebrate-based index (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, WV-SCI) to acid mine drainage (AMD)-related stressors in 46 stream sites within the Cheat River watershed, West Virginia. We also identified specific stressor concentrations at which biological impairment was always or never observed. Water chemistry was extremely variable among tributaries of the Cheat River, and the WV-SCI was highly responsive across a range of AMD stressor levels. Furthermore, impairment to macroinvertebrate communities was observed at relatively low stressor concentrations, especially when compared to state water quality standards. In contrast to the WV-SCI, we found that the MAH-IBI was significantly less responsive to local water quality conditions. Low fish diversity was observed in several streams that possessed relatively good water quality. This pattern was especially pronounced in highly degraded subwatersheds, suggesting that regional conditions may have a strong influence on fish assemblages in this system. Our results indicate that biomonitoring programs in mined watersheds should include both benthic invertebrates, which are consistent indicators of local conditions, and fishes, which may be indicators of regional conditions. In addition, remediation programs must address the full suite of chemical constituents in AMD and focus on improving linkages among streams within drainage networks to ensure recovery of invertebrate and fish assemblages. Future research should identify the precise chemical conditions necessary to maintain biological integrity in mined Appalachian watersheds.

  19. Climatic and geological factors contributing to the natural water chemistry in an arid environment from watersheds in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yu, Jingjie; Qin, Xiaoguang; Rioual, Patrick; Xiong, Heigang

    2012-06-01

    A natural water hydrochemical investigation was carried out on three watersheds in northern Xinjiang, China to evaluate the climatic, geological and anthropogenic influence on aqueous major element chemistry in an arid environment. Wide spatial variations are observed in the dissolved solids (TDS) and water chemistry. The hydrochemistry is typically carbonate and alkaline in nature, with Ca2 +, HCO3- and SO42 - dominating the major ion composition. Four major water types, Ca-HCO3, Ca-NDA (non-dominant anion), Ca-SO4 and NDC (non-dominant cation)-NDA or Na-NDA type, are identified in terms of the Piper model. The water chemistry agrees well with the “rock dominance” mechanism, with a TDS value of 80-600 mg/L and a Na+/(Na+ + Ca2 +) ratio of 0.1-0.6. Correlation analysis suggests that most of the ions derive from multiple sources. Stoichiometric analyses indicate that carbonate weathering is the primary source of dissolved ions, followed by silicate weathering and evaporite dissolution. The effects of local pollution have somewhat greater contribution on the oases and central areas of the Zhungarer watershed. Most parts of the rivers show an increasing trend in the dissolved load toward the lower reaches, which is primarily attributed to an evaporation process control along the water course. Variations in water chemistry show clear correlation with the regional lithological distribution, topography and atmospheric precipitation. Using rainwater as a baseline, contributions from atmospheric precipitation and rock weathering to the tributary chemistry are roughly evaluated to be in the range of 2-39% (average 13%) and 59-98% (average 86%), respectively, implying a high effective control of regional geology on stream chemistry compared with that of atmospheric input.

  20. Summary of seismic activity and its relation to geology and mining in the Sunnyside mining district, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, during 1967-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.; Hernandez, Jerome

    1973-01-01

    In the Sunnyside mining district, Utah, coal is mined under thick and variable overburden which is locally weakened by faults and other structural discontinuities. Stress changes and local stress concentrations produced by mining under these conditions often cause sudden and violent ruptures in the coal and surrounding rock mass. The strain energy released by this type of failure, which can produce shock waves and may discharge coal and rock with explosive force, is often a serious threat to life and property. These releases of strain energy are called bumps or bounces by miners if they occur in the coal, and rock bursts if they occur in the surrounding rock mass. Many of these releases are so violent that they generate seismic waves that can be felt, or at least detected by seismic instruments, miles from the site of the rupture, whereas others are smaller and can be detected only by those sensitive seismic instruments within a few thousand feet of the site of the rupture. In 1969 and 1970, about 27,000 and about 15,000 earth tremors, respectively, were recorded by the five-station seismic monitoring network that is located at the surface and encompasses most of the mine workings in the district. Of these totals, 512 and 524 earth tremors, respectively, were of sufficient magnitude (greater than 1. 5 on the Richter scale) so that the hypocenters could be accurately located. In 1968 about 20,000 tremors were recorded, with 281 large enough to plot, but in 1967 over 50,000 were recorded, of which 540 were plotted. In this report we discuss the way in which seismic activity, geology, and mining are related or seem to be related for the period 1967 through 1970, with emphasis on the period 1969-70. We also suggest certain mining procedures which, based on studies during the period, might increase the safety and efficiency of mining operations in the Sunnyside district. A complete tabulation of the larger magnitude earth tremors which occurred during 1969-70 and

  1. Geologic characterization of fractures as an aid to hydrologic modeling of the SCV block at the Stripa mine

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    A series of hydrologic tests have been conducted at the Stripa research mine in Sweden to develop hydrologic characterization techniques for rock masses in which fractures form the primary flow paths. The structural studies reported here were conducted to aid in the hydrologic examination of a cubic block of granite with dimensions of 150 m on a side. This block (the SCV block) is located between the 310- and 460-m depth levels at the Stripa mine. this report describes and interprets the fracture system geology at Stripa as revealed in drift exposures, checks the interpretive model against borehole records and discusses the hydrologic implications of the model, and examines the likely effects of stress redistribution around a drift (the Validation drift) on inflow to the drift along a prominent fracture zone.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; Afghanistan Oil and Gas Research Assessment Team

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  3. Response of fish and macroinvertebrate bioassessment indices to water chemistry in a mined Appalachian watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, Jason; Petty, J.

    2007-05-15

    Multimetric indices based on fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are commonly used to assess the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. However, their response to specific stressors is rarely known. We quantified the response of a fish-based index (Mid-Atlantic Highlands Index of Biotic Integrity, MAH-IBI) and a benthic invertebrate-based index (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, WV-SCI) to acid mine drainage (AMD)-related stressors in 46 stream sites within the Cheat River watershed, West Virginia. We also identified specific stressor concentrations at which biological impairment was always or never observed. Water chemistry was extremely variable among tributaries of the Cheat River, and the WV-SCI was highly responsive across a range of AMD stressor levels. Furthermore, impairment to macroinvertebrate communities was observed at relatively low stressor concentrations, especially when compared to state water quality standards. In contrast to the WV-SCI, we found that the MAH-IBI was significantly less responsive to local water quality conditions. Low fish diversity was observed in several streams that possessed relatively good water quality. This pattern was especially pronounced in highly degraded subwatersheds, suggesting that regional conditions may have a strong influence on fish assemblages in this system. Our results indicate that biomonitoring programs in mined watersheds should include both benthic invertebrates, which are consistent indicators of local conditions, and fishes, which may be indicators of regional conditions. In addition, remediation programs must address the full suite of chemical constituents in AMD and focus on improving linkages among streams within drainage networks to ensure recovery of invertebrate and fish assemblages.

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  5. Relation of geology to mine roof conditions in the Pocahontas No. 3 coalbed. Information circular/1982

    SciTech Connect

    Moebs, N.N.; Fern, J.C.

    1982-03-01

    Bureau of Mines studies of mine roof fall problems in the Pocahontas No. 3 Coalbed of southern West Virginia and southwestern Virginia have established that type and sequence of rock are significant factors in roof competence. The poorest conditions occur where the immediate roof consists of slump structures and slickensided rock. The best conditions occur where the roof consists of a sequence that coarsens upward from shale to massive sandy shale. A small manual of color photographs of rock types was devised to aid in identifying drill cores. Proper identifications should enhance the prediction of areas of potential roof problems in advance of mining.

  6. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  7. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  8. Geologic map of the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-05

    The Mine Mountain area is a small range of hills on the west side of the central Yucca Flat basin on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This map portrays the very complex relationships among the pre-Tertiary stratigraphic units of the region. Rocks and structures of the Mine Mountain area record the compounded effects of: (1) eastward-directed, foreland-vergent thrusting; (2) younger folds and thrusts formed by hinterland vergence in a general westerly direction; and (3) low-angle normal faulting formed by extension along a northeast-southwest trend. All of these structures are older than the oldest middle Miocene volcanic rocks that were deposited on the flanks of the Mine Mountain terrane. High-angle faults that post-date these volcanic rocks locally show displacements of several hundred meters, but do not strongly affect patterns in the pre-Tertiary rocks.

  9. Mining-induced seismicity in faulted geologic structures: An analysis of seismicity-induced slip potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, P. L.

    1992-09-01

    Relationships between the locations of mining-induced seismic events, local fault structure, and mine geometry were examined in a deep hard-rock mine in northern Idaho. Stopes experiencing rock bursts and other large seismic events were found to fall into two structural regimes: the “Silver Vein”, and the “N48°W Trend,” a steeply dipping plane of seismic activity that is subparallel to major local steeply dipping faults which bound blocky structures. The N48°W Trend also intersects a shaft that was seriously damaged when fault gouge was expelled into the opening during a 3-month period of high seismic energy release. Models of stress interaction are used to support the hypothesis that mining-induced deformation was mobilized along a 1.5 km length of the N48°W Trend. Specifically, numerical models are used to simulate rupture of seismic events and estimate induced changes in the quasi-static stress field. A Coulomb failure criterion is used with these results to estimate the spatial variation in potential for slip on planes parallel to local faulting. Increases in the potential for slip on fault planes subparallel to the N48°W Trend are consistent with activation of deformation along its 1.5 km length. For events with constant seismic moment, stress drop is shown to be far more important than source dimension in elevating slip potential along the observed plane of seismic activity

  10. Using the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for testing, demonstration and training for the mined geological system surface waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, M.; Kelley, C.

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using the Remote Handled Transuranic) (RH TRU) side of WIPP to test and demonstrate mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) equipment and concepts of operation, and to train MGDS personnel. The authors believe that the experience gained from this interaction could lead to significant saving for both the WIPP and MGDS. The paper compares the operations at both facilities; identifies MGBS operations that can be duplicated without change at WIPP; identifies MGDS operations that can be simulated at a smaller scale at WIPP; identifies MGDS operations that require modifications at WIPP and determines the extent of modifications required and whether the modifications impact WIPP`s mission of disposing of RH TRU wastes; and finally the paper estimates the cost of using WIPP for the above testing, demonstration, and training. The paper concludes that using WIPP for the benefit of the MGDS is feasible without impacting WIPP`s mission and suggests a schedule for implementation.

  11. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  12. A data viewer for stream-sediment and surface-water chemistry, geology, and geography of the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter F.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Folger, Helen W.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    The data and software utilized in this product permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  13. Geology of the Ar Rahail ancient gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Willis H.; Samater, Rashid M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    1987-01-01

    Pre-existing northwest-trending faults, possibly re-opened by stock emplacement, were invaded by later fluids that precipitated barren quartz veins and, in the adjacent faulted wall rocks, anomalous gold and arsenic. Gold, however, is restricted to the narrow structures, and, although values as much as 4.2 g/t are present, the tonnages are inadequate for profitable mining. No further work is recommended, because the hoped for dissemination of gold between faults does not exist.

  14. Morphology, Geology and Water Quality Assessment of Former Tin Mining Catchment

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd. Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river. PMID:22761549

  15. Morphology, geology and water quality assessment of former tin mining catchment.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river. PMID:22761549

  16. Using a mass balance to understand the geology and geochemistry of a reservoir receiving and discharging acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, D.C.; Edwards, K.

    1996-11-01

    Howard-Williams Lake is a 14.5 acre reservoir located in an abandoned coal mine in Perry County, Ohio. With a pH of 3.0 and acidity values of 300--400 mg/L, the reservoir has no plants or fish currently surviving in the lake. Reclamation of spoil piles adjacent to the lake to the north in the late 1980s was not successful in reducing the acidity of the lake. Currently, papermill sludge is being used on the reclaimed area to the north to promote vegetation, but the reservoir has shown no signs of improving. The goal of this project is to transform the lake into a fishable and swimmable one. The reservoir is receiving about 175 gallons per minute of acid mine drainage, not including seepage into the lake, from eight different sources. Three of the sources account for about 165 gallons per minute of the surface water that enters the lake. These inflows have relatively low acidity readings, which range from 66 mg/L to 568 mg/L. The other five sources of acid mine drainage have much lower flowrates, but have acidity values as high as 3,000 mg/L. Samples of all of the surface inflows and the outflow of the lake were taken and sent to a laboratory and tested for the following parameters: total acidity as CaCO{sub 3}, total alkalinity as CaCO{sub 2}, specific conductivity, total suspended solids, sulfate, chloride calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total iron, total manganese, aluminum, and hardness. During sampling of the surface inflows, volumetric flowrates were measured for each inflow. Once the flowrates and the concentrations of the various parameters were known, a mass balance could be constructed which would show how much of each parameter was entering the lake each day. These data were then used to gain an understanding of the geochemistry and geology of the site.

  17. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  18. A novel ground surface subsidence prediction model for sub-critical mining in the geological condition of a thick alluvium layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Jinzhuang; Chen, Mi; Ao, Zurui; Yao, Qi

    2015-06-01

    A substantial number of the coal mines in China are in the geological condition of thick alluvium layer. Under these circumstances, it does not make sense to predict ground surface subsidence and other deformations by using conventional prediction models. This paper presents a novel ground surface subsidence prediction model for sub-critical mining in the geological condition of thick alluvium layer. The geological composition and mechanical properties of thick alluvium is regarded as a random medium, as are the uniformly distributed loads on rock mass; however, the overburden of the rock mass in the bending zone is looked upon as a hard stratum controlling the ground surface subsidence. The different subsidence and displacement mechanisms for the rock mass and the thick alluvium layer are respectively considered and described in this model, which indicates satisfactory performances in a practical prediction case.

  19. Fieldtrip stop #2-6 Twin Lakes glacial geology and mining history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Shorba, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The area of Twin Lakes has been of interest to geologists going back to the days of the Hayden Survey (1874) and continues to be studied for its spectacular glacial geology. Twin Lakes (2747 m; 9015 ft) was settled in 1879 (Scott, 2003) as the Leadville silver rush began, when prospectors found the first traces and outcrops of the Gordon, Tiger, Little Joe, and other rich lodes west of Twin Lakes. Between 1860 and 1950, the Twin Lakes area produced at least 2.5 million dollars in placer gold, much of which was produced when the official U.S. Government price of gold was $20.67 per troy once.

  20. Geology and Mineral Resources of the North Absaroka Wilderness and Vicinity, Park County, Wyoming, with Sections on Mineralization of the Sunlight Mining Region and Geology and Mineralization of the Cooke City Mining District, and a Section on Aeromagnetic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Prostka, Harold J.; Williams, Frank E.; Elliott, James E.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The North Absaroka Wilderness is approximately 560 square miles (1,450 km 2 ) of rugged scenic mountainous terrain that adjoins the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming. The area was studied during 1970, 1971, and 1972 by personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate its mineral-resource potential as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. This evaluation is based on a search of the literature courthouse and production records, geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey. The North Absaroka Wilderness is underlain almost entirely by andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks of Eocene age. These volcanics rest on deformed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and, locally, of Mesozoic age that are exposed at places along the northern and eastern edges of the wilderness. Dikes and other igneous intrusive bodies cut both the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A nearly flat detachment fault, the Heart Mountain fault, and a related steep break-away fault have displaced middle and upper Paleozoic rocks and some of the older part of the volcanic sequence to the southeast. A much greater thickness of volcanic rocks was found to be involved in Heart Mountain faulting than had previously been recognized; however, most of the volcanic rocks and many of the intrusives were emplaced after Heart Mountain faulting. Local folding and high-angle faulting in mid-Eocene time have deformed all but the youngest part of the volcanic sequence in the southeastern part of the wilderness. This deformation is interpreted as the last pulse of Laramide orogeny. The results of this study indicate that the mineral-resource potential of the wilderness is minimal. Bentonite, petroleum, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced in the surrounding region from rocks that underlie the volcanic rocks

  1. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for 1853 and 1854

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1855-01-01

    b Volume 2, Part II., of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey, published in 1848, will be found the first statistical Returns of Lead and Copper, collected for the Mining Record Office. The Record of the School of Mines, Part IV., contain the Continuation of these Returns, with considerable extension, completed to the end of 1852. The present publication embrace not only the Minerals included in the former Returns, but the production of Coals and of Iron in 1854, with notice of some other source of our mineral wealth.

  2. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300/sup 0/C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed.

  3. The relationships between geology and soil chemistry at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Rodgers, K. V.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 soils, three distinct chemical groups have been recognized, each one corresponding broadly with a major geological and physiographic unit. These groups are: (1) Valley Floor type soils, (2) South Massif type soils, and (3) North Massif type soils. The observed chemical variations within and between these three groups is interpreted by means of mixing models in terms of lateral transport and mixing of prevailing local rock types, such as high-titanium basalts, KREEP-like noritic breccias, anorthositic gabbro breccias and orange glass. According to these models, North Nassif types evolved on the lower slopes of the North Massif and Sculptured Hills where anorthositic gabbro predominates over noritic breccia and where lateral mixing with basalt is effective, whereas the South Massif type soils originally developed on the upper slopes of the South Massif, where anorthositic breccia and noritic breccias are equally abundant, and where lateral mixing with basalt was minimal.

  4. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Petrology, chemistry, and origin of breccia formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Deutsch, A.; Avermann, M.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Sudbury Project of the University of Muenster and the Ontario Geological Survey special emphasis was put on the breccia formations exposed at the Sudbury structure (SS) because of their crucial role for the impact hypothesis. They were mapped and sampled in selected areas of the north, east, and south ranges of the SS. The relative stratigraphic positions of these units are summarized. Selected samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, microprobe, XRF and INAA, Rb-Sr and SM-Nd-isotope geochemistry, and carbon isotope analysis. The results of petrographic and chemical analysis for those stratigraphic units that were considered the main structural elements of a large impact basin are summarized.

  5. Geology and geochemistry of the pitch uranium mine area, Saguache County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses uranium ore in the Pitch Mine which occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester Fault and to a lesser extent in the Pennsylvania Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only rock type that is prevasively brecciated within the fault slices. Other rocks tended either to remain unbroken or to undergo ductile deformation. Chemical analyses of 116 rock and ore samples demonstrate that ore-bearing dolomites are significantly enriched in iron, potassium, sulfur, molybdenum, copper, and nickel. Chemical controls on uranium deposition are subtle and appear chiefly to involve coprecipitation of iron sulfide (pyrite and marcasite) with pitchblende and coffinite, suggesting that sulfide ion may be the reductant.

  6. Geology of dolomite-hosted uranium deposits at the Pitch Mine, Saguache County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester upthrust zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only rock type that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse-fault zone. Other rocks tended to either remain unbroken or undergo ductile deformation. Chemical controls on uranium deposition are subtle and appear chiefly to involve coprecipitation of FeS/sub 2/ as pyrite and marcasite, suggesting that sulfide ion may be the reductant. (JMT)

  7. Geology of the Midnite uranium mine, Stevens County, Washington; a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Lehrman, Norman J.

    1975-01-01

    The Midnite mine is one of only two mines in the United States currently producing uranium from discordant deposits in crystalline host rocks. Ore bodies are in metamorphosed steeply dipping Precambrian pelitic and calcareous rocks of a roof pendant adjacent to a Cretaceous(?) porphyritic quartz monzonite pluton. Production during 14 years, of operation has been about 8 million pounds of U3O8 from oxidized and reduced ores averaging 0.23 percent U3O8. Uranium deposits are generally tabular in form and dimensions range up to 380 m long, 210 m wide, and 50 m thick. Deposits are bounded on at least one side by unmineralized intrusive ribs of granitic rock, and thickest mineralized zones invariably occur at depressions in the intrusive contact. Upper limits of some deposits are nearly horizontal, and upper elevations of adjacent mineralized zones separated by ribs of granite are similar. Near surface ore is predominantly autunite, but ore at depth consists of pitchblende and coffinite with abundant pyrite and marcasite. Uranium minerals occur as .disseminations along foliation, replacements, and stockwork fracture-fillings. No stratigraphic controls on ore deposition are recognized. Rather, mineralized zones cut across lithologic boundaries if permeability is adequate. Most ore is in muscovite schist and mica phyllite, but important deposits occur in calc-silicate hornfels. Amphibolite sills and mid-Tertiary dacite dikes locally, carry ore where intensely fractured. High content of iron and sulfur, contained chiefly in FeS2, appear to be an important feature of favorable host rocks. Geometry of deposits, structural, and geochemical features suggest that uranium minerals were deposited over a span of time from late Cretaceous to late Tertiary. Ore occurs in but is not offset by a shear zone that displaces mid-Tertiary rocks.. Economic zones of uranium are interpreted to have been secondarily enriched in late Tertiary time by downward and lateral migration of uranium

  8. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  9. Aluminum forms in stream sediment: Relation to bedrock geology and water chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Zeiler, M.A.; Mulholland, P.J.; Elwood, J.W.; Cook, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients in sediment and water chemistry were characterized in a high elevation stream in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, to elucidate the geochemical behavior of aluminum across gradients in pH (4.5 to 6.5) and elevation (1120 to 1895 m). Observed gradients are driven in part by the presence of pyritic bedrock, which occurs at higher elevations and yields acidity when exposed to oxidation by landslide activity. Exchangeable Al in sediment (estimated using potassium chloride) varied in response to monomeric Al in streamwater and thus decreased downstream. Organic Al in sediment (estimated using sodium pyrophosphate) did not vary in proportion to the organic carbon content of sediment. Amorphous Al in sediment (estimated as the difference between oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Al) and Al extractable with acidified streamwater (pH 4.5) was lowest at the more acidic sites. These results suggest that increases in soluble Al in downstream reaches during episodic pH depressions could be due in part to the release of adsorbed and/or precipitated Al in sediment.

  10. Geology of epithermal silver-gold bulk-mining targets, bodie district, Mono County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollister, V.F.; Silberman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Bodie mining district in Mono County, California, is zoned with a core polymetallic-quartz vein system and silver- and gold-bearing quartz-adularia veins north and south of the core. The veins formed as a result of repeated normal faulting during doming shortly after extrusion of felsic flows and tuffs, and the magmatic-hydrothermal event seems to span at least 2 Ma. Epithermal mineralization accompanied repeated movement of the normal faults, resulting in vein development in the planes of the faults. The veins occur in a very large area of argillic alteration. Individual mineralized structures commonly formed new fracture planes during separate fault movements, with resulting broad zones of veinlets growing in the walls of the major vein-faults. The veinlet swarms have been found to constitute a target estimated at 75,000,000 tons, averaging 0.037 ounce gold per ton. The target is amenable to bulkmining exploitation. The epithermal mineralogy is simple, with electrum being the most important precious metal mineral. The host veins are typical low-sulfide banded epithermal quartz and adularia structures that filled voids created by the faulting. Historical data show that beneficiation of the simple vein mineralogy is very efficient. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  11. Analysis of the cost of mined geologic repositories in alternative media

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.L.; Cole, B.M.

    1982-02-01

    IN 1981, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an analysis of the costs of using salt, granite, basalt or tuff to isolate spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary cost estimates were made and the conditions affecting cost in each medium were examined parametrically. The analysis was conducted using a repository cost model named RECON, created for this project. Data for the model were gathered from recent conceptual design studies completed and under way, from the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (GEIS), and from reports on specific, related topics. These data were current through Jun 1981. The study approach was to select reference repository descriptions and costs for each of the previously mentioned media. These descriptions were used as baselines to evaluate the cost sensitivity of key repository design parameters such as package design, thermal loading limits, additional radionuclide migration barriers, repository size, and emplacement design. The sensitivity of input cost parameters such as cost of money, mining, and hole drilling was also examined. Following the sensitivity analyses, the cost model was used to explore cost-effective alternative emplacement designs for the different media.

  12. Water chemistry and ecotoxicity of an acid mine drainage-affected stream in subtropical China during a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Wu, Y; Lu, W; Chen, A; Liu, Y

    2007-04-01

    Field and laboratory work was carried out to investigate the chemistry and ecotoxicity of stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a tributary catchment of the Pearl River in subtropical China during a major flood that corresponded to a return period of 100 years. The results indicate that stream water was affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mine at least to a distance of 25 km downstream of the mine water discharge point. It appears that H(+) generated from sulfide oxidation in the waste rock dumps was readily available for exporting. The amount of H(+) being discharged into the receiving stream depended on the volume of out-flowing waters. However, there was a lag time for the discharges of the metals. This may be attributed to the slower release of metals, relative to H(+), because it might take more time for the dissolution of heavy metal-bearing compounds, particularly the sparsely soluble jarosites. Fe, Zn and Al were the major metals of potential toxicity contained in the AMD-affected stream water, followed by Mn, Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Ni. The concentrations of these metals in the water decreased rapidly down the stream. This corresponds with an increase in the concentrations of reactive heavy metal fractions in benthic mud down the stream, reflecting the precipitation of heavy metal compounds with increasing pH and their subsequent deposition in the streambed. Toxicity tests show that the AMD-affected stream water at 3.5 km downstream of the discharge point was highly toxic to the test organism. At 25 km downstream of the discharge point where stream water pH was as high as 5.75, marked toxic responses of the test organism were still observed. PMID:16979817

  13. Geology and geochemistry of the Mercur mining district, Tooele County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tafuri, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Mercur mining district is located in the southern end of the Oquirrh Mountains approximately 35 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah. The gold deposits occur in the east dipping limb of the Ophir anticline and are confined to favorable beds in the Mercur Member of the Mississippian Great Blue Formation. Host rocks are thin bedded bioelastic limestones and calcareous siltstones. The mineralized zones are cut by extensive small displacement high angle normal faults. Gold mineralization forms stratiform and strata-bound disseminated ore bodies within the favorable beds. The apparent control of the mineralization is the porosity and permeability of the host rocks combined with strong fracturing caused by the faulting. Mineralization occurs in zones of hydrothermal alteration consisting of partial decalcification followed by the introduction of varying amounts of silica and organic carbon and slight amounts of kaolinite and sericite. Gold has been observed, in the sulfide zone, in three forms: as one to two micron sized inclusions in marcasite; as gold bonded with complex organic molecules; and, rarely, in the native state as grains less than 5 microns in size. Commonly occurring minerals associated with the gold mineralizations are; pyrite, marcasite, orpiment, realgar and barite. The introduced organic matter occurs as extractable hydrocarbons and as insoluble activated carbon. Gold is found in the asphaltene phase of the extractable hydrocarbons and in the activated carbon. Both the asphaltene and the activated carbon are thought to be degradation products of a more mobile petroleum precursor that circulated in the hydrothermal system. The degradation to asphaltene and activated carbon could have been due to the increase in temperature, increase in Eh and water washing as the hydrothermal system matured.

  14. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  15. Effects of a reactive barrier and aquifer geology on metal distribution and mobility in a mine drainage impacted aquifer.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Nora A; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W

    2005-06-01

    The Nickel Rim aquifer has been impacted for five decades by a metal-rich plume generated from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment. Metals released by the oxidation of pyrrhotite in the unsaturated zone of the tailings migrate into the downgradient aquifer, affecting both the groundwater and the aquifer solids. A reactive barrier has been installed in the aquifer to remove sulfate and metals from the groundwater. The effect of the reactive barrier on metal concentrations in the aquifer solids has not previously been studied. In this study, a series of selective extraction procedures was applied to cores of aquifer sediment, to ascertain the distribution of metals among various solid phases present in the aquifer. Extraction results were combined with groundwater chemistry, geochemical modelling and solid-phase microanalyses, to assess the potential mobility of metals under changing geochemical conditions. Reactions within the reactive barrier caused an increase in the solid-phase carbonate content downgradient from the barrier. The concentrations of poorly crystalline, oxidized phases of Mn and Fe, as well as concentrations of Cr(III) associated with oxidized Fe, and poorly crystalline Zn, are lower downgradient from the barrier, whereas total solid-phase metal concentrations remain constant. Iron and Mn accumulate as oxidized, easily extractable forms in a peat layer overlying the aquifer. Although these oxides may buffer reducing plumes, they also have the potential to release metals to the groundwater, should a reduced condition be imposed on the aquifer by remedial actions. PMID:15949605

  16. The geology, botany and chemistry of selected peat-forming environments from temperate and tropical latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, C.C.; Esterle, J.S.; Palmer, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Peat has been studied in several geologic settings: (1) glaciated terrain in cold temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, where sea level is rising; (3) the warm temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often; and (4) the tropical coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the tropical delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia. Most of these deposits are domed (ombrotrophic or partly ombrotrophic) bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. However, the bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains are comparatively not as domed, and many have almost level surfaces. In some bogs, aquatic or semi-aquatic plant materials accumulated, replaced water in the depressions, and formed a surface on which marsh or swamp vegetation could subsequently live, die, and accumulate. In others, the plant materials accumulated initially on level silt or sand surfaces supporting marshes or swamps. As the peat dome formed, plants growing on it changed from luxuriant ones near the base of the dome, where nutrients were brought into the bog by surface and ground water, to stunted ones at the top of the dome, where the raised bogs are fed by nutrient-poor precipitation. The physical and chemical changes that take place in the sequence of environments from the pond stage of deposit development, through the grassy marsh stage, through the forested swamp stage, and finally through the heath dome stage can be measured in terms of acidity and ash, volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen contents, as well as in the kind and distribution of trace elements. The organic and inorganic contents of the deposits relate to geomorphology, and geomorphology relates to their settings. As models of coal formation, some domed peat deposits may help in solving problems of distribution and character of ancient coal beds. But clearly not all peat

  17. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  18. Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, K.A.; McDonald, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

  19. Characterization of Geologic Structures and Host Rock Properties Relevant to the Hydrogeology of the Standard Mine in Elk Basin, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Manning, Andrew H.; Berger, Byron R.; Kremer, Yannick; Guzman, Mario A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Schuller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The Standard Mine Superfund Site is a source of mine drainage and associated heavy metal contamination of surface and groundwaters. The site contains Tertiary polymetallic quartz veins and fault zones that host precious and base metal sulfide mineralization common in Colorado. To assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its effort to remediate mine-related contamination, we characterized geologic structures, host rocks, and their potential hydraulic properties to better understand the sources of contaminants and the local hydrogeology. Real time kinematic and handheld global positioning systems were used to locate and map precisely the geometry of the surface traces of structures and mine-related features, such as portals. New reconnaissance geologic mapping, field and x-ray diffraction mineralogy, rock sample collection, thin-section analysis, and elemental geochemical analysis were completed to characterize hydrothermal alteration, mineralization, and subsequent leaching of metallic phases. Surface and subsurface observations, fault vein and fracture network characterization, borehole geophysical logging, and mercury injection capillary entry pressure data were used to document potential controls on the hydrologic system.

  20. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  1. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N

    2006-08-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD. PMID:16375949

  2. Effects of biosolids and compost amendment on chemistry of soils contaminated with copper from mining activities.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Virinder; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Several million metric tons of mining wastes, called stamp sands, were generated in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during extensive copper (Cu) mining activities in the past. These materials, containing large amounts of Cu, were discharged into various offshoots of Lake Superior. Due to evidences of Cu toxicity on aquatic organisms, in due course, the materials were dredged and dumped on lake shores, thus converting these areas into vast, fallow lands. Erosion of these Cu-contaminated stamp sands back to the lakes is severely affecting aquatic life. A lack of uniform vegetation cover on stamp sands is facilitating this erosion. Understanding the fact that unless the stamp sands are fertilized to the point of sustaining vegetation growth, the problem with erosion and water quality degradation will continue, amending the stamp sands with locally available biosolids and composts, was considered. The purpose of the reported study was to assess potential effects of such organic fertilizer amendments on soil quality. As the first step of a combined laboratory and greenhouse study, a 2-month-long incubation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of biosolids and compost addition on the soil nutrient profile of stamp sands and organic matter content. Results showed that both biosolids and compost amendments resulted in significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and organic matter contents of stamp sands. Sequential extraction data demonstrated that Cu was mostly present as bound forms in stamp sands, and there was no significant increase in the plant available fraction of Cu because of fertilizer application. PMID:26894907

  3. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    SciTech Connect

    Riese, A.C.; Propp, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Modern methods of uranium solution mining are typically accompanied by gains and losses of mass through reagent consumption by rock-forming minerals, with subsequent formation of clay minerals, gypsum, carbonates, and iron oxyhydroxides. A systematic approach to alleviate such problems involves the application of leach solutions that are in equilibrium with the host-rock minerals but in disequilibrium with the ore-forming minerals. This partial equilibrium can be approximated by solution-composition adjustments within the systems K/sub 2/O-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O and Na/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O. Uranium ore containing 0.15 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ from the Gulf Mineral Resources Corporation's Mariano Lake mine, the Smith Lake district of the Grants mineral belt, was collected for investigation. Presented are a theoretical evaluation of leachate data and an experimental treatment of the ore, which contained mainly K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and quartz (with lesser amounts of micas, clay minerals, and organic carbonaceous material). Small-scale (less than or equal to 1 kg) column-leaching experiments were conducted to model the results of conventional leaching operations and to provide leachate solutions that could be compared with solutions calculated to be in equilibrium with the matrix minerals. Leach solutions employed include: 1) sulfuric acid, 2) sodium bicarbonate, and 3) sulfuric acid with 1.0 molal potassium chloride. The uranium concentrations in the sodium-bicarbonate leach solution and the acid-leach solution were about a gram per liter at the termination of the tests. However, the permeability of the ore in the acid leach was greatly reduced, owing to the formation of clay minerals. Uranium solubility in the leach column stabilized with the potassium-chloride solution was calculated from leachate compositions to be limited by the solubility of carnotite.

  4. Assessing the State of Contamination in a Historic Mining Town Using Sediment Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Wu, Shuo-Sheng; Rodriguez, Jameelah R; Jones, Ashton D; Lockwood, Benjamin E

    2016-05-01

    The United States town of Aurora, Missouri, USA, stockpiled lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) mining wastes from the early to mid-1900s in the form of chat piles. Clean-up actions were undertaken at intervals in subsequent years including land leveling and removal of chat. This study assessed the current state of contamination by identifying areas where metals are present at toxic levels. For this purpose, stream sediment samples (N = 100) were collected over a 9 × 12 km area in and around Aurora. Their content of cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn were measured, and concentration maps were generated using ArcGIS to categorize affected areas. Metal concentrations varied over a wide range of values with the overall highest values observed in the north-northeast part of Aurora where abundant chat piles had been present. Comparison between observed concentrations and sediment-quality guidelines put the contaminated areas mentioned are above-toxic levels for Cd, Pb and Zn. In contrast, levels in rural areas and the southern part of Aurora were at background levels, thus posing no threat to aquatic habitats. The fact that contamination is constrained to a relatively small area can be advantageously used to implement further remediation and, by doing so, to help protect the underlying karst aquifer. PMID:26847833

  5. Value of Geological Information in Exploitation Management: the Case of Exploitation Units of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzak, Mariusz; Panajew, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The application of mathematical techniques of management is particularly significant in managing mineral deposits as well as generally in the mining industry, in which the execution of geological-mining projects is usually time-consuming and expensive. Such projects are usually undertaken in conditions of uncertainty, and the incurred expenses do not always generate satisfactory revenues. Mineral deposit management requires close cooperation between the geologist providing necessary information about the deposit and the miner conducting exploitation work. A real decision-making problem was undertaken, in which three exploitation divisions of a certain area in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice mine, differing in ore quality, could be developed in an order which would guarantee maximisation of income. First, the ore price was calculated with the NSR formula; next, the decision-making problem was presented as a kind of game between the geologist (the mine) and states of Nature. Projekty geologiczno-górnicze (surowcowe) różnią się znacznie od innych form aktywności gospodarczej człowieka, ponieważ wiedza o przedmiocie zainteresowań opiera się głównie na ocenach, zaś samo złoże kopalin jest obiektem przyrodniczym i trudno jest jednoznacznie przewidzieć rzeczywiste efekty jego odkrycia. Geologiczna niepewność związana z modelem złoża i jego zasobami znajduje odzwierciedlenie w technicznych planach kopalni i przygotowaniu rozcinki złoża odpowiednim systemem i sposobem eksploatacji. Kwantyfikacja, ocena i zarządzanie niepewnością geologiczną jest kluczowe w strategicznym planowaniu działania kopalni. Podstawowym celem, dla którego wykonuje się wyrobiska udostępniające jest przygotowanie złoża do eksploatacji górniczej. Wyrobiska udostępniające stanowią główne drogi transportu ludzi i urobku oraz spływu wód kopalnianych. Część z nich stanowi drogi jezdne i wentylacyjne, na innych zostaje ulokowany przenośnik taśmowy, a jeszcze innymi

  6. ChemicalTagger: A tool for semantic text-mining in chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary method for scientific communication is in the form of published scientific articles and theses which use natural language combined with domain-specific terminology. As such, they contain free owing unstructured text. Given the usefulness of data extraction from unstructured literature, we aim to show how this can be achieved for the discipline of chemistry. The highly formulaic style of writing most chemists adopt make their contributions well suited to high-throughput Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches. Results We have developed the ChemicalTagger parser as a medium-depth, phrase-based semantic NLP tool for the language of chemical experiments. Tagging is based on a modular architecture and uses a combination of OSCAR, domain-specific regex and English taggers to identify parts-of-speech. The ANTLR grammar is used to structure this into tree-based phrases. Using a metric that allows for overlapping annotations, we achieved machine-annotator agreements of 88.9% for phrase recognition and 91.9% for phrase-type identification (Action names). Conclusions It is possible parse to chemical experimental text using rule-based techniques in conjunction with a formal grammar parser. ChemicalTagger has been deployed for over 10,000 patents and has identified solvents from their linguistic context with >99.5% precision. PMID:21575201

  7. Geological and geothermal data use investigations for Application Explorer Mission-A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission). [Yerington, Nevada mine area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Prelat, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Further digital processing of HCMM digital data was performed to extract the temperature from the day/night passes to calculate the apparent delta T in the Yerington, Nevada mine area. Further processing is needed to observe the atmospheric effect.

  8. The Hybrid Expert in the "Bergstaat": Anton Von Ruprecht as a Professor of Chemistry and Mining and as a Mining Official, 1779-1814

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the course of the 18th century a new type of scientifically educated functional elites developed, who were trained to administer mines. The educational project that led to the formation of a corps of mining engineers was part of a programme of administrative and economic reforms that led to a new configuration of bonds between state, economy…

  9. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite. PMID:16920668

  10. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  11. The hybrid expert in the 'bergstaat': Anton von Ruprecht as a professor of chemistry and mining and as a mining official, 1779-1814.

    PubMed

    Konecný, Peter

    2012-07-01

    In the course of the 18th century a new type of scientifically educated functional elites developed, who were trained to administer mines. The educational project that led to the formation of a corps of mining engineers was part of a programme of administrative and economic reforms that led to a new configuration of bonds between state, economy and science. At the same time the status of this new group of experts was predicated substantially by the new emerging corpora of the scientific, technological and cameralist knowledge of the period between 1760 and 1800. The aim of this paper is to discuss this group using the example of a leading expert in the context of the mining and metallurgy of this period. Anton von Ruprecht (1748-1814) was strongly grounded in the social and epistemic context of the Habsburg mining bureaucracy, which employed his scientific and technical savoir faire to serve their mercantile goals in several areas of mining expertise. PMID:23057216

  12. Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 degrees C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

  13. Effectiveness of a mining simulation cooperative learning activity on the cognitive and affective achievement of students in a lower division physical geology course: A confluent approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, Jeffrey Wayne

    Most students enrolled in lower division physical geology courses are non-majors and tend to finish the course with little appreciation of what it is geologists really do. They may also be expected to analyze, synthesize, and apply knowledge from previous laboratory experiences with little or no instruction and/or practice in utilizing the critical thinking skills necessary to do so. This study sought to answer two research questions: (1) do physical geology students enrolled in a course designed around a mining simulation activity perform better cognitively than students who are taught the same curriculum in the traditional fashion; and (2) do students enrolled in the course gain a greater appreciation of physical geology and the work that geologists do. Eighty students enrolled in the course at Columbia College, Sonora, California over a two year period. During the first year, thirty-one students were taught the traditional physical geology curriculum. During the second year, forty-nine students were taught the traditional curriculum up until week nine, then they were taught a cooperative learning mining simulation activity for three weeks. A static group, split plot, repeated measures design was used. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both the control and treatment groups. The cognitive assessment instrument was validated by content area experts in the University of South Carolina Geological Sciences Department. Students were given raw lithologic, gravimetric, topographic, and environmental data with which to construct maps and perform an overlay analysis. They were tested on the cognitive reasoning and spatial analysis they used to make decisions about where to test drill for valuable metallic ores. The affective instrument used a six point Likert scale to assess students' perceived enjoyment, interest, and importance of the material. Gains scores analysis of cognitive achievement data showed a mean of 2.43 for the control group and 4.47 for

  14. Solute chemistry and arsenic fate in aquifers between the Himalayan foothills and Indian craton (including central Gangetic plain): Influence of geology and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Fryar, Alan E.; Saha, Dipankar; Ghosh, Ashok; Chowdhuri, Sunil; Mishra, Ranjan

    2012-08-01

    Information on groundwater chemistry in the central Ganges basin can provide insights into recharge, provenance, and fate of solutes in arsenic (As)-affected areas upstream of the more intensively studied Bengal basin. The geological and geomorphological units of the region are much more discernible than the Bengal basin aquifers. Moreover, the region is less affected by groundwater abstraction, which complicates interpretation of As distributions in the Bengal basin. The study area extends from the northern edge of the Indian craton outcrops to the foothills of the Himalayas. Geologic units in the area can be broadly classified as pre-Cenozoic metamorphics and volcanics (PC), older alluvial deposits of the Ganges and its tributaries (OA), younger or active alluvial deposits of the Ganges and its tributaries in the basin (YA), and sediments of the Himalayan foothills (piedmont, PD). Stable-isotopic analyses indicate groundwater in these units has been recharged by meteoric or surface water that has generally undergone some evaporation. The hydrochemical facies is generally a Ca-HCO3 type. While most of the solutes in the YA groundwater are derived from carbonate dissolution, many of the PD, PC and OA groundwater samples are influenced by silicate weathering, suggesting that leaching of metamorphics and volcanics acts as a major source of solutes. Redox conditions are highly spatially variable (oxic to methanic, dominated by metal reduction), with no systematic depth variation within sampled aquifers. More than 75% of YA and PD groundwater samples have As ⩾ 0.01 mg/L, but As was detected in only one OA sample and no PC samples. Arsenic is probably mobilized by reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn (oxyhydr)oxides in the alluvium, with possibility of competitive anionic mobilization. Hence, relative to the Bengal basin, in addition to lower groundwater abstraction influence, groundwater chemistry in the study area reflects a greater variety of differences in the

  15. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water

  16. Geologic remote sensing study of the Hayden pass-Orient Mine Area, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wychgram, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensor data from a NASA Convair 990 radar flight and Mission 101 and 105 have been interpreted and evaluated. Based on interpretation of the remote sensor data, a geologic map has been prepared and compared with a second geologic map, prepared from interpretation of both remote sensor data and field data. Comparison of the two maps gives one indication of the usefulness and reliability of the remote sensor data. Color and color infrared photography provided the largest amount of valuable information. Multiband photography was of lesser value and side-looking radar imagery provided no new information that was not available on small scale photography. Thermal scanner imagery proved to be a very specialized remote sensing tool that should be applied to areas of low relief and sparse vegetation where geologic features produce known or suspected thermal contrast. Low sun angle photography may be a good alternative to side-looking radar imagery but must be flown with critical timing.

  17. Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

  18. Geological and geochemical studies in the Robinson Mining District, White Pine County, Nevada, using Skylab S190A imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator); Rogers, R. J.; Erickson, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Robinson mining district which included the Ruth porphyry copper mines, three large positive aeromagnetic anomalies exist over a Tertiary volcanic area north west of Ruth. Prior studies of this area have suggested that the volcanics may or may not be the cause of the anomalies. Skylab Sl90A imagery, however, indicates possible outcrops in the volcanic area of the Paleozoic sediments. Field studies or ground truth verify the existence of these inliers suggesting that the magnetic anomaly may be the result of a buried intrusive body for which potential mineralization has been covered by the post-ore blanket of volcanics. The area is being mapped in more detail and samples of mercury-bearing soil-gas area being collected within and outside the area.

  19. Quasi-static slip patch growth to 20 m on a geological fault inferred from acoustic emissions in a South African gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Kgarume, Thabang; Khambule, Sifiso; Masakale, Thabang; Ribeiro, Luiz; Philipp, Joachim; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Miyakawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsushi; Moriya, Hirokazu; Murakami, Osamu; Yabe, Yasuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Yoshimitsu, Nana; Ward, Anthony; Durrheim, Raymond; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Three months of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring in a South African gold mine down to Mw -5 revealed a newly emergent planar cluster of 7557 events -3.9 ≤ Mw ≤ -1.8 (typical rupture radius of 6-70 cm) that expanded with time to reach a size of 20 m on a preexisting geological fault near an active mining front 1 km beneath the ground. It had a sharply defined, planar configuration, with hypocenters aggregated within a thickness of only several decimeters. We infer that the zone defines an aseismic slip patch on the fault, wherein the individual AEs represent failures of very small asperities being loaded by the aseismic slip. Additional support for the interpretation was obtained by analyzing composite focal mechanisms and repeating events. The patch expansion over 2 months was likely quasistatic because all individual AEs ruptured much smaller areas than the cluster size at the corresponding time. The b values dropped gradually from 2.6 to 1.4, consistent with a significant increase in shear stress expected of the mining style. Another cluster with similar characteristics emerged later on a neighboring part of the same fault and grew to a 10 m extent in the last weeks of the study period. The quasi-static expansion of inferred localized slow-slip patches to sizes of 10-20 m suggests that the critical crack length on natural faults can be at least as large, much exceeding the decimeter range derived from laboratory stick-slip experiments on saw-cut rocks.

  20. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  1. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  2. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  3. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  4. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  5. Relationship between the geological and working parameters in high productivity longwalls in underground competitive coal mining of very thick seams

    SciTech Connect

    Torano, J.; Rivas, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Diego, I.; Pelegry, A.

    2005-07-01

    Carbonar S.A. is using a high productivity long panel to mine a coal seam that is over 4 meters thick in some places. The equipment comprises a double drum shearer and a powered roof support. Seam thickness, close joint state, and roof load over the support were measured, in situ. Data were collected on both cross and longitudinal sections of the panel. The data are interpreted and related to the longwall advance. The data are being processed using fuzzy logic methods. The results will be applied to remote control automation using virtual reality tools. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  6. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings. PMID:22130476

  7. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J., III

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  8. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  9. Estimation of groundwater flow directions and the tensor of hydraulic conductivity in crystalline massif rocks using information from surface structural geology and mining exploration boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, C.; Romero, M. A.; Ramirez, M. I.; Monsalve, G.

    2013-05-01

    In the elaboration of a hydrogeological conceptual model in regions of mining exploration where there is significant presence of crystalline massif rocks., the influence of physical and geometrical properties of rock discontinuities must be evaluated. We present the results of a structural analysis of rock discontinuities in a region of the Central Cordillera of Colombia (The upper and middle Bermellon Basin) in order to establish its hydrogeological characteristics for the improvement of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the region. The geology of the study area consists of schists with quartz and mica and porphyritic rocks, in a region of high slopes with a nearly 10 m thick weathered layer. The main objective of this research is to infer the preferential flow directions of groundwater and to estimate the tensor of potential hydraulic conductivity by using surface information and avoiding the use of wells and packer tests. The first step of our methodology is an analysis of drainage directions to detect patterns of structural controls in the run-off; after a field campaign of structural data recollection, where we compile information of strike, dip, continuity, spacing, roughness, aperture and frequency, we built equal area hydro-structural polar diagrams that indicate the potential directions for groundwater flow. These results are confronted with records of Rock Quality Designation (RQD) that have been systematically taken from several mining exploration boreholes in the area of study. By using all this information we estimate the potential tensor of hydraulic conductivity from a cubic law, obtaining the three principal directions with conductivities of the order of 10-5 and 10-6 m/s; the more conductive joint family has a NE strike with a nearly vertical dip.

  10. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions <63 μm, 63-150 μm, 150-250 μm, and 250 μm-2mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in adhering versus

  11. Recovery and reprocessing of legacy geophysical data from the archives of the State Company of Geology and Mining (GEOSURV) of Iraq and Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.; Drenth, B.R.; Fairhead, J.D.; Lei, K.; Dark, J.A.; Al-Bassam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data belonging to the State Company of Geology and Mining of Iraq (GEOSURV) have been recovered from magnetic tapes and early paper maps. In 1974 a national airborne survey was flown by the French firm Compagnie General de Geophysique (CGG). Following the survey the magnetic data were stored on magnetic tapes within an air conditioned archive run by GEOSURV. In 1990, the power supply to the archive was cut resulting in the present-day poor condition of the tapes. Frontier Processing Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been able to recover over 99 percent of the original digital data from the CGG tapes. Preliminary reprocessing of the data yielded a total magnetic field anomaly map that reveals fine structures not evident in available published maps. Successful restoration of these comprehensive, high quality digital datasets obviates the need to resurvey the entire country, thereby saving considerable time and money. These data were delivered to GEOSURV in a standard format for further analysis and interpretation. A parallel effort by GETECH concentrated on recovering the legacy gravity data from the original field data sheets archived by IPC (Iraq Petroleum Company). These data have been compiled with more recent GEOSURV sponsored surveys thus allowing for the first time a comprehensive digital and unified national gravity database to be constructed with full principal facts. Figure 1 shows the final aeromagnetic and gravity data coverage of Iraq. The only part of Iraq lacking gravity and aeromagnetic data coverage is the mountainous areas of the Kurdish region of northeastern Iraq. Joint interpretation of the magnetic and gravity data will help guide future geophysical investigations by GEOSURV, whose ultimate aim is to discover economical mineral and energy resources. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  12. The hydrothermal and structural history of the Cuprite mining district, southwestern Nevada: An integrated geological and geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swayze, Gregg Alan

    The Cuprite area consists of two acid-sulfate hydrothermal alteration centers straddling U.S. Highway 95 in southwestern Nevada, with alteration involving Tertiary volcanic rocks in the eastern center and Cambrian metasedimentary rocks in the western center. The purpose of this study was to determine if these late-Miocene hydrothermal centers developed independently or whether they were created by lystric-faulting of a single conduit along an east-dipping detachment that moved the cooler upper portion of the system to the east relative to the hotter lower portion. The answer has implications for mineral exploration. Geology of the area was studied using imaging spectroscopy, isotopic dates, geologic maps, drill hole data, and D-C resistivity soundings. The western center lacks a siliceous cap, has a core of low-grade kaolinite-muscovite and propylitic rock surrounded by a high temperature alunite zone, and that this center was eroded to a deep level, exposing the high temperature kaolinite polymorph dickite and a pyrite-rich zone. Spectral maps indicate that the eastern center has an extensive siliceous cap surrounded by a high to intermediate temperature alunite zone, lacks a propylitic core (at least at the present level of exposure), has extensive kaolinite zones lacking dickite, and has volumetrically insignificant jarosite, all consistent with present exposure near the top of the hydrothermal system. Tabular clasts of Cambrian phyllite, altered to alunite, eroded from the western center, and deposited in a conglomerate below the Spearhead member of the Stonewall Flat Tuff in the eastern center, are evidence that the western center had formed, was uplifted, and eroded prior to 7.6 Ma. Continuous exposures of the Stonewall Flat Tuff and underlying conglomerate can be traced from the argillic zone into the alunite and siliceous zones of the eastern center, implying that this center formed after 7.6 Ma. New sp{40}Ar-sp{39}Ar isotopic dates indicate that the

  13. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    To better identify the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, lithologic, geologic, geophysical, geomechanical, hydraulic, and water-chemistry data were collected from eight ground-water multiple-well monitoring sites constructed in Santa Clara County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The data are being used to update and improve the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the basin and to address issues related to water supply, water chemistry, sequence stratigraphy, geology, and geological hazards. This report represents a compilation of data collected from 1999 to 2003, including location and design of the monitoring sites, cone penetrometer borings, geologic logs, lithologic logs, geophysical logs, core analysis, water-chemistry analysis, ground-water-level measurements, and hydraulic and geomechanical properties from wells and core samples. Exploratory cone penetrometer borings taken in the upper 17 to 130 feet at six of the monitoring sites identified the base of Holocene as no deeper than 75 feet in the central confined area and no deeper than 35 feet in the southern unconfined areas of the valley. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicates about four to six different aquifer units separated by relatively fine-grained units occur within the alluvial deposits shallower than 860 feet deep. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that coarse-grained units varied in thickness between 10 and 25 feet in the southeastern unconfined area of the valley and between 50 and 200 feet in the south-central and southwestern areas of the valley. Deviations from temperature-gradient logs indicate that the majority of horizontal ground-water flow occurs above a depth of 775 feet in the south central and above 510 feet in the southeastern areas of the valley. Bulk physical properties from more than 1,150 feet of

  14. Preliminary geology, mineral chemistry and diamond results from the C29/30 Candle Lake volcanic complex, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verigeanu, D.; Hetman, C. M.; Jellicoe, B.; Baumgartner, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    The C29/30 kimberlite is one of two diamondiferous kimberlites in the Candle Lake cluster located in east-central Saskatchewan, Canada, approximately 70 km from the Fort á la Corne kimberlite field. The kimberlites are hosted by a Cretaceous sequence of marine mudstone and shale of the Lower Colorado Group, and underlying siltstone and sandstone of the Mannville Group. This sequence overlies Paleozoic carbonates that were deposited over the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Based on the country rock stratigraphy and morphology of the body, C29/30 is inferred to be Cretaceous in age. The elongated kimberlite body has a lateral extent of approximately 2 km with the long axis oriented in a south-east to north-west direction and an estimated surface expression of 75.3 ha. The investigation of 47 drill cores suggests that this body is a single volcanic complex dominated by a single phase of volcaniclastic kimberlite that is characterised by absent to rare phlogopite within the groundmass of preserved juvenile clasts. Minor amounts of at least one other phase of kimberlite containing conspicuous groundmass phlogopite have also been documented. The subsurface shape of C29/30 is complex and is interpreted to result from a combination of explosive volcanic activity that formed two craters from separate feeder vents. The formation of the elongated trough is poorly understood. It may have formed by a fissure style eruption, or erosive processes related to the mass flow of material away from one of the craters or possible the collapse of an eruption column. The C29/30 kimberlite is similar to bodies of the Fort á la Corne kimberlite field with respect to country rock setting, pipe morphology and the dominant textural varieties present. This contribution presents a preliminary geological model of C29/30 based on data obtained from the drilling programmes completed in 2006, 2007 and 2008.

  15. Geologic and geochemical study of the Picacho gold mine, California: gold in a low-angle normal fault environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losh, Steven; Purvance, Dan; Sherlock, Ross; Jowett, E. Craig

    2005-03-01

    The Picacho gold deposit, located in southeasternmost California, is a low-grade gold deposit in a nearly flat-lying denudational fault of regional extent and probable Oligocene age. The deposit is hosted by intensely fractured and faulted Mesozoic leucogranite and by chloritic augen gneiss and schist, and is overlain unconformably and in fault contact by unmineralized late Oligocene Quechan volcanic rocks. The deposit is structurally characterized by normal and normal-oblique faults of low to high dip at shallow depths in the mine, merging downward with a synchronous, low-dipping ore-stage extensional fault system (the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault) of probable Oligocene age in deeper portions of the deposit. The fault system was infiltrated during much of its active life by hot, dilute, highly exchanged meteoric water having temperatures of 170°-210° C, salinity <2 wt% NaCl equivalent and calculated δ18Ofluid between -2.6‰ and 5.2‰. This main-stage fluid precipitated quartz, pyrite, and specular hematite, accompanied by silicification and sericitization. Auriferous ore-stage pyrite was precipitated late in the fault evolution probably by mixing of reducing ore fluid with relatively oxidized main-stage fluid during regional Oligocene extension on the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault. The Picacho deposit is characterized by a gold-arsenic-antimony geochemical signature consistent with bisulfide complexing of gold in reducing fluid, in contrast with typical denudation fault-hosted base-metal-rich deposits associated with high-salinity fluids elsewhere in the southwestern United States. The deposit is overprinted by Miocene normal faults having a wide range of dips. These postore faults are associated with red earthy hematite precipitation, pyrite oxidation, and supergene enrichment of gold.

  16. Description of sediment data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in small watersheds in coal-mining areas of the eastern United States, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 20 small watersheds in the surface-mining areas of the eastern United States from 1980 through 1984 as part of the Survey1 s coal-hydrology program. Each data set includes sediment-concentration, streamflow, and precipitation data collected at 5- or 15-minute intervals. One reason for collecting the data was to test the sediment component of a watershed model. However, adequate testing requires reliable calibration data collected at several points during the rise and fall of hydrographs of several storms. Therefore, the quantity and quality of the data sets needed to be described to determine which sets could be used to test a model adequately. The data sets are described in a table that presents information about watershed characteristics, period of record, and amount of useful sediment data. Also, similar data sets collected by 10 Survey project offices during other Survey programs are described in a similar table.

  17. What do you mean my stream is clogged? How geology, heat and streambed chemistry define surface water - ground water interactions in a Great Basin mountain stream. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, C. E.; Prudic, D. E.; Jackson, T.; Dotson, K. E.; Tyler, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    In the early 1980’s, water “prospectors” around the state of Nevada applied for groundwater rights on the fringes of large basins, predicting that population growth and diminishing resources from the Colorado River system would soon be insufficient to supply municipal from the south. Owners of senior water rights sought to quantify how groundwater export from these eastern Nevada basins might affect their existing surface or groundwater allotment. Snake Creek is one such locale; a fully-allocated small, mountain stream (with average discharge from 0.03 to 0.5 m3/s) that runs from crystalline and metamorphic rocks high in the southern Snake Range (Great Basin National Park, Nevada), crosses the Southern Snake Range décollement, and continues east into Utah, passing through a structurally complex region containing limestone, quartzite, and cemented alluvial materials. To locate, quantify and understand surface water - groundwater interactions along an experimental reach, we applied a range of independent techniques. A geologic cross-section underlying the channel was constructed to predict gaining and losing sections, streamflows were measured at multiple locations, streambed piezometers were installed at depths up to 1 m along the reach, and were tested for hydraulic conductivity (slug tests), hydraulic gradient (manually and with pressure transducers), and instrumented with temperature loggers. Pairs of thermal time series were used to estimate seepage rates and directions within the streambed sediments, combined with gradient measurements to estimate time series of K. Distributed temperature sensing was used along a 1 km section to assess the character and location of groundwater inflows. Water chemistry was analyzed from stream, spring well and piezometer sites. Finally, numerical (MODLFOW) and chemical (PHREEQC) models simulated observed conditions in the stream. We found that permeable streambed sediments with hydraulic conductivities ranging from K = 10

  18. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired. PMID:18258282

  19. Proceedings, 24th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.

    2005-07-01

    Topics covered: longwall mining; multiple seam mining; pillar/pillar extraction; surface subsidence; roof falls; geology; high horizontal stresses; highwall mining/slope stability; mine/roof support design; roof bolting; and detection of ground conditions.

  20. A Data Mining Approach to Study the Impact of the Methodology Followed in Chemistry Lab Classes on the Weight Attributed by the Students to the Lab Work on Learning and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, M.; Esteves, L.; Neves, J.; Vicente, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the use of data mining tools in order to examine the influence of the methodology used in chemistry lab classes, on the weight attributed by the students to the lab work on learning and own motivation. The answer frequency analysis was unable to discriminate the opinions expressed by the respondents according to the type of the…

  1. Reconnaissance for determining effects of land use and surficial geology on concentrations of selected elements on streambed materials from the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, October 1979 to March 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, W.G.; Boje, Rita R.

    1982-01-01

    Streambed materials were collected in October 1979 from 69 watersheds in Southwest Indiana having predominantly forested, agricultural, reclaimed, and unreclaimed mined land use to determine whether concentrations of sorbed and acid-soluble metals and trace elements were affected by land use and surficial geology. Analysis of variance indicated that 10% or more of the total variation in aluminum, arsenic, cobalt, iron, nickel, selenium, and zinc concentrations on streambed materials was accounted for by differences in land use. Concentrations of aluminum, cobalt, iron, nickel, selenium, and zinc on streambed materials smaller than 0.062-millimeter from mined watersheds were significantly greater than the concentrations of these elements on streambed materials from agricultural and forested watersheds. The greater concentrations of these elements on streambed materials are due to (1) their concentrations in mine drainage and their subsequent absorption and (or) copecipitation with the oxides and hydroxides of aluminum and iron and (2) their concentrations in coal and pyritic material in streambed materials. (USGS)

  2. Evaluation of the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos in the Carolina stream (San Luis, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Tripole, Susana; Gonzalez, Patricia; Vallania, Adriana; Garbagnati, Marcela; Mallea, Miguel

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos of the Carolina stream (San Luis - Argentina). Samples were obtained in the years 1997-1998 at two sites: site C(1), located 200 m upstream of the drainage, and site C(2), located 800 m downstream. The system buffer capacity was evaluated in the non - contaminated site by means of the buffer index calculation. The physico - chemical changes observed as a consequence of the contribution of acid mine drainage (AMD) were: a decreasing of pH and an increase in the ionic concentration, especially sulfate and Fe coming from the oxidation produced by chemiolithotrophic bacteria. The values obtained indicated a low buffer capacity and a high intrinsic vulnerability of the system to resist the impact originated by the AMD, producing a remarkable decreasing of pH of the receiving stream. These changes caused modifications in the original benthic community that was replaced by organisms more tolerant to the acid stress. A reduction in the abundance and in the taxonomic richness of the benthic macroinvertebrates was observed when compared with the reference station. An increase in the proportion of Chironomidae and of Acari and a decrease in the proportion of the remaining taxa were observed. The most sensitive groups were Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Mollusca. The community was mostly affected by the following variables: pH, conductivity, sulfate and dissolved total Fe. PMID:16565803

  3. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  4. Three-dimensional geological modelling and multivariate statistical analysis of water chemistry data to analyse and visualise aquifer structure and groundwater composition in the Wairau Plain, Marlborough District, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiber, Matthias; White, Paul A.; Daughney, Christopher J.; Tschritter, Constanze; Davidson, Peter; Bainbridge, Sophie E.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryConcerns regarding groundwater contamination with nitrate and the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources have prompted the development of a multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) geological model to characterise the aquifer geometry of the Wairau Plain, Marlborough District, New Zealand. The 3D geological model which consists of eight litho-stratigraphic units has been subsequently used to synthesise hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data for different aquifers in an approach that aims to demonstrate how integration of water chemistry data within the physical framework of a 3D geological model can help to better understand and conceptualise groundwater systems in complex geological settings. Multivariate statistical techniques (e.g. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) were applied to groundwater chemistry data to identify hydrochemical facies which are characteristic of distinct evolutionary pathways and a common hydrologic history of groundwaters. Principal Component Analysis on hydrochemical data demonstrated that natural water-rock interactions, redox potential and human agricultural impact are the key controls of groundwater quality in the Wairau Plain. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed distinct hydrochemical water quality groups in the Wairau Plain groundwater system. Visualisation of the results of the multivariate statistical analyses and distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations in the context of aquifer lithology highlighted the link between groundwater chemistry and the lithology of host aquifers. The methodology followed in this study can be applied in a variety of hydrogeological settings to synthesise geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical data and present them in a format readily understood by a wide range of stakeholders. This enables a more efficient communication of the results of scientific studies to the wider community.

  5. Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry studies to evaluate oxide copper ores for heap leaching in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayestehfar, M R; Nasab, S Karimi; Mohammadalizadeh, H

    2008-06-15

    In recent years, as a result of biological, environmental, and economic considerations, available copper in copper oxide ores that could not be recovered by pyrometallurgical methods was accumulated in so-called oxide dumps. Suitable material is treated with dilute sulfuric acid in a heap-leaching process, whereupon the copper content of the rock slowly dissolves in the acidic solution. The performed investigations show that one needs to consider the action of the acid on the copper oxide-containing rocks at the microscopic level. In this paper, we describe research carried out on oxide samples from the western dump of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. Each sample was split into two parts and a portion of each was exposed to heap-leaching conditions in a column. Subsequently, polished sections, thin sections, and powdered samples were subjected to chemical analysis as well as petrographic and mineralogical considerations. Changes in the weight percentages of non-metal and metal minerals before and after acid treatment were measured. Microscopic studies have indicated that chemical analyses do not provide a complete picture of the effects of acid on the rock. Thus, microscopic studies on sections are shown to be a necessary requirement, neglection of which can have negative economic and environmental effects. PMID:18096317

  6. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1856

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1857-01-01

    Ten years since, the publication of Mineral Statistics of a reliable character was commenced, by issuing from the Mining Record Office returns of the produce of the Lead Mines of the United Kingdom.  With each year, efforts have been made to enlarge the circle of inquiry; and it is with much satisfaction that I find myself enabled, in the Mineral Statistics for 1856, to embrace every important branch of our Mineral Industries.

  7. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  8. Coastal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  9. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  10. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1855

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1856-01-01

    In the Introduction to the Mineral Statistics of 1853 and 1854 the principal sources through which information had been obtained for the Mining Record Office were distinctly stated.  these were made available for the present returns, and during the year no effort has been spared to secure the most exact statistics on every point of interest connected with our mineral industries.

  11. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  12. Mine-induced sinkholes over the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Storage Facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana: geological mitigation and environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.

    1997-03-01

    A sinkhole formed over the former salt mine used for crude oil storage by the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve at Weeks Island, Louisiana. This created a dilemma because in-mine grouting was not possible, and external grouting, although possible, was impractical. However, environmental protection during oil withdrawal and facility decommissioning was considered critical and alternative solutions were essential. Mitigation of, the sinkhole growth over the salt mine was accomplished by injecting saturated brine directly into the sinkhole throat, and by constructing a cylindrical freeze curtain around and into the dissolution orifice at the top of the salt dome. These measures vastly reduced the threat of major surface collapse around the sinkhole during oil transfer and subsequent brine backfill. The greater bulk of the crude oil was removed from the mine during 1995-6. Final skimming operations will remove residual oil trapped in low spots, concurrent with initiating backfill of the mine with saturated brine. Environmental monitoring during 1995-9 will assure that environmental surety is achieved.

  13. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  14. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  15. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  16. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  17. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  18. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  19. Role of geology in diamond project development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    For a mining operation to be successful, it is important to bring fundamental and applied science together. The mining engineer needs to understand the importance of geology, mineralogy and petrography, and how projects can benefit from the data collected during the exploration and pre-exploration stage. Geological scientists also need to understand the process of project development from the exploration stage through mine design and operation to mine closure. Kimberlite pipe or dyke emplacement, geology and petrology/mineralogy are three areas that illustrate how information obtained from the geological studies could directly influence the mining method selection and the project strategy and design. Kimberlite emplacement is one of the fundamental processes that rely on knowledge of the kimberlite body geology. Although the importance of the emplacement model is commonly recognized in the resource geology, mining engineers do not always appreciate its importance to the mine design. The knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures and distribution of inclusions could directly influence pit wall stability (thus strip ratio), underground mining method selection, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. Understanding the internal kimberlite geology mainly includes the geometry and character of individual phases, and the orientation and character of internal structures that transect the rock mass. For any mining method it is important to know "where the less and where the more competent rocks are located" to achieve stability. On the other hand, the detailed facies studies may not be important for the resource and mine design if the rock types have similar physical properties and diamond content. A good understanding of the kimberlite petrology and mineralogy could be crucial not only to the treatability (namely diamond damage and liberation), but also to the pit wall and underground excavation stability, support

  20. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    and injection induced micro-seismicity are implemented. The second issue to which we apply geomechanical analysis in this thesis is mining-induced stress perturbations and induced seismicity in the TauTona gold mine, which is located in the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa and is one of the deepest underground mines in the world. In the first investigation, we developed and tested a new technique for determining the virgin stress state near the TauTona gold mine. This technique follows an iterative forward modeling approach that combines observations of drilling induced borehole failures in borehole images, boundary element modeling of the mining-induced stress perturbations, and forward modeling of borehole failures based on the results of the boundary element modeling. The final result was a well constrained range of principal stress orientations and magnitudes that are consistent with all the observed failures and other stress indicators. In the second investigation, we used this constrained stress state to examine the likelihood of faulting to occur both on pre-existing fault planes that are optimally oriented to the virgin stress state and on faults affected by the mining-perturbed stress field, the latter of which is calculated with boundary element modeling. We made several recommendations that could potentially increase safety in deep South African mines as development continues. Finally, the third issue addressed in this thesis is the detection of stress-induced shear wave velocity anisotropy in a sub-salt environment. In this study, we tested a technique proposed by Boness and Zoback (2006) to identify structure-induced velocity anisotropy and isolate possible stress-induced velocity anisotropy. The investigation used cross-dipole sonic data from three deep water sub-salt wells in the Gulf of Mexico. First, we determined the parameters necessary to ensure the quality of the fast azimuth data used in our analysis. We then characterized the quality

  1. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    and injection induced micro-seismicity are implemented. The second issue to which we apply geomechanical analysis in this thesis is mining-induced stress perturbations and induced seismicity in the TauTona gold mine, which is located in the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa and is one of the deepest underground mines in the world. In the first investigation, we developed and tested a new technique for determining the virgin stress state near the TauTona gold mine. This technique follows an iterative forward modeling approach that combines observations of drilling induced borehole failures in borehole images, boundary element modeling of the mining-induced stress perturbations, and forward modeling of borehole failures based on the results of the boundary element modeling. The final result was a well constrained range of principal stress orientations and magnitudes that are consistent with all the observed failures and other stress indicators. In the second investigation, we used this constrained stress state to examine the likelihood of faulting to occur both on pre-existing fault planes that are optimally oriented to the virgin stress state and on faults affected by the mining-perturbed stress field, the latter of which is calculated with boundary element modeling. We made several recommendations that could potentially increase safety in deep South African mines as development continues. Finally, the third issue addressed in this thesis is the detection of stress-induced shear wave velocity anisotropy in a sub-salt environment. In this study, we tested a technique proposed by Boness and Zoback (2006) to identify structure-induced velocity anisotropy and isolate possible stress-induced velocity anisotropy. The investigation used cross-dipole sonic data from three deep water sub-salt wells in the Gulf of Mexico. First, we determined the parameters necessary to ensure the quality of the fast azimuth data used in our analysis. We then characterized the quality

  2. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  3. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  4. Geohydrology and water chemistry of abandoned uranium mines and radiochemistry of spoil-material leachate, Monument Valley and Cameron areas, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longsworth, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium mines in the Monument Valley area were established predominately in channel-fill deposits within the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation. The Shinarump Member yields ground water to wells and may yield water to the Moonlight and Radium Hill mines. In the study area near Cameron, uranium was mined from channel-fill deposits within the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Units of the Petrified Forest Member do not yield ground water to wells in the area, but fractures in the lower part of the Petrified Forest Member are probable pathways for upward flow of water from the Shinarump Member. Most of the mines receive water from surface inflow of rainfall runoff, but ground water also may be transmitted to open pits and drill holes in the subsurface through fractures or along faults in the Petrified Forest Member. Uranium-238 activities in shallow ground water from mines ranged from 150 to 14,000 picocuries per liter. Radionuclide activities in well and spring water were less than in shallow ground water near mines; however, in some samples, radionuclide activities in wells and springs were greater than activities in pit water. Uranium concentrations in leachate samples ranged from 20 to 7,700 micrograms per liter. Batch tests were done with material that was 2.00 millimeters and smaller. The radiochemistry of leachate from coarser material was not determined, and the specific rate and magnitude of radionuclide leaching depends on site-specific conditions that include the amounts of oxygen and organic material present, temperature, spoil mineralogy, and local ground-water composition.

  5. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  6. Geologic interpretation of seismic data relocation Route 1, cut, Stations 34-52, Copper Mine Road area and northern portion of Ballard Estate in Topsfield, Mass.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, James E.; Linehan, Rev. Daniel

    1950-01-01

    Relocation of the Newburyport Turnpike, Route 1, in Topsfield, Mass., will require a long relatively deep cut between stations 34 and 52. In order to obtain preliminary information on the depths to bedrock and on the nature of the subsurface materials at this site, reconnaissance seismic work was performed in October 1949. Because this reconnaissance work indicated that bedrock might be relatively near the surface over an extensive area where cuttings were to be made, a more detailed seismic study of the area was made in November 1949. The results of both the reconnaissance and detailed seismic work are included in this report. The work was done as part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  7. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  8. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Richard N.

    1978-01-01

    1977 was a year of continued and expanding efforts in the application of the geosciences to land-use planning, especially as they relate to geologic hazards, and elucidating the role of geology in public policy. The work of environmental geological programs is reviewed. (Author/MA)

  9. Compilation of data on the uranium and equivalent uranium content of samples analyzed by U.S. Geological Survey during a program of sampling mine, mill, and smelter products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Marlene Louise; Butler, Arthur Pierce, Jr.

    1952-01-01

    In 1942 the Geological Survey began to collect, in response to a request made by the War Production Board, samples of mine, mill, and smelter products. About 1,400 such samples were collected and analyzed spectrographically for about 20 elements that were of strategic importance, in order to determine whether any of the products analyzed might be possible sources of some of the needed elements. When attention was directed to radioactive elements in 1943, most of the samples were scanned for radioactivity. Part of the work was done on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the Atomic Energy Commission. The sources, mine mill, smelter, or prospect, from which these samples were collected, the kind of material sampled, i.e. ores, concentrates, middlings, tailings, flue dusts, and so forth, and the radioactivity of the samples are listed in this report. Samples of the materials collected in the course of the Geological Survey’s investigations for uranium are excluded, but about 500 such samples were analyzed spectrographically for some or all of the same 20 elements sought in the samples that are the subject of this report. Most of the samples were tested only for their radioactivity, but a few were analyzed chemically for uranium. The radioactivity of many of the samples tested in the early screening was determined only qualitatively. Several samples were tested at one time, and if the count obtained did not exceed a predetermined minimum above background, the samples were not tested individually. If the count was more than this minimum, the samples were tested individually to identify the radioactive sample or samples and to obtain a quantitative value for the radioactivity. In general, the rough screening served as a basis for separating samples in which the radioactivity amount to less than 0.003 percent equivalent uranium from those in which it exceeded that amount. Some aspects of various phases of the investigation of radioactivity in these samples have

  10. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    hundred mines and prospects in 18 mining districts. The deposits range in age from Cretaceous to Eocene, and many were developed for precious metals. Most of the deposits are in quartz veins in shear zones in granitic rocks of the batholith. Several districts were actively being explored for low-grade, bulk-minable, precious-metal deposits in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  11. Fractionation of rare-earth elements in allanite and monazite as related to geology of the Mt. Wheeler mine area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.E.; Bastron, H.

    1967-01-01

    Rare-earth contents of 20 allanites and 13 monazites, accessory minerals from a restricted outcrop area of intrusive granitic rocks, are reported. A quantity called sigma (??), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce and Pr, is used as an index of composition with respect to the rare-earth elements. Values of sigma vary from 61.3 to 80.9 at.% for these allanites and monazites, representing an appreciable range of composition in terms of the rare-earth elements. Degree of fractionation of rare earths varies directly with CaO content of the granitic rocks, which in turn depends largely on proximity of limestone. Four xenoliths included in the study suggest that spotty mosaic equilibria are superimposed on the regional gradients and that locally the degree of fractionation of rare earths responds to whole rock composition over distances of a few yards or less. The chemistry of the granitic rocks under study appears to be similar in some respects to that of alkalio rocks and carbonatites. Allanites from the most calcium-rich rocks show a pronounced concentration of the most basic rare earths, and whole-rock concentrations of such rare constituents as total cerium earths, Zr, F, Ti, Ba and Sr increase sympathetically with whole-rock calcium. The explanation for the concentration gradients observed in this chemical system must involve assimilation more than magmatic differentiation. ?? 1967.

  12. Geology and geochemistry of the Mammoth breccia pipe, Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona: Evidence for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Atkinson, W.W., Jr.; Marsh, T.; Iriondo, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona, contains more than 500 mineralized breccia pipes, buried porphyry-style, copper-bearing stockworks, and distal lead-silver veins. The breccia pipes are hosted by the Copper Creek Granodiorite and the Glory Hole volcanic rocks. The unexposed Mammoth breccia pipe, solely recognized by drilling, has a vertical extent of 800 m and a maximum width of 180 m. The pipe consists of angular clasts of granodiorite cemented by quartz, chalcopyrite, bornite, anhydrite, and calcite. Biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar dates suggest a minimum age of 61.5??0.7 Ma for the host Copper Creek Granodiorite and 40Ar/39Ar dates on hydrothermal sericite indicate an age of 61.0??0.5 Ma for copper mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that a supercritical fluid with a salinity of approximately 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. condensed to a dilute aqueous vapor (1-2.8 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and a hypersaline brine (33.4-35.1 wt.% NaCl equiv.). Minimum trapping temperatures are 375??C and trapping depths are estimated at 2 km. Sulfur isotope fractionation of cogenetic anhydrite and chalcopyrite yields a temperature of mineralization of 469??25??C. Calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope values for fluids in equilibrium with quartz and sericite range from 10.2??? to 13.4??? and -60??? to -39???, respectively, suggesting that the mineralizing fluid was dominantly magmatic. Evidence from the stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses suggests that the fluids responsible for Cu mineralization within the Mammoth breccia pipe exsolved from a gray porphyry phase found at the base of the breccia pipe. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  13. The geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of magmatic activity and related mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, La Rioja province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada-Calderón, A. J.; McBride, S. L.; Bloom, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Nevados del Famatina mining district (NFMD) is located in La Rioja province, Argentina. This district contains porphyry-style mineralization (Nevados del Famatina) and high sulfidation veins (La Mejicana). The stratigraphic column in the NFMD begins with Cambrian siltstones which were metamorphosed during the Late Ordovician - Early Silurian and intruded by Late Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks. These units were covered by Upper Paleozoic and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks which are intercalated with and overlain by dacitic-rhyodacitic porphyritic rocks (Mogote Formation) emplaced during the Pliocene. All these units are covered by Pleistocene sediments and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. Magmatic activity and related mineralization in the NFMD have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique. Step heating studies of orthoclase and biotite phenocrysts from the Mogote Formation in the NFMD suggest that the igneous rocks were emplaced around 5.0±0.3 Ma ago. However, plateau ages of biotite from the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber and of muscovite from quartz-sericite alteration at both Nevados del Famatina and La Mejicana are around 3.8±0.2 Ma. Emplacement of the shallow stocks is separated from cooling of the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber to temperatures below 350° C by a time span of approximately 1 Ma. During this interval, a convective hydrothermal system was established proximal to the granodioritic magma chamber, which resulted in porphyry molybdenumcoppergold mineralization adjacent to the igneous rocks and more distal high sulfidation veins located in fault zones.

  14. Influence of the Trojan Nickel Mine on surface water quality, Mazowe valley, Zimbabwe: Runoff chemistry and acid generation potential of waste rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupankwa, Keretia; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin; Mseka, Stephen; Meck, Maideyi

    The impacts of mining on the environment depend on the nature of the ore body, the type of mining and the size of operation. The focus of this study is on Trojan Nickel Mine which is located 90 km north of Harare, Zimbabwe. It produces nickel from iron, iron-nickel and copper-nickel sulphides and disposes of waste rock in a rock dump. Surface water samples were taken at 11 points selected from a stream which drains the rock dump, a stream carrying underground water and the river into which these streams discharge. Samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, for sulphates by gravitation and for carbonates and bicarbonates by back titration. Ninteen rock samples were collected from the dump and static tests were performed using the Sobek acid base accounting method. The results show that near neutral runoff (pH 7.0-8.5) with high concentrations of sulphate (over 100 mg/L) and some metals (Pb > 1.0 mg/L and Ni > 0.2 mg/L) emanates from the dump. This suggests that acid mine drainage is buffered in the dump (probably by carbonates). This is supported by the static tests, which show that the fine fraction of dump material neutralises acid. Runoff from the dump flows into a pond. Concentrations of sulphates and metals decrease after the dump runoff enters the pond, but sufficient remains to increase levels of calcium, sulphate, bicarbonate, iron and lead in the Pote River. The drop in concentrations at the pond indicates that the settling process has a positive effect on water quality. This could be enhanced by treating the pond water to raise pH, thus precipitating out metals and decreasing their concentrations in water draining from the pond.

  15. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  16. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  17. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  18. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  19. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  20. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    -sediment chemistry; geomorphology and its effect on ground-water flow; geophysical studies on depth to ground-water table and depth to bedrock; bedrock fractures and their potential influence on ground-water flow; leaching studies of scars and waste-rock piles; mineralogy and mineral chemistry and their effect on ground-water quality; debris-flow hazards; hydrology and water balance for the Red River Valley; ground-water geochemistry of selected wells undisturbed by mining in the Red River Valley; and quality assurance and quality control of water analyses. Studies aimed specifically at the Straight Creek natural-analog site include electrical surveys; high-resolution seismic survey; age-dating with tritium/helium; water budget; ground-water hydrology and geochemistry; and comparison of mineralogy and lithology to that of the mine site. The highly mineralized and hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks of the Red River Valley contain several percent pyrite in the quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP) alteration zone, which weather naturally to acid-sulfate surface and ground waters that discharge to the Red River. Weathering of waste-rock piles containing pyrite also contributes acid water that eventually discharges into the Red River. These acid discharges are neutralized by circumneutral-pH, carbonate-buffered surface and ground waters of the Red River. The buffering capacity of the Red River, however, decreases from the town of Red River to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station near Questa. During short, but intense, storm events, the buffering capacity is exceeded and the river becomes acid from the rapid flushing of acidic materials from natural scar areas. The lithology, mineralogy, elevation, and hydrology of the Straight Creek proximal analog site were found to closely approximate those of the mine site with the exception of the mine site?s Sulphur Gulch catchment. Sulphur Gulch contains three subcatchments?upper Sulphur Gulch, Blind Gulch, and Spring Gulc

  1. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

  2. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  3. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  4. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  5. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Crosslinked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Controlling Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved or in different phases of clinical trials or under rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger the various components of the immune system, unintentionally, and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers to predict the effect of biotherapeutics on modulating the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, and were found recently to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse and experiments are usually conducted using different assays and under specific conditions, making direct comparisons nearly impossible and, thus, tailoring properties of nanomaterials based on the available data is challenging. In this account, the effects of chemical structure, crosslinking, degradability, morphology, concentration and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with focus being given on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized, uniquely, to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple and easy way to compare the immunotoxicity of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate-well with published data. Based on the investigated polymeric systems in this study, valuable information has been collected that aids in the

  6. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  7. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology. PMID:16697043

  8. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Cross-Linked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Control of Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly.

    PubMed

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L

    2015-06-16

    The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved, in different phases of clinical trials, or undergoing rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger various components of the immune system unintentionally and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers for predicting the effect of biotherapeutics on modulation of the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and they were recently found to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for the construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse, and experiments are usually conducted using different assays under specific conditions. As a result, making direct comparisons nearly impossible, and thus, tailoring the properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the available data is challenging. In this Account, the effects of chemical structure, cross-linking, degradability, morphology, concentration, and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with a focus on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized uniquely to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple way to compare the immunotoxicities of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate well with published data. On the basis of the polymeric systems investigated in this study, valuable information has been collected that

  9. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  10. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  11. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  12. The Necessity of Geologic Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linden

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear wastes are the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other uses of nuclear material. Experts from around the world agree that deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a mined repository is the most environmentally sound means of removing these potential sources of radiation from interaction with the biosphere. Of the 360 millirem of background radiation received annually by the average American, from both natural and man-made sources, less than 1 millirem results from the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, destined for geologic disposal, are located at 126 sites in 39 states. The proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is far more isolated from the general population than any sites where these radioactive materials are presently located. Only solid forms of high-level wastes will be transported for disposal in a geologic repository. For more than 50 years, nuclear materials have been safely transported in North America, Europe, and Asia, without a single significant radiation release. Since the 1950s, select panels from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and interagency advisory groups, and international experts selected by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, have examined the environmental, ethical, and intergenerational aspects of nuclear waste disposal, plus alternatives to geologic disposal. All have concluded that deep geologic disposal in a mined repository is clearly the preferred option. The concept of deep geologic disposal is based on the analogy to ore deposits, which are formed deep within the Earth's crust, commonly remain isolated from the biosphere for millions to billions of years, and are, generally, extremely difficult to detect. Before selecting the unsaturated tuffs at Yucca Mountain, DOE evaluated salt formations, basalts, and both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Other nations generating nuclear power also plan to use

  13. Applying Data Mining to the Geosciences Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Feng; He, Xu; Zhao, Fengzhi

    The article detailedly addresses the features of the petrophysical data, logging data, seismic data and geological data based on the concepts of the data mining. The mining ideas regarding the petrophysical and logging data, seismic data and geological data are made based on their features. The article uses different mining ways to process the corresponding data, and describes the results from the perspective of the functions of data mining. According to the data mining techniques, the petrophysical data are applied to find the relations and forecast reservoirs; the logging data will be employed to evaluate the fuzzy reservoirs and recognize the effective reservoirs in complicated geological conditions; the space mining results of the 3D seismic data; the charts and text mining results of the geological data. The oil and natural gas data mining in the exploration adopts the methods of data analysis and the corresponding mathematical model to process the exploration data, and get the potential information. It has realized the purpose that the data guide exploration and given the concept of data exploration.

  14. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage. PMID:25979297

  15. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  16. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  17. Coal mine ground control, second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    This revision reflects the enormous progress made in the sciences of coal mine ground control. Many chapters are completely new, and virtually all have been substantially rewritten. Covers common ground control problems underground, rock properties and in situ stresses, geological effects and roof stability classification and investigation, roof bolting, coal pillars, ground control in longwall mining and multiple-seam mining, bumps, instrumentation, special supports and problems, and surface subsidence.

  18. Report on the U.S. Geological Survey's evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 1993 : T-127 (trace constituents), M-128 (major constituents), N-40 (nutrients), N-41 (nutrients), P-21 (low ionic strength), Hg-17 (mercury), AMW-3 (acid mine water), and WW-1 (whole water)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H.K.; Farrar, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for eight standard reference samples--T-127 (trace constituents), M-128 (major constituents), N-40 (nutrients), N-41 (nutrients), P-21 (low ionic strength), Hg-17 (mercury), AMW-3 (acid mine water), and WW-1 (whole water)--that were distributed in October 1993 to 158 laboratories registered in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 145 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to: overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the eight reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the eight standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  19. Geochemical Results of Lysimeter Sampling at the Manning Canyon Repository in the Mercur Mining District, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, John; Choate, LaDonna

    2010-01-01

    This report presents chemical characteristics of transient unsaturated-zone water collected by lysimeter from the Manning Canyon repository site in Utah. Data collected by U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management scientists under an intragovernmental order comprise the existing body of hydrochemical information on unsaturated-zone conditions at the site and represent the first effort to characterize the chemistry of the soil pore water surrounding the repository. Analyzed samples showed elevated levels of arsenic, barium, chromium, and strontium, which are typical of acidic mine drainage. The range of major-ion concentrations generally showed expected soil values. Although subsequent sampling is necessary to determine long-term effects of the repository, current results provide initial data concerning reactive processes of precipitation on the mine tailings and waste rock stored at the site and provide information on the effectiveness of reclamation operations at the Manning Canyon repository.

  20. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  1. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  2. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  3. USER'S MANUAL FOR PREMINING PLANNING OF EASTERN SURFACE COAL MINING. VOLUME 2. SURFACE MINE ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive summary of the analyses required to layout a surface mine, taking into consideration the limitations imposed by geology, equipment, reclamation, economics, and environmental control requirements is provided. Methods, techniques, and alternatives are recommended fo...

  4. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  5. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  6. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  7. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  8. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  9. An overview of mining-related environmental and human health issues, Marinduque Island, Philippines: observations from a joint U.S. Geological Survey - Armed Forces Institute of Pathology reconnaissance field evaluation, May 12-19, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morton, Robert A.; Boyle, Terence P.; Medlin, Jack H.; Centeno, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a visit by the report authors to Marinduque Island, Philippines, in May 2000. The purpose of the visit was to conduct a preliminary examination of environmental problems created by a 1996 tailings spill from the Marcopper open-pit copper mine. The mine was operated from 1969-1996 by Macropper Mining Corperation, under 39.9% ownership, and design and management control of Placer Dome, Inc. Our trip expenses to and from the Philippines were funded by the USGS. In-country expenses were paid by the offices of Congressman Reyes and the Governor of Marinduque, Carmencita O. Reyes. This report includes observations we made based on our relatively short visit to the island, and observations based upon a preliminary review of the literature available on the islanda??s mining-environmental issues. In addition, we have included preliminary interpretations and analytical results of some water, sediment, and mine waste samples collected during our trip. We also highlight the environmental and human health issues we fell are in need of further study and consideration for mitigation or remediation. This report is preliminary and is not intended to be a comprehensive or final review of the islanda??s mining-environmental issues; many areas of further study are clearly neededa?|

  10. Understanding the salinity issue of coal mine spoils in the context of salt cycle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Park, Jin Hee; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Coal mine spoils (CMSs), the solid wastes originated from the rock formations and soil cover overlying or interbedded with coal seams, are a worldwide environmental management challenge. Previous studies have shown that salinity is of most concern among the CMSs' environmental impacts, especially in Australia. With increasing concerns from both the governments and communities, there is a real need for the coal mining industry to understand the source, dynamics and management options of CMS salinity. We reviewed the general properties of CMSs from coal mine sites worldwide and the current understanding of the CMS salinity, which are in a limited number of available published reports. Properties (e.g., pH, electrical conductivity and hydraulic conductivity) of studied CMSs varied largely due to its complex lithological origination. A conceptual model was proposed to illustrate the origin, dispersion paths and transformations dynamics of salts in spoils, taking the scenario of a coal mine in Australia as an example. The major factors governing the salt dynamics in CMSs are summarized as mineral weatherability and salt leachability of the spoils. Management of CMS salinity is still a vague area awaiting more extensive studies. Three topics related to the management were explored in the review, which are pre-mining planning, spatial variability of spoil properties and remediation including electrokinetics and phytoremediation. Particularly, based on the geological classification of CMSs and the leachate chemistry of spoils of various sources, a clear relationship between salinity and geounits was established. This association has a potential application in pre-mining planning for the management of salinity from coal mine spoils. PMID:24096942

  11. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  12. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  16. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  17. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  18. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  19. Pennsylvania's approach to underground coal mine permitting and long-term mine pool management

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, T.; Koricich, J.

    1999-07-01

    Pennsylvania's underground coal mine permitting process has two goals: first, to ensure that the mining and reclamation plan is designed to minimize adverse environmental impacts; and second, to minimize interference with the applicant's recovery of coal. A successful review process includes the consistent evaluation of mine site hydrology through scrutiny of key indicators of mining-induced, adverse hydrologic consequences. This allows the regulatory agency to assess the potential for mining-related impacts as well as cumulative impacts throughout the proposed mine area and adjacent area. General trends have been identified regarding quality of underground mine drainage versus coal seam mined. However, the large number of factors controlling the final mine pool chemistry along with the lack of focused research have combined to stunt the development of reliable methodologies for the prediction of postmining water quality. Absent reliable predictive methodologies, mine layout has become the best demonstrated technology for pollution prevention. Strategies include: (1) promotion of postmining inundation by down-dip development with proper location of mine openings and sizing and location of barriers; (2) restriction of mining to zones within the groundwater system where flow is relatively lethargic and time of travel is great when compared to natural mine pool amelioration time frames; and (3) mining in zones remote from groundwater discharge areas and features which may serve to short-circuit mine water to nearby existing water-supply aquifers or to the surface. This paper discusses Pennsylvania's application process for underground bituminous coal mines. It briefly outlines Pennsylvania's statutory history relating to mine discharges, touches on some of the tools permit reviewers use to evaluate the hydrology of proposed underground mining sites, and discusses the key factors that permit reviewers consider in assessing potential postmining mine pool levels.

  20. Mine system

    SciTech Connect

    Stoppani, B.R.

    1983-10-04

    A mine system comprises at least one mining machine adapted to haul itself, in a reciprocating manner, along a mineral face, and a control box housing means to control the various electrical elements of the machine(s), the box being located in a mine roadway at one end of the mineral face along which the machine(s) is reciprocating, and the box being electrically connected to a terminal box housed in a body of the machine(s).

  1. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Breccia-pipe uranium mining in northern Arizona; estimate of resources and assessment of historical effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Brown, Kristin M.; Alpine, Andrea E.; Otton, James K.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Tillman, Fred D

    2011-01-01

    About 1 million acres of Federal land in the Grand Canyon region of Arizona were temporarily withdrawn from new mining claims in July 2009 by the Secretary of the Interior because of concern that increased uranium mining could have negative impacts on the land, water, people, and wildlife. During a 2-year interval, a Federal team led by the Bureau of Land Management is evaluating the effects of withdrawing these lands for extended periods. As part of this team, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of short-term studies to examine the historical effects of breccia-pipe uranium mining in the region. The USGS studies provide estimates of uranium resources affected by the possible land withdrawal, examine the effects of previous breccia-pipe mining, summarize water-chemistry data for streams and springs, and investigate potential biological pathways of exposure to uranium and associated contaminants. This fact sheet summarizes results through December 2009 and outlines further research needs.

  3. Geochemical study of acid mine drainage of the Big Lick Tunnel area, Williamstown, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Tollin, S. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-03-01

    Acid mine drainage in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania continues to be a significant environmental problem. This study examines the acid mine outflow from the Big Lick Tunnel, north of Williamstown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The tunnel drains abandoned mines on the north side of the Big Lick Mountain. Mining ceased in the area circa 1940, and the tunnel has been in operation since that time. The water, soil and stream bed sediment geochemistry has been studied to determine their changes in chemistry over distance. The pH, TDS and metal concentrations were the primary focus. Metal concentrations were determined using an ICP unit. Data indicates the pH of the outflow to range between 6.7 and 7.3 Fe and Mn concentrations are as high as 9.7 ppb. Extensive metal precipitation ( yellow boy'') occurs within the tunnel and for several hundred meters from the mouth of the tunnel. The combination of near neutral pH and high metal concentration suggest that the drainage is in contact with highly alkaline materials prior to discharge from the tunnel. The geology of the area does not suggest bedrock as the possible source of alkaline material. One hypothesis is that the acidic water is reacting with the concrete tunnel and being neutralized. Data also suggests that the Fe precipitates much quicker than the Mn, resulting in a zonation between Fe-rich and Mn-rich sediments along the length of the drainage.

  4. Mining with microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings., D.E.; Silver, S.

    1995-08-01

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as {open_quotes}absorbants{close_quotes} of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F

  6. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  7. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  8. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  9. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  10. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  11. Application of remote sensor data to geologic analysis of the Bonanza Test Site Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    A geologic map of the Bonanza Test Site is nearing completion. Using published large scale geologic maps from various sources, the geology of the area is being compiled on a base scaled at 1:250,000. Sources of previously published geologic mapping include: (1) USGS Bulletins; (2) professional papers and geologic quadrangle maps; (3) Bureau of Mines reports; (4) Colorado School of Mines quarterlies; and (5) Rocky Mountain Association of Geologist Guidebooks. This compilation will be used to evaluate ERTS, Skylab, and remote sensing underflight data.

  12. Geology and K-Ar geochronology of the Paradise Peak Mine and the relationship of pre-Basin and Range extension to Early Miocene precious metal mineralization in west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.; Thomason, R.E.; McKee, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Paradise Peak mine is a major gold-silver-mercury deposit located in the southwestern part of the Paradise Range near the eastern edge of the Walker Lane in the western Great Basin, Nevada. Regional stratigraphic relations and K-Ar ages indicate that volcanism changed from silicic ash-flow tuffs to intermediate lavas at about 20 to 19 Ma. Regionally extensive angular unconformities indicate that a period of "pre-Basin and Range' crustal extension occurred between about 22 to 19 Ma. This extension was penecontemporaneous with the shift in the style of volcanism and with gold-silver mineralization in the Paradise Peak mine and in the Goldfield and Tonopah districts of western Nevada. The close temporal and spatial relationships of precious metal mineralization with pre-Basin and Range extension suggest that extension was a major factor in the genesis of early Miocene precious metal deposits in the western Great Basin. -from Authors

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  14. Numerical simulation scattered imaging in deep mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Shun; Pan, Dong-Ming; Li, Juan-Juan

    2010-09-01

    Conventional seismic exploration, mostly based on reflection theory, hardly has accurate imaging results for disaster geologic bodies which have small scale, steep dip, or complex structure. In this paper, we design two typical geologic models for analyzing the characteristics of scattered waves in mines for forward modeling by finite difference and apply the equivalent offset migration (EOM) and EOM-based interference stack migration methods to mine prospecting. We focus on the analysis of scatted imaging’s technological superiority to reflection imaging. Research shows: 1) scattered imaging can improve fold and make the best of weak scattered information, so it shows better results than post-stack migration imaging and 2) it can utilize the diffraction stack migration method-based ray path theory for mine seismic advanced prediction, so it provides an new efficient imaging method for improving resolution of mine seismic exploration.

  15. Geologic quadrangle maps of the United States: geology of the Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinehart, C. Dean; Ross, Donald Clarence

    1957-01-01

    The Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle was mapped in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Division of Mines as part of a study of potential tungsten-bearing areas.

  16. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  17. Mining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.E.; Lane, A.J.; Mcgee, D.A.

    1981-03-10

    An improved mining apparatus for excavating material, such as coal, for example, from an earth formation, such as a coal seam, for example, wherein a miner, having a forward and a rearward cutter, is guided through the coal seam and excavates a borehole therein, the borehole being filled with a working fluid during the operation of the miner, the working fluid facilitating the operation of the miner and providing a vehicle for removing the mined material. Substantially all of the operations of the miner are controlled from the earth's surface thereby eliminating the necessity and accompanying hazards and costs involved in utilizing personnel underground during the mining operations.

  18. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  19. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  20. Uranium geology of Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations.

  1. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  2. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  3. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-09-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  4. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-01-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  5. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  6. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  7. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  8. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  9. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  10. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  11. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  12. CBM in the vicinity of active mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In areas close to operating mines, optional CBM operations meet several advantages. Any consideration about CBM operations close to active or ex-mining areas can rely on a lot of existing knowledge from the nearby mine regarding Geological data: seam thickness and structure, rock structure and composition, overburden setup Structural data: fault system, fault style, Stratigraphic informations: seam and adjacent rock stratigraphic identification Petrographic data: coal composition data Coal quality data: heating values, volatile matter, maturity, gas contents which approximately correspond to the respective data sets of the adjacent mine. As well and of importance for drilling issues the knowledge from former exploration measure can be adapted. Permeability is not transferable between mined and un-mined areas due to higher stream for gaseous and liquid matter in mining areas as a result of mining induced rock disaggregation. However, the vicinity permits the option of drilling operations for CBM purposes from the open subsurface architecture. Experiences in the USA and in India document the application of CBM projects for coal mine degassing: in mining fields adjacent to future coal mining, the gas content is severely reduced by CBM measures prior to mining. As a result of that, subsequent to CBM operations a mine can be run at reduced gas content to be emitted which means higher mine safety. At least the production potential will be increased as e.g. the gas alert driven power interruptions will be reduced.

  13. A spatial and seasonal assessment of river water chemistry across North West England.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, J J; Dise, N B; Taylor, K G; Allott, T E H; Scholefield, P; Davies, H; Neal, C

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents information on the spatial and seasonal patterns of river water chemistry at approximately 800 sites in North West England based on data from the Environment Agency regional monitoring programme. Within a GIS framework, the linkages between average water chemistry (pH, sulphate, base cations, nutrients and metals) catchment characteristics (topography, land cover, soil hydrology, base flow index and geology), rainfall, deposition chemistry and geo-spatial information on discharge consents (point sources) are examined. Water quality maps reveal that there is a clear distinction between the uplands and lowlands. Upland waters are acidic and have low concentrations of base cations, explained by background geological sources and land cover. Localised high concentrations of metals occur in areas of the Cumbrian Fells which are subjected to mining effluent inputs. Nutrient concentrations are low in the uplands with the exception sites receiving effluent inputs from rural point sources. In the lowlands, both past and present human activities have a major impact on river water chemistry, especially in the urban and industrial heartlands of Greater Manchester, south Lancashire and Merseyside. Over 40% of the sites have average orthophosphate concentrations >0.1mg-Pl(-1). Results suggest that the dominant control on orthophosphate concentrations is point source contributions from sewage effluent inputs. Diffuse agricultural sources are also important, although this influence is masked by the impact of point sources. Average nitrate concentrations are linked to the coverage of arable land, although sewage effluent inputs have a significant effect on nitrate concentrations. Metal concentrations in the lowlands are linked to diffuse and point sources. The study demonstrates that point sources, as well as diffuse sources, need to be considered when targeting measures for the effective reduction in river nutrient concentrations. This issue is clearly important

  14. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  15. Safe mine waste disposal, Appalachian coal province (1984)

    SciTech Connect

    Maberry, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Listed are maps developed under the Safe Mine-Waste Disposal program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps show recent or old landslides, rockfalls and other areas susceptible to sliding. Other features include strip mines classified as to type and degree of reclamation, gravel pits, quarries and other man-made features that affect slope stability in vicinity of coal-mining activities.

  16. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David J.

    A proactive stance towards improving the effectiveness and consistency of risk assessments has been adopted recently by mining companies and industry. The next 10-20 years forecasts that ore deposits accessible using shallow mining techniques will diminish. The industry continues to strive for success in "deeper" mining projects in order to keep up with the continuing demand for raw materials. Although the returns are quite profitable, many projects have been sidelined due to high uncertainty and technical risk in the mining of the mineral deposit. Several hardrock mines have faced rockbursting and seismicity problems. Within those reported, mines in countries like South Africa, Australia and Canada have documented cases of severe rockburst conditions attributed to the mining depth. Severe rockburst conditions known as "burst-prone" can be effectively managed with design. Adopting a more robust design can ameliorate the exposure of workers and equipment to adverse conditions and minimize the economic consequences, which can hinder the bottom line of an operation. This thesis presents a methodology created for assessing the design risk in burst-prone mines. The methodology includes an evaluation of relative risk ratings for scenarios with options of risk reduction through several design principles. With rockbursts being a hazard of seismic events, the methodology is based on research in the area of mining seismicity factoring in rockmass failure mechanisms, which results from a combination of mining induced stress, geological structures, rockmass properties and mining influences. The methodology was applied to case studies at Craig Mine of Xstrata Nickel in Sudbury, Ontario, which is known to contain seismically active fault zones. A customized risk assessment was created and applied to rockburst case studies, evaluating the seismic vulnerability and consequence for each case. Application of the methodology to Craig Mine demonstrates that changes in the design can

  17. Geology and gold deposits of the Cripple Creek district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar; Ransome, F.L.

    1906-01-01

    The Cripple Creek gold deposits, discovered in 1891, were investigated by Messrs. Cross and Penrose, of the United States Geological Survey, in 1894. The present reexamination was requested by citizens of Colorado, and . has been carried out under the financial cooperation of the State with the Federal Survey. It has involved complete revision of the topographic map of the district used as a base by Cross and Penrose, the running of a line of accurate levels from Colorado Springs to Cripple Creek, remapping of the geology, and a thorough study of the extensive mine workings opened during the past ten years. Due acknowledgment is made, of the cordial assistance rendered by mining men, and a list is given of the important publications concerning the geology or mines of the district.

  18. SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATER QUALITY HYDROLOGY IN SURFACE MINED WATERSHEDS. PART I: TEXT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface mining disturbs the natural sequence of geologic strata, and, therefore, potentially modifies the quantity and quality of water on a watershed disturbed by surface mining. Such a watershed disturbed by surface mining was monitored in Colorado. In addition, surface runoff,...

  19. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  20. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  1. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, G.A.

    1985-05-07

    A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

  2. Asteroid mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  3. Resource targets for advanced underground coal-extraction systems. [Identification of location and geology of deposit for which greatest savings can be realized by advanced mining systems in 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, J.H.; Whipple, D.W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report identifies resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems. In contrast to previous research, which focused on a particular resource type, this study made a comprehensive examination of both conventional and unconventional coals, with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry. The major thrust of the targeting analysis was forecasting which coals would be of clear commercial significance at the beginning of the 21st century under three widely different scenarios for coal demand. The primary measure of commercial importance was an estimate of the aggregate dollar savings realized by consumers if advanced technology were available to mine coal at prices at or below the price projected for conventional technology in the year 2000. Both deterministic and probabilistic savings estimates were prepared for each demand scenario. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat-lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat-lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). The rather substantial deposits of bituminous coal in North Alaska and the deeply buried lignites of the Gulf Coast present transportation and ground control problems which appear to postpone their commercial importance well beyond 2000. Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions or sub-regions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  4. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  5. Mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.R.; Spence, A.M.

    1981-06-23

    In a system for the supply of fluid under pressure to machinery of an underground mine working, lengths of fixed conduit are secured to parts of the conveyor assembly, prior to the assembly of said parts at the underground mine working. When the conveyor assembly has been assembled, the length of fixed conduits are interconnected, either by straight lengths of flexible conduit, or by branched lengths of flexible conduit, where take off for fluid under pressure is required for the machinery, for example a roof support unit.

  6. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  7. Tropospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V. A.; Chameides, W.; Demerjian, K. L.; Lenschow, D. H.; Logan, J. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Platt, U.; Schurath, U.; Dias, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the background troposphere, the source region, and the transition regions are discussed. The troposphere is governed by heterogeneous chemistry far more so than the stratosphere. Heterogeneous processes of interest involve scavenging of trace gases by aerosols, cloud and precipitation elements leading to aqueous phase chemical reactions and to temporary and permanent removal of material from the gas phase. Dry deposition is a major removal process for ozone, as well as for other gases of importance in tropospheric photochemistry. These processes are also discussed.

  8. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  9. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

  10. The influence of geology on blasthole deviation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    Blasthole deviation is a frequent, well documented and undesirable occurrence in mining operations. It is caused by the drill string mechanics, operating variables and the interaction between the drill bit and the rock mass characteristics. It is composed of three distinct components: collaring or marking error, alignment error and trajectory deviation. This study has focused on the dependence of trajectory or natural deviation on the geological features of the rock mass being drilled. The methodology involved the study of visible half barrels at road cuts, open pits, quarries, underground drifting and breasting operations. The effects of the following geological features on drillhole deviation have been investigated and discussed in this paper (1) strength and hardness of rocks (2) alternate layers of hard and soft rocks (3) anisotropy in rock mass (4) thickness and inclination of layers and bedding planes and (5) joints or other geological boundaries.

  11. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, G.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1991-01-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undisturbed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface runoff and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (>4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  13. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  16. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  18. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  20. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  1. Economic baselines for current underground coal mining technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The cost of mining coal using a room pillar mining method with continuous miner and a longwall mining system was calculated. Costs were calculated for the years 1975 and 2000 time periods and are to be used as economic standards against which advanced mining concepts and systems will be compared. Some assumptions were changed and some internal model stored data was altered from the original calculations procedure chosen, to obtain a result that more closely represented what was considered to be a standard mine. Coal seam thicknesses were varied from one and one-half feet to eight feet to obtain the cost of mining coal over a wide range. Geologic conditions were selected that had a minimum impact on the mining productivity.

  2. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  3. Geology for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes environmental geology as including planning to avoid natural hazards, acquire natural resources, and use land wisely. Describes philosophy and strategies for developing interdisciplinary, environmental geology education at the high school, college, professional graduate, and doctoral research levels. (PR)

  4. Geologic spatial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  5. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  6. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  7. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  8. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-12-31

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania`s abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania`s comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania`s geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques.

  9. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  10. Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

    1992-05-01

    This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

  11. Data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  12. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  13. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  14. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  15. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism. PMID:24204652

  16. Influence of Sungun copper mine on groundwater quality, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Hoveidi, H.; Nasrabadi, I.; Pezeshk, H.; Rashidinejad, F.

    2009-08-01

    Sungun mine is the largest open-cast copper mine in northwest of Iran and is in the primary stages of extraction. The influence of mining activity on the quality of regional groundwater has been taken in to consideration in this study. Accordingly, sampling was done from 22 springs in the study area. The concentrations of major anions and cations as well as Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined for all 22 spring samples in mid-August 2005. The results showed that the concentrations of most of these elements were below the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits; however, Al and Fe concentrations are considered to be more than limits in a couple of samples. Despite the fact that geological formations are highly weathered and fractured, the dissolution of minerals within the study area is low. This may be justified by the relatively high alkalinity of local underground water which keeps metals in solid phase and does not let them enter dissolved phase. Additionally, this may be attributed to the high velocity of groundwater flows, which do not give enough time for minerals to dissolve. Correlation coefficients among water chemistry components were determined and the weighted-pair group method was chosen for cluster analysis. Accordingly, high correlation among Al, Fe and Cr, Cd ,and Cu, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na as well as total hardness (TH), Ca, and Mg were observed. The chemical characteristics of water compositions on the basis of major ion concentrations were evaluated on a Schoeller and Piper diagram. Accordingly, the dominant type of water in the region is considered to be Ca-HCO3 (calcium-bicarbonate type). However, this type of water is also rich in Na, K, and especially Mg. Regarding Schoeller diagram, the current status of local underground water is good for drinking purposes. By commencing mining excavation with designed capacity in near future, the minerals will come into contact with air and water resulting in dissolution

  17. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  18. Mining review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  19. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  20. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  1. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  2. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  3. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 2. Low-flow (2001) and snowmelt (2002) synoptic/tracer water chemistry for the Red River, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Steiger, Judy I.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2003-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 259 samples collected from the Red River, New Mexico, and its tributaries during low-flow(2001) and spring snowmelt (2002) tracer studies. Water samples were collected along a 20-kilometer reach of the Red River beginning just east of the town of Red River and ending at the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located east of Questa, New Mexico. The study area was divided into three sections where separate injections and synoptic sampling events were performed during the low-flow tracer study. During the spring snowmelt tracer study, three tracer injections and synoptic sampling events were performed bracketing the areas with the greatest metal loading into the Red River as determined from the low-flow tracer study. The lowflow tracer synoptic sampling events were August 17, 20, and 24, 2001. The synoptic sampling events for the spring snowmelt tracer were March 30, 31, and April 1, 2002. Stream and large inflow water samples were sampled using equal-width and depth-integrated sampling methods and composited into half-gallon bottles. Grab water samples were collected from smaller inflows. Stream temperatures were measured at the time of sample collection. Samples were transported to a nearby central processing location where pH and specific conductance were measured and the samples processed for chemical analyses. Cations, trace metals, iron redox species, and fluoride were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. Cations and trace metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations were determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, iron redox species were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and fluoride concentrations were determined using an ion-selective electrode. Alkalinity was measured by automated titration, and sulfate

  4. Mine flooding and barrier pillar hydrology in the Pittsburgh basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, B.R.

    1999-07-01

    Pennsylvania began requiring barrier pillars between mines as early as 1930. The Ashley formula, resulting from a early commission on the problem, requires 20 feet of coal plus a thickness of coal equal to four times the seam height plus an additional thickness of coal equal to one tenth of the overburden thickness, or the maximum potential hydraulic head. For a 6-foot thick coal seam under 400 feet of cover, the barrier would be 20+24+40=84 feet. The Ashley formula is intended to protect coal miners from a catastrophic failure of a barrier pillar which has a high head of water impounded behind it. The paper gives several examples of flooded and unflooded mines and the performance of their barrier pillars with respect to acid mine drainage. It is concluded that for all practical purposes, barrier pillars designed with the Ashley formula are able to hydrologically isolate mines from one another. This hydrologic isolation promotes the inundation of closed mines. Inundation effectively stops acid formation, thus, fully inundated mines do not represent a perpetual source of acid mine drainage. Infiltrating ground water improves the mine water chemistry resulting in a net alkaline discharge which has greatly lowered iron concentrations. The best locations for acid mine drainage treatment plants is at the lowest surface elevation above the mine with mine flooded to near that elevation.

  5. The Geology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  6. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes. PMID:22873132

  7. Three-dimensional modeling in the study of subsidence in mining Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West) - Francesco Muntoni (1) Teresa Balvis (2) Paolo Bevilacqua (3) (1) Geological, Mining Park of Sardinia - Via Monteverdi, 16 09016 - Iglesias (2) freelance (3) Department of Engineering and Architecture - University of Trieste, Via Valerio 10 - Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntoni, F.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of subsidence and subsequent landslides in mining areas are very frequent, the study examines the proposed mining area of Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West), interested in the years between 1991 and 2003 by major subsidence phenomena and consequent events landslides. The valley of Acquaresi is particularly important, not only for its mines, but also for the aspect related to the geomorphological evolution morphotectonic in the context of Paleozoic lithologies, which have a rectangular structure parallel to the coastline. To make measurements and analysis of the evolution of human morphostructural and throughout the industry, it was considered appropriate to create a three-dimensional model that would allow a synoptic view with the different information available to the industry. E 'was created a model using the points listed extrapolated from the Regional Technical Map scale 1:10,000, the map at scale 1:2000 dell'IGEA and the values of a detailed survey of the study area, measured at a scale 1: 500. How MicroStation CAD software was used, with whom it is made of a TIN high detail taking into account then is, if possible, of quoted points, roads, major infrastructure, contour lines (lines-intermediate-auxiliary), buildings and lines coast. The model was supported and shaped (draping) image obtained by integrating the color orthophotos of the area in 1:10,000 scale of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia and photos to scale 1:2,000 made to run dall'IGEA spa at the last event of the landslide. The use of aerial photographs, a scale similar to that of cartography, has allowed us to achieve excellent results by superimposing the frames of the areas of interest on models made, with views that appear to be consistent with the technical papers, with a maximum error of less than that of the reference mapping. Moreover, to emphasize the tectonic lineations, morphological aspects and changes in landscape and environment, it was considered appropriate to use a three

  8. Mapping known and potential mineral occurrences and host rocks in the Bonnifield Mining District using minimal cloud- and snow-cover ASTER data: Chapter E in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Rowan, Lawrence C.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor acquired satellite imagery of a 60-kilometer-wide swath covering a portion of the Bonnifield mining district within the southernmost part of the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, under unusually favorable conditions of minimal cloud and snow cover. Although rocks from more than eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the extended swath of data, we focus on volcanogenic massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry deposits within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), the largest Mesozoic accretionary terrane exposed between the Denali fault system to the south of Fairbanks and the Tintina fault system to the north of Fairbanks. Comparison of thermal-infrared region (TIR) decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT contain a wide range of rock types ranging in composition from mafic metavolcanic rocks to felsic rock types such as metarhyolites, pelitic schists, and quartzites. The nine-band ASTER visible-near-infrared region--short-wave infrared region (VNIR-SWIR) reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with VMS and porphyry deposit types. In particular, smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and (or) other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (less than 250-meter diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation or snow cover or were too small to be resolved.

  9. Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental processes that control the chemical composition and cycles of the global troposphere and how these processes and properties affect the physical behavior of the atmosphere are examined. The long-term information needs for tropospheric chemistry are: to be able to predict tropospheric responses to perturbations, both natural and anthropogenic, of these cycles, and to provide the information required for the maintenance and effective future management of the atmospheric component of our global life support system. The processes controlling global tropospheric biogeochemical cycles include: the input of trace species into the troposphere, their long-range transport and distribution as affected by the mean wind and vertical venting, their chemical transformations, including gas to particle conversion, leading to the appearance of aerosols or aqueous phase reactions inside cloud droplets, and their removal from the troposphere via wet (precipitation) and dry deposition.

  10. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  11. Fugitive Mercury Emissions From Nevada Gold Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. B.; Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Marsik, F.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be released from point sources at gold mines (e.g. stacks associated with ore processing facilities) as well as from diffuse fugitive sources (e.g. waste rock dumps, heap leaches, etc). Fugitive Hg emissions have not been quantified for active gold mines and as such a large knowledge gap exists concerning the magnitude of total emissions from this source type. This study measured fugitive Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Northern Nevada. To contextualize the magnitude of the mine emissions with respect to those associated with natural surfaces, data were collected from undisturbed areas near the mines that are of similar geologic character. The initial results from this project have shown that there is a large range in surface Hg concentrations and associated emissions to the atmosphere from different surface types within a mine as well as between the two mines. At both mines, the lowest surface Hg concentrations and emissions were associated with the alluvium/overburden waste rock dumps. Surface Hg concentrations and emissions at nearby undisturbed sites were of similar magnitude. Surface concentrations and emissions were substantially higher from active heap leaches. In addition to the difference in fluxes for specific materials, measured emissions must be put within the context of material spatial extent and temporal variability. Here we compare Hg emission contributions from mining and undisturbed materials as a function of space and time (diel and seasonal), and illustrate the need for collection of these types of data in order to reduce uncertainties in understanding air-surface Hg exchange.

  12. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  13. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  14. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  15. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  16. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  17. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  18. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  19. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  20. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  1. Predictive double-layer modeling of metal sorption in mine-drainage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.S.; Plumlee, G.S.; Ranville, J.F.; Macalady, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Previous comparison of predictive double-layer modeling and empirically derived metal-partitioning data has validated the use of the double-layer model to predict metal sorption reactions in iron-rich mine-drainage systems. The double-layer model subsequently has been used to model data collected from several mine-drainage sites in Colorado with diverse geochemistry and geology. This work demonstrates that metal partitioning between dissolved and sediment phases can be predictively modeled simply by knowing the water chemistry and the amount of suspended iron-rich particulates present in the system. Sorption on such iron-rich suspended sediments appears to control metal and arsenic partitioning between dissolved and sediment phases, with sorption on bed sediment playing a limited role. At pH > 5, Pb and As are largely sorbed by iron-rich suspended sediments and Cu is partially sorbed; Zn, Cd, and Ni usually remain dissolved throughout the pH range of 3 to 8.

  2. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  3. HYDROLOGIC IMPACTS FROM POTENTIAL COAL STRIP MINING - NORTHERN CHEYENNE RESERVATION. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a large scale hydrologic study performed on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. Data from surface water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and geologic profiles is combined to estimate potential disruptions from future coal mine development on ...

  4. Proceedings, 25th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.; Luo, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: computer and physical modelling; geology in ground control; geophysics in ground control; ground control; impoundments stability; longwall gateroad support design; longwall operations; longwall shields and standing supports; mine design; multiple-seam mining interactions; pillar and pillar extraction; roof bolting; roof bolting - resin; and subsidence. Most of the topics include a retrospective paper which summarises the progress of the subject field during the past 25 years.

  5. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  6. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  7. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  8. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  9. Bibliography of geology and hydrology, eastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Ann Finley

    1979-01-01

    The High Plains of the eastern New Mexico region are recognized as an abundant and varied source of natural resources. The bibliography of over 1,900 references concerned with geology, hydrology, chemistry, and geography has been compiled to assist physical science researchers in their study of this region. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. Chemical Geology: An Annotated Bibliography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Gale K.

    The annotated bibliography is intended to aid geologists whose primary background is not in geochemistry. The references thus range from chemistry texts to papers on complex geochemical applications. The emphasis has been on those books and papers concerned with the application of chemical concepts to geology. Citations are arranged topically to…

  11. Bibliography of geology and hydrology, southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Ann Finley

    1980-01-01

    The southwestern part of New Mexico is recognized as a source of abundant and varied natural resources. This bibliography of over 2,700 references concerned with geology, hydrology, chemistry, and geography has been compiled to assist physical science researchers in their study and development of this region. (USGS)

  12. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  13. Relations of benthic macroinvertebrates to concentrations of trace elements in water, streambed sediments, and transplanted bryophytes and stream habitat conditions in nonmining and mining areas of the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Scott V.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive mining activity and highly mineralized rock formations have had significant impacts on surface-water and streambed-sediment quality and aquatic life within the upper reaches of the Uncompahgre River in western Colorado. A synoptic study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program was completed in the upper Uncompahgre River Basin in 1998 to better understand the relations of trace elements (with emphasis on aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc concentrations) in water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. Water-chemistry, streambed-sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected during low-flow conditions between October 1995 and July 1998 at five sites on the upper Uncompahgre River, all downstream from historical mining, and at three sites in drainage basins of the Upper Colorado River where mining has not occurred. Aquatic bryophytes were transplanted to all sites for 15 days of exposure to the water column during which time field parameters were measured and chemical water-quality and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected. Stream habitat characteristics also were documented at each site. Certain attributes of surface-water chemistry among streams were significantly different. Concentrations of total aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc in the water column and concentrations of dissolved aluminum, copper, and zinc were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Some sites associated with mining exceeded Colorado acute aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, and zinc and exceeded Colorado chronic aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Generally, concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments at mining sites exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines probable effect level (PEL

  14. Executive summary of the US Bureau of Mines investigations in the Colville Mining District, Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    During 1991 through 1993, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Bureau) - Alaska Field Operations Center (AFOC) in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - Arctic District Office and the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), conducted exploration, geological, geochemical, geophysical, mineral resource, and mineral potential investigations in the 6.7 million hectare Colville Mining District (CMD) study area. The document discusses the pertinent recent and historical information about the CMD, summarizes the findings of Bureau work performed in the CMD to date, and can be used as a principal reference to information on mineral resources within the CMD study area.

  15. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  16. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  17. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-Three. Geology (Part One). Free Response Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Ken; And Others

    The first of several planned volumes of Free Response Test Items contains geology questions developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the New South Wales Department of Education. Two additional geology volumes and biology and chemistry volumes are in preparation. The questions in this volume were written and reviewed by practicing…

  18. Reconnaissance geologic map of the northern Kawich and southern Reveille ranges, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Eddy, A.C.; Goff, F.E.; Grafft, K.S.

    1980-06-01

    A geological survey was performed in Nye County, Nevada. Results of that survey are summarized in the maps included. The general geology of the area is discussed. Major structures are described. The economics resulting from the mineral exploitation in the area are discussed. The hydrogeology and water chemistry of the area are also discussed.

  19. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  20. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M., Davies,W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  2. Catastrophism in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, A.

    An historical survey is presented of ideas relating to the concept of 'catastrophism' in geological studies during the last two centuries. It is noted in particular that the opposing concept of 'uniformitarianism', in which there is assumed to have been an overall constancy of geological processes through time so that there is no need to invoke catastrophic change, is now considered rather extreme. During the nineteen sixties and seventies, a neocatastrophist viewpoint has increasingly emerged in various branches of geology. Mass extinctions and their possible causes - bolide impact, climate, volcanism and sea-level change for example - are each considered in the context of this developing framework.

  3. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 1: the paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    Grouting to reduce fracture permeability is one option for minimizing ground water inflow to a large, acid-producing lead-zinc mine in fractured metamorphic rock in north Idaho. For grouting to reduce mine water inflow effectively, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the various scales of structurally controlled fracturing must be identified and a conceptual model of the ground water flow system must be developed. This paper is the first of two papers which use fracture mapping, geologic structural mapping, and a series of underground hydraulic stress tests to develop a conceptual model of structurally controlled ground water flow in the vicinity of the mine. These data were collected in an effort to identify order within the structurally controlled spatial permeability distribution. Geologic structural discontinuities, ranging from joints to faults that extend for several miles, form a geologic structural hierarchy in the rock surrounding the mine. The tiers of the hierarchy control ground water flow into the mine at different scales. The most prominent faults control ground water inflow on the scale of the entire mine. Various levels of hydraulic continuity are evident within the rock mass bounded by two of the most prominent faults. The highest level of hydraulic continuity appears to be associated with a set of sub-parallel, steeply dipping faults. Minor faults, joints, and relict bedding planes to a limited extent connect the fractures of this set and form a lower level of hydraulic continuity. The next lower level of hydraulic continuity within the hierarchy is related to a major fault that is characterized in drill core by abundant gouge. The hydraulic continuity of the matrix within the unfractured quartzite is the lowest level within the hierarchy. These levels constitute the components of the order within the spatial permeability distribution that we have interpreted from the structural and hydraulic stress test data.

  5. Processes in karst systems, physics, chemistry, and geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dreybrodt, W.

    1988-01-01

    Dreybrodt deals quantitatively with many of the chemical and hydrological processes involved in the formation of karst systems. The book is divided into 3 major parts. The first part develops the basic chemical and fluid-flow principles needed in modeling karst systems. The second part investigates the experimental kinetics of calcite dissolution and precipitation and applies the resulting kinetic laws to the modeling of these processes in systems both open and closed to carbon dioxide. The last part of the book includes a qualitative examination of karst systems, quantitative modeling of the development of karst features, and an examination and modeling of the growth of spelotherms in caves.

  6. Designing a Mathematics Course for Chemistry and Geology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Gareth Q.

    2005-01-01

    Many mathematics departments usually teach a variety of courses for students from different science departments and even from different faculties. These "service" courses are usually taught in the same way as the courses for mathematics major students. However, in science, because of the need to better analyse and interpret experimental data and…

  7. Asian mining '85: Papers presented at the conference, Manila, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference in Asian mining. Contents include: geological characteristics and evolution of a gold-rich porphyry copper deposit at Guinaoang, Luzon, Philippines; influence of cable support in assessing open strope viability; modular processing plants to improve mineral recovery at Indonesian tin mines; development of a new cobalt recovery process at the Sungao Nickel refinery; design and construction of the Padaena zinc refinery; and, design, construction and operation of the carbon in pulp plant, Siana gold mine, Philippines.

  8. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  9. Geological science needs studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Sciences Board of the National Academy of Science is conducting a study of the trends, needs, and priorities of the geological sciences for the 1980s. Many organizations and individuals already have been contacted regarding this task; however, in order to ensure that the forthcoming report is based broadly on ideas from the scientific community, the Geological Sciences Board solicits the thoughts of AGU members about the substance of the study. Please send your questions and comments by early this fall to William Dickinson, chairman of the Geological Sciences Board, National Academy of Sciences, Room 69, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. A draft report is expected in January 1983.

  10. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  11. Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

  12. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  13. Examination of the mining of heavy oil and tar sands by overburden substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    A mining procedure which removes the geologic formations above an oil or tar sand bearing reservoir by strip mining techniques, then floods the upper surface of the reservoir with a pool of water, is examined by computational models and laboratory scale experiments. The results of the studies indicate low production rates are achieved by such a procedure.

  14. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  15. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  16. Advances in planetary geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  17. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  18. Geologic characterization of tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B.E.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of US Geological Survey (USGS) work during FY 89 were to conduct geologic research characterizing tight gas-bearing sandstone reservoirs and their resources in the western United States. Our research has been regional in scope but, in some basins, our investigations have focused on single wells or small areas containing several wells where a large amount of data is available. The investigations, include structure, stratigraphy, petrography, x-ray mineralogy, source-rock evaluation, formation pressure and temperature, borehole geophysics, thermal maturity mapping, fission-track age dating, fluid-inclusion thermometry, and isotopic geochemistry. The objectives of these investigations are to provide geologic models that can be compared and utilized in tight gas-bearing sequences elsewhere. Nearly all of our work during FY 89 was devoted to developing a computer-based system for the Uinta basin and collecting, analyzing, and storage of data. The data base, when completed will contain various types of stratigraphic, organic chemistry, petrographic, production, engineering, and other information that relate to the petroleum geology of the Uinta basin, and in particular, to the tight gas-bearing strata. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

  20. Astronomy on the Moon: Geological considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an excellent site for astronomical observations. This paper describes two geological aspects related to astronomy from the Moon. First it evaluates the sources of gases near a lunar base as input to calculations reported in a separate paper on the growth of an artificial lunar atmosphere. The results suggest that mining for He-3 could produce the most gas (1 kg/sec), but rocket exhaust (0.1 kg/sec) and habitat venting (0.5 kg/sec) are also important. Second, the paper discusses criteria that need to be considered when determining the site of a lunar astronomical facility. These are longitude and latitude (equatorial sites are favored), topography (important to be relatively flat for ease of installation), distance from a lunar base (to be free of seismic noise, dust, and gases), the site's value to lunar geoscience (other factors being equal, a geologically diverse site is better), and its value as a materials resource (mining and observatories are incompatible).

  1. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  2. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  3. Geology and mine exploration trends of Prestea Goldfields, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appiah, H.

    Prestea Goldfields occurs in the Precambrian Upper Birimian series which is represented by northeasterly dipping phyllites, metatuffs, metagreywackes and carbonaceous phyllites. The mineralized zone is made up of three channels, namely; the main reef channel, the west reef channel, and the 'B' or east reef channel. The ore bodies are localized in these three channels. The occurrence of tectonic movements has resulted in the formation of extensive fault gouges along one or both contacts of the reef and wall rocks, but in places, the fault gouges cut through the reef. Wall rock alteration occurs in the form of pyritization, arsenopyritization, sericitization, chloritization, silicification, and carbonatization. The most abundant ore minerals are pyrite and arsenopyrite, each making up 20-30% of all the ore minerals. Gold is commonly associated with bournonite and bonanza ores are associated with mariposite. This paper analyses the present method of exploration. Initial drilling into the footwall has shown good values in the metavolcanic rocks.

  4. The geologic evolution of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A synthesis of pre- and post-Apollo 11 studies is presented to produce an outline of the moon's geologic evolution from three lines of evidence: (1) relative ages of lunar landforms and rock types, (2) absolute ages of returned lunar samples, and (3) petrography, chemistry, and isotopic ratios of lunar rocks and soils. It is assumed that the ray craters, circular mare basins, and most intermediate circular landforms are primarily of impact origin, although many other landforms are volcanic or of hybrid origin. The moon's evolution is divided into four main stages, each including several distinct but overlapping events or processes.

  5. Mining lease handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Mining leases and similar agreements are some of the most common documents encountered by mining attorneys. The mining Lease Handbook contains a collection of mining lease clauses which have been organized and assembled for over 25 years. The clauses in this book have been coordinated and cross-referenced to enable the Handbook user to create a mining lease having a logical structure with consistent terminology throughout. In many cases, alternative clauses are included. The accompanying commentary provides insight into the use of the various clauses while pointing our pitfalls to be avoided. This Handbook is devoted primarily to mining leases, several chapters cover the subjects of options, subleases, and ancillary documents.

  6. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.

  7. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Digital data and geologic map of the Powder Mill Ferry Quadrangle, Shannon and Reynolds counties, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Robert C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Lagueux, Kerry M.

    2000-01-01

    The geology of the Powder Mill Ferry 7 1/2-minute quadrangle , Shannon and Reynolds Counties, Missouri was mapped from 1997 through 1998 as part of the Midcontinent Karst Systems and Geologic Mapping Project, Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team. The map supports the production of a geologic framework that will be used in hydrogeologic investigations related to potential lead and zinc mining in the Mark Twain National Forest adjacent to the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (National Park Service). Digital geologic coverages will be used by other federal and state agencies in hydrogeologic analyses of the Ozark karst system and in ecological models.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey heavy metals program progress report 1968 - Field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1969-01-01

    The Heavy Metals program of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines began in mid-1966 and thus at the end of calendar year 1968 was halfway through its third year. This progress report summarizes field studies carried out under the Geological Survey's part of the program during 1968. Topical studies for 1968 are summarized in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 622. Background of the program and results during 1966 and 1967 were reported in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 560 and will not be further discussed herein.

  10. Seismic-wave generation and propagation from coal-mine blasts at the Wright Mine, Warrick County, Indiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braile, L.W.; Sexton, J.L.; Martindale, K.W.; Chiang, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The objectives of study of seismic wave generation and propagation surrounding the Wright Mine blasts were: document the level of ground vibration surrounding the Wright Mine including frequency content, duration, peak acceleration, velocity and displacement; relate ground-motion measurements to shot size, local geologic conditions (particularly individual site responses), and possible variations in ground-vibration measurements for different directions from the blasts; relate the levels of ground-vibration observations to standards of perception and damage based on United States Bureau of Mines studies. It should be noted that no observations of possible damage nor perception were made and no seismograph recordings or other observations were made within structures surrounding the Wright Mine. The authors objective was strictly to document the ground vibration characteristics caused by Wright Mine blasts.

  11. Analysis of Mining Terrain Deformation Characteristics with Deformation Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Milczarek, Wojciech; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Mapping and prediction of mining related deformations of the earth surface is an important measure for minimising threat to surface infrastructure, human population, the environment and safety of the mining operation itself arising from underground extraction of useful minerals. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and increasing with the development of geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, global positioning systems, remote sensing, spatial interpolation, finite element method modelling, GIS based modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of an integrated Deformation Information System (DIS) developed in geographic information systems environment for analysis and modelling of various spatial data related to mining activity and demonstrate its applications for mapping and visualising, as well as identifying possible mining terrain deformation areas with various spatial modelling methods. The DIS concept is based on connected modules that include: the spatial database - the core of the system, the spatial data collection module formed by: terrestrial, satellite and remote sensing measurements of the ground changes, the spatial data mining module for data discovery and extraction, the geological modelling module, the spatial data modeling module with data processing algorithms for spatio-temporal analysis and mapping of mining deformations and their characteristics (e.g. deformation parameters: tilt, curvature and horizontal strain), the multivariate spatial data classification module and the visualization module allowing two-dimensional interactive and static mapping and three-dimensional visualizations of mining ground characteristics. The Systems's functionality has been presented on

  12. 78 FR 16863 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... FR 57111) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval and soliciting comments. The....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  13. Implementation of geographic-information-system technology for use in coal geology investigations at the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Axon, A.G.; Crowell, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    Geographic information system technology is being used by the Ohio Division of Geological Survey to link project-specific databases to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and equipment. Descriptive geologic data from measured sections, drill holes, and geochemical analyses are being computerized in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey National Coal Resource Data System. Line and area data, including coal croplines, surface mines, and underground mines, are being digitized into computer-aided mapping systems and transferred to the geographic information system. Computer-generated maps of coal thickness, elevation, and quality also are being integrated into the geographic information system. The Ohio Division of Geological Survey maintains a series of 1:24,000-scale mylar maps showing the outlines of abandoned underground mines. During 1995, these maps were digitized by Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Real Estate and Land Management into a geographic information system. The construction of a database containing geologic and mine information which will be linked to these digitized out- lines is a priority of the Ohio Survey. The Ohio Division of Geological Survey`s Coal Availability cooperative program with the U.S. Geological Survey illustrates the utility of geographic information systems for performing complex analyses of the natural resources in specific areas. Regional databases (nine-quadrangle areas) were created to estimate the coal resources for eight 7.5-minute quadrangles. These databases will be the basis for additional regional coal resource estimations. Stratigraphic data computerized for Coal Availability investigations are also being used for the statewide bedrock geologic mapping program (STATEMAP).

  14. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  15. Environmental consequences of the Retsof Salt Mine roof collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the largest salt mine in North America, which had been in operation for more than 100 years, catastrophically flooded when the mine ceiling collapsed. In addition to causing the loss of the mine and the mineral resources it provided, this event formed sinkholes, caused widespread subsidence to land, caused structures to crack and subside, and changed stream flow and erosion patterns. Subsequent flooding of the mine drained overlying aquifers, changed the groundwater salinity distribution (rendering domestic wells unusable), and allowed locally present natural gas to enter dwellings through water wells. Investigations including exploratory drilling, hydrologic and water-quality monitoring, geologic and geophysical studies, and numerical simulation of groundwater flow, salinity, and subsidence have been effective tools in understanding the environmental consequences of the mine collapse and informing decisions about management of those consequences for the future. Salt mines are generally dry, but are susceptible to leaks and can become flooded if groundwater from overlying aquifers or surface water finds a way downward into the mined cavity through hundreds of feet of rock. With its potential to flood the entire mine cavity, groundwater is a constant source of concern for mine operators. The problem is compounded by the viscous nature of salt and the fact that salt mines commonly lie beneath water-bearing aquifers. Salt (for example halite or potash) deforms and “creeps” into the mined openings over time spans that range from years to centuries. This movement of salt can destabilize the overlying rock layers and lead to their eventual sagging and collapse, creating permeable pathways for leakage of water and depressions or openings at land surface, such as sinkholes. Salt is also highly soluble in water; therefore, whenever water begins to flow into a salt mine, the channels through which it flows increase in diameter as the surrounding salt dissolves

  16. Geologic datasets for weights of evidence analysis in Northeast Washington: 4. mineral industry activity in Washington, 1985-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boleneus, D.E.; Derkey, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This report includes a table of 339 sites representing mineral activities for mining and mineral exploration in the State of Washington from 1985 through 1997. The table was primarily compiled from annual reports in Washington Geologic Newsletter and Washington Geology. The information was compiled for use in a weights-of-evidence analysis of mineral resources in northeastern Washington.

  17. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  18. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  19. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  20. Coal Mining, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.

    The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  1. Integrating Free Computer Software in Chemistry and Biochemistry Instruction: An International Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, David L.; Jones, Marjorie A.; Friesen, Jon A.; Wirtz, Mark W.; Rios, Luz Amalia; Ocampo, Gonzalo Taborda

    2010-01-01

    At the Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, we used their new computer facilities to introduce chemistry graduate students to biochemical database mining and quantum chemistry calculations using freeware. These hands-on workshops allowed the students a strong introduction to easily accessible software and how to use this software to begin…

  2. Mine waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation.

  3. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  4. Data Mining for CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  5. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  6. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  7. Global sedimentary geology program

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

  8. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.

    2005-12-01

    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  9. Geostatistics: a common link between medical geography, mathematical geology, and medical geology

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, P.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Since its development in the mining industry, geostatistics has emerged as the primary tool for spatial data analysis in various fields, ranging from earth and atmospheric sciences to agriculture, soil science, remote sensing, and more recently environmental exposure assessment. In the last few years, these tools have been tailored to the field of medical geography or spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the study of spatial patterns of disease incidence and mortality and the identification of potential ‘causes’ of disease, such as environmental exposure, diet and unhealthy behaviours, economic or socio-demographic factors. On the other hand, medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health. This paper provides an introduction to the field of medical geology with an overview of geostatistical methods available for the analysis of geological and health data. Key concepts are illustrated using the mapping of groundwater arsenic concentration across eleven Michigan counties and the exploration of its relationship to the incidence of prostate cancer at the township level. PMID:25722963

  10. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  11. Proceedings of the eleventh thematic conference - geologic remote sensing: Practical solutions for real world problems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Eleventh Thematic Conference Geologic Remote Sensing (Volume 1). The conference was held February 27-29, 1996 in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Presentations included in this volume address the following topics: Geologic Remote Sensing as applied toward mineral exploration, regional geology, petroleum exploration, and the environmental effects of mining. Future commercial satellite technologies, image processing and spectral analysis are also discussed.

  12. Geologic and tectonic characteristics of rockbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Charlamov, V.A.; Kondratyev, S.V.; Rybnov, Y.S.; Shemyakin, V.M.; Sisov, I.A.; Syrnikov, N.M.; Turuntaev, S.B.; Vasilyeva, T.V.

    1995-06-01

    The modern mining enterprises have attained such scales of engineering activity that their direct influence to a rock massif and in series of cases to the region seismic regime doesn`t provoke any doubts. Excavation and removal of large volumes of rock mass, industrial explosions and other technological factors during long time can lead to the accumulation of man-made changes in rock massifs capable to cause catastrophic consequences. The stress state changes in considerable domains of massif create dangerous concentration of stresses at large geological heterogeneities - faults localized in the mining works zone. External influence can lead in that case to such phenomena as tectonic rockbursts and man-made earthquakes. The rockbursts problem in world mining practice exists for more than two hundred years. So that its actuality not only doesn`t decrease but steadily mounts up as due to the mining works depth increase, enlargement of the useful minerals excavations volumes as due to the possibility of safe use of the rock massif potential energy for facilitating the mastering of the bowels of the Earth and for making that more cheap. The purpose of present work is to study the engineering activity influence to processes occurring in the upper part of Earth crust and in particular in a rock massif. The rock massif is treated in those studies as a geophysical medium - such approach takes into account the presence of block structure of medium and the continuous exchange of energy between parts of that structure. The idea ``geophysical medium`` is applied in geophysics sufficiently wide and stresses the difference of actual Earth crust and rock massifs from the continuous media models discussed in mechanics.

  13. Influence of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) on recent phyto- and zooplankton in "the Anthropogenic Lake District" in south-west Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira; Gasiorowski, Michal

    2015-04-01

    In south-west Poland (central Europe) many the post-mining lakes formed so-called "the Anthropogenic Lake District". Areas, where water comes in contact with lignite beds characterized by high concentration of sulfide minerals are called Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Pyrite oxidation and other sulfide compounds caused release sulfuric acids and heavy metal ions. These processes caused decline of water pH, sometimes to extremely low pH < 2.8. Presently, pit lakes located in south-west Poland have water pH ranged between 2.7 and 8.9. Differences of water reaction in the mine lakes depend on many factors, such as bedrock buffer capacity, geological structure of carboniferous area, exploitation technique of lignite, methods of filling and water supply of reservoirs and their age. During the evolution of lakes' ecosystems, sulfate-iron-calcium type of waters occurring in acid lakes will transform in alkaline hydrogen-carbonate-calcium type of waters. Due to the different time of the completion of lignite exploitation, lakes' age varied between forty and over one hundred years. Studies showed that younger lakes are more acidic in compare to older. To estimate impact of AMD we analyzed recent diversity of diatoms and Cladocera remains and water chemistry from extremely acidic, relatively young lakes and from alkaline, older water bodies. As we expected, flora and fauna from acidic lakes have shown very low diversity and species richness. Among diatoms, Eunotia exigua (Bréb. ex Kütz.) Rabenhorst and/or E. paludosa Grunow were dominated taxa, while fauna Cladocera did not occurred in lakes with water pH < 3. On this area, exploitation of lignite continued up to 1973. Older lakes were formed in the region where the mine started work in 1880 and lignite mining stopped in 1926. Measurements of pH value in situ point to neutral or alkaline water, but because of the possibility of hysteresis phenomenon, the studies of phyto- and zooplankton have shown if there has already been a

  14. Gazetteer of coal-mine lakes in southwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobo, Linda L.

    1979-01-01

    This gazetteer is a catalog of lakes formed by surface coal mining in southwestern Indiana that are 0.5 acre or larger and in nonactive mine areas. Approximately 1,000 of the lakes are listed by 7.5-minute quadrangle topographic-map name, lake-identification number, latitude and longitude, and county. Other data given are shape of lake, maximum length, mean width, length and development of shoreline, surface area, orientation, presence of a stream inlet or outlet, and geologic data (geologic formation of area surrounding the lake and the mined coal-bed member). Field data (sampling date, pH, specific conductance, apparent color of lake, and general vegetation along the shoreline) were collected for 287 of the lakes. The apparent colors of the lakes observed were varying shades of aqua, blue, brown, lime green, red, and green. Eighty percent of the lakes sampled were green. (Woodard - USGS)

  15. OSCAR4: a flexible architecture for chemical text-mining

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Open-Source Chemistry Analysis Routines (OSCAR) software, a toolkit for the recognition of named entities and data in chemistry publications, has been developed since 2002. Recent work has resulted in the separation of the core OSCAR functionality and its release as the OSCAR4 library. This library features a modular API (based on reduction of surface coupling) that permits client programmers to easily incorporate it into external applications. OSCAR4 offers a domain-independent architecture upon which chemistry specific text-mining tools can be built, and its development and usage are discussed. PMID:21999457

  16. Data Mining Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Paolo

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the role of statistical models and, more generally, of statistics, in choosing a Data Mining model. After a preliminary introduction on the distinction between Data Mining and statistics, we will focus on the issue of how to choose a Data Mining methodology. This well illustrates how statistical thinking can bring real added value to a Data Mining analysis, as otherwise it becomes rather difficult to make a reasoned choice. In the third part of the paper we will present, by means of a case study in credit risk management, how Data Mining and statistics can profitably interact.

  17. Mined area detection overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  18. Data supplement to: Quality of coal mine drainage to Washington, 1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuste, Louis A.; Packard, F.A.; Fretwell, M.O.; Garland, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    From December 1975 to September 1977 the U.S. Geological Survey studied coal mine drainage in western Washington to 1) characterize the water quality of drainage from abandoned mines in the 11 coal-bearing areas of the State; 2) examine the water quality effects on a stream receiving drainage from an abandoned coal mine; 3) determine the baseline water-quality conditions at two prospective underground coal mine areas; and 4) recommend procedures for monitoring stream quality in the baseline areas in the event that mining occurs. This report presents physical, chemical, and biological data collected during the study period from Gallop Creek (Whatcom County), Loretta Creek (Skagit County), and Wilkeson Creek (Pierce County) and from 100 abandoned coal mines in western Washington, and from a borehole hydraulic-mining test site. Biological information included taxonomic identifications and counts of benthic invertebrates and periphytic algae. (USGS)

  19. Data mining in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  20. Data mining in radiology.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  1. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  2. Kimberlite emplacement models — The implications for mining projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav

    2008-06-01

    The significance of the emplacement model for kimberlite pipes, or sheets, is commonly recognized in resource geology. However, its importance is not always appreciated in the mine design process. The fact is that knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures, rock mass competency and distribution of inclusions could directly influence the selection of the underground mining method, pit wall stability, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. The problems are exacerbated in smaller pipes and narrower sheets, and in more irregular shapes; they are more apparent in underground mining as opposed to open cast. Various kimberlite emplacement processes have a major impact on the nature of the kimberlite orebody and host rocks that will influence the mine design and mining strategy. Failure to understand these processes can adversely affect the economic outcome for developing a mine. It is therefore important to investigate those processes in order to better characterize the mining constraints and risks, and more accurately predict the mine's economic viability.

  3. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  4. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  5. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

  6. Digital solar system geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

    1991-01-01

    All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

  7. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  8. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

  9. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  10. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  11. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  12. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

  13. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  14. Appendix E: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

  15. IDAHO FLUVIAL GEOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restricted availability. Major Attributes: Polygons described by geologic type codes & descriptions. May be incorporated into maps at the state/county/basin scale. Probably too coarse for use at the site scale. Scale: 1:500:000. Extent: Idaho. Projection: Albers. Source: ...

  16. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  17. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  18. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  19. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  20. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies.

  1. Geological evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 70mm and 9 x 9 film negatives are being used by conventional and color enhancement methods as a tool for geologic investigation. Geologic mapping and mineral exploration by conventional methods is very difficult in Georgia. Thick soil cover and heavy vegetation cause outcrops of bed rock to be small, rare and obscure. ERTS imagery, and remote sensing in general have helped delineate: (1) major tectonic boundaries; (2) lithologic contacts; (3) foliation trends; (4) topographic lineaments; and (5) faults. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery yields the greatest amount of geologic information on the Piedomont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of Georgia where topography is strongly controlled by the bedrock geology. ERTS imagery, and general remote sensing techniques, have provided us with a powerful tool to assist geologic research; have significantly increased the mapping efficiency of our field geologists; have shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; have delineated new structural features; have provided a tool to re-evaluate our tectonic history; have helped to locate potential ground water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; have defined areas of geologic hazards; have shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and by its close interval repetition, have aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of our intricate marshland system.

  2. Maps showing selected geology and phosphate resources of the Stewart Flat quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derkey, Pamela Dunlap; Paul, Ken; Palmer, Pamela; Fakourbayat, Mahasti; Wotruba, Nancy J.; Hovland, R. David

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the thickness, grade, lateral continuity, phosphate resources, and ownership of phosplate-bearing units in the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Phosphoria Formation in the Stewart Flat quadrangle. This report is one of a series of quadrangle reports prepared by the Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology under U.S. Geological Survey cost sharing contract # 14-08-0001-17925 to calculate phosphate resources in southeastern Idaho (fig. 1).

  3. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  4. Teaching School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, D. J., Ed.

    This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some…

  5. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  6. Environmental Chemistry Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackland, Thomas; And Others

    The authors of this curriculum supplement believe in a laboratory approach to chemistry and express the feeling that environmental chemistry provides the students an opportunity to apply theoretical chemistry to important practical problems. There are eighteen activities presented, each accompanied with behavioral objectives, one or more suggested…

  7. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  8. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  9. History of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

  10. Geologic Map of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, Peter D.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Anderson, John J.; Theissen, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map of the central Marysvale volcanic field, southwestern Utah, shows the geology at 1:100,000 scale of the heart of one of the largest Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Western United States. The map shows the area of 38 degrees 15' to 38 degrees 42'30' N., and 112 degrees to 112 degrees 37'30' W. The Marysvale field occurs mostly in the High Plateaus, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau and structurally a transition zone between the complexly deformed Great Basin to the west and the stable, little-deformed main part of the Colorado Plateau to the east. The western part of the field is in the Great Basin proper. The volcanic rocks and their source intrusions in the volcanic field range in age from about 31 Ma (Oligocene) to about 0.5 Ma (Pleistocene). These rocks overlie sedimentary rocks exposed in the mapped area that range in age from Ordovician to early Cenozoic. The area has been deformed by thrust faults and folds formed during the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic Sevier deformational event, and later by mostly normal faults and folds of the Miocene to Quaternary basin-range episode. The map revises and updates knowledge gained during a long-term U.S. Geological Survey investigation of the volcanic field, done in part because of its extensive history of mining. The investigation also was done to provide framework geologic knowledge suitable for defining geologic and hydrologic hazards, for locating hydrologic and mineral resources, and for an understanding of geologic processes in the area. A previous geologic map (Cunningham and others, 1983, U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1430-A) covered the same area as this map but was published at 1:50,000 scale and is obsolete due to new data. This new geologic map of the central Marysvale field, here published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-A, is accompanied by gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the same area and the same scale (Campbell and

  11. Design approaches in quarrying and pit-mining reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1999-01-01

    Reclaimed mine sites have been evaluated so that the public, industry, and land planners may recognize there are innovative designs available for consideration and use. People tend to see cropland, range, and road cuts as a necessary part of their everyday life, not as disturbed areas despite their high visibility. Mining also generates a disturbed landscape, unfortunately one that many consider waste until reclaimed by human beings. The development of mining provides an economic base and use of a natural resource to improve the quality of human life. Equally important is a sensitivity to the geologic origin and natural pattern of the land. Wisely shaping out environment requires a design plan and product that responds to a site's physiography, ecology, function, artistic form, and publication perception. An examination of selected sites for their landscape design suggested nine approaches for mining reclamation. The oldest design approach around is nature itself. Humans may sometimes do more damage going to an area in the attempt to repair it. Given enough geologic time, a small-site area, and stable adjacent ecosystems, disturbed areas recover without mankind's input. Visual screens and buffer zones conceal the facility in a camouflage approach. Typically, earth berms, fences, and plantings are used to disguise the mining facility. Restoration targets social or economic benefits by reusing the site for public amenities, most often in urban centers with large populations. A mitigation approach attempts to protect the environment and return mined areas to use with scientific input. The reuse of cement, building rubble, macadam meets only about 10% of the demand from aggregate. Recognizing the limited supply of mineral resources and encouraging recycling efforts are steps are steps in a renewable resource approach. An educative design approach effectively communicates mining information through outreach, land stewardship, and community service. Mine sites used for

  12. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  13. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  14. School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

  15. A Course in Chemistry of Silicates for Beginning Undergraduate Students: An Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstone, John

    1973-01-01

    The course was designed: (1) to broaden the base for chemistry majors to build their courses; (2) to illustrate how some chemistry principles are applied to real situations; and (3) to serve as an introduction to geochemistry for geology majors. (DF)

  16. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... indispensable patient care tool. Learn more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ddPCR Quantification of Lymphoma Mutations Researchers have developed ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  17. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  18. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at the 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2009.

  19. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  20. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  1. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.

  2. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  4. Application of EREP imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in coal mining and mining-environmental problems in Indiana. [Indiana and Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Powell, R. L.; Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation evaluated the applicability of a variety of sensor types, formats, and resolution capabilities to the study of both fuel and nonfuel mined lands. The image reinforcement provided by stereo viewing of the EREP images proved useful for identifying lineaments and for mined lands mapping. Skylab S190B color and color infrared transparencies were the most useful EREP imagery. New information on lineament and fracture patterns in the bedrock of Indiana and Illinois extracted from analysis of the Skylab imagery has contributed to furthering the geological understanding of this portion of the Illinois basin.

  5. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  6. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  7. Collaborative Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  8. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC... advance. Please register by contacting Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283,...

  9. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  10. Interactive geologic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, J.D.; Krajewski, S.A.

    1984-04-01

    Improved success in finding hydrocarbons and minerals depends on developing geologic models from seismic, gravity, and magnetic data that most closely approximate real-world settings. Although data processing remains the chore of mainframe and minicomputers, interpretations and modeling of geologic and geophysical information now are best accomplished on personal computers because these computers afford the explorationist maximum freedom to shape and fine tune geophysical evaluations. Three case histories use the GEOSIM geophysical modeling systems to delineate exploration targets. The first example is Silurian Niagaran reef trends in the Michigan basin. Here, differences in seismic reef anomalies result from variations in carbonate-evaporite stratigraphy encasing the reefs, reef geometry, and reef reservoir parameters. These variations which influence real seismic-response differences can be successfully matched using appropriate geologic models in generating synthetic seismic reef anomalies. The second example applies gravity and magnetic data to seismic modeling of a Wyoming coal field. Detailed seismic stratigraphy helps locate those portions of the field having multiple seams, although it does not resolve individual economic zones. Gravity data do identify pinchout margins of multiseam zones and pinchouts between principal coals. Magnetic data are then used to delineate the burn (clinker) margin. Seismic modeling of subtle stratigraphic traps is the broader area of exploration interest contained in the first 2 examples. In the third, successfully modeled and tested examples of lateral changes in deltaic facies and of faulted, unconformity-bounded continent-margin sequences are shown to be successful guides to reinterpretation of seismic data.

  11. Integrating geology and perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, P.F. de; Souza Padilha, S.T.C. de

    1997-02-01

    Perforating is a very common well completion operation. Usually, it is considered to be as simple as making holes in casing. Actually, perforating is one of the most critical tasks for establishing a path from reservoir rock to borehole form which hydrocarbons can flow to surface. The objective of this article is to relate perforating technology with geological aspects and completion type to determine the best shooting equipment (gun type, charge and differential pressure) to perform the most efficient perforating job. Several subjects related to formation geology are taken into account for a shooting job, such as: compressive strength, reservoir pressure and thickness, lithology type, porosity and permeability, ratio between horizontal and vertical permeabilities, and fluid type. Gun geometry used in the oil industry incorporates several parameters, including shot density, hole entrance diameter, gun phase and jet penetration. API tests are done on perforating guns to define applicability and performance. A new geometrical parameter is defined as the relative angle of the jet, which is the angle between the jet tunnel and formation dip. GEOCAN is a methodology which relates geology to gun geometry and type to define the most efficient gun system for perforated completions. It uses the intelligent perforating technique with the SPAN (Schlumberger Perforating Analysis) program to confirm optimum gun choice.

  12. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  13. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  14. Geology and uranium deposits of the Caribou area, Boulder County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, F.B.; Cavender, W.S.; Kaiser, E.P.

    1954-01-01

    The writers wish to acknowledge the cooperation of the staff of the Consolidated Caribou Silver Mines incorporated, who made the Caribou mine available for examination at all times and who furnished maps and suggestions that were of great assistance. Mr. A.E. Blakesley, owner of the Comstock mine, was also most cooperative in making possible the examination of his mine. Thanks are due Dr., E.E. Wahlstrom of the University of Colorado and to the Boulder Daily Camera for the use of their files containing information on the Caribou mine. To S. Lovering of the U.S. Geological Survey made many valuable suggestions on the identification of alteration products in thin section.

  15. Mining agreements III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

  16. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  17. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  18. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  19. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  20. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. Geology summary of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    During FY 1994, three multiport wells were installed in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. The wells were instrumented with Westbay multiport systems. The purpose of the wells is (1) to characterize different flow systems and (2) to monitor for contaminants. The geology of the individual boreholes (WAG 5-12, WAG 5-13, WAG 5-14) is documented in Bechtel National, Inc., (BNI) et al. (1994). The Bechtel report does not explicitly show geologic relationships between these boreholes or integrate this information into the geology of WAG 5. The purpose of this report is to document and present a summary of the distribution of geologic formations in WAG 5. This information is presented in several ways: (1) stratigraphic correlation diagrams based on the natural gamma ray log, (2) geologic cross sections, and (3) a geologic map. This work provides a reference frame for interpreting flow, water, and contaminant chemistry data from multiport wells.

  2. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

  3. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  4. Description of the physical environment and coal-mining history of West-Central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds (Chapter A)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.D.; Crawford, C.G.; Duwelius, R.F.; Renn, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The report describes the physical and human environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds selected for study of the hydrologic effects of surface coal mining. The report summarizes information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal-mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana. Site-specific information is given on the morphology, geology, soils, land use, coal-mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds, which are each less than 3 square miles in area.

  5. Flow and geochemical modeling of drainage from Tomitaka mine, Miyazaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Tomiyama, Shingo; Metugi, Hideya; Ii, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The chemistry and flow of water in the abandoned Tomitaka mine of Miyazaki, western Japan were investigated. This mine is located in a non-ferrous metal deposit and acid mine drainage issues from it. The study was undertaken to estimate the quantities of mine drainage that needs to be treated in order to avoid acidification of local rivers, taking into account seasonal variations in rainfall. Numerical models aimed to reproduce observed water levels and fluxes and chemical variations of groundwater and mine drainage. Rock-water interactions that may explain the observed variations in water chemistry are proposed. The results show that: (1) rain water infiltrates into the deeper bedrock through a highly permeable zone formed largely by stopes that are partially filled with spoil from excavations (ore minerals and host rocks); (2) the water becomes acidic (pH from 3 to 4) as dissolved oxygen oxidizes pyrite; (3) along the flow path through the rocks, the redox potential of the water becomes reducing, such that pyrite becomes stable and pH of the mine drainage becomes neutral; and (4) upon leaving the mine, the drainage becomes acidic again due to oxidation of pyrite in the rocks. The present numerical model with considering of the geochemical characteristics can simulate the main variations in groundwater flow and water levels in and around the Tomitaka mine, and apply to the future treatment of the mine drainage. PMID:26456615

  6. Spatial Variations In The Fate And Transport Of Metals In A Mining-Influenced Stream, North Fork Clear Creek, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) receives acid-mine drainage (AMD) from multiple abandoned mines in the Clear Creek Watershed. Point sources of AMD originate In the Black Hawk/Central City region of the stream. Water chemistry also is influenced by several non-point sources of AMD,...

  7. Mining-induced seismicity at the Lucky Friday Mine: Seismic events of magnitude >2.5, 1989--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, J.K.; Williams, T.J.; Blake, W.; Sprenke, K.; Wideman, C.

    1996-09-01

    An understanding of the types of seismic events that occur in a deep mine provides a foundation for assessing the seismic characteristics of these events and the degree to which initiation of these events can be anticipated or controlled. This study is a first step toward developing such an understanding of seismic events generated by mining in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of northern Idaho. It is based on information developed in the course of a long-standing rock burst research effort undertaken by the U. S. Bureau of Mines in cooperation with Coeur d`Alene Mining District mines and regional universities. This information was collected for 39 seismic events with local magnitudes greater than 2.5 that occurred between 1989 and 1994. One of these events occurred, on average, every 8 weeks during the study period. Five major types of characteristic events were developed from the data; these five types describe all but two of the 39 events that were studied. The most common types of events occurred, on average, once every 30 weeks. The characteristic mechanisms, first-motion patterns, damage patterns, and relationships to mining and major geologic structures were defined for each type of event. These five types of events need to be studied further to assess their ability to camouflage clandestine nuclear tests as well as the degree to which they can be anticipated and controlled.

  8. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  9. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  10. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  11. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  12. Reconnaissance examination for uranium at six mines and properties in Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vhay, John Stewart

    1951-01-01

    Six mining properties in Idaho and Montana at which radioactivity had been reported or suspected were briefly examine by J.S. Vhay and W.A. Roberts of the U.S. Geological Survey in October and November 1949. The properties in Idaho are the Grunter mine, from which radio-active mill concentrates have been reported; the Kentuck mine; the Ulysses-kittie Burton Mill; and the Garm-Lemoreaux mine. The properties in Montana are the Armeson-McKenny property in Beaverhead County and the Oro property in Lincoln County. Moderate to high radioactivity was noted at the Garm-Lemoreaux mine and the Armeson-McKenney property. That most of this radioactivity is not caused by uranium is suggested by the low uranium content of the majority of the samples. One sample from a dump of the Garm-Lemoreaux mine assayed 0.11 percent uranium.

  13. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Gräser, J; Aspek, W; Gschnaller, J

    2014-11-01

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a(-1) only in the copper mine. PMID:25013031

  14. A geochemical study of oil in metalliferous veins, Idarado Mine, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrild, Peter M.

    1976-01-01

    A tarry, benzene-soluble material is present in metal-rich veins in the Idarado mine, Ouray County, Colo., in an area not known to have petroleum resources. The material was compared chemically, spectometrically, and chromatographically with oils from four fields in the nearby Paradox basin. Each of these oil fields contains reservoir rocks equivalent to rock units known to extend beneath volcanic rocks near the mine. Carbon and sulfur isotope data and gas chromatographic data indicate a similarity between the oil from the nearby Sierra field and the oil from the mine. Thus, it seems both geologically and chemically possible that oil in the mine originated in Cretaceous sediments. Variations in the composition of oil from the mine and differences between the mine oil and Sierra oil, notably in the distributions of hydrocarbons, are attributed to bacterial degradation.

  15. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project’s general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry in order to present chemistry as a relevant topic both to the students personally as well as to the society in which they live. The learning materials that were developed during this period were in alignment with the changes and reforms that were conducted in the Israeli educational system. These developments were accompanied with intensive and comprehensive professional development courses and workshops. In addition, several research and evaluation projects were conducted with the goal to assess students’ achievements and to probe into the students’ perceptions regarding the classroom learning environment and the teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the various instructional and learning materials techniques that were implemented in the programme throughout these years. This paper is structured attempting to describe the curricular cycle in alignment with Goodlad’s and Van den Akker’s curriculum representations.

  16. Mining Glossary and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  17. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  18. National assessment of environmental and economic benefits from methane control and utilization technologies at US underground coal mines. Final report, April 1994-April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Masemore, S.; Piccot, S.; Lanning, J.

    1997-12-01

    The report gives results of EPA research into the emission processes and control strategies associated with underground coal mines in the U.S. Goals of the EPA program have been to assess the economic performance and emissions reductions of methane control strategies for underground coal mines, and to develop modeling tools and data bases that miners can use to conduct their own site-specific methane control analyses. To this end, nine standard or model mines were designed to closely simulate existing mines in the major coal producing regions. Cost performance and methane reductions were then calculated for a number of methane recovery and utilization combinations at these model mines. Algorithms were developed using site-specific mine designs, geologic parameters, and costs, with the assistance of mine operators, mining consultants, degasification system consultants, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  19. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  20. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...