Science.gov

Sample records for mission operations interoperability

  1. CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steve; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2009-01-01

    We are entering a new era in space exploration. Reduced operating budgets require innovative solutions to leverage existing systems to implement the capabilities of future missions. Custom solutions to fulfill mission objectives are no longer viable. Can NASA adopt international standards to reduce costs and increase interoperability with other space agencies? Can legacy systems be leveraged in a service oriented architecture (SOA) to further reduce operations costs? The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is collaborating with Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) to answer these very questions. The Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area (MOIMS) Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Working Group within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing the Mission Operations standards to address this problem space. The set of proposed standards presents a service oriented architecture to increase the level of interoperability among space agencies. The OTF and DLR are developing independent implementations of the standards as part of an interoperability prototype. This prototype will address three key components: validation of the SM&C Mission Operations protocol, exploration of the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS), and the incorporation of legacy systems in a SOA. The OTF will implement the service providers described in the SM&C Mission Operation standards to create a portal for interaction with a spacecraft simulator. DLR will implement the service consumers to perform the monitor and control of the spacecraft. The specifications insulate the applications from the underlying transport layer. We will gain experience with a DDS transport layer as we delegate responsibility to the middleware and explore transport bridges to connect disparate middleware products. A SOA facilitates the reuse of software components. The prototype will leverage the

  2. CCSDS SM and C Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the prototype of the Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Operations for interoperability among other space agencies. This particular prototype uses the German Space Agency (DLR) to test the ideas for interagency coordination.

  3. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  4. Prototype Interoperability Document between NASA-JSC and DLR-GSOC Describing the CCSDS SM and C Mission Operations Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steve A.; Gully, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the PROTOTYPE INTEROPERABILITY DOCUMENT is to document the design and interfaces for the service providers and consumers of a Mission Operations prototype between JSC-OTF and DLR-GSOC. The primary goal is to test the interoperability sections of the CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor & Control (SM&C) Mission Operations (MO) specifications between both control centers. An additional goal is to provide feedback to the Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) working group through the Review Item Disposition (RID) process. This Prototype is considered a proof of concept and should increase the knowledge base of the CCSDS SM&C Mission Operations standards. No operational capabilities will be provided. The CCSDS Mission Operations (MO) initiative was previously called Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C). The specifications have been renamed to better reflect the scope and overall objectives. The working group retains the name Spacecraft Monitor and Control working group and is under the Mission Operations and Information Services Area (MOIMS) of CCSDS. This document will refer to the specifications as SM&C Mission Operations, Mission Operations or just MO.

  5. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  6. Turning Interoperability Operational with GST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeben, Helmut; Gabriel, Paul; Gietzel, Jan; Le, Hai Ha

    2013-04-01

    GST - Geosciences in space and time is being developed and implemented as hub to facilitate the exchange of spatially and temporally indexed multi-dimensional geoscience data and corresponding geomodels amongst partners. It originates from TUBAF's contribution to the EU project "ProMine" and its perspective extensions are TUBAF's contribution to the actual EU project "GeoMol". As of today, it provides basic components of a geodata infrastructure as required to establish interoperability with respect to geosciences. Generally, interoperability means the facilitation of cross-border and cross-sector information exchange, taking into account legal, organisational, semantic and technical aspects, cf. Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA), cf. http://ec.europa.eu/isa/. Practical interoperability for partners of a joint geoscience project, say European Geological Surveys acting in a border region, means in particular provision of IT technology to exchange spatially and maybe additionally temporally indexed multi-dimensional geoscience data and corresponding models, i.e. the objects composing geomodels capturing the geometry, topology, and various geoscience contents. Geodata Infrastructure (GDI) and interoperability are objectives of several inititatives, e.g. INSPIRE, OneGeology-Europe, and most recently EGDI-SCOPE to name just the most prominent ones. Then there are quite a few markup languages (ML) related to geographical or geological information like GeoSciML, EarthResourceML, BoreholeML, ResqML for reservoir characterization, earth and reservoir models, and many others featuring geoscience information. Several Web Services are focused on geographical or geoscience information. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) promotes specifications of a Web Feature Service (WFS), a Web Map Service (WMS), a Web Coverage Serverice (WCS), a Web 3D Service (W3DS), and many more. It will be clarified how GST is related to these initiatives, especially

  7. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  8. Operational Interoperability Challenges on the Example of GEOSS and WIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heene, M.; Buesselberg, T.; Schroeder, D.; Brotzer, A.; Nativi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The following poster highlights the operational interoperability challenges on the example of Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and World Meteorological Organization Information System (WIS). At the heart of both systems is a catalogue of earth observation data, products and services but with different metadata management concepts. While in WIS a strong governance with an own metadata profile for the hundreds of thousands metadata records exists, GEOSS adopted a more open approach for the ten million records. Furthermore, the development of WIS - as an operational system - follows a roadmap with committed downwards compatibility while the GEOSS development process is more agile. The poster discusses how the interoperability can be reached for the different metadata management concepts and how a proxy concept helps to couple two different systems which follow a different development methodology. Furthermore, the poster highlights the importance of monitoring and backup concepts as a verification method for operational interoperability.

  9. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  10. Space Mission Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concept of developing a space mission operations concept; the benefits of starting this system engineering task early; the neccessary inputs to the process; and the products that are generated.

  11. Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  12. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  13. ICD-11 (JLMMS) and SCT Inter-Operation.

    PubMed

    Mamou, Marzouk; Rector, Alan; Schulz, Stefan; Campbell, James; Solbrig, Harold; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to contribute to a smooth and semantically sound inter-operability between the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases-11th revision Joint Linearization for Mortality, Morbidity and Statistics) and SNOMED CT (SCT). To guarantee such inter-operation between a classification, characterized by a single hierarchy of mutually exclusive and exhaustive classes, as is the JLMMS successor of ICD-10 on the one hand, and the multi-hierarchical, ontology-based clinical terminology SCT on the other hand, we use ontology axioms that logically express generalizable truths. This is expressed by the compositional grammar of SCT, together with queries on axiomsof SCT. We test the feasibility of the method on the circulatory chapter of ICD-11 JLMMS and present limitations and results. PMID:27139413

  14. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  15. Ulysses mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is described in terms of in-Shuttle operations, initial in-orbit operations, routine operations, operational organization, and data gathering and production. The configuration of the Ulysses payload is illustrated, and the flight to orbit is described including a three-hour on-orbit checkout. The first contact was reported at the Deep Space Network station followed by an adjustment of the spacecraft solar-aspect angle and the acquisition of ranging and Doppler data. In-orbit operations include the earth acquisition maneuver, a trajectory correction maneuver, and a payload switch. Continuous data gathering is discussed with reference to the Jupiter encounter and the first and second oppositions and conjunctions. The data-gathering components comprise ground stations, a data-processing computer, and a data-records system. Data production is performed in an off-line mode that does not interfere with the real-time operations.

  16. OTF CCSDS Mission Operations Prototype Parameter Service. Phase I: Exit Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the prototype of phase 1 of the parameter service design of the CCSDS mission operations. The project goals are to: (1) Demonstrate the use of Mission Operations standards to implement the Parameter Service (2) Demonstrate interoperability between Houston MCC and a CCSDS Mission Operations compliant mission operations center (3) Utilize Mission Operations Common Architecture. THe parameter service design, interfaces, and structures are described.

  17. Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is

  18. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  19. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  20. The National Flood Interoperability Experiment: Bridging Resesarch and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's new National Water Center, located on the University of Alabama campus in Tuscaloosa, will become the nation's hub for comprehensive water resources forecasting. In conjunction with its federal partners the US Geological Survey, Army Corps of Engineers and Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Weather Service will operationally support both short term flood prediction and long term seasonal forecasting of water resource conditions. By summer 2016, the National Water Center will begin evaluating four streamflow data products at the scale of the NHDPlus river reaches (approximately 2.67 million). In preparation for the release of these products, from September 2014 to August 2015, the National Weather Service partnered with the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. to support the National Flood Interoperability Experiment which included a seven week in-residence Summer Institute in Tuscaloosa for university students interested in learning about operational hydrology and flood forecasting. As part of the experiment, 15 hour forecasts from the operational High Resolution Rapid Refresh atmospheric model were used to drive a three kilometer Noah-MP land surface model loosely coupled to a RAPID river routing model operating on the NHDPlus dataset. This workflow was run every three hours during the Summer Institute and the results were made available to those engaged to pursue a range of research topics focused on flood forecasting (e.g. reservoir operations, ensemble forecasting, probabilistic flood inundation mapping, rainfall product evaluation etc.) Although the National Flood Interoperability Experiment was finite in length, it provided a platform through which the academic community could engage federal agencies and vice versa to narrow the gap between research and operations and demonstrate how state of the art research infrastructure, models, services, datasets etc. could be utilized

  1. Digital Motion Imagery, Interoperability Challenges for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    With advances in available bandwidth from spacecraft and between terrestrial control centers, digital motion imagery and video is becoming more practical as a data gathering tool for science and engineering, as well as for sharing missions with the public. The digital motion imagery and video industry has done a good job of creating standards for compression, distribution, and physical interfaces. Compressed data streams can easily be transmitted or distributed over radio frequency, internet protocol, and other data networks. All of these standards, however, can make sharing video between spacecraft and terrestrial control centers a frustrating and complicated task when different standards and protocols are used by different agencies. This paper will explore the challenges presented by the abundance of motion imagery and video standards, interfaces and protocols with suggestions for common formats that could simplify interoperability between spacecraft and ground support systems. Real-world examples from the International Space Station will be examined. The paper will also discuss recent trends in the development of new video compression algorithms, as well likely expanded use of Delay (or Disruption) Tolerant Networking nodes.

  2. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  3. OTF CCSDS Mission Operations Prototype. Directory and Action Service. Phase I: Exit Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the phase I directory and action service prototype for the CCSDS system. The project goals are to: (1) Demonstrate the use of Mission Operations standards to implement Directory and Action Services (2) Investigate Mission Operations language neutrality (3) Investigate C3I XML interoperability concepts (4) Integrate applicable open source technologies in a Service Oriented Architecture

  4. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  5. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  6. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  7. Mission operations for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osler, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is provided of mission operations for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads. Missions considered are related to solar physics, high energy astrophysics, and stellar ultraviolet/optical astronomy. Operational aspects are examined. Mission operations include the flight activities and associated ground support work for implementing the mission. The prelaunch activity will begin about a year before launch with the assignment of a mission operations manager.

  8. Mission operations computing systems evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its preparation for the operational Shuttle era, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently replacing most of the mission operations computing complexes that have supported near-earth space missions since the late 1960's. Major associated systems include the Metric Data Facility (MDF) which preprocesses, stores, and forwards all near-earth satellite tracking data; the Orbit Computation System (OCS) which determines related production orbit and attitude information; the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) which formulates spacecraft attitude and orbit maneuvers; and the Command Management System (CMS) which handles mission planning, scheduling, and command generation and integration. Management issues and experiences for the resultant replacement process are driven by a wide range of possible future mission requirements, flight-critical system aspects, complex internal system interfaces, extensive existing applications software, and phasing to optimize systems evolution.

  9. CRRES Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The overall NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program consists of a series of chemical releases from the PEGSAT spacecraft, the CRRES spacecraft and sounding rockets. The first chemical releases were made from the PEGSAT spacecraft in April, 1990 over northern Canada. In addition to the releases planned from the CRRES spacecraft there are releases from sounding rockets planned from the Kwajalein rocket range in July and August, 1990 and from Puerto Rico in June and July, 1991. It shows the major milestones in the overall CRRES program. This Mission Operations Report only describes the NASA mission objectives of the CRRES/Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) mission.

  10. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  11. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. The Virtual Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mike; Fox, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft management is becoming more human intensive as spacecraft become more complex and as operations costs are growing accordingly. Several automation approaches have been proposed to lower these costs. However, most of these approaches are not flexible enough in the operations processes and levels of automation that they support. This paper presents a concept called the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) that provides highly flexible support for dynamic spacecraft management processes and automation. In a VMOC, operations personnel can be shared among missions, the operations team can change personnel and their locations, and automation can be added and removed as appropriate. The VMOC employs a form of on-demand supervisory control called management by exception to free operators from having to actively monitor their system. The VMOC extends management by exception, however, so that distributed, dynamic teams can work together. The VMOC uses work-group computing concepts and groupware tools to provide a team infrastructure, and it employs user agents to allow operators to define and control system automation.

  13. Mars Pathfinder mission operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Dias, William C.; Nakata, Albert Y.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project plans a December 1996 launch of a single spacecraft. After jettisoning a cruise stage, an entry body containing a lander and microrover will directly enter the Mars atmosphere and parachute to a hard landing near the sub-solar latitude of 15 degrees North in July 1997. Primary surface operations last for 30 days. Cost estimates for Pathfinder ground systems development and operations are not only lower in absolute dollars, but also are a lower percentage of total project costs than in past planetary missions. Operations teams will be smaller and fewer than typical flight projects. Operations scenarios have been developed early in the project and are being used to guide operations implementation and flight system design. Recovery of key engineering data from entry, descent, and landing is a top mission priority. These data will be recorded for playback after landing. Real-time tracking of a modified carrier signal through this phase can provide important insight into the spacecraft performance during entry, descent, and landing in the event recorded data is never recovered. Surface scenarios are dominated by microrover activity and lander imaging during 7 hours of the Mars day from 0700 to 1400 local solar time. Efficient uplink and downlink processes have been designed to command the lander and microrover each Mars day.

  14. Satellite Mission Operations Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Hogan, Roger P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The effort of compiling a collection of Best Practices for use in Space Mission Operations was initiated within a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Space Operations and Support Technical Committee (SOSTC). The idea was to eventually post a collection of Best Practices on a website so as to make them available to the general Space Operations community. The effort of searching for available Best Practices began in the fall of 1999. As the search progressed, it became apparent that there were not many Best Practices developed that were available to the general community. Therefore, the subcommittee decided to use the SOSTC Annual Workshop on Reducing Space Mission Costs as a forum for developing Best Practices for our purpose of sharing them with a larger audience. A dedicated track at the April 2000 workshop was designed to stimulate discussions on developing such Best Practices and forming working groups made up of experienced people from various organizations to perform the development. These groups were solicited to help outside the workshop to bring this effort to fruition. Since that time, biweekly teleconferences have been held to discuss the development of the Best Practices and their posting.

  15. Reconfigurable Software for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We developed software that provides flexibility to mission organizations through modularity and composability. Modularity enables removal and addition of functionality through the installation of plug-ins. Composability enables users to assemble software from pre-built reusable objects, thus reducing or eliminating the walls associated with traditional application architectures and enabling unique combinations of functionality. We have used composable objects to reduce display build time, create workflows, and build scenarios to test concepts for lunar roving operations. The software is open source, and may be downloaded from https:github.comnasamct.

  16. Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-6 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Vice President George Bush talks to the STS-6 astronauts from the spacecraft communicators (CAPCOM) console in the mission operations control room (MOCR) of JSC's mission control center. Astronauts Bryan D. O'Connor, second left and Roy D. Bridges, center, are the on-duty CAPCOMS. Standing near the console are (left) JSC Director Gerald D. Griffin and NASA Administrator James Beggs. Eugene F. Kranz, Director of Mission Operations, is at the back console near the glass.

  17. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  18. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO)??

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual public meeting of the Federal Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling (ISCMEM) will convene to discuss some of the latest developments in environmental modeling applications, tools and frameworks, as well as new operational initiatives for F...

  19. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  20. Interoperability framework for communication between processes running on different mobile operating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, A.; Filip, I.; Dragan, F.

    2016-02-01

    As we live in an era where mobile communication is everywhere around us, the necessity to communicate between the variety of the devices we have available becomes even more of an urge. The major impediment to be able to achieve communication between the available devices is the incompatibility between the operating systems running on these devices. In the present paper we propose a framework that will make possible the ability to inter-operate between processes running on different mobile operating systems. The interoperability process will make use of any communication environment which is made available by the mobile devices where the processes are installed. The communication environment is chosen so as the process is optimal in terms of transferring the data between the mobile devices. The paper defines the architecture of the framework, expanding the functionality and interrelation between modules that make up the framework. For the proof of concept, we propose to use three different mobile operating systems installed on three different types of mobile devices. Depending on the various factors related to the structure of the mobile devices and the data type to be transferred, the framework will establish a data transfer protocol that will be used. The framework automates the interoperability process, user intervention being limited to a simple selection from the options that the framework suggests based on the full analysis of structural and functional elements of the mobile devices used in the process.

  1. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  2. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  3. A Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Development of technologies that enable significant reductions in the cost of space mission operations is critical if constellations, formations, federations and sensor webs, are to be economically feasible. One approach to cost reduction is to infuse automation technologies into mission operations centers so that fewer personnel are needed for mission support. But missions are more culturally and politically adverse to the risks of automation. Reducing the mission risk associated with increased use of automation within a MOC is therefore of great importance. The belief that mission risk increases as more automation is used stems from the fact that there is inherently less direct human oversight to investigate and resolve anomalies in an unattended MOC. The Virtual Missions Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) project was launched to address this concern. The goal of the VMOC-CE project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission operations between onsite operators and on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. VMOC-CE enables missions to more readily adopt automation because off-site operators and engineers can more easily identify, investigate, and resolve anomalies without having to be present in the MOC. The VMOC-CE intent is to have a single access point for all resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment. Team members will be able to interact during spacecraft operations, specifically for resolving anomalies, utilizing a desktop computer and the Internet. Mission operations management can use the VMOC-CE as a tool to participate in and monitor status of anomaly resolution or other mission operations issues. In this paper we present the VMOC-CE project, system capabilities and technologies, operations concept, and results of its pilot in support of the Earth Science Mission Operations System (ESMOS).

  4. Toward lowering the cost of mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Ledbetter, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The mission operations system is one of the more significant drivers of the cost of the mission operations and data analysis segment of missions. In large or long-lived projects, the MOS can also be a driver in total mission cost. Larger numbers of missions, together with an increasingly cost-conscious environment, dictate that future missions must more strictly control costs as they perform to their requirements. It is therefore prudent to examine the conduct of past missions for ways to conserve resources. In this paper we review inputs made to past projects' 'lessons-learned' activities, in which personnel from past projects (among other things) identified major cost drivers of MOS's and considered how economies were or might have been realized in both design and performance of their MOS. Common themes among four such reviews are summarized in an attempt to provide suggestions for cost reduction in future missions.

  5. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2009-01-01

    MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

  6. Cost efficient operations for Discovery class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, G. E.; Landshof, J. A.; Whitworth, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is scheduled to launch the first spacecraft in NASA's Discovery program. The Discovery program is to promote low cost spacecraft design, development, and mission operations for planetary space missions. The authors describe the NEAR mission and discuss the design and development of the NEAR Mission Operations System and the NEAR Ground System with an emphasis on those aspects of the design that are conducive to low-cost operations.

  7. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

  8. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. President Ronald Reagan and Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., look toward the orbiter spotter on the projection plotter at the front of the MOCR. Also present are Astronaut Daniel C. Brandenstein, seated left, and NASA Administrator James M. Beggs standing left of center. In the foreground, Dr. Hans Mark, Deputy NASA Administrator, briefs Michael Deaver, Special Assistant to President Reagan (39504); President Reagan speaks to the STS-2 crew during the second day of their mission. On hand in MOCR were NASA Administrator James M. Beggs and Deputy Administrator Hans Mark (standing behind the president but mostly out of frame) and Dr. Kraft on the right. Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations can be seen in the background seated at the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) console. Also present is Astronaut Daniel C. Brandenstein, seated left, who turned the communications over to Mr. Reagan (39505).

  9. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. President Ronald Reagan is briefed by Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, who points toward the orbiter spotter on the projection plotter at the front of the MOCR (39499); President Reagan joking with STS-2 astronauts during space to ground conversation (39500); Mission Specialist/Astronaut Sally K. Ride communicates with the STS-2 crew from the spacecraft communicator console (39501); Charles R. Lewis, bronze team Flight Director, monitors activity from the STS-2 crew. He is seated at the flight director console in MOCR (39502); Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations at JSC answers a question during a press conference on Nov. 13, 1981. He is flanked by Glynn S. Lunney, Manager, Space Shuttle Program Office, JSC; and Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Director of JSC (39503).

  10. NASA Antarctic Mission Operation ICE Bridge 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Operation ICE Bridge is the most recent success for the Airborne Science Program, NASA scientists and climate researchers. This six minute video summarizes NASA's research mission over west ...

  11. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  12. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  13. Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Operation Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nio, Tomomi; Saito, Susumu; Stocker, Erich; Pawloski, James H.; Murayama, Yoshifumi; Ohata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe tropical rainfall, which was launched by H-II No. 6 from Tanegashima in Japan at 6:27 JST on November 28, 1997. After the two-month commissioning of TRMM satellite and instruments, the original nominal mission lifetime was three years. In fact, the operations has continued for approximately 17.5 years. This paper provides a summary of the long term operations of TRMM.

  14. Mission operations and command assurance - Automating an operations TQM task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda; Kazz, Sheri; Potts, Sherrill; Witkowski, Mona; Bruno, Kristin

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of mission operations through defect prevention and error management. A major element of this program, Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), provides a system level function on flight projects to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA embodies the total quality management TQM principle of continuous process improvement (CPI) and uses CPI in applying automation to mission operations to reduce risk and costs. MO&CA has led efforts to apply and has implemented automation in areas that impact the daily flight project work environment including Incident Surprise Anomaly tracking and reporting; command data verification, tracking and reporting; and command support data usage. MO&CA's future work in automation will take into account that future mission operations systems must be designed to avoid increasing error through the introduction of automation, while adapting to the demands of smaller flight teams.

  15. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  16. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  17. OTF Mission Operations Prototype Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the JSC/OTF prototype of a CCSDS SM&C protocol based communications link between two space flight operations control centers. Varied implementations using software architectures from current web enterprise venues are presented. The AMS protocol (CCSDS Blue Book standard 735.1) was used for messaging and link communications.

  18. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  19. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  20. Preparing Cassini Uplink Operations for Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Jennifer L.; McCullar, Michelle L.; Conner, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn and Titan, a joint venture between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, is conducting a four-year, prime mission exploring the Saturnian system, including its atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, moons and icy satellites. Launched in 1997, Cassini began its prime mission in 2004. Cassini is now preparing for a new era, a two-year extended mission to revisit many of the highlights and new discoveries made during the prime mission. Because of the light time delay from Earth to Saturn, and the time needed to coordinate the complicated science and engineering activities that take place on the spacecraft, commanding on Cassini is done in approximately 40-day intervals known as sequences. The Cassini Uplink Operations team is responsible for the final development and validation of the pointing profile and instrument and spacecraft commands that are contained in a sequence. During this final analysis prior to uplink to the spacecraft, thorough and exact evaluation is necessary to ensure there are no mistakes during commanding. In order to perform this evaluation, complete and refined processes and procedures are fundamental. The Uplink Operations team is also responsible for anomaly response during sequence execution, a process in which critical decisions often are made in real-time. Recent anomalies on other spacecraft missions have highlighted two major risks in the operations process: (1) personnel turnover and the retirement of critical knowledge and (2) aging, outdated operations procedures. If other missions are a good barometer, the Cassini extended mission will be presented with a high personnel turnover of the Cassini flight team, which could lead to a loss of expertise that has been essential to the success of the prime mission. In order to prepare the Cassini Uplink Operations Team for this possibility and to continue to develop and operate safe science and

  1. Mission operations systems for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.; Wolff, Donna M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to present an overview of the processes comprising planetary mission operations as conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and (2) to present a project-specific and historical context within which this evolving process functions. In order to accomplish these objectives, the generic uplink and downlink functions are described along with their specialization to current flight projects. Also, new multimission capabilities are outlined, including prototyping of advanced-capability software for subsequent incorporation into more automated future operations. Finally, a specific historical ground is provided by listing some major operations software plus a genealogy of planetary missions beginning with Mariner 2 in 1962.

  2. Mission Operations with an Autonomous Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.

    1998-01-01

    The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.

  3. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) Common Data Model: Foundation for Net-Centric Interoperability for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, M.; Kolarik, K.; Waters, J.

    2012-09-01

    The space situational awareness (SSA) data we access and use through existing SSA systems is largely provided in formats which cannot be readily understood by other systems (SSA or otherwise) without translation. As a result, while the data is useful for some known set of users, for other users it is not discoverable (no way to know it is there), accessible (if you did know, there is no way to electronically obtain the data) or machine-understandable (even if you did have access, the data exists in a format which cannot be readily ingested by your existing systems). Much of this existing data is unstructured, stored in non-standard formats which feed legacy systems. Data terms are not always unique, and calculations performed using legacy functions plugged into a service-oriented backbone can produce inconsistent results. The promise of data which is interoperable across systems and applications depends on a common data model as an underlying foundation for sharing information on a machine-to-machine basis. M2M interoperability is fundamental to performance, reducing or eliminating time-consuming translation and accelerating delivery to end users for final expert human analysis in support of mission fulfillment. A data model is common when it can be used by multiple programs and projects within a domain (e.g., C2 SSA). Model construction begins with known requirements and includes the development of conceptual and logical representations of the data. The final piece of the model is an implementable physical representation (e.g., XML schema) which can be used by developers to build working software components and systems. The JMS Common Data Model v1.0 was derived over six years from the National SSA Mission Threads under the direction of AFSPC/A5CN. The subsequent model became the A5CN approved JMS Requirements Model. The resulting logical and physical models have been registered in the DoD Metadata Registry under the C2 SSA Namespace and will be made available

  4. Lessons Learned from Engineering a Multi-Mission Satellite Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Maureen; Cary, Everett, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy; Parker, Jeffrey; Bradley, David

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorers (SMEX) satellites have surpassed their designed science-lifetimes and their flight operations teams are now facing the challenge of continuing operations with reduced funding. At present, these missions are being re-engineered into a fleet-oriented ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). When completed, this ground system will provide command and control of four SMEX missions and will demonstrate fleet automation and control concepts. As a path-finder for future mission consolidation efforts, this ground system will also demonstrate new ground-based technologies that show promise of supporting longer mission lifecycles and simplifying component integration. One of the core technologies being demonstrated in the SMEX Mission Operations Center is the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture. The GMSEC architecture uses commercial Message Oriented Middleware with a common messaging standard to realize a higher level of component interoperability, allowing for interchangeable components in ground systems. Moreover, automation technologies utilizing the GMSEC architecture are being evaluated and implemented to provide extended lights-out operations. This mode of operation will provide routine monitoring and control of the heterogeneous spacecraft fleet. The operational concepts being developed will reduce the need for staffed contacts and is seen as a necessity for fleet management. This paper will describe the experiences of the integration team throughout the re-enginering effort of the SMEX ground system. Additionally, lessons learned will be presented based on the team's experiences with integrating multiple missions into a fleet-automated ground system.

  5. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  6. Mariner Mars 1971 project. Volume 3: Mission operations system implementation and standard mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 mission which was another step in the continuing program of planetary exploration in search of evidence of exobiological activity, information on the origin and evolution of the solar system, and basic science data related to the study of planetary physics, geology, planetology, and cosmology is reported. The mission plan was designed for two spacecraft, each performing a separate but complementary mission. However, a single mission plan was actually used for Mariner 9 because of failure of the launch vehicle for the first spacecraft. The implementation is described, of the Mission Operations System, including organization, training, and data processing development and operations, and Mariner 9 spacecraft cruise and orbital operations through completion of the standard mission from launch to solar occultation in April 1972 are discussed.

  7. COTS-based OO-component approach for software inter-operability and reuse (software systems engineering methodology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, J.; Oyaki, A.; Hwang, C.; Hung, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research and study paper is to provide a summary description and results of rapid development accomplishments at NASA/JPL in the area of advanced distributed computing technology using a Commercial-Off--The-Shelf (COTS)-based object oriented component approach to open inter-operable software development and software reuse.

  8. Giotto—The mission operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, David E. B.

    On 2 July 1985, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched an interplanetary probe to encounter Halley's Comet on the night of 13/14 March 1986 at a distance of 0.98 AU from Earth. The mission to Halley's Comet was the Agency's first venture into deep space. The tracking stations necessary to support such a mission were not directly available to ESA at the initiation of the GIOTTO project although facilities operated by NASA's deep space network were later made available for certain phases of the mission, together with the 30-m Weilheim antenna of the DFVLR. ESA's European Space Operations Centre, ESOC therefore developed the new deep space tracking stations especially for support of the GIOTTO mission. One of these stations, the 15-m antenna facility at Carnarvon, West Australia, was designed and installed by ESA as a dedicated S-band and X-band tracking, telemetry and command station. The second station at Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, a 64-m radio telescope owned by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) was modified to provide X-band telemetry reception using cryogenic MASER low-noise amplifiers. This station operated by CSIRO with assistance from a ESA engineering and operations team, provided support to the GIOTTO mission for reception of the 46 kbs high speed telemetry format which is vital to success of the GIOTTO mission at time of Cometary Encounter. Additionally, the DFVLR Weilheim station was modified to include the newly developed ESOC deep space tracking system which was also installed at the Carnarvon Station. The paper discusses in some detail the network of tracking stations which provided the Control Centre at ESOC in Darmstadt, F.R.G. with the data which was vital to the success of the mission. Because the launch date of GIOTTO was a date which could not be rescheduled, the design installation, integration and testing of the complete GIOTTO mission operations system was an extremely time critical activity

  9. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.

    2010-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) efforts in human space flight are currently focused on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs, with efforts beginning on the future exploration opportunities. Both the Space Shuttle and ISS programs are important to the development of a capability for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS provides extensive research capabilities to determine how the human body reacts to long duration stays in space. Also, the ISS and Shuttle can serve as a limited testbed for equipment or entire systems that may be used on missions to the Moon, Mars, or to a near-Earth asteroid. It has been nearly 35 years since the Apollo astronauts visited the Moon. Future space explorers will have to re-learn how to work and live on planetary surfaces, and how to do that for extended periods of time. Exploration crews will perform a wide assortment of scientific tasks, including material sampling and emplacement of automated instruments. Surface mission operations include the activities of the crew living and working, mission support from the Earth, and the operation of robotic and other remotely commanded equipment on the surface and in planetary orbit. Other surface activities will include the following: exploring areas surrounding a habitat; using rovers to collect rock and soil samples; setting up experiments on the surface to monitor the radiation environment and any seismic or thermal activity; and conducting scientific analyses and experiments inside a habitat laboratory. Of course, the astronauts will also have to spend some of their surface time "doing chores" and maintaining their habitat and other systems. In preparation for future planetary exploration, NASA must design the answers to many operational questions. What will the astronauts do on the surface? How will they accomplish this? What tools will they require for their tasks? How will robots and astronauts work together? What

  10. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  11. Spitzer Observatory Operations -- Increasing Efficiency in Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element.

  12. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  13. Wind Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wind mission is the first mission of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative. The Wind laboratory will study the properties of particles and waves in the region between the Earth and the Sun. Using the Moon s gravity to save fuel, dual lunar swing-by orbits enable the spacecraft to sample regions close to and far from the Earth. During the three year mission, Wind will pass through the bow shock of Earth's magnetosphere to begin a thorough investigation of the solar wind. Mission objectives require spacecraft measurements in two orbits: lunar swing- by ellipses out to distances of 250 Earth radii (RE) and a small orbit around the Lagrangian point L-l that remains between the Earth and the Sun. Wind will be placed into an initial orbit for approximately 2 years. It will then be maneuvered into a transition orbit and ultimately into a halo orbit at the Earth-Sun L-l point where it will operate for the remainder of its lifetime. The Wind satellite development was managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center with the Martin Marietta Corporation, Astro-Space Division serving as the prime contractor. Overall programmatic direction was provided by NASA Headquarters, Office of Space Science. The spacecraft will be launched under a launch service contract with the McDonnell Douglas Corporation on a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) within a November l-l4, 1994 launch window. The Wind spacecraft carries six U.S. instruments, one French instrument, and the first Russian instrument ever to fly on an American satellite. The Wind and Polar missions are the two components of the GGS Program. Wind is also the second mission of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The first ISTP mission, Geotail, is a joint project of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan and NASA which launched in 1992. The Wind mission is planned to overlap Geotail by six months and Polar by one year

  14. Applying successful near mission operations approaches and refining for contour mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    On February 17, 1996, the first NASA Discovery Class Mission to launch, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft, began its journey to the asteroid Eros. NEAR is the first planetary spacecraft to be designed and operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). In July 2002, the comet nucleus tour (CONTOUR) spacecraft, the second planetary spacecraft to be built and operated at JHUAPL and the 6th in the series of NASA Discovery Class Missions, will be launched. Both NEAR and CONTOUR share ambitious "Faster, Better, Cheaper" goals. Furthermore, with both missions being developed and operated at the same institution, a unique opportunity exists to refine CONTOUR designs and operational practices based on 5 years of NEAR operational experience. This paper provides an overview of designs and operational practices implemented by JHU/APL to safely and effectively conduct the NEAR mission. This paper discusses how these will be applied to the CONTOUR mission and what improvements are planned. It also discusses the unique challenges CONTOUR possesses for operating a 4 year mission with widely varying operations activity levels at low cost.

  15. Smart repeater system for communications interoperability during multi-agency law enforcement operations

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Jones, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Smith, S.F.; Tolley, A.L.; Rochelle, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A prototype smart repeater that provides interoperability capabilities for radio communication systems in multi-agency and multi-user scenarios is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The smart repeater functions as a deployable communications platform that can be dynamically reconfigured to cross-link the radios of participating federal, state, and local government agencies. This interconnection capability improves the coordination and execution of multi-agency operations, including coordinated law enforcement activities and general emergency or disaster response scenarios. The repeater provides multiple channels of operation in the 30--50, 118--136, 138--174, and 403--512 MHz land mobile communications and aircraft bands while providing the ability to cross-connect among multiple frequencies, bands, modulation types, and encryption formats. Additionally, two telephone interconnects provide links to the fixed and cellular telephone networks. The 800- and 900-MHz bands are not supported by the prototype, but the modular design of the system accommodates future retrofits to extend frequency capabilities with minimal impact to the system. Configuration of the repeater is through a portable personal computer with a Windows-based graphical interface control screen that provides dynamic reconfiguration of network interconnections and formats.

  16. Offline Interoperability, Cost Reduction and R eliability for Operational Procedures Using Meta-Modeling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupart, E.; Jolly, G.; Percebois, C.; Bazex, P.; Palanque, P.; Basnyat, S.; Rabault, P.; Sabatier, L.; Walrawens, A.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we present a CNES participation through a case study in a research project called DOMINO financed by the French National Research Agency (ANR) RNTL. This project has started in March 2007 and will end in March 2009, it regroups academics (ENSIETA, IRISA, and IRIT), industries and agencies, (AIRBUS, CEA, CNES and SODIFRANCE). This project has two main goals: to develop reliable Model Driven Engineering (MDE) components and to build bridges with Domain Specific Languages (DSL). CNES participates in this project through a case study on the reliable design of operational procedures and associated applications. There are two main objectives for this case study: the first to improve "offline" interoperability with the possibility to build import/export tools for any scripting procedure language by using meta-modeling technology. The second is to improve efficiency for the production, validation, and execution of scripting procedures using operational specifications. It is anticipated that this will result in a reduction of costs and reliability improvement.

  17. Spacecraft automated operations. [for interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, T. H.; Sharpe, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Trends in automation of planetary spacecraft are examined using data from missions as far back as Mariner '67 and up to the highly sophisticated Galileo. Nine design considerations which influence the degree of automation such as protection against catastrophic failures, highly repetitive functions, loss of spacecraft communications, and the need for near-real-time adaptivity are discussed. Rapid growth of automation is shown in terms of on-board hardware by plots of number of processors on board, the average speed of processors, and total core memory. The number of commands transmitted from the ground has grown to 5 million bits in Voyager, so that increases in mission complexity have increased both in spacecraft automation and ground operations. Achieving greater automation by transferring ground operations to the spacecraft with the current means of controlling missions, are considered noting proposed changes. For the future, improved computer technology, more microprocessors and increased core storage will be used, and the number of automated functions and their complexity will grow. It is concluded that using the growing computational capability of spacecraft will achieve more autonomy thus reversing the trend of increased mission complexity and cost.

  18. Analyzing human errors in flight mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Kristin J.; Welz, Linda L.; Barnes, G. Michael; Sherif, Josef

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect prevention/error management program. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of the total system, both the human operator and the computer system, is optimized. To this end, 1580 Incident Surprise Anomaly reports (ISA's) from 1977-1991 were analyzed from the Voyager and Magellan projects. A Pareto analysis revealed that 38 percent of the errors were classified as human errors. A preliminary cluster analysis based on the Magellan human errors (204 ISA's) is presented here. The resulting clusters described the underlying relationships among the ISA's. Initial models of human error in flight mission operations are presented. Next, the Voyager ISA's will be scored and included in the analysis. Eventually, these relationships will be used to derive a theoretically motivated and empirically validated model of human error in flight mission operations. Ultimately, this analysis will be used to make continuous process improvements continuous process improvements to end-user applications and training requirements. This Total Quality Management approach will enable the management and prevention of errors in the future.

  19. Mission operations and command assurance: Flight operations quality improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Kazz, Sheri L.; Potts, Sherrill S.; Witkowski, Mona M.

    1994-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce risk in mission operations by addressing human factors. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team, to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  20. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  1. Long duration mission support operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that the system operations will be one of the most expensive parts of the Mars mission, and that, in order to reduce their cost, they should be considered during the conceptual phase of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) program. System operations of Space Station Freedom, Lunar outpost, and Mars Rover Sample Return are examined in order to develop a similar concept for the manned Mars mission. Factors that have to be taken into account include: (1) psychological stresses caused by long periods of isolation; (2) the effects of boredom; (3) the necessity of onboard training to maintain a high level of crew skills; and (4) the 40-min time delays between issuing and receiving a command, which make real-time flight control inoperative and require long-term decisions to be made by the ground support.

  2. Spitzer observatory operations: increasing efficiency in mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element. Adaptation to tighter spacecraft margins has facilitated continuous operational improvements via automated and autonomous software coupled with improved human analysis. Based upon what we now know and what we need to improve, adapt, or fix, the projected mission lifetime continues to grow - as does the opportunity for numerous scientific discoveries.

  3. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  4. A Muli-Mission Operations Strategy for Sequencing and Commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for development, maintenance and operation of flight operations systems for several classes of science missions planned for the next several years.

  5. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  6. Magnetospheric Multiscale Science Mission Profile and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Lewis, W. S.; Schiff, C.; Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Petrinec, S. M.; Trattner, K. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission and operations are designed to provide the maximum reconnection science. The mission phases are chosen to investigate reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail. At the dayside, the MMS orbits are chosen to maximize encounters with the magnetopause in regions where the probability of encountering the reconnection diffusion region is high. In the magnetotail, the orbits are chosen to maximize encounters with the neutral sheet, where reconnection is known to occur episodically. Although this targeting is limited by engineering constraints such as total available fuel, high science return orbits exist for launch dates over most of the year. The tetrahedral spacecraft formation has variable spacing to determine the optimum separations for the reconnection regions at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. In the specific science regions of interest, the spacecraft are operated in a fast survey mode with continuous acquisition of burst mode data. Later, burst mode triggers and a ground-based scientist in the loop are used to determine the highest quality data to downlink for analysis. This operations scheme maximizes the science return for the mission.

  7. 2016 Mission Operations Working Group: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    EO-1 Mission Status for the Constellation Mission Operations Working Group to discuss the EO-1 flight systems, mission enhancements, debris avoidance maneuver, orbital information, 5-year outlook, and new ground stations.

  8. The Italian Cloud-based brokering Infrastructure to sustain Interoperability for Operative Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, E.; Pecora, S.; Bussettini, M.; Bordini, F.; Nativi, S.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents the informatics platform carried out to implement the National Hydrological Operative Information System of Italy. In particular, the presentation will focus on the governing aspects of the cloud infrastructure and brokering software that make possible to sustain the hydrology data flow between heterogeneous user clients and data providers.The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale) in collaboration with the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in the Emilia-Romagna region, ARPA-ER (Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l´Ambiente dell´Emilia-Romagna) and CNR-IIA (National Research Council of Italy) designed and developed an innovative platform for the discovery and access of hydrological data coming from 19 Italian administrative regions and 2 Italian autonomous provinces, in near real time. ISPRA has deployed and governs such a system. The presentation will introduce and discuss the technological barriers for interoperability as well as social and policy ones. The adopted solutions will be described outlining the sustainability challenges and benefits.

  9. Mission operations of the handicapped FORMOSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Fa; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Wu, An-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Since its launch on 20 May 2004, FORMOSAT-2 (FS2, Formosa satellite ♯2) has been operated on orbit for more than 9 years. It carries two payloads: the remote sensing instrument (RSI) for Earth observations and the imager of sprites and upper atmospheric lightning instrument (ISUAL) for the purpose of scientific observations. The RSI is operating at daytime while ISUAL is active at night-time. To meet both mission objectives simultaneously, the satellite operations planning has been more complicated. In order to maximize the usage of the on-board resources, the satellite attitude maneuver activities and power charge/discharge cycles have been scheduled cautiously in every detail. Under such fully engaged operations scenario and with a design life of 5 years, it is inevitable that the satellite encountered many anomalies, either permanent or temporary. In particular, one attitude gyro (totally four) and one reaction wheel (totally four) have been failed. This paper presents the major anomalies and resolutions in the past years. Many iterations and trade-offs have been made to minimize the effect on mission operations of the handicapped FORMOSAT-2. It still can provide about 80% of the designed functions and capabilities.

  10. Operations mission planner beyond the baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric; Cooper, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    The scheduling of Space Station Freedom must satisfy four major requirements. It must ensure efficient housekeeping operations, maximize the collection of science, respond to changes in tasking and available resources, and accommodate the above changes in a manner that minimizes disruption of the ongoing operations of the station. While meeting these requirements the scheduler must cope with the complexity, scope, and flexibility of SSF operations. This requires the scheduler to deal with an astronomical number of possible schedules. The Operations Mission Planner (OMP) is centered around minimally disruptive replanning and the use of heuristics limit search in scheduling. OMP has already shown several artificial intelligence based scheduling techniques such as Interleaved Iterative Refinement and Bottleneck Identification using Process Chronologies.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  12. Mission Operations of EO-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel Q.

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the prior, labor and knowledge intensive mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the new autonomous operations as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment.

  13. CAPACITY: Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelder, H.; Goede, A.; van Weele, M.

    The ESA project CAPACITY refers to future Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions. Here operational is meant in the sense that a reliable service of specified information products can be established that satisfies user needs. Monitoring is meant in the sense that long-term continuity and consistency in the quality of the information products can be achieved. The objectives of the project are: To consult with user communities to develop high level information requirements and the form of the information products. To identify and prioritise mission objectives. To derive mission data requirements from the high level user information requirements and iterate these with the users. To set these requirements against observation systems available or approved for the future. To identify missing information products or information products of insufficient quality. To define a global observation system that would satisfy user requirements. The time frame of this operational system is projected to cover the period 2010 to 2020 concurrent with the operational satellites MetOp and NPOESS. In order to address these objectives a large European consortium has been formed consisting of approximately 30 partners from 9 ESA countries (F, D, UK, I, SW, N, DK, B, NL). The project is led by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the core team includes the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Univ Leicester, Univ Bremen and industry. Four application areas are identified: Protocol Monitoring (Montreal and Kyoto) and Policy Support Air Quality Monitoring and Policy Support (CLRTAP) Long Term Science Issues and Climate Monitoring Forecast Capacity In the derivation of data level 2/3 requirements from high level user requirements the consortium relies on a large group of modellers using satellite data, and of space research institutes with expertise in retrieval and calibration/validation of satellite data as well as Industry with experience in building space

  14. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  15. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  16. Autonomous Satellite Operations Via Secure Virtual Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Pasciuto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The science community is interested in improving their ability to respond to rapidly evolving, transient phenomena via autonomous rapid reconfiguration, which derives from the ability to assemble separate but collaborating sensors and data forecasting systems to meet a broad range of research and application needs. Current satellite systems typically require human intervention to respond to triggers from dissimilar sensor systems. Additionally, satellite ground services often need to be coordinated days or weeks in advance. Finally, the boundaries between the various sensor systems that make up such a Sensor Web are defined by such things as link delay and connectivity, data and error rate asymmetry, data reliability, quality of service provisions, and trust, complicating autonomous operations. Over the past ten years, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), General Dynamics, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), Cisco, Universal Space Networks (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Naval Research Laboratory, the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office, and others have worked collaboratively to develop a virtual mission operations capability. Called VMOC (Virtual Mission Operations Center), this new capability allows cross-system queuing of dissimilar mission unique systems through the use of a common security scheme and published application programming interfaces (APIs). Collaborative VMOC demonstrations over the last several years have supported the standardization of spacecraft to ground interfaces needed to reduce costs, maximize space effects to the user, and allow the generation of new tactics, techniques and procedures that lead to responsive space employment.

  17. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  18. Integrating Automation into a Multi-Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surka, Derek M.; Jones, Lori; Crouse, Patrick; Cary, Everett A, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) Project is currently tackling the challenge of minimizing ground operations costs for multiple satellites that have surpassed their prime mission phase and are well into extended mission. These missions are being reengineered into a multi-mission operations center built around modern information technologies and a common ground system infrastructure. The effort began with the integration of four SMEX missions into a similar architecture that provides command and control capabilities and demonstrates fleet automation and control concepts as a pathfinder for additional mission integrations. The reengineered ground system, called the Multi-Mission Operations Center (MMOC), is now undergoing a transformation to support other SSMO missions, which include SOHO, Wind, and ACE. This paper presents the automation principles and lessons learned to date for integrating automation into an existing operations environment for multiple satellites.

  19. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  20. Mission operations and command assurance: Instilling quality into flight operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Witkowski, Mona M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Potts, Sherrill S.

    1993-03-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  1. Mission operations and command assurance: Instilling quality into flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Witkowski, Mona M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Potts, Sherrill S.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  2. Web Based Tool for Mission Operations Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyles, Carole A.; Bindschadler, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    A conventional practice for spaceflight projects is to document scenarios in a monolithic Operations Concept document. Such documents can be hundreds of pages long and may require laborious updates. Software development practice utilizes scenarios in the form of smaller, individual use cases, which are often structured and managed using UML. We have developed a process and a web-based scenario tool that utilizes a similar philosophy of smaller, more compact scenarios (but avoids the formality of UML). The need for a scenario process and tool became apparent during the authors' work on a large astrophysics mission. It was noted that every phase of the Mission (e.g., formulation, design, verification and validation, and operations) looked back to scenarios to assess completeness of requirements and design. It was also noted that terminology needed to be clarified and structured to assure communication across all levels of the project. Attempts to manage, communicate, and evolve scenarios at all levels of a project using conventional tools (e.g., Excel) and methods (Scenario Working Group meetings) were not effective given limitations on budget and staffing. The objective of this paper is to document the scenario process and tool created to offer projects a low-cost capability to create, communicate, manage, and evolve scenarios throughout project development. The process and tool have the further benefit of allowing the association of requirements with particular scenarios, establishing and viewing relationships between higher- and lower-level scenarios, and the ability to place all scenarios in a shared context. The resulting structured set of scenarios is widely visible (using a web browser), easily updated, and can be searched according to various criteria including the level (e.g., Project, System, and Team) and Mission Phase. Scenarios are maintained in a web-accessible environment that provides a structured set of scenario fields and allows for maximum

  3. (abstract) Mission Operations and Control Assurance: Flight Operations Quality Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Kazz, Sheri L.; Witkowski, Mona M.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), a recent addition to flight operations teams at JPL. provides a system level function to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA's primary goal at JPL is to help improve the operational reliability for projects during flight. MO&CA tasks include early detection and correction of process design and procedural deficiencies within projects. Early detection and correction are essential during development of operational procedures and training of operational teams. MO&CA's effort focuses directly on reducing the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. Over the last seven years at JPL, MO&CA has become a valuable asset to JPL flight projects. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's efforts to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit directly from previous and ongoing experience. Since MO&CA, like Total Quality Management (TQM), focuses on continuous improvement of processes and elimination of rework, we recommend that this effort be continued on NASA flight projects.

  4. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  5. Immersive Environments for Mission Operations: Beyond Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J.; Hartman, F.; Cooper, B.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive environments are just beginning to be used to support mission operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This technology contributed to the Mars Pathfinder Mission in planning sorties for the Sojourner rover.

  6. Mission Operations of Earth Observing-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Rob; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; VanGaasbeck, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the past mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we transferred as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  7. Mission Operations of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Deborah; Lauback, Sharon; Mishkin, Andrew; Limonadi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A document describes a system of processes involved in planning, commanding, and monitoring operations of the rovers Spirit and Opportunity of the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The system is designed to minimize command turnaround time, given that inherent uncertainties in terrain conditions and in successful completion of planned landed spacecraft motions preclude planning of some spacecraft activities until the results of prior activities are known by the ground-based operations team. The processes are partitioned into those (designated as tactical) that must be tied to the Martian clock and those (designated strategic) that can, without loss, be completed in a more leisurely fashion. The tactical processes include assessment of downlinked data, refinement and validation of activity plans, sequencing of commands, and integration and validation of sequences. Strategic processes include communications planning and generation of long-term activity plans. The primary benefit of this partition is to enable the tactical portion of the team to focus solely on tasks that contribute directly to meeting the deadlines for commanding the rover s each sol (1 sol = 1 Martian day) - achieving a turnaround time of 18 hours or less, while facilitating strategic team interactions with other organizations that do not work on a Mars time schedule.

  8. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  9. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  10. Cloud Computing for Mission Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Attiyah, Amy; Beswick, Robert; Gerasimantos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The space mission design and operations community already recognizes the value of cloud computing and virtualization. However, natural and valid concerns, like security, privacy, up-time, and vendor lock-in, have prevented a more widespread and expedited adoption into official workflows. In the interest of alleviating these concerns, we propose a series of guidelines for internally deploying a resource-oriented hub of data and algorithms. These guidelines provide a roadmap for implementing an architecture inspired in the cloud computing model: associative, elastic, semantical, interconnected, and adaptive. The architecture can be summarized as exposing data and algorithms as resource-oriented Web services, coordinated via messaging, and running on virtual machines; it is simple, and based on widely adopted standards, protocols, and tools. The architecture may help reduce common sources of complexity intrinsic to data-driven, collaborative interactions and, most importantly, it may provide the means for teams and agencies to evaluate the cloud computing model in their specific context, with minimal infrastructure changes, and before committing to a specific cloud services provider.

  11. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has placed two orbiters in a low altitude polar orbit around the moon to study its internal structure. GRAIL mission to the Moon offered unique challenges to operatiotn: (1) operate twin-orbiters in parallel, (2) numerous maneuvers, (3) short, compact mission with six unique phases, and (4) detailed contingency planning required.

  12. Mars Telecom Orbiter mission operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Marie-Jose; Komarek, Tom; Lopez, Saturnino; Townes, Steve; Synnott, Steve; Austin, Richard; Guinn, Joe; Varghese, Phil; Edwards, Bernard; Bondurant, Roy; De Paula, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Telecom Orbiter (MTO) relay capability enables next decadal missions at Mars, collecting gigabits of data a day to be relayed back at speeds exceeding 4 Mbps and it facilitates small missions whose limited resources do not permit them to have a direct link to Earth.

  13. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  14. Operations concepts for Mars missions with multiple mobile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.

    1993-01-01

    Missions are being proposed which involve landing a varying number (anywhere from one to 24) of small mobile spacecraft on Mars. Mission proposals include sample returns, in situ geochemistry and geology, and instrument deployment functions. This paper discusses changes needed in traditional space operations methods for support of rover operations. Relevant differences include more frequent commanding, higher risk acceptance, streamlined procedures, and reliance on additional spacecraft autonomy, advanced fault protection, and prenegotiated decisions. New methods are especially important for missions with several Mars rovers operating concurrently against time limits. This paper also discusses likely mission design limits imposed by operations constraints .

  15. Designing Information Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Resseguie, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Examples of incompatible systems are offered with a discussion of the relationship between incompatibility and innovation. Engineering practices and the role of standards are reviewed as a means of resolving issues of incompatibility, with particular attention to the issue of innovation. Loosely-coupled systems are described as a means of achieving and sustaining both interoperability and innovation in heterogeneous environments. A virtual unifying layer, in terms of a standard, a best practice, and a methodology, is proposed as a modality for designing information interoperability for enterprise applicaitons. The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), microformats, and Joshua Porter s AOF Method are described and presented as solutions for designing interoperable information sharing web sites. The Special Operations Force Information Access (SOFIA), a mock design, is presented as an example of information interoperability.

  16. Evolution of Training in NASA's Mission Operations Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Mission Operations Directorate provides all the mission planning, training, and operations support for NASA's human spaceflight missions including the International Space Station (ISS) and its fleet of supporting vehicles. MOD also develops and maintains the facilities necessary to conduct training and operations for those missions including the Mission Control Center, Space Station Training Facility, Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. MOD's overarching approach to human spaceflight training is to "train like you fly." This approach means not only trying to replicate the operational environment in training but also to approach training with the same mindset as real operations. When in training, this means using the same approach for executing operations, responding to off-nominal situations, and conducting yourself in the operations environment in the same manner as you would for the real vehicle.

  17. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  18. Magellan Post Launch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magellan was successfully launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis from the Kennedy Space Center at 2:47 p.m. EDT on May 4, 1989. The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster and attached Magellan Spacecraft were successfully deployed from Atlantis on Rev. 5 as planned, at 06:14 hrs Mission Elapsed Time (MET). The two IUS propulsion burns which began at 07:14 hrs MET and were completed at 07:22 hrs MET, placed the Magellan Spacecraft almost perfectly on its preplanned trajectory to Venus. The IUS was jettisoned at 07:40 hrs MET and Magellan telemetry was immediately acquired by the Deep Space Network (DSN). A spacecraft trajectory correction maneuver was performed on May 21 and the spacecraft is in the planned standard cruise configuration with all systems operating nominally. An initial attempt was made to launch Atlantis on April 28, 1989, but the launch was scrubbed at T-31 sec due to a failure of the liquid hydrogen recirculation pump on Space Shuttle Main Engine #1. The countdown had proceeded smoothly until T-20 min when the Magellan radio receiver "locked-on" the MIL 71 Unified S-Band (USB) transmission as the transmitter power was increased fro 2 kw to 10 kw in support of the orbiter launch. During the planned hold at T-9 min, the USB was confirmed as the source of the receiver "lock" and Magellan's launch readiness was reaffirmed. In addition a five-minute extension of the T-9 hold occurred when a range safety computer went off-line, creating a loss of redundancy in the range safety computer network. Following resumption of the countdown, both the orbiter and Magellan flows proceeded smoothly until the launch was scrubbed at T-31 sec.

  19. Rapid Turnaround of Costing/Designing of Space Missions Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudrle, Paul D.; Welz, Gregory A.; Basilio, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Ground Segment Team (GST), at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, provides high-level mission operations concepts and cost estimates for projects that are in the formulation phase. GST has developed a tool to track costs, assumptions, and mission requirements, and to rapidly turnaround estimates for mission operations, ground data systems, and tracking for deep space and near Earth missions. Estimates that would often take several weeks to generate are now generated in minutes through the use of an integrated suite of cost models. The models were developed through interviews with domain experts in areas of Mission Operations, including but not limited to: systems engineering, payload operations, tracking resources, mission planning, navigation, telemetry and command, and ground network infrastructure. Data collected during interviews were converted into parametric cost models and integrated into one tool suite. The tool has been used on a wide range of missions from small Earth orbiters, to flagship missions like Cassini. The tool is an aid to project managers and mission planners as they consider different scenarios during the proposal and early development stages of their missions. The tool is also used for gathering cost related requirements and assumptions and for conducting integrated analysis of multiple missions.

  20. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  1. Lunar Communication Terminals for NASA Exploration Missions: Needs, Operations Concepts and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Anderson, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is conducting architecture studies prior to deploying a series of short- and long-duration human and robotic missions for the exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Vision for Space Exploration Initiative. A key objective of these missions is to establish and expand, through a series of launches, a system of systems approach to exploration capabilities and science return. The systems identified were Crew Exploration Vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, crew EVA suits, crew and cargo landers, habitats, mobility carriers, and small, pressurized rovers. Multiple space communication networks and systems, deployed over time, will support these space exploration systems of systems. Each deployment phase will support interoperability of components and provide 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper, we describe the modular lunar communications terminals needed for the emerging lunar mission operational scenarios. These lunar communication terminals require flexibility for use in stationary, integrated, and mobile environments. They will support links directly to Earth, to lunar relay satellites, to astronauts and to fixed and mobile lunar surface systems. The operating concepts and traffic models are presented for these terminals within variety of lunar scenarios. A preliminary architecture is outlined, providing for suitable long-duration operations in the harsh lunar environment.

  2. Timeline-Based Mission Operations Architecture: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Seung H.; Bindschadler, Duane L.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the challenges in developing a mission operations system and operating a mission can be traced back to the challenge of integrating a mission operations system from its many components and to the challenge of maintaining consistent and accountable information throughout the operations processes. An important contributing factor to both of these challenges is the file-centric nature of today's systems. In this paper, we provide an overview of these challenges and argue the need to move toward an information-centric mission operations system. We propose an information representation called Timeline as an approach to enable such a move, and we provide an overview of a Timeline-based Mission Operations System architecture.

  3. Design and Operation of an Open, Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Watson, David; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automated demand response (auto-DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation, improved reliability, and repeatability of the DR in participating facilities. This paper also presents the technical and architectural issues associated with auto-DR and description of the demand response automation server (DRAS), the client/server architecture-based middle-ware used to automate the interactions between the utilities or any DR serving entity and their customers for DR programs. Use case diagrams are presented to show the role of the DRAS between utility/ISO and the clients at the facilities.

  4. Lessons Learned on Operating and Preparing Operations for a Technology Mission from the Perspective of the Earth Observing-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Howard, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program's first Earth-observing mission (EO-1) is a technology validation mission. It is managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2000. The purpose of this mission is to flight-validate revolutionary technologies that will contribute to the reduction of cost and increase of capabilities for future land imaging missions. In the EO-1 mission, there are five instrument, five spacecraft, and three supporting technologies to flight-validate during a year of operations. EO-1 operations and the accompanying ground system were intended to be simple in order to maintain low operational costs. For purposes of formulating operations, it was initially modeled as a small science mission. However, it quickly evolved into a more complex mission due to the difficulties in effectively integrating all of the validation plans of the individual technologies. As a consequence, more operational support was required to confidently complete the on-orbit validation of the new technologies. This paper will outline the issues and lessons learned applicable to future technology validation missions. Examples of some of these include the following: (1) operational complexity encountered in integrating all of the validation plans into a coherent operational plan, (2) initial desire to run single shift operations subsequently growing to 6 "around-the-clock" operations, (3) managing changes in the technologies that ultimately affected operations, (4) necessity for better team communications within the project to offset the effects of change on the Ground System Developers, Operations Engineers, Integration and Test Engineers, S/C Subsystem Engineers, and Scientists, and (5) the need for a more experienced Flight Operations Team to achieve the necessary operational flexibility. The discussion will conclude by providing several cost comparisons for developing operations from previous missions to EO-1 and

  5. Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

  6. The Operations Security Concept for Future ESA Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D.; Bargellini, P.; Merri, M.

    2008-08-01

    Next-generation European earth observation missions will play a critical role in public safety and security infrastructures. This makes it necessary for ESA to protect the communication infrastructure of these missions in order to guarantee their service availability. In this paper, we discuss the development process for a generic earth observation security concept. This concept has been developed as part of a GMES Flight Operation Segment security study with the objective to analyse and select a number of high level security requirements for the missions. Further, we studied the impact of an implementation for these requirements on the operational infrastructure of current earth observation missions.

  7. Computer support for cooperative tasks in Mission Operations Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Moore, M.

    1994-10-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft management has been performed by fixed teams of operators in Mission Operations Centers. The team cooperatively (1) ensures that payload(s) on spacecraft perform their work and (2) maintains the health and safety of the spacecraft through commanding and monitoring the spacecraft`s subsystems. In the future, the task demands will increase and overload the operators. This paper describes the traditional spacecraft management environment and describes a new concept in which groupware will be used to create a Virtual Mission Operations Center. Groupware tools will be used to better utilize available resources through increased automation and dynamic sharing of personnel among missions.

  8. Computer support for cooperative tasks in Mission Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Moore, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft management has been performed by fixed teams of operators in Mission Operations Centers. The team cooperatively: (1) ensures that payload(s) on spacecraft perform their work; and (2) maintains the health and safety of the spacecraft through commanding and monitoring the spacecraft's subsystems. In the future, the task demands will increase and overload the operators. This paper describes the traditional spacecraft management environment and describes a new concept in which groupware will be used to create a Virtual Mission Operations Center. Groupware tools will be used to better utilize available resources through increased automation and dynamic sharing of personnel among missions.

  9. NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Object-Oriented Component Approach for Software Inter-Operability and Reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Laverne; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Lin, Imin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Section's object-oriented component approach to open inter-operable systems software development and software reuse. It will address what is meant by the terminology object component software, give an overview of the component-based development approach and how it relates to infrastructure support of software architectures and promotes reuse, enumerate on the benefits of this approach, and give examples of application prototypes demonstrating its usage and advantages. Utilization of the object-oriented component technology approach for system development and software reuse will apply to several areas within JPL, and possibly across other NASA Centers.

  10. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  11. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Portions of the LANDSAT-D systems operation plan are presented. An overview of the data processing operations, logistics and other operations support, prelaunch and post-launch activities, thematic mapper operations during the scrounge period, and LANDSAT-D performance evaluation is given.

  12. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2006-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  13. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  14. Middleware Evaluation and Benchmarking for Use in Mission Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, Rob; Waktola, Waka

    2005-01-01

    Middleware technologies have been promoted as timesaving, cost-cutting alternatives to the point-to-point communication used in traditional mission operations systems. However, missions have been slow to adopt the new technology. The lack of existing middleware-based missions has given rise to uncertainty about middleware's ability to perform in an operational setting. Most mission architects are also unfamiliar with the technology and do not know the benefits and detriments to architectural choices - or even what choices are available. We will present the findings of a study that evaluated several middleware options specifically for use in a mission operations system. We will address some common misconceptions regarding the applicability of middleware-based architectures, and we will identify the design decisions and tradeoffs that must be made when choosing a middleware solution. The Middleware Comparison and Benchmark Study was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to comprehensively evaluate candidate middleware products, compare and contrast the performance of middleware solutions with the traditional point- to-point socket approach, and assess data delivery and reliability strategies. The study focused on requirements of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, validating the potential use of middleware in the GPM mission ground system. The study was jointly funded by GPM and the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC), a virtual organization for providing mission enabling solutions and promoting the use of appropriate new technologies for mission support. The study was broken into two phases. To perform the generic middleware benchmarking and performance analysis, a network was created with data producers and consumers passing data between themselves. The benchmark monitored the delay, throughput, and reliability of the data as the characteristics were changed. Measurements were taken under a variety of topologies, data demands

  15. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  16. Artificial intelligence in a mission operations and satellite test environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1988-01-01

    A Generic Mission Operations System using Expert System technology to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) automated monitor and control functions in a Mission Operations and Satellite Test environment will be developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Expert system techniques in a real time operation environment are being studied and applied to science and engineering data processing. Advanced decommutation schemes and intelligent display technology will be examined to develop imaginative improvements in rapid interpretation and distribution of information. The Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC) will demonstrate improved data handling accuracy, flexibility, and responsiveness in a complex mission environment. The ultimate goal is to automate repetitious mission operations, instrument, and satellite test functions by the applications of expert system technology and artificial intelligence resources and to enhance the level of man-machine sophistication.

  17. Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter low cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    It will not be possible to support the multiple planetary missions of the magnitude and order of previous missions on the basis of foreseeable NASA funding. It is, therefore, necessary to seek innovative means for accomplishing the goals of planetary exploration with modestly allocated resources. In this connection, a Core Program set of planetary exploration missions has been recommended. Attention is given to a Mission Operations design overview which is based on the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter Phase-A study performed during spring of 1983.

  18. ISS Update: Astronaut Participates in Autonomous Mission Operations Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with astronaut Alvin Drew who is participating in the Autonomous Mission Operations test, which looks at how communication delays will affect future de...

  19. Cost Analysis in a Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bornas, Nick; Botts, Dennis; Ijames, Gayleen; Montgomery, Patty; Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single mission-type support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multi-mission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and

  20. Dye fading test for mission control operator console displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A dye fading test of 40 days duration was conducted to determine the effect of mission control operator console and ambient lighting effects on a series of photographic products under consideration for use in mission console operator consoles. Six different display samples, each containing 36 windows of several different colors, were prepared and placed in the mission control consoles for testing. No significant changes were recorded during the testing period. All changes were attributed to a mechanical problem with the densitometer. Detailed results are given in graphs.

  1. Ensemble: an Architecture for Mission-Operations Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Powell, Mark; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, IHsiang; McCurdy, Michael; Vera, Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Ensemble is the name of an open architecture for, and a methodology for the development of, spacecraft mission operations software. Ensemble is also potentially applicable to the development of non-spacecraft mission-operations- type software. Ensemble capitalizes on the strengths of the open-source Eclipse software and its architecture to address several issues that have arisen repeatedly in the development of mission-operations software: Heretofore, mission-operations application programs have been developed in disparate programming environments and integrated during the final stages of development of missions. The programs have been poorly integrated, and it has been costly to develop, test, and deploy them. Users of each program have been forced to interact with several different graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Also, the strategy typically used in integrating the programs has yielded serial chains of operational software tools of such a nature that during use of a given tool, it has not been possible to gain access to the capabilities afforded by other tools. In contrast, the Ensemble approach offers a low-risk path towards tighter integration of mission-operations software tools.

  2. Launch and Early Operation of the MESSENGER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdridge, Mark E.; Calloway, Andrew B.

    2007-08-01

    On August 3, 2004, at 2:15 a.m. EST, the MESSENGER mission to Mercury began with liftoff of the Delta II 7925H launch vehicle and 1,107-kg spacecraft including seven instruments. MESSENGER is the seventh in the series of NASA Discovery missions, the third to be built and operated by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) following the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker and Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) missions. The MESSENGER team at JHU/APL is using efficient operations approaches developed in support of the low-cost NEAR and CONTOUR operations while incorporating improved approaches for reducing total mission risk. This paper provides an overview of the designs and operational practices implemented to conduct the MESSENGER mission safely and effectively. These practices include proven approaches used on past JHU/APL operations and new improvements implemented to reduce risk, including adherence to time-proven standards of conduct in the planning and implementation of the mission. This paper also discusses the unique challenges of operating in orbit around Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, and what specific measures are being taken to address those challenges.

  3. CCSDS Mission Operations Action Service Core Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the operations concepts of the command (action) services. Since the consequences of sending the wrong command are unacceptable, the command system provides a collaborative and distributed work environment for flight controllers and operators. The system prescribes a review and approval process where each command is viewed by other individuals before being sent to the vehicle. The action service needs additional capabilities to support he operations concepts of manned space flight. These are : (1) Action Service methods (2) Action attributes (3) Action parameter/argument attributes (4 ) Support for dynamically maintained action data. (5) Publish subscri be capabilities.

  4. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  5. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  6. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock

  7. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalls, James R.; Jones, Cheryl L.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    There are several engineering disciplines, such as reliability, supportability, quality assurance, human factors, risk management, safety, etc. Safety is an extremely important engineering specialty within NASA, and the consequence involving a loss of crew is considered a catastrophic event. Safety is not difficult to achieve when properly integrated at the beginning of each space systems project/start of mission planning. The key is to ensure proper handling of safety verification throughout each flight/mission phase. Today, Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) operations engineers continue to conduct these flight product reviews across all open flight products. As such, these reviews help ensure that each mission is accomplished with safety requirements along with controls heavily embedded in applicable flight products. Most importantly, the S&MA operations engineers are required to look for important design and operations controls so that safety is strictly adhered to as well as reflected in the final flight product.

  8. The medical mission in NATO operations.

    PubMed

    Klein, L

    2004-01-01

    Medical support during crisis response operations should follow state-of-the-art standards of medicine, but at the same time to take into account more difficult conditions for medical care providing. The results of treatment of patients during crisis response operations should lead to results as close as possible to peacetime treatment. Multinationality has been working well in the Sipovo Multinational Integrated Medical Unit (MIMU) in Bosnia and Herzegovina until now. The mutual co-operation of nations results in a reduction in terms of personnel and material for all participants. It allows efficient use of resources and could be a model for Role 3 care in other hospitals. It has proven to be greater than the sum of its parts. The MIMU concept can be considered a cornerstone that guarantees the required continuity and stability. PMID:15462068

  9. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  10. Autonomous Data Transfer Operations for Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repaci, Max; Baker, Paul; Brosi, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Automating the data transfer operation can significantly reduce the cost of moving data from a spacecraft to a location on Earth. Automated data transfer methods have been developed for the terrestrial Internet. However, they often do not apply to the space environment, since in general they are based on assumptions about connectivity that are true on the Internet but not on space links. Automated file transfer protocols have been developed for use over space links that transfer data via store-and-forward of files or segments of files. This paper investigates some of the operational concepts made possible by these protocols.

  11. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  12. Inter-operator Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Cerebrospinal Fluid Motion in the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryn A; Yiallourou, Theresia I; Pahlavian, Soroush Heidari; Thyagaraj, Suraj; Bunck, Alexander C; Loth, Francis; Sheffer, Daniel B; Kröger, Jan Robert; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    For the first time, inter-operator dependence of MRI based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cervical spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) is evaluated. In vivo MRI flow measurements and anatomy MRI images were obtained at the cervico-medullary junction of a healthy subject and a Chiari I malformation patient. 3D anatomies of the SSS were reconstructed by manual segmentation by four independent operators for both cases. CFD results were compared at nine axial locations along the SSS in terms of hydrodynamic and geometric parameters. Intraclass correlation (ICC) assessed the inter-operator agreement for each parameter over the axial locations and coefficient of variance (CV) compared the percentage of variance for each parameter between the operators. Greater operator dependence was found for the patient (0.19 < ICC < 0.99) near the craniovertebral junction compared to the healthy subject (ICC > 0.78). For the healthy subject, hydraulic diameter and Womersley number had the least variance (CV = ~2%). For the patient, peak diastolic velocity and Reynolds number had the smallest variance (CV = ~3%). These results show a high degree of inter-operator reliability for MRI-based CFD simulations of CSF flow in the cervical spine for healthy subjects and a lower degree of reliability for patients with Type I Chiari malformation. PMID:26446009

  13. Improving the Operations of the Earth Observing One Mission via Automated Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We describe the modeling and reasoning about operations constraints in an automated mission planning system for an earth observing satellite - EO-1. We first discuss the large number of elements that can be naturally represented in an expressive planning and scheduling framework. We then describe a number of constraints that challenge the current state of the art in automated planning systems and discuss how we modeled these constraints as well as discuss tradeoffs in representation versus efficiency. Finally we describe the challenges in efficiently generating operations plans for this mission. These discussions involve lessons learned from an operations model that has been in use since Fall 2004 (called R4) as well as a newer more accurate operations model operational since June 2009 (called R5). We present analysis of the R5 software documenting a significant (greater than 50%) increase in the number of weekly observations scheduled by the EO-1 mission. We also show that the R5 mission planning system produces schedules within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules. This operational enhancement has created value of millions of dollars US over the projected remaining lifetime of the EO-1 mission.

  14. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  15. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  16. Spitzer Pre Launch Mission Operations System - The Road to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Wilson, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Development of the Mission Operations System (MOS) portion prior to launch was very different from planetary missions from the stand point that the MOS teams and Ground Data System had to be ready to support all aspects of the mission at launch (i.e., no cruise period for finalizing the implementation). For Spitzer, all mission-critical events post launch happen in hours or days rather than months or years, as is traditional with deep space missions. At the end of 2000 the Project was dealt a major blow when the Mission Operations System (MOS) had an unsuccessful Critical Design Review (CDR). The project made major changes at the beginning of 2001 in an effort to get the MOS (and Project) back on track. The result for the Spitzer Space Telescope was a successful launch of the observatory followed by an extremely successful In Orbit Checkout (IOC) and operations phase. This paper describes how the project was able to recover the MOS to a successful Delta (CDR) by mid 2001, and what changes in philosophies, experiences, and lessons learned followed. It describes how projects must invest early or else invest heavily later in the development phase to achieve a successful operations phase.

  17. Preliminary Report on Mission Design and Operations for Critical Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Tumer, Irem

    2005-01-01

    Mission-critical events are defined in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Flight Project Practices as those sequences of events which must succeed in order to attain mission goals. These are dependent on the particular operational concept and design reference mission, and are especially important when committing to irreversible events. Critical events include main engine cutoff (MECO) after launch; engine cutoff or parachute deployment on entry, descent, and landing (EDL); orbital insertion; separation of payload from vehicle or separation of booster segments; maintenance of pointing accuracy for power and communication; and deployment of solar arrays and communication antennas. The purpose of this paper is to report on the current practices in handling mission-critical events in design and operations at major NASA spaceflight centers. The scope of this report includes NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with staff at each center consulted on their current practices, processes, and procedures.

  18. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  19. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  20. DSN co-observing operations to support space VLBI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, Valery I.; Kuiper, Thomas B.; Wolken, Pamela R.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable radio astronomy support of space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) missions by ground radio telescopes is mandatory in order to achieve a high scientific return from the missions. The 70 m DSN antennas along with other ground radio telescopes will perform as the ground segment of the earth-space interferometer. Improvements of radio astronomy VLBI operations at the DSN to achieve higher reliability, efficiency, flexibility, and lower operations costs is a major goal in preparing for radio astronomy support of SVLBI. To help realize this goal, a remote control and monitoring mode for radio astronomy operations at the DSN has been developed.

  1. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  2. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  3. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  4. OTF CCSDS SM and C Interoperability Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A presentation is provided to demonstrate the interoperability between two space flight Mission Operation Centers (MOCs) and to emulate telemetry, actions, and alert flows between the two centers. One framework uses a COTS C31 system that uses CORBA to interface to the local OTF data network. The second framework relies on current Houston MCC frameworks and ad hoc clients. Messaging relies on SM and C MAL, Core and Common Service formats, while the transport layer uses AMS. A centralized SM and C Registry uses HTTP/XML for transport/encoding. The project's status and progress are reviewed.

  5. Orbit Control Operations for the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Powtawche N.; Gist, Emily M.; Goodson, Troy D.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Wagner, Sean V.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched in 1997 as an international and collaborative mission to study Saturn and its many moons. After a seven-year cruise, Cassini began orbiting Saturn for a four- year tour. This tour consists of 157 planned maneuvers, and their back-up locations, designed to target 52 encounters, mostly of Saturn's largest moon Titan. One of the mission's first activities was to release the Huygens probe to Titan in December 2004. Currently in its last year of the prime mission, Cassini-Huygens continues to obtain valuable data on Saturn, Titan, and Saturn's other satellites. Return of this information is in large part due to a healthy spacecraft and successful navigation. A two-year extended mission, beginning July 2008, will offer the opportunity to continue science activities. With a demanding navigation schedule that compares with the prime tour, the Cassini Navigation team relies on operations procedures developed during the prime mission to carry-out the extended mission objectives. Current processes for orbit control operations evolved from the primary navigational requirement of staying close to predetermined targeting conditions according to Cassini science sequence planning. The reference trajectory is comprised of flyby conditions to be accomplished at minimal propellant cost. Control of the planned reference trajectory orbit, and any trajectory updates, is achieved with the execution of Orbit Trim Maneuvers (OTMs). The procedures for designing, processing, and analyzing OTMs during Cassini operations is presented. First, a brief overview of the Cassini-Huygens Mission is given, followed by a general description of navigation. Orbit control and maneuver execution methods are defined, along with an outline of the orbit control staffing and operations philosophy. Finally, an example schedule of orbit control operations is shown.

  6. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Buxbaum, K. L.; Ludwinski, J. M.; Paczkowski, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tool to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial hard ware and software upgrades for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The principal mode of operation will be onboard recording of science data followed by extended playback periods. A variety of techniques will be used to compress and edit the data both before recording and during playback. A highly-compressed real-time science data stream will also be important. The telemetry rate will be increased using advanced coding techniques and advanced receivers. Galileo mission planning for orbital operations now involves partitioning of several scarce resources. Particularly difficult are division of the telemetry among the many users (eleven instruments, radio science, engineering monitoring, and navigation) and allocation of space on the tape recorder at each of the ten satellite encounters. The planning process is complicated by uncertainty in forecast performance of the DSN modifications and the non-deterministic nature of the new data compression schemes. Key mission planning steps include

  7. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  8. A mission operations architecture for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, W.; Sweetnam, D.

    1996-01-01

    An operations architecture is proposed for low cost missions beyond the year 2000. The architecture consists of three elements: a service based architecture; a demand access automata; and distributed science hubs. The service based architecture is based on a set of standard multimission services that are defined, packaged and formalized by the deep space network and the advanced multi-mission operations system. The demand access automata is a suite of technologies which reduces the need to be in contact with the spacecraft, and thus reduces operating costs. The beacon signaling, the virtual emergency room, and the high efficiency tracking automata technologies are described. The distributed science hubs provide information system capabilities to the small science oriented flight teams: individual access to all traditional mission functions and services; multimedia intra-team communications, and automated direct transparent communications between the scientists and the instrument.

  9. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less man-power rises.Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. The Automated-Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN)tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the ASE project's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  10. Future Interoperability of Camp Protection Systems (FICAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Sylvie; Gündisch, Rainer; Marchand, Alain; Stahl, Karl-Hermann

    2013-05-01

    The FICAPS Project has been established as a Project of the European Defence Agency based on an initiative of Germany and France. Goal of this Project was to derive Guidelines, which by a proper implementation in future developments improve Camp Protection Systems (CPS) by enabling and improving interoperability between Camp Protection Systems and its Equipments of different Nations involved in multinational missions. These Guidelines shall allow for: • Real-time information exchange between equipments and systems of different suppliers and nations (even via SatCom), • Quick and easy replacement of equipments (even of different Nations) at run-time in the field by means of plug and play capability, thus lowering the operational and logistic costs and making the system highly available, • Enhancement of system capabilities (open and modular systems) by adding new equipment with new capabilities (just plug-in, automatic adjustment of the HMI Human Machine Interface) without costly and time consuming validation and test on system level (validation and test can be done on Equipment level), Four scenarios have been identified to summarize the interoperability requirements from an operational viewpoint. To prove the definitions given in the Guideline Document, a French and a German Demonstration System, based on existing national assets, were realized. Demonstrations, showing the capabilities given by the defined interoperability requirements with respect to the operational scenarios, were performed. Demonstrations included remote control of a CPS by another CPS, remote sensor control (Electro-Optic/InfraRed EO/IR) and remote effector control. This capability can be applied to extend the protection area or to protect distant infrastructural assets Demonstrations have been performed. The required interoperability functionality was shown successfully. Even if the focus of the FICAPS project was on camp protection, the solution found is also appropriate for other

  11. An agent-oriented approach to automated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide

    1994-01-01

    As we plan for the next generation of Mission Operations Control Center (MOCC) systems, there are many opportunities for the increased utilization of innovative knowledge-based technologies. The innovative technology discussed is an advanced use of agent-oriented approaches to the automation of mission operations. The paper presents an overview of this technology and discusses applied operational scenarios currently being investigated and prototyped. A major focus of the current work is the development of a simple user mechanism that would empower operations staff members to create, in real time, software agents to assist them in common, labor intensive operations tasks. These operational tasks would include: handling routine data and information management functions; amplifying the capabilities of a spacecraft analyst/operator to rapidly identify, analyze, and correct spacecraft anomalies by correlating complex data/information sets and filtering error messages; improving routine monitoring and trend analysis by detecting common failure signatures; and serving as a sentinel for spacecraft changes during critical maneuvers enhancing the system's capabilities to support nonroutine operational conditions with minimum additional staff. An agent-based testbed is under development. This testbed will allow us to: (1) more clearly understand the intricacies of applying agent-based technology in support of the advanced automation of mission operations and (2) access the full set of benefits that can be realized by the proper application of agent-oriented technology in a mission operations environment. The testbed under development addresses some of the data management and report generation functions for the Explorer Platform (EP)/Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) Flight Operations Team (FOT). We present an overview of agent-oriented technology and a detailed report on the operation's concept for the testbed.

  12. The OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return: Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Cheuvront, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the missions science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the SRC lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis.Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together space craft, instrument and operations scenarios. The project implemented lessons learned from other small body missions: APLNEAR, JPLDAWN and ESARosetta. The key lesson learned was expected the unexpected and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle. In preparation to PDR, the project changed the asteroid arrival date, to arrive one year earlier and provided additional time margin. STK is used for Mission Design and STKScheduler for instrument coverage analysis.

  13. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cheryl L.; Smalls, James R.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately eleven years ago, the International Space Station launched the first module from Russia, the Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Operations (Ops) Engineers played an integral part in that endeavor by executing strict flight product verification as well as continued staffing of S&MA's console in the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) for that flight mission. How were these engineers able to conduct such a complicated task? They conducted it based on product verification that consisted of ensuring that safety requirements were adequately contained in all flight products that affected crew safety. S&MA Ops engineers apply both systems engineering and project management principles in order to gain a appropriate level of technical knowledge necessary to perform thorough reviews which cover the subsystem(s) affected. They also ensured that mission priorities were carried out with a great detail and success.

  14. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  15. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  16. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) for Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julia; Chu, Kai-Dee; Baker, Paul; Starr, Cynthia; Fox, Jeffrey; Baitinger, Mick

    1998-01-01

    Today, most mission operations are geared toward lowering cost through unmanned operations. 7-day/24-hour operations are reduced to either 5-day/8-hour operations or become totally autonomous, especially for deep-space missions. Proper and effective notification during a spacecraft emergency could mean success or failure for an entire mission. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) is a tool designed for autonomous mission operations. The SERS automatically contacts on-call personnel as needed when crises occur, either on-board the spacecraft or within the automated ground systems. Plus, the SERS provides a group-ware solution to facilitate the work of the person(s) contacted. The SERS is independent of the spacecraft's automated ground system. It receives and catalogues reports for various ground system components in near real-time. Then, based on easily configurable parameters, the SERS determines whom, if anyone, should be alerted. Alerts may be issued via Sky-Tel 2-way pager, Telehony, or e-mail. The alerted personnel can then review and respond to the spacecraft anomalies through the Netscape Internet Web Browser, or directly review and respond from the Sky-Tel 2-way pager.

  17. Mission Analysis, Operations, and Navigation Toolkit Environment (Monte) Version 040

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Monte is a software set designed for use in mission design and spacecraft navigation operations. The system can process measurement data, design optimal trajectories and maneuvers, and do orbit determination, all in one application. For the first time, a single software set can be used for mission design and navigation operations. This eliminates problems due to different models and fidelities used in legacy mission design and navigation software. The unique features of Monte 040 include a blowdown thruster model for GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) with associated pressure models, as well as an updated, optimalsearch capability (COSMIC) that facilitated mission design for ARTEMIS. Existing legacy software lacked the capabilities necessary for these two missions. There is also a mean orbital element propagator and an osculating to mean element converter that allows long-term orbital stability analysis for the first time in compiled code. The optimized trajectory search tool COSMIC allows users to place constraints and controls on their searches without any restrictions. Constraints may be user-defined and depend on trajectory information either forward or backwards in time. In addition, a long-term orbit stability analysis tool (morbiter) existed previously as a set of scripts on top of Monte. Monte is becoming the primary tool for navigation operations, a core competency at JPL. The mission design capabilities in Monte are becoming mature enough for use in project proposals as well as post-phase A mission design. Monte has three distinct advantages over existing software. First, it is being developed in a modern paradigm: object- oriented C++ and Python. Second, the software has been developed as a toolkit, which allows users to customize their own applications and allows the development team to implement requirements quickly, efficiently, and with minimal bugs. Finally, the software is managed in accordance with the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model

  18. Lunar Precursor Missions for Human Exploration of Mars - II. Studies of Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, W. W.; Griffith, A. D.

    necessary precursor to human missions to Mars. He observed that mission parameters for Mars expeditions far exceed current and projected near-term space operations experience in categories such as duration, scale, logistics, required system reliability, time delay for communications, crew exposure to the space environment (particularly reduced gravity), lack of abort-to-Earth options, degree of crew isolation, and long-term political commitment. He demonstrated how a program of lunar exploration could be structured to expand the experience base, test operations approaches, and validate proposed technologies. In this paper, we plan to expand the discussion on the topic of mission operations, including flight and trajectory design, crew activity planning, procedure development and validation, and initialization load development. contemplating the nature of the challenges posed by a mission with a single crew lasting 3 years with no possibility of abort to Earth and at a distance where the light-time precludes conversation between with the astronauts. The brief durations of Apollo or Space Shuttle missions mandates strict scheduling of in-space tasks to maximize the productivity. On a mission to Mars, the opposite obtains. Transit times are long (~160 days), and crew time may be principally devoted to physical conditioning and repeated simulations of the landing sequence. While the physical exercise parallels the experience on the International Space Station (ISS), the remote refresher training is new. The extensive surface stay time (~500 days) implies that later phases of the surface missions will have to be planned in consultation with the crew to a large extent than is currently the case. resolve concerns over the form of new methodologies and philosophies needed. Recent proposed reductions in scope and crew size for ISS exacerbate this problem. One unknown aspect is whether any sociological pathologies will develop in the relationship of the crew to Mission

  19. Mission Operations Support Area (MOSA) for ground network support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Robert D.; Moser, Susan A.

    1993-01-01

    The Mission Operations Support Area (MOSA) has been designed utilizing numerous commercial off the shelf items allowing for easy maintenance and upgrades. At its inception, all equipment was at the forefront of technology. The system was created to provide the operator with a 'State of the Art' replacement for equipment that was becoming antiquated and virtually impossible to repair because new parts were no longer available. Although the Mini-NOCC provided adequate support to the Network for a number of years, it was quickly becoming ineffectual for higher data rate and non-standard missions. The MOSA will prove to be invaluable in the future as more and more missions require Ground Network support.

  20. Study 2.6 operations analysis mission characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.

  1. Lean Mission Operations Systems Design - Using Agile and Lean Development Principles for Mission Operations Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The Resource Prospector Mission seeks to rove the lunar surface with an in-situ resource utilization payload in search of volatiles at a polar region. The mission operations system (MOS) will need to perform the short-duration mission while taking advantage of the near real time control that the short one-way light time to the Moon provides. To maximize our use of limited resources for the design and development of the MOS we are utilizing agile and lean methods derived from our previous experience with applying these methods to software. By using methods such as "say it then sim it" we will spend less time in meetings and more time focused on the one outcome that counts - the effective utilization of our assets on the Moon to meet mission objectives.

  2. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  3. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  4. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  5. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layback, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    For planning of Mars surface missions, to be operated on a sol-by-sol basis by a team on Earth (where a "sol" is a Martian day), activities are described in terms of "sol types" that are strung together to build a surface mission scenario. Some sol types require ground decisions based on a previous sol's results to feed into the activity planning ("ground in the loop"), while others do not. Due to the differences in duration between Earth days and Mars sols, for a given Mars local solar time, the corresponding Earth time "walks" relative to the corresponding times on the prior sol/day. In particular, even if a communication window has a fixed Mars local solar time, the Earth time for that window will be approximately 40 minutes later each succeeding day. Further complexity is added for non-Mars synchronous communication relay assets, and when there are multiple control centers in different Earth time zones. The solution is the development of "ops efficiency factors" that reflect the efficiency of a given operations configuration (how many and location of control centers, types of communication windows, synchronous or non-synchronous nature of relay assets, sol types, more-or-less sustainable operations schedule choices) against a theoretical "optimal" operations configuration for the mission being studied. These factors are then incorporated into scenario models in order to determine the surface duration (and therefore minimum spacecraft surface lifetime) required to fulfill scenario objectives. The resulting model is used to perform "what-if" analyses for variations in scenario objectives. The ops efficiency factor is the ratio of the figure of merit for a given operations factor to the figure of merit for the theoretical optimal configuration. The current implementation is a pair of models in Excel. The first represents a ground operations schedule for 500 sols in each operations configuration for the mission being studied (500 sols was chosen as being a long

  6. NASA Mission Operations Directorate Preparations for the COTS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Peek, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle looming, a series of new spacecraft is under development to assist in providing for the growing logistical needs of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of these vehicles are being built under a NASA initiative known as the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. These visiting vehicles ; Space X s Dragon and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus , are to be domestically produced in the United States and designed to add to the capabilities of the Russian Progress and Soyuz workhorses, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and the Japanese H-2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Most of what is known about the COTS program has focused on the work of Orbital and SpaceX in designing, building, and testing their respective launch and cargo vehicles. However, there is also a team within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA s Johnson Space Center working with their operational counterparts in these companies to provide operational safety oversight and mission assurance via the development of operational scenarios and products needed for these missions. Ensuring that the operational aspect is addressed for the initial demonstration flights of these vehicles is the topic of this paper. Integrating Dragon and Cygnus into the ISS operational environment has posed a unique challenge to NASA and their partner companies. This is due in part to the short time span of the COTS program, as measured from initial contract award until first launch, as well as other factors that will be explored in the text. Operational scenarios and products developed for each COTS vehicle will be discussed based on the following categories: timelines, on-orbit checkout, ground documentation, crew procedures, software updates and training materials. Also addressed is an outline of the commonalities associated with the operations for each vehicle. It is the intent of the authors to provide their audience with a better

  7. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  8. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  9. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  10. Future of unmanned systems interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, John J.; Wade, Robert L.; Gehring, Daniel G.

    2006-05-01

    There are many challenges in the area of interoperability of unmanned systems: increasing levels of autonomy, teaming and collaboration, long endurance missions, integration with civilian and military spaces. Several currently available methods and technologies may aid in meeting these and other challenges: consensus standards development, formal methods, model-based engineering, knowledge and ontology representation, agent-based systems, and plan language research. We believe the future of unmanned systems interoperability depends on the integration of these methods and technologies into a domain-independent plan language for unmanned systems.

  11. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  12. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  13. SCOSII OL: A dedicated language for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Andrea; Elgaard, Dennis; Lynenskjold, Steen; Pecchioli, Mauro

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control and Operations System 2 (SCOSII) is the new generation of Mission Control Systems (MCS) to be used at ESOC. The system is generic because it offers a collection of standard functions configured through a database upon which a dedicated MCS is established for a given mission. An integral component of SCOSII is the support of a dedicated Operations Language (OL). The spacecraft operation engineers edit, test, validate, and install OL scripts as part of the configuration of the system with, e.g., expressions for computing derived parameters and procedures for performing flight operations, all without involvement of software support engineers. A layered approach has been adopted for the implementation centered around the explicit representation of a data model. The data model is object-oriented defining the structure of the objects in terms of attributes (data) and services (functions) which can be accessed by the OL. SCOSII supports the creation of a mission model. System elements as, e.g., a gyro are explicit, as are the attributes which described them and the services they provide. The data model driven approach makes it possible to take immediate advantage of this higher-level of abstraction, without requiring expansion of the language. This article describes the background and context leading to the OL, concepts, language facilities, implementation, status and conclusions found so far.

  14. The role of mission operations in spacecraft integration and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of mission operations personnel in the spacecraft integration and test process offers significant benefits to spacecraft programs in terms of test efficiency, staffing and training efficiency, test completeness, and subsequent cost containment. Operations personnel who have had real-time contact experience and have been responsible for the assessment of on orbit spacecraft operations bring a unique view of spacecraft operations to pre-launch spacecraft test activities. Because of the unique view of the spacecraft/ground interface that experienced operations personnel have, they can propose optimum test approaches and optimum test data analysis techniques. Additionally, the testing that is typically required to validate operations methodologies can be integrated into spacecraft performance testing scenarios.

  15. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  16. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  17. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  18. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  19. The CONSERT operations planning process for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogez, Yves; Puget, Pascal; Zine, Sonia; Hérique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Casas, Carlos M.; Sitjà, Marc Costa; Delmas, Cédric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Geiger, Bernhard; Geurts, Koen; Grieger, Björn; Hahnel, Ronny; Hoofs, Raymond; Hubault, Armelle; Jurado, Eric; Küppers, Michael; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Souffys, Aurélie; Muñoz, Pablo; O'Rourke, Laurence; Pätz, Brigitte; Plettemeier, Dirk; Ulamec, Stephan; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission (CONSERT / Rosetta) has been designed to sound the interior of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This instrument consists of two parts: one onboard Rosetta and the other one onboard Philae. A good CONSERT science measurement sequence requires joint operations of both spacecrafts in a relevant geometry. The geometric constraints to be fulfilled involve the position and the orientation of both Rosetta and Philae. At the moment of planning the post-landing and long-term science operations for Rosetta instruments, the actual comet shape and the landing location remained largely unknown. In addition, the necessity of combining operations of Rosetta spacecraft and Philae spacecraft makes the planning process for CONSERT particularly complex. In this paper, we present the specific methods and tools we developed, in close collaboration with the mission and the science operation teams for both Rosetta and Philae, to identify, rank and plan the operations for CONSERT science measurements. The presented methods could be applied to other missions involving joint operations between two platforms, on a complex shaped object.

  20. Rosetta science operations in support of the Philae mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; O`Rourke, Laurence; Almeida, Miguel; Altobelli, Nicolas; Costa Sitjà, Marc; García Beteta, Juan José; Geiger, Bernhard; Grieger, Björn; Heather, David; Hoofs, Raymond; Küppers, Michael; Martin, Patrick; Moissl, Richard; Múñoz Crego, Claudio; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Sanchez Suarez, Eduardo; Taylor, Matt; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The international Rosetta mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 and after its ten year journey, arrived at its target destination of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, during 2014. Following the January 2014 exit from a two and half year hibernation period, Rosetta approached and arrived at the comet in August 2014. In November 2014, the Philae lander was deployed from Rosetta onto the comet's surface after which the orbiter continued its approximately one and a half year comet escort phase. The Rosetta Science Ground Segment's primary roles within the project are to support the Project Scientist and the Science Working Team, in order to ensure the coordination, development, validation and delivery of the desired science operations plans and their associated operational products throughout the mission., whilst also providing support to the Principle Investigator teams (including the Philae lander team) in order to ensure the provision of adequate data to the Planetary Science Archive. The lead up to, and execution of, the November 2014 Philae landing, and the subsequent Philae activities through 2015, have presented numerous unique challenges to the project teams. This paper discusses these challenges, and more specifically, their impact on the overall mission science planning activities. It details how the Rosetta Science Ground Segment has addressed these issues in collaboration with the other project teams in order to accommodate Philae operations within the continually evolving Rosetta science planning process.

  1. PC-402 Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft mission operational characteristics document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, F. C.; Butterworth, L. W.; Daniel, R. E.; Drean, R. J.; Filetti, K. A.; Fisher, J. N.; Nowak, L. A.; Porzucki, J.; Salvatore, J. O.; Tadler, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Orbiter spacecraft and its subsystems are described. In extensive detail. Description of the nominal phases, system interfaces, and the capabilities and limitations of system level performance are included along with functional and operational descriptions at the subsystem and unit level the subtleties of nominal operation as well as detailed capabilities and limitations beyond nominal performance are discussed. A command and telemetry logic flow diagram for each subsystem is included. Each diagram encountered along each command signal path into, and each telemetry signal path out of the subsystem. Normal operating modes that correspond to the performance of specific functions at the time of specific events in the mission are also discussed. Principal backup means of performing the normal Orbiter operating modes are included.

  2. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex combination of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. In this paper we provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  3. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex mix of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. This presentation will provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  4. A Generalized Timeline Representation, Services, and Interface for Automating Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Johnston, Mark; Frank, Jeremy; Giuliano, Mark; Kavelaars, Alicia; Lenzen, Christoph; Policella, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Most use a timeline based representation for operations modeling. Most model a core set of state, resource types. Most provide similar capabilities on this modeling to enable (semi) automated schedule generation. In this paper we explore the commonality of : representation and services for these timelines. These commonalities offer potential to be harmonized to enable interoperability, re-use.

  5. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  6. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  7. Risk Balance: A Key Tool for Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Faris, Grant B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) discipline actively participates as a project member to achieve their common objective of full mission success while also providing an independent risk assessment to the Project Manager and Office of Safety and Mission Success staff. The cornerstone element of MOA is the independent assessment of the risks the project faces in executing its mission. Especially as the project approaches critical mission events, it becomes imperative to clearly identify and assess the risks the project faces. Quite often there are competing options for the project to select from in deciding how to execute the event. An example includes choices between proven but aging hardware components and unused but unproven components. Timing of the event with respect to visual or telecommunications visibility can be a consideration in the case of Earth reentry or hazardous maneuver events. It is in such situations that MOA is called upon for a risk balance assessment or risk trade study to support their recommendation to the Project Manager for a specific option to select. In the following paragraphs we consider two such assessments, one for the Stardust capsule Earth return and the other for the choice of telecommunications system configuration for the EPOXI flyby of the comet Hartley 2. We discuss the development of the trade space for each project's scenario and characterize the risks of each possible option. The risk characterization we consider includes a determination of the severity or consequence of each risk if realized and the likelihood of its occurrence. We then examine the assessment process to arrive at a MOA recommendation. Finally we review each flight project's decision process and the outcome of their decisions.

  8. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  9. Flight Operations for the LCROSS Lunar Impactor Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Paul D.; Hunt, Rusty; D'Ortenzio, Matt D.; Strong, James; Galal, Ken; Bresina, John L.; Foreman, Darin; Barber, Robert; Shirley, Mark; Munger, James; Drucker, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The LCROSS (Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was conceived as a low-cost means of determining the nature of hydrogen concentrated at the polar regions of the moon. Co-manifested for launch with LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), LCROSS guided its spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater as a kinetic impactor, and observed the impact flash and resulting debris plume for signs of water and other compounds from a Shepherding Spacecraft. Led by NASA Ames Research Center, LCROSS flight operations spanned 112 days, from June 18 through October 9, 2009. This paper summarizes the experiences from the LCROSS flight, highlights the challenges faced during the mission, and examines the reasons for its ultimate success.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Rendezvous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Connor, C.; Moy, E.; Smith, D.; Myslinski, M.; Markley, L.; Vernacchio, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hardware complement includes six gas bearing, pulse rebalanced rate integrating gyros, any three of which are sufficient to conduct the science mission. After the loss of three gyros between April 1997 and April 1999 due to a known corrosion mechanism, NASA decided to split the third HST servicing mission into SM3A, accelerated to October 1999, and SM3B, scheduled for November 2001. SM3A was developed as a quick turnaround 'Launch on Need' mission to replace all six gyros. Loss of a fourth gyro in November 1999 caused HST to enter Zero Gyro Sunpoint (ZGSP) safemode, which uses sun sensors and magnetometers for attitude determination and momentum bias to maintain attitude stability during orbit night. Several instances of large attitude excursions during orbit night were observed, but ZGSP performance was adequate to provide power-positive sun pointing and to support low gain antenna communications. Body rates in ZGSP were estimated to exceed the nominal 0.1 deg/sec rendezvous limit, so rendezvous operations were restructured to utilize coarse, limited life, Retrieval Mode Gyros (RMGs) under Hardware Sunpoint (HWSP) safemode. Contingency procedures were developed to conduct the rendezvous in ZGSP in the event of RMGA or HWSP computer failure. Space Shuttle Mission STS-103 launched on December 19, 1999 after a series of weather and Shuttle-related delays. After successful rendezvous and grapple under HWSP/RMGA, the crew changed out all six gyros. Following deploy and systems checkout, HST returned to full science operations.

  11. Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate's operational/development network (MODNET) at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A brief, informal narrative is provided that summarizes the results of all work accomplished during the period of the contract; June 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988; in support of Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate's Operational Development Network (MODNET). It includes descriptions of work performed in each functional area and recommendations and conclusions based on the experience and results obtained.

  12. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, C. H.; Mcintosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.

  13. 23 CFR 950.7 - Interoperability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interoperability requirements. 950.7 Section 950.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION § 950.7 Interoperability requirements. (a) For any toll facility operating pursuant to authority under a 1604 toll...

  14. Operating the Dual-Orbtier GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    The GRAIL mission is on track to satisfy all prime mission requirements. The performance of the orbiters and payload has been exceptional. Detailed pre-launch operations planning and validation have paid off. Prime mission timeline has been conducted almost exactly as laid out in the mission plan. Flight experience in the prime mission puts the flight team in a good position for completing the challenges of the extended mission where the science payoff is even greater

  15. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  16. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  17. Artificial intelligence for multi-mission planetary operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.; Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to an automated system called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP). SHARP is designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real-time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager II spacecraft is the initial focus for evaluation of the prototype in a real-time operations setting during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August, 1989. The preliminary results of the SHARP project and plans for future application of the technology are discussed.

  18. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  19. Space Network Interoperability Panel (SNIP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Thomas; Lenhart, Klaus; Hara, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The Space Network Interoperability Panel (SNIP) study is a tripartite study that involves the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. SNIP involves an ongoing interoperability study of the Data Relay Satellite (DRS) Systems of the three organizations. The study is broken down into two parts; Phase one deals with S-band (2 GHz) interoperability and Phase two deals with Ka-band (20/30 GHz) interoperability (in addition to S-band). In 1987 the SNIP formed a Working Group to define and study operations concepts and technical subjects to assure compatibility of the international data relay systems. Since that time a number of Panel and Working Group meetings have been held to continue the study. Interoperability is of interest to the three agencies because it offers a number of potential operation and economic benefits. This paper presents the history and status of the SNIP study.

  20. Solar-A Prelaunch Mission Operation Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solar-A mission is a Japanese-led program with the participation of the United States and the United Kingdom. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is providing the Solar-A spacecraft, two of the four science instruments, the launch vehicle and launch support, and the principal ground station with Operational Control Center. NASA is providing a science instrument, the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)and tracking support using the Deep Space Network (DSN) ground stations. The United Kingdom s Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) provides the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer. The Solar-A mission will study solar flares using a cluster of instruments on a satellite in a 600 km altitude, 31 degree inclination circular orbit. The emphasis of the mission is on imaging and spectroscopy of hard and soft X-rays. The principal instruments are a pair of X-ray imaging instruments, one for the hard X-ray range and one for the soft X-ray range. The Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT), provided by ISAS, operates in the energy range of 10-100 keV and uses an array of modulation collimators to record Fourier transform images of the non-thermal and hot plasmas that are formed during the early phases of a flare. These images are thought to be intimately associated with the sites of primary energy release. The Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT), jointly provided by NASA and ISAS, operates in the wavelength range of 3-50 Angstroms and uses a grazing incidence mirror to form direct images of the lower temperature (but still very hot) plasmas that form as the solar atmosphere responds to the injection of energy. The SXT instrument is a joint development effort between the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The U.S. effort also involves Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Hawaii, who provide support in the areas of theory, data analysis and interpretation, and ground

  1. Mission operations costs for scientific spacecraft: The revolution that is needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    An examination is made of the budget expenditure for Mission Operations in Office of Space Science missions since the resumption of flights after the 1986 Challenger accident, and projections shown for future costs if the same mission operations philosophy continues. It is shown that NASA cannot afford to continue with the same strategy, and must therefore find innovative approaches to accomplishing missions for less cost. A challenge is issued for a revolution in the way future missions are designed and operated. The mission operations concept needs to be generated early and applied to guide the design of both mission and spacecraft. Suggestions for revolutionary thinking are provided in areas of the mission, the spacecraft, the ground system, and the flight team designs. The bottom line is emphasized that to lower operations costs, we must remove labor-intensive tasks from operational processes.

  2. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention: Managing Knowledge for Successful Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Management is a proactive pursuit for the future success of any large organization faced with the imminent possibility that their senior managers/engineers with gained experiences and lessons learned plan to retire in the near term. Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) is proactively pursuing unique mechanism to ensure knowledge learned is retained and lessons learned captured and documented. Knowledge Capture Event/Activities/Management helps to provide a gateway between future retirees and our next generation of managers/engineers. S&MA hosted two Knowledge Capture Events during 2005 featuring three of its retiring fellows (Axel Larsen, Dave Whittle and Gary Johnson). The first Knowledge Capture Event February 24, 2005 focused on two Safety and Mission Assurance Safety Panels (Space Shuttle System Safety Review Panel (SSRP); Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) and the latter event December 15, 2005 featured lessons learned during Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle which could be applicable in the newly created Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)/Constellation development program. Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and the Space Shuttle promised and delivered exciting human advances in space and benefits of space in people s everyday lives on earth. Johnson Space Center's Safety & Mission Assurance team work over the last 20 years has been mostly focused on operations we are now beginning the Exploration development program. S&MA will promote an atmosphere of knowledge sharing in its formal and informal cultures and work processes, and reward the open dissemination and sharing of information; we are asking "Why embrace relearning the "lessons learned" in the past?" On the Exploration program the focus will be on Design, Development, Test, & Evaluation (DDT&E); therefore, it is critical to understand the lessons from these past programs during the DDT&E phase.

  3. Proximity operations analysis: Retrieval of the solar maximum mission observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Retrieval of the solar maximum mission (SMM) observatory is feasible in terms of orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) plume disturbance of the SMM, orbiter propellant consumed, and flight time required. Man-in-loop simulations will be required to validate these operational techniques before the verification process is complete. Candidate approach and flyaround techniques were developed that allow the orbiter to attain the proper alinement with the SMM for clear access to the grapple fixture (GF) prior grappling. Because the SMM has very little control authority (approximately 14.8 pound-foot-seconds in two axes and rate-damped in the third) it is necessary to inhibit all +Z (upfiring) PRCS jets on the orbiter to avoid tumbling the SMM. A profile involving a V-bar approach and an out-of-plane flyaround appears to be the best choice and is recommended at this time. The flyaround technique consists of alining the +X-axes of the two vehicles parallel with each other and then flying the orbiter around the SMM until the GF is in view. The out-of-plane flyaround technique is applicable to any inertially stabilized payload, and, the entire final approach profile could be considered as standard for most retrieval missions.

  4. Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

  5. A psychophysiological assessment of operator workload during simulated flight missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the dual-task event-related (brain) potential (ERP) paradigm to the assessment of an operator's mental workload and residual capacity in a complex situation of a flight mission was demonstrated using ERP measurements and subjective workload ratings of student pilots flying a fixed-based single-engine simulator. Data were collected during two separate 45-min flights differing in difficulty; flight demands were examined by dividing each flight into four segments: takeoff, straight and level flight, holding patterns, and landings. The P300 ERP component in particular was found to discriminate among the levels of task difficulty in a systematic manner, decreasing in amplitude with an increase in task demands. The P300 amplitude is shown to be negatively correlated with deviations from command headings across the four flight segments.

  6. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  7. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  8. Asteroid Redirect Mission Robotic Trajectory and Crew Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation opens with a rendering of the mission's spacecraft trajectory, rendezvous, and approach to asteroid 2008 EV5. Although the mission's target asteroid won't officially be selec...

  9. Mission operations for unmanned nuclear electric propulsion outer planet exploration with a thermionic reactor spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, R. J.; Prickett, W. Z.; Garate, J. A.; Firth, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration NEP spacecraft employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference missions are the Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. The characteristics of the baseline multi-mission NEP spacecraft are presented and its performance in other outer planet missions, such as Saturn and Uranus orbiters and a Neptune flyby, are discussed. Candidate mission operations are defined from spacecraft assembly to mission completion. Pre-launch operations are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur D-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and the heliocentric mission phases. The sequence and type of operations are basically identical for all missions investigated.

  10. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 5: Mission, capture and operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The current baseline mission model consists of the DOD Option B prepared for space transportation system mission analysis and a NASA model prepared for the integrated operations /payloads/ fleet analysis. Changes from the previous mission model are discussed, and additional benefits of the reusable space shuttle system are identified. The methodology and assumptions used in the capture analysis are described, and satellite and launch vehicle traffic models for the current and low cost expendable launch vehicle systems and the reusable space shuttle system are presented. The areas of fleet sizing, limitations and abort modes, system ground support requirements, and ground support systems assessment are covered. Current and extended launch azimuth limitations used for both ETR and WTR are presented for the current and low cost expendable vehicles and also the reusable space shuttle system. The results of a survey of launch support capability for the launch vehicle fleets are reported.

  11. Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

  12. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  13. Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

  14. MAIUS-1- Vehicle, Subsystems Design and Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamminger, A.; Ettl, J.; Grosse, J.; Horschgen-Eggers, M.; Jung, W.; Kallenbach, A.; Raith, G.; Saedtler, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Turner, J.; Wittkamp, M.

    2015-09-01

    In November 2015, the DLR Mobile Rocket Base will launch the MAIUS-1 rocket vehicle at Esrange, Northern Sweden. The MAIUS-A experiment is a pathfinder atom optics experiment. The scientific objective of the mission is the first creation of a BoseEinstein Condensate in space and performing atom interferometry on a sounding rocket [3]. MAIUS-1 comprises a two-stage unguided solid propellant VSB-30 rocket motor system. The vehicle consists of a Brazilian 53 1 motor as 1 st stage, a 530 motor as 2nd stage, a conical motor adapter, a despin module, a payload adapter, the MAIUS-A experiment consisting of five experiment modules, an attitude control system module, a newly developed conical service system, and a two-staged recovery system including a nosecone. In contrast to usual payloads on VSB-30 rockets, the payload has a diameter of 500 mm due to constraints of the scientific experiment. Because of this change in design, a blunted nosecone is necessary to guarantee the required static stability during the ascent phase of the flight. This paper will give an overview on the subsystems which have been built at DLR MORABA, especially the newly developed service system. Further, it will contain a description of the MAIUS-1 vehicle, the mission and the unique requirements on operations and attitude control, which is additionally required to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector. Additionally to a usual microgravity environment, the MAIUS-l payload requires attitude control to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector.

  15. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will

  16. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  17. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  18. VMPLOT: A versatile analysis tool for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, Allen W.

    1993-01-01

    VMPLOT is a versatile analysis tool designed by the Magellan Spacecraft Team to graphically display engineering data used to support mission operations. While there is nothing revolutionary or innovative about graphical data analysis tools, VMPLOT has some distinguishing features that set it apart from other custom or commercially available software packages. These features include the ability to utilize time in a Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) or Spacecraft Clock (SCLK) format as an enumerated data type, the ability to automatically scale both axes based on the data to be displayed (including time), the ability to combine data from different files, and the ability to utilize the program either interactively or in batch mode, thereby enhancing automation. Another important feature of VMPLOT not visible to the user is the software engineering philosophies utilized. A layered approach was used to isolate program functionality to different layers. This was done to increase program portability to different platforms and to ease maintenance and enhancements due to changing requirements. The functionality of the unique features of VMPLOT as well as highlighting the algorithms that make these features possible are described. The software engineering philosophies used in the creation of the software tool are also summarized.

  19. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  20. Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Program is an endeavor to understand the origin and fate of the universe, to understand the birth and evolution of the large variety of objects in the universe, from the most benign to the most violent, and to probe the fundamental laws of physics by examining their behavior under extreme physical conditions. These goals are pursued by means of observations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and through theoretical interpretation of radiations and fields associated with astrophysical systems. Astrophysics orbital flight programs are structured under one of two operational objectives: (1) the establishment of long duration Great Observatories for viewing the universe in four major wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio/infrared/submillimeter, visible/ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray), and (2) obtaining crucial bridging and supporting measurements via missions with directed objectives of intermediate or small scope conducted within the Explorer and Spacelab programs. Under (1) in this context, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is one of NASA's four Great Observatories. The other three are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) for the X-ray band, and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for infrared wavelengths. GRO's specific mission is to study the sources and astrophysical processes that produce the highest energy electromagnetic radiation from the cosmos. The fundamental physical processes that are known to produce gamma radiation in the universe include nuclear reactions, electron bremsstrahlung, matter-antimatter annihilation, elementary particle production and decay, Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation. GRO will address a variety of questions relevant to understanding the universe, such as: the formation of the elements; the structure and dynamics of the Galaxy; the nature of pulsars; the existence

  1. Third International Symposium on Space Mission Operations and Ground Data Systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Under the theme of 'Opportunities in Ground Data Systems for High Efficiency Operations of Space Missions,' the SpaceOps '94 symposium included presentations of more than 150 technical papers spanning five topic areas: Mission Management, Operations, Data Management, System Development, and Systems Engineering. The papers focus on improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, and quality of data acquisition, ground systems, and mission operations. New technology, techniques, methods, and human systems are discussed. Accomplishments are also reported in the application of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; the management of human factors; the use of telescience and teleoperations; and the design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations.

  2. Achieving Interoperability through Data Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Data Interoperability is a challenging problem. Different approaches exist.In this presentation, we would like to share our experienceon webification science (w10n-sci), an information technology thatvirtualizes arbitrary data resources and makes them directly usablevia a simple and uniform application programmable interface.W10n-sci has been successfully applied to all major NASA scientificdisciplines and used by an increasing number of missions and projects.We will provide an overview of w10n-sci and elaborate onhow it can help data users in a data world that diversity always prevails.

  3. The Operational plans for Ptolemy during the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Andrew; Andrews, Dan; Barber, Simeon; Sheridan, Simon; Morgan, Geraint; Wright, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Ptolemy is a Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio - Mass Spectrometer (GC-IR-MS) instrument within the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission [1]. The primary aim of Ptolemy is to analyse the chemical and isotopic composition of solid comet samples. Samples are collected by the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) system [2] and placed into ovens for analysis by three instruments on the Lander: COSAC [3], ÇIVA[4] and/or Ptolemy. In the case of Ptolemy, the ovens can be heated with or without oxygen and the evolved gases separated by chemical and GC techniques for isotopic analysis. In addition Ptolemy can measure gaseous (i.e. coma) samples by either directly measuring the ambient environment within the mass spectrometer or by passively trapping onto an adsorbent phase in order to pre-concentrate coma species before desorbing into the mass spectrometer. At the time of this presentation the Rosetta spacecraft should have come out of hibernation and Ptolemy's Post Hibernation Commissioning phase will have been completed. During the Comet Approach phase of the mission Ptolemy will attempt to measure the coma composition both in sniffing and pre-concentration modes. Previous work has demonstrated that spacecraft outgassing is a significant component of the gaseous environment and highlighted the advantage of obtaining complementary measurements with different instruments [5]. In principle Ptolemy could study the spatial evolution of gases through the coma during the lander's descent to the comet surface, but in practice it is likely that mission resources will need to be fully directed towards ensuring a safe landing. Once on the surface of the comet the lander begins its First Science Sequence which continues until the primary batteries are exhausted after some 42 hours. SD2 will collect a sample from a depth of ~5cm and deliver it to a Ptolemy high temperature oven which will then be analysed in five temperature steps to determine the carbon isotopic

  4. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  5. Interoperability and information discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of information systems, there is interoperability when the distinctions between separate information systems are not a barrier to accomplishing a task that spans those systems. Interoperability so defined implies that there are commonalities among the systems involved and that one can exploit such commonalities to achieve interoperability. The challenge of a particular interoperability task is to identify relevant commonalities among the systems involved and to devise mechanisms that exploit those commonalities. The present paper focuses on the particular interoperability task of information discovery. The Global Information Locator Service (GILS) is described as a policy, standards, and technology framework for addressing interoperable information discovery on a global and long-term basis. While there are many mechanisms for people to discover and use all manner of data and information resources, GILS initiatives exploit certain key commonalities that seem to be sufficient to realize useful information discovery interoperability at a global, long-term scale. This paper describes ten of the specific commonalities that are key to GILS initiatives. It presents some of the practical implications for organizations in various roles: content provider, system engineer, intermediary, and searcher. The paper also provides examples of interoperable information discovery as deployed using GILS in four types of information communities: bibliographic, geographic, environmental, and government.

  6. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Kohl, John L.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific goal of UVCS is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves over the solar cycle and to use these descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by "in situ" solar wind instruments. This report covers the period from 15 February 2003 to 14 April 2004. During that time, UVCS observations have consisted of three types: 1) standard synoptic observations comprising, primarily, the H I Lyalpha line profile and the 0 VI 103.2 and 103.7 nm intensity over a range of heights from 1.5 to about 3.0 solar radii and covering 360 degrees about the Sun, 2) sit and stare observations for major flare watches, and 3) special observations designed by the UVCS Lead Observer of the Week for a specific scientific purpose. The special observations are often coordinated with those of other space-based and ground-based instruments and they often are part of SOHO joint observation programs and campaigns. Lead observers have included UVCS Co-Investigators, scientists from the solar physics community and several graduate and undergraduate level students. UVCS has continued to achieve its purpose of using powerful spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to obtain a much more detailed description of coronal structures and dynamic phenomena than existed before the SOHO mission. The new descriptions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and coronal structures from UVCS have inspired a large number of theoretical studies aimed at identifying the physical processes responsible for CMEs and solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and streamers. UVCS has proven to be a very stable instrument. Stellar observations have demonstrated its radiometric stability. UVCS has not required any flight software modifications and all mechanisms are operational. The UVCS 0 VI

  7. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The scientific goal of UVCS is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves over the solar cycle and to use these descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by 'in situ' solar wind instruments. This report covers the period from 01 February 2002 to 15 February 2003. During that time, UVCS observations have consisted of three types: 1) standard synoptic observations comprising, primarily, the H I Ly alpha line profile and the O VI 103.2 and 103.7 nm intensity over a range of heights from 1.5 to about 3.0 solar radii and covering 360 degrees about the sun, 2) sit and stare watches for CMEs, and 3) special observations designed by the UVCS Lead Observer of the Week for a specific scientific purpose. The special observations are often coordinated with those of other space-based and ground-based instruments and they often are part of SOHO joint observation programs and campaigns. Lead observers have included UVCS Co-Investigators, scientists from the solar physics community and several graduate and undergraduate level students. UVCS has continued to achieve its purpose of using powerful spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to obtain a much more detailed description of coronal structures and dynamic phenomena than existed before the SOHO mission. The new descriptions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and coronal structures from UVCS have inspired a large number of theoretical studies aimed at identifying the physical processes responsible for CMEs and solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and streamers. UVCS has proven to be a very stable instrument. Stellar observations have demonstrated its stability. UVCS has required no flight software modifications and all mechanisms are operational. The UVCS O VI Channel with its redundant optical

  8. Developing a corss-project support system during mission operations: Deep Space 1 extended mission flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarffe, V. A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing on small, low-cost spacecraft for both planetary and earth science missions. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission to be launched by the NMP. The New Millennium Project (NMP) is designed to develop and test new technology that can be used on future science missions with lower cost and risk. The NMP is finding ways to reduce cost not only in development, but also in operations. DS 1 was approved for an extended mission, but the budget was not large, so the project began looking into part time team members shared with other projects. DS1 launched on October 24, 1998, in it's primary mission it successfully tested twelve new technologies. The extended mission started September 18, 1999 and ran through the encounter with Comet Borrelly on September 22,2001. The Flight Control Team (FCT) was one team that needed to use part time or multi mission people. Circumstances led to a situation where for the few months before the Borrelly encounter in September of 2001 DSl had no certified full time Flight Control Engineers also known as Aces. This paper examines how DS 1 utilized cross-project support including the communication between different projects, and the how the tools used by the Flight Control Engineer fit into cross-project support.

  9. Multi-mission Observation Operator (M2O2) service for mission-independent data assimilation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, R. J.; Lee, M.; Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-mission observation operator (M2O2) system facilitates simultaneous assimilation of the retrieved atmospheric components from multiple missions by streamlining the interface between model systems and observation data services. The M2O2 system is composed of two types of transformation services, a data transformation service that composes assimilation information from the level 2 mission data products, and a model transformation service that provides multi-mission observation force function integrating the assimilation information from the data transformation service. The prototype M2O2 system was employed for simultaneous assimilation of Ozone observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Tropospheric emission sounder (TES) with the GEOSChem-adjoint model system. Under NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) program, we are developing an operational M2O2 service as an integral part of the Goddard Earth System Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) utilizing the "on-demand" quality filtering and file format conversion capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the M2O2 web-service-protocol that allows customization of mission-unique quality control, data field extraction, and data product integration, and the M2O2 assimilation software layer that interacts with the M2O2 web-service and delivers mission-independent assimilation information to the model community.

  10. Kidney Shear Wave Speed Values in Subjects with and without Renal Pathology and Inter-Operator Reproducibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography (ARFI) - Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Flaviu; Bota, Simona; Sporea, Ioan; Sirli, Roxana; Petrica, Ligia; Schiller, Adalbert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to assess the inter-operator reproducibility of kidney shear wave speed, evaluated by means of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography, and the factors which influence it. Methods Our prospective pilot study included 107 subjects with or without kidney pathology in which kidney shear wave speed was evaluated by means of ARFI elastography. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess ARFI elastography reproducibility. Results A strong agreement was obtained between kidney shear wave speed measurements obtained by the two operators: ICC = 0.71 (right kidney) and 0.69 (left kidney). Smaller ICCs were obtained in “healthy subjects”, as compared to patients with kidney diseases (0.68 vs. 0.75), in women as compared with men (0.59 vs. 0.78), in subjects younger than 50 years as compared with those aged at least 50 years (0.63 vs. 0.71), in obese as compared with normal weight and overweight subjects (0.36 vs. 0.66 and 0.78) and in case of measurements depth <4 cm or >6 cm as compared with those performed at a depth of 4–6 cm from the skin (0.32 and 0.60 vs. 0.81). Conclusion ARFI elastography is a reproducible method for kidney shear wave speed assessment. PMID:25426849

  11. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of UVCS is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves over the solar cycle and to use these descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by "in situ" solar wind instruments. This report covers the period from 15 November 1998 to 14 March 2001. During that time, UVCS observations have consisted of three types: 1) standard synoptic observations comprising, primarily, the H I Lycc line profile and the O VI 103.2 and 103.7 nm intensity over a range of heights from 1.5 to about 3.0 solar radii and covering 360 degrees about the sun, 2) sit and stare watches for CMEs, and 3) special observations designed by the UVCS Lead Observer of the Week for a specific scientific purpose. The special observations are often coordinated with those of other space-based and ground based instruments and they often are part of SOHO joint observation programs and campaigns. Lead observers have included UVCS Co-Investigators, Guest Investigators, scientists from the solar physics community and several graduate and undergraduate level students. UVCS has continued to successfully meet its goal of using powerful spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to obtain a much more detailed description of coronal structures than existed before the SOHO mission. The new descriptions of coronal structures from UVCS have inspired a large number of theoretical studies aimed at identifying the physical processes responsible for solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and streamers. UVCS has proven to be a very stable instrument. Stellar observations have demonstrated its stability and the analysis of coordinated observations with Spartan 201 have verified the accuracy of the absolute calibration and spectral resolution at H I Ly (alpha) line profile. UVCS has

  12. Advances in Distributed Operations and Mission Activity Planning for Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jason M.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Rabe, Kenneth J.; Shams, Khawaja

    2006-01-01

    A centralized mission activity planning system for any long-term mission, such as the Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER), is completely infeasible due to budget and geographic constraints. A distributed operations system is key to addressing these constraints; therefore, future system and software engineers must focus on the problem of how to provide a secure, reliable, and distributed mission activity planning system. We will explain how Maestro, the next generation mission activity planning system, with its heavy emphasis on portability and distributed operations has been able to meet these design challenges. MER has been an excellent proving ground for Maestro's new approach to distributed operations. The backend that has been developed for Maestro could benefit many future missions by reducing the cost of centralized operations system architecture.

  13. Mission operations data analysis tools for Mars Observer guidance and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1994-01-01

    Mission operations for the Mars Observer (MO) Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were supported by a variety of ground data processing software and analysis tools. Some of these tools were generic to multimission spacecraft mission operations, some were specific to the MO spacecraft, and others were custom tailored to the operation and control of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS). The focus of this paper is on the data analysis tools for the AACS. Four different categories of analysis tools are presented; with details offered for specific tools. Valuable experience was gained from the use of these tools and through their development. These tools formed the backbone and enhanced the efficiency of the AACS Unit in the Mission Operations Spacecraft Team. These same tools, and extensions thereof, have been adopted by the Galileo mission operations, and are being designed into Cassini and other future spacecraft mission operations.

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions: Past, present, and future operational challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochs, William R.; Barbehenn, George M.; Crabb, William G.

    1996-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to be serviced by the Space Shuttle to upgrade systems, replace failed components and boost the telescope into higher orbits. There exists many operational challenges that must be addressed in preparation for the execution of a servicing mission, including technical and managerial issues. The operational challenges faced by the Hubble operations and ground system project for the support of the first servicing mission and future servicing missions, are considered. The emphasis is on those areas that helped ensure the success of the mission, including training, testing and contingency planning.

  15. Earth observation mission operation of COMS during in-orbit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2011-11-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service after the In-Orbit Test (IOT) phase. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. During the IOT phase the functionality and the performance of many aspects of the COMS satellite and ground station have been checked through the Earth observation mission operation for the observation of the meteorological phenomenon over several areas of the Earth and the monitoring of marine environments around the Korean peninsula. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS during the IOT phase is introduced in terms of mission operation characteristics, mission planning, and mission operation results for the missions of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively.

  16. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  17. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  18. PC-403: Pioneer Venus multiprobe spacecraft mission operational characteristics document, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The data handling subsystem, command subsystem, communications subsystem, power subsystem, and mission operations of the Pioneer Venus multiprobe are presented. The multiprobe spacecraft performance in normal operating modes that correspond to the performance of specific functions at the time of specific events in the mission is described.

  19. 12 CFR 900.2 - Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision. 900.2 Section 900.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.2 Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision. As used...

  20. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  1. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  3. Mission operations with autonomy: a preliminary report for Earth Observing-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Bote, Robert; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; Vab Gaasbeck, Jim

    2004-01-01

    We describe the current mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we are transitioning as part of the Autonomous Sciencecrat Experiment (ASE).

  4. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  5. Secure and interoperable communication infrastructures for PPDR organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Marques, Hugo; Pereira, Luis; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Brouwer, Frank; Bouwers, Bert; Politis, Ilias; Lykourgiotis, Asimakis; Ladas, Alexandros; Adigun, Olayinka; Jelenc, David

    2016-05-01

    The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS&S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on agencies and organisation responsible for PS&S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events, Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organisations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies such as TETRA, TETRAPOL or P25, do not currently provide broadband capability nor is expected such technologies to be upgraded in the future. This presents a major limitation in supporting new services and information flows. Furthermore, there is no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. In this contribution the design of a next generation communication infrastructure for PPDR organisations which fulfills the requirements of secure and seamless end-to-end communication and interoperable information exchange within the deployed communication networks is presented. Based on Enterprise Architecture of PPDR organisations, a next generation PPDR network that is backward compatible with legacy communication technologies is designed and implemented, capable of providing security, privacy, seamless mobility, QoS and reliability support for mission-critical Private Mobile Radio (PMR) voice and broadband data services. The designed solution provides a robust, reliable, and secure mobile broadband communications system for a wide variety of PMR applications and services on PPDR broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, interagency and cross-border operations with emphasis on interoperability between users in PMR and LTE.

  6. Planetary exploration through year 2000, a core program: Mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    In 1980 the NASA Advisory Council created the Solar System Exploratory Committee (SSEC) to formulate a long-range program of planetary missions that was consistent with likely fiscal constraints on total program cost. The SSEC had as its primary goal the establishment of a scientifically valid, affordable program that would preserve the nation's leading role in solar system exploration, capitalize on two decades of investment, and be consistent with the coordinated set of scientific stategies developed earlier by the Committe on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). The result of the SSEC effort was the design of a Core Program of planetary missions to be launched by the year 2000, together with a realistic and responsible funding plan. The Core Program Missions, subcommittee activities, science issues, transition period assumptions, and recommendations are discussed.

  7. Radiation dose estimates for typical piloted NTR lunar and Mars mission engine operations

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, B.G. ); Borowski, S.K. . Lewis Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    The natural and manmade radiation environments to be encountered during lunar and Mars missions are qualitatively summarized. The computational methods available to characterize the radiation environment produced by an operating nuclear propulsion system are discussed. Mission profiles and vehicle configurations are presented for a typical all-propulsive, fully reusable lunar mission and for a typical all-propulsive Mars mission. Estimates of crew location biological doses are developed for all propulsive maneuvers. Post-shutdown dose rates near the nuclear engine are estimated at selected mission times. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  9. Developing enterprise collaboration: a methodology to implement and improve interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daclin, Nicolas; Chen, David; Vallespir, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article is to present a methodology for guiding enterprises to implement and improve interoperability. This methodology is based on three components: a framework of interoperability which structures specific solutions of interoperability and is composed of abstraction levels, views and approaches dimensions; a method to measure interoperability including interoperability before (maturity) and during (operational performances) a partnership; and a structured approach defining the steps of the methodology, from the expression of an enterprise's needs to implementation of solutions. The relationship which consistently relates these components forms the methodology and enables developing interoperability in a step-by-step manner. Each component of the methodology and the way it operates is presented. The overall approach is illustrated in a case study example on the basis of a process between a given company and its dealers. Conclusions and future perspectives are given at the end of the article.

  10. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  11. NEAR cruise and mathilde flyby mission operations — report from the front lines of low cost missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, P. D.; Kowal, C. T.; Mulich, T. J.; Whittenburg, K.; Wishnefsky, B.; Posner, A. S.

    1999-11-01

    NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was launched in February 1996 on a mission to rendezvous with the asteroid 433 Eros in 1999. NEAR, with its five science instruments, is controlled from the NEAR Mission Operations Center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab in Laurel, Maryland by a team of 5-8 sequence planners and flight controllers, with the support of a small engineering group. We examine lessons learned in planning, verifying and executing NEAR cruise and flyby activities. We find that the NEAR prerendezvous phase — so long as science objectives remain tightly focused — has been and can be successfully executed by a small, broadly experienced, highly skilled, closely cooperating team. However, sequence design for the year-long Eros-orbiting phase with multiple, potentially conflicting science activities will require a more robust and tightly integrated structure.

  12. Telemedicine system interoperability architecture: concept description and architecture overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-05-01

    In order for telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, it must address the question of how to create a fully interoperable infrastructure. This paper describes the reasons for pursuing interoperability, outlines operational requirements that any interoperability approach needs to consider, proposes an abstract architecture for meeting these needs, identifies candidate technologies that might be used for rendering this architecture, and suggests a path forward that the telemedicine community might follow.

  13. Apollo 14 and 15 missions: Intermittent steerable antenna operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the cause of antenna tracking interruptions during Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 missions prior to powered descent, and after ascent from the lunar surface but before rendezvous. Probable causes examined include: (1) amplitude modulation on the uplink radio frequency carrier, (2) noise capacitively or inductively coupled into the track error line, and (3) hardware problems resulting in tracking loop instabilities. It was determined that amplitude modulation caused the antenna oscillations. The corrective procedures taken are given.

  14. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  15. Distributed Operations for the Cassini/Huygens Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, P.; Sarrel, M.

    1998-01-01

    The cassini project employs a concept known as distributed operations which allows independent instrument operations from diverse locations, provides full empowerment of all participants and maximizes use of limited resources.

  16. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  17. Toward an automated signature recognition toolkit for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T.; Laird, P; Perrine, L.; Culbert, C.; Macha, M.; Saul, R.; Hammen, D.; Moebes, T.; Shelton, R.

    1994-01-01

    Signature recognition is the problem of identifying an event or events from its time series. The generic problem has numerous applications to science and engineering. At NASA's Johnson Space Center, for example, mission control personnel, using electronic displays and strip chart recorders, monitor telemetry data from three-phase electrical buses on the Space Shuttle and maintain records of device activation and deactivation. Since few electrical devices have sensors to indicate their actual status, changes of state are inferred from characteristic current and voltage fluctuations. Controllers recognize these events both by examining the waveform signatures and by listening to audio channels between ground and crew. Recently the authors have developed a prototype system that identifies major electrical events from the telemetry and displays them on a workstation. Eventually the system will be able to identify accurately the signatures of over fifty distinct events in real time, while contending with noise, intermittent loss of signal, overlapping events, and other complications. This system is just one of many possible signature recognition applications in Mission Control. While much of the technology underlying these applications is the same, each application has unique data characteristics, and every control position has its own interface and performance requirements. There is a need, therefore, for CASE tools that can reduce the time to implement a running signature recognition application from months to weeks or days. This paper describes our work to date and our future plans.

  18. Athena mission operations concept with a special view on ToO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Symonds, Kate

    2015-09-01

    The operations concept of the Athena X-ray observatory is currently in its Phase 0/A. It has to satisfy two opposing requirements: cost effective operations (i.e. preplanned and minimised coverage)on the one hand and quick reaction to Targets of Opportunity (ToO) on the other hand. We present a possible scenario of operations combining the mission requirements with the gained expertise from missions like Herschel/Planck with respect to L2 operations as well as XMM-Newton and Integral expertise evaluating the possibility and feasibility of special operations for ToO. In order to satisfy the reaction time for a ToO of 4 h the operations concept is a spacecraft High Gain Antenna always pointed to Earth and configured for TC reception. This enables the use of small ground stations for ToO communications. This and the general features of the mission operations ground segment will be presented in detail.

  19. MOS 2.0: Modeling the Next Revolutionary Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Christopher L.; Bindschadler, Duane; Wollaeger, Ryan; Carrion, Carlos; McCullar, Michelle; Jackson, Maddalena; Sarrel, Marc; Anderson, Louise; Lam, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Designed and implemented in the 1980's, the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) was a breakthrough for deep-space NASA missions, enabling significant reductions in the cost and risk of implementing ground systems. By designing a framework for use across multiple missions and adaptability to specific mission needs, AMMOS developers created a set of applications that have operated dozens of deep-space robotic missions over the past 30 years. We seek to leverage advances in technology and practice of architecting and systems engineering, using model-based approaches to update the AMMOS. We therefore revisit fundamental aspects of the AMMOS, resulting in a major update to the Mission Operations System (MOS): MOS 2.0. This update will ensure that the MOS can support an increasing range of mission types, (such as orbiters, landers, rovers, penetrators and balloons), and that the operations systems for deep-space robotic missions can reap the benefits of an iterative multi-mission framework.12 This paper reports on the first phase of this major update. Here we describe the methods and formal semantics used to address MOS 2.0 architecture and some early results. Early benefits of this approach include improved stakeholder input and buy-in, the ability to articulate and focus effort on key, system-wide principles, and efficiency gains obtained by use of well-architected design patterns and the use of models to improve the quality of documentation and decrease the effort required to produce and maintain it. We find that such methods facilitate reasoning, simulation, analysis on the system design in terms of design impacts, generation of products (e.g., project-review and software-delivery products), and use of formal process descriptions to enable goal-based operations. This initial phase yields a forward-looking and principled MOS 2.0 architectural vision, which considers both the mission-specific context and long-term system sustainability.

  20. Third International Symposium on Space Mission Operations and Ground Data Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Under the theme of 'Opportunities in Ground Data Systems for High Efficiency Operations of Space Missions,' the SpaceOps '94 symposium included presentations of more than 150 technical papers spanning five topic areas: Mission Management, Operations, Data Management, System Development, and Systems Engineering. The symposium papers focus on improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of data acquisition, ground systems, and mission operations. New technology, methods, and human systems are discussed. Accomplishments are also reported in the application of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; the management of human factors; the use of telescience and teleoperations; and the design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations. This volume covers expert systems, systems development tools and approaches, and systems engineering issues.

  1. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  2. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy through Coordinated Operations Planning and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-03-01

    The Science Operations Working Group, Mars 2001 Mission, has developed coordinated plans for scientific observations that treat the instruments as an integrated payload. This approach ensures maximum return of scientific information.

  3. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  4. Flight and mission operations support for Voyager spacecraft launching and Viking-Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during fiscal year 1976-1977 are summarized. Areas covered include ongoing and planned flight projects, DSN operations and development, research and advanced development in science and engineering, and civil systems projects. In addition, administrative and operational facilities and developments are described.

  5. Development and Execution of End-of-Mission Operations Case Study of the UARS and ERBS End-of-Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John; Marius, Julio L.; Montoro, Manuel; Patel, Mehul; Bludworth, David

    2006-01-01

    This Paper is a case study of the development and execution of the End-of-Mission plans for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The goals of the End-of-Mission Plans are to minimize the time the spacecraft remains on orbit and to minimize the risk of creating orbital debris. Both of these Missions predate the NASA Management Instructions (NMI) that directs missions to provide for safe mission termination. Each spacecrafts had their own unique challenges, which required assessing End-of-Mission requirements versus spacecraft limitations. Ultimately the End-of- Mission operations were about risk mitigation. This paper will describe the operational challenges and the lessons learned executing these End-of-Mission Plans

  6. Towards technical interoperability in telemedicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-05-01

    For telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, the question of how to create a fully interoperable technical infrastructure must be addressed. After briefly discussing how 'technical interoperability' compares with other types of interoperability being addressed in the telemedicine community today, this paper describes reasons for pursuing technical interoperability, presents a proposed framework for realizing technical interoperability, identifies key issues that will need to be addressed if technical interoperability is to be achieved, and suggests a course of action that the telemedicine community might follow to accomplish this goal.

  7. Toward technical interoperability in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Craft, Richard L

    2005-06-01

    For telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, the question of how to create a fully interoperable technical infrastructure must be addressed. After briefly discussing how "technical interoperability" compares with other types of interoperability being addressed in the telemedicine community today, this paper describes reasons for pursuing technical interoperability, presents a proposed framework for realizing technical interoperability, identifies key issues that will need to be addressed if technical interoperability is to be achieved, and suggests a course of action that the telemedicine community might follow to accomplish this goal. PMID:16035933

  8. Distributed Operations for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission with the Science Activity Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Justin V.; Callas, John L.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Vona, Marsette A., III

    2005-01-01

    Due to the length of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission, most scientists were unable to stay at the central operations facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This created a need for distributed operations software, in the form of the Distributed Science Activity Planner. The distributed architecture saved a considerable amount of money and increased the number of individuals who could be actively involved in the mission, contributing to its success.

  9. Decision Making Training in the Mission Operations Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2013-01-01

    At JSC, we train our new flight controllers on a set of team skills that we call Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM). SFRM is akin to Crew Resource Management for the airlines and trains flight controllers to work as an effective team to reduce errors and improve safety. We have developed this training over the years with the assistance of Ames Research Center, Wyle Labs and University of Central Florida. One of the skills we teach is decision making/ problem solving (DM/PS). We teach DM/PS first in several classroom sessions, reinforce it in several part task training environments, and finally practice it in full-mission, full-team simulations. What I am proposing to talk about is this training flow: its content and how we teach it.

  10. Mars methane analogue mission: Mission simulation and rover operations at Jeffrey Mine and Norbestos Mine Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadi, A.; Cloutis, E.; Samson, C.; Whyte, L.; Ellery, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Haddad, E.; Lavoie, J.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mack, A.; Mann, P.; Olsen, K.; Perrot, M.; Popa, D.; Rhind, T.; Sharma, R.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wing, B.; Wong, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), through its Analogue Missions program, supported a microrover-based analogue mission designed to simulate a Mars rover mission geared toward identifying and characterizing methane emissions on Mars. The analogue mission included two, progressively more complex, deployments in open-pit asbestos mines where methane can be generated from the weathering of olivine into serpentine: the Jeffrey mine deployment (June 2011) and the Norbestos mine deployment (June 2012). At the Jeffrey Mine, testing was conducted over 4 days using a modified off-the-shelf Pioneer rover and scientific instruments including Raman spectrometer, Picarro methane detector, hyperspectral point spectrometer and electromagnetic induction sounder for testing rock and gas samples. At the Norbestos Mine, we used the research Kapvik microrover which features enhanced autonomous navigation capabilities and a wider array of scientific instruments. This paper describes the rover operations in terms of planning, deployment, communication and equipment setup, rover path parameters and instrument performance. Overall, the deployments suggest that a search strategy of “follow the methane” is not practical given the mechanisms of methane dispersion. Rather, identification of features related to methane sources based on image tone/color and texture from panoramic imagery is more profitable.

  11. Manned Mars mission on-orbit operations FTS capabilities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Frank G.; Jackson, Stewart W.

    1989-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the characteristics and capabilities of the flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), under development at GSFC at the time the report was prepared; the project has since been cancelled. The assessment was directed toward developing the FTS to enable assembly and servicing of the Mars vehicle at the space station; facilitate rendezvous, docking, and fluid transfer operations involving the Mars vehicle fuel tank; to perform strip-mining operations on the lunar/martian surfaces; and to construct a three-story shelter on the martian surface. The report considers the FTS' mechanical, electrical, thermal, and operational subsystems, as well as its proposed manipulator capabilities.

  12. The Preparation for and Execution of Engineering Operations for the Mars Curiosity Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover mission is the most complex and scientifically packed rover that has ever been operated on the surface of Mars. The preparation leading up to the surface mission involved various tests, contingency planning and integration of plans between various teams and scientists for determining how operation of the spacecraft (s/c) would be facilitated. In addition, a focused set of initial set of health checks needed to be defined and created in order to ensure successful operation of rover subsystems before embarking on a two year science journey. This paper will define the role and responsibilities of the Engineering Operations team, the process involved in preparing the team for rover surface operations, the predefined engineering activities performed during the early portion of the mission, and the evaluation process used for initial and day to day spacecraft operational assessment.

  13. An automated environment for multiple spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Hioe, K.; Lai, J.; Imlay, E.; Schwuttke, U.; Hsu, E.; Mikes, S.

    1990-01-01

    Flight operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are now performed by teams of specialists, each team dedicated to a particular spacecraft. Certain members of each team are responsible for monitoring the performances of their respective spacecraft subsystems. Ground operations, which are very complex, are manual, labor-intensive, slow, and tedious, and therefore costly and inefficient. The challenge of the new decade is to operate a large number of spacecraft simultaneously while sharing limited human and computer resources, without compromising overall reliability. The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is an architecture that enables fewer controllers to monitor and control spacecraft engineering subsystems. A prototype of EASE has been installed in the JPL Space Flight Operations Facility for on-line testing. This article describes the underlying concept, development, testing, and benefits of the EASE prototype.

  14. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  15. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  16. Utilization of Virtual Server Technology in Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee; Pruitt, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization provides the opportunity to continue to do "more with less"---more computing power with fewer physical boxes, thus reducing the overall hardware footprint, power and cooling requirements, software licenses, and their associated costs. This paper explores the tremendous advantages and any disadvantages of virtualization in all of the environments associated with software and systems development to operations flow. It includes the use and benefits of the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) specification, and identifies lessons learned concerning hardware and network configurations. Using the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an example, we demonstrate that deploying virtualized servers as a means of managing computing resources is applicable and beneficial to many areas of application, up to and including flight operations.

  17. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  18. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna

    1994-01-01

    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  19. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  20. Mission Operations Report (MOR) for the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetosphere Particle Explorer (SAMPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    MISSION OPERATIONS REPORTS are published for use by NASA senior management, as required by NASA Headquarters Management Instruction HQMI 8610. lC, effective November 26, 1991. The purpose of these reports is to provide a documentation system that represents an internal discipline to establish critical discriminators selected in advance to measure mission accomplishment, provide a formal written assessment of mission accomplishment, and provide an accountability of technical achievement. Prelaunch reports are prepared and issued for each flight project just prior to launch. Following launch, updating (Post Launch) reports are issued to provide mission status and progress in meeting mission objectives. Primary distribution of these reports is intended for personnel having program/project management responsibilities.

  1. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Orbiting approximately 400 km above the Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) is a unique research laboratory used to conduct ground-breaking science experiments in space. The ISS has eight Solar Array Wings (SAW), and each wing is 11.7 meters wide and 35.1 meters long. The SAWs are controlled individually to maximize power output, minimize stress to the ISS structure, and minimize interference with other ISS operations such as vehicle dockings and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). The Solar Arrays are designed to operate at 160 Volts. These large, high power solar arrays are negatively grounded to the ISS and collect charged particles (predominately electrons) as they travel through the space plasma in the Earth's ionosphere. If not controlled, this collected charge causes floating potential variations which can result in arcing, causing injury to the crew during an EVA or damage to hardware [1]. The environmental catalysts for ISS floating potential variations include plasma density and temperature fluctuations and magnetic induction from the Earth's magnetic field. These alone are not enough to cause concern for ISS, but when they are coupled with the large positive potential on the solar arrays, floating potentials up to negative 95 Volts have been observed. Our goal is to differentiate the operationally induced fluctuations in floating potentials from the environmental causes. Differentiating will help to determine what charging can be controlled, and we can then design the proper operations controls for charge collection mitigation. Additionally, the knowledge of how high power solar arrays interact with the environment and what regulations or design techniques can be employed to minimize charging impacts can be applied to future programs.

  2. Parallel CFD Supporting NASA's Space Operations Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in support of NASA's space operations. Particular attention was devoted to the development of the Space Shuttle, and the use of CFD in designing the shuttle and the work after the Columbia accident. The presentation ends with a discussion of the reasons for CFD and the use of parallel computers in the design and testing of spacecraft.

  3. Toward interoperable bioscience data

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Field, Dawn; Maguire, Eamonn; Taylor, Chris; Hofmann, Oliver; Fang, Hong; Neumann, Steffen; Tong, Weida; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Begley, Kimberly; Booth, Tim; Bougueleret, Lydie; Burns, Gully; Chapman, Brad; Clark, Tim; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Copeland, Jay; Das, Sudeshna; de Daruvar, Antoine; de Matos, Paula; Dix, Ian; Edmunds, Scott; Evelo, Chris T; Forster, Mark J; Gaudet, Pascale; Gilbert, Jack; Goble, Carole; Griffin, Julian L; Jacob, Daniel; Kleinjans, Jos; Harland, Lee; Haug, Kenneth; Hermjakob, Henning; Ho Sui, Shannan J; Laederach, Alain; Liang, Shaoguang; Marshall, Stephen; McGrath, Annette; Merrill, Emily; Reilly, Dorothy; Roux, Magali; Shamu, Caroline E; Shang, Catherine A; Steinbeck, Christoph; Trefethen, Anne; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Xenarios, Ioannis; Hide, Winston

    2012-01-01

    To make full use of research data, the bioscience community needs to adopt technologies and reward mechanisms that support interoperability and promote the growth of an open ‘data commoning’ culture. Here we describe the prerequisites for data commoning and present an established and growing ecosystem of solutions using the shared ‘Investigation-Study-Assay’ framework to support that vision. PMID:22281772

  4. NASA and Industry Benefits of ACTS High Speed Network Interoperability Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernic, M. J.; Beering, D. R.; Brooks, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides synopses of the design. implementation, and results of key high data rate communications experiments utilizing the technologies of NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Specifically, the network protocol and interoperability performance aspects will be highlighted. The objectives of these key experiments will be discussed in their relevant context to NASA missions, as well as, to the comprehensive communications industry. Discussion of the experiment implementation will highlight the technical aspects of hybrid network connectivity, a variety of high-speed interoperability architectures, a variety of network node platforms, protocol layers, internet-based applications, and new work focused on distinguishing between link errors and congestion. In addition, this paper describes the impact of leveraging government-industry partnerships to achieve technical progress and forge synergistic relationships. These relationships will be the key to success as NASA seeks to combine commercially available technology with its own internal technology developments to realize more robust and cost effective communications for space operations.

  5. Human-in-the-Loop Operations over Time Delay: NASA Analog Missions Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, Steven N.; Reagan, Marcum L.; Janoiko, Barbara; Johnson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Teams at NASA have conducted studies of time-delayed communications as it effects human exploration. In October 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Analog Missions project conducted a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the primary stakeholders to share information and experiences of studying time delay, to build a coherent picture of how studies are covering the problem domain, and to determine possible forward plans (including how to best communicate study results and lessons learned, how to inform future studies and mission plans, and how to drive potential development efforts). This initial meeting s participants included personnel from multiple NASA centers (HQ, JSC, KSC, ARC, and JPL), academia, and ESA. It included all of the known studies, analog missions, and tests of time delayed communications dating back to the Apollo missions including NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS/RATS), International Space Station Test-bed for Analog Research (ISTAR), Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), Mars 520, JPL Mars Orbiters/Rovers, Advanced Mission Operations (AMO), Devon Island analog missions, and Apollo experiences. Additionally, the meeting attempted to capture all of the various functional perspectives via presentations by disciplines including mission operations (flight director and mission planning), communications, crew, Capcom, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Medical/Surgeon, Science, Education and Public Outreach (EPO), and data management. The paper summarizes the descriptions and results from each of the activities discussed at the TIM and includes several recommendations captured in the meeting for dealing with time delay in human exploration along with recommendations for future development and studies to address this issue.

  6. ICE Second Halley radial: TDA mission support and DSN operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanelli, N. A.; Efron, L.; Muellerschoen, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The article documents the operations encompassing the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) second Halley radial experiment centered around March 28, 1986. The support was provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter subnetwork. Near continuous support was provided the last two weeks of March and the first two weeks of April to insure the collection of adequate background data for the Halley radial experiment. During the last week of March, plasma wave measurements indicate that ICE was within the Halley heavy ion pick-up region.

  7. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 4: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Planning data are presented for the development phases of interim upper stage (IUS) and tug systems. Major project planning requirements, major event schedules, milestones, system development and operations process networks, and relevant support research and technology requirements are included. Topics discussed include: IUS flight software; tug flight software; IUS/tug ground control center facilities, personnel, data systems, software, and equipment; IUS mission events; tug mission events; tug/spacecraft rendezvous and docking; tug/orbiter operations interface, and IUS/orbiter operations interface.

  8. Tracking and data system support for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars. Volume 3: Planetary operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgway, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The support provided by the Deep Space Network to the 1975 Viking Mission from the first landing on Mars July 1976 to the end of the Prime Mission on November 15, 1976 is described and evaluated. Tracking and data acquisition support required the continuous operation of a worldwide network of tracking stations with 64-meter and 26-meter diameter antennas, together with a global communications system for the transfer of commands, telemetry, and radio metric data between the stations and the Network Operations Control Center in Pasadena, California. Performance of the deep-space communications links between Earth and Mars, and innovative new management techniques for operations and data handling are included.

  9. Automating the training development process for mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carol J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional methods of developing training do not effectively support the changing needs of operational users in a multimission environment. The Automated Training Development System (ATDS) provides advantages over conventional methods in quality, quantity, turnaround, database maintenance, and focus on individualized instruction. The Operations System Training Group at the JPL performed a six-month study to assess the potential of ATDS to automate curriculum development and to generate and maintain course materials. To begin the study, the group acquired readily available hardware and participated in a two-week training session to introduce the process. ATDS is a building activity that combines training's traditional information-gathering with a hierarchical method for interleaving the elements. The program can be described fairly simply. A comprehensive list of candidate tasks determines the content of the database; from that database, selected critical tasks dictate which competencies of skill and knowledge to include in course material for the target audience. The training developer adds pertinent planning information about each task to the database, then ATDS generates a tailored set of instructional material, based on the specific set of selection criteria. Course material consistently leads students to a prescribed level of competency.

  10. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  11. An intelligent position-specific training system for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) payload ground controller training program provides very good generic training; however, ground controller position-specific training can be improved by including position-specific training systems in the training program. This report explains why MSFC needs to improve payload ground controller position-specific training. The report describes a generic syllabus for position-specific training systems, a range of system designs for position-specific training systems, and a generic development process for developing position-specific training systems. The report also describes a position-specific training system prototype that was developed for the crew interface coordinator payload operations control center ground controller position. The report concludes that MSFC can improve the payload ground controller training program by incorporating position-specific training systems for each ground controller position; however, MSFC should not develop position-specific training systems unless payload ground controller position experts will be available to participate in the development process.

  12. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Operational Space Weather Monitoring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichas, Markos; Gibbs, Mark; Harrison, Richard; Green, Lucie; Eastwood, Jonathan; Bentley, Bob; Bisi, Mario; Bogdanova, Yulia; Davies, Jackie; D'Arrigo, Paolo; Eyles, Chris; Fazakerley, Andrew; Hapgood, Mike; Jackson, David; Kataria, Dhiren; Monchieri, Emanuele; Windred, Phil

    2015-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) has carried out a study to investigate the possibilities for an operational space weather mission, in collaboration with the Met Office, RAL, MSSL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for 24/7 operational forecasting needs. We have focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 (Earth trailing) offers the greatest benefit for the earliest possible warning on hazardous SWE events and the most accurate SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to cover all UK Met Office/NOAA's users priorities for L5 using instruments with extensive UK/US heritage, consisting of: heliospheric imager, coronograph, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform and subsystems are based on extensive re-use from past Airbus Defence and Space spacecraft to minimize the development cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could be achieved by 2020, assuming Phase A kick-off in 2015-2016. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  13. SpaceOps 1992: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Second International Symposium featured 135 oral presentations in these 12 categories: Future Missions and Operations; System-Level Architectures; Mission-Specific Systems; Mission and Science Planning and Sequencing; Mission Control; Operations Automation and Emerging Technologies; Data Acquisition; Navigation; Operations Support Services; Engineering Data Analysis of Space Vehicle and Ground Systems; Telemetry Processing, Mission Data Management, and Data Archiving; and Operations Management. Topics focused on improvements in the productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of mission operations, ground systems, and data acquisition. Also emphasized were accomplishments in management of human factors; use of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations; and the use of telescience and teleoperations.

  14. The Envisat Mission Extension 2010- Implications for On-Ground and On-Board Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Frank-Jugen; Mesples, Daniel; Ventimiglia, Luca; Milsson, M.; Kuijper, Dirk Berger, Jean-Noel

    2010-12-01

    ESA's Earth Observation (EO) satellite ENVISAT was launched in 2002 with a nominal mission lifetime of five years. Given the excellent performance of the platform and the nine actively controlled instruments, the mission was extended until the end of 2010, when most of the onboard hydrazine will be exhausted. A concept for extending the Envisat mission has been defined in 2008, which is based on an altitude lowering and a new orbit control concept which will allow a continuation of the routine operations until end of 2013. ESA's control centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany, will be responsible to implement the orbit change, conduct a mini-commissioning phase following the altitude lowering and resume nominal operations afterwards. The actual orbit change manoeuvres will be carefully planned and executed, aiming at an optimization of fuel consumption. The manoeuvre strategy will allow achieving a reliable estimate of the residual fuel after the thruster firing sequences. One of the immediate consequences after the Envisat orbit change will be S-Band interferences during overlapping ENVISAT and ERS-2 ground station passes, affecting commanding, telemetry and ranging for the two missions operated from ESOC. This will require a dynamic allocation of ground station facilities, also being used by other Earth Observation satellites operated from ESOC. The ENVISAT and ERS2 operators will be supported during this new operations phase by an automation tool taking care of a number of Envisat routine activities. This paper summarizes the Envisat orbit change activities, the impact on routine operations and the conflict resolution strategies.

  15. STS-35 Mission Manager Actions Room at the Marshall Space Flight Center Spacelab Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activities at the Mission Manager Actions Room during the mission.

  16. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue

  17. Tier-scalable reconnaissance: the challenge of sensor optimization, sensor deployment, sensor fusion, and sensor interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; George, Thomas; Tarbell, Mark A.

    2007-04-01

    Robotic reconnaissance operations are called for in extreme environments, not only those such as space, including planetary atmospheres, surfaces, and subsurfaces, but also in potentially hazardous or inaccessible operational areas on Earth, such as mine fields, battlefield environments, enemy occupied territories, terrorist infiltrated environments, or areas that have been exposed to biochemical agents or radiation. Real time reconnaissance enables the identification and characterization of transient events. A fundamentally new mission concept for tier-scalable reconnaissance of operational areas, originated by Fink et al., is aimed at replacing the engineering and safety constrained mission designs of the past. The tier-scalable paradigm integrates multi-tier (orbit atmosphere surface/subsurface) and multi-agent (satellite UAV/blimp surface/subsurface sensing platforms) hierarchical mission architectures, introducing not only mission redundancy and safety, but also enabling and optimizing intelligent, less constrained, and distributed reconnaissance in real time. Given the mass, size, and power constraints faced by such a multi-platform approach, this is an ideal application scenario for a diverse set of MEMS sensors. To support such mission architectures, a high degree of operational autonomy is required. Essential elements of such operational autonomy are: (1) automatic mapping of an operational area from different vantage points (including vehicle health monitoring); (2) automatic feature extraction and target/region-of-interest identification within the mapped operational area; and (3) automatic target prioritization for close-up examination. These requirements imply the optimal deployment of MEMS sensors and sensor platforms, sensor fusion, and sensor interoperability.

  18. The CYGNSS ground segment; innovative mission operations concepts to support a micro-satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D.; Vincent, M.; Rose, R.; Ruf, C.

    Hurricane track forecasts have improved in accuracy by ~50% since 1990, while in that same period there has been essentially no improvement in the accuracy of intensity prediction. One of the main problems in addressing intensity occurs because the rapidly evolving stages of the tropical cyclone (TC) life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. NASA's most recently awarded Earth science mission, the NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) has been designed to address this deficiency by using a constellation of micro-satellite-class Observatories designed to provide improved sampling of the TC during its life cycle. Managing a constellation of Observatories has classically resulted in an increased load on the ground operations team as they work to create and maintain schedules and command loads for multiple Observatories. Using modern tools and technologies at the Mission Operations Center (MOC) in conjunction with key components implemented in the flight system and an innovative strategy for pass execution coordinated with the ground network operator, the CYGNSS mission reduces the burden of constellation operations to a level commensurate with the low-cost mission concept. This paper focuses on the concept of operations for the CYGNSS constellation as planned for implementation at the CYGNSS MOC in conjunction with the selected ground network operator.

  19. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  20. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  1. A Potential Operational CryoSat Follow-on Mission Concept and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    CryoSat was a planned as a 3 year mission with clear mission objectives to allow the assessment rates of change of thickness in the land and marine ice fields with reduced uncertainties with relation to other non-dedicated missions. Although CryoSat suffered a launch failure in Oct 2005, the mission was recovered with a launch in April 2010 of CryoSat-2. The nominal mission has now been completed, all mission requirements have been fulfilled and CryoSat has been shown to be most successful as a dedicated polar ice sheet measurement system demonstrated by nearly 200 peer reviewed publications within the first four years of launch. Following the completion of the nominal mission in Oct 2013 the platform was shown to be in good health and with a scientific backing provided by the ESA Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) the mission has been extended until Feb 2017 by the ESA Programme Board for Earth Observation. Though not designed to provide data for science and operational services beyond its original mission requirements, a number of services have been developed for exploitation and these are expected to increase over the next few years. Services cover a number of aspects of land and marine ice fields in addition to complementary activities covering glacial monitoring, inland water in addition to coastal and open ocean surface topography science that CryoSat has demonstrated world leading advances with. This paper will present the overall concept for a potential low-cost follow-on to the CryoSat mission with the objective to provide both continuity of the existing CryoSat based data sets, i.e., longer term science and operational services that cannot be provided by the existing Copernicus complement of satellites. This is, in part, due to the high inclination (92°) drifting orbit and state of the art Synthetic Aperture Interferometer Radar Altimeter (SIRAL). In addition, further improvements in performance are expected by use of the instrument timing and

  2. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  3. Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's mission to measure the Moon's gravity and determine the interior structure, from crust to core, has almost completed its 3-month science data collection phase. The twin orbiters of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission were launched from Florida on September 10, 2011, on a Delta-II launch vehicle. After traveling for nearly four months on a low energy trajectory to the Moon, they were inserted into lunar orbit on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day. In January 2012 a series of circularization maneuvers brought the orbiters into co-planar near-circular polar orbits. In February a distant (75- km) rendezvous was achieved and the science instruments were turned on. A dual- frequency (Ka and S-band) inter-orbiter radio link provides a precise orbiter-to-orbiter range measurement that enables the gravity field estimation. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, manages the GRAIL project. Mission management, mission planning and sequencing, and navigation are conducted at JPL. Lockheed Martin, the flight system manufacturer, operates the orbiters from their control center in Denver, Colorado. The orbiters together have performed 28 propulsive maneuvers to reach and maintain the science phase configuration. Execution of these maneuvers, as well as the payload checkout and calibration activities, has gone smoothly due to extensive pre-launch operations planning and testing. The key to the operations success has been detailed timelines for product interchange between the operations teams and proven procedures from previous JPL/LM planetary missions. Once in science phase, GRAIL benefitted from the payload operational heritage of the GRACE mission that measures the Earth's gravity.

  4. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  5. Using AUTORAD for Cassini File Uplinks: Incorporating Automated Commanding into Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goo, Sherwin

    2014-01-01

    As the Cassini spacecraft embarked on the Solstice Mission in October 2010, the flight operations team faced a significant challenge in planning and executing the continuing tour of the Saturnian system. Faced with budget cuts that reduced the science and engineering staff by over a third in size, new and streamlined processes had to be developed to allow the Cassini mission to maintain a high level of science data return with a lower amount of available resources while still minimizing the risk. Automation was deemed an important key in enabling mission operations with reduced workforce and the Cassini flight team has made this goal a priority for the Solstice Mission. The operations team learned about a utility called AUTORAD which would give the flight operations team the ability to program selected command files for radiation up to seven days in advance and help minimize the need for off-shift support that could deplete available staffing during the prime shift hours. This paper will describe how AUTORAD is being utilized by the Cassini flight operations team and the processes that were developed or modified to ensure that proper oversight and verification is maintained in the generation and execution of radiated command files.

  6. STS-35 Mission Specialist Parker operates ASTRO-1 MPC on OV-102's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert A.R. Parker operates Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) manual pointing controller (MPC) on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Parker monitors a closed circuit television (CCTV) screen at the payload station as he uses the MPC to send data collection instructions to the ASTRO-1 instrument pointing system (IPS).

  7. Mission operation center of the Lavochkin scientific production association: Work with the interorbital space booster "Fregat"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakevich, Yu. V.; Zefirov, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the history of the Lavochkin Association Mission Operation Center (Laspace MOC), the reasons for its building, purposes and objectives to support Fregat multipurpose rocket booster (FMRB) launch tracking, as well as the basic principles of information exchange. Hardware and software are described in detail.

  8. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  9. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  10. Operational Experience with Long Duration Wildfire Mapping: UAS Missions Over the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Cobleigh, Brent; Buoni, Greg; Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Forest Service, and National Interagency Fire Center have developed a partnership to develop and demonstrate technology to improve airborne wildfire imaging and data dissemination. In the summer of 2007, a multi-spectral infrared scanner was integrated into NASA's Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) (a General Atomics Predator-B) and launched on four long duration wildfire mapping demonstration missions covering eight western states. Extensive safety analysis, contingency planning, and mission coordination were key to securing an FAA certificate of authorization (COA) to operate in the national airspace. Infrared images were autonomously geo-rectified, transmitted to the ground station by satellite communications, and networked to fire incident commanders within 15 minutes of acquisition. Close coordination with air traffic control ensured a safe operation, and allowed real-time redirection around inclement weather and other minor changes to the flight plan. All objectives of the mission demonstrations were achieved. In late October, wind-driven wildfires erupted in five southern California counties. State and national emergency operations agencies requested Ikhana to help assess and manage the wildfires. Four additional missions were launched over a 5-day period, with near realtime images delivered to multiple emergency operations centers and fire incident commands managing 10 fires.

  11. SSRPT (SSR Pointer Trackeer) for Cassini Mission Operations - A Ground Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Tracking the resources of the two redundant Solid State Recorders (SSR) is a necessary routine for Cassini spacecraft mission operations. Instead of relying on a full-fledged spacecraft hardware/software simulator to track and predict the SSR recording and playback pointer positions, a stand-alone SSR Pointer Tracker tool was developed as part of JPL's Multimission Spacecraft Analysis system.

  12. 12 CFR 900.2 - Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supervision. 900.2 Section 900.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.2 Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and... U.S.C. 1426(b)), and part 933 of this chapter, as approved by the Finance Board, unless the...

  13. 12 CFR 900.2 - Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supervision. 900.2 Section 900.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.2 Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and... U.S.C. 1426(b)), and part 933 of this chapter, as approved by the Finance Board, unless the...

  14. Software interoperability for energy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, Robert J.

    2002-07-31

    This paper provides an overview of software interoperability as it relates to the energy simulation of buildings. The paper begins with a discussion of the difficulties in using sophisticated analysis tools like energy simulation at various stages in the building life cycle, and the potential for interoperability to help overcome these difficulties. An overview of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a common data model for supporting interoperability under continuing development by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) is then given. The process of creating interoperable software is described next, followed by specific details for energy simulation tools. The paper closes with the current status of, and future plans for, the ongoing efforts to achieve software interoperability.

  15. Application of State Analysis and Goal-Based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the behavior of states and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  16. Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital missions using program SKYLARK 1. Section 4: Operational modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The operational modes for the guidance system operations plan for Program SKYLARK 1 are presented. The procedures control the guidance and navigation system interfaces with the flight crew and the mission control center. The guidance operational concept is designed to comprise a set of manually initiated programs and functions which may be arranged by the flight crew to implement a large class of flight plans. This concept will permit both a late flight plan definition and a capability for real time flight plan changes.

  17. Testing and validation of orbital operations plans for the MESSENGER mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Alice F.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Holdridge, Mark E.; Choo, Teck H.; Steele, R. Joshua; Shelton, Richard G.

    2010-07-01

    Launched in 2004, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft continues on its journey to become, in 2011, the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. The goal of MESSENGER's one-year orbital mission is to answer several key questions about the structure and history of Mercury and its environment. The science and mission operations teams are testing a concept of operations to use the instrument payload most efficiently and to achieve full mission success. To ensure that all essential observations are obtained and to allow for contingencies, an advance science planning (ASP) effort will develop the full yearlong mission baseline plan prior to orbit insertion. To ensure that the plan can be adapted in response to unexpected events over time, an adjusted baseline plan will be regenerated in the ASP process every five weeks during the actual orbital mission. The near-term science planning (NTSP) activity converts weeklong portions of the baseline plan into executable commands to conduct the orchestrated observations. A feedback process from NTSP to ASP will be used to ensure that the baseline observing plan accounts for and reschedules any unsuccessful observations. A testing and validation plan has been developed for the processes and software that underlie both advance and near-term science planning.

  18. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  19. Desert Rats 2011 Mission Simulation: Effects of Microgravity Operational Modes on Fields Geology Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Meyer, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is a multi-year series of NASA tests that deploy planetary surface hardware and exercise mission and science operations in difficult conditions to advance human and robotic exploration capabilities. DRATS 2011 (Aug. 30-Sept. 9, 2011) tested strategies for human exploration of microgravity targets such as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Here we report the crew perspective on the impact of simulated microgravity operations on our capability to conduct field geology.

  20. An intelligent automated command and control system for spacecraft mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffel, A. William

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Command and Control (ICC) System research project is intended to provide the technology base necessary for producing an intelligent automated command and control (C&C) system capable of performing all the ground control C&C functions currently performed by Mission Operations Center (MOC) project Flight Operations Team (FOT). The ICC research accomplishments to date, details of the ICC, and the planned outcome of the ICC research, mentioned above, are discussed in detail.

  1. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Extended Duration Transit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Capability-Driven Framework (CDF) describes an approach for progressively extending human exploration missions farther into the Solar System for longer periods of time as allowed by developments in technology and spacecraft systems. Within this framework design reference missions (DRMs) targeted for several specific destinations are being used to assess different combinations of vehicles, operations, and advanced technologies to help understand which combination will best support expanded human exploration both efficiently and sustainably. Several of the identified destinations have been found to require missions with a round trip duration exceeding one year. These mission durations exceed the capabilities of current human-rated spacecraft if resupply from Earth is not possible. This makes the design of an efficient and reliable Deep Space Habitat (DSH) critical for reaching these destinations. The paper will describe the current understanding of DSH capabilities and functions that must be exhibited by any future habitat design for these missions. This description of the DSH is presented in the form of a concept of operation, which focuses on the functions that any DSH must provide, as opposed to a specific DSH design concept. Development of a concept of operations, based on DRM features, provides a common basis for assessing the viability of design concepts incorporating differing configurations and technologies. A study team with representation from several NASA Centers and relevant engineering and scientific disciplines collaborated to develop this DSH concept of operations for the transit phases of these missions. The transit phase of a mission is defined as the time after leaving Earth but before arrival at the destination and the time after leaving the destination but before arriving back at Earth. These transit phases were found to have many common features across all of the destinations being assessed for the CDF and thus arguing for a common concept

  2. Real-time science operations to support a lunar polar volatiles rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2015-05-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the ∼ 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  3. Flight controls/avionics research - Impact on future civil helicopter operating efficiency and mission reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. J.; Christensen, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Operational efficiency and mission reliability are key capabilities which will impact the future use of helicopters in the civil segment and areas where flight control/avionics research can play a major role. The present paper reviews flight control/avionics system needs for each major area of civil helicopter use. Technology requirements to meet civil needs are discussed. The review points up the need for the development of all-weather flight control concepts and the validation of cost effective active control/fly-by-wire/fly-by-light system concepts with modular architecture which can be tailored to specific mission requirements.

  4. Programmer's manual for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutzky, D.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program known as MAESTRO is described. MAESTRO is an all FORTRAN, block style, computer program designed to perform various mission control tasks. This manual is a guide to MAESTRO, providing individuals the capability of modifying the program to suit their needs. Descriptions are presented of each of the subroutines descriptions consist of input/output description, theory, subroutine description, and a flow chart where applicable. The programmer's manual also contains a detailed description of the common blocks, a subroutine cross reference map, and a general description of the program structure.

  5. Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.

  6. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services. PMID:17095833

  7. GIS interoperability: current activities and military implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Sylvia

    1997-07-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are gaining importance in military operations because of their capability to spatially and visually integrate various kinds of information. In an era of limited resources, geospatial data must be shared efficiently whenever possible. The military-initiated Global Geospatial Information and Services (GGI&S) Project aims at developing the infrastructure for GIS interoperability for the military. Current activities in standardization and new technology have strong implications on the design and development of GGI&S. To facilitate data interoperability at both the national and international levels, standards and specifications in geospatial data sharing are being studied, developed and promoted. Of particular interest to the military community are the activities related to the NATO DIGEST, ISO TC/211 Geomatics standardization and the industry-led Open Geodata Interoperability Specifications (OGIS). Together with new information technology, standardization provides the infrastructure for interoperable GIS for both civilian and military environments. The first part of this paper describes the major activities in standardization. The second part presents the technologies developed at DREV in support of the GGI&S. These include the Open Geospatial Datastore Interface (OGDI) and the geospatial data warehouse. DREV has been working closely with Defence Geomatics and private industry in the research and development of new technology for the GGI&S project.

  8. Interoperability of heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaschke, C.; Essendorfer, B.; Kerth, C.

    2016-05-01

    To achieve knowledge superiority in today's operations interoperability is the key. Budget restrictions as well as the complexity and multiplicity of threats combined with the fact that not single nations but whole areas are subject to attacks force nations to collaborate and share information as appropriate. Multiple data and information sources produce different kinds of data, real time and non-real time, in different formats that are disseminated to the respective command and control level for further distribution. The data is most of the time highly sensitive and restricted in terms of sharing. The question is how to make this data available to the right people at the right time with the right granularity. The Coalition Shared Data concept aims to provide a solution to these questions. It has been developed within several multinational projects and evolved over time. A continuous improvement process was established and resulted in the adaptation of the architecture as well as the technical solution and the processes it supports. Coming from the idea of making use of existing standards and basing the concept on sharing of data through standardized interfaces and formats and enabling metadata based query the concept merged with a more sophisticated service based approach. The paper addresses concepts for information sharing to facilitate interoperability between heterogeneous distributed systems. It introduces the methods that were used and the challenges that had to be overcome. Furthermore, the paper gives a perspective how the concept could be used in the future and what measures have to be taken to successfully bring it into operations.

  9. Mission design and operations of a constellation of small satellites for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Trevor C.; Pilger, Eric J.; Wood, Mark S.; Nunes, Miguel A.; Yoneshige, Lance K.

    2013-05-01

    The Hawaii Space Flight Laboratory (HSFL) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa is developing the capabilities to design, build, and operate constellations of small satellites than can be tailored to efficiently execute a variety of remote sensing missions. With the Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office, HSFL is developing the Super Strypi launch vehicle that on its initial mission in 2013 will launch the HSFL 55-kg HawaiiSat-1 into a near polar orbit, providing the first deployment of these technologies. This satellite will be carrying a miniature hyperspectral thermal imager developed by the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP). HSFL has also developed a method to efficiently deploy a constellation of small satellites using a minimal number of launch vehicles. Under a three-year NASA grant, HSFL is developing a Comprehensive Open-architecture Space Mission Operations System (COSMOS) to support these types of missions. COSMOS is being designed as a System of Systems (SoS) software integrator, tying together existing elements from different technological domains. This system should be easily adaptable to new architectures and easily scalable. It will be provided as Open Source to qualified users, so will be adoptable by even universities with very restricted budgets. In this paper we present the use of COSMOS as a System of Systems integrator for satellite constellations of up to 100 satellites and numerous ground stations and/or contact nodes, including a fully automated "lights out" satellite contact capability.

  10. Spacecraft Autonomy and Automation: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Cost Effective Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Nathaniel, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of satellite operations over the last 40 years has drastically changed. October 4, 1957 (during the cold war) the Soviet Union launched the world's first spacecraft into orbit. The Sputnik satellite orbited Earth for three months and catapulted the United States into a race for dominance in space. A year after Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower formed the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA). With a team of scientists and engineers, NASA successfully launched Explorer 1, the first US satellite to orbit Earth. During these early years, massive amounts of ground support equipment and operators were required to successfully operate spacecraft vehicles. Today, budget reductions and technological advances have forced new approaches to spacecraft operations. These approaches require increasingly complex, on board spacecraft systems, that enable autonomous operations, resulting in more cost-effective mission operations. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, considered world class in satellite development and operations, has developed and operated over 200 satellites during its 40 years of existence. NASA Goddard is adopting several new millennium initiatives that lower operational costs through the spacecraft autonomy and automation. This paper examines NASA's approach to spacecraft autonomy and ground system automation through a comparative analysis of satellite missions for Hubble Space Telescope-HST, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous-NEAR, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory-SoHO, with emphasis on cost reduction methods, risk analysis and anomalies and strategies employed for mitigating risk.

  11. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  12. Dynamic Sampling of Cabin VOCs during the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft is dynamic due to changes in crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition of four modules (Core lab, Veggie Plant Atrium, Hygiene module, and Xhab loft) within the Deep Space Habitat '(DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center. The FTIR was either physically relocated to a new location or the plumbing was changed so that a different location was monitored. An application composed of 20 gases was used and the FTIR was zeroed using N2 gas every time it was relocated. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful as all data was collected and the FTIR worked during the entire MOT mission. Not all the 20 gases in the application sampled were detected and it was possible to measure dynamic VOC concentrations in each DSH location.

  13. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  14. Views of the Mission Operations Control room (MOCR) during STS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Hans Mark, NASA Deputy Administrator, and Daniel M. Germany, Assistant Manager, Orbiter Project Office, monitor activity from STS-5 in the mission operations control room (MOCR) of JSC's mission control center. Arnold D. Aldrich, Manager of the Orbiter Project Office, can be seen at left background (27153); Gerald D. Griffin, JSC Director, stands near the flight director console in the MOCR. Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, STS-5 spacecraft communicator, mans the CAPCOM console at left. Others in the background include M.P. Frank, Chief of the Flight Operations Integration Office (back row); Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations; Tommy W. Holloway, flight director (right of Griffin) (27154); Flight directors during STS-5 posed at the flight directors console are from left to right: Lawrence S. Bourgeois, Brock R. Stone, Jay H. Greene, Tommy W. Holloway, John T. Cox and Gary E. Coen. Other flight controllers are pictured in the background of the MOCR (27155).

  15. Understanding cost growth during operations of planetary missions: An explanation of changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, J. F.; Chapman, E. L.; Sklar, M. E.

    In the development of project cost estimates for interplanetary missions, considerable focus is generally given to the development of cost estimates for the development of ground, flight, and launch systems, i.e., Phases B, C, and D. Depending on the project team, efforts expended to develop cost estimates for operations (Phase E) may be relatively less rigorous than that devoted to estimates for ground and flight systems development. Furthermore, the project team may be challenged to develop a solid estimate of operations cost in the early stages of mission development, e.g., Concept Study Report or Systems Requirement Review (CSR/SRR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), as mission specific peculiarities that impact cost may not be well understood. In addition, a methodology generally used to develop Phase E cost is engineering build-up, also known as “ grass roots” . Phase E can include cost and schedule risks that are not anticipated at the time of the major milestone reviews prior to launch. If not incorporated into the engineering build-up cost method for Phase E, this may translate into an estimation of the complexity of operations and overall cost estimates that are not mature and at worse, insufficient. As a result, projects may find themselves with thin reserves during cruise and on-orbit operations or project overruns prior to the end of mission. This paper examines a set of interplanetary missions in an effort to better understand the reasons for cost and staffing growth in Phase E. The method used in the study is discussed as well as the major findings summarized as the Phase E Explanation of Change (EoC). Research for the study entailed the review of project materials, including Estimates at Completion (EAC) for Phase E and staffing profiles, major project milestone reviews, e.g., CSR, PDR, Critical Design Review (CDR), the interviewing of select project and mission management, and review of Phase E replan materials. From this work, a detai- ed

  16. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  17. Expert mission planning and replanning scheduling system for NASA KSC payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Roger

    1987-01-01

    EMPRESS (Expert Mission Planning and REplanning Scheduling System) is an expert system created to assist payload mission planners at Kennedy in the long range planning and scheduling of horizontal payloads for space shuttle flights. Using the current flight manifest, these planners develop mission and payload schedules detailing all processing to be performed in the Operations and Checkout building at Kennedy. With the EMPRESS system, schedules are generated quickly using standard flows that represent the tasks and resources required to process a specific horizontal carrier. Resources can be tracked and resource conflicts can be determined and resolved interactively. Constraint relationships between tasks are maintained and can be enforced when a task is moved or rescheduled. The domain, structure, and functionality of the EMPRESS system is briefly designed. The limitations of the EMPRESS system are described as well as improvements expected with the EMPRESS-2 development.

  18. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  19. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  20. A new systems engineering approach to streamlined science and mission operations for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Sonneborn, George; Perkins, Dorothy C.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD, Code 500), the Space Sciences Directorate (Code 600), and the Flight Projects Directorate (Code 400) have developed a new approach to combine the science and mission operations for the FUSE mission. FUSE, the last of the Delta-class Explorer missions, will obtain high resolution far ultraviolet spectra (910 - 1220 A) of stellar and extragalactic sources to study the evolution of galaxies and conditions in the early universe. FUSE will be launched in 2000 into a 24-hour highly eccentric orbit. Science operations will be conducted in real time for 16-18 hours per day, in a manner similar to the operations performed today for the International Ultraviolet Explorer. In a radical departure from previous missions, the operations concept combines spacecraft and science operations and data processing functions in a single facility to be housed in the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics (Code 680). A small missions operations team will provide the spacecraft control, telescope operations and data handling functions in a facility designated as the Science and Mission Operations Center (SMOC). This approach will utilize the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) architecture for both spacecraft and instrument commanding. Other concepts of integrated operations being developed by the Code 500 Renaissance Project will also be employed for the FUSE SMOC. The primary objective of this approach is to reduce development and mission operations costs. The operations concept, integration of mission and science operations, and extensive use of existing hardware and software tools will decrease both development and operations costs extensively. This paper describes the FUSE operations concept, discusses the systems engineering approach used for its development, and the software, hardware and management tools that will make its implementation feasible.

  1. Space network interoperability panel (SNIP) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahnestock, Dale; Yamada, Shigeo; Hara, Hideo; Lenhart, Klaus; Ryan, Thomas

    1992-03-01

    The history and status of the SNIP study conducted by NASA, ESA, and NASDA are reviewed. Particular attention is given to data relay systems development plans; agency load situations; cross support; the top managers agreement about implementation of S-band interoperability and accelerating the K-alpha band high data rate exploration; testing of actual systems; NASA interim architecture for an S-band era system to make NASA spacecraft and TDRSS/TDRS-II compatible with ESA and NASDA systems; tropical rainfall measuring mission support; S-band cross support; and K-alpha band status.

  2. The Skylab Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Williams, Richard S.; Lindgren, Kjell N.; Mathes, Karen L.; Gillis, David B.; Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    From May of 1973 to February of 1974, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of three manned missions to the Skylab space station, a voluminous vehicle largely descendant of Apollo hardware, and America s first space station. The crewmembers of these three manned missions spent record breaking durations of time in microgravity (28 days, 59 days and 84 days, respectively) and gave the U.S. space program its first experiences with long-duration space flight. The program overcame a number of obstacles (including a significant crippling of the Skylab vehicle) to conduct a lauded scientific program that encompassed life sciences, astronomy, solar physics, materials sciences and Earth observation. Skylab has more to offer than the results of its scientific efforts. The operations conducted by the Skylab crews and ground personnel represent a rich legacy of operational experience. As we plan for our return to the moon and the subsequent manned exploration of Mars, it is essential to utilize the experiences and insights of those involved in previous programs. Skylab and SMEAT (Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test) personnel have unique insight into operations being planned for the Constellation Program, such as umbilical extra-vehicular activity and water landing/recovery of long-duration crewmembers. Skylab was also well known for its habitability and extensive medical suite; topics which deserve further reflection as we prepare for lunar habitation and missions beyond Earth s immediate sphere of influence. The Skylab Medical Operations Summit was held in January 2008. Crewmembers and medical personnel from the Skylab missions and SMEAT were invited to participate in a two day summit with representatives from the Constellation Program medical operations community. The purpose of the summit was to discuss issues pertinent to future Constellation operations. The purpose of this document is to formally present the recommendations of the

  3. SPOT satellite family: Past, present, and future of the operations in the mission and control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippe, Pacholczyk

    1993-01-01

    SPOT sun-synchronous remote sensing satellites are operated by CNES since February 1986. Today, the SPOT mission and control center (CCM) operates SPOT1, SPOT2, and is ready to operate SPOT3. During these seven years, the way to operate changed and the CCM, initially designed for the control of one satellite, has been modified and upgraded to support these new operating modes. All these events have shown the performances and the limits of the system. A new generation of satellite (SPOT4) will continue the remote sensing mission during the second half of the 90's. Its design takes into account the experience of the first generation and supports several improvements. A new generation of control center (CMP) has been developed and improves the efficiency, quality, and reliability of the operations. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites at the same time during launching, in-orbit testing, and operating phases. It supports several automatic procedures and improves data retrieval and reporting.

  4. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W. W.; Olson, T. S.; Redd, L. R.

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This is greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from initiation of the design. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include the following: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood, and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  5. Activities in the Payload Operations Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Members of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) group monitor the progress of their experiment through video at the POCC. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administion, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  6. Activities in the Payload Operation Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between the astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  7. MOS 2.0: The Next Generation in Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.; Carrion, Carlos; Delp, Chris L.

    2010-01-01

    A Mission Operations System (MOS) or Ground System constitutes that portion of an overall space mission Enterprise that resides here on Earth. Over the past two decades, technological innovations in computing and software technologies have allowed an MOS to support ever more complex missions while consuming a decreasing fraction of Project development budgets. Despite (or perhaps, because of) such successes, it is routine to hear concerns about the cost of MOS development. At the same time, demand continues for Ground Systems which will plan more spacecraft activities with fewer commanding errors, provide scientists and engineers with more autonomous functionality, process and manage larger and more complex data more quickly, all while requiring fewer people to develop, deploy, operate and maintain them. One successful approach to such concerns over this period is a multimission approach, based on the reuse of portions (most often software) developed and used in previous missions. The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), developed for deep-space science missions, is one successful example of such an approach. Like many computing-intensive systems, it has grown up in a near-organic fashion from a relatively simple set of tools into a complexly interrelated set of capabilities. Such systems, like a city lacking any concept of urban planning, can and will grow in ways that are neither efficient nor particularly easy to sustain. To meet the growing demands and unyielding constraints placed on ground systems, a new approach is necessary. Under the aegis of a multi-year effort to revitalize the AMMOS's multimission operations capabilities, we are utilizing modern practices in systems architecting and model-based engineering to create the next step in Ground Systems: MOS 2.0. In this paper we outline our work (ongoing and planned) to architect and design a multimission MOS 2.0, describe our goals and measureable objectives, and discuss some of the benefits

  8. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  9. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  10. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  11. Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) Control Room During STS-35 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo is an overview of the MSFC Payload Control Room (PCR).

  12. Coordinated ground system for joint science operations for the ExoMars2016 TGO mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir; Heather, David; Frew, David; Eismont, Natan; Manaud, Nicolas; Ledkov, Anton; Nazirov, Ravil; Metcalfe, Leo; Cardesin, Alejandro; Konoplev, Veniamin; Korotkov, Fedor; Batanov, Oleg; Brumfitt, Jon; Alvarez, Rub; Martin, Patrick; Melnik, Anton; Tretiakov, Alexey; Villacorta, Antonio

    International collaboration is increasingly important for space science missions, often requiring joint operations activity. Such an approach is extremely important for studies of planets and other bodies of the Solar system that usually require high budget for their realization. In addition, as the development of international payloads for such missions is a well-established practice, the establishment of common ground systems for joint science operations is an important feature. Benefits of such an approach are evident: • More science return • Reduced the cost • More redundancy • Technology exchange But on the other hand, common systems for joint operations pose some specific difficulties, such as: • Different review procedures in the developing organisations • Incompatible documentation structures (“document tree”) • A risk of producing a “multiheaded dragon” (inefficient/duplicated task distributions) • Different base technologies • Language problems This article describes approaches for resolving these problems on the basis of the coordinated system for joint science operations for the ExoMars2016 mission, which is at the design stage now. The architecture of the system, the scenario of distributed but joint data management, as well as some methodological and technological aspects, will be discussed

  13. Evaluation of dual multi-mission space exploration vehicle operations during simulated planetary surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jadwick, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    IntroductionA pair of small pressurized rovers (multi-mission space exploration vehicles, or MMSEVs) is at the center of the Global Point-of-Departure architecture for future human lunar exploration. Simultaneous operation of multiple crewed surface assets should maximize productive crew time, minimize overhead, and preserve contingency return paths. MethodsA 14-day mission simulation was conducted in the Arizona desert as part of NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field test. The simulation involved two MMSEV earth-gravity prototypes performing geological exploration under varied operational modes affecting both the extent to which the MMSEVs must maintain real-time communications with the mission control center (Continuous [CC] versus Twice-a-Day [2/D]) and their proximity to each other (Lead-and-Follow [L&F] versus Divide-and-Conquer [D&C]). As part of a minimalist lunar architecture, no communication relay satellites were assumed. Two-person crews (an astronaut and a field geologist) operated each MMSEV, day and night, throughout the entire 14-day mission, only leaving via the suit ports to perform simulated extravehicular activities. Metrics and qualitative observations enabled evaluation of the extent to which the operating modes affected productivity and scientific data quality (SDQ). Results and discussionSDQ was greater during CC mode than during 2/D mode; metrics showed a marginal increase while qualitative assessments suggested a practically significant difference. For the communications architecture evaluated, significantly more crew time (14% per day) was required to maintain communications during D&C than during L&F (5%) or 2/D (2%), increasing the time required to complete all traverse objectives. Situational awareness of the other vehicle's location, activities, and contingency return constraints were qualitatively enhanced during L&F and 2/D modes due to line-of-sight and direct MMSEV-to-MMSEV communication. Future testing

  14. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  15. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  16. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  17. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  18. Applications for Mission Operations Using Multi-agent Model-based Instructional Systems with Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of past and possible future applications for artifical intelligence (AI) in astronaut instruction and training. AI systems have been used in training simulation for the Hubble Space Telescope repair, the International Space Station, and operations simulation for the Mars Exploration Rovers. In the future, robots such as may work as partners with astronauts on missions such as planetary exploration and extravehicular activities.

  19. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  20. Data Management Coordinators Monitor STS-78 Mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo represents Data Management Coordinators monitoring the progress of the mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC. Pictured are assistant mission scientist Dr. Dalle Kornfeld, Rick McConnel, and Ann Bathew.

  1. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  2. An Interoperability Testing Study: Automotive Inventory Visibility and Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Nenad; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Frechette, Simon; Jones, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between the NIST and Korean Business-to-Business Interoperability Test Beds to support a global, automotive-industry interoperability project. The purpose of the collaboration is to develop a methodology for validation of interoperable data-content standards implemented across inventory visibility tools within an internationally adopted testing framework. In this paper we describe methods (1) to help the vendors consistently implement prescribed message standards and (2) to assess compliance of those implementations with respect to the prescribed data content standards. We also illustrate these methods in support of an initial proof of concept for an international IV&I scenario.

  3. Chandrayaan-1 Data Interoperability using PDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Navita; Crichton, Daniel; Heather, David; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Srinivasan, T. P.; Prashar, Ajay

    Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC) at Bangalore is the custodian of all the data sets of the current and future science missions of ISRO.Chandrayaan-1 is the first among the planetary missions launched by ISRO. The data collected from all the instruments during the life time of Chandrayaan-1 is peer-reviewed and archived as a Long Term Archive(LTA)using the Planetary Data System standards (PDS 3) at the ISSDC. In order to increase the use of the data archived, it needs to be made accessible to the scientific community and academia in a seamless manner across the globe. The IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance), among its objectives, has to allow the interoperability and interchange of planetary scientific data among the planetary community. It has recommended PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) v1.0 for implementation as an interoperability protocol for accessing planetary data archives. PDAP is a simple protocol for retrieving planetary data from repositories through a uniform interface.PDAP compliance requires an access web service to be maintained with thecharacteristics of the Metadata Query web method and the Data Retrieval web method. The PDAP interface will provide the metadata services for Chandrayaan-1 datasets and return a list of candidate hits formatted as a VOTable. For each candidate hit, an access reference URL will is used to retrieve the real data.This will be integrated with the IPDA Registry and Search Services.This paper presents the prototype of interoperable systems for Chandrayaan-1 planetary datasets using PDAP.

  4. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  5. The Sequence of Events generator: A powerful tool for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobbe, Hubertus; Braun, Armin

    1994-01-01

    The functions and features of the sequence of events (SOE) and flight operations procedures (FOP) generator developed and used at DLR/GSOC for the positioning of EUTELSAT 2 satellites are presented. The SOE and FOP are the main operational documents that are prepared for nominal as well as for non-nominal mission execution. Their structure and application are described. Both of these documents are generated, validated, and maintained by a common software tool. Its main features and advantages are demonstrated. The tool has been improved continuously over the last 5 years. Due to its flexibility it can easily be applied to other projects and new features may be added.

  6. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  7. Mission Concepts and Operations for Asteroid Mitigation Involving Multiple Gravity Tractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Jaroux, Belgacem; Mauro, David

    2012-01-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  8. Stardust Entry: Landing and Population Hazards in Mission Planning and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P.; Wawrzyniak, G.

    2006-01-01

    The 385 kg Stardust mission was launched on Feb 7, 1999 on a mission to collect samples from the tail of comet Wild 2 and from interplanetary space. Stardust returned to Earth in the early morning of January 15, 2006. The sample return capsule landed in the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) southwest of Salt Lake City. Because Stardust was landing on Earth, hazard analysis was required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, UTTR, and the Stardust Project to ensure the safe return of the landing capsule along with the safety of people, ground assets, and aircraft. This paper focuses on the requirements affecting safe return of the capsule and safety of people on the ground by investigating parameters such as probability of impacting on UTTR, casualty expectation, and probability of casualty. This paper introduces the methods for the calculation of these requirements and shows how they affected mission planning, site selection, and mission operations. By analyzing these requirements before and during entry it allowed for the selection of a robust landing point that met all of the requirements during the actual landing event.

  9. Philae: Operations on Comet 67P/Churyumoc-Gerasimenko. Lessons learned for future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Witte, Lars; Fantinati, Cinzia; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Maibaum, Michael; Delmas, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    Philae a comet Lander which is part of the ESA Rosetta mission successfully landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12th, 2014. After several (unplanned) bounces it performed a First Scientific Sequence (FSS), based on the energy stored in it's on board batteries. All ten instruments of the Philae payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the final landing site was poorly illuminated, Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, but signals from the Lander were received again in June and July 2015. However, attempts to re-establish reliable and stable communications links, unfortunately, failed. Analysis of the data gained during FSS, including housekeeping and interpretation of the bouncing trajectory allow conclusions on the comet surface properties. Together with the rich data gained from the orbiter this information will help optimizing future missions to comets and other small bodies in the Solar System. The paper gives an overview on the implications of Philae results for future engineering comet models, required particularly for the design of in-situ (landing) or sample return missions. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae Lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  10. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  11. Towards Interoperable Data Access through Climate.gov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, S. R.; Marshall, J.; Stewart, J.; Ansari, S.; O'Brien, K.; Phillips, M. B.; Herring, D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate.gov team is enhancing users' ability to locate, preview, and acquire climate data. The Climate.gov team has created the Data Access and Interoperability project to design a web-based platform where interoperability between systems can be leveraged to allow greater data discovery, access, visualization and delivery. The team envisions an Interoperable Data Platform wherein systems can integrate with each other to support the synthesis of Climate data. Interoperability is the ability for users to discover the available climate data, preview and interact with the data, and acquire the data in common digital formats through a simple web-based interface. The Climate.gov Interoperable Data Platform uses the concepts of Representational State Transfer (REST) and common best practices for Web Services. Emerging standards for automation of machine-to-machine operations, such as OpenSearch autodiscovery, are being implemented throughout the Data Platform to ensure harmonization between data service providers, integrators and consumers. Implementation of common specifications will ensure compatibility between systems within NOAAand non-NOAA systems. The goal of the Interoperable Data Platform is to leverage existing web services, standards and existing solutions across the Earth sciences domain instead of creating new technologies. The Data Platform strives to become an integral part of the integration mechanisms supporting a system-of-systems ecosystem for Earth sciences information. As the team works across the organization, it will evaluate the capabilities of the participating systems to capture and assess the relative maturity of each system according to the Technology Infusion Working Group (TIWG) Interoperability Readiness Levels (IRL) as the reference for the interoperability mapping within NOAA. This will help establish the gaps and opportunities for integrating systems across a common set of

  12. Proximity Operations for the Robotic Boulder Capture Option for the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.; Wright, Cinnamon A.; Pini, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    In September of 2013, the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) Option B team was formed to expand on NASA's previous work on the robotic boulder capture option. While the original Option A concept focuses on capturing an entire smaller Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) using an inflatable bag capture mechanism, this design seeks to land on a larger NEA and retrieve a boulder off of its surface. The Option B team has developed a detailed and feasible mission concept that preserves many aspects of Option A's vehicle design while employing a fundamentally different technique for returning a significant quantity of asteroidal material to the Earth-Moon system. As part of this effort, a point of departure proximity operations concept was developed complete with a detailed timeline, as well as DeltaV and propellant allocations. Special attention was paid to the development of the approach strategy, terminal descent to the surface, controlled ascent with the captured boulder, and control during the Enhanced Gravity Tractor planetary defense demonstration. The concept of retrieving a boulder from the surface of an asteroid and demonstrating the Enhanced Gravity Tractor planetary defense technique is found to be feasible and within the proposed capabilities of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). While this point of departure concept initially focuses on a mission to Itokawa, the proximity operations design is also shown to be extensible to wide range of asteroids.

  13. Activities During Spacelab-J Mission at Payload Operations and Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The group of Japanese researchers of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) were thumbs-up in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center after the successful launch of Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour that carried their experiments. The SL-J was a joint mission of NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a marned Spacelab module. The mission conducted microgravity investigations in materials and life sciences. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, frogs, and frog eggs. The POCC was the air/ground communications channel between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The Spacelab science operations were a cooperative effort between the science astronaut crew in orbit and their colleagues in the POCC. Spacelab-J was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on September 12, 1992.

  14. An operational approach to long-duration mission behavioral health and performance factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's participation in nearly 10 yr of long-duration mission (LDM) training and flight confirms that these missions remain a difficult challenge for astronauts and their medical care providers. The role of the astronaut's crew surgeon is to maximize the astronaut's health throughout all phases of the LDM: preflight, in flight, and postflight. In support of the crew surgeon, the NASA-Johnson Space Center Behavioral Health and Performance Group (JSC-BHPG) has focused on four key factors that can reduce the astronaut's behavioral health and performance. These factors are defined as: sleep and circadian factors; behavioral health factors; psychological adaptation factors; and human-to-system interface (the interface between the astronaut and the mission workplace) factors. Both the crew surgeon and the JSC-BHPG must earn the crewmember's trust preflight to encourage problem identification and problem solving in these four areas. Once on orbit, the crew medical officer becomes a valuable extension of the crew surgeon and BHPG on the ground due to the crew medical officer's constant interaction with crewmembers and preflight training in these four factors. However, the crew surgeon, BHPG, and the crew medical officer need tools that will help predict, prevent, monitor, and respond to developing problems. Objective data become essential when difficult mission termination decisions must be made. The need for behavioral health and performance tool development creates an environment rich for collaboration between operational healthcare providers and researchers. These tools are also a necessary step to safely complete future, more autonomous exploration-class space missions.

  15. A Data-Based Console Logger for Mission Operations Team Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Jenks, Kenneth; Overland, David; Oliver, Patrick; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang; Zhang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Concepts and prototypes1,2 are discussed for a data-based console logger (D-Logger) to meet new challenges for coordination among flight controllers arising from new exploration mission concepts. The challenges include communication delays, increased crew autonomy, multiple concurrent missions, reduced-size flight support teams that include multidisciplinary flight controllers during quiescent periods, and migrating some flight support activities to flight controller offices. A spiral development approach has been adopted, making simple, but useful functions available early and adding more extensive support later. Evaluations have guided the development of the D-Logger from the beginning and continue to provide valuable user influence about upcoming requirements. D-Logger is part of a suite of tools designed to support future operations personnel and crew. While these tools can be used independently, when used together, they provide yet another level of support by interacting with one another. Recommendations are offered for the development of similar projects.

  16. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  17. Application of State Analysis and Goal-based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, John Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the system behavior in terms of state variables and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper first describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  18. Alpha: A real-time decentralized operating system for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Alpha is a new kind of operating system that is unique in two highly significant ways. First, it is decentralized transparently providing reliable resource management across physically dispersed nodes, so that distributed applications programming can be done largely as though it were centralized. And second, it provides comprehensive, high technology support for real-time system integration and operation, an application area which consists predominately of aperiodic activities having critical time constraints such as deadlines. Alpha is extremely adaptable so that it can be easily optimized for a wide range of problem-specific functionality, performance, and cost. Alpha is the first systems effort of the Archons Project, and the prototype was created at Carnegie-Mellon University directly on modified Sun multiprocessor workstation hardware. It has been demonstrated with a real-time C(sup 2) application. Continuing research is leading to a series of enhanced follow-ons to Alpha; these are portable but initially hosted on Concurrent's MASSCOMP line of multiprocessor products.

  19. Plugfest 2009: Global Interoperability in Telerobotics and Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    King, H. Hawkeye; Hannaford, Blake; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Griffiths, Paul; Okamura, Allison; Farkhatdinov, Ildar; Ryu, Jee-Hwan; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Arikatla, Venkata; Tadano, Kotaro; Kawashima, Kenji; Peer, Angelika; Schauß, Thomas; Buss, Martin; Miller, Levi; Glozman, Daniel; Rosen, Jacob; Low, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great diversity of teleoperator designs and applications, their underlying control systems have many similarities. These similarities can be exploited to enable inter-operability between heterogeneous systems. We have developed a network data specification, the Interoperable Telerobotics Protocol, that can be used for Internet based control of a wide range of teleoperators. In this work we test interoperable telerobotics on the global Internet, focusing on the telesurgery application domain. Fourteen globally dispersed telerobotic master and slave systems were connected in thirty trials in one twenty four hour period. Users performed common manipulation tasks to demonstrate effective master-slave operation. With twenty eight (93%) successful, unique connections the results show a high potential for standardizing telerobotic operation. Furthermore, new paradigms for telesurgical operation and training are presented, including a networked surgery trainer and upper-limb exoskeleton control of micro-manipulators. PMID:24748993

  20. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  1. Operator based integration of information in multimodal radiological search mission with applications to anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, J.; Cloninger, A.; Czaja, W.; Doster, T.; Kochersberger, K.; Manning, B.; McCullough, T.; McLane, M.

    2014-05-01

    Successful performance of radiological search mission is dependent on effective utilization of mixture of signals. Examples of modalities include, e.g., EO imagery and gamma radiation data, or radiation data collected during multiple events. In addition, elevation data or spatial proximity can be used to enhance the performance of acquisition systems. State of the art techniques in processing and exploitation of complex information manifolds rely on diffusion operators. Our approach involves machine learning techniques based on analysis of joint data- dependent graphs and their associated diffusion kernels. Then, the significant eigenvectors of the derived fused graph Laplace and Schroedinger operators form the new representation, which provides integrated features from the heterogeneous input data. The families of data-dependent Laplace and Schroedinger operators on joint data graphs, shall be integrated by means of appropriately designed fusion metrics. These fused representations are used for target and anomaly detection.

  2. Joint operations planning for space surveillance missions on the MSX satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Grant; Good, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, sponsored by BMDO, is intended to gather broad-band phenomenology data on missiles, plumes, naturally occurring earthlimb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds. In addition the MSX will be used to conduct functional demonstrations of space-based space surveillance. The JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), located in Laurel, MD, is the integrator and operator of the MSX satellite. APL will conduct all operations related to the MSX and is charged with the detailed operations planning required to implement all of the experiments run on the MSX except the space surveillance experiments. The non-surveillance operations are generally amenable to being defined months ahead of time and being scheduled on a monthly basis. Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL), located in Lexington, MA, is the provider of one of the principle MSX instruments, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor, and the agency charged with implementing the space surveillance demonstrations on the MSX. The planning timelines for the space surveillance demonstrations are fundamentally different from those for the other experiments. They are generally amenable to being scheduled on a monthly basis, but the specific experiment sequence and pointing must be refined shortly before execution. This allocation of responsibilities to different organizations implies the need for a joint mission planning system for conducting space surveillance demonstrations. This paper details the iterative, joint planning system, based on passing responsibility for generating MSX commands for surveillance operations from APL to LL for specific scheduled operations. The joint planning system, including the generation of a budget for spacecraft resources to be used for surveillance events, has been successfully demonstrated during ground testing of the MSX and is being validated for MSX launch within the year. The planning system developed for the MSX forms a

  3. HL-20 operations and support requirements for the Personnel Launch System mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, Nancy H.; Caldwell, Ronald G.

    1993-10-01

    The processing, mission planning, and support requirements were defined for the HL-20 lifting-body configuration that can serve as a Personnel Launch System. These requirements were based on the assumption of an operating environment that incorporates aircraft and airline support methods and techniques that are applicable to operations. The study covered the complete turnaround process for the HL-20, including landing through launch, and mission operations, but did not address the support requirements of the launch vehicle except for the integrated activities. Support is defined in terms of manpower, staffing levels, facilities, ground support equipment, maintenance/sparing requirements, and turnaround processing time. Support results were drawn from two contracted studies, plus an in-house analysis used to define the maintenance manpower. The results of the contracted studies were used as the basis for a stochastic simulation of the support environment to determine the sufficiency of support and the effect of variance on vehicle processing. Results indicate the levels of support defined for the HL-20 through this process to be sufficient to achieve the desired flight rate of eight flights per year.

  4. A Scenario-Based Process for Requirements Development: Application to Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of using operational scenarios as part of requirements development during mission formulation (Phases A & B) is widely accepted as good system engineering practice. In the context of developing a Mission Operations System (MOS), there are numerous practical challenges to translating that notion into the cost-effective development of a useful set of requirements. These challenges can include such issues as a lack of Project-level focus on operations issues, insufficient or improper flowdown of requirements, flowdown of immature or poor-quality requirements from Project level, and MOS resource constraints (personnel expertise and/or dollars). System engineering theory must be translated into a practice that provides enough structure and standards to serve as guidance, but that retains sufficient flexibility to be tailored to the needs and constraints of a particular MOS or Project. We describe a detailed, scenario-based process for requirements development. Identifying a set of attributes for high quality requirements, we show how the portions of the process address many of those attributes. We also find that the basic process steps are robust, and can be effective even in challenging Project environments.

  5. A compiler and validator for flight operations on NASA space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, Sergio; Politi, Romolo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Giardino, Marco; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In NASA missions the management and the programming of the flight systems is performed by a specific scripting language, the SASF (Spacecraft Activity Sequence File). In order to perform a check on the syntax and grammar it is necessary a compiler that stress the errors (eventually) found in the sequence file produced for an instrument on board the flight system. In our experience on Dawn mission, we developed VIRV (VIR Validator), a tool that performs checks on the syntax and grammar of SASF, runs a simulations of VIR acquisitions and eventually finds violation of the flight rules of the sequences produced. The project of a SASF compiler (SSC - Spacecraft Sequence Compiler) is ready to have a new implementation: the generalization for different NASA mission. In fact, VIRV is a compiler for a dialect of SASF; it includes VIR commands as part of SASF language. Our goal is to produce a general compiler for the SASF, in which every instrument has a library to be introduced into the compiler. The SSC can analyze a SASF, produce a log of events, perform a simulation of the instrument acquisition and check the flight rules for the instrument selected. The output of the program can be produced in GRASS GIS format and may help the operator to analyze the geometry of the acquisition.

  6. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  7. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    tests the combination of Gauge data in a WPS that is triggered by a meteorological alert. The data is translated into OGC WaterML 2.0 time series data format and will be ingested in a SOS 2.0. SOS data is visualized in a SOS Client that is able to handle time series. The meteorological forecast data (with the supervision of an operator manipulating the WPS user interface) ingests with WaterML 2.0 time series and terrain data is input for a flooding modelling algorithm. The WPS is able to produce flooding datasets in the form of coverages that is offered to clients via a WCS 2.0 service or a WMS 1.3 service, and downloaded and visualized by the respective clients. The WPS triggers a notification or an alert that will be monitored from an emergency control response service. Acronyms AS: Alert Service ES: Event Service ICT: Information and Communication Technology NS: Notification Service OGC: Open Geospatial Consortium RIBASE: River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot SOS: Sensor Observation Service WaterML: Water Markup Language WCS: Web Coverage Service WMS: Web Map Service WPS: Web Processing Service

  8. Revolutionising Science-Driven Deep Space Mission Operations Using Autonomously-Operating Spacecraft as Demonstrated with ASE on EO-1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Chien, S.; Doggett, T. C.; Ip, F.; Dohm, J.; Greeley, R.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Sherwood, R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2005-12-01

    Until now, deep-space missions, separated from Earth by long communication times, have not had the capacity to quickly react to dynamic, ephemeral events that are of high science value. The capability of a spacecraft to react on a short time scale to such events is now a reality. The New Millennium Program Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) has successfully demonstrated autonomous, science-driven spacecraft operations. This flight-proven technology consists of (1) data classifiers, used to detect features of scientific interest; (2) an onboard planner than allocates available resources and creates observation sequences; and (3) a spacecraft command language that operates the spacecraft and instruments. ASE is flying on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in Earth orbit and autonomously detects active cloud cover, volcanism, changes in the cryosphere and flood events. Data are processed on-board EO-1. The spacecraft and Hyperion hyperspectral imager are then re-tasked to obtain further observations of the target. So far, this process has been executed over 300 times on-board EO-1. Additionally, in the special case of active volcanism, a data subset containing spectra of hot pixels is extracted and preferentially returned. This technology can enhance science return per returned byte by orders of magnitude. ASE technology is being infused onto Mars Odyssey to process THEMIS thermal imager data, with the goal of autonomously detecting thermal anomalies (hot spots), dust storms, and tracking the advance and retreat of seasonal ice caps. ASE allows THEMIS to collect a large volume of additional data, more than can be transmitted due to bandwidth constraints, and quickly analyze it to determine which images are of the highest priority (such as an image containing a thermal anomaly) or to transmit only the essential information, such as the location of a detection (such as the edge of the polar cap). Spacecraft autonomy is a requirement on certain deep

  9. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG), a subgroup of the Project Science Group, has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this abstract we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a set of six science campaign themes that maximize the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials

  10. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  11. Operational Processing of Ground Validation Data for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulie, Mark S.; Robinson, Mike; Marks, David A.; Ferrier, Brad S.; Rosenfeld, Danny; Wolff, David B.

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was successfully launched in November 1997. A primary goal of TRMM is to sample tropical rainfall using the first active spaceborne precipitation radar. To validate TRMM satellite observations, a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program has been implemented for this mission. A key component of GV is the analysis and quality control of meteorological ground-based radar data from four primary sites: Melbourne, FL; Houston, TX; Darwin, Australia; and Kwajalein Atoll, RMI. As part of the TRMM GV effort, the Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, has been tasked with developing and implementing an operational system to quality control (QC), archive, and provide data for subsequent rainfall product generation from the four primary GV sites. This paper provides an overview of the JCET operational environment. A description of the QC algorithm and performance, in addition to the data flow procedure between JCET and the TRNM science and Data Information System (TSDIS), are presented. The impact of quality-controlled data on higher level rainfall and reflectivity products will also be addressed, Finally, a brief description of JCET's expanded role into producing reference rainfall products will be discussed.

  12. Virtual Mission Operations of Remote Sensors With Rapid Access To and From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, Dave; Walke, Jon; Dikeman, Larry; Sage, Steven; Miller, Eric; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; Heberle, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes network-centric operations, where a virtual mission operations center autonomously receives sensor triggers, and schedules space and ground assets using Internet-based technologies and service-oriented architectures. For proof-of-concept purposes, sensor triggers are received from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to determine targets for space-based sensors. The Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite, the United Kingdom Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC), is used as the space-based sensor. The UK-DMC s availability is determined via machine-to-machine communications using SSTL s mission planning system. Access to/from the UK-DMC for tasking and sensor data is via SSTL s and Universal Space Network s (USN) ground assets. The availability and scheduling of USN s assets can also be performed autonomously via machine-to-machine communications. All communication, both on the ground and between ground and space, uses open Internet standards.

  13. Austere, remote, and disaster medicine missions: an operational mnemonic can help organize a deployment.

    PubMed

    Macias, Darryl J; Williams, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Medical care in resource-limited environments (austere settings) can occur in the context of a disaster, wilderness, or a tactical field operation. Regardless of the type of environment, there are common organizational themes in most successful humanitarian missions that occur in harsh natural or manmade environmental conditions. These principles prioritize the initiation and execution of any given deployment in austere or remote settings, diverging from priorities that would occur in a situation in which change to the existing medical structure is intact and operating well. Attention to these priorities not only helps providers to deliver medical care to people in need during a period of resource limitations but it also can keep providers, teams, the public, and patients safe during and after a deployment. PMID:23263320

  14. Virtual Mission Operations Center -Explicit Access to Small Satellites by a Net Enabled User Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E.; Medina, O.; Paulsen, P.; Hopkins, J.; Long, C.; Holloman, K.

    2008-08-01

    The Office of Naval Research (ON R), The Office of the Secr etary of Defense (OSD) , Th e Operationally Responsive Space Off ice (ORS) , and th e National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are funding the development and integration of key technologies and new processes that w ill allow users across th e bread th of operations the ab ility to access, task , retr ieve, and collaborate w ith data from various sensors including small satellites v ia the Intern et and the SIPRnet. The V irtual Mission Oper ations Center (VMO C) facilitates the dynamic apportionmen t of space assets, allows scalable mission man agement of mu ltiple types of sensors, and provid es access for non-space savvy users through an intu itive collaborative w eb site. These key technologies are b eing used as experimentation pathfinders fo r th e Do D's Operationally Responsiv e Sp ace (O RS) initiative and NASA's Sensor W eb. The O RS initiative seeks to provide space assets that can b e rapid ly tailored to meet a commander's in telligen ce or commun ication needs. For the DoD and NASA the V MO C provid es ready and scalab le access to space b ased assets. To the commercial space sector the V MO C may provide an analog to the innovativ e fractional ownersh ip approach represen ted by FlexJet. This pap er delves in to the technology, in tegration, and applicability of th e V MO C to th e DoD , NASA , and co mmer cial sectors.

  15. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isola, Claudia; Drusch, Matthias; Gascon, Ferran; Martimort, Philippe; Del Bello, Umberto; Spoto, Francois; Sy, Omas; Laberinti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Long-term availability of Earth observation-based services and continuity of consistent high quality data is - apart from meteorological services - not guaranteed in Europe. In order to contribute to improve its response to ever growing challenges of global safety and climate change, Europe requires an independent sustained and reliable Earth observation system. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a European programme for the implementation of a European capacity to provide independent and permanent access to reliable Earth observation data. To ensure the operational provision of appropriate Earth-observation data the GMES Space Component (GSC) includes a series of five space missions called 'Sentinels', which are being developed by ESA specifically for GMES. The European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geo-location and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at

  16. Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability and Implementing NIST's Interoperability Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Basso,T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2010-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards project P2030TM addressing smart grid interoperability and the IEEE 1547 series of standards addressing distributed resources interconnection with the grid have been identified in priority action plans in the Report to NIST on the Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Roadmap. This paper presents the status of the IEEE P2030 development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards publications and drafts, and provides insight on systems integration and grid infrastructure. The P2030 and 1547 series of standards are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21.

  17. Tracking and data system support for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars: Extended mission operations, December 1976 to May 1978, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgway, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The support which was provided by the Deep Space Network to the Viking Extended Mission from December 1976 to May 1978 is described. Tracking and data acquisition support required the continuous operation of a world-wide network of tracking stations with 64-meter and 26-meter diameter antennas, together with a global communications system for the transfer of commands, telemetry, and radio metric data between the stations and the Network Operations Control Center in Pasadena, California. Performance of the deep-space communications links between Earth and Mars, and innovative new management techniques for operations and data handling are included.

  18. Enhancing the ACE control center for the multiple uses of spacecraft integration and test and mission and science operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Frank; Garrard, Thomas L.; Steck, Jane A.; Maury, Jesse L.

    1996-01-01

    In relation to the mandate to reduce space mission development and operations costs, the advanced composition explorer (ACE) will use a version of the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) for its mission operations. It was determined during the phase B of the ACE project that a potential existed for substantial savings if the adaptation of the TPOCC for the ACE mission operations could include its adaptation for use as the primary component in the ground support equipment for the integration and testing of the ACE spacecraft, and for use as the basic component in the ACE science center. The implementation of this approach required the enhancement of the TPOCC requirements, changes in the development schedule and changes in the allocation and activities of the personnel responsible for the development of ACE operations. It is discussed how these issues, and the problems that arose, were addressed.

  19. 76 FR 2598 - Requests for Waiver of Various Petitioners To Allow the Establishment of 700 MHz Interoperable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... roaming capabilities and system identifiers, that are crucial to ensuring that the users of disparate... networks achieve a baseline of operability sufficient to support interoperable communications....

  20. Mission Operations Center (MOC) - Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Interface Software System (MPISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, Jeffrey; Calk, William; Atwell, William; Tsui, Tina

    2013-01-01

    MPISS is an automatic file transfer system that implements a combination of standard and mission-unique transfer protocols required by the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) Precipitation Processing System (PPS) to control the flow of data between the MOC and the PPS. The primary features of MPISS are file transfers (both with and without PPS specific protocols), logging of file transfer and system events to local files and a standard messaging bus, short term storage of data files to facilitate retransmissions, and generation of file transfer accounting reports. The system includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to control the system, allow manual operations, and to display events in real time. The PPS specific protocols are an enhanced version of those that were developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). All file transfers between the MOC and the PPS use the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). For reports and data files generated within the MOC, no additional protocols are used when transferring files to the PPS. For observatory data files, an additional handshaking protocol of data notices and data receipts is used. MPISS generates and sends to the PPS data notices containing data start and stop times along with a checksum for the file for each observatory data file transmitted. MPISS retrieves the PPS generated data receipts that indicate the success or failure of the PPS to ingest the data file and/or notice. MPISS retransmits the appropriate files as indicated in the receipt when required. MPISS also automatically retrieves files from the PPS. The unique feature of this software is the use of both standard and PPS specific protocols in parallel. The advantage of this capability is that it supports users that require the PPS protocol as well as those that do not require it. The system is highly configurable to accommodate the needs of future users.

  1. Interoperable PKI Data Distribution in Computational Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pala, Massimiliano; Cholia, Shreyas; Rea, Scott A.; Smith, Sean W.

    2008-07-25

    One of the most successful working examples of virtual organizations, computational grids need authentication mechanisms that inter-operate across domain boundaries. Public Key Infrastructures(PKIs) provide sufficient flexibility to allow resource managers to securely grant access to their systems in such distributed environments. However, as PKIs grow and services are added to enhance both security and usability, users and applications must struggle to discover available resources-particularly when the Certification Authority (CA) is alien to the relying party. This article presents how to overcome these limitations of the current grid authentication model by integrating the PKI Resource Query Protocol (PRQP) into the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI).

  2. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  3. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    The sample return missions have made a very significant progress to understanding of geology, the extra-terrestrial materials, processes occurring on surface and subsurface level, as well as of interactions between such materials and mechanisms operating there. The various sample return missions in the past (e.g. Apollo missions, Luna missions, Hayabusa mission) have provided scientists with samples of extra-terrestrial materials allowing to discover answers to critical scientific questions concerning the origin and evolution of the Solar System. Several new missions are currently planned: sample return missions, e.g Russian Luna-28, ESA Phootprint and MarcoPolo-R as well as both robotic and manned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. One of the key challenges in such missions is the reliable sampling process which can be achieved by using many different techniques, e.g. static excavating technique (scoop), core drilling, sampling using dynamic mechanisms (penetrators), brushes and pneumatic systems. The effectiveness of any sampling strategy depends on many factors, including the required sample size, the mechanical and chemical soil properties (cohesive, hard or porous regolith, stones), the environment conditions (gravity, temperature, pressure, radiation). Many sampling mechanism have been studied, designed and built in the past, two techniques to collect regolith samples were chosen for the Phobos-Grunt mission. The proposed system consisted of a robotic arm with a 1,2m reach beyond the lander (IKI RAN); a tubular sampling device designed for collecting both regolith and small rock fragments (IKI RAN); the CHOMIK device (CBK PAN) - the low velocity penetrator with a single-sample container for collecting samples from the rocky surface. The functional tests were essential step in robotic arm, sampling device and CHOMIK device development process in the frame of Phobos-Grunt mission. Three major results were achieved: (i) operation scenario for autonomous

  4. Digital Learning Network Education Events of NASA's Extreme Environments Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Guillory, Erika

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLN) reaches out to thousands of students each year through video conferencing and web casting. The DLN has created a series of live education videoconferences connecting NASA s Extreme Environment Missions Operations (NEEMO) team to students across the United States. The programs are also extended to students around the world live web casting. The primary focus of the events is the vision for space exploration. During the programs, NEEMO Crewmembers including NASA astronauts, engineers and scientists inform and inspire students about the importance of exploration and share the impact of the project as it correlates with plans to return to the moon and explore the planet Mars. These events highlight interactivity. Students talk live with the aquanauts in Aquarius, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s underwater laboratory. With this program, NASA continues the Agency s tradition of investing in the nation's education programs. It is directly tied to the Agency's major education goal of attracting and retaining students in science, technology, and engineering disciplines. Before connecting with the aquanauts, the students conduct experiments of their own designed to coincide with mission objectives. This paper describes the events that took place in September 2006.

  5. The Copernicus Sentinel-5 mission for operational atmospheric monitoring: status and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézy, J.-L.; Sierk, B.; Caron, J.; Veihelmann, B.; Martin, D.; Langen, J.

    2014-10-01

    Sentinel-5 is an atmospheric monitoring mission planned in the frame of the joint EC/ESA Copernicus initiative, previously known as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES). The objective of the mission, due for launch in 2021, is the operational monitoring of trace gas concentrations for atmospheric chemistry and climate applications. It will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde, and aerosol properties. The space segment will be implemented as an imaging spectrometer to be flown on EUMETSAT's Metop Second Generation satellites. From a sunsynchronous LEO orbit Sentinel-5 measurements will provide a daily global coverage at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 7x7 km at nadir and will complement the Sentinel-4 GEO data over Europe. The pushbroom imaging grating spectrometer will acquire continuous spectra of Earthshine radiance covering the UV (270-370 nm), VIS (370- 500 nm), NIR (685-773 nm) and SWIR (1590-1675 nm; 2305-2385 nm) spectral regions, with spectral resolution ranging from 0.25 nm to 1 nm.

  6. Achieving interoperability for accountable care.

    PubMed

    Bordenick, Jennifer Covich; Okubo, Tracy H; Kontur, Alex; Siddiqui, Nadeen

    2015-02-01

    Based on findings of a recent survey, accountable care organizations should keep eight points in mind as they seek to establish interoperability among their provider constituents: Create a shared governance structure to make IT decisions. Conduct a readiness assessment and gap analysis. Reconfigure the technology infrastructure and processes to support new value-based care delivery protocols. Consider targeting programs around high-risk groups. Develop real-time data-sharing systems. Ensure privacy and security policies and procedures are in place. Assess and address workforce issues expeditiously. Participate in broader interoperability efforts. PMID:26665540

  7. CCP interoperability and system stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Hu, Haibo

    2016-09-01

    To control counterparty risk, financial regulations such as the Dodd-Frank Act are increasingly requiring standardized derivatives trades to be cleared by central counterparties (CCPs). It is anticipated that in the near term future, CCPs across the world will be linked through interoperability agreements that facilitate risk sharing but also serve as a conduit for transmitting shocks. This paper theoretically studies a networked network with CCPs that are linked through interoperability arrangements. The major finding is that the different configurations of networked network CCPs contribute to the different properties of the cascading failures.

  8. Operational space human factors - Methodology for a DSO. [Detailed Supplementary Objective for manned Shuttle Orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Thomas F.; Gosbee, John W.; Adam, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Factors Assessment of Orbiter Missions (Detailed Supplementary Objective 904) was conducted on STS-40 (Spacelab Life Sciences 1) in order to bring human factors into the operational world of manned space flight. This paper describes some of its methods. Included are explanations of general and space human factors, and a description of DSO 904 study objectives and results. The methods described include ways to collect background information for studies and also different in-flight data collection techniques. Several lessons for the space human factors engineer are reflected in this paper. First, method development is just as important as standards generation. Second, results of investigations should always have applicability to design. Third, cooperation with other NASA groups is essential. Finally, the human is the most important component of the space exploration system, and often the most difficult to study.

  9. Integration of Spacecraft Telemetry into Navigation Operations for the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardalan, S.M.; Antreasian, P.G.; Criddle, K.E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R.A.; Jones, J.B.; MacKenzie, R.A.; Parcher, D.W.; Pelletier, F.J.; Roth, D.C.; Thompson, P.F.; Vaughan, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter is the largest and most complex interplanetary spacecraft ever built. Since attaining orbit around Saturn in the summer of 2004, Cassini, along with its Huygens probe, have been continually improving our understanding Saturn, its satellites, its enigmatic rings system, and of the solar system. One of the hallmarks of the Cassini- Huygens Project is the close working relationship between the many teams required to operate such a sophisticated spacecraft. Their ingenuity has enabled them to find new and different ways to improve their processes during Cassini's prime 4-year orbital tour. This paper will discuss the relationship between Cassini's Navigation and Spacecraft Teams and the work required to properly configure Cassini's telemetry system for Navigation. A detailed explanation of how the Navigation Team utilizes spacecraft telemetry and analysis demonstrating the benefits will also be provided. Finally, telemetry requirements for Navigation for future missions will be addressed.

  10. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG) is a subgroup of the Project Science Group that has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this report we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a plan that maximizes the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is -very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials exposed at the site

  11. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization?s guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:22113725

  12. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:21882772

  13. Mission and vehicle management and FDIR functions for GNC systems for rendezvous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppa, U.; Sommer, J.; Tobias, A.; Panicucci, M.; Olivier-Martin, L.

    1991-12-01

    In the forthcoming European scenarios of LEO (Low Earth Orbit), spacecraft will perform frequent complex rendezvous and proximity operations maneuvers. The ESA set up a RVD (Rendezvous and Docking) Proof of Concept program (RVD-POC) aimed at the definition and verification of RVD concepts that encompass those of the Hermes and Columbus projects. The approach to collision avoidance, in the scenarios covered by the RVD-POC, and the concepts defined for Mission and Vehicle Management (MVM) and Failure Detection Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) are described. The verification approach for these and other GNC related concepts, and the planned tests and expected results in the RVD-POC on these matters are presented.

  14. A Model-Based Approach to Developing Your Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert R.; Schimmels, Kathryn A.; Lock, Patricia D; Valerio, Charlene P.

    2014-01-01

    Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) is an increasingly popular methodology for designing complex engineering systems. As the use of MBSE has grown, it has begun to be applied to systems that are less hardware-based and more people- and process-based. We describe our approach to incorporating MBSE as a way to streamline development, and how to build a model consisting of core resources, such as requirements and interfaces, that can be adapted and used by new and upcoming projects. By comparing traditional Mission Operations System (MOS) system engineering with an MOS designed via a model, we will demonstrate the benefits to be obtained by incorporating MBSE in system engineering design processes.

  15. Association of market, mission, operational, and financial factors with hospitals' level of cash and security investments.

    PubMed

    McCue, M J; Thompson, J M; Dodd-McCue, D

    Using a resource dependency framework and financial theory, this study assessed the market, mission, operational, and financial factors associated with the level of cash and security investments in hospitals. We ranked hospitals in the study sample based on their cash and security investments as a percentage of total assets: hospitals in the high cash/security investment category were in the top 25th percentile of all hospitals; those in the low cash/security investment group were in the bottom 25th percentile. Findings indicate that high cash/security investment hospitals are under either public or private nonprofit ownership and have greater market share. They also serve more complex cases, offer more technology services, generate greater profits, incur a more stable patient revenue base, and maintain less debt. PMID:11252449

  16. A Generalized Timeline Representation, Services, and Interface for Automating Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Johnston, Mark; Frank, Jeremy; Giuliano, Mark; Kavelaars, Alicia; Lenzen, Christoph; Policella, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Numerous automated and semi-automated planning & scheduling systems have been developed for space applications. Most of these systems are model-based in that they encode domain knowledge necessary to predict spacecraft state and resources based on initial conditions and a proposed activity plan. The spacecraft state and resources as often modeled as a series of timelines, with a timeline or set of timelines to represent a state or resource key in the operations of the spacecraft. In this paper, we first describe a basic timeline representation that can represent a set of state, resource, timing, and transition constraints. We describe a number of planning and scheduling systems designed for space applications (and in many cases deployed for use of ongoing missions) and describe how they do and do not map onto this timeline model.

  17. Association of market, mission, operational, and financial factors on hospital acquisition prices: 1999 through 2001.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Since the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, there has been a decline in the number of hospital acquisitions. Using data from 1999 through 2001, we examined the relationship between market, mission, operational, and financial factors on hospital acquisition prices. Using an ordinary least squares regression model, we found that acquiring multihospital systems paid a higher price for larger hospitals with fewer unoccupied beds and greater profitability. Although only marginally significant, we also found that acquiring hospital systems paid a higher purchase price for hospitals in near urban markets and for hospitals located in the Central region of the United States. From a policy standpoint, we found no significant difference in the purchase price paid between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. PMID:15773251

  18. Technical Challenges and Opportunities of Centralizing Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ido, Haisam; Burns, Rich

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Science Mission Operations project (SSMO) is performing a technical cost-benefit analysis for centralizing and consolidating operations of a diverse set of missions into a unified and integrated technical infrastructure. The presentation will focus on the notion of normalizing spacecraft operations processes, workflows, and tools. It will also show the processes of creating a standardized open architecture, creating common security models and implementations, interfaces, services, automations, notifications, alerts, logging, publish, subscribe and middleware capabilities. The presentation will also discuss how to leverage traditional capabilities, along with virtualization, cloud computing services, control groups and containers, and possibly Big Data concepts.

  19. Building on 50 Years of Mission Operations Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onken, Jay F.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. National Space Policy, I the 14-nation Global Exploration Strategy,2 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) 2006 Strategic Plan3 provide foundational direction for far-ranging missions, from safely flying the Space Shuttle and completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010, to fielding a next generation space transportation system consisting of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle!Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle!Altair Lunar Lander (fig. 1). Transportation beyond low-Earth orbit will open the frontier for a lunar outpost, where astronauts will harness in-situ resources while exploring this 4 billion-year-old archaeological site, which may hold answers to how the Earth and its satellite were formed. Ultimately, this experience will pave the way for the first human footprint on Mars. In October 2007, NASA" announced assignments for this lunar exploration work.4 The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for designing, developing, testing, and evaluating the Ares I and Ares V, which are Space Shuttle derived launch vehicles, along with a number of lunar tasks. The Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate provides the skilled workforce and unique manufacturing, testing, and operational infrastructure needed to deliver space transportation solutions that meet the requirements stated in the Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD). While defining design reference missions to the Station and the Moon, the CARD includes goals that include reducing recurring and nonrecurring costs, while increasing safety and reliability. For this reason, future systems are being designed with operability considerations and lifecycle expenses as independent variables in engineering trade studies.

  20. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  1. International Planetary Science Interoperability: The Venus Express Interface Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford Bussard, Stephen; Chanover, N.; Huber, L.; Trejo, I.; Hughes, J. S.; Kelly, S.; Guinness, E.; Heather, D.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) have successfully demonstrated interoperability between planetary science data archives with the Venus Express (VEX) Interface prototype. Because VEX is an ESA mission, there is no memorandum of understanding to archive the data in the PDS. However, using a common communications protocol and common data standards, VEX mission science data ingested into the PSA can be accessed from a user interface at the Atmospheres Node of the PDS, making the science data accessible globally through two established planetary science data portals. The PSA makes scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions accessible to the worldwide scientific community. The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Mission data included in the archive aside from VEX include data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Smart-1, Huygens, and Rosetta spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations. All data are compatible to the Planetary Data System data standard. The PDS archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. The PDS is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The architecture of the VEX prototype interface leverages components from both the PSA and PDS information system infrastructures, a user interface developed at the New Mexico State University, and the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP). The VEX Interoperability Project was a key project of the IPDA, whose objective is to ensure world-wide access to planetary data regardless of which agency collects and archives the data. A follow-on IPDA project will adapt the VEX Interoperability protocol for access in JAXA to the Venus Climate

  2. The EnviSAT ASAR Mission: A Look Back At 10 Years Of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, N.; Rosich, B.; Meadows, P. J.; Haria, K.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Lavalle, M.; Collard, F.; Johnsen, H.; Guarnieri, A. Monti; D'Aria, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on- board Envisat operated successfully for just over 10 years until the failure of Envisat in April 2012. ASAR was ESA's very first deployment of a C-band phased- array antenna, allowing extended imaging capacity in comparison to its ERS SAR predecessors. As such it operated in various acquisition modes - Image (IM), Alternating Polarisation (AP), Wide Swath (WS), Global Monitoring (GM), and Wave (WV). For IM and AP modes there was a selection of 7 swaths with swath width from 100 km to 56 km: IM was single- polarisation, while AP was dual-pol, offering a choice from HH&VV, HH&HV, or VV&VH. WS and GM modes had a total swath width of 405 km based on the combination of 5 sub-swaths. WV acquired imagettes of 10 km by 10 km every 100 km along the satellite track. This paper is a look back to the 10 years of ASAR operations, covering topics such as the ASAR Instrument (characteristics, acquisition modes, product tree and observation scenario), Instrument Calibration and Performance Verification (including instrument stability, internal calibration, external calibration, absolute radiometric calibration, localisation accuracy, absolute geolocation accuracy, performance verification and product calibration), ASAR specific missions (wave and polarimetric), particular ASAR events such as antenna resets, burst synchronisation, AP swath modifications and the Envisat orbit change in October 2010.

  3. Design and implementation of the flight dynamics system for COMS satellite mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Hwang, Yoola; Kim, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Jaehoon

    2011-04-01

    The first Korean multi-mission geostationary Earth orbit satellite, Communications, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) was launched by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle in June 26, 2010. The COMS satellite has three payloads including Ka-band communications, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager, and Meteorological Imager. Although the COMS spacecraft bus is based on the Astrium Eurostar 3000 series, it has only one solar array to the south panel because all of the imaging sensors are located on the north panel. In order to maintain the spacecraft attitude with 5 wheels and 7 thrusters, COMS should perform twice a day wheel off-loading thruster firing operations, which affect on the satellite orbit. COMS flight dynamics system provides the general on-station functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, station-keeping maneuver planning, station-relocation maneuver planning, and fuel accounting. All orbit related functions in flight dynamics system consider the orbital perturbations due to wheel off-loading operations. There are some specific flight dynamics functions to operate the spacecraft bus such as wheel off-loading management, oscillator updating management, and on-station attitude reacquisition management. In this paper, the design and implementation of the COMS flight dynamics system is presented. An object oriented analysis and design methodology is applied to the flight dynamics system design. Programming language C# within Microsoft .NET framework is used for the implementation of COMS flight dynamics system on Windows based personal computer.

  4. A Moderated Discussion about Interesting Careers in Aerospace and Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have one of the lowest unemployment rates in the US, yet many do not work in the field of astronomy because of few permanent traditional options relative to the number of PhDs produced each year. Where do so many astronomers find employment? Learn more at this session. Astronomical training provides the background for many interesting careers. As appropriate to the location of this meeting, this session provides a perspective on what those opportunities may be among aerospace industry-related careers. They are more diverse than you might think. In this session, two speakers with wide ranging experience in the field and a high level view of staffing large projects offer their thoughts. Kathy Flanagan is Deputy Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which will conduct the science and mission operations for the James Webb Space Telescope. This project has involved staffing at many levels of hardware, software, data analysis, science, operations, and outreach. Jeff Grant is sector vice president and general manager of the Space Systems Division at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, and leads the design, build, launch and operations of major systems in space. We invite early career scientists and their mentors to hear their thoughts and ask questions at this session.

  5. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  6. Large UAS Operations in the NAS - The NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on wildfires throughout Western US. Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20+ hours). Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition).

  7. Interoperability in Personalized Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroyo, Lora; Dolog, Peter; Houben, Geert-Jan; Kravcik, Milos; Naeve, Ambjorn; Nilsson, Mikael; Wild, Fridolin

    2006-01-01

    Personalized adaptive learning requires semantic-based and context-aware systems to manage the Web knowledge efficiently as well as to achieve semantic interoperability between heterogeneous information resources and services. The technological and conceptual differences can be bridged either by means of standards or via approaches based on the…

  8. Interoperability of Neuroscience Modeling Software

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Robert C.; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Gleeson, Padraig; Bhalla, Upinder S.; Cornelis, Hugo; Hines, Michael L.; Howell, Fredrick W.; Muller, Eilif; Stiles, Joel R.; Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience increasingly uses computational models to assist in the exploration and interpretation of complex phenomena. As a result, considerable effort is invested in the development of software tools and technologies for numerical simulations and for the creation and publication of models. The diversity of related tools leads to the duplication of effort and hinders model reuse. Development practices and technologies that support interoperability between software systems therefore play an important role in making the modeling process more efficient and in ensuring that published models can be reliably and easily reused. Various forms of interoperability are possible including the development of portable model description standards, the adoption of common simulation languages or the use of standardized middleware. Each of these approaches finds applications within the broad range of current modeling activity. However more effort is required in many areas to enable new scientific questions to be addressed. Here we present the conclusions of the “Neuro-IT Interoperability of Simulators” workshop, held at the 11th computational neuroscience meeting in Edinburgh (July 19-20 2006; http://www.cnsorg.org). We assess the current state of interoperability of neural simulation software and explore the future directions that will enable the field to advance. PMID:17873374

  9. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals: Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    2015-08-01

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to determine the origin of a glacially-derived deposit: was the deposit the result of (1) glacial outwash from meltwater; or (2) the result of an ice dam breach at the head of the valley? Lessons learned from MMAMA 2012 science operations include: (1) current rover science operations scenarios tested in this environment provide adequate data to yield accurate derivative products such as geologic maps; (2) instrumentation should be selected based on both engineering and science goals; and chosen during, rather than after, mission definition; and (3) paralleling the tactical and strategic science processes provides significant efficiencies that impact science return. The MER-model concept of operations utilized, in which rover operators were sufficiently facile with science intent to alter traverse and sampling plans during plan execution, increased science efficiency, gave the Science Backroom time to develop mature hypotheses and science rationales, and partially alleviated the problem of data flow being greater than the processing speed of the scientists.

  10. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-09-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG) is a subgroup of the Project Science Group that has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this report we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a plan that maximizes the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is -very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials exposed at the site

  11. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG) is a subgroup of the Project Science Group that has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this report we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a plan that maximizes the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is -very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials exposed at the site

  12. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission's data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as net

  13. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusch, M.; Gascon, F.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multispectral instrument features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geolocation and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at end-of-life. The satellite will be three-axis stabilized with an AOCS based on high-rate multi-head star trackers, mounted on the instrument structure for better pointing accuracy and stability, as well as a laser gyroscope and a dual-frequency GNSS receiver. The Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is based on the pushbroom concept. It features a Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) telescope with a pupil diameter of about 150 mm, and achieves a very good imaging quality all across its wide Field of View (290 km swath width, significantly enlarged with respect to Landsat and SPOT). The telescope structure and the mirrors are made of silicon carbide for minimizing thermo-elastic deformations. The visible and

  14. Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm (ANTS) Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM), Asteroid Proximity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg; Cooley, Steve; Roithmayr, Carlos; Kay-Bunnell, Linda; Williams, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm (ANTS) is a generic mission architecture based on spatially distributed spacecraft, autonomous and redundant components, and hierarchical organization. The ANTS Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) is an ANTS application which will nominally use a swarm of 1000 spacecraft. There would be 10 types of "specialists" with common spacecraft buses. There would be 10 subswarms of approximately 100 spacecraft each or approximately 10 of each specialist in each swarm. The ANTS PAM primary objective is the exploration of the asteroid belt in search of resources and material with astrobiologically relevant origins and signatures. The ANTS PAM spacecraft will nominally be released from a station in an Earth-Moon L1 libration point orbit, and they will use Solar sails for propulsion. The sail structure would be highly flexible, capable of changing morphology to change cross-section for capture of sunlight or to form effective "tip vanes" for attitude control. ANTS PAM sails would be capable of full to partial deployment, to change effective sail area and center of pressure, and thus allow attitude control. Results of analysis of a transfer trajectory from Earth to a sample target asteroid will be presented. ANTS PAM will require continuous coverage of different asteroid locations as close as one to two asteroid "diameters" from the surface of the asteroid for periods of science data collection during asteroid proximity operations. Hovering spacecraft could meet the science data collection objectives. The results of hovering analysis will be presented. There are locations for which hovering is not possible, for example on the illuminated side of the asteroid. For cases where hovering is not possible, the results of utilizing asteroid formations to orbit the asteroid and achieve the desired asteroid viewing will be presented for sample asteroids. The ability of ANTS PAM to reduce the area of the solar sail during asteroid proximity operations is

  15. Spaceborne observations of a changing Earth - Contribution from ESÁ s operating and approved satellite missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    , managerial and regulatory activities (i.e. weather forecasting, deforestation, flooding, etc.) essential to the safe exploitation of global resources, conservation of sustainable ecosystems, and the compliance with numerous international treaties and conventions, depend absolutely on continuity of satellite missions to maximise socio-economic and environmental benefits. This presentation will highlight some of the multidisciplinary Earth science achievements and operational applications using ESA satellite missions. It will also address some of the key scientific challenges and need for operational monitoring services in the years to come. It capitalizes on the knowledge and awareness outlined in "The Changing Earth - New scientific challenges for ESÁs Living Planet Programme" issued in 2006 together with updated views and approved plans expressed during ESÁs Earth Sciences Advisory Committee (ESAC) meetings and agreed at the recent User Consultation meeting in January 2009.

  16. 75 FR 28206 - Establishment of an Emergency Response Interoperability Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... delegates authority to the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to establish advisory bodies and select appropriate representatives from federal agencies, the public safety community, and... the 700 MHz public safety broadband wireless network will be fully operable and interoperable on...

  17. 47 CFR 90.547 - Narrowband Interoperability channel capability requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Frequencies in the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.547 Narrowband Interoperability channel capability... channels in the 769-775 MHz and 799-805 MHz frequency bands must be capable of operating on all of...

  18. 47 CFR 90.548 - Interoperability Technical Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the standards listed in this section that are incorporated by reference may... the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.548 Interoperability Technical Standards. (a) Transmitters operating on those narrowband channels in the 769-775 and 799-805 MHz band designated for...

  19. Nutritional Assessment During a 14-d Saturation Dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Fesperman, J. V.; Smith, M. D.; Rice, B. L.; Zwart, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiological and nutritional changes associated with space travel, particularly since exploration missions are anticipated, and flight research opportunities are limited. A clinical nutritional assessment of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V (NEEMO) crew (4 M, 2 F) was conducted before, during, and after the 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before (D-12 and D-1), during (MD 7 and MD 12), and after (R + 0 and R + 7) the dive. The foods were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiological changes were reported both during the dive and post dive that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Serum hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P less than 0.05) post dive. Serum ferritin and ceruloplasmin significantly increased during the dive, while transferring receptors tended to go down during the dive and were significantly decreased by the last day (R + 0). Along with significant hematological changes, there was also evidence for increased oxidative damage and stress during the dive. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was elevated (P less than 0.05) during the dive, while glutathione peroxidase and superoxide disrnutase activities were decreased (P less than 0.05) during the dive. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration also tended to increase during the dive, suggesting the presence of a stress-induced inflammatory response, Decreased leptin during the dive (P less than 0.05) may also be related to the increased stress. Similar to what is observed during spaceflight, subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to further define the physiological effects of spaceflight and investigate potential countermeasures.

  20. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 science operations: Operational approaches and lessons learned for managing science during human planetary surface missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Hörz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary; Marinova, Margarita; May, Lisa; Meyer, Jonathan; Ming, Doug; Monteleone, Brian; Morisset, Caroline; Noble, Sarah; Rampe, Elizabeth; Rice, James; Schutt, John; Skinner, James; Tewksbury-Christle, Carolyn M.; Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Vaughan, Alicia; Yingst, Aileen; Young, Kelsey

    2013-10-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space. The results from the RATS tests allow selection of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  1. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Horz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  2. The interoperability force in the ERP field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boza, Andrés; Cuenca, Llanos; Poler, Raúl; Michaelides, Zenon

    2015-04-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems participate in interoperability projects and this participation sometimes leads to new proposals for the ERP field. The aim of this paper is to identify the role that interoperability plays in the evolution of ERP systems. To go about this, ERP systems have been first identified within interoperability frameworks. Second, the initiatives in the ERP field driven by interoperability requirements have been identified from two perspectives: technological and business. The ERP field is evolving from classical ERP as information system integrators to a new generation of fully interoperable ERP. Interoperability is changing the way of running business, and ERP systems are changing to adapt to the current stream of interoperability.

  3. ALR - Laser altimeter for the ASTER deep space mission. Simulated operation above a surface with crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brum, A. G. V.; da Cruz, F. C.; Hetem, A., Jr.

    2015-10-01

    To assist in the investigation of the triple asteroid system 2001-SN263, the deep space mission ASTER will carry onboard a laser altimeter. The instrument was named ALR and its development is now in progress. In order to help in the instrument design, with a view to the creation of software to control the instrument, a package of computer programs was produced to simulate the operation of a pulsed laser altimeter with operating principle based on the measurement of the time of flight of the travelling pulse. This software Simulator was called ALR_Sim, and the results obtained with its use represent what should be expected as return signal when laser pulses are fired toward a target, reflect on it and return to be detected by the instrument. The program was successfully tested with regard to some of the most common situations expected. It constitutes now the main workbench dedicated to the creation and testing of control software to embark in the ALR. In addition, the Simulator constitutes also an important tool to assist the creation of software to be used on Earth, in the processing and analysis of the data received from the instrument. This work presents the results obtained in the special case which involves the modeling of a surface with crater, along with the simulation of the instrument operation above this type of terrain. This study points out that the comparison of the wave form obtained as return signal after reflection of the laser pulse on the surface of the crater with the expected return signal in the case of a flat and homogeneous surface is a useful method that can be applied for terrain details extraction.

  4. Modeling Real-Time Coordination of Distributed Expertise and Event Response in NASA Mission Control Center Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Jeffrey

    This dissertation introduces a multidisciplinary framework for the enabling of future research and analysis of alternatives for control centers for real-time operations of safety-critical systems. The multidisciplinary framework integrates functional and computational models that describe the dynamics in fundamental concepts of previously disparate engineering and psychology research disciplines, such as group performance and processes, supervisory control, situation awareness, events and delays, and expertise. The application in this dissertation is the real-time operations within the NASA Mission Control Center in Houston, TX. This dissertation operationalizes the framework into a model and simulation, which simulates the functional and computational models in the framework according to user-configured scenarios for a NASA human-spaceflight mission. The model and simulation generates data according to the effectiveness of the mission-control team in supporting the completion of mission objectives and detecting, isolating, and recovering from anomalies. Accompanying the multidisciplinary framework is a proof of concept, which demonstrates the feasibility of such a framework. The proof of concept demonstrates that variability occurs where expected based on the models. The proof of concept also demonstrates that the data generated from the model and simulation is useful for analyzing and comparing MCC configuration alternatives because an investigator can give a diverse set of scenarios to the simulation and the output compared in detail to inform decisions about the effect of MCC configurations on mission operations performance.

  5. Mission description and in-flight operations of ERBE instruments on ERBS and NOAA 9 spacecraft, November 1984 - January 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, William L.; Bush, Kathryn A.; Harris, Chris J.; Howerton, Clayton E.; Tolson, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    Instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are operating on three different Earth orbiting spacecrafts: the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), NOAA-9, and NOAA-10. An overview is presented of the ERBE mission, in-orbit environments, and instrument design and operational features. An overview of science data processing and validation procedures is also presented. In-flight operations are described for the ERBE instruments aboard the ERBS and NOAA-9. Calibration and other operational procedures are described, and operational and instrument housekeeping data are presented and discussed.

  6. Designing an autonomous environment for mission critical operation of the EUVE satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedini, Annadiana; Malina, Roger F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the launch of NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite in 1992, there has only been a handful of occurrences that have warranted manual intervention in the EUVE Science Operations Center (ESOC). So, in an effort to reduce costs, the current environment is being redesigned to utilize a combination of off-the-shelf packages and recently developed artificial intelligence (AI) software to automate the monitoring of the science payload and ground systems. The successful implementation of systemic automation would allow the ESOC to evolve from a seven day/week, three shift operation, to a seven day/week one shift operation. First, it was necessary to identify all areas considered mission critical. These were defined as follows: (1) The telemetry stream must be monitored autonomously and anomalies identified. (2) Duty personnel must be automatically paged and informed of the occurrence of an anomaly. (3) The 'basic' state of the ground system must be assessed. (4) Monitors should check that the systems and processes needed to continue in a 'healthy' operational mode are working at all times. (5) Network loads should be monitored to ensure that they stay within established limits. (6) Connectivity to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) systems should be monitored as well, not just for connectivity of the network itself but also for the ability to transfer files. (7) All necessary peripheral devices should be monitored. This would include the disks, routers, tape drives, printers, tape carousel, and power supplies. (8) System daemons such as the archival daemon, the Sybase server, the payload monitoring software, and any other necessary processes should be monitored to ensure that they are operational. (9) The monitoring system needs to be redundant so that the failure of a single machine will not paralyze the monitors. (10) Notification should be done by means of looking though a table of the pager numbers for current 'on call' personnel. The software

  7. Individual styles of professional operator's performance for the needs of interplanetary mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boritko, Yaroslav; Gushin, Vadim; Zavalko, Irina; Smoleevskiy, Alexandr; Dudukin, Alexandr

    Maintenance of the cosmonaut’s professional performance reliability is one of the priorities of long-term space flights safety. Cosmonaut’s performance during long-term space flight decreases due to combination of the microgravity effects and inevitable degradation of skills during prolonged breaks in training. Therefore, the objective of the elaboration of countermeasures against skill decrement is very relevant. During the experiment with prolonged isolation "Mars-500" in IMBP two virtual models of professional operator’s activities were used to investigate the influence of extended isolation, monotony and confinement on professional skills degradation. One is well-known “PILOT-1” (docking to the space station), another - "VIRTU" (manned operations of planet exploration). Individual resistance to the artificial sensory conflict was estimated using computerized version of “Mirror koordinograf” with GSR registration. Two different individual performance styles, referring to the different types of response to stress, have been identified. Individual performance style, called "conservative control", manifested in permanent control of parameters, conditions and results of the operator’s activity. Operators with this performance style demonstrate high reliability in performing tasks. The drawback of the style is intensive resource expenditure - both the operator (physiological "cost") and the technical system operated (fuel, time). This style is more efficient while executing tasks that require long work with high reliability required according to a detailed protocol, such as orbital flight. Individual style, called "exploratory ", manifested in the search of new ways of task fulfillment. This style is accompanied by partial, periodic lack of control of the conditions and result of operator’s activity due to flexible approach to the tasks perfect implementation. Operators spent less resource (fuel, time, lower physiological "cost") due to high self

  8. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission’s data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as

  9. Deep Space Network Support for the Galileo Mission to Jupiter: Jupiter Orbital Operations From Post-Jupiter Orbit Insertion Through the End of the Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Yetter, B. G.; Torres, R. G.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) support for the Galileo mission to Jupiter began at launch in October 1989 and continued through the end of the prime mission in December 1997. The tracking and data acquisition support that was provided by the DSN up to the time that the spacecraft arrived at Jupiter (December 1995) is described in earlier issues of this publication [1,2,3]. This article, the final one of the series, covers the period from January 1996 through December 1997 and describes DSN support for the Galileo orbital operations at Jupiter, which included 10 satellite encounters over a period of 17 months. For a substantial portion of this period, the DSN was operated in the fully arrayed configuration for Galileo passes. This involved real-time combining of spacecraft signals from the DSN 70-m and 34-m antennas at Canberra with those from the 70-m antenna at Goldstone. The combined signals were enhanced further by the addition of the signal from the Australian 64-m radio astronomy antenna at Parkes, located 260-km northwest of Canberra. This article describes the implementation and remarkable performance of this very complex arrangement under real-time operational conditions.

  10. Marshall Space Flight Center's Tower Vector Magnetograph: Upgrades, Hardware, and Operations for the HESSI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) solar group announces the successful upgrade of our tower vector magnetograph. In operation since 1973, the last major alterations to the system (which includes telescope, filter, polarizing optics, camera, and data acquisition computer) were made in 1982, when we upgraded from an SEC Vidicon camera to a CCD. In 1985, other changes were made which increased the field-of-view from 5 x 5 arc min (2.4 arc sec per pixel) to 6 x 6 arc min with a resolution of 2.81 arc sec. In 1989, the Apollo Telescope Mount H-alpha telescope was coaligned with the optics of the magnetograph. The most recent upgrades (year 2000), funded to support the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission, have resulted in a pixel size of 0.64 arc sec over a 7 x 5.2 arc min field-of-view (binning 1x1). This poster describes the physical characteristics of the new system and compares spatial resolution, timing, and versatility with the old system. Finally, we provide a description of our Internet web site, which includes images of our most recent observations, and links to our data archives, as well as the history of magnetography at MSFC and education outreach pages.

  11. Parameter estimation supplement to the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    This Parameter Estimation Supplement describes the PEST computer program and gives instructions for its use in determination of lunar gravitation field coefficients. PEST was developed for use in the RAE-B lunar orbiting mission as a means of lunar field recovery. The observations processed by PEST are short-arc osculating orbital elements. These observations are the end product of an orbit determination process obtained with another program. PEST's end product it a set of harmonic coefficients to be used in long-term prediction of the lunar orbit. PEST employs some novel techniques in its estimation process, notably a square batch estimator and linear variational equations in the orbital elements (both osculating and mean) for measurement sensitivities. The program's capabilities are described, and operating instructions and input/output examples are given. PEST utilizes MAESTRO routines for its trajectory propagation. PEST's program structure and subroutines which are not common to MAESTRO are described. Some of the theoretical background information for the estimation process, and a derivation of linear variational equations for the Method 7 elements are included.

  12. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  13. Ptolemy: Operations to date as part of the Rosetta mission and plans for the comet encounter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. J.; Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Leese, M. R.; Morgan, G. H.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2012-09-01

    Rosetta is the European Space Agency 'Planetary Cornerstone' mission intended to solve many of the unanswered questions surrounding the small bodies of the Solar System. Launched in March 2004 it is now over three-quarters of the way through its decade long cruise, leading up to entering orbit around the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko in mid-2014. To date, this cruise has included three gravitational assist manoeuvres using Earth and one such manoeuvre using the gravity well of Mars. In addition, targeted flybys of two asteroids have returned a plethora of data to be compared with the comet observations to come. These flybys were of the 5.3 km diameter E-type asteroid 2867 Šteins on September 5th 2008, and a similar 3,162 km flyby of the 100 km diameter asteroid 21 Lutetia on July 10th 2010. Rosetta is currently in hibernation whilst at a heliocentric distance too great to allow Solarpowered operation and will awaken in early 2014 as it once again approaches the inner Solar System [1].

  14. Mission Control Operations: Employing a New High Performance Design for Communications Links Supporting Exploration Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The planetary exploration programs demand a totally new examination of data multiplexing, digital communications protocols and data transmission principles for both ground and spacecraft operations. Highly adaptive communications devices on-board and on the ground must provide the greatest possible transmitted data density between deployed crew personnel, spacecraft and ground control teams. Regarding these requirements, this proposal borrows from research into quantum mechanical computing by applying the concept of a qubit, a single bit that represents 16 states, to radio frequency (RF) communications link design for exploration programs. This concept of placing multiple character values into a single data bit can easily make the evolutionary steps needed to meet exploration mission demands. To move the qubit from the quantum mechanical research laboratory into long distance RF data transmission, this proposal utilizes polarization modulation of the RF carrier signal to represent numbers from zero to fifteen. It introduces the concept of a binary-to-hexadecimal converter that quickly chops any data stream into 16-bit words and connects variously polarized feedhorns to a single-frequency radio transmitter. Further, the concept relies on development of a receiver that uses low-noise amplifiers and an antenna array to quickly assess carrier polarity and perform hexadecimal to binary conversion. Early testbed experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as an operations laboratory can be implemented to provide the most cost-effective return for research investment. The improvement in signal-to-noise ratio while supporting greater baseband data rates that could be achieved through this concept justifies its consideration for long-distance exploration programs.

  15. Mission planning for operational data acquisition campaigns with the {sup casi}

    SciTech Connect

    Wulder, M.; Mah, S.; Trudeau, D.

    1996-11-01

    The compact airborne spectrographic imager (casi) is a pushbroom style airborne remote sensing instrument which has been used for a variety of applications suited to its high performance, portability, flexibility in choice of spectral bands and imaging combinations, image geocoding capabilities, low-cost data acquisition, and relative ease of use and processing. As the casi may be configured to operate in either spatial or spectral mode the user decides which is most appropriate for the needs of a particular study. Spatial mode is appropriate for identifying and mapping attributes spatially using a priori spectral knowledge whereas spectral mode is well suited to identifying detailed spectral characteristics of a feature. The hyperspectral acquisition mode is a combination of both spatial and spectral operations, where contiguous spatial and spectral information are collected. The array of imaging possibilities provided by the casi requires the user to make many decisions. Yet, the options provided by the casi are not the only issues that need to be addressed pre-flight. Other considerations are flight azimuth, positioning of flight lines, sun angle, differential correction of airborne GPS data, and possible collection of pseudo-invariant features (PIFs) with a spectroradiometer. The above issues need to be addressed to reduce sun {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes}, sun glint, minimize bidirectional effects, and improve image mosaicking. Data may be acquired to optimize use of a downwelling irradiance sensor, real-time attitude sensing using either a vertical gyroscope or Inertial Navigation System, and differential GPS measurements. The goal of this paper is to provide a general {open_quotes}guide{close_quotes} for airborne casi remote sensing mission planning that will facilitate the acquisition of quality imagery for forestry, water, environmental, and mapping applications. 36 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Guidance system operations plan for manned cm earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3. Section 2: Data links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    The data links for use with the guidance system operations plan for manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3 are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) digital uplink to CMC, (2) command module contiguous block update, (3) CMC retrofire external data update, (4) CMC digital downlink, and (5) CMC entry update.

  17. Large Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in the National Airspace System - the NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Ikhana (ee-kah-nah) project executed the 2007 Western States Fire Missions over several of the western United States using an MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in partnership with the NASA Ames Research Center, the United States Forest Service, and the National Interagency Fire Center. The missions were intended to supply infrared imagery of wildfires to firefighters on the ground within 10 minutes of data acquisition. For each of the eight missions, the NASA DFRC notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of specific flight plans within three or fewer days of the flight. The FAA Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (commonly referred to as a COA ) process was used to obtain access to the United States National Airspace System. Significant time and resources were necessary to develop the COA application, perform mission planning, and define and approve emergency landing sites. Unique aspects of flying unmanned aircraft created challenges to mission operations. Close coordination with FAA headquarters and air traffic control resulted in safe and successful missions that assisted firefighters by providing near-real-time imagery of selected wildfires.

  18. The MARS pathfinder end-to-end information system: A pathfinder for the development of future NASA planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.; Kazz, Greg J.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the Mars pathfinder is considered with emphasis on the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) development approach. The primary mission objective is to successfully develop and deliver a single flight system to the Martian surface, demonstrating entry, descent and landing. The EEIS is a set of functions distributed throughout the flight, ground and Mission Operation Systems (MOS) that inter-operate in order to control, collect, transport, process, store and analyze the uplink and downlink information flows of the mission. Coherence between the mission systems is achieved though the EEIS architecture. The key characteristics of the system are: a concurrent engineering approach for the development of flight, ground and mission operation systems; the fundamental EEIS architectural heuristics; a phased incremental EEIS development and test approach, and an EEIS design deploying flight, ground and MOS operability features, including integrated ground and flight based toolsets.

  19. Security message exchange interoperability scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, Thomas

    1998-07-01

    This contribution describes three interoperability scenarios for the ATM Security Message Exchange (SME) protocol. These scenarios include network-wide signaling support for the Security Services Information Element, partial signaling support wherethe SSIE is only supported in private or workgroup ATM networks, and the case where the SSIE is nonsupported by any network elements (exceptthosethat implement security services). Explanatory text is proposed for inclusion infection 2.3 of the ATM Security Specification, Version 1.0.

  20. Enabling Interoperability in Heliophysical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert

    2013-04-01

    There are many aspects of science in the Solar System that are overlapping - phenomena observed in one domain can have effects in other domains. However, there are many problems related to exploiting the data in cross-disciplinary studies because of lack of interoperability of the data and services. The CASSIS project is a Coordination Action funded under FP7 that has the objective of improving the interoperability of data and services related Solar System science. CASSIS has been investigating how the data could be made more accessible with some relatively minor changes to the observational metadata. The project has been looking at the services that are used within the domain and determining whether they are interoperable with each other and if not what would be required make them so. It has also been examining all types of metadata that are used when identifying and using observations and trying to make them more compliant with techniques and standards developed by bodies such as the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Many of the lessons that are being learnt in the study are applicable to domains that go beyond those directly involved in heliophysics. Adopting some simple standards related to the design of the services interfaces and metadata that are used would make it much easier to investigate interdisciplinary science topics. We will report on our finding and describe a roadmap for the future. For more information about CASSIS, please visit the project Web site on cassis-vo.eu

  1. Results from VIRTIS on board Venus Express after the end of the mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; VIRTIS Venus Express team

    After more than 8 years since the orbit insertion, the Venus Express mission is now at its end of mission operations. VIRTIS aboard the Venus Express spacecraft has addressed a significant amount of scientific results from the surface up to the upper atmosphere, in terms of mapping, composition, structure and dynamics. The VIRTIS instrument consists of two channels: VIRTIS-M, an imaging spectrometer with moderate spectral resolution in the range from 0.25 to 5.2 mu m and VIRTIS-H, a high spectral resolution spectrometer in the range from 2 to 5 mu m co-aligned with the field of view of –M \\citep{Piccioni2007a,Drossart2007a}. The resolution of VIRTIS-M is 2 nm from 0.25 to 1 mu m, and 10 nm from 1 to 5.2 mu m. The resolution of VIRTIS-H is about 2 nm. The atmosphere above the clouds has been observed both on day and night sides, in solar reflection and thermal emission in nadir geometry \\citep{Ignatiev2009, Cottini2012, Peralta2012, Peralta2009}. Limb observations provided O2\\citep{Piccioni2009, Garcia2009a, Gerard2013, Migliorini2013a, Gerard2008, Gerard2009}, OH \\citep{Piccioni2008,Gerard2010,Soret2010,Soret2012}, NO \\citep{Garcia2009b}, CO2 \\citep{Drossart2007b,Lopez-Valverde2011} and CO \\citep{Gilli2009,Gilli2015,Gilli2011} emissions, through nightglow and fluorescence observations. Spectroscopy of the 4-5 mu m range gave access to the cloud structure in the 60-95 km altitude levels \\citep{Irwin2008a,Grassi2014, Grassi2008,Grassi2010,Luz2011}. The deeper atmospheric windows, limited by CO2 and H2O bands were accessible only in thermal emission on the night side. The sounded levels at 1.7 and 2.3 mu m were limited respectively to 30-20 km altitude \\citep{Barstow2012,Bezard2009,Marcq2008a,Satoh2009,Tsang2009, Tsang2010,Tsang2008,Wilson2008,Wilson2009}, while at shorter wavelengths (1.18, 1.10, 1.01, 0.9 and 0.85 mu m), the hot surface of Venus was seen through the scattering clouds \\citep{Mueller2009,Helbert2008,Arnold2008a,Smrekar2010,Mueller2012

  2. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This paper will summarize the thirty-year history of Space Shuttle operations from the perspective of training in NASA Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. It will focus on training and development of flight controllers and instructors, and how training practices have evolved over the years as flight experience was gained, new technologies developed, and programmatic needs changed. Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The audience will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, we will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  3. Requirements Development for Interoperability Simulation Capability for Law Enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, Gregory M.

    2004-05-19

    The National Counterdrug Center (NCC) was initially authorized by Congress in FY 1999 appropriations to create a simulation-based counterdrug interoperability training capability. As the lead organization for Research and Analysis to support the NCC, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was responsible for developing the requirements for this interoperability simulation capability. These requirements were structured to address the hardware and software components of the system, as well as the deployment and use of the system. The original set of requirements was developed through a process of conducting a user-based survey of requirements for the simulation capability, coupled with an analysis of similar development efforts. The user-based approach ensured that existing concerns with respect to interoperability within the law enforcement community would be addressed. Law enforcement agencies within the designated pilot area of Cochise County, Arizona, were surveyed using interviews and ride-alongs during actual operations. The results of this survey were then accumulated, organized, and validated with the agencies to ensure the accuracy of the results. These requirements were then supplemented by adapting operational requirements from existing systems to ensure system reliability and operability. The NCC adopted a development approach providing incremental capability through the fielding of a phased series of progressively more capable versions of the system. This allowed for feedback from system users to be incorporated into subsequent revisions of the system requirements, and also allowed the addition of new elements as needed to adapt the system to broader geographic and geopolitical areas, including areas along the southwest and northwest U.S. borders. This paper addresses the processes used to develop and refine requirements for the NCC interoperability simulation capability, as well as the response of the law enforcement community to the use of

  4. Interoperability Barriers in NASA Earth Science Data Systems from the Perspective of a Science User (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, K.

    2010-12-01

    As a practitioner in the field of atmospheric remote sensing, the author, like many other similar science users, depends on and uses heavily NASA Earth Science remote sensing data. Thus the author is asked by the NASA Earth Science Data Information System Project (ESDIS) to assess the capabilities of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) in order to provide suggestions and recommendations for the evolution of EOSDIS in the path towards its 2015 Vision Tenets. As NASA's Earth science data system, EOSDIS provides data processing and data archiving and distribution services for EOS missions. The science operations of EOSDIS are the focus of this report, i.e. data archiving and distribution, which are performed within a distributed system of many interconnected nodes, namely the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems, or SIPS, and distributed data centers. Since its inception in the early 1990s, EOSDIS has represented a democratization of data, a break from the past when data dissemination was at the discretion of project scientists. Its “open data” policy is so highly valued and well received by its user communities that it has influenced other agencies, even those of other countries, to adopt the same open policy. In the last ~10 years EOSDIS has matured to serve very well users of any given science community in which the varieties of data being used change infrequently. The unpleasant effects of interoperability barriers are now more often felt by users who try to use new data outside their existing familiar set. This paper first defines interoperability and identifies the purposes for achieving interoperability. The sources of interoperability barriers, classified by the author into software, hardware, and human categories, are examined. For a subset of issues related to software, it presents diagnoses obtained from experience of the author and his survey of the EOSDIS data finding, ordering, retrieving, and extraction services

  5. Gaia science operations 1.5 yr into the nominal mission: concepts, experiences and lessons learned ESA/ESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Uwe; Guerra, Rocio; Cheek, Neil; Siddiqui, Hassan; Jansen, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's astrometry satellite Gaia was launched in December 2013 and started its scientific operations in July 2014 after an extended payload commissioning period. During the first year of the nominal mission the astrometric instrument alone has made around 250 Billion individual measurements which already now constitues one of the largest astronomical datasets in existence. Operations will continue for at least the next 4 years and after an extensive data processing effort an astronomical catalogue containing some 1.5 Billion celestial objects will be produced. We describe the chosen key concepts for handling the massive amounts of daily data at the Science Operations Centre at ESAC, Madrid, their initial processing and dissemination to the other five partner processing centres. We will also illustrate some of the great challenges that the mission data poses in terms of storage, processing, monitoring, and analysis.

  6. Mission Description and In-Flight Operations of ERBE Instruments on ERBS, NOAA 9, and NOAA 10 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Dianne; Bush, Kathryn; Lee, Kam-Pui; Summerville, Jessica

    1998-01-01

    Instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have operated on three different Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the NOAA 9 and NOAA 10 weather satellites are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This paper is one of a series that describes the ERBE mission, in-orbit environments, instrument design and operational features, and data processing and validation procedures. This paper also describes the in-flight operations for the ERBE nonscanner instruments aboard the ERBS, NOAA 9, and NOAA 10 spacecraft from January 1990 through December 1990. Validation and archives of radiation measurements made by ERBE nonscanner instruments during this period were completed in August 1996. This paper covers normal and special operations of the spacecraft and instruments, operational anomalies, and the responses of the instruments to in-orbit and seasonal variations in the solar environment.

  7. Mission description and in-flight operations of ERBE instruments on ERBS and NOAA 10 spacecraft, February 1987 - February 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Kathryn A.; Degnan, Keith T.

    1994-01-01

    Instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are operating on three different Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the NOAA 9 and NOAA 10 weather satellites are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This paper is the third in a series that describes the ERBE mission in-orbit environments, instrument design and operational features, and data processing and validation procedures. This paper describes the in-flight operations for the ERBE instruments aboard the ERBS and NOAA 10 spacecraft for the period from February 1987 through February 1990. Validation and archival of radiation measurements made by ERBE instruments during this period were completed in May 1992. This paper covers normal and special operations of the spacecraft and instruments, operational anomalies, and the responses of the instruments to in-orbit and seasonal variations in the solar environment.

  8. Improving Interoperability in ePrescribing

    PubMed Central

    Åstrand, Bengt; Petersson, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased application of eServices in health care, in general, and ePrescribing (electronic prescribing) in particular, have brought quality and interoperability to the forefront. The application of standards has been put forward as one important factor in improving interoperability. However, less focus has been placed on other factors, such as stakeholders’ involvement and the measurement of interoperability. An information system (IS) can be regarded to comprise an instrument for technology-mediated work communication. In this study, interoperability refers to the interoperation in the ePrescribing process, involving people, systems, procedures and organizations. We have focused on the quality of the ePrescription message as one component of the interoperation in the ePrescribing process. Objective The objective was to analyze how combined efforts in improving interoperability with the introduction of the new national ePrescription format (NEF) have impacted interoperability in the ePrescribing process in Sweden, with the focus on the quality of the ePrescription message. Methods Consecutive sampling of electronic prescriptions in Sweden before and after the introduction of NEF was undertaken in April 2008 (pre-NEF) and April 2009 (post-NEF). Interoperability problems were identified and classified based on message format specifications and prescription rules. Results The introduction of NEF improved the interoperability of ePrescriptions substantially. In the pre-NEF sample, a total of 98.6% of the prescriptions had errors. In the post-NEF sample, only 0.9% of the prescriptions had errors. The mean number of errors was fewer for the erroneous prescriptions: 4.8 in pre-NEF compared to 1.0 in post-NEF. Conclusions We conclude that a systematic comprehensive work on interoperability, covering technical, semantical, professional, judicial and process aspects, involving the stakeholders, resulted in an improved interoperability of e

  9. AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) — A Data Archive Pipeline for Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, C.; Levoe, S. R.; Algermissen, S. S.; Rye, E. D.; Hardman, S. H.; Hughes, J. S.; Cayanan, M. D.; Sayfi, E. M.

    2015-06-01

    The AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) is a multi-mission science data (instrument data + label) transformation service, which connects product generation pipelines and the PDS archive, therefore streamlining the delivery of science data to the PDS.

  10. User's guide to the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutzky, D.; Schafer, J.

    1973-01-01

    The MAESTRO system is a mission analysis tool designed to present to the user information necessary to make the various decisions required in the design and execution of a spaceflight mission. The system was designed so that it can be used in both the pre-launch mission planning phase of a mission and during the flight as an in-flight decision making tool. A description of each of the following modes is presented: (1) trajectory propagation mode; (2) retro-fire determination mode; (3) midcourse analysis determination mode; (4) Monte Carlo mode; (5) verification mode; (6) orbit stability mode; and (7) post injection trim mode. A description of the inputs necessary to run the program mode is given along with a sample case.

  11. Ptolemy: Operations at 21 Lutetia as part of the Rosetta Mission and Future Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. J.; Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Leese, M. R.; Morgan, G. H.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2012-03-01

    Ptolemy is an evolved gas analyzer onboard the Philae lander of the Rosetta mission. Attempts were made to detect the exosphere of asteroid 21 Lutetia during a July 2010 targeted flyby; the results are presented here and future implications discussed.

  12. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  13. Design and operation of an anaerobic digester for waste management and fuel generation during long term lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhoble, Abhishek S.; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.

    2014-10-01

    Waste treatment and management for manned long term exploratory missions to moon will be a challenge due to longer mission duration. The present study investigated appropriate digester technologies that could be used on the base. The effect of stirring, operation temperature, organic loading rate and reactor design on the methane production rate and methane yield was studied. For the same duration of digestion, the unmixed digester produced 20-50% more methane than mixed system. Two-stage design which separated the soluble components from the solids and treated them separately had more rapid kinetics than one stage system, producing the target methane potential in one-half the retention time than the one stage system. The two stage system degraded 6% more solids than the single stage system. The two stage design formed the basis of a prototype digester sized for a four-person crew during one year exploratory lunar mission.

  14. Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five

  15. Orbit Operations at 433 Eros: Navigation for the NEAR Shoemaker Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.; Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Carranza, E.; Chesley, S. R.; Helfrich, C. E.; Owen, W. M.; Wang, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Mission began its record-setting exploration of the asteroid 433 Eros by inserting the spacecraft into orbit about Eros on February 14, 2000. This is the first spacecraft from any country to orbit an asteroid. The mission has overcome a failed insertion burn attempt on December 20, 1998, an event that would have ended most planetary missions, to return to the same target and successfully begin its science mapping a little more than a year later. Shortly after the successful insertion into orbit, the mission was renamed NEAR Shoemaker (NEAR) in memory of the late astronomer and geologist Eugene Shoemaker. NEAR will gather science data at Eros until February 14, 2001, which is the nominal end of mission. The NEAR mission is managed by the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. Since the initial mission concept in 1992, the design and implementation of the NEAR navigation system have been the responsibility of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. This presentation will show some of the unique features of navigation and mission design related to orbiting an asteroid and to designing a robust navigation system for the NEAR spacecraft. The problem of navigating a spacecraft about an asteroid is made difficult by the relative uncertainty in the asteroid physical properties which perturb the orbit: i.e., the mass, gravity field, and spin state. To help solve this problem, the navigation system for NEAR uses traditional DSN radio metric Doppler and range tracking, along with new technologies of optical landmark tracking and laser ranging to the asteroid surface. The experiences to date for each of these data types in the navigation solutions will be presented. Plans for the remainder of the NEAR mission will be presented, which include low orbits (down to 35 km radius circular orbits), and close flybys that may pass within 1 km of the surface. In addition, at the end of

  16. The Dawn project's transition to mission operations: On its way to rendezvous with (4) Vesta and (1) Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Patel, Keyur C.

    2010-01-01

    Dawn launched on 27 September 2007 on a mission to orbit main belt asteroids (4) Vesta in 2011-2012 and (1) Ceres in 2015. The operations team conducted an extensive set of assessments of the engineering subsystems and science instruments during the first 80 days of the mission. A major objective of this period was to thrust for one week with the ion propulsion system to verify flight and ground systems readiness for typical interplanetary operations. Upon successful conclusion of the checkout phase, the interplanetary cruise phase began, most of which will be devoted to thrusting. The flexibility afforded by the use of ion propulsion enabled the project to accommodate a launch postponement of more than three months caused by a combination of launch vehicle and tracking system readiness, unfavorable weather, and then conflicts with other launches. Even with the shift in the launch date, all of the science objectives are retained with the same schedule and greater technical margins. This paper describes the conclusion of the development phase of the project, launch operations, and the progress of mission operations through the conclusion of deterministic thrusting in October 2008.

  17. The DAWN Project's Transition to Mission Operations: on Its Way to Rendezvous with (4) Vesta and (1) Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Patel, Keyur C.

    2008-01-01

    Dawn launched on 27 September 2007 on a mission to orbit main belt asteroids (4) Vesta in 2011 - 2012 and (1) Ceres in 2015. The operations team conducted an extensive set of assessments of the engineering subsystems and science instruments during the first 80 days of the mission. A major objective of this period was to thrust for one week with the ion propulsion system to verify flight and ground systems readiness for typical interplanetary operations. Upon successful conclusion of the checkout phase, the interplanetary cruise phase began, most of which will be devoted to thrusting. The flexibility afforded by the use of ion propulsion enabled the project to accommodate a launch postponement of more than 3 months caused by a combination of launch vehicle and tracking system readiness, unfavorable weather, and then conflicts with other launches. Even with the shift in the launch date, all of the science objectives are retained with the same schedule and greater technical margins. This paper describes the conclusion of the development phase of the project, launch operations, and the progress of mission operations.

  18. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.

  19. Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K

    2001-05-18

    ideally suited for applications that require 1-30s engagements at very high average power. If necessary, multiple laser apertures can provide continuous operation. Land Combat mission analysis of a stressing air defense scenario including a dense attack of rockets, mortars, and artillery has indicated that multiple HEL weapon systems, based on the solid state, heat capacity laser concept, can provide significantly improved protection of high value battlefield assets. We will present EADSIM results for two government-supplied scenarios, one with temporally high threat density over a fairly large defended area, and one with fewer threats concentrating on a single defended asset. Implications for weapon system requirements will be presented. In order to demonstrate the operation of a high average power heat-capacity laser system, we have developed a flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energies in the range of 500-1000J/pulse in a 10 x 10cm{sup 2} beam. With a repetition frequency of 20Hz, an average power of 13kW has been demonstrated for operational periods of up to 10s using a stable optical resonator (see enclosed figure). Using an M=1.4 unstable resonator, a beam divergence of 5X diffraction-limited has been measured with no active wavefront correction. An adaptively corrected unstable resonator that incorporates an intracavity deformable mirror controlled by feedback from an external wavefront sensor will provide <2X diffraction-limited output integrated over an entire 10s run at an average power of 10kW. A very similar laser architecture in which the Nd:glass is replaced by Nd:GGG and the flashlamps are replaced by large diode-laser arrays will enable the scaling of the output average power from the demonstrated 10kW to 100kW (500J/pulse at 200Hz). Risk reduction experiments for diode-pumped Nd:GGG, the fabrication of large Nd:GGG amplifier slabs, as well as the progress toward a sub-scale amplifier testbed pumped by diode arrays with total of 1MW peak power

  20. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.