Science.gov

Sample records for minute post effort

  1. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Robinson, Edward H; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT) session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF) and median (MDF) frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL) of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO) values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS), and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF. Key pointsEMG frequency decreased initially and remained constant in response to all-out cycling test.The change in EMG frequency and power output were similar during all-out cycling test.MNF may be better than MDF for neuromuscular function evaluation during all-out cycling test due to decreased variability. PMID:25983596

  2. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Fukuda, David H.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Robinson, Edward H.; Miramonti, Amelia A.; Fragala, Maren S.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT) session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF) and median (MDF) frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL) of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO) values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS), and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF. Key points EMG frequency decreased initially and remained constant in response to all-out cycling test. The change in EMG frequency and power output were similar during all-out cycling test. MNF may be better than MDF for neuromuscular function evaluation during all-out cycling test due to decreased variability. PMID:25983596

  3. Using posts to an online social network to assess fishing effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Dustin R.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Pope, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries management has evolved from reservoir to watershed management, creating a need to simultaneously gather information within and across interacting reservoirs. However, costs to gather information on the fishing effort on multiple reservoirs using traditional creel methodology are often prohibitive. Angler posts about reservoirs online provide a unique medium to test hypotheses on the distribution of fishing pressure. We show that the activity on an online fishing social network is related to fishing effort and can be used to facilitate management goals. We searched the Nebraska Fish and Game Association Fishing Forum for all references from April 2009 to December 2010 to 19 reservoirs that comprise the Salt Valley regional fishery in southeastern Nebraska. The number of posts was positively related to monthly fishing effort on a regional scale, with individual reservoirs having the most annual posts also having the most annual fishing effort. Furthermore, this relationship held temporally. Online fishing social networks provide the potential to assess effort on larger spatial scales than currently feasible.

  4. Effortful swallowing training combined with electrical stimulation in post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngsun; Oh, Jong-Chi; Lee, Ho-Jun

    2012-12-01

    We tested the effect of effortful swallow combined with surface electrical stimulation used as a form of resistance training in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. Twenty post-stroke dysphagic patients were randomly divided into two groups: those who underwent effortful swallow with infrahyoid motor electrical stimulation (experimental group, n = 10) and effortful swallow with infrahyoid sensory electrical stimulation (control group, n = 10). In the experimental group, electrical stimulation was applied to the skin above the infrahyoid muscle with the current was adjusted until muscle contraction occurred and the hyoid bone was depressed. In the control group, the stimulation intensity was applied just above the sensory threshold. The patients in both groups were then asked to swallow effortfully in order to elevate their hyolaryngeal complex when the stimulation began. A total of 12 sessions of 20 min of training for 4 weeks were performed. Blinded biomechanical measurements of the extent of hyolaryngeal excursion, the maximal width of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, and the penetration-aspiration scale before and after training were performed. In the experimental group, the maximal vertical displacement of the larynx was increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.05). The maximal vertical displacement of the hyoid bone and the maximal width of the UES opening increased but the increase was not found to be significant (p = 0.066). There was no increase in the control group. Effortful swallow training combined with electrical stimulation increased the extent of laryngeal excursion. This intervention can be used as a new treatment method in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. PMID:22447240

  5. A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

  6. β-3AR W64R Polymorphism and 30-Minute Post-Challenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Hasibe; Tulgar Kınık, Sibel; Yılmaz Yalçın, Yaprak; Muratoğlu Şahin, Nursel; Yazıcı, Ayşe Canan; Ataç, F. Belgin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of W64R polymorphism of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene (β-3AR) with childhood obesity and related pathologies. Methods: β-3AR gene W64R genotyping was carried out in 251 children aged 6-18 years. Of these subjects, 130 were obese (62 boys) and 121 were normal-weight (53 boys). In the obese group, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 75 of the obese patients. Results: The frequency of W64R genotype was similar in obese and non-obese children. In obese children, relative body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were not different between Arg allele carriers (W64R and R64R) and noncarriers (W64W). In 75 obese children, OGTT results showed that Arg allele carriers had significantly higher 30-minute glucose levels (p=0.027). Conclusion: W64R polymorphism of the β-3AR gene is not associated with obesity and waist-to-hip ratio in Turkish children. Although there were no relationships between the genotypes and lipid, glucose/insulin levels or HOMA-IR, the presence of W64R variant seemed to have an unfavorable influence on early glucose excursion after glucose loading. PMID:25800470

  7. Chronic effort dyspnea explained by lung function tests and by HRCT and CRX radiographic patterns in COPD: a post-hoc analysis in 51 patients.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Carlo; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Maluccio, Nazzarena Maria; Mariani, Laura; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a post-hoc analysis of a previous study performed to investigate the relationship between computerized tomography (CT) and lung function in 51 outpatients with mild-to-moderate COPD. We studied whether changes in lung function and radiographic patterns may help to explain dyspnea, the most disturbing symptom in patients with COPD. The Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale shows, by univariate analysis, a similar strength of association to CT expiratory lung density and to DL(CO), a functional index of lung parenchymal loss. The MRC dyspnea scale shows a somewhat less strength of association with a small vertical heart on plain chest films. In multivariate analysis, the model with the strongest association to the MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) contains 4 explanatory variables (DL(CO), FRC, PaCO(2), and radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension). We suggest that diffusing capacity reflects the emphysematous component of hyperinflation, associated by definition with destruction of terminal airspace walls, as distinct from the air trapping component, which is ascribed to airway obstruction and associated with FRC. PaCO(2) mainly reflects the ventilatory components, i.e., ventilatory drive and ventilatory constraints, of pulmonary gas exchange in COPD, while radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension likely reflects hypoxic vascular changes, which depend mainly on ventilation/perfusion mismatch and give rise to pulmonary arterial hypertension that may contribute per se to dyspnea. In conclusion, our analysis points out that chronic effort dyspnea variance may account for up to 58% (r(2) = 0.58) by lung function tests and radiographic patterns. Thus, about 42% of the MRC dyspnea variance remains unexplained by this model. On the other hand, dyspnea ascertainment is dependent on subjective behavior and evaluation and in tests is influenced by individual performance and perception. For example in the 6-minute walk test, a similar or

  8. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with effortful swallowing on post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, J-S; Oh, D-H; Hwang, N-K; Lee, J-H

    2016-06-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as a therapeutic intervention for dysphagia. However, the therapeutic effects of NMES lack supporting evidence. In recent years, NMES combined with traditional swallowing therapy has been used to improve functional recovery in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of effortful swallowing combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hyoid bone movement and swallowing function in stroke patients. Fifty stroke patients with mild dysphagia who were able to swallow against the resistance applied by using NMES and cooperate actively in training were included. This study was designed as a 6-week single-blind, randomised, controlled study. In the experimental group, two pairs of electrodes were placed horizontally in the infrahyoid region to depress the hyoid bone. The NMES intensity was increased gradually until the participants felt a grabbing sensation in their neck and performed an effortful swallow during the stimulation. In the placebo group, the same procedure was followed except for the intensity, which was increased gradually until the participants felt an electrical sensation. All participants underwent this intervention for 30 min per session, 5 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were carried out before and after the intervention and kinematics of the hyoid bone and swallowing function were analysed based on the VFSS. The experimental group revealed a significant increase in anterior and superior hyoid bone movement and the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing function. This intervention can be used as a novel remedial approach in dysphagic stroke patients. PMID:26969528

  9. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  10. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans. PMID:26761206

  11. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  12. 10 Minutes of Bliss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Olynda

    2014-01-01

    For many of us, it is challenging to find the time to sleep enough each night or to sit down for a meal. So how can this author convince you that taking 10 minutes to do anything every day is actually worth it? The benefits of meditation--increased calm, clarity, compassion, and empathy, to name a few--have been known for centuries. Recently,…

  13. The Feasibility of Six-Minute and Two-Minute Walk Tests in In-patient Geriatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Dina; Davis, Aileen M.; Naglie, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the 6-minute and 2-minute walk tests in frail older persons. Design: Pre/post-design with measures at admission and discharge to in-patient geriatric rehabilitation. Participants: Fifty-two subjects (35 women, 17 men; age 80 plus or minus 8 years). Results: Only 1 of the first 8 subjects could complete a…

  14. The Regeneration Challenge in the Developed World: Insights Generated from a Capabilities Approach Applied to the Understanding of Regeneration Efforts in Post-Industrial Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Nelarine; Trueman, Myfanwy

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of the urban story of many cities in the developed world is their "regeneration" after many years of long-term social, economic and environmental decline. This is especially so in cities that have sought to reverse a long-standing, negative reputation and pejorative image. Based on the context of post-industrial cities in the…

  15. 100 Minutes: Making Every Minute Count in the Literacy Block

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    It is possible to create a literacy block where teachers meet with students for guided reading and writing conferences, and provide daily explicit instruction in both reading and writing. A comprehensive look at literacy and learning, "100 Minutes" shows teachers how to fit balanced literacy into a daily 100-minute literacy block using a framework…

  16. Creating a Positive Classroom Culture: Minute by Minute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a peek into high school math teacher Ali Wright's typical school day, which includes time-tested strategies that she uses to build a positive culture in her classroom. Scheduled timeframes and activities include before school starts, five minutes before class, during announcements, during class, last five minutes of class,…

  17. Gotta Minute? Get a Good Workout

    MedlinePlus

    ... minute cool-down, and two minutes of easy cycling for recovery between the intense sprints. Total time: ... moderate workout group did 45 minutes of continuous cycling at a moderate pace, plus the same warmup ...

  18. 5 experiments in 5 minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Show, don't tell. When kids ask about your research, show, don't tell. We, the ambassadors of science, shouldn't be boring our nieces and nephews at family dinners with parameter distributions, we should make them excited about science. Getting people excited: show, don't tell. In 5 minutes, I will perform 5 experiments that anyone can do using everyday household items to get kids interested in science. Bring safety glasses.

  19. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  20. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  1. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  2. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  3. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  4. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  5. Mechanical Working Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This documents contains the minutes and viewgraphs from the October 27--28, 1992 meeting on the subject of power generation and delivery systems for military applications. Attendees represented the US Air Force and NASA. The thermal management panel reported on the capillary pump loop test facility, thermal control systems and compressors, and the oxygen heat pipe flight experiment. The aerospace power panel reported on the integrated power unit for the more electric airplane, the solar dynamic power system, the modular high temperature gas cooled reactor-gas-turbine program, the multi-megawatt CBC power system, and analytical modeling for heat pipe performance. The terrestrial power panel reported on a free piston stirling engine power generation system, fuel cell vehicles, and the advanced gas turbine project.

  6. The ribosomal protein genes and Minute loci of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Marygold, Steven J; Roote, John; Reuter, Gunter; Lambertsson, Andrew; Ashburner, Michael; Millburn, Gillian H; Harrison, Paul M; Yu, Zhan; Kenmochi, Naoya; Kaufman, Thomas C; Leevers, Sally J; Cook, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to cause an array of cellular and developmental defects in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, disruption of RP genes can result in the 'Minute' syndrome of dominant, haploinsufficient phenotypes, which include prolonged development, short and thin bristles, and poor fertility and viability. While more than 50 Minute loci have been defined genetically, only 15 have so far been characterized molecularly and shown to correspond to RP genes. Results We combined bioinformatic and genetic approaches to conduct a systematic analysis of the relationship between RP genes and Minute loci. First, we identified 88 genes encoding 79 different cytoplasmic RPs (CRPs) and 75 genes encoding distinct mitochondrial RPs (MRPs). Interestingly, nine CRP genes are present as duplicates and, while all appear to be functional, one member of each gene pair has relatively limited expression. Next, we defined 65 discrete Minute loci by genetic criteria. Of these, 64 correspond to, or very likely correspond to, CRP genes; the single non-CRP-encoding Minute gene encodes a translation initiation factor subunit. Significantly, MRP genes and more than 20 CRP genes do not correspond to Minute loci. Conclusion This work answers a longstanding question about the molecular nature of Minute loci and suggests that Minute phenotypes arise from suboptimal protein synthesis resulting from reduced levels of cytoribosomes. Furthermore, by identifying the majority of haplolethal and haplosterile loci at the molecular level, our data will directly benefit efforts to attain complete deletion coverage of the D. melanogaster genome. PMID:17927810

  7. A 30-Minute, but Not a 10-Minute Nighttime Nap is Associated with Sleep Inertia

    PubMed Central

    Hilditch, Cassie J.; Centofanti, Stephanie A.; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess sleep inertia following 10-min and 30-min naps during a simulated night shift. Methods: Thirty-one healthy adults (aged 21–35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study that included one baseline (BL) sleep (22:00–07:00) and one experimental night involving randomization to either: total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP), a 10-min nap (10-NAP) or a 30-min nap (30-NAP). Nap opportunities ended at 04:00. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B), digit-symbol substitution task (DSST), fatigue scale, sleepiness scale, and self-rated performance scale were undertaken pre-nap (03:00) and at 2, 17, 32, and 47 min post-nap. Results: The 30-NAP (14.7 ± 5.7 min) had more slow wave sleep than the 10-NAP (0.8 ± 1.5 min; P < 0.001) condition. In the NO-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse than pre-nap (4.6 ± 0.3 1/sec) at 47 min post-nap (4.1 ± 0.4 1/sec; P < 0.001). There was no change across time in the 10-NAP condition. In the 30-NAP condition, performance immediately deteriorated from pre-nap (4.3 ± 0.3 1/sec) and was still worse at 47 min post-nap (4.0 ± 0.5 1/sec; P < 0.015). DSST performance deteriorated in the NO-NAP (worse than pre-nap from 17 to 47 min; P < 0.008), did not change in the 10-NAP, and was impaired 2 min post-nap in the 30-NAP condition (P = 0.028). All conditions self-rated performance as better than pre-nap for all post-nap test points (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study is the first to show that a 10-min (but not a 30-min) nighttime nap had minimal sleep inertia and helped to mitigate short-term performance impairment during a simulated night shift. Self-rated performance did not reflect objective performance following a nap. Citation: Hilditch CJ, Centofanti SA, Dorrian J, Banks S. A 30-minute, but not a 10-minute nighttime nap is associated with sleep inertia. SLEEP 2016;39(3):675–685. PMID:26715234

  8. Exercise 30 minutes a day (image)

    MedlinePlus

    You get the most benefit from exercise if you do it for at least 30 minutes a day for 5 to 6 days a week. But you do not have to do 30 minutes in a row. Studies suggest that you ... for 10 minutes 3 times a day as you do during a longer session.

  9. 49 CFR 1012.5 - Transcripts; minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transcripts; minutes. 1012.5 Section 1012.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS MEETINGS OF THE BOARD § 1012.5 Transcripts; minutes. (a) A verbatim transcript, sound...

  10. 29 CFR 1912a.11 - Minutes; transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minutes; transcript. 1912a.11 Section 1912a.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.11 Minutes; transcript....

  11. 48 CFR 9901.312 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minutes. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATION RULES AND PROCEDURES 9901.312 Minutes....

  12. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  13. 49 CFR 1012.5 - Transcripts; minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transcripts; minutes. 1012.5 Section 1012.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... made and retained. (b) The Board will make available free of charge, upon request, in a public...

  14. 49 CFR 1012.5 - Transcripts; minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transcripts; minutes. 1012.5 Section 1012.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... made and retained. (b) The Board will make available free of charge, upon request, in a public...

  15. Minutes of Midyear Executive Board Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counseling Psychologist, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents minutes of midyear executive board meeting of American Psychological Association's Division 17, Counseling Psychology. Reviews standing committee reports from education and training, ethics and cultural diversity, hospitality suite, independent practice, membership, nominations, professional affairs, program committee, scientific affairs,…

  16. Programme Feedback: It Only Takes a Minute!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine the practicalities of implementing the one-minute paper (OMP) concept and to consider whether claimed benefits are likely to be achieved without significant increases in resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study makes use of a literature review to establish the claimed OMP benefits. These benefits are…

  17. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  18. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  19. Test Anxiety and Effort-Toward-Comprehension in Sentence Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedl, John J., Jr.; Bartlett, James

    Using an effort toward comprehension paradigm developed by P. M. Auble, J. J. Franks, and S. A. Soraci, Jr. (1979), the worry component of state test anxiety was related to long-term memory for sentence encoding conditions that involved comprehension, but low effort (embedded-cue) and comprehension-high effort (post-cue). A noncomprehension…

  20. Liquid immersion apparatus for minute articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. G., Jr.; Hollis, B. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for immersing minute integrated circuit chips in an etching solution in manufacturing integrated circuits during research and development. The apparatus includes a holder, having a handle and basket support for carrying a removable unitary basket and lid structure where fluid flow-through passages are formed, and wherein graduated openings in the handle provide for adjustably supporting the basket in a breaker at a desired level.

  1. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  2. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  3. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  4. Retrospective CMORPH Reprocessing Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Y.; Joyce, R.; Xie, P.

    2008-05-01

    The Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH) uses motion vectors derived from half-hourly interval geostationary satellite IR imagery to propagate the relatively high quality precipitation estimates derived from passive microwave (PMW) data to define high-resolution precipitation estimates over the globe (Joyce et al. 2004). Precipitation estimates from all available PMW sensors are merged for each 30-minute period, and calibrated to the TRMM TMI 2A12 rainfall estimates before propagation. Currently PMW precipitation estimates from nine instruments are used (TRMM TMI, AQUA AMSR-E, two DMSP SSM/I, four NOAA AMSU, and METOP-A MHS). Infrared (IR) data from five geostationary meteorological satellites are used to infer the movement of precipitation features that have been identified by the PMW information by performing spatial lag correlations on IR imagery that are 30 minutes apart in time. Essentially, the IR data are used to determine cloud motion, and that motion is applied to the PMW-derived rainfall. The shape and intensity of the PMW derived rainfall patterns are modified by "morphing". This is accomplished by doing a linear interpolation (in time) between rainfall features propagated forward in time, i.e. from the previous PMW overpass to the most current scan, and rainfall propagated backward in time, i.e. from the most current overpass to the previous scan. Currently the CMORPH archive is slightly longer than five years initiating in December 2002, corresponding to the methodology conception date. A project is underway at NOAA/CPC to extend the CMORPH satellite estimates back to 2000. PMW rainfall estimates from the NOAA-17 AMSU and AQUA AMSR-E are available from mid-2002, NOAA-16 AMSU from late 2000, NOAA-15 AMSU from early 2000, DMSP-15 SSMI since late 1999, TRMM TMI since December 1997, DMSP-14 since mid-1997, and DMSP-13 since mid-1995. Thus while PMW sampling previous to the December 2002 CMORPH inception is sparse relative to the current PMW

  5. PRECISION INTEGRATOR FOR MINUTE ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    DOEpatents

    Hemmendinger, A.; Helmer, R.J.

    1961-10-24

    An integrator is described for measuring the value of integrated minute electrical currents. The device consists of a source capacitor connected in series with the source of such electrical currents, a second capacitor of accurately known capacitance and a source of accurately known and constant potential, means responsive to the potentials developed across the source capacitor for reversibly connecting the second capacitor in series with the source of known potential and with the source capacitor and at a rate proportional to the potential across the source capacitor to maintain the magnitude of the potential across the source capacitor at approximately zero. (AEC)

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  7. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  8. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E K; Cussen, K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:21046863

  9. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  10. Minutes of the Sixth CEOS Plenary Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) minutes for the sixth plenary meeting held in London, December 9-11, 1992 are presented. Attending as prospective members were the Russian Space Agency (RSA), the Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of the Ministry for Ecology and Natural resources of the Russian Federation (ROSCOMGIDROMET), the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and the National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC). Actions taken at the meeting included membership issues, CEOS proposals, data policy, and working group reports. Data requirements of CEOS affiliates were also reported on. Additional summations and statements as well as lists of participants and future meetings are included. In general, topics covered related to remote sensing and global change.

  11. Calorimetry measurements in less than 20 minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. B.; Cremers, T.

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a new series of 10 watt Bulk Plutonium Assay Calorimeters (BPAC10). The calorimeter measures bulk samples of plutonium bearing material in containers up to 5 in. in diameter and 7 in. high. The average measurement time is 19.7 minutes compared to 2-9 hours for the same sample measured in a water bath calorimeter. Measurement precision in the range of 1-10 watts is 1 to 0.1 percent and it is 0.010 watt for sample power less than 1 watt. The BPAC10 series calorimeters are in use in two plutonium facilities at the EG&G Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory TA55 Plutonium Facility. The paper presents a description of the calorimeter, discusses operating experience at Los Alamos, and presents a comparison of data on typical samples measured with both types of calorimeters.

  12. Validity of estimating minute-by-minute energy expenditure of continuous walking bouts by accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective measurement of physical activity remains an important challenge. For wearable monitors such as accelerometer-based physical activity monitors, more accurate methods are needed to convert activity counts into energy expenditure (EE). Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the refined Crouter 2-Regression Model (C2RM) for estimating EE during the transition from rest to walking and walking to rest. A secondary purpose was to determine the extent of overestimation in minute-by-minute EE between the refined C2RM and the 2006 C2RM. Methods Thirty volunteers (age, 28 ± 7.7 yrs) performed 15 minutes of seated rest, 8 minutes of over-ground walking, and 8 minutes of seated rest. An ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system were worn during all activities. Participants were randomly assigned to start the walking bout at 0, 20, or 40 s into the minute (according to the ActiGraph clock). Acceleration data were analyzed by two methods: 2006 Crouter model and a new refined model. Results The 2006 Crouter 2-Regression model over-predicted measured kcal kg-1 hr-1 during the first and last transitional minutes of the 20-s and 40-s walking conditions (P < 0.001). It also over-predicted the average EE for a walking bout (4.0 ± 0.5 kcal kg-1 hr-1), compared to both the measured kcal kg-1 hr-1 (3.6 ± 0.7 kcal kg-1 hr-1) and the refined Crouter model (3.5 ± 0.5 kcal kg-1 hr-1) (P < 0.05). Conclusion The 2006 Crouter 2-regression model over-predicts EE at the beginning and end of walking bouts, due to high variability in accelerometer counts during the transitional minutes. The new refined model eliminates this problem and results in a more accurate prediction of EE during walking. PMID:21864359

  13. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  14. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  15. Comparison of walking performance over the first 2 minutes and the full 6 minutes of the Six-Minute Walk Test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), as recommended by the American Thoracic Society, is widely used as a measure of functional endurance, it may not be applicable in some settings and populations. We sought to examine, therefore, performance over the first 2 minutes and the full 6 minutes of the 6MWT. Specifically, we investigated completion rates, distances walked, test-retest reliability, and the relationship between distances walked over the first 2 and the full 6 minutes of the 6MWT. Methods Community-dwelling children and adults age 3–85 years (n = 337) were asked to walk back and forth on a 15.24 meter (50 ft) course as far as possible without running over a 6 minute period. Test completion and the distance covered by the participants at 2 and 6 minutes were documented. The reliability of distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes was determined by retesting a subsample of 54 participants 6 to 10 days later. The relationship between distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes was determined for the 330 participants completing the 6MWT. Results All 337 participants completed at least 2 minutes of walking, but 7 children less than 5 years of age ceased walking before 6 minutes had elapsed. For the remaining 330 participants the mean distance walked was 186 meters at 2 minutes and 543 meters at 6 minutes. The distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes were reliable between sessions (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.888 and 0.917, respectively). The distances covered over 2 and 6 minutes were highly correlated (r = 0.968). Conclusions The completion rate, values obtained, test-retest reliability, and relationship of the distances walked in 2 and 6 minutes support documentation of 2 minute distance during the 6MWT. The findings also provide support for use of a Two-Minute Walk Test as the endurance component in the Motor Battery of the NIH Toolbox. PMID:24767634

  16. The five-minute chemical engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Korchinski, W.J.; Turpin, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Engineering offices are filled with computers and state-of-the-art software. Given the right set of circumstances, refinery engineers are delighted to use all of this stuff: technology is at their fingertips and, if time permits, one can grind out an answer to full machine precision. But, many really useful refinery calculations can be simplified using miscellaneous bits of information and a few rules. These calculation techniques provide a quick way to evaluate whether something is worth pursuing in more detail, or whether time would be better spent performing other activities. These estimates also provide reasonable answers in a timely manner, when engineers do not have access to all of the high-tech tools on their desktop. In most cases all that is required is an inexpensive calculator and five minutes of your time. Only a few really important constants are needed to do most quick-and-dirty refining calculations. These constants are summarized in four tables along with a set of commonly used equations. Examples are provided that illustrate use of the constants and equations. Some examples may be familiar: can a heat exchanger be used in a particular service; what size driver would be needed to compress a stream from one pressure to the next; how much fuel is being used by a boiler or process heater; how much energy can be saved by cutting reflux? The intent is to provide the tools to quickly estimate answers to these questions.

  17. 46 CFR 535.704 - Filing of minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... telephone, electronic device, or other means are included. (c) Content of minutes. Minutes shall include the..., whether presented by oral, written, electronic, or other means. Where the aforementioned materials...

  18. 16 CFR 16.10 - Minutes and transcripts of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minutes and transcripts of meetings. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.10 Minutes and transcripts of meetings. (a) Detailed minutes of...

  19. 16 CFR 16.10 - Minutes and transcripts of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minutes and transcripts of meetings. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.10 Minutes and transcripts of meetings. (a) Detailed minutes of each advisory committee meeting shall be...

  20. 16 CFR 16.10 - Minutes and transcripts of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minutes and transcripts of meetings. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.10 Minutes and transcripts of meetings. (a) Detailed minutes of...

  1. 16 CFR 16.10 - Minutes and transcripts of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minutes and transcripts of meetings. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.10 Minutes and transcripts of meetings. (a) Detailed minutes of...

  2. 16 CFR 16.10 - Minutes and transcripts of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minutes and transcripts of meetings. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.10 Minutes and transcripts of meetings. (a) Detailed minutes of...

  3. Managing Content in a Matter of Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA software created to help scientists expeditiously search and organize their research documents is now aiding compliance personnel, law enforcement investigators, and the general public in their efforts to search, store, manage, and retrieve documents more efficiently. Developed at Ames Research Center, NETMARK software was designed to manipulate vast amounts of unstructured and semi-structured NASA documents. NETMARK is both a relational and object-oriented technology built on an Oracle enterprise-wide database. To ensure easy user access, Ames constructed NETMARK as a Web-enabled platform utilizing the latest in Internet technology. One of the significant benefits of the program was its ability to store and manage mission-critical data.

  4. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop: Summary Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The general theme for the workshop revolved around global environmental change. Over 170 individuals participated in the presentations and ensuing discussions about the many agency activities using airborne platforms and sensors in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (GCRP). The U.S. GCRP was developed as a central component of the U.S. Government's approach to global change and its contribution to worldwide efforts. An all-encompassing U.S. plan was developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), which continues as the interagency coordinating group for the program. The U.S. GCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY90 budget, making it a particularly relevant topic for the workshop. The following are presented in the appendices: (1) final agenda and list of registrants; (2) final list of poster presenters; (3) steering group luncheon participants; (4) the draft resolution; and (5) selected handouts.

  5. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    PubMed

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. PMID:26209529

  6. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  7. Minute Temperature Fluctuations Detected in Eta Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    A group of astronomers from the Aarhus University (Denmark) and the European Southern Observatory (2) have for the first time succeeded in detecting solar-type oscillations in another star. They observed the temperature of the bright northern star Eta Bootis during six nights with the 2.5-metre Nordic Optical Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) and were able to show that it varies periodically by a few hundredths of a degree. These changes are caused by pressure waves in the star and are directly dependent on its inner structure. A detailed analysis by the astronomers has shown that the observed effects are in good agreement with current stellar models. This is a most important, independent test of stellar theory. The Sun is an Oscillating Star About twenty years ago, it was discovered that the nearest star, our Sun, oscillates like the ringing of a bell with a period of about 5 minutes. The same phenomenon is known in the Earth, which begins to vibrate after earthquakes; in this way seismologists have been able to discern a layered structure in the Earth's interior. The recent impacts of a comet on Jupiter most likely had a similar effect on that planet. The observed solar oscillations concern the entire gaseous body of the Sun, but we can of course only observe them on its surface. It has been found that each mode moves the surface up and down by less than 25 metres; the combined motion is very complicated, because there are many different, simultaneous modes, each of which has a slightly different period. The exact values of these periods are sensitive to the speed of sound in the Sun's interior, which in turn depends on the density of the material there. Thus, by measuring the periods of solar oscillations, we may probe the internal structure of the Sun, that is otherwise inaccessible to observations. Why does the Sun oscillate and what is the cause of these oscillations ? We do not know yet, but it is

  8. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  9. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  10. [OR minute myth : Guidelines for calculation of DRG revenues per OR minute].

    PubMed

    Waeschle, R M; Hinz, J; Bleeker, F; Sliwa, B; Popov, A; Schmidt, C E; Bauer, M

    2016-02-01

    The economic situation in German Hospitals is tense and needs the implementation of differentiated controlling instruments. Accordingly, parameters of revenue development of different organizational units within a hospital are needed. This is particularly necessary in the revenue and cost-intensive operating theater field. So far there are only barely established productivity data for the control of operating room (OR) revenues during the year available. This article describes a valid method for the calculation of case-related revenues per OR minute conform to the diagnosis-related groups (DRG).For this purpose the relevant datasets from the OR information system and the § 21 productivity report (DRG grouping) of the University Medical Center Göttingen were combined. The revenues defined in the DRG browser of the Institute for Hospital Reimbursement (InEK) were assigned to the corresponding process times--incision-suture time (SNZ), operative preparation time and anesthesiology time--according to the InEK system. All full time stationary DRG cases treated within the OR were included and differentiated according to the surgical department responsible. The cost centers "OR section" and "anesthesia" were isolated to calculate the revenues of the operating theater. SNZ clusters and cost type groups were formed to demonstrate their impact on the revenues per OR minute. A surgical personal simultaneity factor (GZF) was calculated by division of the revenues for surgeons and anesthesiologists. This factor resembles the maximum DRG financed personnel deployment for surgeons in German hospitals.The revenue per OR minute including all cost types and DRG was 16.63 €/min. The revenues ranged from 10.45 to 24.34 €/min depending on the surgical field. The revenues were stable when SNZ clusters were analyzed. The differentiation of cost type groups revealed a revenue reduction especially after exclusion of revenues for implants and infrastructure. The calculated GZF over

  11. Identification and expression profile of multiple genes in channel catfish fry ten minutes after modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 32 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from 96 clones of a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry subtractive library ten minutes post vaccination with a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine. The transcription levels of...

  12. Identification and expresion profile of multiple genes in channel catfish fry ten minutes after modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 32 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from 96 clones of a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry subtractive library ten minutes post vaccination with a modified live Flavobacterum columnare vaccine. The transcription levels of ...

  13. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24320175

  14. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  15. 45 CFR 1802.7 - Transcripts, recordings, minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., minutes of meetings. (a) The Board of Trustees shall maintain a complete transcript or electronic... of each of the views expressed on any item and the record of any roll call vote (reflecting the vote... complete copy of the minutes, or a complete electronic recording of each meeting or portion of a...

  16. The One-Minute Paper: Some Empirical Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizmar, John F.; Ostrosky, Anthony L

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that using the one-minute paper to teach an introductory economics course increases economic knowledge regardless of student ability level and instructor characteristics. The one-minute paper is a form of feedback where the students answer a few basic questions about the lesson at the end of the class. (MJP)

  17. Econometric Assessment of "One Minute" Paper as a Pedagogic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Amaresh

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an econometric testing of one-minute paper used as a tool to manage and assess instruction in my statistics class. One of our findings is that the one minute paper when I have tested it by using an OLS estimate in a controlled Vs experimental design framework is found to statistically significant and effective in enhancing…

  18. One-Minute Paper: Student Perception of Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah; Burns, Shari

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' perceptions of learning gains when using the one-minute paper. Thirty-one students from the Physical Therapy (PT) and Nurse Anesthesia (NA) programs participated in this study. Students completed the one-minute paper in three classes. An email to students clarified the "muddy"…

  19. How Much Work Effort is Involved in Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion?

    PubMed Central

    Ledonio, Charles G.T.; Polly, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion is increasing significantly. Starting January 1, 2015, it has a category I CPT code. The current RVU for this procedure is not equal to the amount of work involved. There is not a published RUC validated survey to establish the work effort of MI SI fusion. Our hospital system has been doing this procedure for 4 years and has been tracking surgeon time through a commercial tracking system (Navicare). Our study looks at time utilization for performance of MI SI joint fusion and a comparator of primary lumbar discectomy (PLD), presumably similar in time and work effort. Methods This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data using Navicare. The data for 3 surgeons who perform MI SI joint fusion and lumbar discectomies from January 1, 2013 through November 30, 2014 was retrieved. Surgeon room time was identified as the time the patient entered the OR to the time they exited the OR. This was used as opposed to skin to skin time seen in similar studies as it was more accurately and consistently recorded in the medical record. Mean and standard deviations were then compared using student's t-test. Results In 50 primary MI SI joint fusions, the average in-room time was 112 minutes (SD=23). In 89 cases of PLD, the average in-room time was 119 minutes (SD=26). When comparing mean in-room times, MI SI and PLD were not statistically significantly different (p=0.135, 2-tailed t-test). Post-operative work effort was found to be greater for MI SI joint fusion than PLD. Conclusions / Level of evidence Surgical time was found to be comparable between MI SI joint fusion and PLD, while work effort was found to be greater for MI SI joint fusion. This signifies at a minimum an equal RVU for PLD should be used for MI SI joint fusion. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Minnesota. Level of evidence: 3. PMID:26609513

  20. Tensoral for post-processing users and simulation authors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, Eliot

    1993-01-01

    The CTR post-processing effort aims to make turbulence simulations and data more readily and usefully available to the research and industrial communities. The Tensoral language, which provides the foundation for this effort, is introduced here in the form of a user's guide. The Tensoral user's guide is presented in two main sections. Section one acts as a general introduction and guides database users who wish to post-process simulation databases. Section two gives a brief description of how database authors and other advanced users can make simulation codes and/or the databases they generate available to the user community via Tensoral database back ends. The two-part structure of this document conforms to the two-level design structure of the Tensoral language. Tensoral has been designed to be a general computer language for performing tensor calculus and statistics on numerical data. Tensoral's generality allows it to be used for stand-alone native coding of high-level post-processing tasks (as described in section one of this guide). At the same time, Tensoral's specialization to a minute task (namely, to numerical tensor calculus and statistics) allows it to be easily embedded into applications written partly in Tensoral and partly in other computer languages (here, C and Vectoral). Embedded Tensoral, aimed at advanced users for more general coding (e.g. of efficient simulations, for interfacing with pre-existing software, for visualization, etc.), is described in section two of this guide.

  1. First report of anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; family Polygonaceae) is an exotic annual barbed vine that is now invasive in the northeastern USA, Mississippi, and Oregon and is a target of biological control efforts. In July, 2010, diseased P. perfoliata plants were found along the Firtina Rive...

  2. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  3. 3- and 5- Minute Oscillatory Behavior in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Brandon; McAteer, James; Pevtsov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We study the spatially- and temporally-localized oscillatory behavior of the solar corona using a 6-hour sequence of narrowband 171A (extreme ultraviolet) image from the SWAP instrument onboard Proba2. We use a Morlet wavelet transform to extract oscillation parameters from the temporal evolution of emission in each pixel and study the variation in space and time of oscillatory power in the 3- and 5-minute band. We extract and compare these parameters between active Sun, quiet Sun and coronal hole regions. In each region of the corona studied the 5-minute periodicity is more prevalent than the 3-minute periodicity by a factor of 2--3. All areas of the corona exhibit a similar temporal behavior in the 5-minute band, suggesting a global driving mechanism. However, the dominance of the 5-minute periodicity is stronger in active regions than in other areas of the Sun. The 3-minute periodicity in active regions tends to be localized in the sunspot umbra, whereas the 5-minute is more prevalent in the penumbra.

  4. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  5. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  6. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  7. Global efforts in structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R C; Yokoyama, S; Wilson, I A

    2001-10-01

    A worldwide initiative in structural genomics aims to capitalize on the recent successes of the genome projects. Substantial new investments in structural genomics in the past 2 years indicate the high level of support for these international efforts. Already, enormous progress has been made on high-throughput methodologies and technologies that will speed up macromolecular structure determinations. Recent international meetings have resulted in the formation of an International Structural Genomics Organization to formulate policy and foster cooperation between the public and private efforts. PMID:11588249

  8. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  9. NASA Now Minute: Geology: Structure of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    This program shows how re-examining moon data from the Apollo days withmodern technology helps scientists determine the structure of the moon’sinterior. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a wee...

  10. How to summarize a 6,000-word paper in a six-minute video clip.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Vachon, Patrick; Daudelin, Genevieve; Hivon, Myriam

    2013-05-01

    As part of our research team's knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) efforts, we created a six-minute video clip that summarizes, in plain language, a scientific paper that describes why and how three teams of academic entrepreneurs developed new health technologies. Recognizing that video-based KTE strategies can be a valuable tool for health services and policy researchers, this paper explains the constraints and sources of inspiration that shaped our video production process. Aiming to provide practical guidance, we describe the steps and tools that we used to identify, refine and package the key content of the scientific paper into an original video format. PMID:23968634

  11. How to Summarize a 6,000-Word Paper in a Six-Minute Video Clip

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, Patrick; Daudelin, Genevieve; Hivon, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    As part of our research team's knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) efforts, we created a six-minute video clip that summarizes, in plain language, a scientific paper that describes why and how three teams of academic entrepreneurs developed new health technologies. Recognizing that video-based KTE strategies can be a valuable tool for health services and policy researchers, this paper explains the constraints and sources of inspiration that shaped our video production process. Aiming to provide practical guidance, we describe the steps and tools that we used to identify, refine and package the key content of the scientific paper into an original video format. PMID:23968634

  12. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  13. The AstroHDF Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-09-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

  14. Unidata's International Efforts and Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

  15. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  16. Post clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K. (Inventor); Meyn, Erwin H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pair of spaced collars are mounted at right angles on a clamp body by retaining rings which enable the collars to rotate with respect to the clamp body. Mounting posts extend through aligned holes in the collars and clamp body. Each collar can be clamped onto the inserted post while the clamp body remains free to rotate about the post and collar. The clamp body is selectively clamped onto each post.

  17. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective. PMID:26900948

  18. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective. PMID:26900948

  19. Unexplained Neonatal Cardiorespiratory Collapse at Five Minutes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zaleta, Sona; Miller, Sarah; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    We report a case in which a term neonate suffered cardiorespiratory collapse at five minutes of age following an uncomplicated delivery and Apgar score of eight at one minute. Following prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the infant recovered well with no neurological deficit. Although sudden and unexpected postnatal collapse has been extensively described, this case does not fulfil its definition criteria. It provides a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and to the best of our knowledge is the first report of unexplained cardiorespiratory collapse at five minutes of age. The case serves as a timely reminder that cord gas analysis is recommended in all cases of potential fetal compromise and that Apgar scores should be used with caution as a predictor of neurological sequelae. PMID:27006848

  20. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  1. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  2. Sing, Play, and Create: All in 20 Minutes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Young teachers often struggle with pacing and the ability to cover more than one or two songs and activities in a single 30-minute general music class. Included in this article are lesson activities that show it is not only possible to include many of the National Standards in a single lesson, but also possible to sing, play, and create in every…

  3. 12 CFR 261b.11 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, and minutes. 261b.11 Section 261b.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... for a period of at least two years or one year after the conclusion of any agency proceeding...

  4. Biology and Biological Control of Mile-a-Minute Weed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute weed (MAM), Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Fig. 1), is a member of the family Polygonaceae. It is an annual vine that can grow up to 6 meters long over the course of a season. It is widely distributed throughout east Asia, including Japan, China, Korea, India, Indonesia, Banglade...

  5. Importance of...and Methods for...Writing Board Minutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wettengel, Winona

    The Oklahoma State Board of Education prepared this handbook to serve as a guide for local board presidents, clerks, and secretaries in recording the minutes of school board meetings. The information that is compiled and presented was gleaned from reference books listed in the bibliography. Chapters of the guide describe board of education…

  6. 10 CFR 9.108 - Certification, transcripts, recordings and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The Commission shall maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording adequate to record fully... item and the record of any rollcall vote (reflecting the vote of each Commissioner on the question... transcript, electronic recording, or minutes (as required by paragraph (a) of this section) of the...

  7. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  8. Using Minute Papers to Determine Student Cognitive Development Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Can anonymous written feedback collected during classroom assessment activities be used to assess students' cognitive development levels? After library instruction in a first-year engineering design class, students submitted minute papers that included answers to "what they are left wondering." Responses were coded into low, medium and…

  9. Maternal collapse: Challenging the four-minute rule

    PubMed Central

    Benson, M.D.; Padovano, A.; Bourjeily, G.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current approach to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women in the third trimester has been to adhere to the “four-minute rule”: If pulses have not returned within 4 min of the start of resuscitation, perform a cesarean birth so that birth occurs in the next minute. This investigation sought to re-examine the evidence for the four-minute rule. Methods A literature review focused on perimortem cesarean birth was performed using the same key words that were used in formulating the “four-minute rule.” Maternal and neonatal injury free survival rates as a function of arrest to birth intervals were determined, as well as actual incision to birth intervals. Results Both maternal and neonatal injury free survival rates diminished steadily as the time interval from maternal arrest to birth increased. There was no evidence for any specific survival threshold at 4 min. Skin incision to birth intervals of 1 min occurred in only 10% of women. Conclusion Once a decision to deliver is made, care providers should proceed directly to Cesarean birth during maternal cardiac arrest in the third trimester rather than waiting for 4 min for restoration of the maternal pulse. Birth within 1 min from the start of the incision is uncommon in these circumstances. PMID:27211568

  10. Minute bug with enormous impacts on insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.) are common and abundant insect predators that can be found in cotton and many other field crops in Arizona and the western U.S. They are important predators of a variety of insect and mite pests in western crops and can help to suppress pest populations and thus cont...

  11. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.10 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes. (a) The Board will... the proceedings of each meeting or portion of a meeting closed to public observation pursuant to... closed to public observation pursuant to exemptions (a)(8), (a)(9)(i)(A) or (a)(10) of § 1632.5 of...

  12. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.10 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes. (a) The Board will... the proceedings of each meeting or portion of a meeting closed to public observation pursuant to... closed to public observation pursuant to exemptions (a)(8), (a)(9)(i)(A) or (a)(10) of § 1632.5 of...

  13. Council Minutes, February 4-6, 2011: Santa Monica, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents minutes of the American Educational Research Association's meetings held in Santa Monica, California, on February 4-6, 2011. President Kris D. Gutierrez led a discussion of the meeting dates for the summer Executive Board and Council meetings. It was agreed that members of Council will be polled to determine the best dates…

  14. A Single 50-Minute Lunch Hour Fits Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carole

    2007-01-01

    Switching from multiple lunch periods to one lunch period for the nearly 2,000 students at James Hubert Blake High School in Silver Spring, Maryland, has contributed more to a positive school climate than any other single factor in the eight years since the school opened. This article presents how Blake has come up with the single 50-minute lunch…

  15. Six-minute stepper test: a valid clinical exercise tolerance test for COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, JM; Riquier, C; Chehere, B; Coquart, J; Béhal, H; Bart, F; Wallaert, B; Chenivesse, C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exercise tolerance testing is an integral part of the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 6-minute stepper test (6MST) is a new, well-tolerated, reproducible exercise test, which can be performed without any spatial constraints. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 6MST to those obtained during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods Ninety-one COPD patients managed by outpatient PR and assessed by 6MST, 6MWT, and CPET were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations between the number of steps on the 6MST, the distance covered on the 6MWT, oxygen consumption, and power at the ventilatory threshold and at maximum effort during CPET were analyzed before starting PR, and the improvement on the 6MST and 6MWT was compared after PR. Results The number of steps on the 6MST was significantly correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (r=0.56; P<0.0001), the power at maximum effort (r=0.46; P<0.0001), and oxygen consumption at maximum effort (r=0.39; P<0.005). Performances on the 6MST and 6MWT were significantly improved after PR (570 vs 488 steps, P=0.001 and 448 vs 406 m, respectively; P<0.0001). Improvements of the 6MST and 6MWT after PR were significantly correlated (r=0.34; P=0.03). Conclusion The results of this study show that the 6MST is a valid test to evaluate exercise tolerance in COPD patients. The use of this test in clinical practice appears to be particularly relevant for the assessment of patients managed by home PR. PMID:27099483

  16. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  17. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  18. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  19. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2014-06-02

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  20. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  1. [Draft minutes of IAPG Mechanical Working Group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.

    1993-12-15

    This report provides the draft minutes of the Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting held November 3--4, 1993. Topics addressed are: Materials for thermal management; photovoltaic programs in the Airforce; ground based radar advanced power system development program; battery research; generator prognostics & diagnostics equipment; a thermal flight experiment test program; power systems assessment; Overview: Phillip`s space thermal technologies branch; and development of actuator thermal management.

  2. Use of Minute-by-Minute Cardiovascular Measurements During Tilt Tests to Strengthen Inference on the Effect of Long-Duration Space Flight on Orthostatic Hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Typical methodology for evaluating the effects of spaceflight on orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been survival analysis of tolerance times from 80 head-up tilt tests. However when scheduled test durations are short, there may not be enough failures to allow survival analysis to adequately estimate and compare the effects of flight phase (e.g. pre-flight, number of days post-flight), flight duration, and their interaction, as well as interactions with effects of interventions or countermeasures. The problem is exacerbated in the presence of a repeated measures design, in which subjects participate in tilt tests during various flight phases. Here we show how it is possible to dramatically improve the efficiency of statistical inference in this setting by making use of the additional information contained in minute-by-minute observations of cardiovascular parameters thought to be reflective of progression towards presyncope during tilt testing. Methods: We retrospectively examined operational tilt test (OTT; 10 -min 80 head-up tilt) data from 20 International Space Station (ISS) and 66 Shuttle astronauts 10 d before launch (L-10), on landing day (R+0) and during recovery (R+1, R+3, R+6-10) depending on the level of participation. Data from 5 ISS astronauts tested on R+0 or R+1 who used non-standard countermeasures were excluded. In addition to OTT survival time, 8 cardiovascular parameters (CP: heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance) that might be predictive of progression towards presyncope were measured every minute of each OTT. Statistical analysis was predicated on a two ]stage model of causation. In the first stage, flight duration and time from landing affect the astronauts' degree of OH, which is manifested in the time trends and variation of the above CPs during OTTs. In the second stage, the behavior of these parameters directly affects OTT survival

  3. Six-minute walk test in children and adolescents with renal diseases: tolerance, reproducibility and comparison with healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Flávia Tieme; Koch, Vera Herminia Kalika; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; Cunha, Maristela Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exercise tolerance and the reproducibility of the six-minute walk test in Brazilian children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease and to compare their functional exercise capacities with reference values for healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the use of the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents aged 6-16 with stage V chronic kidney disease. For statistical analysis of exercise tolerance, including examinations of correlations and comparisons with reference values, the longest walked distances were considered. The reproducibility of the six-minute walk test was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients (14 females and 24 males) were evaluated, including 5 on peritoneal dialysis, 12 on hemodialysis and 21 who had undergone renal transplantation, with a median age of 11.2 years (6.5-16). The median walked distance was 538.5 meters (413-685) and the six-minute walk test was found to be reproducible. The walked distance was significantly correlated with age (r=0.66), weight (r=0.76), height (r=0.82), the height Z score (r=0.41), hemoglobin (r=0.46), hematocrit (r=0.47) and post-test systolic blood pressure (r=0.39). The chronic kidney disease patients predicted walked distance was 84.1% of the reference value according to age, 90.6% according to age-corrected height and 87.4% according to a predictive equation. CONCLUSIONS: The stage V chronic kidney disease patients had a significantly decreased functional exercise capacity, as measured by the six-minute walk test, compared with the healthy pediatric reference values. In addition, the six-minute walk test was shown to be well tolerated, reliable and applicable as a low-cost tool to monitor functional exercise capacity in patients with renal disease. PMID:26872080

  4. Disability Affects the 6-Minute Walking Distance in Obese Subjects (BMI>40 kg/m2)

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Mosca, Veronica; Pinto, Alessandro; Brunani, Amelia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In obese subjects, the relative reduction of the skeletal muscle strength, the reduced cardio-pulmonary capacity and tolerance to effort, the higher metabolic costs and, therefore, the increased inefficiency of gait together with the increased prevalence of co-morbid conditions might interfere with walking. Performance tests, such as the six-minute walking test (6MWT), can unveil the limitations in cardio-respiratory and motor functions underlying the obesity-related disability. Therefore the aims of the present study were: to explore the determinants of the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) and to investigate the predictors of interruption of the walk test in obese subjects. Methods Obese patients [body mass index (BMI)>40 kg/m2] were recruited from January 2009 to December 2011. Anthropometry, body composition, specific questionnaire for Obesity-related Disabilities (TSD-OC test), fitness status and 6MWT data were evaluated. The correlation between the 6MWD and the potential independent variables (anthropometric parameters, body composition, muscle strength, flexibility and disability) were analysed. The variables which were singularly correlated with the response variable were included in a multivariated regression model. Finally, the correlation between nutritional and functional parameters and test interruption was investigated. Results 354 subjects (87 males, mean age 48.5±14 years, 267 females, mean age 49.8±15 years) were enrolled in the study. Age, weight, height, BMI, fat mass and fat free mass indexes, handgrip strength and disability were significantly correlated with the 6MWD and considered in the multivariate analysis. The determination coefficient of the regression analysis ranged from 0.21 to 0.47 for the different models. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, TSD-OC test score and flexibility were found to be predictors of the 6MWT interruption. Discussion The present study demonstrated the impact of disability in obese subjects

  5. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Ruoff, Chad M.; Kawai, Makoto; Modi, Rahul; Arbee, Jabri; Hekmat, Anahid; Robertson, Matthew; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (rs = 0.60 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0088), apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p = 0.039), lowest oxygen saturation (rs = −0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p = 0.048), and oxygen desaturation index (rs = 0.62 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0057). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP. PMID:26881088

  6. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Macario; Ruoff, Chad M; Kawai, Makoto; Modi, Rahul; Arbee, Jabri; Hekmat, Anahid; Robertson, Matthew; Zaghi, Soroush; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (r s = 0.60 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0088), apnea-hypopnea index (r s = 0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p = 0.039), lowest oxygen saturation (r s = -0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p = 0.048), and oxygen desaturation index (r s = 0.62 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0057). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP. PMID:26881088

  7. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  8. Eight-minute excretory urographic film: once is enough

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, W.L.; White, H.; Shkolnik, A.; Finder, C.

    1981-11-01

    A film reading exercise was developed to test the advisability and accuracy of using one ''postinfusion'' roentgenogram instead of a series of films for a complete antegrade urographic evaluation. The experience of the radiologist making the interpretations was also considered. In most cases a singly eight-minute postinfusion delayed film showed enough detail to rule out pathology when none existed and adequately revealed either specific abnormal findings or suggested an abnormality existed when such was indeed present. No false negative call was made by and of the radiologists, but experience did aid in detailing the pathology.

  9. Light storage on the time scale of a minute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, Y. O.; Li, L.; Kuzmich, A.

    2013-03-01

    Light storage on the minute scale is an important capability for future scalable quantum information networks spanning intercontinental distances. We employ an ultracold atomic gas confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice for long-term light storage. The differential ac Stark shift of the ground-level microwave transition used for storage is reduced to a sub-Hz level by the application of a magic-valued magnetic field. The 1/e lifetime for storage of coherent states of light is prolonged up to 16 s by a microwave dynamic decoupling protocol.

  10. Non-contact ultrasonic support of minute objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasaki, Masaya; Terada, Daisuke; Kato, Yasuhiro; Ishino, Yuji; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    In near-field acoustic levitation, an object is levitated vertically upward above the vibrating surface of an ultrasonic transducer. On the other hand, it is known that an object can be suspended vertically downward under the vibrating surface in the water. In this phenomenon, it seems that the pressure acting on the object is negative at the certain gap. This paper describes application of the pressure for handling of minute planar objects in the air. Fabrication of an experimental setup according to the proposal and experimental results of the ultrasonic suspension in the air are reported.

  11. Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  12. Geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the San Bernardino Wash and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains (see fig. 1). Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002), and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle. Parts of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  13. Sea level oscillations over minute timescales: a global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, Ivica; Sepic, Jadranka

    2016-04-01

    Sea level oscillations occurring over minutes to a few hours are an important contributor to sea level extremes, and a knowledge on their behaviour is essential for proper quantification of coastal marine hazards. Tsunamis, meteotsunamis, infra-gravity waves and harbour oscillations may even dominate sea level extremes in certain areas and thus pose a great danger for humans and coastal infrastructure. Aside for tsunamis, which are, due to their enormous impact to the coastlines, a well-researched phenomena, the importance of other high-frequency oscillations to the sea level extremes is still underrated, as no systematic long-term measurements have been carried out at a minute timescales. Recently, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established Sea Level Monitoring Facility portal (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org), making 1-min sea level data publicly available for several hundred tide gauge sites in the World Ocean. Thereafter, a global assessment of oscillations over tsunami timescales become possible; however, the portal contains raw sea level data only, being unchecked for spikes, shifts, drifts and other malfunctions of instruments. We present a quality assessment of these data, estimates of sea level variances and contributions of high-frequency processes to the extremes throughout the World Ocean. This is accompanied with assessment of atmospheric conditions and processes which generate intense high-frequency oscillations.

  14. Evaluation of samples comprising minute amounts of DNA.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Corina C G; Haned, Hinda; Yoo, Seong Yeon; Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Minute amounts of DNA representing only few diploid cells, may be interrogated using enhanced DNA profiling, which will be accompanied by stochastic amplification effects. Notwithstanding, a weight of evidence statistic may be calculated using current interpretation software. In this study, we profiled single donor, two- and three-person samples having only 3 pg to 12 pg of DNA per contributor using both standard and enhanced capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings. Likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed using LRmix Studio, compared for both types of profiles and examined in relation to the amount of DNA, drop-out level, number of detected alleles, peak heights and reproducibility of alleles. Especially for DNA profiles that were generated using enhanced CE, the obtained LRs could indicate strong evidence in favour of the prosecution (log10(LR)>6), also when the amount of DNA represented about half of a diploid cell equivalent in the amplification. These results illustrate that an assessment of the criminalistic relevance of a sample carrying minute amounts of DNA is essential prior to applying enhanced interrogation techniques and/or calculating a weight of evidence statistic. PMID:26385713

  15. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  16. Heart Rate Recovery in the First Minute at the Six-Minute Walk Test in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lindemberg, Sabrina; Chermont, Sergio; Quintão, Mônica; Derossi, Milena; Guilhon, Sergio; Bernardez, Sabrina; Marchese, Luana; Martins, Wolney; Nóbrega, Antônio Claudio L.; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart rate recovery at one minute of rest (HRR1) is a predictor of mortality in heart failure (HF), but its prognosis has not been assessed at six-minute walk test (6MWT) in these patients. Objective This study aimed to determine the HRR1 at 6MWT in patients with HF and its correlation with six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Methods Cross-sectional, controlled protocol with 161 individuals, 126 patients with stable systolic HF, allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2) receiving or not β-blocker and 35 volunteers in control group (G3) had HRR1 recorded at the 6MWT. Results HRR1 and 6MWD were significantly different in the 3 groups. Mean values of HRR1 and 6MWD were: HRR1 = 12 ± 14 beat/min G1; 18 ± 16 beat/min G2 and 21 ± 13 beat/min G3; 6MWD = 423 ± 102 m G1; 396 ± 101m G2 and 484 ± 96 m G3 (p < 0.05). Results showed a correlation between HRR1 and 6MWD in G1(r = 0.3; p = 0.04) and in G3(r = 0.4; p= 0.03), but not in G2 (r= 0.12; p= 0.48). Conclusion HRR1 response was attenuated in patients using βB and showed correlation with 6MWD, reflecting better exercise tolerance. HRR1 after 6MWT seems to represent an alternative when treadmill tests could not be tolerated. PMID:24714794

  17. The Source of 3 Minute Magnetoacoustic Oscillations in Coronal Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, D. B.; De Moortel, I.; Mathioudakis, M.; Christian, D. J.; Reardon, K. P.; Keys, P. H.; Keenan, F. P.

    2012-10-01

    We use images of high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, obtained using both ground- and space-based instrumentation, to investigate the coupling between wave phenomena observed at numerous heights in the solar atmosphere. Analysis of 4170 Å continuum images reveals small-scale umbral intensity enhancements, with diameters ~0farcs6, lasting in excess of 30 minutes. Intensity oscillations of ≈3 minutes are observed to encompass these photospheric structures, with power at least three orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding umbra. Simultaneous chromospheric velocity and intensity time series reveal an 87° ± 8° out-of-phase behavior, implying the presence of standing modes created as a result of partial wave reflection at the transition region boundary. We find a maximum waveguide inclination angle of ≈40° between photospheric and chromospheric heights, combined with a radial expansion factor of <76%. An average blueshifted Doppler velocity of ≈1.5 km s-1, in addition to a time lag between photospheric and chromospheric oscillatory phenomena, confirms the presence of upwardly propagating slow-mode waves in the lower solar atmosphere. Propagating oscillations in EUV intensity are detected in simultaneous coronal fan structures, with a periodicity of 172 ± 17 s and a propagation velocity of 45 ± 7 km s-1. Numerical simulations reveal that the damping of the magnetoacoustic wave trains is dominated by thermal conduction. The coronal fans are seen to anchor into the photosphere in locations where large-amplitude umbral dot (UD) oscillations manifest. Derived kinetic temperature and emission measure time series display prominent out-of-phase characteristics, and when combined with the previously established sub-sonic wave speeds, we conclude that the observed EUV waves are the coronal counterparts of the upwardly propagating magnetoacoustic slow modes detected in the lower solar atmosphere. Thus, for the first time, we reveal how the

  18. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

  19. Shock Acceleration of Solar Energetic Protons: The First 10 Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Chee K.; Reames, Donald V.

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration at a parallel coronal shock is modeled with self-consistent Alfven wave excitation and shock transmission. 18 - 50 keV seed protons at 0.1% of plasma proton density are accelerated in 10 minutes to a power-law intensity spectrum rolling over at 300 MeV by a 2500km s-1 shock traveling outward from 3.5 solar radius, for typical coronal conditions and low ambient wave intensities. Interaction of high-energy protons of large pitch-angles with Alfven waves amplified by low-energy protons of small pitch angles is key to rapid acceleration. Shock acceleration is not significantly retarded by sunward streaming protons interacting with downstream waves. There is no significant second-order Fermi acceleration.

  20. One minute oxygen uptake in peripheral ischemic vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, J H; Meade, J W; Gilbert, R; Chamberlain, B E

    1980-01-01

    Six males, ages 31-58, with ischemic vascular disease of the lower extremities, underwent treadmill testing with measurement of oxygen uptake at 45-60 seconds of exercise (VO2-45-60) as the test score. Tests were performed at 41, 123 and 164 watts of power against gravity. Depressed values were found in five subjects with aortic, iliac or common femoral disease but normal values in a subject with narrowing of the left superficial femoral artery. Reconstructive surgery resulted in normal values in four subjects retested. In three of these a calculation was made of the increased volume of oxygen uptake during the first minute of exercise associated with postsurgical improvement. The average was 430 ml, a value high enough to suggest increased aerobic metabolism of exercising muscles. PMID:7362287

  1. Reset a task set after five minutes of mindfulness practice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Yu; Yeh, Yei-Yu

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a brief mindfulness practice on reducing the carryover effect caused by a previous task set and to determine the mechanism for its effectiveness. Experiment 1 showed that a memorized color interfered with subsequent visual search as a singleton distractor only when color was a defining feature for the search target. In Experiment 2, three interventions (scene-viewing, distraction, and mindfulness practice) were implemented across three groups for five minutes between two blocks; color was relevant to search in the first block and irrelevant in the second. Only the mindfulness group showed a non-significant carryover effect. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the scene-viewing participants continued adopting a suppressive mode of attentional control on a previously distracting color during letter judgment. In contrast, mindfulness practice could reset a task set. Mindfulness practice could enhance concentration in the present moment via reconfiguring the mode of attentional control. PMID:25982056

  2. Ral-GTPases: approaching their 15 minutes of fame.

    PubMed

    Feig, Larry A

    2003-08-01

    Andy Warhol, the famous pop artist, once claimed that "in the future everyone will be famous for 15 minutes". The same, it seems, can be said of proteins, because at any given time some proteins become more "fashionable" to study than others. But most proteins have been highly conserved throughout millions of years of evolution, which implies that they all have essential roles in cell biology. Thus, each one will no doubt enter the limelight if the right experiment in the right cell type is done. A good example of this is the Ras-like GTPases (Ral-GTPases), which until recently existed in the shadow of their close cousins--the Ras proto-oncogenes. Recent studies have yielded insights into previously unappreciated roles for Ral-GTPases in intensively investigated disciplines such as vesicle trafficking, cell morphology, transcription and possibly even human oncogenesis. PMID:12888294

  3. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  4. Universal functional form of 1-minute raindrop size distribution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall remains one of the poorly quantified phenomena of the hydrological cycle, despite its fundamental role. No universal laws describing the rainfall behavior are available in literature. This is probably due to the continuous description of rainfall, which is a discrete phenomenon, made by drops. From the statistical point of view, the rainfall variability at particle size scale, is described by the drop size distribution (DSD). With this term, it is generally indicated as the concentration of raindrops per unit volume and diameter, as the probability density function of drop diameter at the ground, according to the specific problem of interest. Raindrops represent the water exchange, under liquid form, between atmosphere and earth surface, and the number of drops and their size have impacts in a wide range of hydrologic, meteorologic, and ecologic phenomena. DSD is used, for example, to measure the multiwavelength rain attenuation for terrestrial and satellite systems, it is an important input for the evaluation of the below cloud scavenging coefficient of the aerosol by precipitation, and is of primary importance to make estimates of rainfall rate through radars. In literature, many distributions have been used to this aim (Gamma and Lognormal above all), without statistical supports and with site-specific studies. Here, we present an extensive investigation of raindrop size distribution based on 18 datasets, consisting in 1-minute disdrometer data, sampled using Joss-Waldvogel or Thies instrument in different locations on Earth's surface. The aim is to understand if an universal functional form of 1-minute drop diameter variability exists. The study consists of three main steps: analysis of the high order moments, selection of the model through the AIC index and test of the model with the use of goodness-of-fit tests.

  5. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. Aim To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Methods Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for one minute. Each subject treated his/her hands with n-propanol (60%, v/v), with as many portions as necessary to keep the hands wet for three minutes (6–12 ml). Bacterial post-values were taken from one hand (immediate effect); the other hand was gloved for three hours (sizes 7–9). The second post-value was taken when the glove was removed (3 h effect). Results The mean immediate log10 reduction of CFU was 2.56 ± 1.12. The glove size had no significant effect on the efficacy of disinfection (p = 0.182; ANOVA). However, a volume of 6 ml was significantly less effective than 9 ml for glove sizes of 7.5–8 (p < 0.05; Tukey post hoc analysis). The mean log10 reduction after 3 h was 2.12 ± 1.24. A volume of 6 ml was again significantly less effective than 12 ml for glove size 7 and than 9 ml for glove sizes 7.5–8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of small volumes of surgical hand disinfectant when using the EN 12791 reference procedure is likely to yield poor efficacy results, regardless of hand size. PMID:24822090

  6. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  7. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  8. Controlled Study of Correlation of Biomechanical Profile of Hemiparetic Patients with Distance Travelled in Six Minutes

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Laís Moreira; Quintão, Mônica Maria Pena; de Carvalho, Karen Santos R.; Carrapatoso, Beatriz Cantanhede; Malfacini, Sabrina Lindenberg L.; da Silva, André Custódio; Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Chermont, Sergio S.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The six-minute walking test (6MWT) is used to assess exercise tolerance that is associated with motor function of the lower limbs in hemiparetic patients. It is suggested that, for post-stroke subjects, performance in the 6MWT may be limited by biomechanical and cardiovascular factors. Our aim is to determine the correlation between the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and the biomechanical profile of hemiparetic patients. During this cross-sectional controlled study, 10 hemiparetic patients with heart failure underwent 6MWT (ATS protocol). Tonus (Ashworth Scale) and goniometry of the lower limbs were measured. The average of 6MWD in two tests was 279±8 m. There was a negative correlation between the degree of spasticity for both the sural triceps (r=–0.57, P<0.05), quadriceps (r=–0.58, P<0.05) and the limitation in ankle dorsiflexion and the 6MWD (r=–0.76, P<0.05). Also, there was correlation between hip extension and ankle dorsiflexion limitations with 6MWD (r=0.66, P<0.05), (r=0.77, P<0.05). The negative correlation between the highest spasticity in paretic limb and the 6MWD and the correlation between the lower movement range of paretic hip and ankle suggest association with these factors and gait velocity in 6MWT. Loss percentage represents the percentage calculation between distance traveled and the distance predicted achieved by patients. In this study, the negative correlation between the percentage of loss of 6MWD and the limitation in the ankle dorsiflexion movement suggests that for a minor motion arch of the ankle, there is a higher percentage of walking distance loss foretold. PMID:26487924

  9. Oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria Ângela Fontoura; de Medeiros, Gabriel Arriola; Boeno, Francesco Pinto; Sanches, Paulo Roberto Stefani; da Silva, Danton Pereira; Müller, André Frotta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the behavior of oxygen saturation curves throughout the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 85 patients, all of whom underwent spirometry and were classified as having moderate COPD (modCOPD, n = 30) or severe COPD (sevCOPD, n = 55). All of the patients performed a 6MWT, in a 27-m corridor with continuous SpO2 and HR monitoring by telemetry. We studied the SpO2 curves in order to determine the time to a 4% decrease in SpO2, the time to the minimum SpO2 (Tmin), and the post-6MWT time to return to the initial SpO2, the last designated recovery time (RT). For each of those curves, we calculated the slope. Results: The mean age in the modCOPD and sevCOPD groups was 66 ± 10 years and 62 ± 11 years, respectively. At baseline, SpO2 was > 94% in all of the patients; none received supplemental oxygen during the 6MWT; and none of the tests were interrupted. The six-minute walk distance did not differ significantly between the groups. The SpO2 values were lowest in the sevCOPD group. There was no difference between the groups regarding RT. In 71% and 63% of the sevCOPD and modCOPD group patients, respectively, a ≥ 4% decrease in SpO2 occurred within the first minute. We found that FEV1% correlated significantly with the ΔSpO2 (r = −0.398; p < 0.001), Tmin (r = −0.449; p < 0.001), and minimum SpO2 (r = 0.356; p < 0.005). Conclusions: In the sevCOPD group, in comparison with the modCOPD group, SpO2 was lower and the Tmin was greater, suggesting a worse prognosis in the former. PMID:25029644

  10. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  11. Mental Effort and Elaboration: A Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; Davies, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Dual task procedures (finger tapping and associative memory) were used to examine developmental differences in the amount of mental effort required to deploy rehearsal and elaboration. Sixth-grade and college students participated. Some evidence for a developmental difference in mental effort was found. (TJH)

  12. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  13. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  14. How Sixth Graders Perceive Effort and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; Compagnone, Nick

    1995-01-01

    The study described here examined whether using formative assessment would affect middle school physical education students' self-perceptions of effort and skill. Students completed questionnaires about effort and skill following assessment in various activities. Formative assessment did not affect students' self-perceptions. Students believed…

  15. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  16. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Overview of NASA's Propulsion 21 Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    2006-01-01

    Propulsion 21 technologies contribute to reducing CO2 and NO(x) emissions and noise. Integrated Government/Industry/University research efforts have produced promising initial technical results. Graduate students from 5 partnering universities will benefit from this collaborative research--> educating the future engineering workforce. Phase 2 Efforts scheduled to be completed 3QFY06.

  19. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  20. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  1. Using minute ventilation for ambulatory estimation of additional heart rate.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, F H; Roth, W T

    1998-09-01

    Both physical activity and emotion produce physiological activation. The emotional component of heart rate (HR) can be estimated as the additional HR (aHR) above that predicted by O2 consumption. Our innovation was to substitute minute ventilation (V) for O2 consumption, calculating aHR from individual relations between V and HR during an exercise test. We physiologically monitored 28 flight phobics and 15 non-anxious controls while walking (leaving the hospital, entering a plane), and during a commercial flight. Raw HR did not differ between phobics and controls when leaving the hospital (118/114 bpm) or entering the plane (117/110 bpm). However, although aHR was not different when leaving the hospital (7.0/8.6 bpm), it was significantly greater when entering the plane (17.5/9.9 bpm), accurately reflecting the increased subjective anxiety of the phobics. V was not higher in phobics than controls during any condition, suggesting an absence of hyperventilation in the phobics. The results demonstrate the utility of our method for analyzing HR in people whose stress occurs when they are physically active. PMID:9792490

  2. A 12 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD DETACHED WHITE DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: callende@iac.es

    2011-08-10

    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s{sup -1} radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M{sub sun} tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M{sub sun} carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10{sup -22}, about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  3. Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Y Z Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain Share: © Bob ... study found that multiple 60-minute massages per week were more effective than fewer or shorter sessions ...

  4. Evaluation of 10-minute versus 30-minute tourniquet time for intravenous regional limb perfusion with amikacin sulfate in standing sedated horses.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, I; Dechant, J E; Nieto, J E

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the article is to determine the synovial fluid concentrations of amikacin sulfate (AS) after performing an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) with the tourniquet in place for 10 minutes and compare this with 30 minutes. This is a randomised crossover experimental design. Animals were seven healthy adult horses. Horses underwent two IVRLP procedures in a randomised, crossover design. The horses received IVRLP with 2 g AS diluted to 60 ml using 0.9% saline in the cephalic vein of alternate limbs with the tourniquet in place for either 10 or 30 minutes, with a washout period between procedures. Movement of the horses was recorded. Synovial fluid was collected from the radiocarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints at five minutes and 24 hours after IVRLP, and amikacin concentration was compared between groups. Amikacin was quantified by a fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. There was no significant difference between the synovial amikacin concentrations noted between 10 minute and 30 minute IVRLP. Horses in the 30 minute tourniquet application group demonstrated more movement than the 10 minute tourniquet group. There was a significant difference between groups with regard to the systemic venous blood concentration of amikacin one minute after tourniquet release with mean systemic venous blood concentrations of AS being higher (P=0.001) in the 10 minute group. Ten minute application of a wide elastic tourniquet may be sufficient when performing IVRLP in standing sedated horses. PMID:27076528

  5. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  6. Dynamic hyperinflation and dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Satake, Masahiro; Shioya, Takanobu; Uemura, Sachiko; Takahashi, Hitomi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Kasai, Chikage; Kiyokawa, Noritaka; Watanabe, Toru; Sato, Sayaka; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic hyperinflation and dyspnea and to clarify the characteristics of dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Twenty-three subjects with stable moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (age 73.8±5.8 years, all male) took part in this study. During the 6MWT, ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were measured using a portable respiratory gas analysis system. Dyspnea and oxygen saturation were recorded at the end of every 2 minute period during the test. There was a significant decrease in inspiratory capacity during the 6MWT. This suggested that dynamic hyperinflation had occurred. Dyspnea showed a significant linear increase, and there was a significant negative correlation with inspiratory capacity. It was suggested that one of the reasons that dyspnea developed during the 6MWT was the dynamic hyperinflation. Even though the tidal volume increased little after 2 minutes, dyspnea increased linearly to the end of the 6MWT. These results suggest that the mechanisms generating dyspnea during the 6MWT were the sense of respiratory effort at an early stage and then the mismatch between central motor command output and respiratory system movement. PMID:25632228

  7. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  8. New Mexico district work-effort analysis computer program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiss, W.L.; Trantolo, A.P.; Sparks, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program (CAN 2) described in this report is one of several related programs used in the New Mexico District cost-analysis system. The work-effort information used in these programs is accumulated and entered to the nearest hour on forms completed by each employee. Tabulating cards are punched directly from these forms after visual examinations for errors are made. Reports containing detailed work-effort data itemized by employee within each project and account and by account and project for each employee are prepared for both current-month and year-to-date periods by the CAN 2 computer program. An option allowing preparation of reports for a specified 3-month period is provided. The total number of hours worked on each account and project and a grand total of hours worked in the New Mexico District is computed and presented in a summary report for each period. Work effort not chargeable directly to individual projects or accounts is considered as overhead and can be apportioned to the individual accounts and projects on the basis of the ratio of the total hours of work effort for the individual accounts or projects to the total New Mexico District work effort at the option of the user. The hours of work performed by a particular section, such as General Investigations or Surface Water, are prorated and charged to the projects or accounts within the particular section. A number of surveillance or buffer accounts are employed to account for the hours worked on special events or on those parts of large projects or accounts that require a more detailed analysis. Any part of the New Mexico District operation can be separated and analyzed in detail by establishing an appropriate buffer account. With the exception of statements associated with word size, the computer program is written in FORTRAN IV in a relatively low and standard language level to facilitate its use on different digital computers. The program has been run only on a Control Data Corporation

  9. Analysis of 1-Minute Potentially Available Fluoride from Dentifrice

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M; Holahan, Erin C; Schmuck, Burton D

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports found that some fluoride-containing dentifrices do not release effective concentrations of fluoride during brushing. Failure to release fluoride can be due to dentifrice matrix components that interfere with the solubilization of the fluoride salts during brushing. A new generation of dentifrices has the capability to precipitate beneficial fluoride salts during tooth brushing. Therefore, a method that assesses the potentially available fluoride during the 1-minute brushing is needed. A new filter-paper absorption method to assess the 1-min bioavailable fluoride concentration was developed to meet this need. This method utilizes coiled filter paper that rapidly absorbs the aqueous phase of the dentifrice slurry followed by centrifugation to recover that fluid for fluoride measurement via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The analytical method was used to successfully determine the total fluoride and 1-min bioavailable fluoride in eight dentifrice products containing sodium fluoride (NaF), disodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3, MFP), stannous fluoride (SnF2), or NaF with amorphous calcium phosphate (NaF + ACP). The results showed that some of the dentifrices tested had significantly lower potentially available fluoride than the total fluoride. For a MFP-containing sample, aged seven years past its expiry date, there was significant reduction in the bioavailable fluoride compared to MFP products that were not aged. Other than the aged MFP and the SnF2-containing samples the bioavailable fluoride for all products tested had at least 80 % of the label fluoride concentration. The filter paper absorption method yielded reproducible results for the products tested with MFP samples showing the largest variations. PMID:25821392

  10. [Xenon CT CBF mapping derived from two minutes inhalation].

    PubMed

    Toshima, R; Toyohara, K; Ebisawa, T; Ishikawa, K; Karashima, H; Shimojo, S; Miyahara, T

    1988-04-01

    Although xenon enhanced CT method for local cerebral blood flow measurement has been brought into a clinical practice, the technique has inherent limitations including anesthetic effects and expensive cost of xenon by a large consumption. To overcome these problems a modified method with a short-duration inhalation was developed and its validity was attested. Siemens Somatom SF with a resolution of 256 X 256 pixels and a scan time of 10 seconds was used. The subjects inhaled 50% Xe/O2 gas mixture from an apparatus consisted of Douglas bag and an open circuit. Xenon concentration in the expired gas was continuously monitored and estimated for arterial blood concentration by using a hematocrit correction. PaCO2 was monitored throughout the study. At the starting point and the endpoint of the inhalation two scans were performed respectively. Thus obtained four images were processed for CT noise cancellation, summation and subtraction to produce an in vivo autoradiography image. Local CBF was calculated from equations derived from the autoradiographic technique with a fixed partition coefficient of lambda = 1. Computer simulation studies were performed to find the optimal scan point to obtain an autoradiographic image and to estimate the calculation errors of this method. One minute and forty-five seconds was found to be the optimal scan point to gain an autoradiographic image in view of a balance between linearity of CBF/enhancement curve and total amount of tissue enhancement. The theoretical errors due to the assumption for a fixed partition coefficient were calculated to be 8% underestimation for gray matter and 5% overestimation for white matter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3401410

  11. Murine Double Minute-2 Inhibition Ameliorates Established Crescentic Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Romoli, Simone; Desai, Jyaysi; Honarpisheh, Mohammad Mohsen; Kumar, Santhosh V; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Thomasova, Dana

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is characterized by glomerular necroinflammation and crescent formation. Its treatment includes unspecific and toxic agents; therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is required. The E3-ubiquitin ligase murine double minute (MDM)-2 is a nonredundant element of NF-κB signaling and the negative regulator of tumor suppressor gene TP53-mediated cell cycle arrest and cell death. We hypothesized that the MDM2 would drive crescentic glomerulonephritis by NF-κB-dependent glomerular inflammation and by p53-dependent parietal epithelial cell hyperproliferation. Indeed, the pre-emptive MDM2 blockade by nutlin-3a ameliorated all aspects of crescentic glomerulonephritis. MDM2 inhibition had identical protective effects in Trp53-deficient mice, with the exception of crescent formation, which was not influenced by nutlin-3a treatment. In vitro experiments confirmed the contribution of MDM2 for induction of NF-κB-dependent cytokines in murine glomerular endothelial cells and for p53-dependent parietal epithelial cell proliferation. To evaluate MDM2 blockade as a potential therapeutic intervention in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, we treated mice with established glomerulonephritis with nutlin-3a. Delayed onset of nutlin-3a treatment was equally protective as the pre-emptive treatment in abrogating crescentic glomerulonephritis. Together, the pathogenic effects of MDM2 are twofold, that is, p53-independent NF-κB activation increasing intraglomerular inflammation and p53-dependent parietal epithelial cell hyperplasia and crescent formation. We therefore propose MDM2 blockade as a potential novel therapeutic strategy in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. PMID:27102769

  12. Database for the geologic map of the Chelan 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle, Washington (I-1661)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A., Jr.; Whetten, J.T.; Waitt, R.B.; Swanson, D.A.; Byerly, G.R.; Booth, D.B.; Hetherington, M.J.; Zartman, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared by R. W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Chelan 30-Minute Quadrangle, Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  13. Database for the geologic map of the Sauk River 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle, Washington (I-2592)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Booth, D.B.; Vance, J.A.; Ford, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared by R.W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Sauk River 30- by 60 Minute Quadrangle, Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled most Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  14. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  15. Post-ischemic diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marsch, S C; Dalmas, S; Philbin, D M; Wanigasekera, V A; Ryder, W A; Wong, L S; Foëx, P

    1994-12-01

    Though a sustained post-ischemic decrease in contractile function has been clearly established, post-ischemic diastolic function has not been thoroughly investigated. Accordingly, 11 anesthetized (isoflurane 1%) open-chest beagles were instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure and dimensions (circumferential length and wall thickness) in an apicoanterior area supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Pressure-dimension relations were modified by stepwise infusion and withdrawal of 200 mL of the animals' own blood during baseline, 45 minutes partial occlusion of the LAD (systolic bulging), and 60 minutes after the onset of reperfusion. Stiffness constants were derived from the end-diastolic pressure-length and stress-strain relations, respectively. Myocardial ischemia was associated with significant (P < 0.05) alterations of the following parameters of diastolic function: (1) 47% increase in end-diastolic pressure; (2) 22% decrease in peak negative dP/dt; (3) 9% increase in the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau); (4) postcystolic contraction; (5) 6% increase in end-diastolic length and 10% decrease in end-diastolic thickness; (6) 12% increase in unstressed length (creep) and 13% decrease in unstressed thickness; (7) 51% increase in chamber stiffness and a 63% increase in myocardial stiffness; and (8) 40% decrease in the peak lengthening rate. After 60 minutes of reperfusion, only end-diastolic pressure and tau had returned to baseline values whereas systolic shortening fraction, postsystolic contraction, and end-diastolic and unstressed dimensions had only partially recovered. No recovery occurred in peak negative dP/dt, chamber stiffness, myocardial stiffness, and peak lengthening rate. Thus, both myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are associated with complex changes in global and regional left ventricular diastolic function. PMID:7880987

  16. Compensatory Effort Parallels Midbrain Deactivation during Mental Fatigue: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Sugiura, Motoaki; Akitsuki, Yuko; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yomogida, Yukihito; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue reflects the functioning of our physiological negative feedback system, which prevents us from overworking. When fatigued, however, we often try to suppress this system in an effort to compensate for the resulting deterioration in performance. Previous studies have suggested that the effect of fatigue on neurovascular demand may be influenced by this compensatory effort. The primary goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of compensatory effort on neurovascular demand. Healthy male volunteers participated in a series of visual and auditory divided attention tasks that steadily increased fatigue levels for 2 hours. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed during the first and last quarter of the study (Pre and Post sessions, respectively). Tasks with low and high attentional load (Low and High conditions, respectively) were administrated in alternating blocks. We assumed that compensatory effort would be greater under the High-attentional-load condition compared with the Low-load condition. The difference was assessed during the two sessions. The effect of compensatory effort on neurovascular demand was evaluated by examining the interaction between load (High vs. Low) and time (Pre vs. Post). Significant fatigue-induced deactivation (i.e., Pre>Post) was observed in the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal cortices, in the cerebellum, and in the midbrain in both the High and Low conditions. The interaction was significantly greater in the High than in the Low condition in the midbrain. Neither significant fatigue-induced activation (i.e., Pre<Post), nor its interaction with factor Load, was identified. The observed midbrain deactivation ([PreH – PostH]>[PreE– PostE]) may reflect suppression of the negative feedback system that normally triggers recuperative rest to maintain homeostasis. PMID:23457592

  17. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  18. One minute, sub-one-watt photothermal tumor ablation using porphysomes, intrinsic multifunctional nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng S; Lovell, Jonathan F; Zheng, Gang

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed porphysomes as intrinsically multifunctional nanovesicles. A photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide α, was conjugated to a phospholipid and then self-assembled to liposome-like spherical vesicles. Due to the extremely high density of porphyrin in the porphyrin-lipid bilayer, porphysomes generated large extinction coefficients, structure-dependent fluorescence self-quenching, and excellent photothermal efficacy. In our formulation, porphysomes were synthesized using high pressure extrusion, and displayed a mean particle size around 120 nm. Twenty-four hr post-intravenous injection of porphysomes, the local temperature of the tumor increased from 30 °C to 62 °C rapidly upon one minute exposure of 750 mW (1.18 W/cm(2)), 671 nm laser irradiation. Following the complete thermal ablation of the tumor, eschars formed and healed within 2 weeks, while in the control groups the tumors continued to grow and all reached the defined end point within 3 weeks. These data show how porphysomes can be used as potent photothermal therapy (PTT) agents. PMID:24084712

  19. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  20. Minutes to Millennia: Diffusion Methods in Subduction-Related Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. J.; Allan, A.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Charlier, B. L.; Davidson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion methods have several advantages as relative geochronometers in volcano-related magmatic processes: diffusion stops on eruption, locking in short timescale information; methods are relatively easy to implement; and suitable material is generally abundant. Such methods also pose significant, accompanying challenges: the need for accurate melt palaeothermometry, uncertainties in diffusion parameters, and sometimes even a cryptic connection between mineral zonation and timescale. As all timescales are relative to an event, timing is not absolute, and care must be taken in interpretation. Yet for all the difficulties, diffusion tools are seeing more widespread usage. This has come about because of the potential of diffusion methods to interrogate certain pre-eruptive processes operating over timescales of relevance to human timescales and responses, having direct bearing on hazard mitigation procedures. In studying subduction zone systems we have a wide range of minerals to choose from but will, in subduction-related, andesitic-to-rhyolitic systems, usually be operating away from the relatively well-constrained system of olivine, and instead be dealing with mineral phases that offer different challenges, such as plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, amphibole, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides and mica. Timescales here span a wide range across different mineral-element combinations, from minutes for Li in plagioclase and quartz to days by Fe-Ti oxides, years by orthopyroxene Fe-Mg and decades to millennia with plagioclase, sanidine and quartz. This contribution will focus on the interpretation of diffusion signals in minerals found in subduction-related volcanic systems. To understand what any modelled timescale means, the process which formed the relevant zonation pattern is absolutely key, yet often elusive. Variations in P, T, X conditions really drive the crystallisation process yet certain zonation patterns are non-unique. This ambiguity necessitates painstaking

  1. Isostatic Gravity Map of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangle, North Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Morin, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Gravity investigations of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 minute quadrangle were begun as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management to help characterize the geology, mineral resources, hydrology, and ecology of the Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada. The Battle Mountain quadrangle is located between 40?30' and 41?N. lat. and 116? and 117?W. long. This isostatic gravity map of the Battle Mountain quadrangle was prepared from data from about 1,180 gravity stations. Most of these data are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997) and in a published report (Jewel and others, 1997). Data from about 780 gravity stations were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1996; data from about 245 of these are unpublished (USGS, unpub. data, 1998). Data collected from the 400 gravity stations prior to 1996 are a subset of a gravity data compilation of the Winnemucca 1:250,000-scale quadrangle described in great detail by Wagini (1985) and Sikora (1991). This detailed information includes gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and a list of principal facts. A digital version of the entire data set for the Battle Mountain quadrangle is available on the World Wide Web at: http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/gump/gump.html

  2. Detection of Bacillus spores within 15 minutes by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart; Sengupta, Atanu

    2012-06-01

    Since the distribution of Bacillus anthracis causing spores through the US Postal System, there has been a persistent fear that biological warfare agents (BWAs) will be used by terrorists against our military abroad and our civilians at home. Despite the substantial effort to develop BWA analyzers, they remain either too slow, produce high falsealarm rates, lack sensitivity, or cannot be fielded. Consequently there remains a need for a portable analyzer that can overcome these limitations as expressed at the 2011 Biological Weapons Convention. To meet this need we have been developing a sample system that selectively binds BWAs and produce surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra using portable Raman spectrometers. Here we describe the use of a short peptide ligand functionalized on silver nanoparticles to selectively capture Bacillus cereus spores (a surrogate of B. anthracis) and their subsequent detection by SER spectroscopy. This technique was used to specifically detect B. cereus spores over closely related species like B. subtilis belonging to the same genus within 15 minutes. Sensitivity of the method was demonstrated by detecting 104 B. cereus spores/mL of water. The technology, once developed should prove invaluable for rapid monitoring of BWAs, which will immensely help first responders and emergency personnel in implementing appropriate counter measures.

  3. Productive and ineffective efforts: how student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, M. D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the commonly expected benefits, the latter is associated with negative consequences. Time spent reading the course text in US high schools was negatively related to college calculus performance. Daily study time, however, was found to be either a productive or an ineffective effort, depending on the level of high school mathematics course and the student's performance in it.

  4. Anticipated effort in imagined self-rotation.

    PubMed

    Macramalla, Steven; Bridgeman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Chronometric studies provide strong support that mental imagery recruits perceptual processes [Shepard and Cooper, 1982 Mental Images and Their Transformations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. Recent studies suggest that anticipated effort influences perception (Proffitt et al, 2003 Psychological Science 14 106-112). If anticipated effort influences perception and perception supports imagery, then anticipated effort may influence imagery. To examine the role of effort in mental imagery, participants in experiment 1 imagined self-rotation across two conditions of distance. Simulated rotation took 156 ms longer in larger settings, even though the amount of imagined angular rotation was the same in both settings. This finding suggests the start-to-goal arc is incorporated when imagining rotation through a given angle. Experiment 2 replicated the distance effect (232 ms) and added a variable for load. Simulated rotation took 167 ms longer with imaginary heavy loads. The results suggest that both spatial metrics and anticipated effort may play a role in the coding of mental imagery. PMID:19323138

  5. Effort thrombosis: recognition and management while underway.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P B; MacGillivray, D C; Almond, M D

    1991-10-01

    Effort thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins is an uncommon cause of upper extremity swelling. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder is important in order to minimize the complications of pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic syndrome that can occur with this condition. This can be very challenging while underway or in the field. A sailor who developed effort vein thrombosis while underway on board the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln is presented to review the presentation and management of this disorder, particularly as it applies to active duty military personnel. PMID:1749504

  6. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  7. Effects of Response Effort on Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alyssa N; Glassford, Tyler S; Koerkenmeier, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined response effort during resurgence tests. Six children were trained to place balls in baskets that were placed either close (.0254 m) or far away (1.829 m or .9 m). Resurgence was assessed using a linear strip design, where responses were reinforced on a variable-interval 10-s schedule or put on extinction. During resurgence tests, minimal to low rates of resurgence associated with the greater response effort (i.e., placing a ball in the basket further way) were observed across all six participants, regardless of distance. PMID:27606253

  8. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  9. Current Environmental Efforts in Ohio School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Timothy Alan

    In an effort to better describe the environmental education needs of the secondary schools in the State of Ohio, this thesis sought to determine whether or not Ohio high schools were incorporating environmental education into their curricula. Educators from 100 randomly selected high schools were administered questionnaires in 1982-83, and again…

  10. Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

    Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

  11. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  12. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  13. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  14. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    PubMed

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs. PMID:1324990

  15. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  16. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  17. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions.

  18. Ten Ways to Improve NIE Development Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James R.

    The National Institute of Education (NIE) should consider the following observations when implementing curriculum development projects: (1) NIE should support curriculum development in the areas of national need, but more effort should be directed to improving existing instructional materials; (2) NIE-supported materials have not been widely…

  19. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  20. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  1. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  2. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  3. Are We Expecting Enough Effort from Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    A recent study comparing Asian and American students identified three factors that contribute to superior performance of elementary school children. These are: (1) amount of class time devoted to academics and direct instruction; (2) parent support of academic activities; and (3) student effort. The study and its findings are discussed. (MT)

  4. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  5. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  6. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) Spending and Tobacco Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J.; Silvestri, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of −0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states. PMID:25506827

  7. Prostatron 30-minute update: where do we stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulchaker, James C.; Albani, Justin

    2003-06-01

    The urologic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) beyond pharmaco-therapy has changed dramatically over the last decade. Open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) have been the mainstays of surgical intervention for BPH. These procedures were initially reserved for patients with obstructive uropathy, prostatic bleeding, or bladder calculi. With improved techniques and lower morbidity, TURP is currently the "gold standard" of treatment for patients with BPH and troubling lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and patients are being treated prior to the development of these adverse sequelae. Nevertheless, TURP is still major surgery, requiring either a spinal or general anesthetic and an inpatient hospital stay. Furthermore, TURP is not uniformly successful. Up to 30% of patients report dissatisfaction from the procedure. Complications have been well described and include bleeding, bladder-neck contracture, erectile dysfunction retrograde ejaculation, urinary incontinence, and fluid/electrolyte imbalance (post-TUR syndrome). The mortality rate for TURP is approx. 2 - 10/1000 cases. Over the past decade, the number of TURPs being performed has been decreasing as minimally invasive therapies, including alpha-adrenergic blockers, are being used as "first-line" management with increasing frequency and success. In addition, urologists no longer just treat ill patients in urinary retention. The treatment paradigm has evolved to include patients with persistently troubling symptoms of bladder-outlet obstruction, prior to the development of such adverse sequelae. Furthermore, patients see the care of a urologist on an elective basis, and they frequently wish to avoid surgery. As described in prior chapters, advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of BPH have led toimprovements in its medical management and have delayed or precluded surgery in many patients. However, when pharmacotherapy fails, further treatment options

  8. Database for the Geologic Map of the Skykomish River 30-Minute by 60-Minute Quadrangle, Washington (I-1963)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A., Jr.; Booth, D.B.; Waitt, R.B.; Whetten, J.T.; Zartman, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared from the published geologic map of the Skykomish River 30- by 60-minute quadrangle by the senior author. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. From the eastern-most edges of suburban Seattle, the Skykomish River quadrangle stretches east across the low rolling hills and broad river valleys of the Puget Lowland, across the forested foothills of the North Cascades, and across high meadowlands to the bare rock peaks of the Cascade crest. The Straight Creek Fault, a major Pacific Northwest structure which almost bisects the quadrangle, mostly separates unmetamorphosed and low-grade metamorphic Paleozoic and Mesozoic oceanic rocks on the west from medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks on the east. Within the quadrangle the lower grade rocks are mostly Mesozoic melange units. To the east, the higher-grade terrane is mostly the Chiwaukum Schist and related gneisses of the Nason terrane and invading mid-Cretaceous stitching plutons. The Early Cretaceous Easton Metamorphic Suite crops out on both sides of the Straight Creek fault and records it's dextral displacement. On the south margin of the quadrangle, the fault separates the lower Eocene Swauk Formation on the east from the upper Eocene and Oligocene(?) Naches Formation and, farther north, its correlative Barlow Pass Volcanics the west. Stratigraphically equivalent rocks of the Puget Group crop out farther to the west. Rocks of

  9. Duration of Expulsive Efforts and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Nulliparous Women: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Marie-Danielle; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Dupont, Corinne; Basso, Olga; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Le Ray, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the specific association between the duration of expulsive efforts and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Methods Population-based cohort-nested case-control study of nulliparous women delivering vaginally in 106 French maternity units between December 2004 and November 2006, including 3,852 women with PPH (blood loss ≥ 500 mL and/or peripartum Hb decrease ≥ 2 g/dL), 1,048 of them severe (peripartum Hb decrease ≥ 4 g/dL or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of red blood cells), and 762 controls from a representative sample of deliveries without hemorrhage in the same population. The association between duration of expulsive efforts and postpartum hemorrhage was estimated by multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual and hospital characteristics. Results Median duration of expulsive efforts was 18 minutes among controls, 20 minutes among postpartum hemorrhage and 23 minutes among severe postpartum hemorrhage (p<0.01). Duration of expulsive efforts was significantly, positively, and linearly associated with both postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. After adjustment for other risk factors, every additional 10 minutes of expulsive efforts was associated with about a 10% increase in the risk of postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 1.11 [1.02–1.21]) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 1.14 [1.03–1.27]). Oxytocin during labor, duration of active phase of labor, forceps use, episiotomy, perineal tears, and birth weight were also independently associated with both risks. Conclusion Duration of expulsive efforts was independently associated with postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. Interventions to shorten the duration of this stage, such as oxytocin, forceps, and episiotomy, are also associated with higher risks of postpartum hemorrhage. Beyond duration, other aspects of the management of active second stage should be evaluated as some might allow it to last longer with a minimal increase in

  10. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network. PMID:26063908

  11. Playing Exergames in the Classroom: Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation, Passion, Effort, and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' experience, motivation, passion, effort, and perspectives in playing exergames in the classroom using the self-determination theory as the main theoretical framework. One hundred forty preservice teachers participated in the study. A mixed method was used. Data included pre-survey and post-survey…

  12. Heart rate variability and cognitive function: effects of physical effort.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295

  13. Preliminary surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30x60 minute quadrangle presents characteristics of surficial materials for an area approximately 5,000 km2 in the eastern Mojave Desert of California. This map consists of new surficial mapping conducted between 2000 and 2005, as well as compilations of previous surficial mapping. Surficial geology units are mapped and described based on depositional process and age categories that reflect the mode of deposition, pedogenic effects occurring post-deposition, and, where appropriate, the lithologic nature of the material. The physical properties recorded in the database focus on those that drive hydrologic, biologic, and physical processes such as particle size distribution (PSD) and bulk density. This version of the database is distributed with point data representing locations of samples for both laboratory determined physical properties and semi-quantitative field-based information. Future publications will include the field and laboratory data as well as maps of distributed physical properties across the landscape tied to physical process models where appropriate. The database is distributed in three parts: documentation, spatial map-based data, and printable map graphics of the database. Documentation includes this file, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and describes the format and content of the map data, a database 'readme' file, which describes the database contents, and FGDC metadata for the spatial map information. Spatial data are distributed as Arc/Info coverage in ESRI interchange (e00) format, or as tabular data in the form of DBF3-file (.DBF) file formats. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files, and are appropriate for representing a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  14. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  15. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  16. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  17. Micromechanical Modeling Efforts for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA Lewis Research Center's in-house efforts in analytical modeling for advanced composites have yielded several computational predictive tools. These are, in general, based on simplified micromechanics equations. During the last 3 years, our efforts have been directed primarily toward developing prediction tools for high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC's) materials. These materials are being considered for High Speed Research program applications, specifically for combustor liners. In comparison to conventional materials, CMC's offer several advantages: high specific stiffness and strength, and higher toughness and nonbrittle failure in comparison to monolithic ceramics, as well as environmental stability and wear resistance for both roomtemperature and elevated-temperature applications. Under the sponsorship of the High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP), CMC analytical modeling has resulted in the computational tool Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer (CEMCAN).

  18. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  19. Measures of Effortful Regulation for Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2005-01-01

    Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented. PMID:18066395

  20. Defining Active and Reasonable Efforts: Reasonable Efforts to Prevent Placement and Preserve Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunner, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of guidelines to expand understanding of and compliance with both the reasonable efforts requirement of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act 1980 (P.L. 96-272) and active efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act 1978 (P.L. 95-608) to help keep Indian families together. (Author/BB)

  1. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  2. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  3. Blowout control efforts continue off Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that Greenhill Petroleum Corp., Houston, last week stepped up efforts to control a workover blowout in Timbalier Bay field off Lafourche Parish, La. The blowout occurred as Blake Drilling and Workover Co., Belle Chasse, La., was deepening the Gulf of Mexico well. Plans called for abandoning Miocene D-4 sand perforations at 8,683-86 ft and 8,696-8,706 ft and recompleting in Miocene D-6 sand at 8,802-28 ft.

  4. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  5. Business-led efforts to control costs.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1991-07-29

    Business-led initiatives to compare medical quality and prices are becoming commonplace as employers seek ways to cap medical expenses. But employers are meeting with varying degrees of cooperation from hospitals. The tale of two cities' efforts to pry open the secrets of controlling costs provides a vivid contrast in the way purchasers have tried to solve the cost-containment puzzle. PMID:10111874

  6. Quality Improvement Efforts in Pediatric Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai

    2016-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and measurement are increasingly used in health care to improve patient care and outcomes. Despite current barriers in oral health measurement, there are nascent QI and measurement efforts emerging. This paper describes the role that QI and measurement can play in improving oral health care delivery in clinical practice by presenting a QI initiative that aimed to test and implement a chronic disease management approach to address early childhood caries. PMID:27265978

  7. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account. PMID:17892331

  8. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.

    PubMed

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed. PMID:19594247

  9. Post-crisis efforts towards recovery and resilience after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    One of the well-known radiation-associated late-onset cancers is childhood thyroid cancer as demonstrated around Chernobyl apparently from 1991. Therefore, immediately after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, iodine thyroid blocking was considered regardless of its successful implementation or not at the indicated timing and places as one of the radiation protection measurements, in addition to evacuation and indoor sheltering, because a short-lived radioactive iodine was massively released into the environment which might crucially affect thyroid glands through inhalation and unrestricted consumption of contaminated food and milk. However, very fortunately, it is now increasingly believed that the exposure doses on the thyroid as well as whole body are too low to detect any radiation-associated cancer risk in Fukushima. Although the risk of radiation-associated health consequences of residents in Fukushima is quite different from that of Chernobyl and is considerably low based on the estimated radiation doses received during the accident for individuals, a large number of people have received psychosocial and mental stresses aggravated by radiation fear and anxiety, and remained in indeterminate and uncertain situation having been evacuated but not relocated. It is, therefore, critically important that best activities and practices related to recovery and resilience should be encouraged, supported and implemented at local and regional levels. Since psychosocial well-being of individuals and communities is the core element of resilience, local individuals, health professionals and authorities are uniquely positioned to identify and provide insight into what would provide the best resolution for their specific needs. PMID:26059007

  10. Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre- and Post- Relocation Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, H. E.; Farris, J. L.; Christian, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments on relocated mussels. We hypothesize that organisms subjected to continuous stress should first use stored glycogen, followed by growth cessation measured as a reduction of RNA in relation to the DNA present, and finally a mobilization of tissue lipids, measured as a decrease in tissue lipid concentrations. We collected mantle snips from three surrogate species of mussels from four sites on the White River in eastern Arkansas during late summer, to establish expected glycogen, lipid, and RNA:DNA levels. Mean tissue lipids concentrations (μg/g) were 63.09, 67.96, and 50.46 for Quadrula quadrula, Q. pustulosa and Obliquaria reflexa, respectively. Mean tissue glycogen concentrations (μg/g) were 346.66, 592.26, and 336.58 for Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and O. reflexa, respectively. This study can provide response information on relocated individuals as well as provide estimation of sufficient time required for mussel adaptation to novel environments.

  11. A MULTI-MODEL ANALYSIS OF POST-2020 MITIGATION EFFORTS OF FIVE MAJOR ECONOMIES

    SciTech Connect

    van Sluisveld, Mariesse; Gernaat, David; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Garg, Amit; Isaac, Morna; Lucas, Paul; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Otto, Sander A.; Rao, Shilpa; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Van Vliet, Jasper; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01

    This paper looks into the regional mitigation strategies of five major economies (China, EU, India, Japan, and USA) in the context of the 2°C target, using a multi-model comparison. In order to stay in line with the 2°C target, a tripling or quadrupling of mitigation ambitions is required in all regions by 2050, employing vigorous decarbonization of the energy supply system and achieving negative emissions during the second half of the century. In all regions looked at, decarbonization of energy supply (and in particular power generation) is more important than reducing energy demand. Some differences in abatement strategies across the regions are projected: In India and the USA the emphasis is on prolonging fossil fuel use by coupling conventional technologies with carbon storage, whereas the other main strategy depicts a shift to carbon-neutral technologies with mostly renewables (China, EU) or nuclear power (Japan). Regions with access to large amounts of biomass, such as the USA, China, and the EU, can make a trade-off between energy related emissions and land related emissions, as the use of bioenergy can lead to a net increase in land use emissions. After supply-side changes, the most important abatement strategy focuses on end-use efficiency improvements, leading to considerable emission reductions in both the industry and transport sectors across all regions. Abatement strategies for non-CO2 emissions and land use emissions are found to have a smaller potential. Inherent model, as well as collective, biases have been observed affecting the regional response strategy or the available reduction potential in specific (end-use) sectors.

  12. The 20-Minute Version as a Predictor of the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Ronald; Schmittmann, Verena D.

    2006-01-01

    The Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test (APM) is a well-known measure of higher order general mental ability. The time to administer the test, 40 to 60 minutes, is sometimes regarded as a drawback. To meet efficiency needs, the APM can be administered as a 30-or 40-minute timed test, or one of two developed short versions could be used. In…

  13. Ten Minutes Wide: Human Walking Capacities and the Experiential Quality of Campus Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, David

    2011-01-01

    Whether a campus is large or small, the idea of a 10-minute walk is an important human-scaled design standard that affects an institution in significant ways beyond just getting students to class on time. Designing a 10-minute walk seems like a simple exercise. Based on earlier information, all one needs to do is provide a walking surface and make…

  14. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  15. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  16. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  17. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  18. 12 CFR 407.6 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings. 407.6 Section 407.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF EX-IM BANK MEETINGS § 407.6 Transcripts, recordings and minutes of...

  19. 47 CFR 0.607 - Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public. 0.607 Section 0.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.607 Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to...

  20. 29 CFR 102.142 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; public availability; retention. 102.142 Section 102.142 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL... minutes of closed meetings; public availability; retention. (a) For every meeting or portion thereof... public copies of transcripts, recordings or minutes maintained as provided in accordance with...

  1. 12 CFR 407.6 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings. 407.6 Section 407.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF EX-IMBANK MEETINGS § 407.6 Transcripts, recordings and minutes of...

  2. Variable Seed Viability of Mile-a-Minute Weed (Devil's Tearthumb, Persicaria perfoliata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute weed or devil's tearthumb is an invasive annual vine in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States. It reproduces solely through seeds, and therefore a key aspect of mile-a-minute weed biology and control concerns the production of viable seed. Our study aimed to identify how seed...

  3. MINUTES OF THE STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS ON THE REPORT OF THE JSA SHRIMP VIRUS WORK GROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report of the JSA Shrimp Virus Work Group - Availability September 1997 (EPA/600/R-97/136)

    This document is comprised of five pieces as follows:

    Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report o...

  4. Minutes of the fifth annual meeting of the panel on reference nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.; Coyne, J.J.; Brenner, D.S.

    1981-04-01

    The minutes include: approval of agenda and minutes of the fourth meeting; elections; reactor physics data needs; fusion data needs; biomedical data needs; status of international and national cooperation; status and availability of data files; status of transfer of responsibilities from NDP to NNDC; status of publications; on-line data base systems; and summary of recommendations and actions. (GHT)

  5. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  6. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  7. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  8. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad

    PubMed Central

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  9. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  10. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  11. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.

    PubMed

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  12. Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement. PMID:23365993

  13. The six-minute walk test is an excellent predictor of functional ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Six-minute walk (6MW) and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) are short walk tests commonly used to evaluate functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, little is known about walking capacity of TKA recipients over extended periods typical of everyday living and whether these short walk tests actually predict longer, more functional distances. Further, short walk tests only correlate moderately with patient-reported outcomes. The overarching aims of this study were to compare the performance of TKA recipients in an extended walk test to healthy age-matched controls and to determine the utility of this extended walk test as a research tool to evaluate longer term functional mobility in TKA recipients. Methods The mobility of 32 TKA recipients one year post-surgery and 43 healthy age-matched controls were assessed using the TUG, 6MW and 30-minute walk (30MW) tests. The latter test was repeated one week later. Self-reported function was measured using the WOMAC Index and a physical activity questionnaire. Results 30MW distance was significantly shorter amongst TKA recipients (mean 2108 m [95% CI 1837 to 2381 m]; Controls 3086 m [2981 to 3191 m], P < 0.001). Test-retest repeatability was high (ICC = 0.97, TKA; 0.96, Controls). Amongst TKA recipients, the 30MW distance correlated strongly with the shorter tests (6MW, r = 0.97, P < 0.001; TUG, r = −0.82, P < 0.001). Multiple regression modeling found 6MW distance to be the only significant predictor (P < 0.001) of 30MW distance, explaining 96% of the variability. The TUG test models were moderate predictors of WOMAC function (55%) and physical activity (36%) and were stronger predictors than 6MW and 30 MW tests. Conclusions Though TKA recipients are able to walk for 30 minutes one year post-surgery, their performance falls significantly short of age-matched norms. The 30MW test is strongly predicted by 6MW test performance, thus providing strong construct validity for the use of the 6MW test in

  14. Prehospital 12-Lead Electrocardiogram within 60 Minutes Differentiates Proximal versus Nonproximal Left Anterior Descending Artery Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Aertker, Robert A; Barker, Colin M; Anderson, H. Vernon; Denktas, Ali E; Giesler, Gregory M; Julapalli, Vinay R; Ledoux, John F; Persse, David E; Sdringola, Stefano; Vooletich, Mary T; McCarthy, James J; Smalling, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute anterior myocardial infarctions caused by proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusions are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. Early identification of high-risk patients via the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) could assist physicians and emergency response teams in providing early and aggressive care for patients with anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Approximately 25% of US hospitals have primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability for the treatment of acute myocardial infarctions. Given the paucity of hospitals capable of PCI, early identification of more severe myocardial infarction may prompt emergency medical service routing of these patients to PCI-capable hospitals. We sought to determine if the 12 lead ECG is capable of predicting proximal LAD artery occlusions. Methods In a retrospective, post-hoc analysis of the Pre-Hospital Administration of Thrombolytic Therapy with Urgent Culprit Artery Revascularization pilot trial, we compared the ECG findings of proximal and nonproximal LAD occlusions for patients who had undergone an ECG within 180 minutes of symptom onset. Results In this study, 72 patients had anterior STEMIs, with ECGs performed within 180 minutes of symptom onset. In patients who had undergone ECGs within 60 minutes (n = 35), the mean sum of ST elevation (STE) in leads V1 through V6 plus ST depression (STD) in leads II, III, and aVF was 19.2 mm for proximal LAD occlusions and 11.7 mm for nonproximal LAD occlusions (P = 0.007). A sum STE in V1 through V6 plus STD in II, III, and aVF of at least 17.5 mm had a sensitivity of 52.3%, specificity of 92.9%, positive predictive value of 91.7%, and negative predictive value of 56.5% for proximal LAD occlusions. When the ECG was performed more than 60 minutes after symptom onset (n = 37), there was no significant difference in ST-segment deviation between the 2 groups. Conclusion The sum STE (V1-V6) and STD (II, III, a

  15. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  16. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  17. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  18. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  19. The Post-9/11 Risk Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Ann H.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to place the post-9/11 risk agenda for colleges and universities in historical perspective by offering a refresher on some of the most serious perennial risks for U.S. higher education. Offers an eight-point road map of how to enhance boards' risk management efforts. (EV)

  20. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort. PMID:22087067

  1. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  2. Effect of breathing of a helium-oxygen mixture on adaptation to effort in humans during high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Debiński, W; Kłossowski, M; Gembicka, D

    1986-01-01

    The study was carried out on 17 healthy males aged 20-27 years subjected for 15 minutes to submaximal effort on a cycle ergometer (Elema-Schonander) under conditions of breathing ambient atmospheric air or a helium-oxygen mixture (20% O2 + 80% He) and under hypobaric pressure simulating an altitude of 3500 m above sea level. During the experiment the heart rate was recorded with ECG, and determinations were performed of the minute volume, respiratory rate, tidal volume and systolic arterial blood pressure. In the serum of venous blood obtained before and 3 minutes after the exercise the concentrations were measured of lactate (LA), pyruvate (PA) and glucose. High-altitude hypoxia caused unifavourable changes in the adaptation to effort manifesting themselves as an increase of the values of the determined physiological and biochemical indices. On the other hand, favourable changes were observed of the reaction to exercise while the subjects were breathing the helium-oxygen mixture during high-altitude hypoxia. The minute volume increased owing to increased tidal volume, and the exercise-induced rise of lactate (LA), pyruvate (PA) and the LA/PA ratio was lower. This may suggest reduced energy cost of respiration and reduced anaerobic metabolism under these conditions. PMID:3788607

  3. How 10 Minutes Can Be Your Friend When You Want to Workout | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    One of the biggest challenges to becoming physically active is finding a way for exercise to fit into your already busy life. Finding an extra 30 minutes in the day to exercise can seem overwhelming. But there’s good news! First, every bit of exercise can help get you on the path to a healthier you—so getting in a little bit is good for you (and better than not at all). Second, especially with cardiovascular activities, getting at least 10 minutes of continuous moderate activity 3 times per day seems to yield the same health benefits as 30 minutes 1 time per day.

  4. Peculiarities of standardization efforts for lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitkamp, Klaus C. H.; Nikowa, Ljuba A.

    1997-12-01

    Lidar, and in particular, differential absorption and scattering lidar or DIAL have today reached a high degree of maturity. It now appears appropriate that efforts be taken in the direction of standardization of the technique and assurance and control of the quality of its results. To this end the German Commission on Air Pollution of VDI and DIN established a working group whose task was to prepare a set of recommendations for the use and operation of lidar systems. This group now completed, as a first result, a guideline for the use of differential absorption and scattering lidar for gas concentration measurements. Peculiarities associated with such a task are presented, and the contents of the draft of the resulting guideline VDI 4210 Part 1 are discussed.

  5. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  6. National Virtual Observatory Efforts at SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Deponte, J.; Evans, I.; Harris, M.; Lowe, S.; McDowell, J. C.; Noble, M. S.

    The National Virtual Observatory (NVO) project is an effort to federate astronomical resources, to provide seamless access to heterogeneous data at various centers throughout the world, and make them appear to the user as a homogeneous set. The NVO will reduce the user's need to obtain, recall and manage details such as passwords, band coverage, instrument specificity and access methodologies for each archive site in order to get and analyze data. The project will employ Grid technology and distributed computing techniques to manage enormous data volumes and processing needs. At the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), we are developing a small scale prototype implementation of the NVO paradigm. This demonstration will illustrate the directions being pursued toward this goal by allowing a user to request data from various resources, display the returned data, and interactively perform analysis on that data.

  7. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less

  8. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.

  9. The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  10. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  11. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  12. VPS GRCop-84 Liner Development Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Tim; Hickman, Robert; Pickens, Tim

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) to fabricate combustion chamber liners using the Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) process. Multiple liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each liner has been fabricated with GRCop-84 (a copper alloy with chromium and niobium) and a functional gradient coating (FGC) on the hot wall. While the VPS process offers versatility and a reduced fabrication schedule, the material system created with VPS allows the liners to operate at higher temperatures, with maximum blanch resistance and improved cycle life. A subscal unit (5K lbf thrust class) is being cycle tested in a LOX/Hydrogen thrust chamber assembly at MSFC. To date, over 75 hot-fire tests have been accumulated on this article. Tests include conditions normally detrimental to conventional materials, yet the VPS GRCop-84 liner has yet to show any signs of degradation. A larger chamber (15K lbf thrust class) has also been fabricated and is being prepared for hot-fire testing at MSFC near the end of 2003. Linear liners have been successfully created to further demonstrate the versatility of the process. Finally, scale up issues for the VPS process are being tackled with efforts to fabricate a full size, engine class liner. Specifically, a liner for the SSME's Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) has recently been attempted. The SSME size was chosen for convenience, since its design was readily available and its size was sufficient to tackle specific issues. Efforts to fabricate these large liners have already provided valuable lessons for using this process for engine programs. The material quality for these large units is being evaluated with destructive analysis and these results will be available by the end of 2003.

  13. Measurement of 100 B. anthracis Ames spores within 15 minutes by SERS at the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Ctr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Huang, Hermes; Sperry, Jay; Sickler, Todd; Prugh, Amber; Guicheteau, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Since the distribution of Bacillus anthracis-Ames spores through the US Postal System, there has been a persistent fear that biological warfare agents will be used by terrorists against our military abroad and our civilians at home. While there has been substantial effort since the anthrax attack of 2001 to develop analyzers to detect this and other biological warfare agents, the analyzers remain either too slow, lack sensitivity, produce high false-positive rates, or cannot be fielded. In an effort to overcome these limitations we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy system. Here we describe the use of silver nanoparticles functionalized with a short peptide to selectively capture Bacillus anthracis spores and produce SER scattering. Specifically, measurements of 100 B. anthracis-Ames spores/mL in ~25 minutes performed at the US Army's Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are presented. The measurements provide a basis for the development of systems that can detect spores collected from the air or water supplies with the potential of saving lives during a biological warfare attack.

  14. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    PubMed Central

    DiMenichi, Brynne C.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a “competitor.” We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)—a previous indicator of increased attention—in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks. PMID:26388801

  15. Analyzing and Predicting Effort Associated with Finding and Fixing Software Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Software developers spend a significant amount of time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the actual effort needed to fix software faults. Objective: The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) analysis of the effort needed to fix software faults and how it was affected by several factors and (2) prediction of the level of fix implementation effort based on the information provided in software change requests. Method: The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. Predictions are made using three supervised machine learning algorithms and three sampling techniques aimed at addressing the imbalanced data problem. Results: Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle activities did not require significant effort. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% overall accuracy using the original, imbalanced data. Using oversampling techniques improved the overall accuracy up to 77%. More importantly, oversampling significantly improved the prediction of the high level effort, from 31% to around 85%. Conclusions: This paper shows the importance of tying software failures to changes made to fix all associated faults, in one or more software components and/or in one or more software artifacts, and the benefit of studying how the spread of faults and other factors affect the fix implementation

  16. NASA Now Minute: States of Matter: Finding and Using Water on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ed Ethridge explains how NASA can use water found on the moon’ssurface or other bodies in the solar system to reduce the cost ofexploration. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly curr...

  17. Minutes of the meeting - pennsylvania electric association, engineering section, structures and hydraulics committee, spring, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The minutes contains 6 papers dealing with structures and hydraulics. Topics include: rehabilitation of small hydro projects; enviromental impact of hydroelectric projects; and pumped storage. 5 papers are indexed separately.

  18. 32 CFR 242a.7 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.7 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes of closed meetings... be available at the actual cost of duplication or transcription. (3) The determination of...

  19. 17 CFR 147.7 - Maintenance of transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minutes of closed meetings. (a) The Commission shall make and maintain a complete transcript or electronic... any item, and a record of any roll call vote taken which reflects the vote of each Commissioner on...

  20. 25. FOLSOM, CALIFORNIA, 15 MINUTE QUADRANGLE. 1941. Scale 1:62,500. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FOLSOM, CALIFORNIA, 15 MINUTE QUADRANGLE. 1941. Scale 1:62,500. United States Geological Survey. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  1. Synergies Between Grace and Regional Atmospheric Modeling Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, J.; Springer, A.; Ohlwein, C.; Hartung, K.; Longuevergne, L.; Kollet, S. J.; Keune, J.; Dobslaw, H.; Forootan, E.; Eicker, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the meteorological community, efforts converge towards implementation of high-resolution (< 12km) data-assimilating regional climate modelling/monitoring systems based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) cores. This is driven by requirements of improving process understanding, better representation of land surface interactions, atmospheric convection, orographic effects, and better forecasting on shorter timescales. This is relevant for the GRACE community since (1) these models may provide improved atmospheric mass separation / de-aliasing and smaller topography-induced errors, compared to global (ECMWF-Op, ERA-Interim) data, (2) they inherit high temporal resolution from NWP models, (3) parallel efforts towards improving the land surface component and coupling groundwater models; this may provide realistic hydrological mass estimates with sub-diurnal resolution, (4) parallel efforts towards re-analyses, with the aim of providing consistent time series. (5) On the other hand, GRACE can help validating models and aids in the identification of processes needing improvement. A coupled atmosphere - land surface - groundwater modelling system is currently being implemented for the European CORDEX region at 12.5 km resolution, based on the TerrSysMP platform (COSMO-EU NWP, CLM land surface and ParFlow groundwater models). We report results from Springer et al. (J. Hydromet., accept.) on validating the water cycle in COSMO-EU using GRACE and precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff data; confirming that the model does favorably at representing observations. We show that after GRACE-derived bias correction, basin-average hydrological conditions prior to 2002 can be reconstructed better than before. Next, comparing GRACE with CLM forced by EURO-CORDEX simulations allows identifying processes needing improvement in the model. Finally, we compare COSMO-EU atmospheric pressure, a proxy for mass corrections in satellite gravimetry, with ERA-Interim over Europe at

  2. [Validation of the Seven Minute Screen for use in a memory clinic].

    PubMed

    Appels, B A; van Campen, J P C M; Schmand, B

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive tests play a crucial part in the assessment of dementia. In 1998 the Seven Minute Screen was developed by Solomon and colleagues. The test was originally designed to distinguish between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal ageing, and research showed that the instrument is highly sensitive to AD. Subsequent research also proved the diagnostic accuracy of the Seven Minute Screen in the detection of other common types of dementia, such as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. This article reports new research on the predictive validity of the Seven Minute Screen using 289 cognitively intact subjects, 175 patients with MCI and 563 patients with dementia in the setting of a memory clinic. In addition, a comparison is made with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The study demonstrates that the Seven Minute Screen is a valuable screening instrument for all common types of dementia, and it has added value to the MMSE. The sensitivity for dementia is 96 % and the specificity 93 %, in comparison to 69 and 98 % for the MMSE (< 24). The sensitivity for the various types of dementia is consistently high, ranging from 92 % for a subcortical dementia to 97 % for AD. The Seven Minute Screen requires little training, and combines a short administration time with a high diagnostic accuracy. This makes the Seven Minute Screen useful for application in memory clinics. PMID:26860596

  3. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  4. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent

  5. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  6. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  7. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  8. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  9. Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  10. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  11. Cardiovascular responses to isometric hand grip vs. relaxed hand grip in sustained cycling efforts.

    PubMed

    Canivel, Randy G; Wyatt, Frank B; Baker, Julien S

    2012-11-01

    Peripheral isometric contractions may lead to enhanced performance. Previous research using hand grip protocols indicates increased stabilization and peak power outputs. Research is lacking with the grip vs. no-grip protocol during sustained efforts. The purpose of this study is to determine cardiovascular reactions (i.e., heart rate [HR], blood pressure [BP], and rate pressure product [RPP]) during sustained cycling via an isometric and relaxed hand grip. Nine (n = 9) recreational cyclists participated in this study. After signing a medical and physical readiness questionnaire, the subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 different protocols. Preexercising values of the HR (beats per minute), BP (miilimeters of mercury), height (centimeters), weight (kilograms), and age (years) were assessed before testing. A Monark bicycle ergometer was used for testing. Grip was substantiated through the use of a hand grip dynamometer at 20 kg of tension. Protocol 1 used an isometric "Hand Grip" scenario at 150 W for 20 minutes. Protocol 2 used a "Relaxed Hand Grip" at the same power and time. During the 20-minute exercise test, HR (POLAR), BP (stethoscope and sphygmomanometer), and calculated RPP (HR × systolic BP [SPB]/100) were recorded every minute. Statistical measures included mean and SDs between protocols, and dependent samples t-tests were used to examine differences between grip and no-grip protocols. At an alpha of ≤0.05, SBP did show a significant increase when using no grip, 161.4 (5.1) mm Hg vs. grip, 154.1 (6.6) mm Hg. However, rate pressure product and heart rate showed no significant differences between protocols. Our data suggested that the use of an isometric hand grip is transient and diminishes over time. PMID:22105053

  12. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  13. Tinidazole in the prophylaxis of post-appendicectomy infections.

    PubMed

    Salo, J; Silvennoinen, E; Hulkko, A; Ervasti, E; Holopainen, O

    1981-01-01

    A total of 223 consecutive suspected appendicitis patients were treated preoperatively with parenteral tinidazole or physiological saline (control group). An infusion of 500 mg tinidazole was given to 110 patients over 30 minutes beginning about 30 minutes before the start of the operation, the control group comprised 111 patients. Postoperative infections were diagnosed in three patients in the group receiving tinidazole (3%) and in 17 patients in the control group (15%). The difference was statistically significant. There were no side-effects due to the drugs. Tinidazole appears to be well suited to the prophylaxis of post-appendicectomy infections. PMID:7032413

  14. Crosstalk between above- and belowground herbivores is mediated by minute metabolic responses of the host Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Plants are frequently under attack by multiple herbivores and can be infested at their shoots as well as their roots. As a consequence, plant metabolites are readily induced, mediated by phytohormones such as salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Thereby, cross-talk between signal transduction pathways may occur if different herbivores attack the plant simultaneously. In turn, modifications in the plant metabolic pattern can affect herbivores infesting local and systemic tissue. Here, an integrative approach combining metabolomics and performance experiments was used to study the induction of plant metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana by the specialist aphid Brevicoryne brassicae feeding on shoots and the generalist nematode Heterodera schachtii infesting root tissue. In contrast to most other studies, low infestation rates typical for the decisive early stages of infestation were used. Moreover, the consequences of induction responses on plant-mediated indirect interactions between these herbivores were investigated. In aphid-treated plants, several metabolites including glucosinolates, important defence compounds of Brassicaceae, were reduced in the shoot, but only minute changes took part in the systemic root tissue. Primary metabolites as well as phytohormones were not altered 3 days post infestation. In contrast, nematodes did not evoke significant metabolic alterations locally or systemically. In accordance, nematode presence did not affect aphid population growth, whereas aphids mediated a considerably reduced nematode infestation. These results demonstrate that plants respond in a very fine-tuned way to different challenges. Although they show only minute systemic responses to low herbivore stress, these changes can have pronounced effects on plant-mediated interactions between herbivores. PMID:23045608

  15. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  16. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data. PMID:10742478

  17. Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature

  18. Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

    2014-02-01

    The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

  19. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

  20. Post-Adolescent Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Search COPING & HEALING CARING FOR A CHILD: POST-ADOLESCENT ISSUES As your child reaches adulthood, there will ... intake. New issues that you and your post adolescent child may want to discus together with his/ ...

  1. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

  2. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2007: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives and Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Barry S.

    2008-01-01

    Provides the minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 16-18, 2007, Washington, DC, and August 9 and 13, 2007, San Francisco, CA, and minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2007 meetings of the Board of Directors. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the American Psychological…

  3. Post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Tontodonati, Monica; Ursini, Tamara; Polilli, Ennio; Vadini, Francesco; Di Masi, Francesco; Volpone, Damiano; Parruti, Giustino

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of the large body of evidence available in the literature, definition and treatment of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) are still lacking a consistent and universally recognized standardization. Furthermore, many issues concerning diagnosis, prediction and prevention of PHN need to be clarified in view of recent contributions. Objectives To assess whether PHN may be better defined, predicted, treated and prevented in light of recent data, and whether available alternative or adjunctive therapies may improve pain relief in treatment recalcitrant PHN. Methods Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and protocols were searched; the search sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, NICE, and DARE. More than 130 papers were selected and evaluated. Results Diagnosis of PHN is essentially clinical, but it can be improved by resorting to the many tools available, including some practical and accessible questionnaires. Prediction of PHN can be now much more accurate, taking into consideration a few well validated clinical and anamnestic variables. Treatment of PHN is presently based on a well characterized array of drugs and drug associations, including, among others, tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentinoids, opioids and many topical formulations. It is still unsatisfactory, however, in a substantial proportion of patients, especially those with many comorbidities and intense pain at herpes zoster (HZ) presentation, so that this frequent complication of HZ still strongly impacts on the quality of life of affected patients. Conclusion Further efforts are needed to improve the management of PHN. Potentially relevant interventions may include early antiviral therapy of acute HZ, prevention of HZ by adult vaccination, as well as new therapeutic approaches for patients experiencing PHN. PMID:23109810

  4. Would You Recommend Your Institution's Effort-Reporting Process to Others? Determining Best Practices in Effort-Reporting Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Effort-reporting compliance at higher education institutions was examined to discern best practices from those that would recommend their effort-reporting process. Data were derived from a survey of effort administrators--the research administrators responsible for the effort-reporting compliance program at their respective higher education…

  5. Biomechanical Changes During a 50-minute Run in Different Footwear and on Various Slopes.

    PubMed

    Lussiana, Thibault; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Millet, Grégoire P; Mourot, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    The effects of footwear and inclination on running biomechanics over short intervals are well documented. Although recognized that exercise duration can impact running biomechanics, it remains unclear how biomechanics change over time when running in minimalist shoes and on slopes. Our aims were to describe these biomechanical changes during a 50-minute run and compare them to those observed in standard shoes. Thirteen trained recreational male runners ran 50 minutes at 65% of their maximal aerobic velocity on a treadmill, once in minimalist shoes and once in standard shoes, 1 week apart in a random order. The 50-minute trial was divided into 5-minute segments of running at 0%, +5%, and -5% of treadmill incline sequentially. Data were collected using photocells, high-speed video cameras, and plantar-pressure insoles. At 0% incline, runners exhibited reduced leg stiffness and plantar flexion angles at foot strike and lower plantar pressure at the forefoot and toes in minimalist shoes from minute 34 of the protocol onward. However, only reduced plantar pressure at the toes was observed in standard shoes. Overall, similar biomechanical changes with increased exercise time were observed on the uphill and downhill inclines. The results might be due to the unfamiliarity of subjects to running in minimalist shoes. PMID:26367201

  6. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Mary K; Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4-93.3) in 6-minute walk distance ([Formula: see text]). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0-21.1; [Formula: see text]). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1-29.5; [Formula: see text]). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27076905

  7. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N.; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4–93.3) in 6-minute walk distance (P=0.02). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0–21.1; P<0.001). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1–29.5; P=0.006). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27076905

  8. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  9. Distress Reduction for Palliative Care Patients and Families With 5-Minute Mindful Breathing: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Beng, Tan Seng; Ahmad, Fazlina; Loong, Lam Chee; Chin, Loh Ee; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Guan, Ng Chong; Ann, Yee Hway; Li, Lee Mei; Meng, Christopher Boey Chiong

    2016-07-01

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 5-minute mindful breathing in distress reduction. Twenty palliative care patients and family caregivers with a distress score ≥4 measured by the Distress Thermometer were recruited and randomly assigned to mindful breathing or "listening" (being listened to). Median distress reductions after 5 minutes were 2.5 for the mindful breathing group and 1.0 for the listening group. A significantly larger reduction in the distress score was observed in the mindful breathing group (Mann-Whitney U test: U = 8.0, n1 = n2 = 10, mean rank1 = 6.30, mean rank2 = 14.70, z = -3.208, P = .001). The 5-minute mindful breathing could be useful in distress reduction in palliative care. PMID:25632044

  10. Thunderstorm-associated cloud motions as computed from 5-minute SMS pictures. [Synchronous Meteorological Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tecson, J. J.; Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    The five-minute rapid-scan imagery from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite is employed to study cloud motions associated with the Omaha tornado of May 6, 1975. Cloud-motion vectors derived from automated and man-machine interactive systems provide an account of the mesoscale phenomena. In addition to the geostationary satellite data, aerial photography obtained during a cloud-truth mission is used in the severe storm investigation. For tracking overland cumuli with short half-lives, a three-minute scan interval appears necessary for the satellite imagery.

  11. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    . It requires good use of computers. Other examples: use modern imaging methods to teach information processing and optics; study `designer materials' to reflect both the inventiveness and the curiosity of physicists. Tell stories from fundamental efforts to understand the world: forces and motion, waves and photons, the structure of the Universe, a hint of relativity. The new AS course has to fit QCA criteria, but should also look beyond them to suggest how to shape the future of A-level physics. Jon Ogborn Director, Institute of Physics Post-16 Initiative The study of matter The study of matter is as central to pure physics as it is to technological applications. Currently Advanced GNVQ Science requires much more detailed knowledge of materials than most A-level courses. But in every case, what 16 - 19 year-old students experience is a rather dated study of engineering materials, with an emphasis on mechanical properties. Almost entirely absent is the notion of our new ability to design materials. Recently, new techniques of visualization, modelling the hierarchy of structures inside a material and simulating the resulting changes in properties, have all dramatically changed the nature of materials science. Post-16 physics courses should mention some new classes of materials responsible for major industrial and social changes. For example, let's look at `soft matter' such as polymers, liquid crystals and emulsions. These are the stuff of Nature, which we are only now learning to imitate. The continuing miniaturization of computer chips and sensors is based on functional properties - optical, electrical, thermal or magnetic. If students are to understand and perhaps later to contribute to developments such as these, they deserve a better introduction. Careful thinking needs to go into deciding what a basic course might entail. But what topic could be better suited to coursework in the form of student research? Teaching about matter in an up-to-date way may sound too

  12. Conservation Efforts May Increase Malaria Burden in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Methods and Findings Using a large malaria dataset (∼1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ∼4.5 million km2), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA’s) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA’s. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Conclusions Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease

  13. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PMID:25089333

  14. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  15. Thirty minute transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation modulates resting state brain activities: a perfusion and BOLD fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yin; Hao, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Jisheng; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Cui, Cailian

    2012-05-31

    Increasing neuroimaging studies have focused on the sustained after effects of acupuncture, especially for the changes of brain activities in rest. However, short-period stimuli have mostly been chosen in these works. The present study aimed to investigate how the resting state brain activities in healthy subjects were modulated by relatively long-period (30 min) acupuncture, a widely used modality in clinical practice. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) or intermittent minimal TEAS (MTEAS) were given for 30 min to 40 subjects. Functional MRI (fMRI) data were collected including the pre-stimulation resting state and the post-stimulation resting state, using dual-echo arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques, representing both cerebral blood flow (CBF) signals and blood oxygen-dependent level (BOLD) signals simultaneously. Following 30 min TEAS, but not MTEAS, the mean global CBF decreased, and a significant decrease of regional CBF was observed in SI, insula, STG, MOG and IFG. Functional connectivity analysis showed more secure and spatially extended connectivity of both the DMN and SMN after 30 min TEAS. Our results implied that modulation of the regional brain activities and network connectivity induced by thirty minute TEAS may associate with the acupuncture-related therapeutic effects. Furthermore, the resting state regional CBF quantified by ASL perfusion fMRI may serve as a potential biomarker in future acupuncture studies. PMID:22541167

  16. Advanced-Level Testing of Foreign Language Proficiency: An Interim Report of the Post A-Level Spanish Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ife, Anne E.; Standish, Peter

    This is a preliminary report concerning the development of tests which measure the linguistic ability in Spanish of English students at the beginning of their post A-level courses. The Palspan (Post A-level Spanish project) pilot test battery is comprised of five sub-tests of between 45 and 90 minutes in length which test for speaking, listening,…

  17. A Measure of Local Effort, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gerald

    Three lengthy tables and four charts present information on the 1981-82 planned tax effort of each of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts and 67 counties. The tax effort, or "equalized mills," equals each district's budgeted taxes divided by its projected 1981 market value. The report gives a brief illustration of how the tax effort helps…

  18. 48 CFR 1511.011-73 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 1511.011-73 Section 1511.011-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-73 Level of effort. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.211-73, Level of Effort,...

  19. American Reform Efforts: German Professional Education after World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Profiles the reeducation and denazification efforts aimed at the training of doctors, lawyers, teachers, and engineers. The efforts espoused few radical innovations and generally supported a return to the well-regarded conditions of the Weimar Republic. These efforts laid the foundation for later reforms in the 1960s. (MJP)

  20. Student Self-Concept and Effort: Gender and Grade Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2011-01-01

    Students' self-concept and effort in schoolwork are known to have significant influences on essential academic outcomes, but self-concept and effort may decline as students grow up. Students from 16 schools in Sydney (N = 2200) were asked to rate on two self-concept components (competency and affect) and effort in schoolwork. Based on measures…

  1. Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

  2. The first three minutes - 1990 version. [of early universe after Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    The present state of understanding of what occurred in the universe's first three minutes is reviewed. Emphasis is on the events that lead to potentially observable consequences and that are model-independent or at least generic to broad classes of models. Inflation, phase transitions, dark matter, and nucleosynthesis are summarized.

  3. Words Correct per Minute: The Variance in Standardized Reading Scores Accounted for by Reading Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Floyd, Randy G.; Hale, Andrea D.; Neddenriep, Christine; Kirk, Emily P.

    2011-01-01

    The measure words correct per minute (WC/M) incorporates a measure of accurate aloud word reading and a measure of reading speed. The current article describes two studies designed to parse the variance in global reading scores accounted for by reading speed. In Study I, reading speed accounted for more than 40% of the reading composite score…

  4. Comparison of 7.5-minute and 1-degree digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, Dennis L.; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    We compared two digital elevation models (DEM's) for the Echo Mountain SE quadrangle in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Comparisons were made between 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) and 1-degree (1:250,000-scale) images using the variables of elevation, slope aspect, and slope gradient. Both visual and statistical differences are presented.

  5. "60 Minutes" as Pseudo-Event: The Social Deflection of Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryski, Bruce G.

    The formal and substantive traits of the television program, "60 Minutes" reflect characteristics manifest in Daniel Boorstin's conception of the "pseudo-event." Through both the verbal and visual imagery presented in the context of a narrative format, this television news magazine illustrates the significance of mass media artifacts as…

  6. Performing Stenographic Activities. Take and Prepare Minutes of Meetings. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 72 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on taking and preparing minutes of meetings are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on performing stenographic activities--CE 016…

  7. 40 CFR 1603.11 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), the CSB shall maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording adequate to record fully the... any item and the record of any rollcall vote. All documents considered in connection with any actions... transcript, a complete copy of the minutes, or a complete electronic recording of each meeting, or a...

  8. 29 CFR 2203.7 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transcript or electronic recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting, or portion of a... include a description of each of the views expressed on any item and a record of any roll call vote (reflecting the vote of each Commissioner on the question). In addition, the minutes will identify...

  9. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  10. "My Mom and Her Boyfriend Fuss": A Five-Minute RAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Whindleton, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    Unresolved issues from home often spill over into behavior problems at school. This article discusses the five-minute RAP techniques: (1) connect; (2) clarify; and (3) restore. The authors present a case study wherein this brief restorative intervention had been a successful alternative to punishment and exclusion.

  11. Double minute chromosomes in mouse methotrexate-resistant cells studied by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinyu; Zhang Liangyu; Zhang Yu; Yan Yongda; Xu Zongwei; Dong Shen; Fu Songbin . E-mail: fusb@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn

    2006-08-11

    Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are acentric, autonomously replicating extra-chromosomes and frequently mediate gene amplification in tumor and drug resistant cells. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool in microbiology. We used AFM to explore the ultrastructure of DMs in mouse fibroblasts 3T3R500. DMs in various phases of cell cycle were also studied in order to elucidate the mechanisms of their duplication and separation. Metaphase spread and induced premature condensed chromosomes (PCCs) were observed under the AFM. DMs were detected to be composed of two compact spheres linked by fibers. The fibers of DMs directly connected with metaphase chromosomes were observed. Many single-minutes and few DMs were detected in G1 PCCs, while more DMs were detected in S PCCs than in G1 PCCs. Besides, all of the DMs in G2 PCCs were coupled. Our present results suggested that DMs might divide into single-minutes during or before G1-phase, followed by duplication of the single-minutes in S-phase. Moreover, we introduced a new powerful tool to study DMs and got some ideal results.

  12. The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-Through (Multimedia Kit): A Multimedia Kit for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Carolyn J.; Steffy, Betty E.; English, Fenwick W.; Frase, Larry E.; Poston, William K.

    2006-01-01

    Showcasing the "Downey Walk-Through"--a method developed over a 40-year period, tested and refined in real-world schools and classrooms, and described in the pioneering book, "The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-Through," this innovative multimedia presentation provides trainers and staff developers with a complete resource answering the questions…

  13. Five-Minute Solar Oscillations and Ion-Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A.; Potapov, A.; Dovbnya, B.

    2015-10-01

    We study the possible impact of the photospheric five-minute oscillations on the ion-cyclotron waves in the solar wind. We proceed from the assumption that the ion-cyclotron waves in the solar wind experience a modulation with a characteristic period of five minutes under the influence of Alfvén waves driven by photospheric motions. The theory presented in this article predicts a deep frequency modulation. This modulation is expected mainly from variations in the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field lines, which, in turn, are caused by the Alfvén waves propagating from the Sun. To test the theoretical predictions, we analyzed records of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF) geoelectromagnetic waves to find the permanent quasi-monochromatic oscillations of natural origin in the Pc1 - 2 frequency band (0.1 - 5 Hz), the carrier frequency of which varies with time in a wide range. As a result, we found the so-called serpentine emission (SE), which was observed in Antarctica at the Vostok station near the South Geomagnetic Pole. The permanency, range of frequencies, and the deep frequency modulation of the SE correspond to the qualitative properties of ion-cyclotron waves in the solar wind. In the context of this work, one of the most important features of the SE is a clearly expressed five-minute modulation of the carrier frequency. We assume that we have found non-trivial manifestations of the solar five-minute oscillations on the Earth.

  14. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... substantial financial harm; (3) That portion contains nonpublic personal information as defined in 12 CFR 1016... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of...

  15. Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project: Off Base 10, Working with Hours, Minutes, Seconds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Fern S.; Kingston, Neldon

    Developed by the Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project, the manual presents an instructional program to teach mainstreamed handicapped elementary school students how to tell and compute time in terms of hours, minutes, and seconds. In addition to the basic time facts, the lessons cover carrying or borrowing with off-base-10 time facts, and…

  16. Ovarian development in the predaceous minute pirate bug Orius pumilio: relationship to diet and mating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult female minute pirate bug, Orius pumilio (Champion), were found to require food and mating to achieve maximum egg production. A protocol for isolating last-instar nymphs of Orius spp. was established to provide newly-eclosed, virgin, unfed adults as a resource for examining the importance of nu...

  17. 7.5-MINUTE DIGITAL RASTER GRAPHICS (DRG), VA PORTION OF ALBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    7.5-minute DRG for Virginia portion of Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Files obtained from www.runet.edu:8800/~geoserve/Virginia.html at Radford University.
    Digital Raster Graphics (DRGs) come from the US Geological Survey in Universal Trans Mercator (UTM), North American...

  18. One-Minute Fluency Measures: Mixed Messages in Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although they are valid and reliable, one-minute fluency measures are defining and capturing a reduced view of fluency as simply accuracy and rate in oral reading. Thus, they may lead astray our understanding of struggling readers' reading fluency development and instructional needs. Fluency is a complicated construct. The author discusses a…

  19. YouTube Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    YouTube Fridays is a teaching tool that devotes the first five minutes of class each Friday to a YouTube video related to the course. Students select the videos, which expand the class's educational content in courses such as thermodynamics and material and energy balances. From assessments of two pilot studies using YouTube Fridays in Chemical…

  20. Use of the One-Minute Preceptor as a Teaching Tool in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Wiseman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient technique used for teaching in busy clinical settings. It consists of five microskills: (1) get a commitment from the student, (2) probe for supporting evidence, (3) reinforce what was done right, (4) correct errors and fill in omissions, and (5) teach a general rule. It can also be used to…

  1. 22 CFR 1413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meeting; public availability; retention. 1413.7 Section 1413.7 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR..., recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention. (a) For every meeting, or portion... members' vote on each roll-call vote. (b) The agency shall make promptly available to the public copies...

  2. Comparison of 7.5-minute and 1-degree digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, Dennis L.; Ripple, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Two digital elevation models are compared for the Echo Mountain SE quadrangle in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Comparisons were made between 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) and 1-degree (1:250,000-scale) images using the variables of elevation, slope aspect, and slope gradient. Both visual and statistical differences are presented.

  3. How Long Is a Minute? The Importance of a Measured Plan of Response to Crisis Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Perry S.

    2010-01-01

    Physical interventions for special education students in crisis remains a controversial concept. The first minute of a crisis situation represents the most crucial time to prevent injury or the exacerbation of injury. Although preventing violence and escalation of negative emotions is the first step in crisis management, school staff also must be…

  4. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings. 16.206 Section 16.206 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole...

  5. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings. 16.206 Section 16.206 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole...

  6. Minutes of the 1980 National Marine Education Association Annual Board of Directors Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Minutes of the 1980 National Marine Education Association annual board of directors' meeting are presented in this document. Included are 16 appendices (representing a major portion of the document) containing materials prepared for the meeting. These materials, which reflect the major areas addressed during the meeting, include: 1980 board of…

  7. Application of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique by Novice Teachers in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy…

  8. State Policies about Physical Activity Minutes in Physical Education or during School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Sallis, James F.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Schneider, Linda; McDermid, Lindsey C.; Agron, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Background: School policies can change practices on a relatively permanent basis. This study investigated adoption and implementation of state-level policies specifying minutes (or percent) of physical activity in physical education (PE) or during school. Methods: Policies were identi?ed from existing databases and rated as having weak, moderate,…

  9. Two Parts Reflection, One Part Selfie: A Visual Alternative to the Minute Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehlhause, Kellie

    2016-01-01

    For almost 40 years, the Minute Paper has been a quick and easy means of learning assessment, both in the college classroom and in library instruction. More recently, the use of social media, particularly selfies, has gained popularity by connecting with students through the technology with which they are most familiar. This article makes the case…

  10. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation. PMID:20521423

  11. 206. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1954 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    206. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1954 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). WORKERS USE AIRTIGHT SUITS, GLOVES AND MASKS TO WORK WITH DEADLY GB NERVE GAS. WORKERS ARE NOT PERMITTED TO STAY IN THE BLENDING CHAMBER FOR MORE THAN 20 MINUTES AT A TIME, EVEN WITH THESE PRECAUTIONS. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Evaluation of Different Post Lengths’ Effect on Fracture Resistance of a Glass Fiber Post System

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Belli, Sema

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different post lengths upon root fracture resistance. Methods 78 maxillary central teeth with similar dimensions were mounted in acrylic blocks with artificial silicone periodontal ligaments. Combinations of post lengths of 6 mm (shorter than 1/1 clinical crown length), 9 mm (1/1 clinical crown length), and 12 mm (longer than 1/1 clinical crown length) made up 6 different groups consisting of 13 teeth each. The glass fiber posts (Snowpost) were cemented with Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F luting cement. Composite-resin cores were made with Clearfil PhotoCore. The specimens were tested in a universal test machine. The testing machine applied controlled loads to the core, 2 mm from its incisal edge, on the palatal side at an angle 135 degrees to the long axis of the root. The testing machine was set at a crosshead speed of 5mm per minute. All samples were loaded until failure. Results There was no statistically significant difference between cements (P>.05). Posts shorter than clinical crown length, demonstrated root fracture under significantly lower loading forces (P<.05). Conclusion Usage of posts shorter than clinical crowns should be avoided to eliminate clinical failure. PMID:19212505

  13. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  14. Periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test forpatients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy:a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Hitomi; Genno, Hirokazu; Shiba, Naoko; Nakamura, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify if a periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound could be used to evaluate physical endurance more precisely than the conventional 6-minute walk test. [Subjects] The subjects were healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Methods] The subjects initially walked for 1 minute to a long-interval metronome sound, and the walking distance was measured. The sound interval was then gradually shortened, and the subjects walked for 1 minute for each of the intervals. The best periodic sound was considered to be the periodic sound used when the subject walked the longest distance in 1 minute, and the process of determining it was referred to as the period shortening walk test. This study administered the 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound to twenty healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and compared the walking distance. [Results] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test distances in both the healthy subjects and the patients were significantly longer than the conventional 6-minute walk test distances. [Conclusion] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test provided a better indication of ambulatory potential in an evaluation of physical endurance than the conventional 6-minute walk test. PMID:26696721

  15. Effects of one minute and ten minutes of walking activity in rats with arthritis induced by complete Freund's adjuvant on pain and edema symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Raquel Pinheiro; Bressan, Elisângela; Silva, Tatiane Morgana da; Gevaerd, Monique da Silva; Tonussi, Carlos Rogério; Domenech, Susana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two protocols of exercise on nociception, edema and cell migration in rats with CFA-induced arthritis. Female Wistar rats (200 - 250 g, n = 50) was monoarthritis-induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; Mycobacterium butyricum, 0.5 mg/mL; 50 μL) into the right knee joint (TF; n = 24) or right ankle joint (TT; n = 26). Incapacitation was measured by the paw elevation time (TEP; s) in 1-min periods of observation. The edema of the knee or ankle joints was evaluated by the variation of the articular diameter (DA, cm) and by the paw volume variation (EP, mL), respectively. Both were measured during 10 consecutive days. Two protocols of exercise were performed: (a) in the constant exercise group (TF, n = 6; TT, n = 6) performing 1 minute of daily exercise on the cylinder; (b) variable exercise group (TF, n = 6; TT, n = 7), the exercise increased by 1 minute per day. The control groups (TF, n = 12; TT, n = 13) didn't perform the exercise. After 10 days, the animals were euthanized for total (CT; cells/mm3) and differential leukocyte counts (mononuclear - MON, and polymorphonuclear - PMN, cells/mm3) of the articular inflammatory exudate. The variable exercise protocol inhibited incapacitation and edema for both joints. However, cell migration decreased only in the TF.The constant exercise reduced edema in both joints, and cell migration was decreased in the TT. However, the incapacitation was not reduced. Variable exercise seemed to be more effective in reducing the inflammatory parameters than constant exercise. PMID:24878853

  16. Pre- to Post-operative Changes in Physical Activity: Report from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Hsu, Jesse Y; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Eid, George M; Flum, David R; Mitchell, James E; Pender, John R; Smith, Mark D; Steffen, Kristine J; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies report that bariatric surgery patients report more physical activity (PA) after surgery than before, but the quality of PA assessment has been questionable. Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a 10-center longitudinal study of adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Of 2458 participants, 455 were given an activity monitor, which records steps/minute, and an exercise diary before and 1 year after surgery. Mean step/day, active minutes/day, and high-cadence minutes/week were calculated for 310 participants who wore the monitor at least 10 hours/day for at least 3 days at both time points. Pre- and post-surgery PA were compared for differences using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Generalized Estimating Equations identified independent pre-operative predictors of post-operative PA. Results PA increased significantly (p<.0001) pre- to post-operative for all PA measures. Median values pre- and post-operative were: 7563 and 8788 steps/day; 309 and 340 active minutes/day; and 72 and 112 high-cadence minutes/week, respectively. However, depending on the PA measure, 24–29% of participants were at least 5% less active post-operative than pre-operative. Controlling for surgical procedure, sex, age and BMI, higher PA preoperative independently predicted higher PA post-operative (p<.0001, all PA measures). Less pain, not having asthma and self-report of increasing PA as a weight loss strategy pre-operative also independently predicted more high-cadence minutes/week post-operative (p<.05). Conclusion The majority of adults increase their PA level following bariatric surgery. However, most remain insufficiently active and some become less active. Increasing PA, addressing pain and treating asthma prior to surgery may have a positive impact on post-operative PA. PMID:21944951

  17. Differentiating between types and levels of isokinetic knee musculature efforts.

    PubMed

    Almosnino, Sivan; Stevenson, Joan M; Day, Andrew G; Bardana, Davide D; Diaconescu, Elena D; Dvir, Zeevi

    2011-12-01

    This investigation assessed whether a measure of moment curve shape similarity, and a measure quantifying curve magnitude differences, enables differentiation between types (sincere vs. feigned) and levels (maximal vs. submaximal) of effort exerted during isokinetic testing of the knee. Healthy participants (n=37) performed four sets of six concentric knee extension-flexion repetitions on two occasions. The sets consisted of: (1) maximal effort; (2) self-perceived 75% of maximal effort; (3) self-perceived 50% of maximal effort; and (4) a set attempting to feign injury. Average cross-correlation and percent root mean square difference values were computed between moment curves in each direction. Logistic regression was used to derive decision rules for differentiating between maximal and submaximal effort levels; and between sincere and feigned effort types. Using a cutoff criteria corresponding to 100% specificity, maximal effort production could be ascertained with 96% sensitivity within the sample. Feigned efforts, however, could be ascertained with only 31% sensitivity due to overlap with sincere submaximal effort. Using the proposed models, clinicians may be able to ascertain whether maximal efforts were produced during isokinetic knee musculature testing. Additionally, evidence regarding participant's intentions with regard to influencing test results may be gauged, although to a lesser extent. PMID:21925901

  18. Evaluating rehabilitation efforts following the Milford Flat Fire: successes, failures, and controlling factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Palmquist, Emily C.; Miller, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    response to moister conditions, seeded forage species. These results suggest the post-fire rehabilitation efforts conducted in the lower elevation regions affected by the Milford Flat Fire were not generally successful. Though dry conditions are likely to blame for the lack of success, the low and variable precipitation characteristic of these regions suggest future post-fire rehabilitation decisions must assume that precipitation is going to be insufficient and plan rehabilitation efforts that are resilient to dry conditions.

  19. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; de Graaf, C; Prinz, J F

    2008-10-20

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy semi-solid, matched for energy density. In the first study, subjects consumed 47% more from the liquid than from the semi-solid to reach the same degree of satiation, with larger bite sizes for the liquid throughout the 15 minute period (8.7+/-0.45 g) compared to the semi-solid (5.8+/-0.3 g, p<0.01). In the second study bite effort was eliminated by using a peristaltic pump to present the products every 20 s. Oral processing time before swallowing was set at 5 s (both products) or 8 s (semi-solid). With the elimination of bite effort and a standardized oral processing time, subjects consumed as much from the semi-solid as from the liquid to reach the same degree of satiation. Bite size for liquids started relatively small and grew gradually over successive bites, whereas the bite size for the semi-solid food started relatively large and became gradually smaller. The latter effect was even more pronounced when the oral processing time was increased from 5 to 8 s. In conclusion, semi-solids resulted in smaller bite sizes and lower intake than liquids, but these differences disappeared when differences in bite effort were eliminated. PMID:18721823

  20. Ten minutes-rechargeable, valve-regulated lead/acid battery after deep discharge and stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasaki, T.; Ehara, Y.; Asai, K.; Takahashi, J.; Matsumoto, K.; Kubotani, S.

    1993-10-01

    Ten minutes-rechargeable, valve-regulated batteries for headphone stereos were released on the market in 1990. These were very thin batteries, i.e., the PF2V0.28 (2 V, 0.28 Ah) unit was 6 mm thick and the PF2V0.55 (2V, 0.55 Ah) unit was 8.5 mm thick. The systems were well accepted for normal operation, but the batteries could not be recharged rapidly after over discharge and long stand. Therefore, batteries have been developed that can be recharged quickly, even after being subjected to the most severe operating conditions experienced with portable electronic appliances. The batteries have been improved to accept charge current in a few minutes, even under the most severe of overdischarge conditions.

  1. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement. PMID:25153964

  2. Research on the measuring technology of minute part's geometrical parameter based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiao-yan; Xiao, Ze-xin

    2008-03-01

    The measuring technology of minute part's geometrical parameter based on image processing is an integration of optics, the mechanics, electronics, calculation and control. Accomplishing the video alteration of measuring microscope, real-time gathering image with CCD, and compiling automatically measuring software in Visual C++6.0 environment. First to do image processing which includes denoise filter, illuminance non-uniformity adjustment and image enhancement, then to carry on the on-line automatic measuring to its geometry parameters. By measuring the minute part's geometry parameters of machineries and integrated circuit in this system, the experimental results indicate that the measuring accuracy could amount to 1 micron, and the system survey stability and usability are all good.

  3. 1E 1048.5 + 5421 - A new 114 minute AM Herculis binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Simon L.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Liebert, James; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of a new AM Herculis binary system, found as a serendipitous Einstein X-ray source, is described. Like the previously discovered mass-transfer binaries involving synchronously rotating magnetic white-dwarf primaries, the system exhibits strong circular polarization, X-ray and optical continuum variations, and optical emission lines, all of which seem to be modulated with these binary periods of 114.5 + or - 0.2 minutes. Although all data are not concurrent, the new system appears to possess the highest ratio of F(x)/F(opt) yet found for an AM Her system. The surprising accumulation of AM Her variables with periods near 114 minute is commented on.

  4. Inter-Individual Differences in the Initial 80 Minutes of Motor Learning of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Lamoth, Claudine J.; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participants impact the outcome of a low-intensity wheelchair-practice intervention. Over a 12-minute pre-test, 39 participants were split in two groups based on a relative 10% increase in mechanical efficiency. Following the pretest the participants continued one of four different low-intensity wheelchair practice interventions, yet all performed in the same trial-setup with a total 80-minute dose at 1.11 m/s at 0.20 W/kg. Instead of focusing on the effect of the different interventions, we focused on differences in motor learning between participants over the intervention. Twenty-six participants started the pretest with a lower mechanical efficiency and a less optimal propulsion technique, but showed a fast improvement during the first 12 minutes and this effect continued over the 80 minutes of practice. Eventually these initially fast improvers benefitted more from the given practice indicated by a better propulsion technique (like reduced frequency and increased stroke angle) and a higher mechanical efficiency. The initially fast improvers also had a higher intra-individual variability in the pre and posttest, which possibly relates to the increased motor learning of the initially fast improvers. Further exploration of the common characteristics of different types of learners will help to better tailor rehabilitation to the needs of wheelchair-dependent persons and improve our understanding of cyclic motor learning processes. PMID:24586992

  5. Geologic map of the Battle Ground 7.5-minute quadrangle, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits of the Battle Ground 7.5 minute quadrangle. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  6. PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS, A MARINE BACTERIUM WITH A GENERATION TIME OF LESS THAN 10 MINUTES

    PubMed Central

    Eagon, R. G.

    1962-01-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens). Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine bacterium with a generation time of less than 10 minutes. J. Bacteriol. 83:736–737. 1962.—Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine microorganism, was demonstrated to have a generation time of 9.8 min. This is the shortest generation time reported to date. Optimal growth occurred at 37 C in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 1.5% sea salt. PMID:13888946

  7. Color enhancement of ten-minute far ultraviolet exposure of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An artifically reproduced color enhancement of a ten-minute far-ultraviolet exposure of the Earth, taken with a filter which blocks the glow cause by atomic hydrogen but which transmits the glow caused by atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. Note that airglow emission bands are visible on the night side of the Earth, one roughly centered between the two polar auroral zones and one at an angle to this extending northward toward the sunlit side of the Earth.

  8. Review of Two Minute Talks to Improve Psychological and Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Webber, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Reviews the book, Two Minute Talks to Improve Psychological and Behavioral Health by John F. Clabby (see record 2013-13851-002). In this book, the author presents a clear guide to evidence-based brief interventions to improve psychological and behavioral health. Throughout the book the author provides practical tips on brief interventions that are useful for students, beginning practitioners, and seasoned professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270258

  9. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  10. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  11. Intersection of effort and risk: ethological and neurobiological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mike A.; Thomé, Alexander; Cowen, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased physical effort or falling energetic reserves. Although theoretical models for this effect exist, no exploration into its biological basis has been pursued. Recent advances in understanding the neural basis of effort- and risk-guided decision making suggest that opportunities exist for determining how effort influences risk preference. In this review, we describe the intersection between the neural systems involved in effort- and risk-guided decision making and outline two mechanisms by which effort-induced changes in dopamine release may increase the preference for variable rewards. PMID:24223535

  12. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A 5.4 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD IN HM CANCRI

    SciTech Connect

    Roelofs, Gijs H. A.; Rau, Arne; Marsh, Tom R.; Steeghs, Danny; Groot, Paul J.; Nelemans, Gijs E-mail: arau@mpe.mpg.de

    2010-03-10

    HM Cancri is a candidate ultracompact binary white dwarf with an apparent orbital period of only 5.4 minutes, as suggested by X-ray and optical light-curve modulations on that period, and by the absence of longer-period variability. In this Letter, we present Keck-I spectroscopy which shows clear modulation of the helium emission lines in both radial velocity and amplitude on the 5.4 minute period and no other. The data strongly suggest that the binary is emitting He I 4471 from the irradiated face of the cooler, less massive star, and He II 4686 from a ring around the more massive star. From their relative radial velocities, we measure a mass ratio q = 0.50 {+-} 0.13. We conclude that the observed 5.4 minute period almost certainly represents the orbital period of an interacting binary white dwarf. We thus confirm that HM Cnc is the shortest period binary star known: a unique test for stellar evolution theory, and one of the strongest known sources of gravitational waves for LISA.

  14. Do Non-shared Environmental Influences Persist over Time? An Examination of Days and Minutes

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-shared environmental influences show only minimal stability over time prior to adulthood. The long assessment lags (typically 3-5 years) that characterize most longitudinal twin studies, however, make it difficult to interpret these results. To more rigorously evaluate non-shared environmental stability prior to adulthood, we fitted biometric correlated factors models to 1) seven consecutive days of self-reported negative and positive affect in 239 twin pairs aged 16-25 years and 2) seven consecutive minutes of observer rated warmth and control in 687 twin pairs aged 6-10 years. We then empirically examined patterns of etiologic stability over time using a mixed effects analog to the one-way ANOVA. Genetic and shared environmental correlations were found to be highly stable over both days and minutes. By contrast, non-shared environmental correlations decreased monotonically with increasing lag length, and moreover, were small-to moderate in magnitude when examining intervals longer than a few minutes. Such findings imply that the non-shared environment may be comprised primarily of transient and idiosyncratic effects prior to adulthood. PMID:25262214

  15. The six-minute walk--an adequate exercise test for pacemaker patients?

    PubMed

    Langenfeld, H; Schneider, B; Grimm, W; Beer, M; Knoche, M; Riegger, G; Kochsiek, K

    1990-12-01

    In many pacemaker patients bicycle and treadmill ergometry are not practicable. As an alternative, we performed a 6-minute walk on a 20-m corridor in 97 pacemaker patients, who were asked to walk as far as possible determining their speed by themselves. Results were compared with those of bicycle ergometry in 42 of these patients and with treadmill exercise of a group of 92 other pacemaker patients. In the 6-minute walk, performance and maximal heart rate were slightly lower (49 +/- 18 W; 96 +/- 23 beats/min) than in bicycle (57 +/- 16 W; 110 +/- 26 beats/min) and treadmill ergometry (50 +/- 37 W; 102 +/- 35 beats/min). A good correlation was found between walking and bicycling (r = 0.74) and in subgroups of patients with different pacemaker indications. All patients preferred the walk to bicycle ergometry considering it to be more related to daily physical activity. In conclusion, a 6-minute walk is a simple and physiological exercise test for nearly all pacemaker patients with good correlation to other types of exercise. It seems to be preferable to other tests because of its better acceptance and practicability. PMID:1704537

  16. Aerodynamic research efforts at SERI wind energy research center at Rocky Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J. L.

    1985-03-01

    Performance prediction and enhancement of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are discussed. A general purpose blade-element/momentum code was developed for rapid parametric studies and for use in annual energy calculations. A post-stall airfoil data synthesization routine accounts for blade aspect ratio effects. A version of the performance code provides better determination of dynamic stall effects on blade loads and performance as influenced by machine yaw angle, unsteady winds, tower shadow, and wind shear. For detailed wind turbine blade optimization, a more sophisticated lifting-surface/prescribed-wake analysis was developed. This code is a transfer of state-of-the-art helicopter theory into a wind turbine design analysis. Airfoil design effort is directed toward satisfying the need to tailor airfoil characteristics specifically for HAWT's. The design criteria and status of this effort are presented.

  17. Receipt of reward leads to altered estimation of effort

    PubMed Central

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Wannig, Aurel; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Effort and reward jointly shape many human decisions. Errors in predicting the required effort needed for a task can lead to suboptimal behavior. Here, we show that effort estimations can be biased when retrospectively reestimated following receipt of a rewarding outcome. These biases depend on the contingency between reward and task difficulty and are stronger for highly contingent rewards. Strikingly, the observed pattern accords with predictions from Bayesian cue integration, indicating humans deploy an adaptive and rational strategy to deal with inconsistencies between the efforts they expend and the ensuing rewards. PMID:26460026

  18. Characterization of reward and effort mechanisms in apathy.

    PubMed

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Veromann, Kai-Riin; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Lo Sterzo, Elena; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common but poorly understood condition with a wide societal impact observed in several brain disorders as well as, to some extent, in the normal population. Hence the need for better characterization of the underlying mechanisms. The processes by which individuals decide to attribute physical effort to obtain rewards might be particularly relevant to relate to apathy traits. Here, we designed two paradigms to assess individual differences in physical effort production and effort-based decision-making and their relation to apathy in healthy people. Apathy scores were measured using a modified version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, suitable for use in a non-clinical population. In the first study, apathy scores were correlated with the degree to which stake (reward on offer) and difficulty level impacts on physical effort production. Individuals with relatively high apathy traits showed an increased modulation of effort while more motivated individuals generally exerted greater force across different levels of stake. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this behavior, we designed a second task that allows independent titration of stake and effort levels for which subjects are willing to engage in an effortful response to obtain a reward. Our results suggest that apathy traits in the normal population are related to the way reward subjectively affects the estimation of effort costs, and more particularly manifest as decreased willingness to exert effort when rewards are small, or below threshold. The tasks we introduce here may provide useful tools to further investigate apathy in clinical populations. PMID:24747776

  19. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  20. Feedforward consequences of isometric contractions: effort and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Smith, Janette L; Martin, Peter G; McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    The onset of voluntary muscle contractions causes rapid increases in ventilation and is accompanied by a sensation of effort. Both the ventilatory response and perception of effort are proportional to contraction intensity, but these behaviors have been generalized from contractions of a single muscle group. Our aim was to determine how these relationships are affected by simultaneous contractions of multiple muscle groups. We examined the ventilatory response and perceived effort of contraction during separate and simultaneous isometric contractions of the contralateral elbow flexors and of an ipsilateral elbow flexor and knee extensor. Subjects made 10-sec contractions at 25, 50, and 100% of maximum during normocapnia and hypercapnia. For simultaneous contractions, both muscle groups were activated at the same intensities. Ventilation was measured continuously and subjects rated the effort required to produce each contraction. As expected, ventilation and perceived effort increased proportionally with contraction intensity during individual contractions. However, during simultaneous contractions, neither ventilation nor effort reflected the combined muscle output. Rather, the ventilatory response was similar to when contractions were performed separately, and effort ratings showed a small but significant increase for simultaneous contractions. Hypercapnia at rest doubled baseline ventilation, but did not affect the difference in perceived effort between separate and simultaneous contractions. The ventilatory response and the sense of effort at the onset of muscle activity are not related to the total output of the motor pathways, or the working muscles, but arise from cortical regions upstream from the motor cortex. PMID:27482074

  1. Effect of sodium phosphate supplementation on repeated high-intensity cycling efforts.

    PubMed

    Brewer, C P; Dawson, B; Wallman, K E; Guelfi, K J

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has investigated how sodium phosphate supplementation affects exercise performance typical of athletic competition and whether any effects linger in the short term. This study examined the effect of sodium phosphate supplementation on a cycling protocol consisting of repeated-sprint (4 sets of 6 × 15 s) and time-trial (2 × 5 min) efforts on day 1 and 4 post-loading. Trained male cyclists (VO(2peak) 5.3 L · min⁻¹) were randomised to 6 days of sodium phosphate supplementation (50 mg · kg·fat-free-mass⁻¹ · day⁻¹; n = 7) or placebo (n = 10). Performance was assessed at baseline and 1 and 4 days post-supplementation on an air-braked cycle ergometer. Compared with baseline, the sodium phosphate group recorded significantly improved (P < 0.05) work and mean power output values in both the sprint (baseline, 259 kJ/719 W; day 1, 271 kJ/754 W; day 4, 271 kJ/753 W) and time-trial (baseline, 225 kJ/374 W; day 1, 235 kJ/398 W; day 4, 236 kJ/393 W) aspects of the performance test post-loading. In the placebo group, no differences (P > 0.05) in total work or power output were noted in response to supplementation. In summary, sodium phosphate supplementation improved repeated-sprint and time-trial cycling efforts both 1 and 4 days post-loading in trained cyclists. PMID:25494032

  2. Strain balanced quantum posts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Alen, B.; Ripalda, J. M.; Llorens, J. M.; Taboada, A. G.; Briones, F.; Roldan, M. A.; Hernandez-Saz, J.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Herrera, M.; Molina, S. I.

    2011-04-25

    Quantum posts are assembled by epitaxial growth of closely spaced quantum dot layers, modulating the composition of a semiconductor alloy, typically InGaAs. In contrast with most self-assembled nanostructures, the height of quantum posts can be controlled with nanometer precision, up to a maximum value limited by the accumulated stress due to the lattice mismatch. Here, we present a strain compensation technique based on the controlled incorporation of phosphorous, which substantially increases the maximum attainable quantum post height. The luminescence from the resulting nanostructures presents giant linear polarization anisotropy.

  3. 19. GROUND STORY, POST OFFICE LOBBY DETAIL OF POST OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GROUND STORY, POST OFFICE LOBBY DETAIL OF POST OFFICE BOXES ALONG WEST WALL OF LEXINGTON AVENUE ARM - Grand Central Post Office Annex, Forty-fifth Street & Lexington Avenue, Southwest corner, New York County, NY

  4. 16. FLOOR 1; MASSIVE CENTER POST IS THE MAIN POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FLOOR 1; MASSIVE CENTER POST IS THE MAIN POST OF A 1736 POST MILL WHICH THIS MILL REPLACED; MORTISE FOR QUARTER BAR CAN BE SEEN - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  5. Efficacy of two iso-propanol-based skin antiseptics applied to human skin with many sebaceous glands for 2 and 10 minutes

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Sammann, Andreas; Pitten, Frank-Albert; Christiansen, Bärbel; Heeg, Peter; Nowak, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent research suggests that specific ethanol-based skin antiseptics exhibit their efficacy on the resident skin flora of the forehead in only 2.5 minutes. We have now looked at the efficacy of two skin antiseptics based on 63% (w/w) propan-2-ol (iso-propanol) and applied for 10 and 2 minutes on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands. Methods: Each experiment was performed in a reference-controlled cross-over design with at least 20 participants. Application of isopropanol (70%, v/v) for 10 minutes to the forehead served as the reference treatment. Pre-values and post-values (immediately after the application and after 30 min) were obtained by swabbing a marked area of 5 cm2 for about 10 s. Swabs were vortexed in tryptic soy broth containing valid neutralizing agents. After serial dilution aliquots were spread on tryptic soy agar. Colonies were counted after incubation of plates at 36°C for 48 h. The mean log10 reduction of bacteria was calculated. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used for a comparison of treatments. Results: Skin antiseptic A applied for 10 min (one experiment) was equally effective to the reference treatment. When applied for 2 min (two experiments) it was still equally effective to the reference treatment immediately after application (e.g. 1.6 versus 1.4 log10 reduction) and after 30 min (1.7 versus 1.4 log10 reduction). Skin antiseptic B applied for 10 and 2 min (one experiment each) was also equally effective to the reference treatment both immediately after application and after 30 min. Conclusions: The clear and coloured skin antiseptics applied for 2 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the national efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. The shorter application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands will allow acting more efficiently in clinical practice. PMID:24653974

  6. Relationships among One-Minute Oscillations in Oxygen Saturation Level of Blood and Hemoglobin Volume in Calf Muscular Tissue and One-Minute Wave in Body Fluid Volume Change during Upright Standing in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, Kinsaku; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi

    2005-08-01

    One-minute oscillations in the oxygen saturation level of blood and the hemoglobin volume in calf muscular tissue were found during upright standing in humans. Spectral analyses indicated that one source of the one-minute wave in body fluid volume change is the spontaneous constriction of blood vessels triggered by an elevation of transmural pressure when blood pooling is evoked.

  7. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2008: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives and Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives (February 22-24, 2008, Washington, DC; and August 13 and 17, 2008, Boston, Massachusetts) and of the 2008 meetings of the Board of Directors (February, June, August, and December) are provided. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the…

  8. Geologic map of the Scotts Mills, Silverton, and Stayton Northeast 7.5 minute quadrangles, Northwest Oregon: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolan, Terry; Beeson, Marvin; Wheeler, Karen L.

    1999-01-01

    The Scotts Mills, Silverton, and Stayton NE 7.5 minute quadrangles are situated along the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and adjacent lower foothills (Waldo and Silverton Hills) of the Cascade Range (Fig. 1). The terrain within this area is of low to moderate relief, ranging from 100 to more than 1000 ft above sea level. This area is largely rural, with most of the valley floor and low-relief foothills under cultivation. In the last decade, the rural areas outside the boundaries of established towns have experienced significant growth in new homes built and the expansion of housing subdivisions. This growth has placed an increased demand on existing geologic resources (e.g., groundwater, sand and gravel, crushed stone) and the need to better understand potential geologic hazards within this region. Previous geologic mapping by Piper (1942), Peck and others (1964), Newton (1969), Hampton (1972), Miller and Orr (1984), Orr and Miller (1984), and Miller and Orr (1986, 1988) established and refined the general stratigraphic framework of this region. This mapping identified few faults or folds; earlier investigators were hindered by the lack of reliably identifiable marker horizons within the stratigraphic section. Werner (1991), using available seismic profile lines and well data in the Willamette Valley to locate the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group, was able to identify and map faults within the subsurface. Reconnaissance mapping of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) units in this region in the early 1980’s indicated that these stratigraphic units could serve as a series of unique reference horizons for identifying post-Miocene folding and faulting (Beeson and others, 1985, 1989; Beeson and Tolan, 1990). The major emphasis of this investigation was to identify and map CRBG units within the Scotts Mills, Silverton, and Stayton NE quadrangles and to utilize this detailed CRBG stratigraphy to identify and characterize structural features.

  9. Post and Lintel Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    Author finds that children understand architectural concepts more readily when he refers to familiar non-architectural examples of them such as goal posts, chairs, tables, and playground equipment. (GB)

  10. CRITICALITY SAFETY POSTING GUIDELINES

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, M.A.

    2001-11-01

    This document provides a set of guidelines in the preparation of criticality safety postings. Guidance is provided in word choice, word arrangement, common human factors considerations. and use of color to highlight limits, cautions, and permissives.

  11. Post-Polio Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Post-Polio Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  12. Acidosis, hypoxia and stress hormone release in response to one-minute inhalation of 80% CO2 in swine.

    PubMed

    Forslid, A; Augustinsson, O

    1988-02-01

    The study pertains to a series of investigations on the effects of CO2 inhalation as used for pre-slaughter anaesthesia in swine. Acid/base parameters, blood oxygen tension, plasma Na, K, Ca and stress hormone concentrations were monitored in Yorkshire swine before, during, and for 10 min after the animals were descended for 1 min into 80% CO2 in air. Severe respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 approximately 50 kPa, arterial pH approximately 6.6) and hypoxia (PaO2 approximately 4kPa) had developed after 45 s of the CO2 inhalation. The corresponding changes in venous blood were less drastic (PvCO2 approximately 17 kPa, pH 7.1, PvO2 approximately 4 kPa). Readjustment to PaCO2 approximately II kPa, arterial pH 7.2, and PaO2 approximately 13 kPa had occurred at 1 min post CO2. Four minutes later the respiratory acidosis had become converted into metabolic acidosis subjected to partial respiratory compensation (arterial pH 7.3 in the presence of moderate hypocapnia and hyperoxaemia). The cause of this metabolic acidosis (present also at 10 min post CO2) was apparently hypoxia-induced anaerobic metabolism (= lactic acid production). Apparently due to hydrogen ion transport into the cells in exchange for other cations, hyperkalaemia (K approximately 6.6 mmol l-1), and a 7 mmol l-1 increase in plasma Na had developed at 1.5 min later. The CO2 inhalation did not change the total plasma Ca significantly. The transport of the swine from the stable to the immediate pre-experimental situation induced a 3-fold increase in plasma cortisol concentration (PC, to approximately 130 mmol l-1). No further increase in PC occurred in response to the CO2 inhalation. It indicates that no additional emotional strain was imposed upon the animals during the CO2 exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3147571

  13. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air. PMID:12608592

  14. Cryogenic skirt support post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, R. C.; Buckles, W. E.

    The cold masses of cryostats having vertical axes, like vertical pressure vessels, can be effectively supported by means of a cylindrical skirt that wraps concentrically around the cold mass. The skirt is a cryogenic support post connected at its upper end to the cold mass and at its lower end to the cryostat vacuum vessel. A heat intercept connection to an intermediate temperature refrigeration source can be employed to control heat leak. The support post consists of a composite; e.g. epoxy fibreglass, or cylinder with bolted or thermal interference fit end connections. The support post, being a single element support, simplifies cryostat assembly and alignment. The composite cylinder, with a relatively large diameter, lends itself to structural soundness and stability under both static and dynamic loading conditions. Its relatively long length and intermediate temperature heat intercept allows low heat leak to the cold mass. The details of the design of a cryogenic skirt support post as applied to a superconducting magnetic energy storage cryostat are presented. Included are support post fabrication, cryostat assembly, and predicted structural and thermal performance. Fabrication of and operational experiences with a prototype support post assembly are discussed.

  15. ISS Update: Carrying Discovery to its Final Destination - Duration: 8 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly interviews Shuttle Carrier Aircraft Pilot Jeff Moultrie and Flight Engineer Henry Taylor. They talk about the effort required to liftoff, fly and land with t...

  16. The Mental Effort Requirement of Cumulative Rehearsal: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the mental effort requirement of cumulative rehearsal and spontaneous utilization of the strategy by three groups of children (mean ages 7.6, 8.7, and 11.5 years). Results showed that the mental effort requirement of strategy use may influence children's strategy selection on memory tasks. (Author/CI)

  17. Group Diffusion of Cognitive Effort as a Determinant of Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanar, Leo R.; Pryor, John B.

    The tendency for individuals to reduce their own efforts when others are available to respond has been called "social loafing." Social loafing has been found also to characterize collective endeavors on tasks considered cognitively efffortful. To test the hypothesis that reduced cognitive effort related to the presence of a coacting group would…

  18. Report on the Vocational Education Effort in Iowa, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Career Education Advisory Council, Des Moines.

    This report was designed to measure the effort expended during 1971 toward implementing programs to meet the needs of citizens of Iowa and to supply the State Board of Public Instruction with data, information, and advice to improve career education efforts in the state. Data were obtained primarily from statistics available by the State…

  19. International coordination of A+M data efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janev, Ratko; Becker, Kurt; Clark, Robert; Lister, Graeme; Niemax, Kay

    1998-07-01

    A summary of the discussions at the ICAMDATA panel on international coordination of atomic and molecular (A+M) data efforts is presented. The status of databases and the needs for coordination of data generation, compilation and assessment efforts in the areas of spectrochemistry, low-temperature plasma applications, plasma processing of materials, lighting industry and fusion energy research are specifically addressed.

  20. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts....

  1. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  2. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  3. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  4. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  5. Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

    1993-01-22

    This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

  6. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  7. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  8. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  9. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  10. KOPE /Kalendar Oriented Program Efforts/ provides data for management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkainen, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    KOPE /Kalendar Oriented Program Efforts/ is a computer program that establishes control over project efforts to assure management of meeting a specified completion date. With the appropriate input data, KOPE computes the starting and completion dates, the manning level for each activity, and the composite manning level for the program.

  11. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

  12. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subcontracting research and development effort. 35.009 Section 35.009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since...

  13. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  14. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2013-01-01

    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  15. 12 CFR 918.7 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of effort. 918.7 Section 918.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.7 Maintenance of effort. Notwithstanding the limits...

  16. 34 CFR 300.203 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 300.203 Section 300.203 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.203 Maintenance of effort....

  17. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  18. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  19. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  20. Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age.…

  1. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... not covered by the act, who may reasonably be expected to have openings in work suitable for him; (4... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work....

  2. Current Reform Efforts in Mathematics Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.

    The current reform effort in mathematics education has its roots in the decade of the 1980's and the national reports that focused attention on an impending crisis in education, particularly in mathematics and science. Within this context, dozens of individual reform efforts have been initiated in recent years. Many have focused on the development…

  3. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  4. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Duplication of effort. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-70, insert the following clause: Duplication of Effort (APR 2010) The contractor hereby certifies that costs for work to be performed under this contract and... that any and all work performed under this contract shall be directly and exclusively for the use...

  5. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  6. 48 CFR 2052.216-70 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 2052.216-70 Section 2052.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.216-70 Level of effort. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(a)...

  7. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  8. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  9. Inefficient effort allocation and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n=48) and healthy controls (n=27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  10. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  11. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  12. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  13. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  14. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  15. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  16. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts, 1960-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960's. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  17. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  18. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and development effort. 35.009 Section 35.009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since the selection of R&D contractors is substantially based...

  19. 42 CFR 441.180 - Maintenance of effort: General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintenance of effort: General rule. 441.180 Section 441.180 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.180 Maintenance of effort: General rule. FFP is available only if the State maintains...

  20. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.165 Section 35.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a...

  1. 48 CFR 1511.011-73 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Level of effort. 1511.011-73 Section 1511.011-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-73 Level of effort. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.211-73, Level of...

  2. Student Organizations and Institutional Diversity Efforts: A Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James

    2010-01-01

    American higher education has become focused on increasing access and success for traditionally underrepresented populations. Despite the myriad of institutional efforts, attention has not been given to the role of student organizations in supporting these efforts. This article looks at the role campus student organizations can play within campus…

  3. Predicting preschool effortful control from toddler temperament and parenting behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years of age, and three temperament groups were formed: inhibited, exuberant, and low reactive. At 4.5 years of age, children's effortful control was measured from parent-report and observational measures. Results indicated that parental behavior and emotional tone appear to be especially influential on exuberant children's effortful control development. Exuberant children whose mothers used commands and prohibitive statements with a positive emotional tone were more likely to be rated higher on parent-reported effortful control 2.5 years later. When mothers conveyed redirections and reasoning-explanations in a neutral tone, their exuberant children showed poorer effortful control at 4.5 years. PMID:23814350

  4. Anger and effortful control moderate aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of anger and effortful control on aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations were investigated among a total of 311 Finnish fifth and sixth graders (mean age = 11.9 years). Self-reported aggressive cognitions (i.e., normative- and self-efficacy beliefs about aggression) were expected to be associated with higher peer-reported aggressive behaviour. Teacher reported anger and effortful control were hypothesised, and found, to moderate the effects of aggressive cognitions on aggression, such that the effects were strongest for children who were high in anger and low in effortful control, as compared to other conditions. Furthermore, under the conditions of high anger and high effortful control, self-efficacy was negatively related to aggression. Thus, aggression is a result of a complex, hierarchically organised motivational system, being jointly influenced by aggressive cognitions, anger and effortful control. The findings support the importance of examining cognitive and emotional structures jointly when predicting children's aggressive behaviour. PMID:26042460

  5. Global patterns of introduction effort and establishment success in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M; Sol, Daniel; Duncan, Richard P; Lockwood, Julie L

    2004-01-01

    Theory suggests that introduction effort (propagule size or number) should be a key determinant of establishment success for exotic species. Unfortunately, however, propagule pressure is not recorded for most introductions. Studies must therefore either use proxies whose efficacy must be largely assumed, or ignore effort altogether. The results of such studies will be flawed if effort is not distributed at random with respect to other characteristics that are predicted to influence success. We use global data for more than 600 introduction events for birds to show that introduction effort is both the strongest correlate of introduction success, and correlated with a large number of variables previously thought to influence success. Apart from effort, only habitat generalism relates to establishment success in birds. PMID:15801588

  6. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute w...

  7. Adaptive and Defensive Strategies in Post-Traumatic Play of Young Children Exposed to Violent Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chazan, Saralea; Cohen, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-three children, aged four to eight years, who had been exposed to violent attacks, were videotaped in individual 40-minute play sessions. These play narratives were recorded by a student researcher trained in narrative analysis and play therapy. She then sorted these play vignettes into three patterns of post-traumatic play, defined in the…

  8. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  9. Understanding Student Mobility in the B.C. Public Post-Secondary System. Highlights from the Student Transitions Project: Post-Secondary Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This annual newsletter summarizes the work of the Post-secondary Student Mobility (PSM) Subcommittee of the Student Transitions Project (STP) . In an effort to better understand student mobility in the B.C. public post-secondary system, the Student Transitions Project continues to describe and quantify the numerous education pathways of students…

  10. Two 6-minute Walk Tests Are Required During Hospitalisation for Acute Exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; Borges, Rodrigo C; McDonald, Christine F; Carvalho, Celso R F; Holland, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is recommended to be performed twice to accurately assess exercise performance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to the presence of a learning effect. It is unknown whether a learning effect exists when the 6MWT is performed during hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). This study investigated whether repeat 6MWTs are necessary when conducted in inpatients with AECOPD. Pooled analysis was undertaken of data from two studies (Australia and Brazil) involving 46 participants (25 males, mean age 67.2 years, FEV1 43% predicted) admitted with AECOPD. Two 6MWTs, separated by ≥20 minutes, were performed on the day of discharge. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD; primary outcome), perceived dyspnoea (Borg scale), heart rate and oxyhaemoglobin saturation were recorded. 6MWD data from tests one (T1) and two (T2) were analysed via visual inspection of Bland-Altman plots. Factors associated with test improvement or decline were explored. Mean 6MWD difference between T1 and T2 was 6.2 m, however limits of agreement were wide (-92.2 m to 104.5 m). 32 (70%) participants improved (by any distance) from T1 to T2 by a mean (± standard deviation) of 32 m ± 28 m. Of these, 14 (30%) improved by a distance > 30 m. Fourteen (30%) participants recorded poorer 6MWD at T2 by a mean of 52 m ± 36 m. No factors were able to identify participants who improved or declined upon repeat testing. When performed in patients admitted to hospital with AECOPD, the 6MWT needs to be conducted twice in order to better estimate 6MWD. PMID:26643192

  11. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: The sample comprised 160 individuals with MS. One group of participants (n = 82) completed a 6MW while wearing a portable metabolic unit (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy) in a square hallway with four corridors and performing 90° turns. Another group (n = 78) completed a 6MW while wearing the same metabolic unit in a single corridor and performing 180° turns. Main outcome measures included total distance walked (in feet) and oxygen consumption (in milliliters per minute) expressed as 30-second averages for 1 minute before the 6MW and over the entire 6MW. Disability status was assessed using the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale. Results: Participants undertaking the 6MW in a single corridor (1412 ft) walked 37 ft (2.7%) farther than those undertaking the test in a square hallway (1375 ft), but this difference was not statistically significant (F = 0.45, P = .51). Those completing the 6MW in a single corridor expended more energy than those completing the 6MW in the square hallway with four corridors (F = 3.41, P < .01). Conclusions: Either protocol is acceptable, but researchers should be aware of the additional physiological demands when administering the 6MW in a single corridor with 180° turns. PMID:24688354

  12. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  13. A cytogenetic and comparative map of camelid chromosome 36 and the minute in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Merriwether, David A; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Rubes, Jiři; Kutzler, Michelle A; Chowdhary, Renuka; Janečka, Jan; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in camelid genomics have provided draft sequence assemblies and the first comparative and gene maps for the dromedary (CDR) and the alpaca (LPA). However, no map information is currently available for the smallest camelid autosome-chr36. The chromosome is also of clinical interest because of its involvement in the minute chromosome syndrome (MCS) in infertile alpacas. Here, we developed molecular markers for camelid chr36 by direct sequencing CDR36 and LPA minute and by bioinformatics analysis of alpaca unplaced sequence scaffolds. We constructed a cytogenetic map for chr36 in the alpaca, llama, and dromedary and showed its homology to human chromosome 7 (HSA7) at 49.8-55.5 Mb. The chr36 map comprised seven markers, including two genes-ZPBP and WVC2. Comparative status of HSA7 was further refined by cytogenetic mapping of 16 HSA7 orthologs in camelid chromosomes 7 and 18 and by the analysis of HSA7-conserved synteny blocks across 11 vertebrate species. Finally, mapping chr36 markers in infertile alpacas confirmed that the minute chromosome was a derivative of chr36, but the small size was not a result of a large deletion or a translocation. Instead, cytogenetic mapping of 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA genes (nucleolus organizer region (NOR)) revealed that the size difference between chr36 homologs in infertile alpacas was due to a heterozygous presence of NOR, whereas chr36 in fertile alpacas had no NOR. We theorized that the heterozygous NOR might affect chr36 pairing, recombination, and segregation in meiosis and, thus fertility. PMID:25634498

  14. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. PMID:26163713

  15. Reorientation of the Stripe Phase of 2D Electrons by a Minute Density Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueed, M. A.; Hossain, Md. Shafayat; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Interacting two-dimensional electrons confined in a GaAs quantum well exhibit isotropic transport when the Fermi level resides in the first excited (N =1 ) Landau level. Adding an in-plane magnetic field (B||) typically leads to an anisotropic, stripelike (nematic) phase of electrons with the stripes oriented perpendicular to the B|| direction. Our experimental data reveal how a periodic density modulation, induced by a surface strain grating from strips of negative electron-beam resist, competes against the B||-induced orientational order of the stripe phase. Even a minute (<0.25 %) density modulation is sufficient to reorient the stripes along the direction of the surface grating.

  16. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

  17. Geology of the Southeast Durham and Southwest Durham 7. 5-minute Quadrangles, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.W.; Gallagher, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Southeast Durham and Southwest Durham 7.5-minute Quadrangles include a 26 kilometer transect of the Durham Triassic basin from the Jonesboro fault on the southeastern side of this half-graben structure to a bounding unconformity on the northwestern side. The basin is filled with non-marine, primarily fluvial, clastic deposits of the Late Triassic Chatham Group. The Chatham Group rocks are intruded by Early Jurassic diabase as dikes and sheets. Bordering rocks are pre-Mesozoic intrusive, metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Carolina slate belt. This paper discusses the geology of the Southeast Durham and Southwest Durham Quadrangles. 37 refs., 17 figs.

  18. Twelve important minutes: introducing enhanced online materials about elder abuse to nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary K; Davis, Boyd H; Blowers, Anita; Shenk, Dena; Jackson, Kina; Kalaw, Karel

    2010-06-01

    A pilot project introduced 12 minutes of text and video materials and a reflective online interaction about elder abuse into the online component of a hybrid course in nursing assistant training leading to certification. Didactic presentations on issues of ethics and standards had been given in two different units of the face-to-face component of the course using both the course textbook and an online module keyed to state certification standards. However, student responses suggested that their online writing to each other about the new materials brought issues of elder abuse to the forefront in ways that they could finally internalize. PMID:20411874

  19. Expression profiling of human epidermal keratinocyte response following 1-minute JP-8 exposure.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chi-Chung; Yang, Jen-Hung; Chen, San-Duo; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Li, Han-Ni; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA microarray analysis of 9600 expressed sequence tags was performed to examine the gene expression changes in human epidermal keratinocytes after 1-minute JP-8 exposure; 151 genes were identified as JP-8 responsive and classified into 8 clusters by self organization map. Genes involved in basal transcription and translations were up-regulated, whereas genes related to DNA repair, metabolism, and keratin were mostly down-regulated. Genes encoded for growth factors, apoptosis, signal transduction, and adhesion were also altered. These results indicated that human keratinocyte responds to a single dose of JP-8 insult and revealed several cellular processes previously not associated with jet fuel exposure. PMID:16835149

  20. The discovery of 50 minute periodic absorption events from 4U1915-05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Swank, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The steady flux from 4U1916-05 which undergoes periodic absorption dips every 50 minutes was demonstrated. This period represents the underlying orbital period of the system. It is suggested that variations in the depth and duration of these events are caused by a bulge in the edge of the accretion disk, at the point where the gas stream impacts the disk. The mass losing star in this system is probably a low mass white dwarf. The spectrum of the dips indicates that the metallicity of the absorbing material is at least a factor 17 below solar values.

  1. The discovery of a 97 minute periodicity in 4U 1700-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matilsky, T.; La Sala, J.; Jessen, J.

    1978-01-01

    SAS 3 observations of a complete orbital cycle (about 3.5 days) of the X-ray source 4U 1700-37 are presented. A persistent, approximately sinusoidal modulation of about 60% amplitude is present in the data at 97 minutes. Satellite orbital effects are ruled out by using other detectors pointed away from the source but sampled at the same time. The effect of such a long rotation period (if indeed the period is rotational) on current ideas involving accretion torques and stellar wind is discussed.

  2. The Nature of the Enigmatic 10-Minute Accreting Binary System ES CET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeghs, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    ES Cet is one of the most compact binary systems known with an orbital period of only 10.3 minutes. Our allocated observations with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite were performed in January and July 2004, with the data being delivered to the PI in August 2004. Preliminary results were presented by the PI in September 2004 and January 2005. We have also secured supporting optical observations of ES Ceti using the Magellan telescopes (November 2004). The team is currently performing a thorough and final analysis of the X-ray, UV and optical data sets with the latest XMM pipeline software and our own analysis packages.

  3. The last three minutes - Issues in gravitational-wave measurements of coalescing compact binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Curt; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.; Bildsten, Lars; Finn, Lee S.; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Kennefick, Daniel; Markovic, Dragoljub M.; Ori, Amos; Poisson, Eric; Sussman, Gerald J.

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational-wave interferometers are expected to monitor the last three minutes of inspiral and final coalescence of neutron star and black hole binaries at distances approaching cosmological, where the event rate may be many per year. Because the binary's accumulated orbital phase can be measured to a fractional accuracy much lower than 10 exp -3, and relativistic effects are large, the wave forms will be far more complex and carry more information than has been expected. Improved wave form modeling is needed as a foundation for extracting the waves' information, but is not necessary for wave detection.

  4. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. PMID:27374255

  5. Interactive effects of visual and auditory intervention on physical performance and perceived effort.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key PointsAmong different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video.In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants. PMID:24149142

  6. Interactive Effects of Visual and Auditory Intervention on Physical Performance and Perceived Effort

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key Points Among different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video. In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants. PMID:24149142

  7. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  8. Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

  9. Post-Launch Sensor Verification and Calibration of the NASA Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, W. Y.; Graf, J. E.; Dunbar, S.; Huddleston, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the NSCAT instrument and sigma-0 computation, and to describe the process and the results of an intensive post-launch verification, calibration, and validation effort.

  10. Post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Arata, Shinju; Takada, Tadahiro; Hirata, Koichi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirota, Morihisa; Yokoe, Masamichi; Hirota, Masahiko; Kiriyama, Seiki; Sekimoto, Miho; Amano, Hodaka; Wada, Keita; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi; Takeda, Kazunori; Kataoka, Keisho; Ito, Tetsuhide; Tanaka, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis remains the most common severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Detailed information about the findings of previous studies concerning post-ERCP pancreatitis has not been utilized sufficiently. The purpose of the present article was to present guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and its incidence, risk factors, and prophylactic procedures that are supported by evidence. To achieve this purpose, a critical examination was made of the articles on post-ERCP pancreatitis, based on the data obtained by research studies published up to 2009. At present, there are no standardized diagnostic criteria for post-ERCP pancreatitis. It is appropriate that post-ERCP pancreatitis is defined as acute pancreatitis that has developed following ERCP, and its diagnosis and severity assessment should be made according to the diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The incidence of acute pancreatitis associated with diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP is 0.4-1.5 and 1.6-5.4%, respectively. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation is associated with a high risk of acute pancreatitis compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy. It was made clear that important risk factors include dysfunction of the Oddi sphincter, being of the female sex, past history of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and performance of pancreaticography. Temporary prophylactic placement of pancreatic stents in the high-risk group is useful for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-6.4, number needed to treat (NNT) 10]. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduction in the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.65). Single rectal administration of NSAIDs is useful for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis [relative risk (RR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.60, NNT 15] and decreases the

  11. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yanli; Meng, Qian; Zheng, Qingqing; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping; Figeys, Daniel; Chang, Ying; Zhou, Hu

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. PMID:27230957

  12. FREQUENCY LIMITS ON NAKED-EYE OPTICAL TRANSIENTS LASTING FROM MINUTES TO YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J. E-mail: nemiroff@mtu.edu

    2009-09-15

    How often do bright optical transients occur on the sky but go unreported? To constrain the bright end of the astronomical transient function, a systematic search for transients that become bright enough to be noticed by the unaided eye was conducted using the all-sky monitors of the Night Sky Live network. Two fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras operating over three years created a database that was searched for transients that appeared in time-contiguous CCD frames. Although a single candidate transient was found, the lack of more transients is used here to deduce upper limits to the general frequency of bright transients. To be detected, a transient must have increased by over three visual magnitudes to become brighter than visual magnitude 5.5 on the timescale of minutes to years. It is concluded that, on the average, fewer than 0.0040 (t {sub dur}/60 s) transients with duration t {sub dur} between minutes and hours, occur anywhere on the sky at any one time. For transients on the order of months to years, fewer than 160 (t {sub dur}/1 year) occur, while for transients on the order of years to millennia, fewer than 50 (t {sub dur}/1 year){sup 2} occur.

  13. The placebo and nocebo effects on peak minute power during incremental arm crank ergometry.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Lindsay; Buscombe, Richard; Nicholettos, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This investigation aimed to explore the effects of inert sugar-free drinks described as either 'performance enhancing' (placebo) or 'fatigue inducing' (nocebo) on peak minute power (PMP;W) during incremental arm crank ergometry (ACE). Twelve healthy, non-specifically trained individuals volunteered to take part. A single-blind randomised controlled trial with repeated measures was used to assess for differences in PMP;W, oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and subjective reports of local ratings of perceived exertion (LRPE) and central ratings of perceived exertion (CRPE), between three separate, but identical ACE tests. Participants were required to drink either 500 ml of a 'sports performance' drink (placebo), a 'fatigue-inducing' drink (nocebo) or water prior to exercise. The placebo caused a significant increase in PMP;W, and a significant decrease in LRPE compared to the nocebo (p=0.01; p=0.001) and water trials (p=0.01). No significant differences in PMP;W between the nocebo and water were found. However, the nocebo drink did cause a significant increase in LRPE (p=0.01). These results suggest that the time has come to broaden our understanding of the placebo and nocebo effects and their potential to impact sports performance. PMID:23889363

  14. RNAi knockdown of Nopp140 induces Minute-like phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhengfang; DiMario, Patrick J

    2007-06-01

    Nopp140 associates with small nucleolar RNPs to chaperone pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. Alternative splicing yields two isoforms in Drosophila: Nopp140-True is homologous to vertebrate Nopp140 particularly in its carboxy terminus, whereas Nopp140-RGG contains a glycine and arginine-rich (RGG) carboxy terminus typically found in vertebrate nucleolin. Loss of ribosome function or production at critical points in development leads to Minute phenotypes in Drosophila or the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) in humans. To ascertain the functional significance of Nopp140 in Drosophila development, we expressed interfering RNA using the GAL4/UAS system. Reverse transcription-PCR showed variable losses of Nopp140 mRNA in larvae from separate RNAi-expressing transgenic lines, whereas immunofluorescence microscopy with isoform-specific antibodies showed losses of Nopp140 in imaginal and polyploid tissues. Phenotypic expression correlated with the percent loss of Nopp140 transcripts: a >or=50% loss correlated with larval and pupal lethality, disrupted nuclear structures, and in some cases melanotic tumors, whereas a 30% loss correlated with adult wing, leg, and tergite deformities. We consider these adult phenotypes to be Minute-like and reminiscent of human craniofacial malformations associated with TCS. Similarly, overexpression of either isoform caused embryonic and larval lethality, thus indicating proper expression of Nopp140 is critical for normal development. PMID:17392509

  15. Cardiorespiratory Mechanical Simulator for In Vitro Testing of Impedance Minute Ventilation Sensors in Cardiac Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Emanuela; Cercenelli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cardiorespiratory mechanical simulator (CRMS), a system able to reproduce both the cardiac and respiratory movements, intended to be used for in vitro testing of impedance minute ventilation (iMV) sensors in cardiac pacemakers. The simulator consists of two actuators anchored to a human thorax model and a software interface to control the actuators and to acquire/process impedance signals. The actuators can be driven separately or simultaneously to reproduce the cardiac longitudinal shortening at a programmable heart rate and the diaphragm displacement at a programmable respiratory rate (RR). A standard bipolar pacing lead moving with the actuators and a pacemaker case fixed to the thorax model have been used to measure impedance (Z) variations during the simulated cardiorespiratory movements. The software is able to discriminate the low-frequency component because of respiration (Z(R)) from the high-frequency ripple because of cardiac effect (Z(C)). Impedance minute ventilation is continuously calculated from Z(R) and RR. From preliminary tests, the CRMS proved to be a reliable simulator for in vitro evaluation of iMV sensors. Respiration impedance recordings collected during cardiorespiratory movements reproduced by the CRMS were comparable in morphology and amplitude with in vivo assessments of transthoracic impedance variations. PMID:26501915

  16. The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

  17. Effect of subchronic formaldehyde inhalation on minute volume and nasal deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dallas, C.E.; Theiss, J.C.; Harrist, R.B.; Fairchild, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since respiratory depression during formaldehyde (HCHO) inhalation is an important mechanism in reducing the dose received and potentially the toxicity in the nasal passages of exposed animals, this study was conducted to determine if changes in the pattern of minute volume response and nasal deposition occurred in nosepiece challenges to rats after long-term repeated exposures of HCHO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 3, or 15 ppm HCHO for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 or 16 wk. The preexposed animals and age-specific controls were then submitted to a HCHO nosepiece challenge at the same concentration that was received in the subchronic exposure. Very high nasal deposition was demonstrated in all measurements. There was a diminished maximum minute volume depression in the 16-wk group relative to the 8-wk group. The difference in response was not statistically associated with the sub-chronic preexposure concentration. The substantial recovery of all initially depressed responses that occurred during the challenges probably diminished the impact of the decreased maximum responses on the resulting nasal deposition over the course of the long-term exposures.

  18. Evaluation of the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) in pet dogs

    PubMed Central

    Swimmer, Rebecca A.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used in human medicine to objectively assess the degree of impairment, and to provide objective evidence of disease progression or response to therapy. Hypothesis/Objectives The 6MWT will be easy to perform and well-tolerated in pet dogs. Dogs with pulmonary disease will walk shorter distances than healthy dogs. Animals 69 healthy dogs were recruited from the hospital community. Six dogs with mild to moderate pulmonary disease were recruited from animals presented for evaluation at the teaching hospital. Methods Prospective study. Dogs walked for 6 minutes in a hallway and the distance covered was measured. Pulse oximetry and heart rate were recorded before and after walking. Physical characteristics of the dogs, including age, leg length, body condition score and weight were recorded. Healthy dogs were compared with affected dogs using a Student’s t test (P <0.05). Correlations were calculated between the age, physical characteristics and distances walked in the healthy dogs. Results Healthy dogs walked 522.7± 52.4 meters, while sick dogs (n=6) walked 384.8± 41.0 meters (P < 0.001). There was low(r=0.13) to moderate (r=0.27) correlation in the healthy dogs between physical characteristics and distances walked. Conclusions and clinical importance The 6MWT was easy to perform and discriminated between healthy dogs and dogs with pulmonary disease. PMID:21352372

  19. Evaluating strawberry breeding selections for post-harvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry breeding effort at Beltsville, MD, 2007 and 2008, were used to develop a method of assessing each genotype’s post-harvest decay. Detectability of statistical differences between genotypes was improved by treating harvest × plot comb...

  20. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  1. Learning and Literacy: A Research Agenda for Post-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing policy discussions concerning the post-2015 future of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals are providing the basis for renewed efforts to understand and improve learning and literacy in a global perspective. Aiming for a pathway towards better scientific understanding, this paper asks a central question: What research would be…

  2. Shuttle SRB preflight/post-flight thermal assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The development of the thermal protection system for the Solid Rocket Booster is reported. Tests and analytical efforts were conducted and new problems are continually attacked and solved. During the first six Shuttle flights it was necessary to make a final thermal assessment of the TPS and structural systems temperatures. The thermal assessments were made and are compared with post flight data.

  3. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    PubMed

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

  4. Strength of Intentional Effort Enhances the Sense of Agency.

    PubMed

    Minohara, Rin; Wen, Wen; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takaki; Kato, Motoichiro; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and the experience of controlling external events with one's actions. The present study examined the effect of strength of intentional effort on SoA. We manipulated the strength of intentional effort using three types of buttons that differed in the amount of force required to depress them. We used a self-attribution task as an explicit measure of SoA. The results indicate that strength of intentional effort enhanced self-attribution when action-effect congruency was unreliable. We concluded that intentional effort importantly affects the integration of multiple cues affecting explicit judgments of agency when the causal relationship action and effect was unreliable. PMID:27536267

  5. Preventing Substance Abuse by Supporting Families' Efforts with Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Brenna H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, because the resources of most contemporary nuclear families for monitoring and providing alternative incentives are not sufficient to compete with the positive contingencies associated with substance use, communities must support parent's efforts by supplementing them. (LKS)

  6. Grassroots Efforts: If You Plant Them, They Will Grow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kimberly S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a four-tiered framework for the development of advocacy skills among teacher preparation professionals that reflects grassroots advocacy efforts and endorses the value of the physical and health education disciplines.

  7. The Canon Group's effort: working toward a merged model.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, C; Huff, S M; Hersh, W R; Pattison-Gordon, E; Cimino, J J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a representational schema for clinical data for use in exchanging data and applications, using a collaborative approach. DESIGN: Representational models for clinical radiology were independently developed manually by several Canon Group members who had diverse application interests, using sample reports. These models were merged into one common model through an iterative process by means of workshops, meetings, and electronic mail. RESULTS: A core merged model for radiologic findings present in a set of reports that subsumed the models that were developed independently. CONCLUSIONS: The Canon Group's modeling effort focused on a collaborative approach to developing a representational schema for clinical concepts, using chest radiography reports as the initial experiment. This effort resulted in a core model that represents a consensus. Further efforts in modeling will extend the representational coverage and will also address issues such as scalability, automation, evaluation, and support of the collaborative effort. PMID:7895135

  8. Strength of Intentional Effort Enhances the Sense of Agency

    PubMed Central

    Minohara, Rin; Wen, Wen; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takaki; Kato, Motoichiro; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling of controlling one’s own actions, and the experience of controlling external events with one’s actions. The present study examined the effect of strength of intentional effort on SoA. We manipulated the strength of intentional effort using three types of buttons that differed in the amount of force required to depress them. We used a self-attribution task as an explicit measure of SoA. The results indicate that strength of intentional effort enhanced self-attribution when action-effect congruency was unreliable. We concluded that intentional effort importantly affects the integration of multiple cues affecting explicit judgments of agency when the causal relationship action and effect was unreliable. PMID:27536267

  9. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  10. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  12. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  13. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  14. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  15. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  16. [Post bariatric body contouring.

    PubMed

    Winge, Rikke; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Printzlau, Andreas; Hülmich, Lisbet

    2014-03-17

    Post bariatric body contouring in Denmark is currently a field under development. The scope of this article is to give an overview of existing plastic surgery techniques being used to treat patients with massive weight loss, as well as the current indications for patient referral. Furthermore, we describe how to optimise the preoperative evaluation of the patient and give a brief description of potential surgical adverse effects and their prevalence. Further research can provide this field with invaluable data regarding the post-operative effects on patient rehabilitation and quality of life. PMID:25096208

  17. Assessment of intensity effort of middle-aged adults practicing regular walking

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson A.; Lima, Daniela A.; Vieira, Gabriella F.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Pereira, Danielle A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking is one of the most commonly recommended activities for sedentary individuals. When performed at the correct intensity, it can provide cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other benefits by providing a training effect in addition to reducing the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health conditions. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who practiced regular unsupervised walking carry out the activity safely and with sufficient effort intensity parameters to have a positive physiological (training) effect. The secondary objective was to compare the training heart rate (HR) and the stability of the HR within the ideal range of training between the sexes. Method: Individuals were selected from walking tracks within the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study included subjects from 40 to 60 years of age who had practiced walking for at least two months prior to the study, walking at least three times a week. Individuals who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to walk 15 minutes at their usual pace with their HR measured every 5 minutes using a heart rate monitor. Their average walking HR was compared to the average training HR based on the formula: (220 - age) × 70 to 80% that would result in a positive physiological training effect. Results: Of the 142 individuals evaluated, 25.4% achieved the average training HR. This result was significantly lower than those who did not achieve the average training HR while walking (p=0.002). There were significant differences between men and women who had reached the training HR (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The authors found that individuals who walk regularly performed outside the range of the ideal HR intensity that would cause a positive physiological effect and therefore would probably not achieve a beneficial training effect while walking. PMID:26647751

  18. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  19. Hematological and hemorheological Determinants of the Six-Minute Walk Test Performance in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Waltz, Xavier; Romana, Marc; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lamarre, Yann; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Petras, Marie; Tarer, Vanessa; Hierso, Régine; Baltyde, Kizzy-Clara; Tressières, Benoît; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Maillard, Fréderic; Hue, Olivier; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The six-minute walk test is a well-established submaximal exercise reflecting the functional status and the clinical severity of sickle cell patients. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the biological determinants of the six-minute walk test performance in children with sickle cell anemia. Hematological and hemorheological parameters, pulmonary function and the six-minute walk test performance were determined in 42 children with sickle cell anemia at steady state. The performance during the six-minute walk test was normalized for age, sex and height and expressed as percentage of the predicted six-minute walk distance. We showed that a high level of anemia, a low fetal hemoglobin expression and low red blood cell deformability were independent predictors of a low six-minute walk test performance. This study describes for the first time the impact of blood rheology in the six-minute walk test performance in children with sickle cell anemia. PMID:24147086

  20. Pre- and post-harvest interventions to reduce pathogen contamination in the U.S. beef industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant effort has been targeted at reducing the risk of pathogens in U.S. beef products since the mid-1990s. These efforts were focused on E. coli O157:H7 after it was declared an adulterant in ground beef or its components. Initial efforts were composed primarily of post-harvest interventions ...