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Sample records for mink neovison vison

  1. An American mink (Neovison vison) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2014-04-01

    HiSeq2000 Illumina pair-end sequenced transcript data originating from a pool of four different tissues of a wild-type American mink yielded approximately 90 Gb of raw data. Subsequently, unique contigs were assembled by a combined approach using velvet and phrap. Of these assembled contigs, about 136 000 match the dog genome and nearly 30 000 contigs match the human transcriptome at more than 17 000 unique gene locations. Gene annotation for these contigs was performed employing custom-made scripts run in combination with comparative sequence similarity search and alignment in the dog and human genome using blast algorithms. Transcripts representing five genes known to be associated with pigmentation were reliably aligned against large mink genomic contigs derived from BAC clones. Sequence comparison between transcript and genomic data revealed seven SNPs. In this study, we generated and annotated mink transcript sequences representing more than 16 000 known genes. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome for the American mink genome, which will facilitate further development in mink expression profiling studies and provide a good annotation basis in the perspectives of a whole genome sequencing project. The project was deposited at EMBL database with the accession number PRJEB1260. PMID:24444022

  2. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario. PMID:24807350

  3. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Mayntz, David

    2014-10-14

    Balancing of macronutrient intake has only recently been demonstrated in predators. In particular, the ability to regulate carbohydrate intake is little studied in obligate carnivores, as carbohydrate is present at very low concentrations in prey animal tissue. In the present study, we determined whether American mink (Neovison vison) would compensate for dietary nutritional imbalances by foraging for complementary macronutrients (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) when subsequently given a dietary choice. We used three food pairings, within which two macronutrients differed relative to each other (high v. low concentration), while the third was kept at a constant level. The mink were first restricted to a single nutritionally imbalanced food for 7 d and then given a free choice to feed from the same food or a nutritionally complementary food for three consecutive days. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced foods, the mink were willing to overingest protein only to a certain level ('ceiling'). When subsequently given a choice, the mink compensated for the period of nutritional imbalance by selecting the nutritionally complementary food in the food choice pairing. Notably, this rebalancing occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results of the present study show that mink regulate their intake of all the three macronutrients within limits imposed by ceilings on protein and carbohydrate intake and that they will compensate for a period of nutritional imbalance by subsequently selecting nutritionally complementary foods. PMID:25141190

  4. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.01) affected by feed producer, veterinarian, disease (specific laboratory diagnosis) infection, herd size and year, with an interaction between feed producer and year. A log-normal model showed that in months with antimicrobial use, the TP on herd level was significantly (p<0.001) affected by year, month (season), feed producer, feed quality score, veterinarian, herd size and laboratory confirmed diagnosis of

  5. Rate of exposure of a sentinel species, invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Melero, Yolanda; Giela, Anna; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Sharp, Elizabeth; Boada, Luis D; Taylor, Michael J; Camacho, María; Lambin, Xavier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Hartley, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK. Exposure to eight ARs was determined in 99 mink trapped in NE Scotland, most of which were of known age. A high percentage (79%) of the animals had detectable residues of at least one AR, and more than 50% of the positive animals had two or more ARs. The most frequently detected compound was bromadiolone (75% of all animals tested), followed by difenacoum (53% of all mink), coumatetralyl (22%) and brodifacoum (9%). The probability of mink exposure to ARs increased by 4.5% per month of life, and was 1.7 times higher for mink caught in areas with a high, as opposed to a low, density of farms. The number of AR compounds acquired also increased with age and with farm density. No evidence was found for sexual differences in the concentration and number of ARs. The wide niche and dietary overlap of mink with several native carnivore species, and the fact that American mink are culled for conservation throughout Europe, suggest that this species may act as a sentinel species, and the application of these data to other native carnivores is discussed. PMID:27387798

  6. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite. PMID:27160332

  7. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver inflammation in the American mink Neovison vison with benign hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Pal, Catherine; Martin, Timothy; Harris, Lora; Astatkie, Tessema; Kryzskaya, Darya; Kärjä, Vesa; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Tammi, Raija; Tammi, Markku; Nieminen, Petteri

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the presence of inflammatory signs in the progression of fatty liver disease induced by fasting. Sixty standard black American mink (Neovison vison) were fasted for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 days and one group for 7 days followed by re-feeding for 28 days. Liver sections were evaluated histologically and liver mRNA levels indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, adipogenic transformation, and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. After 3 days of fasting, the mink had developed moderate liver steatosis. Increased hyaluronan reactivity in lymphocytic foci but no Mallory-Denk bodies were seen in livers of the mink fasted for 5-7 days. Up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa was observed on day 7 indicating ER stress, especially in the females. Liver lipoprotein lipase and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA levels increased in response to 5-7 days of food deprivation, while tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was the highest in the mink fasted for 5 days. The expression of the genes of interest, except for TNF-α, correlated with each other and with the liver fat content. The mRNA levels were found to change more rapidly below n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio threshold of 0.15. Following re-feeding, hepatocyte morphology and mRNA abundance returned to pre-fasting levels. Within the studied timeframe, evidence for ER stress, adipogenic transformation, and liver inflammation suggested incipient transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis with potential for development of more severe liver disease. This may present a possibility to influence disease progression before histologically observable steatohepatitis. PMID:25079677

  8. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. PMID:26313468

  9. Partitioning and kinetics of methylmercury among organs in captive mink (Neovison vison): A stable isotope tracer study.

    PubMed

    Evans, R Douglas; Hickie, Brendan; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Despite the importance of methylmercury (MeHg) as a neurotoxin, we have relatively few good data on partitioning and kinetics of MeHg among organs, particularly across the blood-brain barrier, for mammals that consume large quantities of fish. The objective of this study was to determine the partition coefficients between blood and brain, liver and kidney and fur for MeHg under steady-state conditions and to measure the half-lives for MeHg in these organs. Captive mink (Neovison vison) were fed a diet enriched with two stable isotopes of Hg, Me(199)Hg and Me(201)Hg for a period of 60 days. After a period of 10 days the diet was changed to contain only Me(201)Hg so that, between days 10 and 60, we were able to measure both uptake and elimination rates from blood, brain, liver kidney and fur. Liver and kidney response was very rapid, closely following changes in blood concentrations but there was a small lag time between peak blood concentrations and peak brain concentrations. Half-lives for MeHg were 15.4, 10.2 and 13.4 days for brain, liver and kidney, respectively. There was no measurable conversion of the MeHg to inorganic Hg (IHg) in the brain over the 60 day period, unlike in liver and kidney. PMID:26855415

  10. Foot Lesions in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison): Pathologic and Epidemiologic Characteristics on 4 Danish Farms.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, A; Hammer, A S; Jensen, H E; Bonde-Jensen, N; Lassus, M M; Agger, J F; Larsen, P F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gross and histologic lesions and epidemiologic factors of foot lesions in farmed mink. The feet of 1159 mink from 4 Danish farms were examined and lesions described. Swabs from the lesions were taken from 27 mink for microbiology, and tissue samples from a representative spectrum of feet with and without lesions (n= 22) were examined histologically. Feet were grouped according to gross inspection: no lesions (55.1%), hair loss (7.1%), hyperkeratosis (35.8%), and crusting (5.3%). Lesions were predominantly located in plantar metatarsal skin (98.1%). Staphylococci were the most prevalent microorganisms cultured from the lesions. There was a significant association between presence of lesions and sex (P< .0001), age (P< .0001), and color type (P= .023). Lesion size was significantly different between hair loss and crusts and between hyperkeratosis and crusts (P< .0001). Histologically, lesions included varying degrees of orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and granulomatous to pyogranulomatous dermatitis with trichogranulomas as a dominant feature in all mink. The gross and microscopic lesions were comparable to physically induced changes in other species that develop as a response to repetitive friction or pressure. The condition may have an impact on animal welfare in mink production. PMID:26333293

  11. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Results Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Conclusion Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation. PMID:24438337

  12. Genetic variation and population structure of American mink Neovison vison from PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated locales in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T

    2015-11-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (<6 km) to PCB hotspots in the Hudson River nor evidence of altered population structure. Consistent with their distribution in small localized and isolated demes, we did find significant genetic population structure among many mink collections in New York State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, F ST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic

  13. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems. PMID:24033508

  14. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Shao-Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Yang, Ya-Han; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-05-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594 bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora. PMID:25319300

  16. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Pujolar, J M; Larsen, P F; Jensen, J; Randi, E; Zalewski, A; Pertoldi, C

    2015-08-01

    Feral American mink populations (), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling included a total of 211 individuals from 14 populations, 4 feral and 10 from farms, the latter including a total of 7 color types (Brown, Black, Mahogany, Sapphire, White, Pearl, and Silver). Our study revealed similar low levels of genetic diversity in both farm and feral mink. Results are consistent with small effective population size as a consequence of line selection in the farms and founder effects of a few escapees from the farms in feral populations. Moderately high genetic differentiation was found between farm and feral animals, suggesting a scenario in which wild populations were founded from farm escapes a few decades ago. Currently, escapes and gene flow are probably limited. Genetic differentiation was higher among farm color types than among farms, consistent with line selection using few individuals to create the lines. Finally, no indications of inbreeding were found in either farm or feral samples, with significant negative values found in most farm samples, showing farms are successful in avoiding inbreeding. PMID:26440156

  17. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  18. Conception rates in farm mink (Neovison vison) in relation to first mating date, age and color variety.

    PubMed

    Felska-Błaszczyk, Lidia; Lasota, Bogdan; Seremak, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the first mating date, age and color variety on the conception rates in farm mink. We analyzed female mink reproductive performance in 492 Sapphire and 463 Standard Black females over 3 or 4 years. The analysis included the number of inefficient matings, the interval between the first inefficient mating and the efficient mating (copulation) and the conception rates. The results show a significant effect of female's age and color variety on the conception rates. The youngest, yearling females of either color needed a higher number of matings per conception, as compared to older, 2- and 3-year-old females. Black females demonstrated a higher number of inefficient matings (1.066), as compared with Sapphires (0.730). Yearling females were most often mated from 1 to 10 March, and older females from 11 to 20 March. Older females achieved better conception rates than the yearlings. Dates between 11 and 25 March proved to be the optimum for the first mating, since the highest conception rates were observed if the females had mated during this period. PMID:26434936

  19. Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Brunström, Björn; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-02-01

    The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The data were statistically treated using multiple regression and principal component analysis. The ∑PCB concentration and concentrations of PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 180, 170/190, 189, 194, 206, 209 as well as PBDE 153/154 varied with age. Season had an influence on ∑PCB, PBDE 47 and PBDE 153/154 concentrations, as well as concentrations of most PCB congeners, with the exception of PCB 101, 110, 141 and 182/187. Lean mink had higher concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs than mink with larger fat depots. The analyzed pesticides (DDE, oxychlordane, HCB) showed no systematic variation with season, age or body condition. The concentrations of MeO-PBDEs were generally low and 6MeO-PBDE 47 was the most commonly detected MeO-PBDE in mink from marine, brackish and freshwater areas. The results indicate that age, season and body condition are factors that may influence the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs, and it is thus recommended to take these factors into account when analyzing mink exposure data. PMID:23141558

  20. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex.

    PubMed

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2016-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family-based IGE model proposed in a previous study. Our results indicate that male siblings in mink show different non-genetic interactions than female siblings in mink and that this may impact the estimation of genetic parameters. Moreover, we have shown how estimates from a family-based IGE model can be translated to the ordinary direct-indirect model and vice versa. We find no evidence for genetic differences in interactions among related versus unrelated mink. PMID:25900536

  1. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. PMID:23123310

  2. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. PMID:26536278

  3. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  4. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in feral american minks at the Maullin river, Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed, and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a...

  6. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. PMID:26223793

  7. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    PubMed

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  8. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari . E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  9. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure. PMID:22362526

  10. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disorder of farmed raised mink. As with the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the disorder is associated with accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain and an invariably fatal outcome. TME outbreaks have been rare but...

  11. Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of

  12. A species barrier limits transmission of chronic wasting disease to mink (Mustela vison)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) occurs as sporadic outbreaks associated with ingestion of feed presumably contaminated with some type of prion disease. Mink lack a species barrier to primary oral challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, whereas they have a barrier to such challenge ...

  13. The central localization of the vagus nerve in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and the mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Ranson, R N; Butler, P J; Taylor, E W

    1993-05-01

    The location of vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN) has been determined in nine ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and seven mink (M. vison) using neuronal tract-tracing techniques employing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and wheat-germ agglutinin conjugated HRP (WGA-HRP) mixtures injected into the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve. Labelled VPN were located ipsilaterally in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DmnX), nucleus ambiguus (nA), and reticular formation (rf) of the medulla oblongata. In four of the ferrets, labelled VPN were also identified in the nucleus dorsomedialis (ndm) and the nucleus of the spinal accessory nerve (nspa). In a single mink a few labelled cells were observed in the ndm but no labelled VPN were found in the nspa. Labelling of afferent components of the vagus nerve was seen in two ferrets and two mink with the best labelling obtained following an injection of an HRP/WGA-HRP mixture into the nodose ganglion. Labelled afferents were observed to cross the ipsilateral spinal trigeminal tract (SpV) before entering the tractus solitarius (TS) in regions separate from the motor axons which exit the medulla in separate fasicles. Sensory terminal fields were identified bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (nTS) in both species and bilaterally in the area postrema (ap) of the ferret; however, the contralateral labelling was sparse in comparison to the densely labelled ipsilateral nTS/ap. Maximal terminal labelling was seen in regions just rostral and caudal to obex in both species. PMID:7686926

  14. Two components of the pineal organ in the mink (Mustela vison): their structural similarity to submammalian pineal complexes and calcification.

    PubMed

    Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I

    1992-12-01

    The pineal complex in the mink (Mustela vison) consists of a larger ventral and a smaller dorsal pineal. Both organs contain pinealocytes, neurons, glial cells, nerve fibers and synapses in an organization characteristic of nervous tissue. The cellular elements are arranged circularly around strait lumina. These lumina correspond to the photoreceptor spaces of submammalian pineals. A 9 + 0-type cilium marks the receptory pole of the pinealocytes which may form an inner-segment-like dendrite terminal in the pineal lumina. The cilia correspond to outer segments which form photoreceptor membrane multiplications in the pineal of submammalians and in certain insectivorous and mustelid mammals (bat, hedgehog, ferret). Axonal processes of the pinealocytes contain synaptic ribbons and terminate on intrapineal neurons of both organs. This pattern represents a neural efferentation of the pineal nervous tissue. The axonal processes of pinealocytes also form neurohormonal endings which pierce the perivascular limiting glial membrane in the ventral as well as in the dorsal pineal. The upper pineal ("epipineal") of the mink may correspond to the parapineal, frontal, or parietal organs of submammalian pineal complexes. Both pineals are encapsulated by the meningeal tissue of the brain stem. Afferent vasomotor axons of the meninges innervate smooth muscle cells of pineal arterioles. There are corpora arenacea in the pineal arachnoid and in the pineal nervous tissue, primarily in the ventral pineal. The localization of calcium ions detected around the membrane of pineal cells by pyroantimonate cytochemistry suggests membrane activity as the source of the calcium ions. The accumulation of calcium by the pinealocytes may be due to their neurosensory character. The mink is the first animal described to have both intrapineal and meningeal concrements like the human pineal. PMID:1295547

  15. Orienting behaviour during aerial and underwater visual discrimination by the mink (Mustela vison schreber).

    PubMed

    Dunstone, N; Sinclair, W

    1978-02-01

    Orienting responses by mink during aerial and underwater visual discrimination tests were most frequent when the grating lines subtended angles at the eye near the visual threshold angle. Factorial analysis showed that in air and in water at ranges from 10 to 90 cm most responses occurred at 30 cm discrimination distance and more occurred to marginally supra-threshold than to marginally sub-threshold stimuli. Between media, more responses occurred in air than in water. At longer ranges the mink oriented less readily than at 30 cm but if orienting occurred better discrimination followed than if the mink did not orient. PMID:637369

  16. A species barrier limits transmission of chronic wasting disease to mink (Mustela vison)

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Robert D.; Baszler, Timothy V.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.; Schneider, David A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Liggitt, H. Denny; Knowles, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) occurs as sporadic outbreaks associated with ingestion of feed presumably contaminated with some type of prion disease. Mink lack a species barrier to primary oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, whereas they have a barrier to such challenge with scrapie. We investigated whether mink have a species barrier to chronic wasting disease (CWD) by performing primary intracerebral (IC) and primary oral challenge with CWD-positive elk brain. Primary IC challenge resulted in clinical disease in two of eight mink at 31–33 months incubation. Affected mink had spongiform vacuolation and astrocytosis within the central nervous system and immunoreactivity to disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in brain, retina and lymph node. CWD IC recipients had significantly lower brain vacuolation and PrPd deposition scores, significantly lower cerebrocortical astrocyte counts and significantly higher hippocampal astrocyte counts than TME IC recipients. Primary oral challenge with CWD-positive elk brain (n=22) or with CWD-negative elk brain given IC (n=7) or orally (n=23) did not result in clinical or microscopic abnormalities during 42 months observation. Novel prion gene polymorphisms were identified at codon 27 (arginine/tryptophan) and codon 232 (arginine/lysine). This study shows that, whilst CWD can cause disease when given IC to mink, the lesions are not characteristic of TME, transmission is inefficient compared with TME and oral challenge does not result in disease. The demonstration of a species barrier in cervid-to-mustelid prion transmission indicates that mink are unlikely to be involved in natural CWD transmission. PMID:18343853

  17. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  18. Causes of mortality in farmed mink in the Intermountain West, North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Baldwin, Thomas J; Whitehouse, Chelsea H; Hullinger, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The primary causes of mortality were identified in postmortem examination of 339 (90.9%) of 373 farmed mink (Neovison vison; syn. Mustela vison) from January 2009 through June 2014 at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Logan, Utah). Mink were raised under farm conditions in the Intermountain West in North America, except for 1 submission of mink from Wisconsin. In the 339 mink where cause(s) of death were established, 311 (91.7%) died from a single disease or condition, whereas 28 (8.3%) had 2 diseases or conditions contributing to death. Where cause(s) of death were evident, 11 diseases accounted for 321 (94.7%) of the diagnoses: bacterial pneumonia (67, 18.8%), Aleutian mink disease (61, 17.7%), mink viral enteritis (56, 16.2%), hepatic lipidosis (28, 8.1%), nutritional myopathy (24, 7%), bacterial enterocolitis (17, 4.9%), bacterial septicemia (16, 4.6%), starvation (15, 4.3%), epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis of mink (14, 4.1%), pancreatitis (13, 3.8%), and bacterial metritis (10, 2.9%). In 34 (9.1%) animals, a cause of death was not evident. In an additional 16 (4.3%) of the mink, botulism was suspected from clinical history but could not be confirmed by laboratory testing. Control measures for the most common causes of death in farmed mink include testing and removal of positive animals (Aleutian mink disease), vaccination (Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, mink viral enteritis), avoidance of obesity in mink (hepatic lipidosis), and environmental management, including maintaining clean water cups, floors, feed troughs, cages, feed silos, feed truck tires, workers' shoes, dining areas for farm personnel, leather mink handling gloves, street clothes, and coveralls. PMID:26077544

  19. Distribution and molecular phylogeny of biliary trematodes (Opisthorchiidae) infecting native Lutra lutra and alien Neovison vison across Europe.

    PubMed

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Stanton, David W G; Cable, Jo; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Simpson, Vic R; Elmeros, Morten; van Dijk, Jiska; Simonnet, Franck; Roos, Anna; Lemarchand, Charles; Poledník, Lukáš; Heneberg, Petr; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    The recent identification of Pseudamphistomum truncatum, (Rudolphi, 1819) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) and Metorchis bilis (Braun, 1790) Odening, 1962 (synonymous with Metorchis albidus (Braun, 1893) Loos, 1899 and Metorchis crassiusculus (Rudolphi, 1809) Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae)) in otters from Britain caused concern because of associated biliary damage, coupled with speculation over their alien status. Here, we investigate the presence, intensity and phylogeny of these trematodes in mustelids (principally otters) across Europe (Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Sweden and Britain). The trematodes were identified to species using the internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) locus. Both parasites were found across Europe but at unequal frequency. In the German state of Saxony, eight out of eleven (73%) otters examined were infected with P. truncatum whilst this parasite was not found in either mink from Scotland (n=40) or otters from Norway (n=21). Differences in the phylogenies between the two species suggest divergent demographic histories possibly reflecting contrasting host diet or competitive exclusion, with M. bilis exhibiting greater mitochondrial diversity than P. truncatum. Shared haplotypes within the ranges of both parasite species probably reflect relatively unrestricted movements (both natural and anthropogenic) of intermediate and definitive hosts across Europe. PMID:26620805

  20. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover. PMID:25647590

  1. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China. PMID:27001467

  2. Assessing the cryptic invasion of a domestic conspecific: American mink in their native range

    PubMed Central

    Beauclerc, Kaela B; Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-01-01

    Control of invasions is facilitated by their early detection, but this may be difficult when invasions are cryptic due to similarity between invaders and native species. Domesticated conspecifics offer an interesting example of cryptic invasions because they have the ability to hybridize with their native counterparts, and can thus facilitate the introgression of maladaptive genes. We assessed the cryptic invasion of escaped domestic American mink (Neovison vison) within their native range. Feral mink are a known alien invader in many parts of the world, but invasion of their native range is not well understood. We genetically profiled 233 captive domestic mink from different farms in Ontario, Canada and 299 free-ranging mink from Ontario, and used assignments tests to ascertain genetic ancestries of free-ranging animals. We found that 18% of free-ranging mink were either escaped domestic animals or hybrids, and a tree regression showed that these domestic genotypes were most likely to occur south of a latitude of 43.13°N, within the distribution of mink farms in Ontario. Thus, domestic mink appear not to have established populations in Ontario in locations without fur farms. We suspect that maladaptation of domestic mink and outbreeding depression of hybrid and introgressed mink have limited their spread. Mink farm density and proximity to mink farms were not important predictors of domestic genotypes but rather, certain mink farms appeared to be important sources of escaped domestic animals. Our results show that not all mink farms are equal with respect to biosecurity, and thus that the spread of domestic genotypes can be mitigated by improved biosecurity. PMID:23919171

  3. Uptake of selenium and mercury by captive mink: Results of a controlled feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Grochowina, N M; Basu, N; O'Connor, E M; Hickie, B E; Rouvinen-Watt, K; Evans, H E; Chan, H M

    2016-02-01

    Captive, juvenile, ranch-bred, male mink (Neovison vison) were fed diets containing various concentrations of methyl-mercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) for a period of 13 weeks and then sacrificed to determine total Hg levels in fur, blood, brain, liver and kidneys and total Se concentrations in brain tissue. As MeHg concentrations in the diet increased, concentrations of total Hg in the tissues also increased with the highest level occurring in the fur > liver = kidney > brain > blood. Concentrations of Hg in the fur were correlated (r(2) > 0.97) with liver, kidney, blood and brain concentrations. The addition of Se to the mink diet did not appear to affect most tissue concentrations of total Hg nor did it affect the partitioning of Hg between the liver:blood, kidney:blood and brain:blood; however, partitioning of Hg between fur and blood was apparently affected. PMID:26517385

  4. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink. PMID:26787295

  5. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-02-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. PMID:9924010

  6. Invasive American mink: linking pathogen risk between domestic and endangered carnivores.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A; Eguren, Antonieta; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katherine

    2014-09-01

    Infectious diseases, in particular canine distemper virus (CDV), are an important threat to the viability of wild carnivore populations. CDV is thought to be transmitted by direct contact between individuals; therefore, the study of species interactions plays a pivotal role in understanding CDV transmission dynamics. However, CDV often appears to move between populations that are ecologically isolated, possibly through bridge hosts that interact with both species. This study investigated how an introduced species could alter multihost interactions and act as a bridge host in a novel carnivore assemblage of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), invasive American mink (Neovison vison), and threatened river otters (Lontra provocax) in southern Chile. We found that rural dogs interact with mink near farms whereas in riparian habitats, minks and river otters shared the same latrines with both species visiting sites frequently within time intervals well within CDV environmental persistence. No interactions were observed between dogs and otters at either location. Both dog and mink populations were serologically positive for CDV, making the pathogen transfer risk to otters a conservation concern. Altogether, introduced mink in this ecosystem have the potential to act as bridge hosts between domestic dogs and endangered carnivores. PMID:24604545

  7. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    PubMed

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study. PMID:23293094

  8. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on organ mass and pathology.

    PubMed

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The authors evaluated effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult and offspring organ mass and pathology. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). Absolute thyroid and adrenal gland masses were increased in adult females and 31-week-old juveniles, respectively, and absolute liver and heart masses were decreased in six-week-old kits exposed to dietary PCBs. Dietary concentrations of 0.72 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater induced mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation in adult animals. The dietary concentration of ΣPCBs predicted to result in 20% incidence of the jaw lesion (EC20) was 2.3 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (15 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed), and the hepatic concentration was 2.8 µg ΣPCBs/g liver (89 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). The EC20 values were greater than the dietary and hepatic concentrations predicted to result in a 20% increase in kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age (0.34 µg ΣPCBs/g feed or 2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed and 0.80 µg ΣPCBs/g liver or 13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). However, the EC20 values reflect exposure of adults to PCBs for approximately six months, and the LC20 values reflect exposure of offspring from conception onward. PMID:23293106

  9. Mechanisms involved in the spontaneous occurrence of diploid-triploid chimerism in the mink (Mustela vison) and chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Fechheimer, N S; Isakova, G K; Belyaev, D K

    1983-01-01

    Diploid-triploid chimeras have been observed both in man and in a number of laboratory and livestock animals. The mechanism(s) of their origin remains enigmatic. One approach is to calculate for each proposed mechanism the expected frequencies of zygotes bearing different gonosomic complements in the two cell lines. Observed samples are then compared with the expectations. The mechanisms that have been considered include: (1) fertilization of a blastomere, (2) absorption of the second polar body into a blastomere, (3) fertilization of the first polar body, (4) independent fertilization of both nuclei in binucleated oocytes, (5) fertilization of the second polar body as well as the egg, and (6) fusion of two eggs. The sample of minks comprised three preimplantation embryos, nine postimplantation embryos, and three neonatal pups, with gonosomic complements of 7 XX/XXX, 3 XX/XXY, 4XY/XXY, and 1 XY/XYY; the chicks comprised 13 embryos at 1 day of incubation, 1 embryo at 4 days, and one adult bird, with gonosomic complements of 5 ZZ/ZZZ, 1 ZZ/ZZW, 1 ZW/ZZZ, 3 ZW/ZZW, and 5 ZW/ZWW. If it is assumed that within each species all, or most, of the 2n/3n chimeras arise from the same mechanism, then the occurrence of a type that has an expected frequency of zero for a given proposed mechanism effectively eliminates that mechanism as a source. All of the chicks could have resulted from only one mechanism, viz., independent fertilization of both nuclei in binucleated oocytes. The sample of minks could have resulted from the same mechanism or from fertilization of a blastomere of a two-cell, 2n embryo. PMID:6578004

  10. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  11. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species. PMID:27509753

  12. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola. PMID:27008189

  13. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, Steven J.; Sharma, Chanda; Aulerich, Richard J.; Yamini, Behzad; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Beckett, Kerrie J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Moore, Dwayne; Svirsky, Susan; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 (xg ΣPCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability.

  14. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Beckett, K.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (??PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 ??g ??PCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 ??g ??PCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 ??g ??PCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 ??g ??PCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 ??g ??PCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  15. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  16. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. Results We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 iPS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas with cell types representing all three germ layers. Transcriptome analysis of mink embryonic fibroblasts (EF), two ES and two iPS cell lines allowed us to identify 11831 assembled contigs which were annotated. These led to a number of 6891 unique genes. Of these 3201 were differentially expressed between mink EF and ES cells. We analyzed expression levels of these genes in iPS cell lines. This allowed us to show that 80% of genes were correctly reprogrammed in iPS cells, whereas approximately 6% had an intermediate expression pattern, about 7% were not reprogrammed and about 5% had a "novel" expression pattern. We observed expression of pluripotency marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2 and Rex1 in ES and iPS cell lines with notable exception of Nanog. Conclusions We had produced and characterized American mink ES and iPS cells. These cells were pluripotent by a number of criteria and iPS cells exhibited effective reprogramming. Interestingly, we had showed lack of Nanog expression and consider it as a species-specific feature. PMID:26694224

  17. MERCURY AND STABLE ISOTPOES OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN MINK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total mercury concentrations, δ15N and δ13C in tissues of mink (Mustela vison) captured in Rhode Island during winters of the years 1999-2004 showed samples to be statistically distinct based on location. Mink captured in salt marsh environments (salt marsh group mink, SMGM)...

  18. Short-term fasting induces intra-hepatic lipid accumulation and decreases intestinal mass without reduced brush-border enzyme activity in mink (Mustela vison) small intestine.

    PubMed

    Bjornvad, C R; Elnif, J; Sangild, P T

    2004-11-01

    For many mammalian species short-term fasting is associated with intestinal atrophy and decreased digestive capacity. Under natural conditions, strictly carnivorous animals often experience prey scarcity during winter, and they may therefore be particularly well adapted to short-term food deprivation. To examine how the carnivorous gastrointestinal tract is affected by fasting, small-intestinal structure, brush-border enzyme activities and hepatic structure and function were examined in fed mink (controls) and mink that had been fasted for 1-10 days. During the first 1-2 days of fasting, intestinal mass decreased more rapidly than total body mass and villus heights were reduced 25-40%. In contrast, tissue-specific activity of the brush-border enzymes sucrase, maltase, lactase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidylpeptidase IV increased 0.5- to 1.5-fold at this time, but returned to prefasting levels after 6 days of fasting. After 6-10 days of fasting there was a marked increase in the activity of hepatic enzymes and accumulation of intra-hepatic lipid vacuoles. Thus, mink may be a useful model for studying fasting-induced intestinal atrophy and adaptation as well as mechanisms involved in accumulation of intra-hepatic lipids following food deprivation in strictly carnivorous domestic mammals, such as cats and ferrets. PMID:15503054

  19. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  20. Water intake and excretion, urinary solute excretion and some stress indicators in mink (Mustela vison): effect of ambient temperature and quantitative water supply to lactating females.

    PubMed

    Tauson, A H

    1998-12-01

    Lactation is a physiologically demanding period in mink production, during which kit and dam losses may occur. Ambient temperature and quantitative water supply are thought to affect animal performance and well-being, but conclusive data in the literature are sparse. Therefore, effects of ambient temperature (Ta; low, about 5 degrees; medium, about 15 degrees; high, average 20-25 degrees) and water supply (ad libitum (N), or 10% extra supplementation in the food (E)) were investigated regarding effects on quantitative water intake and excretion, urine osmolality and solute excretion, and urinary cortisol and catecholamines as stress indicators in an experiment with twelve lactating mink with litters of three to seven kits in three consecutive periods, lasting 3, 3 and 2 d respectively. Kit ages ranged from 15 to 20 d at the end of the experiment. Water requirement for milk production (factorial calculations) and water available for evaporation (balance component) were estimated. Period, and hence mainly Ta, had a significant influence on intake of metabolizable energy, quantitative water intake and excretion, but there was less effect of water supply. The total water intake and excretion were very high in relation to the weight of the animals as an effect of lactation. Water intake and excretion, and urinary Na excretion, seemed to be less accurately regulated compared with corresponding functions in non-lactating animals. Rectal temperature increased with increasing Ta, possibly as a means of decreasing evaporative water loss. Water output in milk was estimated to increase from 118 g/d at low Ta to 134 g/d at high Ta. The amounts of water available for evaporation were estimated to be 42, 58 and 69 g/kg0.75 at low, medium and high Ta. Cortisol data did not indicate that the animals experienced negative stress. It was concluded that prolonged periods of high Ta may be hazardous for lactating mink because of decreased intake of metabolizable energy resulting in

  1. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  2. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control

    PubMed Central

    Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  3. Effects of methylmercury on epigenetic markers in three model species: mink, chicken and yellow perch

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Nam, Dong-Ha; Pilsner, J. Richard; Carvan, Michael J; Chan, Hing Man; Goetz, Frederick W; Murphy, Cheryl A; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Scheuhammer, Anton M

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in the brain stem of male polar bears. Here, we conveniently use archived tissues obtained from controlled laboratory exposure studies to look for evidence that MeHg can disrupt DNA methylation across taxa. Brain (cerebrum) tissues from MeHg-exposed mink (Neovison vison), chicken (Gallus gallus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were analyzed for total Hg levels and global DNA methylation. Tissues from chicken and mink, but not perch, were also analyzed for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. In mink we observed significant reductions in global DNA methylation in an environmentally-relevant dietary exposure group (1ppm MeHg), but not in a higher group (2ppm MeHg). DNMT activity was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. In chicken or yellow perch, no statistically significant effects of MeHg were observed. Dose-dependent trends were observed in the chicken data but the direction of the change was not consistent between the two endpoints. Our results suggest that MeHg can be epigenetically active in that it has the capacity to affect DNA methylation in mammals. The variability in results across species may suggest inter-taxa differences in epigenetic responses to MeHg, or may be related to differences among the exposure scenarios used as animals were exposed to MeHg through different routes (dietary, egg injection), for different periods of time (19 – 89 days) and at different life stages (embryonic, juvenile, adult). PMID:23481557

  4. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  5. MERCURY IN MINK IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissues of mink (Mustela vison) collected from Rhode Island sites during winters of 1999-2002 were analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to determine the extent of Hg contamination in these aquatic dependent wildlife, and to evaluate whether stable isoto...

  6. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  7. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  8. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.

  9. A COMAPRISON OF MERCURY IN MINK AND FISHER IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of total mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values in muscle tissue and stomach contents of mink (Mustela vison) and fisher (Martes pennanti) from Rhode Island in 2000- 2003 showed results which appeared to reflect dietary differences betwee...

  10. Progressive retinal degeneration in ranch mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J

    1984-01-01

    Retinal degeneration was prevalent in a large group of sapphire and pastel mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. Nearly 78% of those two to eight years old were affected. The retinopathy was equally common in both sexes but more frequent in sapphires (85%) than in pastels (63%), and it was severe more often in sapphires than in pastels. By light microscopy, the primary change appeared to be progressive degeneration of fully developed photoreceptors, beginning in their outer segments. In many mink, including some younger ones, the rods and cones and outer nuclear layer had disappeared from all but the far periphery of the fundus. The inner retinal layers were spared until late in the disease, and the pigment epithelium remained essentially unchanged. The cause of the retinopathy was not established. It may represent an abiotrophy in which the structural integrity of the photoreceptors began to wane in many mink after they reached two years of age. Apart from reducing visual acuity, the retinopathy has implications for the photoperiodic control of fur growth and reproduction in this highly light-sensitive carnivore. PMID:6710807

  11. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in wild mink and river otters from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Gregory, S.V.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) collected during the 1978-1979 trapping season in Oregon were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues. PCB residues were most frequently encountered in both species from the Lower Columbia River. PCB residues in 6 of 9 Columbia River mink livers were as high as those reported in livers of experimental female mink that experienced total reproductive failure after eating a PCB-contaminated diet of 0.64 ppm for 160 days. Also, some fish from the Columbia River contained PCBs (range 0.24-2.8 ppm) equivalent to or higher than the dietary dosage given in the same laboratory study. River otter livers from the same area contained even higher levels of PCBs [(M) geometric mean 9.3 ppm, (F) geometric mean 3.5 ppm], but the relative sensitivity of the 2 species to these contaminants is unknown. The river otter harvest along the Lower Columbia River has declined in the last 3 decades, whereas the statewide harvest trend is upward. PCBs were generally low or not detected in the remainder of the Oregon locations studied. Lower Columbia River collections also showed the highest organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDE) in both species. We are less concerned about the DDE residues reported, particularly in mink, because mink are less sensitive to DDT than to PCBs. Population declines of both mink and otters resulting from PCB contamination may have occurred, and may still be occurring, along the Lower Columbia River.

  12. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  13. Concentrations of metals in mink and other mammals from Washington and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    From 1981 to 1983, concentrations dfof metals were determined in mink Mustela vison, muskrats Ondatra zibethica, and small mammals at one contaminated site in Idaho and at two less contaminated sites in Idaho and Washington. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd occurred in samples from the Coeur d'Alene River system near or downstream from an extensive mining?smelting complex in northern Idaho. Maximum concentrations of Pb in the liver of a mink (22 :g g-1) and in pooled liver samples of both voles (Microtus spp., 5?8 :g g-1) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, 10?5 :g g-1) were higher than those inducing serious problems, including mortality, in experimental mammals on Pb-contaminated diets. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn were generally low. Declines in certain mammal populations have probably occurred in northern Idah as a result of direct toxicity of metals and associated secondary effects on cover and food supply.

  14. Molecular characterization of a new species in the genus Alphacoronavirus associated with mink epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Halpin, Rebecca; Wang, Shiliang; Ghedin, Elodie; Spiro, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A coronavirus (CoV) previously shown to be associated with catarrhal gastroenteritis in mink (Mustela vison) was identified by electron microscopy in mink faeces from two fur farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota in 1998. A pan-coronavirus and a genus-specific RT-PCR assay were used initially to demonstrate that the newly discovered mink CoVs (MCoVs) were members of the genus Alphacoronavirus. Subsequently, using a random RT-PCR approach, full-genomic sequences were generated that further confirmed that, phylogenetically, the MCoVs belonged to the genus Alphacoronavirus, with closest relatedness to the recently identified but only partially sequenced (fragments of the polymerase, and full-length spike, 3c, envelope, nucleoprotein, membrane, 3x and 7b genes) ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) and ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV). The molecular data presented in this study provide the first genetic evidence for a new coronavirus associated with epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis outbreaks in mink and demonstrate that MCoVs possess high genomic variability and relatively low overall nucleotide sequence identities (91.7 %) between contemporary strains. Additionally, the new MCoVs appeared to be phylogenetically distant from human (229E and NL63) and other alphacoronaviruses and did not belong to the species Alphacoronavirus 1. It is proposed that, together with the partially sequenced FRECV and FRSCV, they comprise a new species within the genus Alphacoronavirus. PMID:21346029

  15. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  16. Susceptibility of Mink (Mustera vision)-Derived Cells to Replication by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Koito, Atsushi; Kameyama, Yuichi; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2003-01-01

    In vivo studies for understanding viral transmission and replication, host immune responses, and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection would greatly benefit from the establishment of a small-animal model. In this study, we explored the potential of American mink (Mustera vison) as a susceptible host. We found that primary cells and cell lines derived from this species efficiently supported trans-activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat by Tat. Accordingly, the cysteine residue at position 261, which has been shown to be important for interaction of the human cyclin T1 with the HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat, is conserved in the mink homologue. No species-specific defect in Rev function could be detected in mink cells. In addition, primary splenocytes, fibroblasts, and the Mv.1.Lu cell line from American mink supported early as well as late HIV-1 gene expression following infection with vesicular stomatitis G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 viruses, at levels comparable to those seen with permissive human cells. Furthermore, the mink Mv.1.Lu cell line stably expressing human CD4 and CCR5 receptors supported a spreading HIV-1 infection with few, if any, deficiencies compared to findings in human cell lines. This indicates the potential of HIV-1 to replicate in these cells once the blockade at the stage of virus entry has been removed. These results clearly show that cells from American mink generally pose no functional intracellular block to HIV-1 replication, and collectively they raise the possibility that this animal species could be engineered to support HIV-1 infection, providing a useful small-animal model for evaluating de novo infection by HIV-1. PMID:12692213

  17. Two-generation reproductive study in mink fed diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP).

    PubMed

    Bucci, Thomas J; Kovatch, Robert M; Mercieca, Michael D; Perman, Victor; Klingensmith, J S

    2003-01-01

    Two generations of "Ranch Wild" mink (Mustela vison) were fed the organophosphate diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) at 0, 150, 450, or 1250ppm, to determine potential toxicity to the dams. Chemical, hematologic, necropsy, and microscopic examinations were performed on all parental animals and representative kits. The F0 and F1 dams had 3.4 and 4.6% mortality, respectively, distributed among all groups and not attributed to DIMP exposure. Adverse effects were mild and limited to the highest dose group. Plasma cholinesterase was reduced 40% (F0) and 31% (F1), as was whole blood cholinesterase (16 and 8.5%). Heinz bodies were present in 2.8% (F0) and 1.3% (F1) of erythrocytes. The erythrocyte count was reduced 6.3% in the F0. Reproductive efficiency was not affected. The mink were not uniquely susceptible to DIMP, relative to the literature on other species. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), based on the 450ppm group of F1 females, was 56.5mg DIMP/kgBW per day; the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 329.5mg DIMP/kgBW per day. PMID:12759102

  18. Concentrations of metals in mink and other mammals from Washington and Idaho.

    PubMed

    Blus, L J; Henny, C J; Mulhern, B M

    1987-01-01

    From 1981 to 1983, concentrations of metals were determined in mink Mustela vison, muskrats Ondatra zibethica, and small mammals at one contaminated site in Idaho and at two less contaminated sites in Idaho and Washington. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd occurred in samples from the Coeur d'Alene River system near or downstream from an extensive mining-smelting complex in northern Idaho. Maximum concentrations of Pb in the liver of a mink (22 microg g(-1)) and in pooled liver samples of both voles (Microtus spp., 5.8 microg g(-1)) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, 10.5 microg g(-1)) were higher than those inducing serious problems, including mortality, in experimental mammals on Pb-contaminated diets. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn were generally low. Declines in certain mammal populations have probably occurred in northern Idaho as a result of direct toxicity of metals and associated secondary effects on cover and food supply. PMID:15092768

  19. Terminal dives in mink, muskrat and beaver.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, F F; Gofton, N

    1982-05-01

    Monitoring of EEG, EKG and overt behavior of mink, muskrat, and beaver caught in leg hold traps in an aquatic tank, showed marked differences by species. Death by CO2 induced narcosis (submersion asphyxia) was evident in beaver, about 50 percent of muskrat but "wet" drowning occurred in mink. Bradycardia was evident in all three species but was most pronounced in the beaver. Times to cessation of struggle, brain activity and heart activity indicated that the terminal dives of mink and muskrat, but not beaver, fell within the tentative criteria of humaneness for trapping devices established by the Federal Provincial Committee for Humane Trapping of Canada. PMID:7048357

  20. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  1. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  2. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  3. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  4. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  5. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J P; Verbrugge, D A; Othout, R A; Bowerman, W W; Mora, M A; Jones, P D; Newsted, J L; Vandervoort, C; Heaton, S N; Aulerich, R J

    1994-08-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  6. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  7. Ecological risk assessment for mink and short-tailed shrew exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Breton, Roger L; DeLong, Tod R; Ferson, Scott; Lortie, John P; MacDonald, Drew B; McGrath, Richard; Pawlisz, Andrzej; Svirsky, Susan C; Teed, R Scott; Thompson, Ryan P; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to characterize risks to a representative piscivorous mammal (mink, Mustela vison) and a representative carnivorous mammal (short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area downstream of the General Electric (GE) facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Contaminant exposure was estimated using a probabilistic total daily intake model and parameterized using life history information of each species and concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and furans in prey collected in the Housatonic River study area. The effects assessment preferentially relied on dose-response curves but defaulted to benchmarks or other estimates of effect when there were insufficient toxicity data. The risk characterization used a weight of evidence approach. Up to 3 lines of evidence were used to estimate risks to the selected mammal species: 1) probabilistic exposure and effects modeling, 2) field surveys, and 3) species-specific feeding or field studies. The weight of evidence assessment indicated a high risk for mink and an intermediate risk for short-tailed shrew. PMID:25976918

  8. The dark mink: a model of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tung, K S; Ellis, L E; Childs, G V; Dufau, M

    1984-03-01

    Breeding mink for a fine dark fur has coselected male infertility, which may be manifest at the onset of breeding (primary infertility) or after one or more fertile breeding seasons (secondary infertility). Mink with primary infertility have low LH and testosterone levels. However, they respond to exogenous GnRH with increases in LH production and in the number and size of LH and FSH positive gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary. Exogenous human CG also induces testosterone secretion. Thus, mink with primary infertility are probably defective in GnRH secretion, which is due either to abnormal hypothalamic function or its control mechanisms. Autoimmune orchitis with testicular immune complexes are frequent in mink with secondary infertility, suggesting an autoimmune etiology. In contrast, fertile dark mink and fertile mink with the opaline and pastel fur have normal serum LH and testosterone levels; their testes are also normal. In mink with secondary infertility, the frequency and degree of orchitis and testicular immune complexes increased from March (peak sexual activity) to April (onset of testicular regression). Thus, testicular autoimmunity most likely develops during testicular regression. Antisperm antibodies also increased in frequency during testicular regression in the fertile dark mink and in dark mink with primary and secondary infertility. Thus, antisperm antibody per se is insufficient to induce autoimmune orchitis. It is concluded that the infertile mink is a useful model of human male infertility, involving both endocrinological and immunological mechanisms. PMID:6421566

  9. Diethylstilbesterol as a Contaminant in Mink Feeding *

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James

    1961-01-01

    Diethylstilbesterol, a synthetic estrogen, has presented a problem to the mink industry in the United States since 1949 and in Canada since 1958. This hormone is ingested by mink, as a contaminant in their feed, when they consume meat by-products that contain residual amounts of the compound. Various conditions have been observed following contamination with this drug: 1. Sterility in the female. 2. Late abortions. 3. Aglactia and loss of kits in first few days of life. 4. Sterility and lack of desire to mate on the part of the male. 5. Poor growth in young mink. 6. An increased incidence of urinary calculi. Reference is made to the literature on the work that has been done to prove or disprove the above effects attributed to this drug. Three case reports are presented as clinical evidence of the effects of the DES hormone. These cases occurred within a 10 mile radius of the Ontario Veterinary College. Mention is also made as to the source of the contaminated feed. PMID:17649318

  10. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  11. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  12. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  13. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  14. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D. Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L.; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis. PMID:25852228

  15. Additional Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; King, James

    2011-01-01

    Min-K 1400TE (Thermal Ceramics, Augusta, Georgia) insulation material was further characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions in an inert environment. Original characterization of Min-K was undertaken from April 1997 to July 2008 to determine its high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior up to 900 C in helium along with the formulation of a general model for the mechanical behavior exhibited by Min-K under these conditions. The additional testing described in this report was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in an effort to further evaluate the mechanical behavior of Min-K when subjected to a variety of conditions including alternative test temperatures and time scales than previously measured. The behavior of Min-K under changing environments (temperature and strain), lateral loads, and additional isothermal temperatures was therefore explored.

  16. The Pathogenesis of Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David D.; Larsen, Austen E.; Porter, Helen G.

    1973-01-01

    Mink chronically infected with Aleutian disease virus develop a severe necrotizing arteritis affecting muscular arteries. Acute, subacute and healing lesions may be found. Extracellular deposits of host immunoglobulin and complement and, after acid elution, viral antigen can be shown by immunofluorescence technics in areas of fibrinoid necrosis and between proliferating endothelial cells. No intracellular viral antigen was found, indicating that the virus probably does not replicate in vascular structures. The arteritis of Aleutian disease appears to be the result of immune complex deposits in vessel walls. Imagesp[341]-aFig 4p[343]-aFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4576760

  17. The comparative metabolism of diisopropyl methylphosphonate in mink and rats.

    PubMed

    Weiss, D J; Geary, R S; Wustenberg, W; Bucci, T J; Perman, V; Baumel, I P; Dacre, J C

    1994-10-01

    This study reports the metabolism of carbon-14labeled diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) in mink and rats, undertaken to better understand the dose-related mortality reported for mink in a previous study. In both male and female mink and rats, DIMP was rapidly absorbed after oral administration; it was metabolized by a saturable pathway to a single metabolite, isopropyl methylphosphonate (IMPA), which was rapidly excreted, primarily in the urine (90%). Fecal radioactivity, also identified as IMPA, was 1.7-3.1% of the administered dose. Female rats had a slower rate of conversion of DIMP to IMPA and less total excretion of IMPA than male rats. Metabolism of DIMP administered intravenously was not very different from that given orally in both species. These data indicate that mink absorb, metabolize, and excrete DIMP (as IMPA) in a manner very similar to mice, rats, and dogs. PMID:7944557

  18. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Mink Oil.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Mink Oil, obtained from the fatty tissues of minks, is a mixture of the natural glycerides of 14 to 20 carbon chain fatty acids. There are 100 current reported uses as a hair-conditioning agent, an occlusive skin-conditioning agent, and as a surfactant; up to a maximum concentration of 3%. Mink Oil is manufactured by harvesting animal hides and scraping the fat layer from the hide. It is rendered and refined using high temperature processes (230 degrees F to 240 degrees F) and saponification to reduce free fatty acids. Analyses demonstrate that Mink Oil can be substantially free of impurities, including pesticides. Mink Oil does not absorb significant UVA or UVB radiation. In a clinical test of skin penetration, 1 h after application, Mink Oil was detected on the skin surface of all five panelists; it was detected within the stratum corneum in 2/5 panelists. Mink Oil has an oral LD50 of > 64.0 cc/kg in albino rats. No erythema or edema was noted after refined Mink Oil was applied for 24 h to intact and scarified area of albino rabbits. A 50% dilution of a Mink Oil cream did not sensitize guinea pigs in a maximization test. Mink Oil was not an ocular irritant to albino rabbits. Clinical studies using single occlusive patches found no irritation with up to 2.8% Mink Oil, although transient mild to no irritation was noted in two exaggerated-use studies. Mink Oil is used in aerosols and sprays. Although there are no inhalation toxicity data available on Mink Oil, the available data on particle sizes of cosmetic aerosols and sprays indicates diameters more than an order of magnitude larger than the diameter of respirable particles. Most of the glycerides in Mink Oil are triglycerides (glyceryl triesters), the safety of which has been substantiated in previous safety assessments; e.g., dermal absorption is nil to slight; there is little or no acute, subchronic, or chronic oral toxicity; dermal application was not associated with significant irritation or sensitization

  19. Misshapen/NIK-related kinase (MINK1) is involved in platelet function, hemostasis, and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ming; Luo, Dongjiao; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Qi; Hu, Mengjiao; Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Shuai; Huang, Qian; Niu, Yuxi; Lu, Linrong; Hu, Hu

    2016-02-18

    The sterile-20 kinase misshapen/Nck-interacting kinase (NIK)-related kinase 1 (MINK1) is involved in many important cellular processes such as growth, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and motility. Here, with MINK1-deficient (MINK1(-/-)) mice, we showed that MINK1 plays an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis via the regulation of platelet functions. In the tail-bleeding assay, MINK1(-/-) mice exhibited a longer bleeding time than wild-type (WT) mice (575.2 ± 59.7 seconds vs 419.6 ± 66.9 seconds). In a model of ferric chloride-induced mesenteric arteriolar thrombosis, vessel occlusion times were twice as long in MINK1(-/-) mice as in WT mice. In an in vitro microfluidic whole-blood perfusion assay, thrombus formation on a collagen matrix under arterial shear conditions was significantly reduced in MINK1(-/-) platelets. Moreover, MINK1(-/-) platelets demonstrated impaired aggregation and secretion in response to low doses of thrombin and collagen. Furthermore, platelet spreading on fibrinogen was largely hampered in MINK1(-/-) platelets. The functional differences of MINK1(-/-) platelets could be attributed to impaired adenosine 5'-diphosphate secretion. Signaling events associated with MINK1 appeared to involve extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and Akt. Hence, MINK1 may be an important signaling molecule that mediates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and participates in platelet activation and thrombus formation. PMID:26598717

  20. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine. PMID:26350446

  1. Comparison of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Isolates in Raccoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to its susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and relatively short incubation times, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) has been suggested as a model for TSE strain differentiation. Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disease of undetermined origin in...

  2. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302 Section 113.302 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302...

  3. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  4. Localization and visual verification of a complex minke whale vocalization.

    PubMed

    Gedamke, J; Costa, D P; Dunstan, A

    2001-06-01

    A recently described population of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) offered a unique opportunity to study its acoustic behavior. The often-inquisitive dwarf minke whale is seen on the Great Barrier Reef nearly coincident with its suspected calving and breeding seasons. During drifting encounters with whales, a towed hydrophone array was used to record sounds for subsequent localization of sound sources. Shipboard and in-water observers linked these sounds to the closely circling minke whale. A complex and stereotyped sound sequence, the "star-wars" (SW) vocalization, was recorded during a series of visual and acoustic observations. The SW vocalization spanned a wide frequency range (50 Hz-9.4 kHz) and was composed of distinct and stereotypically repeated units with both amplitude and frequency-modulated components. Broadband source levels between 150 and 165 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m were calculated. Passive acoustic studies can utilize this distinct vocalization to help determine the behavior, distribution, and movements of this animal. While the SW vocalization's function remains unknown, the regularly repeated and complex sound sequence was common in low latitude, winter month aggregations of minke whales. At this early stage, the SW vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with those of reproductive advertisement displays. PMID:11425146

  5. Subchronic oral toxicity study of diisopropyl methylphosphonate in mink.

    PubMed

    Bucci, T J; Wustenberg, W; Perman, V; Weiss, D J; Dacre, J C; Baumel, I P; Parker, R M

    1994-02-01

    Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), produced during manufacture of the chemical agent GB (Sarin), is a groundwater contaminant at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado. DIMP was fed for 90 days to dark brown "Ranch Wild" mink housed under controlled indoor conditions. One-year-old mink, 10 of each sex, were fed 0, 50, 450, 2700, 5400, or 8000 ppm in standard ranch diet. Actual DIMP consumption was 0, 8, 73, 400, 827, and 1136 mg/kg body wt/day, respectively. Two additional groups of 10 served as "pair-fed" controls. Body weight and food intake were recorded weekly. Complete blood count and 15 chemical analytes were measured at Weeks 0, 3, 7, and 13. Necropsy and microscopic examination were performed on all mink. No clinical morbidity or deaths occurred. Both sexes fed 8000 ppm ate approximately 20% less and weighed approximately 20% less than the controls; 5400 ppm females had a 10% weight decrement. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) decreased in the top three dose groups starting at Week 3. At 13 weeks, decrements were approximately 50% but returned to normal after 1 week without DIMP. Erythrocyte ChE was not reduced. Heinz bodies occurred in 10-15% of RBCs in 50% of 8000 ppm mink at 13 weeks, and 0.1-2.0% of RBCs in 25% at 2700 ppm. There were mild decreases in RBC count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin, and increases in reticulocyte count, at the 5400 and 8000 ppm doses. All recovered within 3 weeks after DIMP was withdrawn. The 8000 ppm group had marginal splenic hematopoiesis, histologically. No other treatment-related changes were noted. The 450 ppm dose was a clear no-effect level (approximately 73 mg DIMP/kg body wt/day). Compared to reports of similar studies of DIMP in rats and dogs, these mink displayed no unique species susceptibility. PMID:8005374

  6. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication

  7. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data. Images PMID:6264109

  8. Hybrids between common and Antarctic minke whales are fertile and can back-cross

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minke whales are separated into two genetically distinct species: the Antarctic minke whale found in the southern hemisphere, and the common minke whale which is cosmopolitan. The common minke whale is further divided into three allopatric sub-species found in the North Pacific, southern hemisphere, and the North Atlantic. Here, we aimed to identify the genetic ancestry of a pregnant female minke whale captured in the North Atlantic in 2010, and her fetus, using data from the mtDNA control region, 11 microsatellite loci and a sex determining marker. Results All statistical parameters demonstrated that the mother was a hybrid displaying maternal and paternal contribution from North Atlantic common and Antarctic minke whales respectively. Her female fetus displayed greater genetic similarity to North Atlantic common minke whales than herself, strongly suggesting that the hybrid mother had paired with a North Atlantic common minke whale. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that hybrids between minke whale species may be fertile, and that they can back-cross. Whether contact between these species represents a contemporary event linked with documented recent changes in the Antarctic ecosystem, or has occurred at a low frequency over many years, remains open. PMID:23586609

  9. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. PMID:27283850

  10. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed Central

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-01-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink. PMID:6193063

  11. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Awei; Li, Erli; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Haolong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yu, Lili; Liu, Sha; Ahn, Kung; Cooper, Jesse; Park, Sin-Gi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Jin, Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Lee, Kyooyeol; Chun, Sung; Morin, Phillip A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Jumpei; Moon, Dae Yeon; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Sangsoo; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels. PMID:24270359

  12. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels. PMID:24270359

  13. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the same cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Storgaard, T; Oleksiewicz, M; Bloom, M E; Ching, B; Alexandersen, S

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases. Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease. In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic severe immune dysregulation. In the present report, we have compared viral transcription in synchronized CRFK cells infected with either MEV or ADV using a nonradioactive RNase protection assay. The overall level of viral transcription was 20-fold higher in MEV- than in ADV-infected cells. Furthermore, MEV mRNA encoding structural proteins (MEV mRNA R3) was dominant throughout the infectious cycle, comprising approximately 80% of the total viral transcription products. In marked contrast, in ADV-infected cells, transcripts encoding nonstructural proteins (ADV mRNA R1 and R2) comprised more than 84% of the total transcripts at all times after infection, whereas ADV mRNA R3 comprised less than 16%. Thus, the ADV mRNA coding for structural proteins (ADV mRNA R3) was present at a level at least 100-fold lower than the corresponding MEV mRNA R3. These findings paralleled previous biochemical studies analyzing in vitro activities of the ADV and MEV promoters (J. Christensen, T. Storgaard, B. Viuff, B. Aasted, and S. Alexandersen, J. Virol. 67:1877-1886, 1993). The overall low levels of ADV mRNA and the paucity of the mRNA coding for ADV structural proteins may reflect an adaptation of the virus for low-level restricted infection. PMID:9188563

  14. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS GRANULES IN SAPPHIRE MINKS].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Kizhina, A G; Ilyukha, V A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that sapphire minks have abnormality of subcellular structure of blood and bone marrow neutrophils and eosinophils. The abnormality consists in forming of abnormal "giant" granules. The si- ze and the number of abnormal granules significantly change during maturation of leucocytes in bone marrow. We have found differences between abnormal granules forming in neutrophils and eosinophils that depend on the maturing stage and the cells life cycle duration as well as morphofunctional features of these granulocytes. PMID:26863773

  15. Clinical Chemical Studies in Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Gershbein, Leon L.; Spencer, Kathryn L.

    1964-01-01

    Clinical chemical determinations were carried out on blood removed by cardiac puncture from 49 mink affected with Aleutian disease and 25 normal animals and the respective differences tested for statistical significance. Blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and globulin, thymol turbidity, glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases and amylase were definitely elevated in the affected animals whereas serum calcium, albumin and A/G ratio were depressed. No statistically significant difference was apparent between the two groups in the comparison of inorganic phosphorus, alkaline and acid phosphatases, bilirubin, total cholesterol and esters, cephalin-cholesterol flocculation (3+ in each case), sodium, potassium, chloride, CO2-combining power, leucine aminopeptidase and lactic dehydrogenase (means: over 2,000 u./ml.). For both the control and affected mink, the distribution of serum lactic dehydrogenase isozymes resembled that of human homologous serum hepatitis. Electrophoresis of serum proteins confirmed earlier findings of hypergammaglobulinemia in the diseased animals but a fast-moving or pre-albumin component, averaging 4% of the total protein, occurred in both the diseased and normal mink. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17649484

  16. Observations on the Etiological Agent of Plasmacytosis of Mink

    PubMed Central

    McKay, K. A.; Gray, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    A hypothesis based on a possible connection between the granules produced by a species of Mycobacterium and the agent causing Plasmacytosis in mink is suggested. The presence of these granules in the identical tissues of mink from which a virus had previously been isolated, is noted. Granules with the ability to produce a “germ tube” with acid-fast staining characteristics were found to be present in these tissues. Preliminary cytological studies have shown these granules to be similar to those described by Much. When tissues containing the granules were injected into guinea pigs, rabbits and chickens and these were later tested with avian tuberculin, positive skin reactions occurred. A disease was reproduced in chickens which simulated avian leucosis. In guinea pigs a disease was reproduced which resembled Plasmacytosis in mink with some histological differences. Rabbits appeared to be refractory to infection with the dosage and route of inoculation used. The results obtained from bacteriological studies, tissue culture, animal inoculation, as well as observations made on the cytological properties of the granules, are described and discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:14230911

  17. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P < 0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5 % more, and their fur was on average about 1 ± 0.26 cm longer (12 % more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  18. Copper bioavailability, blood parameters, and nutrient balance in mink.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Zhang, T T; Guo, J G; Liu, Z; Yang, F H; Gao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, relative copper bioavailability, and retention of some minerals in male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet, which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Mink in the other 9 treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate (CuSO4), tribasic copper chloride (TBCC), or copper methionine (CuMet). Copper concentrations of the experimental diets were 50, 100, and 150 mg Cu/kg DM. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip at the end of study (d 42) to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. A metabolism trial of 4 d was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. There was a linear (P < 0.01) effect of dose of Cu on plasma Cu concentrations, ceruloplasmin concentration, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity. A linear response to Cu dose was noted for fat (P < 0.05) digestibility. Supplemental dose of Cu linearly increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu and decreased (P < 0.05) liver Zn level but did not alter liver Fe. The concentration of liver Cu of the mink fed with TBCC and CuMet diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that fed CuSO4. Compared with CuSO4 (100%), relative bioavailability values of TBCC were 104 and 104%, based on serum ceruloplasmin and liver copper, respectively, and relative bioavailability values of CuMet were 130 and 111%. CuMet and TBCC are more bioavailable than CuSO4. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of CuMet obtained in this study was greater than that of CuSO4 and TBCC. Dose of Cu had an important effect on the regulating ceruloplasmin concentration, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity, and the digestion of dietary fat in mink. PMID:25568366

  19. Parasitism of mustelids by ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Maine and New Hampshire, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Elias, Susan P; Beati, Lorenza; Rand, Peter W; Smith, Robert P

    2014-06-01

    Ticks collected from mustelids from four counties in Maine and one in New Hampshire were identified after harvest. Of the 18 fishers Martes pennanti Erxleben, two mink Neovison vison Schreber, and one long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, 589 ticks were collected and identified. They were identified as, in order of abundance, Ixodes gregsoni Lindquist, Wu, and Redner (158 larvae, 189 nymphs, four adults), Ixodes cookei Packard (99 larvae, 77 nymphs, six adults), Ixodes scapularis Say (53 adults), Dermacentor variabilis Say (two nymphs), and Ixodes angustus Neumann (one nymph). Seasonally, all but the D. variabilis were collected in winter. This study reports the first record of adult I. scapularis from a M. pennanti in the northeastern United States. PMID:24690190

  20. Genetic variability and structure of the water vole Arvicola amphibius across four metapopulations in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Claudia; Borg, Åsa Alexandra; Jensen, Henrik; Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Ringsby, Thor H; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Water vole Arvicola amphibius populations have recently experienced severe decline in several European countries as a consequence of both reduction in suitable habitat and the establishment of the alien predator American mink Neovison vison. We used DNA microsatellite markers to describe the genetic structure of 14 island populations of water vole off the coast of northern Norway. We looked at intra- and inter-population levels of genetic variation and examined the effect of distance among pairs of populations on genetic differentiation (isolation by distance). We found a high level of genetic differentiation (measured by FST) among populations overall as well as between all pairs of populations. The genetic differentiation between populations was positively correlated with geographic distance between them. A clustering analysis grouped individuals into 7 distinct clusters and showed the presence of 3 immigrants among them. Our results suggest a small geographic scale for evolutionary and population dynamic processes in our water vole populations. PMID:23610623

  1. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  2. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in a freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Adam A; Mitchell, Mark A; Dubey, Jitender P; Schooley, Robert L; Heske, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    We assessed risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in east-central Illinois, US. This agricultural region has extensive drainage systems that could potentially transport T. gondii oocysts into the watershed. We used muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and American mink (Neovison vison) as sentinels of watershed contamination. We predicted individuals from larger subwatersheds would more likely be antibody-positive for T. gondii, as they were exposed to drainage from larger areas. We also evaluated amount of urban land cover within the subwatershed, proximity to farmsteads, and age of individuals in competing models of T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in animal sera by modified agglutination tests (titer 25 or higher) and detected in 18 (60%) of 30 muskrats and 20 (77%) of 26 mink. Infection rates were ≥1.7 times higher than those typical for mammals in upland habitats in this region. Subwatershed size and age class were important predictors of T. gondii infection in muskrats (R(2) = 0.35). Models incorporating urban land cover and proximity to farmsteads had little support. None of our models of antibody prevalence in mink were well supported, possibly because mink are less strictly associated with riparian habitats. Because ~91% of our study area is devoted to agricultural production and urbanization, transport of T. gondii into freshwater ecosystems is likely facilitated by modified drainage practices common in these areas. PMID:25574808

  3. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) respond to navy training.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen W; Martin, Cameron R; Matsuyama, Brian M; Henderson, E Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were acoustically detected and localized via their boing calls using 766 h of recorded data from 24 hydrophones at the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility located off Kauai, Hawaii. Data were collected before, during, and after naval undersea warfare training events, which occurred in February over three consecutive years (2011-2013). Data collection in the during periods were further categorized as phase A and phase B with the latter being the only period with naval surface ship activities (e.g., frigate and destroyer maneuvers including the use of mid-frequency active sonar). Minimum minke whale densities were estimated for all data periods based upon the numbers of whales acoustically localized within the 3780 km(2) study area. The 2011 minimum densities in the study area were: 3.64 whales [confidence interval (CI) 3.31-4.01] before the training activity, 2.81 whales (CI 2.31-3.42) for phase A, 0.69 whales (CI 0.27-1.8) for phase B and 4.44 whales (CI 4.04-4.88) after. The minimum densities for the phase B periods were highly statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) from all other periods within each year, suggesting a clear response to the phase B training. The phase A period results were mixed when compared to other non-training periods. PMID:25994686

  4. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2008-07-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. Initial compression testing was performed at room temperature at various loading rates ranging between 5 and 500 psi/hour (≈35 and 3500 kPa/hour) to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K. To determine the loading rates that would be used for stress relaxation testing, compression tests were next carried out at various levels followed by stress relaxation under constant strain at temperatures of 650, 850, and 900oC. Additional high temperature compression testing was performed with samples loaded at a rate of 53 psi/hour (365 kPa/hour) in three load steps of 50, 100 and 200 psi (345, 690, and 1380 kPa) with quick unload/load cycles between steps and followed by a hold period in load control (3 to 100 hours) to allow for sample creep. Testing was carried out at 190, 382, 813, and 850oC. Isothermal stress relaxation testing was performed at temperatures of 190, 382, 813, and 850oC and initial loads of 100 and 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa). Gradient stress relaxation testing was intended to be performed at temperatures of 850/450oC and 450/190oC with initial loads of 100 or 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa) performed under constant strain utilizing a twelve-step loading scheme with loading every half hour at a rate of 5.56% strain/hour.

  5. The effects of diisopropylmethylphosphonate on female mink: how medical intervention biased mortality data.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2003-12-01

    This analysis retrospectively assessed the likelihood that medical intervention masked effects of diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) on female mink. Bucci et al. [Two-generation reproductive study in mink fed DIMP. Final report. Study no. TP-001. Prepared by Pathology Associates International, Jefferson, AR, USA, 1997] medically intervened in 24 out of 174 female mink to prevent mortality after an overdose of anesthetic was believed to have induced a life-threatening stress-syndrome. Bucci et al. [loc. cit.] dismissed the biological significance of the intervention since intervention occurred similarly in controls and treatment groups. The present investigation revealed that more (3-fold) DIMP-treated female mink surviving the intervention had abnormal physiological/clinical parameters at the time of intervention (9/10) than control female mink (3/9) (P<0.1). In addition, the severity of the physiological/clinical abnormalities increased with dose. These findings indicate that the DIMP treated female mink were more likely to have benefited from the intervention than the controls. The intervention, therefore, reduced the likelihood of observing treatment-related effects. PMID:14623478

  6. Nucleotide sequence analysis of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus shows that multiple virus types are present in infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalck, E; Alexandersen, S; Cohn, A; Poulsen, L A; Bloom, M E; Aasted, B

    1991-01-01

    Different isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were cloned and nucleotide sequenced. Analysis of individual clones from two in vivo-derived isolates of high virulence indicated that more than one type of ADV DNA were present in each of these isolates. Analysis of several clones from two preparations of a cell culture-adapted isolate of low virulence showed the presence of only one type of ADV DNA. We also describe the nucleotide sequence from map units 44 to 88 of a new type of ADV DNA. The new type of ADV DNA is compared with the previously published ADV sequences, to which it shows 95% homology. These findings indicate that ADV, a single-stranded DNA virus, has a considerable degree of variability and that several virus types can be present simultaneously in an infected animal. PMID:1649336

  7. Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers, Adam A.; Cotner, Lisa A.; Wolff, Patrick J.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Heske, Edward J.; Schooley, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of droughts and intensity of seasonal precipitation in many regions. Semiaquatic mammals should be vulnerable to this increased variability in precipitation, especially in human-modified landscapes where dispersal to suitable habitat or temporary refugia may be limited. Using six years of presence-absence data (2007–2012) spanning years of record-breaking drought and flood conditions, we evaluated regional occupancy dynamics of American mink (Neovison vison) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in a highly altered agroecosystem in Illinois, USA. We used noninvasive sign surveys and a multiseason occupancy modeling approach to estimate annual occupancy rates for both species and related these rates to summer precipitation. We also tracked radiomarked individuals to assess mortality risk for both species when moving in terrestrial areas. Annual model-averaged estimates of occupancy for mink and muskrat were correlated positively to summer precipitation. Mink and muskrats were widespread during a year (2008) with above-average precipitation. However, estimates of site occupancy declined substantially for mink (0.56) and especially muskrats (0.09) during the severe drought of 2012. Mink are generalist predators that probably use terrestrial habitat during droughts. However, mink had substantially greater risk of mortality away from streams. In comparison, muskrats are more restricted to aquatic habitats and likely suffered high mortality during the drought. Our patterns are striking, but a more mechanistic understanding is needed of how semiaquatic species in human-modified ecosystems will respond ecologically in situ to extreme weather events predicted by climate-change models. PMID:26284916

  8. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  9. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  10. Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) boings detected at the Station ALOHA Cabled Observatory.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Julie N; Au, Whitlow W L; Duennebier, Fred

    2011-05-01

    Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the tropical North Pacific are elusive and difficult to detect visually. The recent association of a unique sound called the "boing" to North Pacific minke whales has made it possible to use passive acoustics to investigate the occurrence of this species in Hawaiian waters. One year of recordings (17 February 2007-18 February 2008) made at the Station ALOHA Cabled Observatory were examined to investigate the characteristics of boings and temporal patterns in their occurrence at this site, located 100 km north of Oahu. Characteristics of boings exhibited low variability. Pulse repetition rate and duration measurements matched those for "central" or "Hawaii" boing types. Boings were detected from October until May, with a peak in March. Although no boings were detected from June to September, the absence of boings does not necessarily indicate the absence of minke whales. Significant diel variation in boing rate was not observed. The absence of a diel pattern in boing production suggests that day- or night-time acoustic surveys are equally acceptable methods for studying minke whale occurrence. Future research should include efforts to determine what other sounds are produced by minke whales in this area, and which age/sex classes produce boings. PMID:21568435

  11. Using trace elements in skin to discriminate the populations of minke whales in southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Watanabe, Izumi; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of 12 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, and Hg) were determined in liver and skin tissues of minke whales from various regions within the Antarctic Ocean. Cd concentrations in livers of southern minke whale were apparently higher than those in cetaceans from other regions, while Hg concentrations were lower. There were significant positive correlations between body length and concentrations of Cd and Hg in the liver. The concentrations of all trace elements in the skin were lower than those in other cetaceans reported previously. Significant positive correlations between liver and skin were found for Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, and Cs, implying that the concentrations of these trace elements in the skin reflect those of internal organs. Large interannual variation of the accumulation pattern of trace elements in the skin was observed for the southern minke whales from Area V. There were significant differences in the skin element concentrations among Areas III, IV, and V, especially for males. Also, discriminant analysis between geographically two different groups collected during 1995/1996 austral summer season, based on the concentrations of trace elements in the skin, allowed for a correct classification of 90% of these minke whales. These results suggest that measurement of trace elements in skin samples could provide valuable information on the status of contamination and possible geographic differences in the accumulation levels in southern minke whales. PMID:11824827

  12. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted. PMID:20025655

  13. Detailed transcription map of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Perryman, S

    1988-01-01

    We studied the transcription program of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) by using a combination of cDNA cloning and sequencing, primer extension, and Northern (RNA) blot hybridization with splice-specific oligonucleotides. The 4.8-kilobase ADV genome was transcribed in the rightward direction, yielding plus-sense polyadenylated transcripts of 4.3 (R1 RNA), 2.8 (R2), 2.8 (R3), 1.1 (RX), and 0.85 (R2') kilobases. Each RNA transcript had potential translation initiation sites within open reading frames, suggesting protein translation, and a scheme encompassing ADV structural and nonstructural proteins is proposed. Each of the five RNA transcripts had a characteristic set of splices and originated from a promoter at nucleotide 152 (map unit 3 [R1, R2, R2', and RX]) or at nucleotide 1729 (map unit 36 [R3]). The transcripts terminated with a poly(A) tail at one of two positions: either at map unit 53 (R2' and RX) or at map unit 92 (R1, R2, and R3). Similarities with and differences from the transcription maps of other parvoviruses are discussed, and possible roles of the unique features found in ADV transcription are related to the special pathogenic features of this virus. Images PMID:2843669

  14. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  15. Fecal progestin concentrations as an indicator of reproductive success in American Mink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinyan; Wei, Haijun; Xue, Hailong; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Weigang; Xu, Chao; Wang, Shiyong; Diao, Yunfei; Rose, Jack; Xu, Baozeng

    2016-02-01

    Efforts to increase mink reproductive success (live births and litter sizes) can be partly assessed by measurement of blood progesterone levels. However, the stress of blood sampling increases the incidence of failed matings, aborted fetuses and death of the dam. We have therefore non-invasively measured fecal progesterone metabolite (progestin) concentrations during the reproductive cycle of mink. We tested the hypothesis that fecal progestin concentrations during the window of implantation (late March-early April) will, (1): be higher for whelping than non-whelping mink, and (2): be higher for mink mated multiple times, compared to single matings. Mink were mated once (March 3), twice (March 3 and 10) or three times (March 3, 10 and 11) and fecal progestin concentrations determined from March 1 to April 30. The percent mink in each group giving birth to live offspring was 42.8%, 80.8% and 92.3% for mink mated once, twice or three times, respectively (P<0.05). Litter sizes did not differ among mink mated once (5.22±0.55), twice (6.29±0.35) or three times (6.08±0.32; P>0.05). Mean fecal progestin concentrations from mating to diapause (March 19) did not differ between mink that whelped or not, nor in response to the number of times mated. However, mean fecal progestin concentrations for mink that whelped were higher on March 25 (peri-implantation) than March 19 after being mated once (51.96±2.96 vs 23.53±1.89nM/g dry wt; P<0.05), twice (66.00±1.60 vs 25.57±1.28nM/g dry wt; P<0.05) or three times (66.48±1.42/g vs 19.16±1.09nM/g dry wt; P<0.05). During implantation (April 5), mean fecal progestin concentrations for mink that whelped after being mated once (146.60±10.02nM/g dry wt), twice (162.10±5.64nM/g dry wt) or three times (188.50±3.92nM/g dry wt) were significantly higher than for those that failed to whelp; 119.30±8.87nM/g dry wt, 77.84±5.86nM/g dry wt. and 118.9±6.55nM/g dry wt., respectively (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that measurement of

  16. A natural reassortant and mutant serotype 3 reovirus from mink in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Wu; Liu, Ye; Lian, Hai; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) are widespread and infect virtually all mammals. We report here the first case of a natural mutant and reassortant serotype 3 reovirus from mink in China, known as MRV3 SD-14. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed that the MRV3 SD-14 may have resulted from a reassortment involving MRVs that infected swine, humans and mink. Interestingly, the S1 segment, which encodes the viral attachment protein σ1, which influences viral virulence and cell tropism in the host, had a stop codon mutation at amino acid 246. Surveillance of the virulence and evolution of MRVs in humans and other animals deserves more attention. PMID:26573525

  17. Genome structure of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus in epithelial mink lung cells transformed vitro by iododeoxyuridine-induced C3H/MuLV cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, U R; Birkenmeier, E; Bonner, T I; Gonda, M A; Gunnell, M

    1983-01-01

    We characterized mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses that were isolated from C3H/MCA-5 cells after induction with 5-iododeoxyuridine in culture. Mink lung epithelial cells malignantly transformed in vitro by induced virus were the source of four molecular clones of mink cell focus-forming virus. CI-1, CI-2, CI-3, and CI-4. Three clones, CI-1, CI-2, and CI-3, had full-length mink cell focus-forming viral genomes, one of which (CI-3) was infectious. In addition, we obtained a defective viral genome (CI-4) which had a deletion in the envelope gene. A comparison between the envelope genes of CI-4 and those of spleen focus-forming virus by heteroduplex mapping showed close homology in the substitution region and defined the deletion as being identical to the p15E deletion of spleen focus-forming virus. The recombinant mink cell focus-forming genomes are not endogenous in C3H/MCA-5 cells and therefore must have been formed in culture after induction by 5-iododeoxyuridine. CI-3, the infectious clone of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus, was dualtropic, and mink cells infected with CI-3 were altered in their response to epidermal growth factor. In the presence of epidermal growth factor at 10 ng/ml, uninfected mink cells retained their epithelial morphology in monolayer culture and did not form colonies in soft agar. In contrast, CI-3 virus-infected mink cells grew with fibroblastic morphology in monolayer culture and showed an increased growth rate in soft agar in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Images PMID:6300431

  18. Studies on the mechanism of the acute and carcinogenic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on mink liver

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, P.E.; Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Lopez, A.J.; Castro, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of liver necrosis and liver hemangiosarcoma were detected in a mink breeding colony in Argentina. Analysis of the Minks' food revealed the presence of 2.6 ppm dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) in it, apparently as a result of the addition of nitrite as preservative. Previous studies gave evidence of the particular susceptibility of minks to NDMA and other hepatic insults. The authors have determined several biochemical parameters known to correlate with NDMA hepatotoxic effects and compared with them those in rat liver. NDMA administration to both species resulted in the formation of reactive metabolites able to interact with liver DNA to give N/sup 7/-methylguanine and O/sup 6/-methylguanine adducts. Biotransformation of NDMA by liver slices to CO/sub 2/ was significantly lower in the mink than in the rat, whereas the covalent binding (CB) to nucleic acids was slightly lower than in the rat. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also significantly less in mink than in rat liver. The CB of NDMA reactive metabolites to microsomal proteins was not significantly lower in mink as compared to the rat, and the same holds true for the biotransformation of NDMA to formaldehyde by microsomal preparations. Results suggest that the high susceptibility of minks to NDMA might be partially due to a decreased ability to detoxicate NDMA but also a higher intrinsic susceptibility of their liver cells to a given chemical insult.

  19. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  20. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  1. Reproductive failure in mink and ferrets after intravenous or oral inoculation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J A; Manning, D D

    1990-01-01

    Four pregnant mink and seven pregnant ferrets, including five with previous exposure and specific antibody, were injected intravenously with 10(8)-10(10) colony-forming units of Campylobacter jejuni. All 11 pregnancies failed 1-16 days after infection, with results ranging from fetal resorption to expulsion of dead or premature living kits. In every case, uterine contents (placenta, uterine fluid and/or kits) were culture-positive for C. jejuni. Three pregnant mink and nine pregnant ferrets, including four with previous exposure and antibody, were fed 10(9)-10(11) C. jejuni. Two of the mink aborted; kits of all three were culture-positive, but those of one female survived. Seven of the nine ferrets aborted, with two having culture-positive uterine contents. None of 28 uninfected ferret control pregnancies ended in abortion. The most prominent histological feature observed was severe placentitis, which appears to be a more likely cause of Campylobacter-induced abortion than direct pathogenic effects on infected kits. These results suggest that infection of mink or ferrets with C. jejuni during pregnancy poses a serious risk of reproductive failure, even for previously exposed females. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2249178

  2. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program. PMID:23426800

  3. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. PMID:25865465

  4. Feeding rates and under-ice foraging strategies of the smallest lunge filter feeder, the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Goldbogen, J A; Nowacek, D P; Read, A J; Johnston, D; Gales, N

    2014-08-15

    Body size and feeding mode are two fundamental characteristics that determine foraging performance and ecological niche. As the smallest obligate lunge filter feeders, minke whales represent an ideal system for studying the physical and energetic limits of filter feeding in endotherms. We used multi-sensor suction cup tags to quantify the feeding performance of Antarctic minke whales. Foraging dives around and beneath sea ice contained up to 24 lunges per dive, the highest feeding rates for any lunge-feeding whale. Their small size allows minke whales access to krill in sea-ice environments not easily accessible to larger baleen whales. Furthermore, their ability to filter feed provides an advantage over other smaller sympatric krill predators such as penguins and seals that feed on individual prey. The unique combination of body size, feeding mechanism and sea-ice habitat of Antarctic minke whales defines a previously undocumented energetic niche that is unique among aquatic vertebrates. PMID:25122916

  5. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  6. Polyamine-Mediated Effects of Prolactin Dictate Emergence from Mink Obligate Embryonic Diapause.

    PubMed

    Fenelon, Jane C; Banerjee, Arnab; Lefèvre, Pavine; Gratian, Fanélie; Murphy, Bruce D

    2016-07-01

    Embryonic diapause is an evolutionary strategy to ensure that offspring are born when maternal and environmental conditions are optimal for survival. In many species of carnivores, obligate embryonic diapause occurs in every gestation. Reciprocal embryo transplant studies indicate that embryo arrest during diapause is conferred by uterine conditions and is due to a lack of specific factors necessary for continued development. In previous studies, global gene expression analysis revealed reduced uterine expression during diapause of a cluster of genes in the mink that regulate the abundance of polyamines, including ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1). In addition, in vivo inhibition of the conversion of ornithine to the polyamine, putrescine, induced a reversible arrest in mink embryonic development and an arrest in trophoblast cell proliferation in vitro. Previous studies have implicated prolactin as the principal endocrine signal to terminate diapause. In this study, uterine expression of both the progesterone and estrogen receptors remained low at reactivation whilst the prolactin receptor was expressed at all times. Treatment of mink uterine epithelial cells with varying doses of prolactin indicated that this hormone induces ODC1 expression in the uterus via pSTAT1 and mTOR, thereby regulating uterine polyamine levels. In addition, we performed global gene expression analysis on mink embryos to further explore dynamic changes during diapause and found 94 genes upregulated at reactivation from diapause. Three polyamine-related genes, including ODC1, were also upregulated at reactivation from diapause. To establish whether polyamines mitigate escape from embryonic diapause, we collected mink embryos in diapause and incubated them in vitro with putrescine. Increase in embryo volume, the first indication of emergence from diapause, was observed within the first 5 days of culture in all viable embryos treated with putrescine, and the duration of embryo survival was

  7. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  8. Genetic polymorphism of IgG in mink. II. A genetic analysis of allotypes.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, D K; Fomicheva, I I; Taranin, A V; Baranov, O K

    1986-01-01

    Population distribution and inheritance pattern were analyzed in mink IgG allotypes: L1 (L chains), H2, H3, H4, H6, H7, and H8 (the constant region of the H chains, i.e. C gamma-allotypes) and conformational allotype 5 with unknown chain localization. Contrary to expectation, neither allelism, nor close linkage were demonstrated for these allotypes. The major feature of the inheritance of H2, H3, and H4 C gamma-allotypes, as well as allotype 5, was significant excess of negative (without these allotypes) progeny in the F1 generation from monohybrid cross. The explanation offered for this departure of the C gamma-allotypes from normal Mendelian genetics suggests widespread latencies of their expression in mink. PMID:3274048

  9. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  10. The identification, typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Li, Lulu; Du, Yijun; Wang, Shourong; Wang, Jinwen; Luo, Yanbo; Che, Jie; Lu, Jinxing; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Li, Jixia; Gong, Yanwen; Wang, Guisheng; Hu, Ming; Shiganyan; Liu, Yuqing

    2014-06-01

    The biological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with mink hemorrhagic pneumonia from Shandong province of eastern China were determined in this study. From 2010 to 2011, 30 mink P. aeruginosa isolates were identified from lung, fecal and feed samples of clinical cases and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. The P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to four serotypes-21 of type G, four of type I, three of type M, one of type B, and one non-typable strain. The strains were divided into four large groups as determined by PFGE. Isolates from the group 2 were highly homologous and were obtained from the same region as an epidemic. All of the isolates were sensitive to piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin and resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil. A high frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.7%). Resistance to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was less common (13.3%). There was no relationship between antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of the isolates. The epidemic serotype of P. aeruginosa from the mink hemorrhagic pneumonia in Shandong province was type G, which was a clone of commonly found in this province. These findings reveal the genetic similarities and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of P. aeruginosa from clinical cases of mink hemorrhagic pneumonia and will facilitate the prevention and control of the disease in Shandong province of China. PMID:24629901

  11. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life. PMID:25637861

  12. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE. PMID:16557957

  13. Cellular and Humoral Antibody Responses of Normal Pastel and Sapphire Mink to Goat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, D. L.; Bergman, R. K.; Hadlow, W. J.; Munoz, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 106 cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE. PMID:16557957

  14. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 8: Experimental study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive success in mink

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Lewis, L.

    1999-04-01

    As a component of an ecological risk assessment of Poplar Creek (located on the Oak Ridge Reservation [ORR]) and the Clinch River (a large river-reservoir system), fish from Poplar Creek, the Clinch River, and Atlantic Ocean were fed to ranch mink to evaluate reproductive success. Five diets, each composed of 75% fish and 25% normal ranch mink chow, were prepared. Two diets served as reference diets and contained 75% Atlantic Ocean fish or 75% Clinch River fish collected above the ORR. The fish portion of the remaining three diets contained 25, 50, and 75% fish collected from Poplar Creek and 50, 25, and 0% ocean fish, respectively. Five mink groups (eight females and two males each) were each fed one of the prepared diets for 196 days. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in diets and various mink tissues, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined in liver tissue, and reproductive success was evaluated. Concentrations of PCB were greatest in the diet composed of 75% Poplar Creek fish and in tissues from mink fed this diet and their offspring. There was a trend toward decreased adult female and kit weights and reduced mean litter size in mink fed diets containing 75% Poplar Creek fish; however, at 6 weeks of age, kit survival was similar among diet groups. Liver EROD activity significantly increased in adult female mink fed 50 and 75% Poplar Creek fish diets. Estimated dietary concentrations of PCBs were similar to or slightly lower than concentrations associated with adverse effects in experimentally dosed mink. Mercury (Hg) concentrations previously reported in these same mink were below that associated with adverse effects, and there was no indication of additive or synergistic effects from exposure to PCBs plus Hg. It is unlikely that population-level reproductive effects would be observed in mink consuming fish from Poplar Creek on the ORR.

  15. Regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel by MinK and MiRP1

    PubMed Central

    McCrossan, Zoe A.; Roepke, Torsten K.; Lewis, Anthony; Panaghie, Gianina; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Kv2.1 is a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel α subunit expressed in mammalian heart and brain. MinK-related peptides (MiRPs), encoded by KCNE genes, are single transmembrane domain ancillary subunits that form complexes with Kv channel α subunits to modify their function. Mutations in human MinK (KCNE1) and MiRP1 (KCNE2) are associated with inherited and acquired forms of long QT syndrome (LQTS). Here, co-immunoprecipitations from rat heart tissue suggested that both MinK and MiRP1 form native cardiac complexes with Kv2.1. In whole-cell voltage clamp studies of subunits expressed in CHO cells, rat MinK and MiRP1 reduced Kv2.1 current density 3- and 2-fold respectively, slowed Kv2.1 activation (at +60 mV) 2- and 3-fold respectively, and each slowed Kv2.1 deactivation <2-fold. Human MinK slowed Kv2.1 activation 25%, while human MiRP1 slowed Kv2.1 activation and deactivation 2-fold. Inherited mutations in human MinK and MiRP1, previously associated with LQTS, were also evaluated. D76N-MinK and S74L-MinK reduced Kv2.1 current density (3-fold and 40%, respectively) and slowed deactivation (60 and 80%, respectively). Compared to wild-type human MiRP1-Kv2.1 complexes, channels formed with M54T- or I57T-MiRP1 showed greatly slowed activation (10-fold and 5-fold, respectively). The data broaden the potential roles of MinK and MiRP1 in cardiac physiology and support the possibility that inherited mutations in either subunit could contribute to cardiac arrhythmia by multiple mechanisms. PMID:19219384

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a “phiKMV-Like” Bacteriophage and Its Therapeutic Effect on Mink Hemorrhagic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D.; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the “phiKMV-like Viruses” group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization. PMID:25615639

  17. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization. PMID:25615639

  18. Structure and dynamics of minke whale surfacing patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Lynas, Ned M; Lusseau, David; Tscherter, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavioral patterns can help us understand physiological and ecological constraints on animals and its influence on fitness. The surfacing patterns of aquatic air-breathing mammals constitute a behavioral pattern that has evolved as a trade-off between the need to replenish oxygen stores at the surface and the need to conduct other activities underwater. This study aims to better understand the surfacing pattern of a marine top predator, the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), by investigating how their dive duration and surfacing pattern changes across their activity range. Activities were classified into resting, traveling, surface feeding and foraging at depth. For each activity, we classified dives into short and long dives and then estimated the temporal dependence between dive types. We found that minke whales modified their surfacing pattern in an activity-specific manner, both by changing the expression of their dives (i.e. density distribution) and the temporal dependence (transition probability) between dive types. As the depth of the prey layer increased between activities, the surfacing pattern of foraging whales became increasingly structured, going from a pattern dominated by long dives, when feeding at the surface, to a pattern where isolated long dives were followed by an increasing number of breaths (i.e. short dives), when the whale was foraging at depth. A similar shift in surfacing pattern occurred when prey handling time (inferred from surface corralling maneuvers) increased for surface feeding whales. The surfacing pattern also differed between feeding and non-feeding whales. Resting whales did not structure their surfacing pattern, while traveling whales did, possibly as a way to minimize cost of transport. Our results also suggest that minke whales might balance their oxygen level over multiple, rather than single, dive cycles. PMID:25970425

  19. Structure and Dynamics of Minke Whale Surfacing Patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Lusseau, David; Tscherter, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavioral patterns can help us understand physiological and ecological constraints on animals and its influence on fitness. The surfacing patterns of aquatic air-breathing mammals constitute a behavioral pattern that has evolved as a trade-off between the need to replenish oxygen stores at the surface and the need to conduct other activities underwater. This study aims to better understand the surfacing pattern of a marine top predator, the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), by investigating how their dive duration and surfacing pattern changes across their activity range. Activities were classified into resting, traveling, surface feeding and foraging at depth. For each activity, we classified dives into short and long dives and then estimated the temporal dependence between dive types. We found that minke whales modified their surfacing pattern in an activity-specific manner, both by changing the expression of their dives (i.e. density distribution) and the temporal dependence (transition probability) between dive types. As the depth of the prey layer increased between activities, the surfacing pattern of foraging whales became increasingly structured, going from a pattern dominated by long dives, when feeding at the surface, to a pattern where isolated long dives were followed by an increasing number of breaths (i.e. short dives), when the whale was foraging at depth. A similar shift in surfacing pattern occurred when prey handling time (inferred from surface corralling maneuvers) increased for surface feeding whales. The surfacing pattern also differed between feeding and non-feeding whales. Resting whales did not structure their surfacing pattern, while traveling whales did, possibly as a way to minimize cost of transport. Our results also suggest that minke whales might balance their oxygen level over multiple, rather than single, dive cycles. PMID:25970425

  20. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  1. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of

  2. [The antagonistic properties of microaerophilic bacteria isolated from the human and mink digestive tracts].

    PubMed

    Sudenko, V I; Groma, L I; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    1996-01-01

    Study of antagonistic properties of microaerophilic bacteria isolated from human and mink gastroenteric tract have helped to establish differences in species composition, quantity and level of antagonistic activity of the studied microorganisms in respect to pathogenic microflora. It is shown that lactic acid bacteria identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and L. reuteri prevail among the strains isolated from the stomach and thin intestine of minks kept in the 30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP. Species composition of microaerophilic bacteria isolated from the digestive tract of the control minks is more variable. Antagonistically active bifidobacteria prevail in large intestine of experimental and control animals. Strains of lactic acid bacteria with the expressed antagonistic activity belonging to L. bavaricus, L. reuteri, L. coryniformis and L. maltaromicus have been found parallel with such known producers of antibiotic-like substances as L. fermentum. L. acidophilum. Streptococcus faecalis and bifidobacteria. L. maltaromicus most frequently occurred among antagonistically active strains revealed in feces of people which stayed in the zone of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident. Microaerophilic strains of bacteria (lactic acid, bifidobacteria and enterococci) manifest the expressed antagonistic activity connected with the capacity to not only acid formation but also to accumulation of antibiotic products of unknown nature. A strain of lactic acid bacteria L. fermentum 91 has been isolated from the contents of human gastroenteric tract. These bacteria are distinguished by most expressed and stable antagonism and characterized by the lack of pathogenicity in respect of albino mice that may be used to raise the microorganism resistance to gastric diseases. PMID:9044713

  3. Comparative toxicology of tetrachlorobiphenyls in mink and rats. I. Changes in hepatic enzyme activity and smooth endoplasmic reticulum volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.M.; Corey, R.D.; Helferich, W.G.; McFarland, J.M.; Lowenstine, L.J.; Moody, D.E.; Hammock, B.D.; Shull, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Mink have been shown previously to be extraordinarily sensitive to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related classes of halogenated hydrocarbons. This study explored several aspects of the acute response of mink to two purified tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) congeners and compared their response with that of the rat, a less sensitive and more thoroughly studied species. Young female pastel mink and young female Sprague-Dawley rats received three daily intraperitoneal injections with equimolar doses of either 2,4,2',4'-TCB or 3,4,3',4'-TCB, and were sacrificed after 7 days. Two control groups were used for each species; one was allowed free access to food and the other was pair-fed to the 3,4,3',4'-TCB treatment group. Rats remained clinically normal, while mink treated with 3,4,3',4'-TCB developed severe anorexia, diarrhea, and melena. Both species had significant increases in hepatic cytochrome P-450 content and the characteristic shift in the spectral maxima from 450 to 448 nm in the 3,4,3',4'-TCB- but not in the 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated animals. Rats but not mink had increased activities of several hepatic monooxygenases in response to both congeners while microsomal epoxide hydrolase was increased in rats after 2,4,2',4'-TCB and in mink after 3,4,3',4'-TCB. Significant increases in the relative volume of smooth endoplasmic reticulum within hepatocytes of 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated rats but not mink were confirmed by ultrastructural morphometry. Accumulation of both congeners was greater in adipose tissue than in the liver of either species. In both species, concentrations in adipose tissue were much greater for 2,4,2',4'-TCB than for 3,4,3',4'-TCB. PCB toxicosis in mink, as in other species, appeared to be dependent on isomeric arrangement of chlorine substituents. However, unlike other species, the toxicosis was not associated with biochemical or morphological evidence of hepatic enzyme induction.

  4. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2009-09-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  5. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bickham, J.W.; Mazet, J.A.; Blake, J.; Smolen, M.J.; Lou, Y.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the genotoxic effects of crude oil on mink and sea otters, In the first experiment, the effects on mink of chronic exposure to weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil were studied, Female mink were fed a diet that included weathered crude oil for a period of 3 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Kits were exposed through lactation and by diet after weaning until 4 months of age. Kidney and liver tissues of the kits were examined using flow cytometry (FCM) and it was found that the genome size was increased in kidney samples from the experimental group compared to the control group. This effect was probably due to some type of DNA amplification and it could have been inherited from the exposed mothers or have been a somatic response to oil exposure in the pups, No evidence of clastogenic effects, as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the G(1) peak, was found in kidney or liver tissue. In the second experiment, yearling female mink were exposed either by diet or externally to crude oil or bunker C fuel oil. Evidence for clastogenic damage was found in spleen tissue for the exposure groups, but not in kidney tissue. No evidence of increased genome size was observed. In the third experiment, blood was obtained from wild-caught sea otters in Prince William Sound. The sea otters represented two populations: one from western Prince William Sound that was potentially exposed to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a reference population from eastern Prince William Sound that did not receive oil from the spill. The spill had occurred 1.5 years prior to obtaining the blood samples. Although the mean CVs did not differ between the populations, the exposed population had a significantly higher variance of CV measurements and five out of 15 animals from the exposed population had CVs higher than the 95% confidence limits of the reference population, It is concluded that FCM is a sensitive indicator

  6. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  7. The effects of diisopropylmethylphosphonate, a by-product of the production of sarin and a contaminant in drinking water at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, on female mink.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2003-04-01

    This paper challenges the interpretation of the report on the effects of DIMP on mink with respect to mortality causation and organ-specific toxicity (i.e., liver, kidney, and thymus). During the second generation (F(1)) of a two generation toxicity study by on the effects of DIMP on female brown Ranch Wild mink, a cluster of six premature deaths occurred, being attributed to an unintentional anesthetic overdose that induced a stress-related syndrome rather than DIMP exposure. The present paper reveals that the six adult female mink (i.e., four DIMP treated and two controls) had medical conditions that pre-existed the administration of anesthetic. Three of the four DIMP-exposed mink that died displayed evidence of medically significant red blood cell damage and immune system involvement, while all six mink had elevated blood serum enzymes (ALT/AST) indicative of liver damage along with confirmatory histopathology indicating severe liver damage. These findings challenge the conclusion of Bucci et al. that the six mink deaths were solely caused by stress induced by anesthesia, and suggest DIMP related pre-existing conditions (e.g., red blood cell damage and elevated ALT/AST) may have contributed to the deaths in DIMP-treated mink. also inexplicably combined both the pregnant and non-pregnant animal data, thereby precluding an assessment of the effects of DIMP on pregnant and non-pregnant mink. A re-evaluation of the findings of the data revealed that pregnancy/lactation significantly influenced the incidence of physiologic alterations and histological lesions in the female mink for the kidney, liver, and thymus, findings that were masked by the combining of pregnant and non-pregnant results. Further evaluations indicated that DIMP treatment also significantly induced liver lesions in pregnant mink and kidney lesions in both pregnant and non-pregnant mink. These findings challenge the conclusions of Bucci et al. concerning the effects of DIMP on mink as well as

  8. A frameshift mutation in the LYST gene is responsible for the Aleutian color and the associated Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in American mink.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Krogh, A K; Christensen, K

    2013-04-01

    One of the colors of mink is Aleutian (aa)-a specific gun-metal gray pigmentation of the fur-commonly used in combination with other color loci to generate popular colors such as Violet (aammpp) and Sapphire (aapp). The Aleutian color allele is a manifestation of mink Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), which has been described in humans and several other species. As with forms of CHS in other species, we report that the mink CHS is linked to the lysosomal trafficking regulator ( LYST ) gene. Furthermore, we have identified a base deletion (c.9468delC) in exon 40 of LYST, which causes a frameshift and virtually terminates the LYST product prematurely (p.Leu3156Phefs*37). We investigated the blood parameters of three wild-type mink and three CHS mink. No difference in the platelet number between the two groups was observed, but an accumulation of platelets between the groups appears different when collagen is used as a coagulant. Microscopic analysis of peripheral blood indicates giant inclusions in the neutrophils of the Aleutian mink types. Molecular findings at the LYST locus enable the development of genetic tests for analyzing the color selection in American mink. PMID:22762706

  9. Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Denise; Gales, Nicholas J.; Gedamke, Jason; Kindermann, Lars; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Read, Andrew J.; Siebert, Ursula; Van Opzeeland, Ilse C.; Van Parijs, Sofie M.; Friedlaender, Ari S.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action. PMID:24759372

  10. Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Risch, Denise; Gales, Nicholas J; Gedamke, Jason; Kindermann, Lars; Nowacek, Douglas P; Read, Andrew J; Siebert, Ursula; Van Opzeeland, Ilse C; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Friedlaender, Ari S

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action. PMID:24759372

  11. Noninvasive monitoring of female reproductive hormone metabolites in the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola).

    PubMed

    Nagl, Astrid; Kneidinger, Nadja; Kiik, Kairi; Lindeberg, Heli; Maran, Tiit; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the reproductive physiology of female European mink (Mustela lutreola) to augment the available information on estrus, ovulation, and pregnancy with the long-term goal of supporting ex situ breeding management of this highly endangered species. Fecal reproductive hormone metabolites were measured using EIAs for estrogen and 20-oxo-pregnane metabolites. Seasonal hormone profiles were established. A comparison of hormone fluctuations in pregnant and nonpregnant females showed that both estrogen and 20-oxo-pregnane metabolites were significantly elevated during gestation, which is 42 days in length. Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause does not occur in this species. Litter size was correlated with 20-oxo-pregnane levels but not with estrogen concentrations. During lactation, 20-oxo-pregnane metabolite levels remained higher than in nonpregnant females. The breeding season was characterized by peaks in vaginal cornified cells and fecal estrogen metabolite levels. Up to four peaks in estrogen levels were identified and confirmed that European mink are seasonally polyestrous. The results of 20-oxo-pregnane measurements indicated that hCG can be applied to induce ovulation. With the establishment of this noninvasive method, we present a new tool to support population management of this species. PMID:26324114

  12. [Bioactive Effect of the Preparation Biostyl on the Reproductive Function of Different Genotypes of American Mink].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Zemljanitskajia, E I; Rasputina, O V; Naumkin, I V; Trapezova, L I

    2016-01-01

    The different role of coat color mutations in the American mink on the per os effect of the biologically active preparation Biostyl was shown. The number of kits per female was the same in all control genotypes, including Standard (+/+ +/+), sapphire (a/a p/p), and lavender (a/a m/m): 4.4 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 0.5, and 4.3 ± 0.5, respectively. Experimental groups of these genotypes have shown a great contrast among each other: stimulation of the reproductive function was 5.2 ± 0.3 in Standard minks, while suppression of the reproductive function was 3.8 ± 0.6, and 2.3 ± 0.5 in the double recessive mutants sapphire and lavender, respectively. The differentiation in body mass between experimental and control newborn Standard kits was not revealed. A significant decrease in the body mass of newborn experimental sapphire kits as compared to control group in a sex-specific manner was registered. PMID:27183801

  13. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkin, Alexander V.; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I. PMID:26794607

  14. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Uttenthal, Ase; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a severe progressive disease causing multiple different clinical syndromes in mink. In Denmark, the disease is notifiable and under official control. The control programme, based on serological screening, has confined successfully AMDV to the northern part of Denmark. However, re-infections and new introductions of virus into farms require a confirmatory virological test to verify the positive test results of single animals and ultimately to investigate disease transmission. A one step PCR amplifying a 374-base fragment of the NS1 gene of AMDV was compared to the counter-current immune electrophoresis (CIE) routinely used in the serological screening programme. Mink organs (n=299) obtained from 55 recently infected farms and 8 non-infected farms from 2008 to 2010 were tested by PCR, and the results were found to have a high correlation with the serological status of the mink. The relative diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 94.7%, and the relative diagnostic specificity was 97.9% when read in parallel with the CIE. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity within the analysed AMDV strains and to AMDV strains described previously. PMID:20951744

  15. Mink aging is associated with a reduction in ovarian hormone release and the response to FSH and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karina; Lauričik, Jozef; Morovič, Martin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-09-15

    The endocrine mechanisms of mink ovarian hormones release and reproductive aging are poorly investigated. The aims of our study were to: (1) identify hormones produced by mink ovaries (the steroids progesterone [P] and estradiol [E], the peptide hormone oxytocin [OT], and the prostaglandin F [PGF] and prostaglandin E [PGE]); (2) examine the effect of FSH and ghrelin on the release of the hormones listed previously; and (3) understand whether these hormones can be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging, i.e., whether aging can be associated with changes (a) in the basal release of P, E, OT, PGF, or PGE and (b) their response to FSH and ghrelin. Fragments of ovaries of young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks were cultured with and without FSH and ghrelin (0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL), and the release of hormones was analyzed by EIA/RIA. We found that isolated ovaries were able to release P, E, OT, PGF, and PGE, and the levels of P produced in the ovaries of old animals were lower than those produced in the ovaries of young animals, whereas the levels of other hormones did not differ. FSH was able to stimulate P and E and suppress OT and PGF and did not affect PGE release. Aging was associated with the inhibition of the effect of FSH on ovarian P and E, the appearance of the inhibitory action of FSH on OT, and the disappearance of this action on ovarian PGF. PGE was not affected by FSH, irrespective of animal age. Ghrelin was able to promote E (but not P) and suppress OT, PGF, and PGE output. Aging was associated with the appearance of an inhibitory influence of ghrelin on ovarian OT and PGE and with the disappearance of this influence on PGF output. Aging did not affect the action of ghrelin on ovarian P and E. Our observations (1) confirm the production of P and E and show that OT, PGF, and PGE are released from mink ovaries, (2) confirm the involvement of FSH and demonstrate the involvement of ghrelin in the control of mink ovarian hormone

  16. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    PubMed

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26588800

  17. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. PMID:25667324

  18. The nature of aleutian disease in mink. I. Two forms of hypergammaglobulinemia as related to method of disease transmission and type of lesion.

    PubMed

    Bazeley, P L

    1976-09-01

    Aleutian mink disease is generally considered to precipitate spontaneously in ranch mink, with a lethal outcome. A two-year field study of a herd of susceptible mutant mink (sapphires and violets), however, has shown that all individual mink were affected from birth; the well state consisted of periodic low-level hypergammaglobulinemia accompanied by minute vascular occlusions. The spontaneous lethal change in an individual appeared to arise during one of these hypergammaglobulinemic episodes and thus represented a failure of the immune system to control an inherent virus-induced mononucleosis. The fact that the entire herd was affected by the periodic form from birth is considered strong evidence for vertical transmission at a rate of 100%. The incidence of spontaneous precipitation was found to be dependent on the level of hypergammaglobulinemia in the mother during pregnancy. PMID:977996

  19. A non-spectrogram-correlation method of automatically detecting minke whale boings.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hui; Au, Whitlow W L; Oswald, Julie N

    2012-10-01

    This letter introduces an algorithm for automatic detection of minke whale boing sounds. This method searches for frequency features of boings without calculating the continuous spectrogram of the data, thereby reducing computational time. The detector has been tested on 8 h of acoustic data recorded at the Station ALOHA Cabled Observatory in March 2007. This dataset was previously analyzed using the cross-correlation detector of XBAT and was verified by a human listener, as reported in Oswald et al. [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 3353-3360]. A comparison of results indicates that the detector introduced here generates fewer false alarms, and it recognizes low-SNR calls that are missed by XBAT. PMID:23039571

  20. Topographical analysis of the G virion of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B

    1992-01-01

    The topography of the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) G virion was analyzed with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antiserum. There was homology between the two major structural proteins as others have previously reported. Trypsin treatment of the virion with subsequent immunoblotting revealed that VP2 represents the main peptide on the exterior of virion and that VP1 is probably embedded within the capsid. Additional analyses of the trypsin-treated virions showed that VP2 is responsible for binding complement and that it also represents the structural part of the virion that binds to cellular receptors. A third protein, p34, was detected that might represent a third structural polypeptide because of its many unique epitopes relative to the other peptides detected. PMID:1280944

  1. Comparative anatomy of the vomeronasal cartilage in mammals: mink, cat, dog, pig, cow and horse.

    PubMed

    Salazar, I; Sánchez Quinteiro, P S; Cifuentes, J M

    1995-07-01

    The vomeronasal cartilages of mink, cat, dog, pig, cow and horse were studied by dissection, microdissection and by means of series of transverse sections. In all the species studied the cartilage is of hyaline type and the medial sheet is well-defined and perfectly moulded to the adjacent bone. However, interspecies differences are apparent in the manner in which the medial sheet associates and eventually fuses with the cartilage of the incisive duct; the morphology of the horse vomeronasal cartilage is particularly distinctive in this respect. The lateral sheet of the vomeronasal cartilage, although always present, has a different arrangement in each species studied. Similarly, the gaps in the lateral sheet (corresponding to the opening of the vomeronasal organ) differ among the species studied in form, location and number. PMID:7645743

  2. Isolation and identification of bat viruses closely related to human, porcine and mink orthoreoviruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Lou; Tan, Bing; Wang, Bo; Li, Wen; Wang, Ning; Luo, Chu-Ming; Wang, Mei-Niang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bei; Peng, Cheng; Ge, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2015-12-01

    Bats have been identified as natural reservoirs of many viruses, including reoviruses. Recent studies have demonstrated the interspecies transmission of bat reoviruses to humans. In this study, we report the isolation and molecular characterization of six strains of mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) from Hipposideros and Myotis spp. These isolates were grouped into MRV serotype 1, 2 or 3 based on the sequences of the S1 gene, which encodes the outer coat protein s1. Importantly, we found that three of six bat MRV strains shared high similarity with MRVs isolated from diseased minks, piglets or humans based on the S1 segment, suggesting that interspecies transmission has occurred between bats and humans or animals. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 10 segments showed that the genomic segments of these bat MRVs had different evolution lineages, suggesting that these bat MRVs may have arisen through reassortment of MRVs of different origins. PMID:26475793

  3. Rapid isolation of herpes simplex virus by using mink lung and rhabdomyosarcoma cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S L; Wellens, K; Siegel, C S

    1990-01-01

    Highly sensitive and rapid results can be obtained by isolating herpes simplex virus from clinical specimens in simple cell culture with rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. In this study, 3,186 clinical specimens were inoculated into locally produced, equivalent-age RD and mink lung (ML) cells. Of 727 positive isolates, all (100%) were isolated from RD cells and only 691 (95%) were isolated from ML cells. Furthermore, 162 of the positive isolates (22%) were isolated in RD cells earlier than in ML cells. RD cells are continuous and can be cultivated in house without decreasing sensitivity as the passage number increases. They produce a highly distinguishable cytopathic effect in response to herpes simplex virus and maintain intense confirmatory staining patterns. PMID:2177754

  4. Effects of different dietary manganese levels on growth performance and N balance of growing mink (Neovision vision).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H H; Zhou, N; Zhang, T T; Bao, K; Xu, C; Song, X C; Li, G Y

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary manganese levels on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and N balance of minks during growing period. In experiment 1, 75 healthy male minks (60 days old) were selected and randomly divided into five groups with different types of diet. The diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, 300, and 600 ppm of manganese as MnSO4 of dry matter (DM) in basic diet, respectively. From early July to middle September, the results showed that the final body weights of minks were significantly affected by diets (P < 0.05). Average daily gains (ADG) were significantly higher in the 300-ppm manganese group than those in other groups. The ratio of feed to body weight gain (F/G) was significantly affected by manganese level (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, 45 male minks (75 days old) with the same body weight were selected from each group of experiment 1 to carry out the nutrient digestion and N-balance tests which lasted for 4 days for the collection of the feces and urine, and the diets and treatment codes were same as in experiment 1. The results showed that no significant differences were found in DM, crude protein (CP), and crude carbohydrate (CC) digestibility among all groups (P > 0.05), but ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) digestibility were all the highest in the 300-ppm group. N intake and fecal N were similar among all groups (P > 0.05). Urinary N was lower in the 300-ppm group; in contrast, N retention was higher in this group (P < 0.05). In conclusion of experiment 1 and experiment 2, the diet supplemented with 300 ppm of manganese (as manganese sulfate) could improve the growth performance and increase the EE and GE digestibility of mink during the growing period and moreover reduce the nitrogen emissions to the environment, and the optimal total manganese level in mink's diet was 409.16 in DM during the growing period. PMID:24958021

  5. In situ molecular hybridization for detection of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus DNA by using strand-specific probes: identification of target cells for viral replication in cell cultures and in mink kits with virus-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Wolfinbarger, J; Race, R E

    1987-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were utilized in in situ molecular hybridization specifically to localize replicative form DNA of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Throughout in vitro infection, duplex replicative form DNA of ADV was located in the cell nuclei. Single-stranded virion DNA and capsid proteins were present in the nuclei early in infection, but were later translocated to the cytoplasm. In neonatal mink, ADV causes acute interstitial pneumonia, and replicative forms of viral DNA were found predominantly in alveolar type II cells of the lung. Viral DNA was also found in other organs, but strand-specific probes made it possible to show that most of this DNA represented virus sequestration. In addition, glomerular immune complexes containing intact virions were detected, suggesting that ADV virions may have a role in the genesis of ADV-induced glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:3037104

  6. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  7. A review of Chilean chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of a new genus and ten new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country. PMID:26249418

  8. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  9. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  10. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  11. Geostatistical Analyses of Interactions between Minke Whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and Whale-Watching Boats in Skjalfandi Bay, Northeast Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Joshua I.

    The Icelandic whale-watching industry has experienced rapid growth since its inception in 1991, and today represents the fastest growing economic activity of the country. Skjalfandi Bay in Northeast Iceland has become the epicenter of whale-watching in Iceland, yet little is known about the local effects of the whale-watching industry on cetaceans. I used theodolite techniques and GIS to examine boat effects on the swimming speed, directionality, inter-breath intervals, and surface feeding events of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in Skjalfandi Bay. The proximity and number of vessels did not have a statistically significant effect on any aspect of minke behavior. These results contradict a previous study from Faxafloi Bay, suggesting that differences exist between the two locations, and that management strategies may need to be location-specific.

  12. Circadian photosensitive phase and photoperiodic control of testis activity in the mink, a short-day mammal

    SciTech Connect

    Boissin-Agasse, L.; Boissin, J.; Ortavant, R.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence of a circadian photosensitive phase in male mink, whose annual reproductive cycle is characterized by the recrudescence of testicular development in autumn, was based on the study of testicular response after interrupting the dark period by light breaks offered at various times. In this mammal, the experimental short days 4L:20D and 8L:16D stimulated testicular growth. Short photoperiods, including a main light period of 3.5 h and an additional 0.5 h light break 7.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, were as effective as 8L:16D in stimulating testicular development. On the other hand, when a 0.5 h light break occurred 11.5 or 15.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, the same inhibiting effect on testicular activity was obtained as for long photoperiods. However, when 0.5 h light breaks were given 19.5 after the beginning of the main light period, some minks recognized, as, the onset of the shorter of the two light periods offered. Thus our results proved the existence of a special phase in the day cycle in which light inhibited testicular development in the mink which appears to be a short-day animal. One explanation of the difference between long-day and short-day animals would be the following: if for long-day animals exposure to light during the photosensitive phase led to gonadostimulation, in short-day mammals, like mink, it exerted an inhibiting influence on testicular growth.

  13. Studies on the sequential development of acute interstitial pneumonia caused by Aleutian disease virus in mink kits.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E

    1987-01-01

    We studied different parameters during the development of acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits caused by neonatal infection with Aleutian disease virus (ADV). When histological lesions, presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies, and intranuclearly localized ADV antigen were correlated with levels of single-stranded virion and duplex replicative forms of ADV DNA in the different tissues, it was concluded that the lung, probably alveolar type II cells, is the major primary target for viral replication and cytopathology. The presence of the duplex dimeric replicative-form DNA, a strong marker of parvovirus replication, was also observed in low amount in the mesenteric lymph node, suggesting replication of ADV in this organ, although no viral cytopathology could be demonstrated. Moreover, a few intranuclear inclusion bodies were demonstrated in kidney and liver from affected kits, but intranuclearly localized ADV antigen could not be demonstrated in liver sections, and neither could duplex dimer replicative-form DNA, suggesting that these organs are nevertheless not a major site of ADV replication. When the data were compared with results previously reported for ADV-infected adult mink and ADV-infected permissive cell cultures, the data suggested that the pattern of ADV replication in alveolar type II cells is similar to that seen in infected cell cultures but that the replication in the other kit organs resembles the restricted pattern seen in adult mink. Images PMID:3023709

  14. Longitudinal analysis of residual feed intake and BW in mink using random regression with heterogeneous residual variance.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Nielsen, V H; Møller, S H; Jensen, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and BW gain in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. The individual BW was measured every 3 weeks from 63 to 210 days of age for 2139 male+female pairs of juvenile mink during the growing-furring period. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with 3-week intervals based on daily feed consumption between weighing's from 105 to 210 days of age. Genetic parameters for RFI and BW gain in males and females were obtained using univariate random regression with Legendre polynomials containing an animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of litter along with heterogeneous residual variances. Heritability estimates for RFI increased with age from 0.18 (0.03, posterior standard deviation (PSD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, PSD) and 0.46 (0.03, PSD) at 210 days of age in male and female mink, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW gain increased with age and had moderate to high range for males (0.33 (0.02, PSD) to 0.84 (0.02, PSD)) and females (0.35 (0.03, PSD) to 0.85 (0.02, PSD)). RFI estimates during the growing period (105 to 126 days of age) showed high positive genetic correlations with the pelting RFI (210 days of age) in male (0.86 to 0.97) and female (0.92 to 0.98). However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.47 to 0.76 in males and 0.61 to 0.75 in females. Furthermore, BW records in the growing period (63 to 126 days of age) had moderate (male: 0.39, female: 0.53) to high (male: 0.87, female: 0.94) genetic correlations with pelting BW (210 days of age). The result of current study showed that RFI and BW in mink are highly heritable, especially at the late furring period, suggesting potential for large genetic gains for these traits. The genetic correlations suggested that substantial genetic gain can be obtained by only considering the RFI estimate and BW at pelting

  15. Generation of mink cell focus-forming viruses by Friend murine leukemia virus: recombination with specific endogenous proviral sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, L H; Cloyd, M W

    1984-01-01

    A family of recombinant mink cell focus-forming viruses (MCF) was derived by inoculation of NFS mice with a Friend murine leukemia virus, and their genomes were analyzed by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. The viruses were obtained from the thymuses and spleens of preleukemic and leukemic animals and were evaluated for dualtropism and oncogenicity. All these isolates induced cytopathic foci on mink cells but could be classified into two groups based on their relative infectivities for SC-1 (mouse) or mink (ATCC CCL64) cells. One group of Friend MCFs (F-MCFs) (group I) exhibited approximately equal infectivities for SC-1 and mink cells, whereas a second group (group II) infected mink cells 1,000- to 10,000-fold more efficiently than SC-1 cells. Structural analyses of the F-MCFs revealed that group I and group II viruses correlated with recombination of Friend murine leukemia virus with two distinct, but closely related, endogenous NFS proviral sequences. No correlation was found between the type of F-MCF and the tissue of origin or the disease state of the animal. Furthermore, none of the F-MCF isolates were found to be oncogenic in NFS/N or AKR/J mice. F-MCFs of both groups underwent extensive substitution of ecotropic sequences, involving much of the gag and env genes of group I F-MCFs and most of the gag, pol, and env genes of group II F-MCFs. All F-MCF isolates retained the 3' terminal U3 region of Friend murine leukemia virus. Comparison of the RNAs of the F-MCFs with RNAs of MCFs derived from NFS.Akv-1 or NFS.Akv-2 mice indicated that the F-MCFs were derived from NFS proviral sequences which are distinct from the sequences contained in NFS.Akv MCF isolates. This result suggested that recombination with particular endogenous proviral sequences to generate MCFs may be highly specific for a given murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:6422051

  16. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. PMID:27212684

  17. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  18. Microbial enhanced waterflooding pilot project, Mink Unit, Delaware-Childers (OK) field

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, D.M.; Hitzman, D.O.

    1991-08-01

    The first microbial-enhanced waterflood field project was initiated in October of 1986. The site selected for the project is in the Mink Unit of Delaware-Childers field in Nowata County, Oklahoma. The pilot area consists of four adjacent inverted five-spot patterns drilled on 5-acre spacing. There are 21 injection and 15 production wells on this pilot. Four of the 21 injection wells were treated with microbial formulation. Laboratory screening criteria were developed to evaluate microorganisms for this project. Several different microbial formulations were tested. Injectivity and microbial field survivability tests were conducted during the baseline period on two off-pattern wells, and a chemical tracer, fluorescein, was injected into the four injection wells during the baseline period. Methodologies for field applications of microorganisms in ongoing waterfloods were developed as a result of this project. Results from the field pilot showed that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood without causing any problems in injectivity. Microbial treatment did improve oil production rate, and water/oil ratios for producing wells nearest the microbially treated injection wells continue to be more favorable than baseline values. 23 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Source of the North Pacific "boing" sound attributed to minke whales.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2005-11-01

    During a recent cetacean survey of the U.S. waters surrounding the Hawaiian Islands, the probable source of the mysterious "boing" sound of the North Pacific Ocean was identified as a minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Examination of boing vocalizations from three research surveys confirms previous work that identified two distinct boing vocalization types in the North Pacific. The eastern boing (n = 22) has a pulse repetition rate of 92 s(-1) and a duration of 3.6 s and was found only east of 138 degrees W. The central boing (n = 106) has a pulse repetition rate of 115 s(-1) and a duration of approximately 2.6 s and was found only west of 135 degrees W. Central boing vocalizations produced by a single source (n = 84) indicate that variation in repetition rate and duration of the calls of the individual were not significantly different than the variation among individuals of the same boing type. Despite a slight latitudinal overlap in the vocalizations, pulse repetition rates of the eastern and central boings were distinct. PMID:16334704

  20. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-03-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A)/sup +/ RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses.

  1. A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer functiona)

    PubMed Central

    Tubelli, Andrew A.; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R.; Yamato, Maya; Mountain, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of baleen whale (Cetacea Mysticeti) audiograms impedes the assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic noise on these animals. Estimates of audiograms, which are difficult to obtain behaviorally or electrophysiologically for baleen whales, can be made by simulating the audiogram as a series of components representing the outer, middle, and inner ear (Rosowski, 1991; Ruggero and Temchin, 2002). The middle-ear portion of the system can be represented by the middle-ear transfer function (METF), a measure of the transmission of acoustic energy from the external ear to the cochlea. An anatomically accurate finite element model of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle ear was developed to predict the METF for a mysticete species. The elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles were measured by using nanoindentation. Other mechanical properties were estimated from experimental stiffness measurements or from published values. The METF predicted a best frequency range between approximately 30 Hz and 7.5 kHz or between 100 Hz and 25 kHz depending on stimulation location. Parametric analysis found that the most sensitive parameters are the elastic moduli of the glove finger and joints and the Rayleigh damping stiffness coefficient β. The predicted hearing range matches well with the vocalization range. PMID:23145610

  2. Emetic responses to T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and emetine correspond to plasma elevations of peptide YY3-36 and 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Pestka, James J

    2016-04-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of potent translational inhibitors that are associated with foodborne outbreaks of human and animal gastroenteritis in which vomiting is a clinical hallmark. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and other Type B trichothecenes have been previously demonstrated to cause emesis in the mink (Neovison vison), and this response has been directly linked to secretion of both the satiety hormone peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Here, we characterized the emetic responses in the mink to T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), two highly toxic Type A trichothecenes that contaminate cereals, and further compared these effects to those of emetine, a natural alkaloid that is used medicinally and also well known to block translation and cause vomiting. Following intraperitoneal (IP) and oral exposure, all three agents caused vomiting with evident dose-dependent increases in both duration and number of emetic events as well as decreases in latency to emesis. T-2 and HT-2 doses causing emesis in 50 % of treated animals (ED50s) were 0.05 and 0.02 mg/kg BW following IP and oral administration, respectively, whereas the ED50s for emetine were 2.0 and 1.0 mg/kg BW for IP and oral exposure, respectively. Importantly, oral administration of all three toxins elicited marked elevations in plasma concentrations of PYY3-36 and 5-HT that corresponded to emesis. Taken together, the results suggest that T-2 and HT-2 were much more potent than emetine and that emesis induction by all three translational inhibitors co-occurred with increases in circulating levels of PYY3-36 and 5-HT. PMID:25855062

  3. [Immunogenetics of immunoglobulins of the American mink. VI. Deviation from Mendelian segregation for Cgamma-allotypes H2, H3 and H4].

    PubMed

    Fomicheva, I I; Baranov, O K

    1987-08-01

    The non-expression of parental allotype among mink F1 offsprings of monohybrid analyzing crosses was established for C gamma-allotypes. A phenotype ratio 0:1, instead of the expected Mendelian 1:1, was observed in some families. The non-expression of allotype may occur in the progeny of mink with normal allotypic specificity. Deviations of allotypic expression had both qualitative and quantitative nature and did not depend on the direction of crossings. Sometimes, the appearance of allotype in a mink could not be expected on the basis of its pedigree. Instability of expression and inheritance of H2, H3 and H4 in many families may have masked the allelic or linkage relationships of these genetic markers. PMID:3666449

  4. Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1982-01-01

    We studied Aleutian disease virus polypeptides in Crandall feline kidney (CRFK) cells. When CRFK cells labeled with [35S]methionine at 60 h postinfection were studied by immunoprecipitation with sera from infected mink, the major Aleutian disease virus virion polypeptides (p85 and p75) were consistently identified, as was a 71,000-dalton nonvirion protein (p71). The peptide maps of p85 and p75 were similar, but the map of p71 was different. p85, p75, and p71 were all precipitated by sera from Aleutian disease virus-infected mink, including those with signs of progressive disease, but heterologous sera raised against purified Aleutian disease virus did not precipitate the nonvirion p71. These results indicated that the nonvirion p71 was unrelated to p85 and p75 and further suggested that mink infected with Aleutian disease virus develop antibody to nonvirion, as well as structural, viral proteins. Images PMID:6287034

  5. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  6. Effects of persistent organochlorine exposure on the liver transcriptome of the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Satoko; Imoto, Mai; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Kim, Eun-Young; Nakayama, Kei; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) were determined in the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific. To investigate the effects of OCs on the transcriptome in the minke whale, the present study constructed a hepatic oligo array of this species where 985 unique oligonucleotides were spotted and further analyzed the relationship between the OC levels and gene expression profiles of liver tissues. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified 32 genes that correlated with hepatic OC levels. The mRNA expression levels of seven cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C78, 2E1, 3A72, 4A35, and 4V6 showed no clear correlations with the concentration of each OC, suggesting that the accumulated OCs in the liver did not reach levels that could alter CYP expression. Among the genes screened by the custom oligo array analysis, hepatic mRNA expression levels of 16 genes were further measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were negatively correlated with non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels. Androgen receptor-associated coregulator 70 (ARA70) expression levels showed a significant positive correlation with concentrations of non-ortho coplanar PCB169. These correlations suggest that coplanar PCB-reduced DBP expression could suppress vitamin D receptor-mediated signaling cascades in peripheral tissues. Alternatively, the suppression of vitamin D receptor signaling cascade could be enhanced through competition with the androgen receptor signaling pathway for ARA70. In addition, a negative correlation between kynureninase and PCB169 levels was also observed, which suggest an enhanced accumulation of an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, kynurenine in the minke whale population. Further studies are necessary to translate the changes in the transcriptome to toxicological outcomes including

  7. Epibiotic macrofauna on common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804, in Icelandic waters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst there is a body of scientific literature relating to the epibiotic macrofauna on large whales, there is little information on the cetaceans in Icelandic waters. Common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804, are a common sighting between the months of April to November, however, the migration and distribution of the population in winter requires establishing. The present study provides baseline information on the species composition, geographic distribution and abundance of the epibiotic macrofauna on minke whales landed in Icelandic waters and comments on their acquisition. Methods The epibiotic macrofauna and skin lesions on 185 and 188 common minke whales respectively, landed in Icelandic waters between April to September 2003-2007 were determined. For each whale, the fluke and one lateral side was examined. Results A total of seven epibiotic species were found: the caligid copepod Caligus elongatus (prevalence (P) = 11.9%, mean intensity (M.I) = 95.5); the pennellid copepod Pennella balaenopterae (P = 10.3%, M.I = 1.6); the cyamid amphipod Cyamus balaenopterae (P = 6.5%, M.I = 37.0); the lepadid cirripedes Conchoderma virgatum (P = 0.5%, M.I = 4.0) and Conchoderma auritum (P = 0.5%, M.I = 1.0), the balanid cirriped Xenobalanus globicipitis (P = 1.6%, M.I = 5.3) and the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (P = 2.7%, M.I = 1.0). In addition, the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella caligorum was found on C. elongatus (P = 6.6%) on 8 of the 22 whales infected with the copepod. No significant relationship was observed between parasite intensity and host body length for either C. balaenopterae or C. elongatus, while the proportion of infected hosts was higher in August-September than earlier in the summer for C. balaenopterae (χ2 = 13.69; p<0.01: d.f.=1) and C. elongatus (χ2 = 28.88; p<0.01: d.f.=1). Conclusions The higher prevalence of C. balaenopterae on male whales (χ2 = 5.08; p<0.05: d.f.=1), suggests possible different migration

  8. [Sequencing Analyses of the Hypervariable Region within the VP2 Gene of a Strain of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Zhenjun; Ma, Fanshu; Yan, Xijun; Wu, Wei; Xu, Shujuan

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the molecular mechanisms of cross-host transmission of the Aleutian mink disease vi rus (ADV), the hypervariable region fragment of the VP2 gene of the ADV in Jilin Province (China) was amplified. Sequencing analyses showed diversity at residue 174 by comparison with other VP2 genes in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the ADV-JL strain had a close relationship with the highly pathogenic strain from Denmark: ADV-K. Results implied that residue 174 may be associated with ADV infectivity. PMID:26470526

  9. Uterine glycogen metabolism in mink during estrus, embryonic diapause and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Matthew; Hunt, Jason; McDougall, Lisa; Rose, Jack

    2014-01-01

    We have determined uterine glycogen content, metabolizing enzyme expression and activity in the mink, a species that exhibits obligatory embryonic diapause, resulting in delayed implantation. Gross uterine glycogen concentrations were highest in estrus, decreased 50% by diapause and 90% in pregnancy (P ≤ 0.05). Endometrial glycogen deposits, which localized primarily to glandular and luminal epithelia, decreased 99% between estrus and diapause (P ≤ 0.05) and were nearly undetectable in pregnancy. Glycogen synthase and phosphorylase proteins were most abundant in the glandular epithelia. Glycogen phosphorylase activity (total) in uterine homogenates was higher during estrus and diapause, than pregnancy. While glycogen phosphorylase protein was detected during estrus and diapause, glycogen synthase was almost undetectable after estrus, which probably contributed to a higher glycogenolysis/glycogenesis ratio during diapause. Uterine glucose-6-phosphatase 3 gene expression was greater during diapause, when compared to estrus (P ≤ 0.05) and supports the hypothesis that glucose-6-phosphate resulting from phosphorylase activity was dephosphorylated in preparation for export into the uterine lumen. The relatively high amount of hexokinase-1 protein detected in the luminal epithelia during estrus and diapause may have contributed to glucose trapping after endometrial glycogen reserves were depleted. Collectively, our findings suggest to us that endometrial glycogen reserves may be an important source of energy, supporting uterine and conceptus metabolism up to the diapausing blastocyst stage. As a result, the size of uterine glycogen reserves accumulated prior to mating may in part, determine the number of embryos that survive to the blastocyst stage, and ultimately litter size. PMID:25225159

  10. Role of mink cell focus-inducing virus in leukemias induced by Friend ecotropic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, J

    1984-01-01

    Recombinant viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of murine leukemias induced by a variety of long-latency retroviruses. Neonatal mice of several strains were inoculated with Friend ecotropic virus (F-Eco) and analyzed for the presence of mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) virus or DNA restriction enzyme fragments which were specific for Friend MCF virus (F-MCF). MCF virus was detected within 2 weeks of inoculation in NFS /N mice and at about 2 months after inoculation in BALB/c mice. Both of these strains developed erythroblastosis after inoculation with F-Eco. In contrast, MCF virus was not detected in F-Eco-inoculated C57BL mice. These mice were resistant to erythroblastosis but developed lymphoma or myelogenous leukemia or both at about 5 months after inoculation. Thus, although MCF viruses were associated with F-Eco erythroblastosis in NFS /N and BALB/c mice, they were not necessary for F-Eco-induced lymphoid or myeloid leukemias in C57BL mice. To investigate the association between resistance to erythroblastosis and absence of MCF virus, C57BL mice were inoculated with pseudotypic mixtures of F-Eco plus F-MCF; MCF virus replicated well in these mice, but the mice remained resistant to erythroblastosis. Furthermore, in genetic crosses between C57BL and NFS /N or BALB/c, some mice inherited resistance to F-Eco erythroblastosis without inheriting the C57BL resistance to the generation of MCF viruses. These results indicate that C57BL mice carry a gene for resistance to F-Eco erythroblastosis which is distinct from the C57BL genes which interfere with the generation of MCF viruses. Images PMID:6726889

  11. A fast and robust method for whole genome sequencing of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genome.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Emma E; Krarup, Anders; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Larsen, Lars E; Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Pedersen, Anders G

    2016-08-01

    Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with commercial mink breeding. AMDV infection leads to increased mortality and compromised animal health and welfare. Currently little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus, and the few existing studies have focused on limited regions of the viral genome. This paper describes a robust, reliable, and fast protocol for amplification of the full AMDV genome using long-range PCR. The method was used to generate next generation sequencing data for the non-virulent cell-culture adapted AMDV-G strain as well as for the virulent AMDV-Utah strain. Comparisons at nucleotide- and amino acid level showed that, in agreement with existing literature, the highest variability between the two virus strains was found in the left open reading frame, which encodes the non-structural (NS1-3) genes. This paper also reports a number of differences that potentially can be linked to virulence and host range. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to apply next generation sequencing on the entire AMDV genome. The results from the study will facilitate the development of new diagnostic tools and can form the basis for more detailed molecular epidemiological analyses of the virus. PMID:27060623

  12. Processes for Identifying Regional Influences of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO sub 2 and Climate Change --- The MINK Project

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Lemon, K.M.

    1991-08-01

    The second report of a series Processes for Identifying Regional Influences of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and Climate Change -- The MINK Project is composed of two parts. This Report (IIB) deals with agriculture at the level of farms and Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). The Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), a crop growth simulation model developed by scientists at the US Department of Agriculture, is used to study the impacts of the analog climate on yields of main crops in both the 1984/87 and the 2030 baselines. The results of this work with EPIC are the basis for the analysis of the climate change impacts on agriculture at the region-wide level undertaken in this report. Report IIA treats agriculture in MINK in terms of state and region-wide production and resource use for the main crops and animals in the baseline periods of 1984/87 and 2030. The effects of the analog climate on the industry at this level of aggregation are considered in both baseline periods. 41 refs., 40 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown. PMID:26886941

  14. Pathogenesis of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus infection: effects of suppression of antibody response on viral mRNA levels and on development of acute disease.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Storgaard, T; Kamstrup, N; Aasted, B; Porter, D D

    1994-01-01

    We suppressed the B-cell development and antibody response in mink by using treatment with polyclonal anti-immunoglobulin M (anti-IgM) to study the effects of antiviral antibodies on development of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV)-induced disease in more detail. Newborn mink kits were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg of either anti-IgM or a control preparation three times a week for 30 to 34 days. At 21 days after birth, groups of mink kits were infected with the highly virulent United isolate of ADV. At selected time points, i.e., postinfection days 9, 13, 29, and 200, randomly chosen mink kits were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were collected for analyses. The efficacy of immunosuppressive treatment was monitored by electrophoretic techniques and flow cytometry. Effects of treatment on viral replication, on viral mRNA levels, and on development of acute or chronic disease were determined by histopathological, immunoelectrophoretic, and molecular hybridization techniques. Several interesting findings emerged from these studies. First, antiviral antibodies decreased ADV mRNA levels more than DNA replication. Second, suppression of B-cell development and antibody response in mink kits infected at 21 days of age resulted in production of viral inclusion bodies in alveolar type II cells. Some of these kits showed mild clinical signs of respiratory disease, and one kit died of respiratory distress; however, clinical signs were seen only after release of immunosuppression, suggesting that the production of antiviral antibodies, in combination with the massive amounts of free viral antigen present, somehow is involved in the induction of respiratory distress. It is suggested that the antiviral antibody response observed in mink older than approximately 14 days primarily, by a yet unknown mechanism, decreases ADV mRNA levels which, if severe enough, results in restricted levels of DNA replication and virion production. Furthermore, such a restricted ADV

  15. Complementary expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 during development and following gene deletion in mouse and in normal and orchitic mink testes

    PubMed Central

    Akpovi, Casimir D.; Chen, Li; Kumar, Nalin M.; Vitale, María L.

    2015-01-01

    Gap junction-mediated communication helps synchronize interconnected Sertoli cell activities. Besides, coordination of germ cell and Sertoli cell activities depends on gap junction-mediated Sertoli cell–germ cell communication. This report assesses mechanisms underlying the regulation of connexin 46 (Cx46) and Cx50 in mouse testis and those accompanying a “natural” seasonal and a pathological arrest of spermatogenesis, resulting from autoimmune orchitis (AIO) in mink. Furthermore, the impact of deleting Cx46 or Cx50 on the expression, phosphorylation of junction proteins, and spermatogenesis is evaluated. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. During the mink active spermatogenic phase, Cx50 became phosphorylated and localized to the site of the blood-testis barrier. By contrast, Cx46 was dephosphorylated and associated with annular junctions, suggesting phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 involvement in the barrier dynamics. Cx46-positive annular junctions in contact with lipid droplets were found. Cx46 and Cx50 expression and localization were altered in mink with AIO. The deletion of Cx46 or Cx50 impacted on other connexin expression and phosphorylation and differently affected tight and adhering junction protein expression. The level of apoptosis, determined by ELISA, and a number of Apostain-labeled spermatocytes and spermatids/tubules were higher in mice lacking Cx46 (Cx46−/−) than wild-type and Cx50−/− mice, arguing for life-sustaining Cx46 gap junction-mediated exchanges in late-stage germ cells secluded from the blood by the barrier. The data show that expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 are complementary in seminiferous tubules. PMID:26017495

  16. Type C Botulism Due to Toxic Feed Affecting 52,000 Farmed Foxes and Minks in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Nevas, Mari; Kurki, Joanna; Sauna-aho, Raija; Latvala-Kiesilä, Annikki; Pölönen, Ilpo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8°C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined. PMID:15472332

  17. Single-Channel Characteristics of Wild-Type IKs Channels and Channels formed with Two MinK Mutants that Cause Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sesti, Federico; Goldstein, Steve A.N.

    1998-01-01

    IKs channels are voltage dependent and K+ selective. They influence cardiac action potential duration through their contribution to myocyte repolarization. Assembled from minK and KvLQT1 subunits, IKs channels are notable for a heteromeric ion conduction pathway in which both subunit types contribute to pore formation. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of minK on pore function. We first characterized the properties of wild-type human IKs channels and channels formed only of KvLQT1 subunits. Channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes or Chinese hamster ovary cells and currents recorded in excised membrane patches or whole-cell mode. Unitary conductance estimates were dependent on bandwidth due to rapid channel “flicker.” At 25 kHz in symmetrical 100-mM KCl, the single-channel conductance of IKs channels was ∼16 pS (corresponding to ∼0.8 pA at 50 mV) as judged by noise-variance analysis; this was fourfold greater than the estimated conductance of homomeric KvLQT1 channels. Mutant IKs channels formed with D76N and S74L minK subunits are associated with long QT syndrome. When compared with wild type, mutant channels showed lower unitary currents and diminished open probabilities with only minor changes in ion permeabilities. Apparently, the mutations altered single-channel currents at a site in the pore distinct from the ion selectivity apparatus. Patients carrying these mutant minK genes are expected to manifest decreased K+ flux through IKs channels due to lowered single-channel conductance and altered gating. PMID:9834138

  18. Population substructure of North Atlantic minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) inferred from regional variation of elemental and stable isotopic signatures in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, E. W.; Outridge, P.; Riget, F. F.; Hobson, K. A.; Dietz, R.; Øien, N.; Haug, T.

    2003-09-01

    Information on population structure is essential for estimating population demographics and managing the impacts of exploitation of North Atlantic minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata). New approaches including assessment of geochemical signatures in tissues can assist in defining such structure. This study determined regional variations in long-term elemental diagnostics of stock differences among 159 minke whales harvested in West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea in 1998. The diagnostics tested included mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) in various tissues, and the trace and major element composition of baleen. Supporting data was also gathered on δ15N and δ13C and stable lead isotope ratios. For female whales, significant differences in at least one long-term diagnostic element occurred between several areas. Existence of the following population substructure was inferred: (a) West Greenland, (b) a central group represented by whales from Jan Mayen, (c) a northeastern stock encompassing the Barents Sea, Svalbard and coastal Norway, and (d) the North Sea. These groups were consistent with those defined genetically by Andersen et al. [Mar. Ecol., Prog. Ser. 247 (2003) 263]. Males appeared to fall into similar groupings to females but because of smaller sample sizes fewer significant differences occurred between areas. Stable-isotopic values in minke whales suggested lower trophic-level feeding in this species than hitherto suspected, with significant dietary differences between areas. Variations in feeding habits appeared to explain part of the geographical variation in tissue Cd, but not tissue Hg or Se. Differences among elements with a relatively long biological half-life in specific tissues suggested that groups of minke whales have fidelity to certain summer feeding areas at least for several years.

  19. Re-evaluation of the species composition of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with the description of two new species of this genus and the proposal of Kostadinovatrema novaeguiniense n. g., n. sp.

    PubMed

    Dronen, Norman O

    2009-11-01

    A comparison of specimens previously identified as Bashkirovitrema incrassatum (Diesing, 1850) from the African or cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis, and the speckle-throated or spotted-throated otter Hydrictis maculicollis from the Old World with specimens and descriptions of B. incrassatum from the New World showed that those from Africa (Bashkirovitrema africanum n. sp.) had a more extensive distribution of the vitelline fields than either B. canadense n. sp. from the northern river otter Lontra canadensis and the American mink Neovison vison (North America) and B. incrassatum from the Neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (South America). B. africanum n. sp. further differs from B. canadense n. sp. by having a smaller body, shorter forebody, smaller oral sucker, longer cirrus, shorter intertesticular space, shorter post-testicular space and longer eggs. B. canadense n. sp. can be distinguished from B. incrassatum by having a longer body, longer forebody, smaller sucker ratio, smaller testes, greater distance between the ventral sucker and the ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, longer post-testicular space and narrower eggs. B. africanum n. sp. differs from B. incrassatum by having a smaller ventral sucker, larger ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, smaller intertesticular space, larger post-testicular space and longer eggs that are not as wide. Kostadinovatrema n. g., as represented by K. novaeguiniense n. sp., can be separated from species of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 by having a wider body width to length profile, a head collar that is narrower than the forebody and armed with 33 rather than 27 collar spines, an ovary that is further removed anteriorly from the testes, and a dorso-ventrally flattened hindbody that is nearly as broad as the forebody. The new genus differs from Hypoderaeum Dietz, 1909 and Moliniella Hübner, 1939 by having 33 head collar spines. PMID:19789998

  20. Characterization of a New Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma in Fur Animals and Its Association with Arcanobacterium phocae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Kivistö, Ilkka; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Korpela, Johanna; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Hetzel, Udo; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010–2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison) by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides), it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species -shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp.) suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease. PMID:25302603

  1. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé. PMID:24447657

  2. Characterization of the env gene and long terminal repeat of molecularly cloned Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, A; Sakai, K; Kitamura, N; Nakanishi, S; Niwa, O; Matsuyama, M; Ishimoto, A

    1984-01-01

    The highly oncogenic erythroleukemia-inducing Friend mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) virus was molecularly cloned in phage lambda gtWES.lambda B, and the DNA sequences of the env gene and the long terminal repeat were determined. The nucleotide sequences of Friend MCF virus and Friend spleen focus-forming virus were quite homologous, supporting the hypothesis that Friend spleen focus-forming virus might be generated via Friend MCF virus from an ecotropic Friend virus mainly by some deletions. Despite their different pathogenicity, the nucleotide sequences of the env gene of Friend MCF virus and Moloney MCF virus were quite homologous, suggesting that the putative parent sequence for the generation of both MCF viruses and the recombinational mechanism for their generation might be the same. We compare the amino acid sequences in lymphoid leukemia-inducing ecotropic Moloney virus and Moloney MCF virus, and erythroblastic leukemia-inducing ecotropic Friend virus, Friend-MCF virus, and Friend spleen focus-forming virus. The Friend MCF virus long terminal repeat was found to be 550 base pairs long. This contained two copies of the 39-base-pair tandem repeat, whereas the spleen focus-forming virus genome contained a single copy of the same sequence. PMID:6328011

  3. The mitochondrial genome and ribosomal operon of Brachycladium goliath (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) recovered from a stranded minke whale.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Bray, Rodney A; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D T J

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Brachycladiidae are known to cause pathologies implicated in cetacean strandings and it is important to develop accurate diagnostic markers to differentiate these and other helminths found in cetaceans. Brachycladium goliath (van Beneden, 1858) is a large trematode found, as adults, usually in the hepatic (bile) and pancreatic ducts of various cetaceans. Complete sequences were determined for the entire mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetically informative nuclear genes contained within the ribosomal operon, from a small piece of an individual worm taken from a common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. Genomic DNA was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The mtDNA is 15,229 bp in length consisting of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions of which the larger is comprised of 4 tandemly repeated units (260 bp each). The ribosomal RNA operon is 9297 bp long. These data provide a rich resource of molecular markers for diagnostics, phylogenetics and population genetics in order to better understand the role, and associated pathology of helminth infections in cetaceans. PMID:26883466

  4. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei

    2015-01-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV. PMID:26582828

  5. Nucleotide Sequence of the Envelope Gene of Gardner-Arnstein Feline Leukemia Virus B Reveals Unique Sequence Homologies with a Murine Mink Cell Focus-Forming Virus †

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John H.; Mullins, James I.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene and the adjacent 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus of subgroup B (GA-FeLV-B) has been determined. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of the gp70-p15E polyprotein to those of several previously reported murine retroviruses revealed striking homologies between GA-FeLV-B gp70 and the gp70 of a Moloney virus-derived mink cell focus-forming virus. These homologies were located within the substituted (presumably xenotropic) portion of the mink cell focus-forming virus envelope gene and comprised amino acid sequences not present in three ecotropic virus gp70s. In addition, areas of insertions and deletions, in general, were the same between GA-FeLV-B and Moloney mink cell focus-forming virus, although the sizes of the insertions and deletions differed. Homologies between GA-FeLV-B and mink cell focus-forming virus gp70s is functionally significant in that they both possess expanded host ranges, a property dictated by gp70. The amino acid sequence of FeLV-B contains 12 Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequences, indicating 12 possible sites of N-linked glycosylation as compared with 7 or 8 for its murine counterparts. Comparison of the 3′ LTR of GA-FeLV-B to AKR and Moloney virus LTRs revealed extensive conservation in several regions including the “CCAAT” and Goldberg-Hogness (TATA) boxes thought to be involved in promotion of transcription and in the repeat region of the LTR. The inverted repeats that flanked the LTR of GA-FeLV-B were identical to the murine inverted repeats, but were one base longer than the latter. The region of U3 corresponding to the approximately 75-nucleotide “enhancer sequence” is present in GA-FeLV-B, but contains deletions relative to AKR and Moloney virus and is not repeated. An interesting pallindrome in the repeat region immediately 3′ to the U3 region was noted in all the LTRs, but was particularly pronounced in GA-FeLV-B. Possible roles for this

  6. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts. PMID:22901862

  7. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  8. Predictive habitat modelling of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Antarctic minke (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) whales in the Southern Ocean as a planning tool for seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombosch, Annette; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Burkhardt, Elke; Wisz, Mary S.; Boebel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potentially negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requires detailed, spatio-temporally resolved knowledge on the likelihood of encountering these species in the survey area. In this publication we present predictive habitat modelling as a potential tool to support decisions for survey planning. We associated opportunistic sightings (2005-2011) of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae, N=93) and Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N=139) with a range of static and dynamic environmental variables. A maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) was used to develop habitat models and to calculate daily basinwide/circumpolar prediction maps to evaluate how species-specific habitat conditions evolved throughout the spring and summer months. For both species, prediction maps revealed considerable changes in habitat suitability throughout the season. Suitable humpback whale habitat occurred predominantly in ice-free areas, expanding southwards with the retreating sea ice edge, whereas suitable Antarctic minke whale habitat was consistently predicted within sea ice covered areas. Daily, large-scale prediction maps provide a valuable tool to design layout and timing of seismic surveys as they allow the identification and consideration of potential spatio-temporal hotspots to minimize potential impacts of seismic surveys on Antarctic cetacean species.

  9. MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 diversify Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel gating.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Anthony; McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2004-02-27

    High frequency firing in mammalian neurons requires ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents generated by homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel alpha subunits. Kv3.1 alpha subunits can also form slower activating channels by coassembling with MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2), a single transmembrane domain potassium channel ancillary subunit. Here, using channel subunits cloned from rat and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we show that modulation by MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 is a general mechanism for slowing of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation and deactivation and acceleration of inactivation, creating a functionally diverse range of channel complexes. MiRP1 also negatively shifts the voltage dependence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation. Furthermore, MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 each form channels with Kv3.1-Kv3.2 heteromers that are kinetically distinct from one another and from MiRP/homomeric Kv3 channels. The findings illustrate a mechanism for dynamic expansion of the functional repertoire of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium currents and suggest roles for these alpha subunits outside the scope of sustained rapid neuronal firing. PMID:14679187

  10. Analysis of Aleutian disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo: demonstration of Aleutian disease virus DNA in tissues of infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1985-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection was analyzed in vivo and in vitro to compare virus replication in cell culture and in mink. Initial experiments compared cultures of Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the avirulent ADV-G strain or the highly virulent Utah I ADV. The number of ADV-infected cells was estimated by calculating the percentage of cells displaying ADV antigen by immunofluorescence (IFA), and several parameters of infection were determined. Infected cells contained large quantities of viral DNA (more than 10(5) genomes per infected cell) as estimated by dot-blot DNA-DNA hybridization, and much of the viral DNA, when analyzed by Southern blot hybridization, was found to be of a 4.8-kilobase-pair duplex monomeric replicative form (DM DNA). Furthermore, the cultures contained 7 to 67 fluorescence-forming units (FFU) per infected cell, and the ADV genome per FFU ratio ranged between 2 X 10(3) and 164 X 10(3). Finally, the pattern of viral antigen detected by IFA was characteristically nuclear, although cytoplasmic fluorescence was often found in the same cells. Because no difference was noted between the two virus strains when cultures containing similar numbers of infected cells were compared, it seemed that both viruses behaved similarly in infected cell culture. These data were used as a basis for the analysis of infection of mink by virulent Utah I ADV. Ten days after infection, the highest levels of viral DNA were detected in spleen (373 genomes per cell), mesenteric lymph node (MLN; 750 genomes per cell), and liver (373 genomes per cell). In marked contrast to infected CRFK cells, the predominant species of ADV DNA in all tissues was single-stranded virion DNA; however, 4.8-kilobase-pair DM DNA was found in MLN and spleen. This observation suggested that MLN and spleen were sites of virus replication, but that the DNA found in liver reflected sequestration of virus produced elsewhere. A final set of experiments examined MLN taken

  11. Spironolactone and its main metabolite canrenoic acid block hKv1.5, Kv4.3 and Kv7.1+minK channels

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Ricardo; Núñez, Lucía; Caballero, Ricardo; Vaquero, Miguel; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Both spironolactone (SP) and its main metabolite, canrenoic acid (CA), prolong cardiac action potential duration and decrease the Kv11.1 (HERG) current. We examined the effects of SP and CA on cardiac hKv1.5, Kv4.3 and Kv7.1+minK channels that generate the human IKur, Ito1 and IKs, which contribute to the control of human cardiac action potential duration. hKv1.5 currents were recorded in stably transfected mouse fibroblasts and Kv4.3 and Kv7.1+minK in transiently transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells using the whole-cell patch clamp. SP (1 μM) and CA (1 nM) inhibited hKv1.5 currents by 23.2±3.2 and 18.9±2.7%, respectively, shifted the midpoint of the activation curve to more negative potentials and delayed the time course of tail deactivation. SP (1 μM) and CA (1 nM) inhibited the total charge crossing the membrane through Kv4.3 channels at +50 mV by 27.1±6.4 and 27.4±5.7%, respectively, and accelerated the time course of current decay. CA, but not SP, shifted the inactivation curve to more hyperpolarised potentials (Vh−37.0±1.8 vs −40.8±1.6 mV, n=10, P<0.05). SP (10 μM) and CA (1 nM) also inhibited Kv7.1+minK currents by 38.6±2.3 and 22.1±1.4%, respectively, without modifying the voltage dependence of channel activation. SP, but not CA, slowed the time course of tail current decay. CA (1 nM) inhibited the IKur (29.2±5.5%) and the Ito1 (16.1±3.9%) recorded in mouse ventricular myocytes and the IK (21.8±6.9%) recorded in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. A mathematical model of human atrial action potentials demonstrated that K+ blocking effects of CA resulted in a lengthening of action potential duration, both in normal and atrial fibrillation simulated conditions. The results demonstrated that both SP and CA directly block hKv1.5, Kv4.3 and Kv7.1+minK channels, CA being more potent for these effects. Since peak free plasma concentrations of CA ranged between 3 and 16 nM, these results indicated that blockade of these human

  12. Properties, expression and potential roles of cardiac K+ channel accessory subunits: MinK, MiRPs, KChIP, and KChAP.

    PubMed

    Pourrier, M; Schram, G; Nattel, S

    2003-08-01

    Over the past 10 years, cDNAs encoding a wide range of pore-forming K(+)-channel alpha-subunits have been cloned and found to result in currents with many properties of endogenous cardiac K(+) channels upon homomeric expression in heterologous systems. However, a variety of remaining discrepancies have led to a search for other subunits that might be involved in the formation of native channels. Over the past few years, a series of accessory subunits has been discovered that modify current properties upon coexpression with alpha-subunits. One of these, the minimal K(+)-channel subunit minK, is essential for formation of the cardiac slow delayed-rectifier K(+) current, I(Ks), and may also interact in functionally important ways with other alpha-subunits. Another, the K(+)-channel interacting protein KChIP appears critical in formation of native transient outward current (I(to)) channels. The roles of 2 other accessory subunits, the minK-related peptide MiRP and the K(+)-channel accessory protein, KChAP, remain unclear. This article reviews the available knowledge regarding the accessory subunits minK, MiRP, KChIP and KChAP, dealing with their structure, effects on currents carried by coexpressed alpha-subunits, expression in cardiac tissues and potential physiological function. On the basis of the available information, we attempt to assess the potential involvement of these accessory K(+)-channel subunits in cardiac pathophysiology and in developing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:14502427

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, in the period 1987-2005.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Zenitani, Ryoko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kato, Hidehiro

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in the blubber of males (20-25 years old) of Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) management Areas IV (70°-130°E) and V (130°E-170°W), south 60°S. The ranges of concentrations (ng g(-1) lipid wt.) for each compound were, PCBs: 7.7-89; DDTs: 29-340; HCHs: 0.20-4.3; HCB: 75-430; CHLs: 10-120, which were much lower than those in common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, from the northern hemisphere. The levels of PCBs, HCHs, HCB and CHLs in Area IV were significantly higher than those in Area V, while the levels of DDTs in both areas were similar. For comparing the fate among four pesticides in the Antarctic Ocean avoiding the effect of variance due to food intake, the ratios of the pesticides to PCBs, which has an extremely high chemical stability and environmental persistence, were examined. The HCHs/PCBs ratio decreased by a factor of about 20 in a span of 16 years in both Areas IV and V, while temporal trends of DDTs/PCBs, HCB/PCBs and CHLs/PCBs ratios were not observed. These results indicate that PCBs, DDTs, HCB and CHLs levels did not vary or slightly decreased in Areas IV and V during the study period. However HCHs levels clearly decreased. Spatial differences seems to be related to differences in food intake among whales, and temporal differences seems to be related to the length stay of OCs in the Antarctic Ocean. PMID:25637712

  14. Investigating Population Genetic Structure in a Highly Mobile Marine Organism: The Minke Whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Skaug, Hans J.; Øien, Nils; Haug, Tore; Seliussen, Bjørghild B.; Solvang, Hiroko K.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A.; Glover, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the number of genetically distinct populations and their levels of connectivity is of key importance for the sustainable management and conservation of wildlife. This represents an extra challenge in the marine environment where there are few physical barriers to gene-flow, and populations may overlap in time and space. Several studies have investigated the population genetic structure within the North Atlantic minke whale with contrasting results. In order to address this issue, we analyzed ten microsatellite loci and 331 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop on 2990 whales sampled in the North East Atlantic in the period 2004 and 2007–2011. The primary findings were: (1) No spatial or temporal genetic differentiations were observed for either class of genetic marker. (2) mtDNA identified three distinct mitochondrial lineages without any underlying geographical pattern. (3) Nuclear markers showed evidence of a single panmictic population in the NE Atlantic according STRUCTURE's highest average likelihood found at K = 1. (4) When K = 2 was accepted, based on the Evanno's test, whales were divided into two more or less equally sized groups that showed significant genetic differentiation between them but without any sign of underlying geographic pattern. However, mtDNA for these individuals did not corroborate the differentiation. (5) In order to further evaluate the potential for cryptic structuring, a set of 100 in silico generated panmictic populations was examined using the same procedures as above showing genetic differentiation between two artificially divided groups, similar to the aforementioned observations. This demonstrates that clustering methods may spuriously reveal cryptic genetic structure. Based upon these data, we find no evidence to support the existence of spatial or cryptic population genetic structure of minke whales within the NE Atlantic. However, in order to conclusively evaluate population structure within this highly mobile

  15. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntosh, D.L. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. )

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  16. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntosh, D.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  17. Glucocorticoids induce focus formation and increase sarcoma viral expression in a mink cell line that contains a murine sarcoma viral genome.

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, D R; Scolnick, E M

    1978-01-01

    Dexamethasone (3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-6) M) induced foci of morphologically transformed cells in a small proportion of a mink cell line that contains the Moloney murine sarcoma viral genome (S+L-). The induction was glucocorticoid specific, since other steroids with glucocorticoid activity (prednisolone, cortisol, and aldosterone) induced foci with an efficiency that paralleled their glucocorticoid activity, and steroids lacking glucocorticoid activity (17B-estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone) failed to induce foci. Viral antigen, as measured by specific immunofluorescence, was localized to the foci. The induction of foci by dexamethasone (3 X 10(-7)) was accompanied by an approximately 10-fold increase in intracellular Moloney murine sarcoma virus-specific RNA and viral p30 antigen. Removal of dexamethasone was followed by the disappearance of foci and a decrease in viral RNA and p30. In this cell system, therefore, glucocorticoids can affect the intracellular levels of type C viral RNA and protein. Images PMID:202733

  18. Leukemia induction by a new strain of Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus: synergistic effect of Friend ecotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chesebro, B; Wehrly, K; Nishio, J; Evans, L

    1984-01-01

    A new strain of Friend recombinant mink cell focus-inducing retrovirus, FMCF -1-E, was found to induce leukemias in NFS and IRW mice. Although the isolate was obtained from a stock of FMCF -1 ( Troxler et al., J. Exp. Med. 148:639-653, 1978), FMCF -1-E was distinguishable from FMCF -1 by oligonucleotide fingerprinting and antigenic analysis, using monoclonal antibodies. These analyses suggested that FMCF -1-E is a distinct FMCF isolate rather than a simple variant of FMCF -1. After neonatal inoculation, the latency for leukemia induction was 3 to 8 months. A similar long latency was also seen when Friend murine leukemia virus 57 was inoculated into adult (6-week-old) IRW mice. However, sequential inoculation of FMCF -1-E at birth followed by Friend murine leukemia 57 at 6 weeks of age led to a shortened latency period (2.5 to 4 months). Only neonatal inoculation of Friend murine leukemia virus 57 was able to induce a more rapid appearance of leukemia. The leukemia cell type in the majority of cases, regardless of virus inoculation protocol, was erythroid, but occasional myeloid, lymphoid, and mixed leukemias were also observed. In contrast to NFS and IRW mice, BALB/c mice were resistant to leukemia induction by FMCF -1-E and also showed some transient resistance to leukemia induction by Friend murine leukemia virus 57. Images PMID:6202886

  19. Vison Quest: Rites of Adolescent Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiland, Laurence J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes northern Michigan's Pine River Camp Vision Quest four-day solo wilderness experience for 13- , 14- , and 15-year-olds based on Indian ceremonies to personalize and demarcate in a spiritual manner the questor's entrance into society as a fully responsible and mature adult. Reports experiences of 17 campers. (NEC)

  20. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV): sequence comparisons between a nonpathogenic and a pathogenic strain of ADV.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Alexandersen, S; Perryman, S; Lechner, D; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1988-01-01

    A DNA sequence of 4,592 nucleotides (nt) was derived for the nonpathogenic ADV-G strain of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). The 3'(left) end of the virion strand contained a 117-nt palindrome that could assume a Y-shaped configuration similar to, but less stable than, that of other parvoviruses. The sequence obtained for the 5' end was incomplete and did not contain the 5' (right) hairpin structure but ended just after a 25-nt A + T-rich direct repeat. Features of ADV genomic organization are (i) major left (622 amino acids) and right (702 amino acids) open reading frames (ORFs) in different translational frames of the plus-sense strand, (ii) two short mid-ORFs, (iii) eight potential promoter motifs (TATA boxes), including ones at 3 and 36 map units, and (iv) six potential polyadenylation sites, including three clustered near the termination of the right ORF. Although the overall homology to other parvoviruses is less than 50%, there are short conserved amino acid regions in both major ORFs. However, two regions in the right ORF allegedly conserved among the parvoviruses were not present in ADV. At the DNA level, ADV-G is 97.5% related to the pathogenic ADV-Utah 1. A total of 22 amino acid changes were found in the right ORF; changes were found in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and generally did not affect the theoretical hydropathy. However, there is a short heterogeneous region at 64 to 65 map units in which 8 out of 11 residues have diverged; this hypervariable segment may be analogous to short amino acid regions in other parvoviruses that determine host range and pathogenicity. These findings suggested that this region may harbor some of the determinants responsible for the differences in pathogenicity of ADV-G and ADV-Utah 1. PMID:2839709

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  2. The concept of superfetation: a critical review on a 'myth' in mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Superfetation is understood as another conception during an already ongoing pregnancy. This implies the existence of young of different developmental stages within the female reproductive tract during certain periods of pregnancy. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the term as well as distinct criteria to identify the occurrence of superfetation in a species is missing. The variable anatomy of mammalian reproductive tracts seems to make the occurrence of superfetation more or less likely but impedes the simple evaluation of whether it is present or not. Additionally, adequate determination methods are missing or are difficult to apply at the right time. Superfetation or rather superfetation-like pregnancies are reported for numerous species including humans, livestock and rodents. The usual criteria to assume a case of superfetation include the finding of discordantly developed young within the uterus during post mortem or parturition of young after a birth interval shorter than the assumed pregnancy length. Often the occurrence of superfetation is concluded because other explanations of reproductive artifacts are missing. Even severe reproductive pathologies are often confused with superfetation. True superfetation or superfetation as a reproductive strategy may exist in some mammals. In the American mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison) and the European badger (Meles meles) superfetation occurs in combination with embryonic diapause. In the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), superfetation has long been assumed to exist but evidence is still controversial. Superfetation definitely occurs in certain species of poeciliid and zenarchopterid fish, some of which also exhibit viviparity and maternal care. In mammals, the evolution of such a reproductive mechanism poses many interesting evolutionary, endocrine, microbial and immunological questions that require further investigation. Here we review the scant and at times ancient literature on this poorly understood topic

  3. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin < minke whale < humpback whale). The present data thus suggest that certain spiny neuron morphologies may be apomorphies in the neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size. PMID:25100560

  4. Envelope gene and long terminal repeat determine the different biological properties of Rauscher, Friend, and Moloney mink cell focus-inducing viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, M; Haggblom, C; Swift, S; Haas, M

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the envelope (env) gene and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an infectious clone of Rauscher mink cell focus-inducing (R-MCF) virus has been determined and compared with the published env gene and LTR sequences of Friend (F)- and Moloney (M)-MCF viruses. The sequence shows that R-MCF virus, like other MCF viruses, is a recombinant virus. Its env gene contains sequences which were acquired from an env gene in the mouse genome and which confer on the MCF virus its dualtropic host range. Unlike F-MCF and M-MCF viruses, R-MCF virus will not replicate in NIH 3T3 cells. The deduced amino acid sequence for the gp70 of R-MCF differs from that of F- and M-MCF viruses by 15 amino acids between residues 49 and 138 of gp70. These differences in amino acid sequences may be responsible for the inability of R-MCF virus to replicate in NIH 3T3 cells. The host range of two hybrid viruses constructed in vitro is consistent with this hypothesis. R-MCF virus and Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MLV) show 98% identity in their env gene 3' from the acquired env sequences. This contrasts with 82% identity between the env gene of R-MCF virus and M-MLV. The LTR of R-MCF shows 98% identity with the LTR of F-MCF as compared to 88% identity with the LTR of M-MCF. This striking similarity between the sequences of R-MCF, F-MCF, and F-MLV is surprising since the Rauscher virus and the Friend virus are thought to have originated independently. The high degree of similarity suggests that Rauscher and Friend viruses have a common origin. In contrast to M-MLV, which induces predominantly a lymphoid disease, R- and F-MCF viruses induce an erythroproliferative disease in NIH Swiss mice. A hybrid R-MCF virus with a genome derived primarily from R-MCF virus and a 3' end including the U3 region derived from M-MLV induces a lymphoid disease instead of an erythroid disease. This result indicates that it is the U3 region which determines the tissue specificity of the MCF virus

  5. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 mediates the inhibition of DNA synthesis by transforming growth factor-beta in mink lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Wu, Hai-Bin; Hong, Jiang; Rechler, Matthew M

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been proposed to mediate the growth inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in breast and prostate cancer cells. Both TGF-beta and exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibit DNA synthesis in Mv1 mink lung epithelial cells (CCL64). The present study asks whether IGFBPs synthesized by CCL64 cells mediate growth inhibition by TGF-beta. CCL64 cells synthesize and secrete a single 34-kDa IGFBP that was identified as IGFBP-2 by immunoprecipitation and immunodepletion. Recombinant bovine IGFBP-2 inhibited CCL64 DNA synthesis in serum-free media in an IGF-independent manner. Coincubation with Leu(60)-IGF-I, an IGF-I analog that binds to IGFBPs with higher affinity than to IGF-I receptors, decreased the inhibition by bIGFBP-2. Leu(60)-IGF-I also decreased the inhibition of CCL64 DNA synthesis by TGF-beta by up to 70%, whereas Long-R3-IGF-I, an IGF-I analog with higher affinity for IGF-I receptors than for IGFBPs, did not decrease inhibition, suggesting that the effect of Leu(60)-IGF-I resulted from its forming complexes with endogenous IGFBPs. Leu(60)-IGF-I did not decrease TGF-beta stimulation of a Smad3-dependent reporter gene. Following incubation of intact CCL64 cells with bIGFBP-2 at 0 degrees C, bIGFBP-2 was recovered in membrane fractions; membrane association was abolished by coincubation with Leu(60)-IGF-I. If exogenous and secreted IGFBP-2 must bind to CCL64 cells to inhibit DNA synthesis, Leu(60)-IGF-I might reduce the inhibition of DNA synthesis by bIGFBP-2 or TGF-beta by inhibiting the association of IGFBP-2 in the media with CCL64 cells. Since TGF-beta does not increase IGFBP-2 abundance, we propose that TGF-beta sensitizes CCL64 cells to the latent growth inhibitory activity of endogenous IGFBP-2 by potentiating an intracellular IGFBP-2 signaling pathway or by promoting the association of secreted IGFBP-2 with the plasma membrane. PMID:11807812

  6. MINK Workshop Presentations for SERVIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: MINX Document 1 MISR : The instrument, its orbit and data products. MINX Document 2 MISR : Tools for ordering and viewing data. MINX Document 3 : MINX : Overview and plume case studies. MINX Document 4 : MINX basic features. MINX Document 5 : Measuring aerosol height and motion with MINX. MINX Document 5 : Handling complexities in height retrievals. Plume boundaries, Wind direction, Low Optical Thickness, Other complexities. Digitizing options. Managing plume projects.

  7. The malignant histiocytosis sarcoma virus, a recombinant of Harvey murine sarcoma virus and Friend mink cell focus-forming virus, has acquired myeloid transformation specificity by alterations in the long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Friel, J; Hughes, D; Pragnell, I; Stocking, C; Laker, C; Nowock, J; Ostertag, W; Padua, R A

    1990-01-01

    The malignant histiocytosis sarcoma virus (MHSV), in contrast to other viruses with the ras oncogene, induces acute histiocytosis in newborn and adult mice. Molecular structure and function studies were initiated to determine the basis of its unique macrophage-transforming potential. Characterization of the genomic structure showed that the virus evolved by recombination of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MuSV) and a virus of the Friend-mink cell focus-forming virus family. Structural analysis of MHSV showed two regions of the genome that are basically different from the Ha-MuSV: (i) the ras gene, which is altered by a point mutation in codon 181 leading to a Cys----Ser substitution of the p21 protein, and (ii) the U3 region of the long terminal repeat, which is largely derived from F-MCFV and contains a deletion of one direct repeat as well as a duplication of an altered enhancer-like region. Biological studies of Ha-MuSV, MHSV, and recombinants between the two viruses show that the U3 region of the MHSV long terminal repeat is essential for the malignancy and specificity of the disease. A contributing role of the ras point mutation in determining macrophage specificity, however, cannot be excluded. Images PMID:2152823

  8. Generation of an Archaean H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ fluid enriched in Au, W and Mo by fractional crystallization in the Mink Lake intrusion, NW Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, D.R.; Spooner, E.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractional crystallization (FC) of the post-tectonic trondhjemitic Mink Lake intrusion in NW Ontario resulted in a residual H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ low salinity fluid with an isotopic composition (delta /sup 13/C/sub cc/ x = -3.3 per thousand +/- 0.4 per thousand (1s), delta/sup 18/O/sub cc/ + 10.7 to 15.9 per thousand, deltaD/sub FI/ -70 +/- 9 per thousand (1s) and delta /sup 34/S/sub py/ +0.4 to +2.90 per thousand) compatible with magmatic derivation and extremely similar to that in vein quartz-carbonate-pyrite +/- scheelite, +/- tourmaline, +/- MoS/sub 2/ +/- telluride systems characteristic of major Archaean lode gold deposits. Inward FC of the granodiorite magma (69-71% SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O/K/sub 2/O = 1.6-3.9), as indicated by trace and REE data, produced a sequence of microgranites and aplitic dykes with mean values by INNA (n=10) for Au of 2.3ppb, Mo = 22ppm and W = 7.3ppm as compared to mean background values in the granodiorite of Au <1ppb, Mo less than or equal to 1ppm with W less than or equal to 3.7ppm (n=4). The latest aplites are observed to coexist with a H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ mixture and are characterized by carbonate alteration selvages and minor MoS/sub 2/. Subsequent separation of the H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ fluid and interaction with an otherwise fresh granodiorite within the already solidified southern margin, produced MoS/sub 2/ mineralized sub-horizontal quartz veins and larger tabular lenses of carbonate alteration without internal veining. Such zones are anomalously enriched (n=10) in Au (anti x = 153 pbb, range 2-570ppb) Mo (anti x 660ppm, range 1-2500ppm and W (anti x = 61 ppm, range 23-95 ppm).

  9. Duplication of U3 sequences in the long terminal repeat of mink cell focus-inducing viruses generates redundancies of transcription factor binding sites important for the induction of thymomas.

    PubMed

    DiFronzo, Nancy L; Frieder, Marisa; Loiler, Scott A; Pham, Quynh N; Holland, Christie A

    2003-03-01

    The ability of mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses to induce thymomas is determined, in part, by transcriptional enhancers in the U3 region of their long terminal repeats (LTRs). To elucidate sequence motifs important for enhancer function in vivo, we injected newborn mice with MCF 1dr (supF), a weakly pathogenic, molecularly tagged (supF) MCF virus containing only one copy of a sequence that is present as two copies (known as the directly repeated [DR] sequence) in the U3 region of MCF 247 and analyzed LTRs from supF-tagged proviruses in two resulting thymomas. Tagged proviruses integrated upstream and in the reverse transcriptional orientation relative to c-myc provided the focus of our studies. These proviruses are thought to contribute to thymoma induction by enhancer-mediated deregulation of c-myc expression. The U3 region in a tagged LTR in one thymoma was cloned and sequenced. Relative to MCF 1dr (supF), the cloned U3 region contained an insertion of 140 bp derived predominantly from the DR sequence of the injected virus. The inserted sequence contains predicted binding sites for transcription factors known to regulate the U3 regions of various murine leukemia viruses. Similar constellations of binding sites were duplicated in two proviral LTRs integrated upstream from c-myc in a second thymoma. We replaced the U3 sequences in an infectious molecular clone of MCF 247 with the cloned proviral U3 sequences from the first thymoma and generated an infectious chimeric virus, MCF ProEn. When injected into neonatal AKR mice, MCF ProEn was more pathogenic than the parental virus, MCF 1dr (supF), as evidenced by the more rapid onset and higher incidence of thymomas. Molecular analyses of the resultant thymomas indicated that the U3 region of MCF ProEn was genetically stable. These data suggest that the arrangement and/or redundancy of transcription factor binding sites generated by specific U3 sequence duplications are important to the biological events mediated

  10. From aquatic to terrestrial food webs: decrease of the docosahexaenoic acid/linoleic acid ratio.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Lemarchand, Charles; Bec, Alexandre; Desvilettes, Christian; Amblard, Christian; Fournier, Christine; Berny, Philippe; Bourdier, Gilles

    2008-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of six carnivorous mammalian species (European otter Lutra lutra, American mink Mustela vison, European Mink Mustela lutreola, European polecat Mustela putorius, stone marten Martes foina and European wild cat Felis silvestris) was studied. These species forage to differing degrees in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Fatty acid analysis revealed significant differences in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition between species. More specifically, our results underline a gradual significant decrease in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/linoleic acid (LNA) ratio of carnivore species as their dependence on aquatic food webs decreases. In conclusion, the use of the DHA/LNA ratio in long-term studies is proposed as a potential proxy of changes in foraging behaviour of semi-aquatic mammals. PMID:18335265