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Sample records for mississippi gulf coast

  1. Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College, Exploring America's Communities. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Community Coll., Jackson.

    In 1996, the Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College participated in the American Association of Community Colleges' Exploring America's Communities project, which worked to strengthen the instruction of American history, literature, and culture at U.S. community colleges. The primary objective of the college's action plan was to establish a…

  2. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     View Larger ... highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The ... date:  Oct 15, 2001 Images:  Gulf Coast location:  United States Gulf of ...

  3. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Gulf Coast, Pascagoula, Mississippi, Detachment Mobile, Alabama at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area would encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329..., Mississippi, Detachment Mobile, Alabama at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, Alabama; restricted area. 334.782 Section 334... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Gulf Coast, Pascagoula,...

  4. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Gulf Coast, Pascagoula, Mississippi, Detachment Mobile, Alabama at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false SUPSHIP Gulf Coast, Pascagoula, Mississippi, Detachment Mobile, Alabama at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, Alabama; restricted area. 334.782 Section 334.782 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  5. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ``area characterization`` phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ``Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.``

  6. Understanding sea level rise along the Mississippi sector of the US Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, G. A.; Wolstencroft, M.; Shen, Z.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Kulp, M.; Love, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Mississippi Delta (MD) and the adjacent US Gulf Coast host a significant population,extensive economic activity, and critical ecosystem goods and services. The characteristic rate of 20th century relative sea level rise in the MD is ~10 mm/yr [e.g., Penland and Ramsey, 1990], which is about five times the global mean value. This regional amplification, thought to be dominated by land subsidence, makes this part of the Gulf Coast particularly vulnerable to catastrophic events (e.g., storm surges associated with tropical cyclones) as well as more chronic environmental degradation such as wetland loss from a range of largely human influences [Day et al., 2007]. This paper focuses on improving our understanding of land subsidence in this region via a modelling analysis that considers the influence of sediment loading as well as glacial isostatic adjustment (ice and ocean loading). A number of studies have suggested that sediment isostatic adjustment (SIA) and/or active tectonics are primary contributors to the present-day subsidence of this region [e.g. Dokka et al., 2006; Ivins et al., 2007] and thus contribute several mm/yr of regional basement subsidence. Our model sensitivity analysis considers key components of the regional sediment loading history as well as a range of plausible Earth model parameters. Results indicate that rates due to SIA are likely less that 0.5 mm/yr and those due to GIA can be up to ~2 mm/yr and so the latter plays a more important role. Model output was found to be compatible with both paleo (e.g. relative sea level) and geodetic (Global Positioning System) observations. We therefore conclude that processes other than SIA and GIA, such as sediment compaction in the Holocene sediments, most likely dominate the high rates of sea level change (~10 mm/yr) measured along this part of the Gulf Coast.

  7. Barrier island evolution and reworking by inlet migration along the Mississippi-Alabama gulf coast

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, J.B.; Snowden, J.O. )

    1990-09-01

    The five barrier islands along the Mississippi-Alabama coast are located 10 to 14 mi (16 to 23 km) offshore and separate Mississippi Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The barrier islands in the chain are, from east to west: Dauphin Island, Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, Ship Island, and Cat Island. The islands are low sand bodies situated on a relatively broad Holocene sand platform that extends 70 mi (113 km) from Dauphin Island on the east to Cat Island on the west. The platform varies in thickness from 25 to 75 ft (7.6 to 23 m) and rests on Holocene marine clays or on Pleistocene sediments. The barrier island chain predates the St. Bernard lobe of the Mississippi delta complex, which began to prograde about 3,000 years ago, and continued until it was abandoned approximately 1,500 years ago. In contrast to the other islands, Cat Island at the western down-drift end of the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain is characterized by more than 12 prominent east west-oriented progradational linear ridges. The ridge system of Cat Island is interpreted as a relict of an earlier stage in the life cycle of the barrier platform when there was a more robust littoral drift system and an abundant sediment supply During the Pre-St. Bernard Delta period of vigorous sedimentation, all of the islands in the barrier chain probably exhibited progradational ridges similar to those now found only on Cat Island. Presently, only vestigial traces of these progradational features remain on the islands to the east of Cat Island. Unlike Cat Island, which has been protected and preserved by the St. Bernard Delta, the other barrier islands have been modified and reworked during the past 1,500 years by processes of island and tidal inlet migration, accompanied by a general weakening of the littoral drift and a reduction of the available sediment supply.

  8. Assessing Hurricane Katrina Damage to the Mississippi Gulf Coast Using IKONOS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; McKellip, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina hit southeastern Louisiana and the Mississippi Gulf Coast as a Category 3 hurricane with storm surges as high as 9 m. Katrina devastated several coastal towns by destroying or severely damaging hundreds of homes. Several Federal agencies are assessing storm impacts and assisting recovery using high-spatial-resolution remotely sensed data from satellite and airborne platforms. High-quality IKONOS satellite imagery was collected on September 2, 2005, over southwestern Mississippi. Pan-sharpened IKONOS multispectral data and ERDAS IMAGINE software were used to classify post-storm land cover for coastal Hancock and Harrison Counties. This classification included a storm debris category of interest to FEMA for disaster mitigation. The classification resulted from combining traditional unsupervised and supervised classification techniques. Higher spatial resolution aerial and handheld photography were used as reference data. Results suggest that traditional classification techniques and IKONOS data can map wood-dominated storm debris in open areas if relevant training areas are used to develop the unsupervised classification signatures. IKONOS data also enabled other hurricane damage assessment, such as flood-deposited mud on lawns and vegetation foliage loss from the storm. IKONOS data has also aided regional Katrina vegetation damage surveys from multidate Land Remote Sensing Satellite and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data.

  9. Trace element concentrations in surface estuarine and marine sediments along the Mississippi Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Warren, Crystal; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Weston, James; Willett, Kristine L

    2012-01-01

    Hurricanes are relatively frequent ecological disturbances that may cause potentially long-term impacts to the coastal environment. Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005, and caused a storm surge with the potential to change the trace element content of coastal surface sediments. In this study, surface estuarine and marine sediments were collected monthly following the storm from ten sites along the Mississippi Gulf Coast (Mobile Bay, Grand Bay Bayous Heron and Cumbest, Pascagoula, Ocean Springs, Biloxi Gulf, Back Biloxi Bay, Gulfport Gulf, Gulfport Courthouse Rd, and Gulfport Marina). Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to evaluate their temporal and spatial variations in the year following Hurricane Katrina. Sediments were characterized by pH, particle size distribution and total carbon and nitrogen content. Trace element contents of the sediments were determined in both <2 mm and <63 μm grain size fractions. Results revealed no significant temporal and spatial variability in trace element concentrations, in either size fraction. Potential ecological risk of the sediments was assessed by using NOAA SQuiRTs' guideline values; most concentrations remained below probable adverse effects guidelines to marine organisms suggesting that trace elements redistributed by Hurricane Katrina would not cause an adverse impact on resident organisms. Instead, the concentrations of trace elements were site-dependent, with specific contaminants relating to the use of the area prior to Hurricane Katrina. PMID:21494829

  10. Comparison of pollution levels on the Mississippi Gulf Coast during the 2010 Gulf BP oil spill to ecological and health-based standards.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jerry; Reddy, Ramata S; Tchounwou, Paul; Kafoury, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the possible impact that the BP Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill might have had on pollution levels in the State of Mississippi, the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyzed surface water and ambient air quality pollutant data taken from MDEQ and EPA monitoring sites on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The data were compared with acute, chronic, and human health air and water quality standards to determine whether the pollutant levels occurring during the oil spill could cause ecological and/or human health effects. The water quality data indicated levels of nickel, vanadium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and semivolatile organic compounds analyzed remained below acute and chronic levels for both aquatic life and human health. The air quality sampling data showed that the levels of VOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with the oil spill were well below EPA chronic and human health screening levels. A comparison of the air quality monitoring data taken before and after the oil spill showed that the concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter were elevated for brief periods but remained below actionable levels. PMID:23109537

  11. Geohydrology and simulated effects of withdrawals on the Miocene aquifer system in the Mississippi Gulf Coast area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Wasson, B.E.; Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Intense development of the Miocene aquifer system for water supplies along the Mississippi Gulf Coast has resulted in large water level declines that have altered the groundwater flow pattern in the area. Water levels in some Miocene aquifers have declined about 2 ft/year since 1940; declines exceed 100 ft (80 ft sea level) in large areas along the coast. Water levels in the surficial aquifer system, generally less than 20 ft below land surface, have not declined. The Miocene and younger interbedded and lenticular sands and clays crop out in southern Mississippi and dip to the south and southwest. These sediments have large vertical variations in head and locally respond to stresses as separate aquifers. Freshwater recharge to the Miocene aquifer system primarily is from rainfall on the surficial aquifers. The water generally moves to the south and southeast along the bedding planes toward the Mississippi Gulf Coast where the water is either withdrawn by wells, discharges to the ocean, or gradually percolates upward into overlying aquifers. Drawdowns caused by large groundwater withdrawals along the coast probably have resulted in the gradual movement of the saltwater toward the pumping centers. In parts of the Miocene aquifer system commonly used for water supplies, the water generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Increasing chloride concentrations in a few wells indicate that saline water is migrating into parts of all layers in the Pascagoula area. A quasi three-dimensional numerical model of the groundwater flow system was constructed and calibrated on the basis of the both pre- and post-development conditions. The effects of an expected 1.5% annual increase in groundwater withdrawals during the period 1985-2005 were evaluated by the flow model. Additional water level declines expected by the year 2005 in response to estimated pumpage are as follows: Gulfport, 135 ft in layer 4; Biloxi-Gulfport area, 100 ft in layer 5 and 50 ft in layer 3; Pascagoula area, 40

  12. Assessing Hurricane Katrina Damage to the Mississippi Gulf Coast Using IKONOS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina hit southwestern Mississippi on August 29, 2005, at 10 a.m. CDT as a category 3 event with storm surges up to approximately 9 m and sustained winds of approximately 120 mph. The hurricane ravaged several coastal towns, destroying or severely damaging hundreds of homes. Hurricand Katrina deposited millions of tons of debris and caused severe damage to coastal forests. In response, several Federal agencies have been using a broad range of remotely sensed data (e.g., IKONOS) to aid damage assessment and disaster recovery efforts. This presentation discusses an effort to use IKONOS data for damage assessment, based on data collected over southwestern coastal Mississippi on September 2, 2005.

  13. Simulation of Atmospheric Dispersion of Elevated Releases from Point Sources in Mississippi Gulf Coast with Different Meteorological Data

    PubMed Central

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Srinivas, Challa Venkata; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Tuluri, Francis; White, Loren D.; Baham, Julius M.; Young, John H.; Hughes, Robert; Patrick, Chuck; Hardy, Mark G.; Swanier, Shelton J.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion calculations are made using the HYSPLIT Particle Dispersion Model for studying the transport and dispersion of air-borne releases from point elevated sources in the Mississippi Gulf coastal region. Simulations are performed separately with three meteorological data sets having different spatial and temporal resolution for a typical summer period in 1–3 June 2006 representing a weak synoptic condition. The first two data are the NCEP global and regional analyses (FNL, EDAS) while the third is a meso-scale simulation generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with nested domains at a fine resolution of 4 km. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of the combined influences of the land-sea breeze circulation, the large scale flow field and diurnal alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. The model predicted SO2 concentrations showed that the trajectory and the concentration distribution varied in the three cases of input data. While calculations with FNL data show an overall higher correlation, there is a significant positive bias during daytime and negative bias during night time. Calculations with EDAS fields are significantly below the observations during both daytime and night time though plume behavior follows the coastal circulation. The diurnal plume behavior and its distribution are better simulated using the mesoscale WRF meteorological fields in the coastal environment suggesting its suitability for pollution dispersion impact assessment in the local scale. Results of different cases of simulation, comparison with observations, correlation and bias in each case are presented. PMID:19440433

  14. Aptian ‘Shale Gas’ Prospectivity in the Downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Gulf Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Valentine, Brett J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.; Dulong, Frank T.; Bove, Alana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates regional ‘shale gas’ prospectivity of the Aptian section (primarily Pine Island Shale) in the downdip Mississippi Salt Basin (MSB). Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered gas resource of 8.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in the chronostratigraphic-equivalent Pearsall Formation in the Maverick Basin of south Texas, where industry has established a moderately successful horizontal gas and liquids play. Wells penetrating the downdip MSB Aptian section at depths of 12,000-15,000 ft were used to correlate formation tops in a 15-well cross-section extending about 200 miles (mi) east-southeastward from Adams Co. to Jackson Co. Legacy cuttings from these wells were analyzed for thermal maturity and source rock quality. Bitumen reflectance (n=53) increases with increasing present-day burial depth in the east-central study area from 1.0% to 1.7%. As the Aptian section shallows in Adams Co. to the west, bitumen Ro values are higher (1.7-2.0%), either from relatively greater heat flux or greater mid-Cenomanian uplift and erosion in this area. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges 0.01-1.21 and averages 0.5 wt.% (n=51); pyrolysis output (S2; n=51) averages 0.40 mg HC/g rock, indicating little present-day hydrocarbon-generative potential. Bitumen reflectance is preferred as a thermal maturity parameter as Tmax values are unreliable. Normalized X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral analyses (n=26) indicate high average clay abundance (53 wt.%) relative to quartz (29%) and carbonate (18%). Mineral content shows a spatial relationship to an Appalachian orogen clastic sediment source, with proximal high clay and quartz and distal high carbonate content. Clastic influx from the Appalachian orogen is confirmed by detrital zircon U-Pb ages with dominant Grenville and Paleozoic components [105 ages from a Rodessa sandstone and 112 ages from a Paluxy (Albian) sandstone]. Preliminary information from fluid inclusion microthermometry

  15. An integrated WRF/HYSPLIT modeling approach for the assessment of PM(2.5) source regions over the Mississippi Gulf Coast region.

    PubMed

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Dodla, Venkata Bhaskar Rao; Challa, Venkata Srinivas; Myles, Latoya; Pendergrass, William R; Vogel, Christoph A; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Tuluri, Francis; Baham, Julius M; Hughes, Robert L; Patrick, Chuck; Young, John H; Swanier, Shelton J; Hardy, Mark G

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is majorly formed by precursor gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), which are emitted largely from intense industrial operations and transportation activities. PM(2.5) has been shown to affect respiratory health in humans. Evaluation of source regions and assessment of emission source contributions in the Gulf Coast region of the USA will be useful for the development of PM(2.5) regulatory and mitigation strategies. In the present study, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model driven by the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model is used to identify the emission source locations and transportation trends. Meteorological observations as well as PM(2.5) sulfate and nitric acid concentrations were collected at two sites during the Mississippi Coastal Atmospheric Dispersion Study, a summer 2009 field experiment along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Meteorological fields during the campaign were simulated using WRF with three nested domains of 36, 12, and 4 km horizontal resolutions and 43 vertical levels and validated with North American Mesoscale Analysis. The HYSPLIT model was integrated with meteorological fields derived from the WRF model to identify the source locations using backward trajectory analysis. The backward trajectories for a 24-h period were plotted at 1-h intervals starting from two observation locations to identify probable sources. The back trajectories distinctly indicated the sources to be in the direction between south and west, thus to have origin from local Mississippi, neighboring Louisiana state, and Gulf of Mexico. Out of the eight power plants located within the radius of 300 km of the two monitoring sites examined as sources, only Watson, Cajun, and Morrow power plants fall in the path of the derived back trajectories. Forward dispersions patterns computed using HYSPLIT were plotted from each of these source locations using the hourly mean

  16. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Challa, Venkata Srinivas; Indracanti, Jayakumar; Dasari, Hariprasad; Baham, Julius; Patrick, Chuck; Young, John; Hughes, Robert; White, Lorren D.; Hardy, Mark G.; Swanier, Shelton

    2008-01-01

    Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25–29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT) during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT) are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28–30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region. PMID:19151446

  17. Chalk play tops Gulf Coast horizontal scene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling in the Cretaceous Austin chalk of Texas which dominates news of U.S. Gulf Coast horizontal action. In spite of a significant decline in horizontal drilling in Texas-the Texas Railroad Commission reported a 15 unit decline in the number of permits to drill horizontal wells during the third quarter-operators in East and South Texas continue to expand plays and develop new ones. The Cretaceous Bruda may be gaining some respect as a horizontal target in Texas. Elsewhere on the Gulf Coast, Mississippi soon will see more action on the horizontal drilling front.

  18. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 yr-1) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 yr-1) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 yr-1) was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities and shipping emissions to

  19. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-04-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities

  20. Wetlands of the Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This set of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The images were acquired on October 15, 2001 (Terra orbit 9718)and represent an area of 345 kilometers x 315 kilometers.

    The two smaller images on the right are (top) a natural color view comprised of red, green, and blue band data from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera, and (bottom) a false-color view comprised of near-infrared, red, and blue band data from the same camera. The predominantly red color of the false-color image is due to the presence of vegetation, which is bright at near-infrared wavelengths. Cities appear as grey patches, with New Orleans visible at the southern edge of Lake Pontchartrain, along the left-hand side of the images. The Lake Pontchartrain Bridge runs approximately north-south across the middle of the lake. The distinctive shape of the Mississippi River Delta can be seen to the southeast of New Orleans. Other coastal cities are visible east of the Mississippi, including Biloxi, Mobile and Pensacola.

    The large image is similar to the true-color nadir view, except that red band data from the 60-degree backward-looking camera has been substituted into the red channel; the blue and green data from the nadir camera have been preserved. In this visualization, green hues appear somewhat subdued, and a number of areas with a reddish color are present, particularly near the mouths of the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile-Tensaw, and Escambia Rivers. Here, the red color is highlighting differences in surface texture. This combination of angular and spectral information differentiates areas with aquatic vegetation associated with poorly drained bottom lands, marshes, and/or estuaries from the surrounding surface vegetation. These wetland regions are not as well differentiated in the conventional nadir views.

    Variations in ocean color

  1. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  2. Gulf Coast Community College's Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…

  3. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840...

  4. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840...

  5. 33 CFR 110.194b - Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss. 110.194b Section 110.194b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives... center located at latitude 30°11′12″, longitude 88°30′07″, in the waters of Gulf of Mexico south of...

  6. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  7. Gulf Coast stratigraphic traps in the Lower Cretaceous carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    Prolific oil and gas production is being obtained from carbonate patch reef reservoirs within Lower Cretaceous formations along the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico. Many of these reservoirs are trapped stratigraphically where facies changes within a formation or patch reef unit establish an up-dip permeability barrier. Illustrations of such traps are given from the literature for oil and gas fields in Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and E. Texas. A geologic model is presented which provides the explorationist with an actual drilling target suitable to a multiple well exploratory program. 18 references.

  8. Tectonic boundaries of the eastern Gulf Coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, C. Jr.; Phillips, R.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Two Precambrian extensional fault episodes, recorded in mapping from central Arkansas across Mississippi, central Alabama, southern Georgia, and into the Atlantic Ocean affected later Pennsylvanian and Triassic tectonics. This interpretation is from magnetic anomaly data and is supported by seismic, gravity, core, and well-log data. The fault system was first suspected from an anomalous magnetic high, representing a feature that affected tectonism during the Ouachita and the Alleghenian orogenies of the eastern Gulf Coast and southeastern United States. The northernmost upthrown block is considered part of an ancient passive continental margin developed during the late Precambrian. The southern downthrown block is deformed by left-lateral transverse faults active during the Ouachita Orogeny. The Ouachita Orogeny may have deformed terrain farther east than the Black Worrior basin. These transverse fault blocks were buttressed by the footwall of the extensional fault system. These left-lateral faults extending from Florida and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and southern Arkansas.

  9. Gulf Coast from from Atchafalaya Bay to Apalachicola seen from Gemini 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    View of Gulf Coast area from Atchafalaya Bay to Apalachicola, including Mouth of Mississippi River, Mobile Bay, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Pensacola, Florida, as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of the earth. This photo was taken near sunrise.

  10. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  11. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  12. GULF COAST REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA is sponsoring the Gulf Coast Regional Assessment. Southern University and A&M College and its collaborators are analyzing and evaluating the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the region in th...

  13. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1984-04-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

  14. Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Strata comprising most of the upper Paleocene in eastern North America are divided into two new pollen zones, the Carya and Platycarya platycaryoides Interval Zones. Pollen data have proven to be important for correlations between Alabama-western Georgia and eastern Mississippi and between the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia. Migration of tropical plant taxa from the Caribbean to the Gulf Coast began at least 4 m.y. before the end of the Paleocene. The Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event, accompanied by a distinct pulse of plant immigration from Europe, began several hundred thousand years before the end of the Paleocene.

  15. Gulf Coast, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    The topography of the Gulf Coast states is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the top (see Figure 1) is a standard view showing southern Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the panhandle of Florida. Green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For the view on the bottom (see Figure 2), elevations below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored light blue. These low coastal elevations are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 31 degrees north latitude, 88 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 702 by 433 kilometers (435 by 268 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM

  16. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  17. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  18. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  19. NASA Space Day in Mississippi - House of Representatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronaut Michael Foale (center) and Stennis Space Center officials met with Mississippi House of Representatives Gulf Coast delegation, including Speaker William 'Billy' McCoy (far right), during NASA Space Day in Mississippi on January 30.

  20. View of Gulf coast area of Louisiana from Skylab space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of the Gulf coast area of Louisiana (29.0N, 92.0W) as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewman used a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera to take this picture. This view extends from White Lake and Pecan Island (bottom border) eastward to the Mississippi River delta (top left). Atchafalaya Bay (red) is in the center. The Bayou Teche area is included in this view. A prominent feature of this photograph is two large white smoke plumes extending from Louisiana south into the Gulf of Mexico. The larger smoke plume originates on the southern shore of Vermillion Bay. The other plume extends from the southern shore of Marsh Island. The prononced narrow width and length of the plumes indicate that a strong offshore wind is present. Approximately 100 miles of the plumes are visible in this photograph; but they probably extend well into the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Effects of inherited pre-Jurassic tectonics on Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L.

    1989-03-01

    Extensional and compressional tectonic features from the Canadian shield to the Gulf Coast reflect repeated and continued movement of crustal elements along northwest-southeast paths. Resultant rift and thrust features formed perpendicular to that orientation. Cycles of ocean opening (rifting), quiescence, and ocean closure (thrusting) controlled the structural style and stratigraphic sequences that recorded the accretion of much of the North American craton onto the Canadian shield. The Triassic separation of North America from South America resulted in an irregular fragmented arc that now extends from Central America to southern Florida. Stranded blocks of continental crust, left behind when spreading centers jumped during rifting, control the location of major basins over the attenuated crust between the blocks. The former location of the Yucatan Peninsula is now marked by the salt dome basins of central Mississippi, southern Louisiana, and southeastern Texas. Postrifting tectonic patterns retain an inherited fabric reflecting the Triassic rifting. Triassic horsts, grabens, and half grabens localized and delineated later microbasins. The term microbasin is a limited area of deposition whose boundaries reflect, or can be presumed to reflect, buried basement-related faulting.

  2. Evidence for vertical movement of diagenetic fluids, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Land, L.S.

    1984-04-01

    Both the study of burial diagenesis and the study of present-day formation waters of Jurassic through Pleistocene formations from the Texas Gulf Coast document local vertical fluid transport of at least several kilometers. Evidence includes the following: (1) discharge at the land surface of Mesozoic-derived brines as bad water; (2) emplacement of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization by fluids derived from Mesozoic formations in salt dome cap rocks at or near the land surface; (3) emplacement of uranium in Tertiary aquifers as a result of reduction by ascending reduced sulfur, presumably of Mesozoic origin; (4) emplacement of calcite cement derived from Mesozoic strata Tertiary sandstones; and (5) presence of fluids in Plio-Pleistocene rocks with chemical signatures that could only have been derived from Mesozoic strata. Material-transport calculations indicate that the volumes of fluid involved far exceed the volume of connate water deposited in the basin, strongly suggesting some mechanism of thermally driven convective flow.

  3. Gulf Coast Sea Turtle Hatchlings Released at KSC

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first group of hatchlings from endangered sea turtle eggs brought from beaches along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast was released into the Atlantic Ocean off NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida...

  4. Vicksburg Group carbonates: a look at Gulf Coast Paleogene carbonate banks

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Throughout the Paleogene of the northern Gulf coastal plain large deltaic systems dumped thick sequences of lithoclastic sediments onto the shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. In between major deltaic pulses, thick carbonate banks or reefs developed in the vicinity of the broad Wiggins uplift of southern Mississippi and Alabama. Because the present-day out-crop of the Oligocene Vicksburg Group in Mississippi and Alabama cuts across sedimentary strike, all of the component lithofacies of a typical Paleogene carbonate bank complex of the northern Gulf coastal plain are exposed. By relating outcrop lithology to electric log character, the various lithofacies of the Vicksburg Group can be mapped throughout its subsurface extent. Similar inferences and maps can be made for the other Paleogene carbonate complexes. All of these environments, with their slightly different faunal constituents, can be found in the other carbonate units of the Gulf Coast Paleogene. The Tatum and the Salt Mountain Limestones have coral-algal community shelf margins, whereas the Cook Mountain, Ocala, and Vicksburg have a slightly deeper water foraminiferal-algal community at the margin. Time-equivalent lithoclastic deposition to the west prevented westward expansion much beyond central Louisiana. During the Miocene, bank complex communities were displaced farther to the east by continued Rocky Mountain-derived sediments coupled with a major epeirogenic uplift of the southern Appalachians.

  5. Nutrient delivery from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico and effects of cropland conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrients transported from the Mississippi River Basin have created an ecological disaster - Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. Also, in recent years, federal expenditures on agricultural conservation practices have received intense scrutiny. Partly driven by these factors, the USDA Conservation Ef...

  6. 33 CFR 110.194b - Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives... center located at latitude 30°11′12″, longitude 88°30′07″, in the waters of Gulf of Mexico south of the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi Sound and Gulf...

  7. 33 CFR 110.194b - Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives... center located at latitude 30°11′12″, longitude 88°30′07″, in the waters of Gulf of Mexico south of the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi Sound and Gulf...

  8. 33 CFR 110.194b - Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives... center located at latitude 30°11′12″, longitude 88°30′07″, in the waters of Gulf of Mexico south of the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi Sound and Gulf...

  9. 33 CFR 110.194b - Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mississippi Sound and Gulf of Mexico, near Petit Bois Island, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives... center located at latitude 30°11′12″, longitude 88°30′07″, in the waters of Gulf of Mexico south of the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mississippi Sound and Gulf...

  10. Mississippi Basin nitrogen flux believed to cause Gulf hypoxia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    An expanding hypoxic zone develops each spring and summer on the Louisiana-Texas shelf of the Gulf of Mexico, and nitrogen from the Mississippi River Basin has been implicated as one of the principal causes. Hypoxic conditions, which occur when dissolved oxygen concentrations are less than 2 mg/L, can cause stress or death in bottom-dwelling organisms that cannot leave the zone. The mid-summer extent of the hypoxic zone has more than doubled since it was first systematically mapped in 1985 [Rabalais et al., 1999]. The largest hypoxic zone measured to date occurred in 1999, when it reached ∼20,000 km2, about the size of the state of New Jersey [Rabalais, 1999].

  11. Katrina's Castaways: Driven Far from Their Gulf Coast Homes by Hurricane Katrina, Six Children and Their Families Struggle to Pick Up Their Lives at Home and in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, the disastrous storm that struck the Gulf Coast in late August of 2006, displaced an estimated 1 million people. Historians are already calling the resulting exodus of families from hard-hit communities in Louisiana and Mississippi the greatest mass migration in the United States since the Civil War. The diaspora extended north…

  12. Exploration and development: Gulf Coast Mesozoic, 1982 and 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, J.W.

    1983-09-01

    Looking at exploration and development within the Gulf Coast Mesozoic region as a whole, the trend has been toward shallow oil and away from deep gas. The southeastern states were hard hit because this area was so strongly oriented toward deep Hosston and Cotton Valley gas plays, and there were no viable shallow oil plays available as quick alternatives. East Texas actually faired better in 1982 than 1981, in part because of the many shallow oil plays to be made, but also because, according to G.C.S. statistics, the shift to shallow oil had actually begun between 1980 and 1981, so momentum in this direction was already present. South Texas saw the demise of the Austin Chalk play within the Giddings trend through Lee and Fayette Counties. The most significant trends in the southeastern states during 1982 were the Rodessa-Cotton Valley play centered in Warren ahd Hinds Counties, Mississippi, and the Miocene play of Baldwin and Mobile Counties, Alabama. The most significant discovery was the Movico Smackover field on the west flank of the Mobile graben in Mobile County, Alabama. Although exploration in north Louisiana and south Arkansas was relatively strong, most activity was concentrated in or around existing fields. East Texas activity was dominated by discoveries and development of Rodessa and Pettit fields in the basin and on the west and south flanks of the Sabine uplift. However, the most significant discovery last year was the East Ginger Smackover field in Rains County. As 1982 came to a close, it appeared that south Texas would have an important play in the Sligo, seasward of the Stuart city Reef trend.

  13. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  14. Hurricane Isaac Moving Towards Northern Gulf Coast

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an animation of GOES-13 satellite imagery from Aug. 26-28, 2012 of Hurricane Isaac's track through the Gulf of Mexico. Isaac is headed for New Orleans, exactly 7 years after hurricane Katri...

  15. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  16. Crisis Begets Change: Hurricane Recovery at Gulf Coast Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mahauganee Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on campus crisis management and the breadth of research on organizational change, little is known about organizational changes prompted by campus crisis. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes made to the operational profiles of Gulf Coast institutions during the process of recovering from major…

  17. Troubled Waters: Vietnamese Fisherfolk on America's Gulf Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul D.

    1981-01-01

    Reports on a continuing study, initiated in 1977, of the experience of Vietnamese refugees who settled as fisherfolk in communities on the Gulf Coast, primarily in West Florida. Focuses particularly on the refugees' relationships to established local fishing interests. (Author/MK)

  18. Florida Gulf Coast University Annual Accountability Report, 2013-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This statistical report provides data tables on Florida Gulf Coast University's (FGCU's) financial resources, personnel, enrollment, undergraduate education, graduate education, and research & economic development. Highlighted data include: (1) Recent results (fall 2013) of FGCU's participation in the National Survey of Student Engagement…

  19. 33 CFR 162.75 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries, South and Southwest Passes and... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.75 All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the... waters of the U.S. tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Gulf of Mexico between St....

  20. Status and reproduction of Gulf coast strain walleye in a Tombigbee River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Hart, J.; Hanson, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus [Mitchill]) are native to rivers and streams in the Mobile River basin in Mississippi and Alabama. These populations comprise a genetically unique strain (Gulf coast walleye, GCW) and represent the southernmost distribution of walleye in the United States. Luxapallila Creek was considered an important spawning site for GCW prior to and shortly after impoundment of the Tombigbee River in 1980. Extensive sampling in Luxapallila Creek in 2001 and 2002 collected only one larval walleye. Microsatellite DNA analysis suggested 14 of 16 adult walleye from Luxapallila Creek were hatchery-produced fish or their progeny. Controlled angling catch rates of adult walleye have declined since 1997. The scarcity of wild-spawned walleye and the similarity of wild-caught and hatchery broodstock walleye indicates that the GCW population in, or spawning in, Luxapallila Creek is sustained by stocking and recruitment from these stocked fish may be diminishing.

  1. Gulf Coast, Arkoma gas increasing flow through Lebanon hub

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1992-03-09

    Construction projects will hit stride this year for moving more U.S.-produced gas into the Northeast. Combined with projects recently completed, under way, or planned for Canadian gas at least 3 bcfd more gas will flow into New York, New Jersey, and the New England states within the next 3 years. This article looks at two major clusters of projectors to move U.S. Gulf Coast and Arkoma gas through the expanding Lebanon, Ohio, hub.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern Pintail (Gulf Coast Wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Kantrud, Harold A.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for northern pintail (Anas acuta) along the Gulf of Mexico coast. The model is scaled to produce an index between unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  3. Post-disaster Gulf Coast Recovery Using Telehealth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Thomas J.; Eastburn, Sasha L.; Icenogle, Marjorie L.; Slagle, Michelle; Nuriddin, Azizeh H.; Brantley, Katrina M.; Foreman, Rachel D.; Buckner, Ayanna V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The Gulf Coast continues to struggle with service need far outpacing available resources. Since 2005, the Regional Coordinating Center for Hurricane Response (RCC) at Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, has supported telehealth solutions designed to meet high service needs (e.g., psychiatry) within primary care and other healthcare organizations. The overall RCC vision is to support autonomous, useful, and sustainable telehealth programs towards mitigating unmet disaster-related needs. Subjects and Methods: To assess Gulf Coast telehealth experiences, we conducted semistructured interviews with both regional key informants and national organizations with Gulf Coast recovery interests. Using qualitative-descriptive analysis, interview transcripts were analyzed to identify shared development themes. Results: Thirty-eight key informants were interviewed, representing a 77.6% participation rate among organizations engaged by the RCC. Seven elements critical to telehealth success were identified: Funding, Regulatory, Workflow, Attitudes, Personnel, Technology, and Evaluation. These key informant accounts reveal shared insights with telehealth regarding successes, challenges, and recommendations. Conclusions: The seven elements critical to telehealth success both confirm and organize development principles from a diverse collective of healthcare stakeholders. The structured nature of these insights suggests a generalizable framework upon which other organizations might develop telehealth strategies toward addressing high service needs with limited resources. PMID:23427981

  4. Storm Induced Injection of the Mississippi River Plume Into the Open Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Jinchun; Miller, Richard L.; Powell, Rodney T.; Dagg, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The direct impact of the Mississippi River on the open Gulf of Mexico is typically considered to be limited due to the predominantly along-shore current pattern. Using satellite imagery, we analyzed chl a distributions in the northern Gulf of Mexico before and after the passage of two storms: Hurricane Lili and Tropical Storm Barry. Our analyses indicate that storm-induced eddies can rapidly inject large volumes of nutrient-rich Mississippi River water to the open gulf, and lead to phytoplankton blooms. Although these events last only a few weeks, they transport significant amounts of fluvial substances to the ocean. These river-ocean interactions are especially significant in tropical and subtropical regions because receiving waters are typically permanently stratified and oligotrophic.

  5. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES IN OYSTERS AND FISHES IN THREE GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of 3 northern US Gulf Coast estuaries (Pensacola and Escambia Bays in Northwest Florida; Mobile Bay, Alabama; Pascagoula Harbor, Mississippi Sound, Mississippi) investigates: (1) frequencies of known new diseases, including neoplasms, in oysters and fishes at sites amon...

  6. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Hazards of Gulf Coast Subsidence: Crustal Loading, Geodesy, InSAR and UAVSAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; Chapman, B. D.; Dokka, R. K.; Fielding, E. J.; Hensley, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Lohman, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita focused attention on the vulnerability of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Significant improvement in geophysical understanding of subsidence rates, temporal variability, and geographic distribution is not only an interesting scientific challenge, it is necessary for long term protection of lives and property. An integrated geophysical approach using precise and accurate geodetic measurements is the only way to gain physical insight into the myriad of possible processes at work and provide accurate predictions of future subsidence rates. In particular, southeast Louisiana is a Holocene landscape built on a coastal delta created by the Mississippi River during the past ~8,000 years as sea level rise slowed. Prior to human intervention natural subsidence was offset by sediment deposition by the Mississippi River during floods, and in situ organic sediment production in marshes. Currently, several processes have been documented to contribute to subsidence, including wetland loss due to lack of present day sediment flux, land subsidence due to sediment compaction, sediment oxidation, fluid withdrawal, salt evacuation, tectonics, and also crustal loading. One of the least studied subsidence driving phenomena is the effect of crustal loading due to Mississippi River sediments, and the geologically recent ~130 m (427 ft.) rise in sea level. We model subsidence rates expected from these loads using geophysical methods developed for post-glacial rebound. Our model predicted, and geodetically observed, vertical subsidence rates vary between 2 - 8 mm per year over areas of 30,000 to 750 square kilometers, respectively. This viscoelastic flexure is the background crustal deformation field, upon which larger amplitude, but smaller spatial scale, subsidence occurs due to other factors. We are extending subsidence measurements from traditional geodetic techniques (including GPS), to geographically comprehensive measurements derived from synthetic aperture radar

  8. Assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impact on Gulf coast microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Borglin, Sharon; Chakraborty, Romy; Tas, Neslihan; Mason, Olivia U; Hultman, Jenni; Prestat, Emmanuel; Hazen, Terry C; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-01-01

    One of the major environmental concerns of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the ecological impact of the oil that reached shorelines of the Gulf Coast. Here we investigated the impact of the oil on the microbial composition in beach samples collected in June 2010 along a heavily impacted shoreline near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Successional changes in the microbial community structure due to the oil contamination were determined by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Metatranscriptomics was used to determine expression of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. In addition, potential hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were obtained in culture. The 16S data revealed that highly contaminated samples had higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Successional changes in these classes were observed over time, during which the oil was partially degraded. The metatranscriptome data revealed that PAH, n-alkane, and toluene degradation genes were expressed in the contaminated samples, with high homology to genes from Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, and Pseudomonales. Notably, Marinobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) had the highest representation of expressed genes in the samples. A Marinobacter isolated from this beach was shown to have potential for transformation of hydrocarbons in incubation experiments with oil obtained from the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) well; collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. The combined data revealed a response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of Bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil. PMID:24772107

  9. Assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impact on Gulf coast microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Borglin, Sharon; Chakraborty, Romy; Tas, Neslihan; Mason, Olivia U.; Hultman, Jenni; Prestat, Emmanuel; Hazen, Terry C.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major environmental concerns of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the ecological impact of the oil that reached shorelines of the Gulf Coast. Here we investigated the impact of the oil on the microbial composition in beach samples collected in June 2010 along a heavily impacted shoreline near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Successional changes in the microbial community structure due to the oil contamination were determined by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Metatranscriptomics was used to determine expression of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. In addition, potential hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were obtained in culture. The 16S data revealed that highly contaminated samples had higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Successional changes in these classes were observed over time, during which the oil was partially degraded. The metatranscriptome data revealed that PAH, n-alkane, and toluene degradation genes were expressed in the contaminated samples, with high homology to genes from Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, and Pseudomonales. Notably, Marinobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) had the highest representation of expressed genes in the samples. A Marinobacter isolated from this beach was shown to have potential for transformation of hydrocarbons in incubation experiments with oil obtained from the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) well; collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. The combined data revealed a response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of Bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil. PMID:24772107

  10. Gulf Coast ``Sub-Salt`` play exploration strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Successful exploration strategies in the new offshore Gulf Coast Mio-Pliocene oil and gas (``Sub-Salt-) play will include the entire Petroleum System involved from pre-Miocene source bed deposition onward. On the shelf, primary accumulations occurred in pre-Late Miocene time and reservoirs; in deep-water areas, hydrocarbon generation, migration, and entrapment occurred just during the last few million years. In both scenarios, deep (pre-Miocene) structural configuration is decisive for the selection of most prospective acreage blocks, using established regional hydrocarbon migration principles.

  11. Hunting for Exoplanets at Florida Gulf Coast University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andy; Fine, Stephanie; Humes, Cassandra; King, Alex; Patel, Keval; Rivers, Dakota; Sinclair, Kelsey; Stacey, Enzo; Vural, Leyla; Zimmer, Jenna

    2016-06-01

    Honors Program participants at Florida Gulf Coast University must complete two of four required "Honors Experiences". One student option is a research experience, and we have developed a "Planet Hunters" course to provide an astronomical research track. In the course, students spend the first semester learning astronomical background and exoplanet detection techniques, while the second semester is devoted to planet searches in Kepler and K2 data, using student-oriented software tools developed specifically for the task. In this poster, we present the tools, data sets, and results obtained by students participating in the first year of the course, along with lessons learned for future implementation.

  12. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  13. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (>100 km) has occurred along Tertiary sands.

  14. Design and Rationale of Gulf locals with Acute Coronary Syndrome Events (Gulf Coast) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Zubaid, Mohammad; Thani, Khalid Bin; Rashed, Wafa; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Alrawahi, Najib; Ridha, Mustafa; Akbar, Mousa; Alenezi, Fahad; Alhamdan, Rashed; Almahmeed, Wael; Ouda, Hussam; Al-Mulla, Arif; Baslaib, Fahad; Shehab, Abdulla; Alnuaimi, Abdulla; Amin, Haitham; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the risk profile, management and one-year outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Gulf region of the Middle East. Subjects and Methods: The Gulf locals with acute coronary syndrome events (Gulf COAST) registry is a prospective, multinational, longitudinal, observational, cohort-based registry of consecutive citizens, from the Gulf region of the Middle East, admitted from January 2012 to January 2013 to 29 hospitals with a diagnosis of ACS. Data entered online included patient demographics, cardiovascular risk profiles, past medical history, physical findings on admission, in-hospital diagnostic tests and therapeutic management, as well as one year outcomes. Results: 3188 patients were recruited. The mean age was 60.4 ± 12.6years (range: 22-112), 2104 (66%) were males and 1084 (34%) females. The discharge diagnosis was ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 741 (23.2%), new-onset left bundle branch block myocardial infarction (LBBBMI) in 30 (0.9%), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in 1486 (46.6%) and unstable angina in 931 (29.2%). At hospital presentation, 2105 (66%), 1779 (55.8%), 1703 (53.4%) and 740 (23.2%) had history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and active smoking, respectively. Conclusion: Patients with ACS in our region are young with very high risk profile. The Gulf COAST registry is an example of successful regional collaboration and will provide information on contemporary management of ACS in the region. PMID:25328551

  15. Screening selected Gulf Coast forest species for susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death in California oak woodlands, poses a threat to woody plants in the rest of the U.S., including the Gulf Coast area, which is regarded as a high risk location. Several plant species native to the Gulf Coast forest were tested for reaction to ...

  16. Clay mineral distributions in and around the Mississippi River watershed and Northern Gulf of Mexico: sources and transport patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sionneau, T.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Biscaye, P. E.; Van Vliet-Lanoe, B.; Bory, A.

    2008-09-01

    Maps of the distributions of the four major clay minerals (smectite, illite, kaolinite and chlorite) in and around the Mississippi River drainage basin and in the Northern Gulf of Mexico have been produced using newly acquired data from erodible/alluvial terrestrial sediments and marine surface sediments, as well as from previously published data. East of the Rockies, North America can be divided into four, large, clay-mineral provinces: (1) the north-western Mississippi River watershed (smectite rich), (2) the Great Lakes area and eastern Mississippi River watershed (illite and chlorite rich), (3) the south-eastern United States (kaolinite rich) and (4) the Brazos River and south-western Mississippi River watersheds (illite and kaolinite rich). The clay mineral distributions in surface sediments of the present-day Gulf of Mexico are strongly influenced by three main factors: (1) by relative fluvial contributions: the Mississippi River delivers the bulk of the clay input to the Northern Gulf of Mexico whereas the Apalachicola, Mobile, Brazos and Rio Grande rivers inputs have more local influences; (2) by differential settling of various clay mineral species, which is identified for the first time in Northern Gulf of Mexico sediments; and (3) by oceanic current transport: the Gulf of Mexico surface and subsurface circulation distributes the clay-rich sediments from river mouth sources throughout the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Sensitivity of Hurricane Storm Surge to Land Cover and Topography Under Various Sea Level Rise Scenarios Along the Mississippi Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Major Gulf hurricanes have a high probability of impacting the northern Gulf of Mexico, especially coastal Mississippi (Resio, 2007). Due to the wide and flat continental shelf, this area provides near-perfect geometry for high water levels under tropical cyclone conditions. Literature suggests with 'very high confidence that global sea level will rise at least 0.2 m and no more than 2.0 m by 2011' (Donoghue, 2011; Parris et al., 2012). Further, it is recognized that the Mississippi barrier islands are highly susceptible to a westward migration and retreating shoreline. With predictions for less frequent, more intense tropical storms, rising sea levels, and a changing landscape, it is important to understand how these changes may affect inundation extent and flooding due to hurricane storm surge. A state-of-the-art SWAN+ADCIRC hydrodynamic model of coastal Mississippi was utilized to simulate Hurricane Katrina with present day sea level conditions. Using present day as a base scenario, past (1960) and future (2050) sea level changes were simulated. In addition to altering the initial sea state, land use land cover (LULC) was modified for 1960 and 2050 based on historic data and future projections. LULC datasets are used to derive surface roughness characteristics, such as Manning's n, and wind reduction factors. The topography along the barrier islands and near the Pascagoula River, MS was also altered to reflect the 1960 landscape. Storm surge sensitivity to topographic change were addressed by comparing model results between two 1960 storm surge simulations; one with current topography and a second with changes to the barrier islands. In addition, model responses to changes in LULC are compared. The results will be used to gain insight into adapting present day storm surge models for future conditions. References Donoghue, J. (2011). Sea level history of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast and sea level rise scenarios for the near future. Climatic Change, 107

  18. Ocean acidification along the Gulf Coast and East Coast of the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Barbero, Leticia; Byrne, Robert; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Wei-Jen; Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Baringer, Molly; Langdon, Chris

    2015-04-01

    As part of an effort to monitor changes in inorganic carbon chemistry of the coastal ocean, near-synoptic cruises are being conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and along the East Coast of the United States. Here we describe observations obtained on a cruise in the summer of 2012 and compare them with results from a cruise following a similar track in 2007. The focus is on describing spatial patterns of aragonite saturation state (ΩAr). This parameter is an indicator of ecosystem health, in particular for calcifying organisms. The results show large-scale regional trends from different source waters at the northeastern and southwestern edges of the domain, along with the modulating effects of remineralization/respiration and riverine inputs. The broader patterns and changes over five years along the coast can be well described by the impacts of large-scale circulation, notably changes in source water contributions. Changes in the well-buffered Loop Current and Gulf Stream with high ΩAr impact the waters in the southern part of the study area. The less buffered southward coastal currents with low ΩAr originating from the Labrador Sea and Gulf of St. Lawrence impact the ΩAr patterns in the Northern regions. The expected 2% average decrease in ΩAr in the surface mixed layer due to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels over the 5-year period is largely overshadowed by local and regional variability from changes in hydrography and mixed layer dynamics.

  19. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  20. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  1. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  2. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  3. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  4. A coastal hazards data base for the US Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, R.C. |; Gornitz, V.M.; White, T.W.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US Gulf Coast at risk to sea-level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US Gulf Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data base systems. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data on elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. To allow for the identification of coastlines at risk from sea-level rise, 7 of the 22 original data variables in this data base were classified by vulnerability and used to create 7 relative risk variables. These relative risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a coastal vulnerability index for each grid cell and/or line segment. The data for these 29 variables (i.e., the 22 original variables and 7 risk variables) have been placed into the following data formats: (1) Gridded polygon data for the 22 original data variables. Data include elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. (2) Gridded polygon data for the seven classified risk variables. The risk variables are classified versions of: mean coastal elevation, geology, geomorphology, local subsidence trend, mean shoreline displacement, maximum tidal range, and maximum significant wave height. (3) 1:2,000,000 line segment data containing the 29 data variables (the 22 original data variables and the seven classified risk variables). (4) Supplemental point data for the stations used in calculating the sea-level trend and tidal range data sets. (5) Supplemental line segment data containing a 1:2,000,000 digitized coastline of the US Gulf Coast as defined by this document.

  5. Geopressured geothermal reservoir continuity: Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, C.R.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The areal extent of aquifers which provide the production drive for Gulf Coast geopressured gas reservoirs are postulated to be representative of the areal extents of geopressured geothermal aquifers. Accordingly, the performances of nine water-drive geopressured gas reservoirs were analyzed to obtain inferences of the production-driving aquifers' sizes. Apparent areal extents of these aquifers ranged from 4 to 35 square miles. Two-thirds (6) of the aquifer extents exceeded 12 square miles. All three SP-log types (increased deflection upward, decreased deflection upward and uniform deflection) are represented in this larger aquifer data set. Comparisons of these inferred aquifer volumes with those determined from well log data and correlations are consistent with the existence of hydraulic reservoir continuity across faults and pinch-outs of sand within fault compartments. The magnitudes of in situ rock pore volume compressibility and shale watering could also be evaluated by careful analysis of geopressured gas reservoir performance data.

  6. Oil source bed distribution in upper Tertiary of Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, W.G.

    1985-02-01

    Effective oil source beds have not been reported in Miocene and younger Gulf Coast sediments and the organic matter present is invariably immature and oxidized. Crude oil composition, however, indicates origin from mature source beds containing reduced kerogen. Oil distribution suggests extensive vertical migration through fracture systems from localized sources in deeply buried, geopressured shales. A model is proposed in which oil source beds were deposited in intraslope basins that formed behind salt ridges. The combination of silled basin topography, rapid sedimentation, and enhanced oxygen-minimum zones during global warmups resulted in periodic anoxic environments and preservation of oil-generating organic matter. Anoxia was most widespread during the middle Miocene and Pliocene transgressions and rare during regressive cycles when anoxia occurred primarily in hypersaline conditions such as exist today in the Orca basin.

  7. Origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum in Gulf Coast Cenozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Explanations of the origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum in the Gulf Coast upper Cenozoic must accommodate the following facts. (1) No specific source of the petroleum has ever been identified. (2) The most probable source section is 10,000-20,000 ft of low TOC (0.4-1.0 wt %) shale that underlies the reservoirs. (3) Tremendous volumes of dry gas have been generated in the middle and basal part of the source section. (4) More gas than oil is in the reservoirs. (5) The distribution of oil and gas accumulations in the Cenozoic is not primarily controlled by the distribution of terrestrial gas-prone organic facies and marine oil-prone organic facies, but by the relative ease of migration of the two hydrocarbon phases. For example, gas preferentially accumulates in the simpler structures, oil in the intrusive salt domes. (6) High pressure and high porosity in the source rock indicates that neither water movement nor continuous phase oil movement out of the source rock are likely to be significant factors in primary migration. (7) The situation is very dynamic, with generation, migration, and accumulation occurring today. (8) Faults are very important as controls on migration and accumulation of the petroleum. The interaction of these (and other) factors suggests that most oil reservoirs in the Gulf Coast upper Cenozoic sediments probably initially became mobile after being dissolved in gas in the source rock. The gas-oil mixture moved toward lower pressure areas adjacent to and in faults, and moved upward into reservoirs and traps along faults.

  8. Differences in phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Boyer, E.W.; Nolan, J.V.; Brakebill, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been linked to increased nitrogen fluxes from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basins, though recent evidence shows that phosphorus also influences productivity in the Gulf. We developed a spatially explicit and structurally detailed SPARROW water-quality model that reveals important differences in the sources and transport processes that control nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery to the Gulf. Our model simulations indicate that agricultural sources in the watersheds contribute more than 70% of the delivered N and P. However, corn and soybean cultivation is the largest contributor of N (52%), followed by atmospheric deposition sources (16%); whereas P originates primarily from animal manure on pasture and rangelands (37%), followed by corn and soybeans (25%), other crops (18%), and urban sources (12%). The fraction of in-stream P and N load delivered to the Gulf increases with stream size, but reservoir trapping of P causes large local- and regional-scale differences in delivery. Our results indicate the diversity of management approaches required to achieve efficient control of nutrient loads to the Gulf. These include recognition of important differences in the agricultural sources of N and P, the role of atmospheric N, attention to P sources downstream from reservoirs, and better control of both N and P in close proximity to large rivers. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. Analysis of Texas Gulf Coast Tertiary sandstones to delineate areas of high-quality geopressured geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Dodge, M.M.

    1980-06-01

    In Lower and in parts of Middle and Upper Texas Gulf Coast the Wilcox sandstones are relatively well consolidated, but in other parts of Middle and Upper Texas Gulf Coast they show a reversal toward increased porosity at depth. The Wilcox Group has good reservoir potential for geopressured geothermal energy in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast and possibly in adjacent areas, but other Wilcox areas are marginal. Vicksburg sandstones have the poorest reservoir quality of sandstones of any formation and are not prospective for geothermal energy. Reservoir quality in the Frio Formation increases from very poor to lowermost Texas, to marginal into the Middle Texas Gulf Coast, and to good through the Upper Texas Gulf Coast. This increase in reservoir quality correlates to changes in rock composition and cementation. The Frio Formation in the Upper Texas Gulf Coast has the best deep-reservoir quality of any unit along the Texas Gulf Coast. 18 references.

  10. Origin of the Tertiary reservoired hydrocarbons along the central Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast rim

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, G.A.; Sassen, R. ); Chinn, E.W. ); Piggott, N.; Gibbons, M.J.

    1990-05-01

    Tertiary reservoired hydrocarbons along the central Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast rim were most likely derived from Paleocene/Eocene Wilcox Group and Sparta Formation marine shales. Sixteen total soluble extracts and >200 oil samples were analyzed using carbon isotopic techniques ({delta}{sup 13}C) and gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). Results demonstrated that interpretations must use all types of data because Cretaceous derived and Tertiary derived oils overlap in southern Louisiana. When isotopic, sterane, hopane, and light hydrocarbon data are combined separation of classes become possible. Cretaceous oils and extracts have a full range of extended hopanes, a characteristic peak eluting immediately after C{sub 30} hopane and no oleanane. Paleogene oils and extracts have oleanane and a restricted range of extended hopanes. Regional trends indicate that eastern Louisiana oils were derived from the Sparta or a Sparta/Wilcox mix, the Mississippi delta oils from a Cretaceous clastic source, and western Louisiana and Texas oils from the Wilcox source. Regional variations in GOR/CGR are a function of timing and mechanism of migration.

  11. Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

  12. Thermal Evolution of the North-Central Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Scardina, Allan D.; Pilger, Rex H., Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The subsidence history of the North Louisiana Salt Basin, determined from well data, indicates that the region underwent extension during rifting and has since passively subsided due to conductive cooling of the lithosphere. Timing of the rifting event is consistent with opening of the Gulf of Mexico during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time. Crustal extension by a factor of 1.5 to 2 was computed from "tectonic" subsidence curves. However, data from the early subsidence history are insufficient to distinguish between uniform and nonuniform extension of the lithosphere. The magnitude of extension is in good agreement with total sediment and crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction data in the adjacent Central Mississippi Salt Basin. The temperature distribution within the sediments is calculated using a simple heat conduction model. Temperature and subsidence effects of thermal insulation by overlying sediments are included. The computed temperature distribution is in good agreement with bottom hole temperatures measured in deep wells. Temperature histories predicted for selected stratigraphic horizons within the North Louisiana Salt Basin suggest that thermal conditions have been favorable for hydrocarbon generation in the older stata. Results from a two-dimensional heat conduction model suggest that a probable cause for the early formation of the adjacent uplifts is lateral heat conduction from the basin. Rapid extension of the lithosphere underneath areas with horizontal dimensions of 50-100 km produces extremely rapid early subsidence due to lateral heat conduction. The moderate subsidence rate observed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous suggests slow extension over a long period of time.

  13. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN ESTUARIES ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO AND WESTERN ATLANTIC COASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from 870 estuarine sites was examined to determine boundaries of biogeographical provinces along the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic coasts of the United States. Our objective was to confirm or challenge established boun...

  14. 75 FR 48739 - Application of Gulf Coast Airways, Inc. for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    .... SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Gulf Coast Airways, Inc., fit, willing, and able, and awarding it...

  15. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  16. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  17. Gulf of Fonseca, Pacifica coast of Central America as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Gulf of Fonseca, on the Pacific coast of Central America, as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its earth-orbital mission. The Gulf is shared by the nations of El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The prominent volcano on the peninsula in Nicaragua is Volcan Cosiguina.

  18. 78 FR 55064 - Solicitation for Members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Gulf Coast Ecosystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Solicitation for Members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Science Program Advisory Working Group (RSPAWG) AGENCY: National... Administration is publishing this notice to solicit nominations for the NOAA Science Advisory Board Gulf...

  19. Indicators, Metric and Tools for Informing the Science and Vision of Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council will oversee restoration efforts the under the recently passed RESTORE Act in response to the historic Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The Council will develop a Comprehensive Restoration Plan using best available ...

  20. Potential Gas Committee designates Gulf Coast as prime future gas source

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Operators looking for gas along the Gulf get assurance of plentiful supplies in the nation`s largest gas province. The Gulf Coast, onshore and offshore, will supply a fourth of the nation`s gas for the future, more than any other U.S. producing province, according to the Potential Gas Committee.

  1. RESPONSE OF GULF COAST ESTUARIES TO NUTRIENT LOAD: DISSOLVED OXYGEN DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    GED has developed a process-based approach to hypoxia research on Pensacola Bay as a model Gulf of Mexico estuary. We selected Pensacola Bay because, like many Gulf coast estuaries, it is shallow, microtidal, and experiences seasonal hypoxia. We also have an historical database ...

  2. 78 FR 50030 - Implementation of New Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Science, Observation, Monitoring, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...NOAA announces the implementation, under the authority of the Resources and Ecosystem Sustainability, Tourist Opportunities, and Revived Economies of the Gulf Coast States Act (RESTORE Act) of 2012, of a new competitive science program to ensure the long-term sustainability of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and the communities that depend on...

  3. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, O.

    1980-09-30

    As an extension of its efforts in the development of the geopressured resources of the Gulf Coast, the Division of Geothermal Energy of the US Department of Energy is interested in determining the extent and characteristics of geopressured occurrences in areas outside the Gulf Coast. The work undertaken involved a literature search of available information documenting such occurrences. Geopressured reservoirs have been reported from various types of sedimentary lithologies representing virtually all geologic ages and in a host of geologic environments, many of which are unlike those of the Gulf Coast. These include many Rocky Mountain basins (Green River, Big Horn, Powder River, Wind River, Uinta, Piceance, Denver, San Juan), Mid-Continent basins (Delaware, Anadorko, Interior Salt, Williston, Appalachian), California basins (Sacramento, San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura, Coast Ranges), Alaskan onshore and offshore basins, Pacific Coast offshore basins, and other isolated occurrences, both onshore and offshore.

  4. Geomorphology and Depositional Subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Rogers, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphological and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and the islands' areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the beach ridge complex, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and active overwash zones. The primary mapping procedures used supervised functions within a Geographic Information System (GIS) that classified depositional subenvironments and features (map units) and delineated boundaries of the features (shapefiles). The GIS classified units on the basis of tonal patterns of a feature in contrast to adjacent features observed on georeferenced aerial

  5. Source of oils in Gulf Coast Cenozoic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Many Gulf Coast geologists have assumed that shales interbedded with or adjacent to the reservoir sandstones are source rocks for oils in Cenozoic reservoirs, but few source-rock quality shales have been identified in Cenozoic strata. Reservoirs and their associated shales are in thermally immature and organic-poor intervals. Based on geothermal gradient, age, and depth, it can be shown that thermally mature source rocks should be present in older slope shales beneath each producing trend. Assumptions regarding the source rock potential of the interbedded thermally immature shales derive from the fact that hydrocarbons migrated into traps soon after burial of the reservoir (early migration). Early migration from the source rock was therefore also assumed (shallow burial, early migration model). Review of the geochemical requirements for a source rock shows that geochemical constraints demand late migration from the source rock after many thousands of feet of burial (deep burial, late migration model). Geological and geochemical concepts are compatible, however, if migration out of the source rock was late (long after deposition and deep burial of the source rock) but migration into the reservoir was early (soon after shallow burial of the reservoir and trap system).

  6. Fog chemistry in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Suresh; Raghunathan, Ravikrishna; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Taehyoung; Chen, Jing; Kommalapati, Raghava R.; Murugesan, Karthik; Shen, Xinhua; Qingzhong, Yuan; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    Fog samples were collected in two population centers of the US Gulf Coast (Houston, Texas and Baton Rouge, Louisiana) using Caltech active strand cloud collectors. A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected in Baton Rouge (November 2004-February 2005) and Houston (February 2006). These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved organic carbon, major inorganic ions, and a variety of organic compounds including organic acids, aromatics, carbonyls, and linear alkanes. Fogs in both environments were of moderate density, with typical fog liquid water contents <100 mg m -3. Fog samples collected in Houston reflect a clear influence of marine and anthropogenic inputs, while Baton Rouge samples also reflect agricultural inputs. The volume-weighted mean fog pH was somewhat more acidic (˜4.3) in Houston than in Baton Rouge (˜5.0). A wide pH range was observed in fog at both locations. Houston fog had higher concentrations of Cl -, NO 3-, Na +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+. Sulfate to nitrate ratios were high in fogs at both locations, typical of many clouds in the eastern US. Total organic carbon concentrations were much higher in Houston fogs than in Baton Rouge fogs. Efforts to speciate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reveal large contributions from organic acids and carbonyls, with smaller contributions from other organic compound families including aromatics, alkanes, amides, and alcohols. Approximately 40% of the fog DOC was unspeciated in samples from both study locations.

  7. Land subsidence associated with hydrocarbon production, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitler, C.W.; White, W.A.; Akhter, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Although ground-water withdrawal has been the predominant cause of land subsidence in the Texas Gulf Coast, localized subsidence and faulting have also resulted from hydrocarbon production. Subsidence was documented as early as the 1920s over the Goose Creek field. Since then, subsidence and/or faulting have been identified over the Saxet, South Houston, Chocolate Bayou, Hastings, Alco-Mag, Clinton, Mykawa, Blue Ridge, Webster, and Caplen oil fields. Oil-production-related subsidence over these fields generally creates few environmental or engineering problems. One exception is the subsidence and faulting over the Caplen oil field on Bolivar Peninsula, where more than 1,000 ac of saltwater marsh has been replaced by subaqueous flats. Subsidence may be occurring over other fields but has not been identified because of limited releveled benchmark data. An evaluation of drill-stem and bottom-hole pressure data for the Frio Formation in Texas indicates extensive depressurization presumably from hydrocarbon production. Nearly 12,000 measurements from a pressure data base of 17,000 measurements indicate some depressurization. Some of the Frio zones have pressure declines of more than 1,500 psi from original hydrostatic conditions. Subsidence and faulting may be associated with these fields in the Frio as well as other Tertiary formations where extensive hydrocarbon production and subsequent depressurization have occurred.

  8. Mississippi Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The streamers of clouds draped over the Gulf of Mexico in this true-color MODIS image from February 27, 2002, suggest that a cold, dry wind was blowing southward over the United States and began to pick up moisture over the Gulf, causing these strips of clouds. That the clouds didn't pick up until some distance from the coastline allowed MODIS to get a perfect view of the dynamic Gulf Coast environment spanning (left to right) Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida's Western Panhandle. The Mississippi River runs roughly down the center of the image, and is joined in Louisiana by the Red River coming in from the northwest. Over the past 7000 years, the actual delta, where the main river channel empties into the Gulf, has wandered around what we now think of as the Louisiana coast. Considering all the sediment visible in this image, it's not hard to imagine that the river carries about 2.4 billion kilograms of sediment into the Gulf each year. Deposition of some of this sediment has been building up the current delta, called the Birdfoot Delta, for obvious reasons, for about 700 years. The coastal waters are alive with microscopic organisms called phytoplankton, which contain colorful pigments, including chlorophyll, for harvesting sunlight. Beyond the sediment plume off Louisiana, the waters are very dark, which could indicate that a large amount of chlorophyll is present, absorbing lots of sunlight and causing the water to appear dark. Farther south, the waters appear bright blue, which could be a signature of coccolithophores, which use highly reflective calcium carbonate to build scaly coverings for themselves. The brighter offshore waters could also be caused by a blue-green algae called Trichodesmium, an organism that can not only harness carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, but can also take nitrogen from the air and turn it into a form that can be used by living organisms. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  10. Effects of inherited of pre-jurassic tectonics on the U. S. Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Extensional and compressional tectonic features from the Canadian shield to the United States Gulf Coast reflect repeated and continued movement of crustal elements along northwest-southeast paths. Resultant rift and thrust features formed perpendicular to that orientation. Cycles of ocean formation (rifting), quiescence, and ocean closure (thrusting) control the structural style and stratigraphic sequences that record the accretion of much of the North American continent onto the Canadian shield. The Triassic separation of North America from South America resulted in an irregular fragmented arc that now extends from Central America to South Florida. Stranded blocks of continental crust, left behind by the jumping of spreading centers during rifting, control the location of major basins over the attenuated crust between the stranded blocks. The former location of the Yucatan Peninsula is now marked by the salt-dome basins of central Mississippi, southern Louisiana, and southeastern Texas. The attenuated continental crust in this area permitted early, thick evaporite precipitation and thicker than normal sediment deposition. Translation of Mexico westward to its pre-Laramide position allows for a closer prerifting fit between North America and South America. Postrifting tectonic patterns retain an inherited fabric reflecting the Triassic rifting. Triassic horsts, grabens, and half-grabens localized and delineated later microbasins. Mapping these microbasins is essential to understanding exploration play concepts within a geologic province. Irregular thicknesses of Louann Salt resulted from salt precipitation on a block-faulted basement. The uneven thickness of salt within individual basement fault blocks (grabens and half-grabens) controlled the spatial distribution and size of the resultant salt domes, pillows, and withdrawal areas. This salt movement is one link between the original basement block faults and the resultant growth-fault basins.

  11. Sm/Nd ratio as a diagenetic tracer, Paleogene, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, L.E.; Awwiller, D.N. )

    1990-05-01

    Illitization of smectite during burial diagenesis apparently fractionates Sm from Nd. In the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group of the central Texas Gulf Coast and the Oligocene Vicksburg and Frio formations of south Texas, whole-rock shale has normal crustal Sm/Nd ratios of 0.174-0.210. In the < 5-{mu}m shale fraction, Sm/Nd is depleted relative to the corresponding whole rock by 0.011 to 0.051. Because fine clay from modern Mississippi River mud has a normal Sm/Nd ration of 0.191, and is similar to the whole sample (Sm/Nd = 0.188), the authors infer that depleted Sm/Nd in fine-fraction illite is a diagenetic effect. Sm/Nd in modern pore fluids from Wilcox and Vicksburg sandstones can be extremely elevated (as high as 0.73), apparently due to smectite illitization. Because of the relative rare earth element concentrations in shale vs. water (approximately 30 ppm Nd in rock, approximately 10{sup {minus}4} ppm Nd in pore fluids), a small depletion in Sm relative to Nd in diagenetic illites causes a very large enrichment of Sm/Nd in the pore fluids. Thus, Sm/Nd is a geochemical tracer specific both as to source (shale) and timing (syn- or post-illitization), and is potentially valuable as a tracer of pore fluid movement in sedimentary basins. Sm/Nd ratios also constrain paragenetic sequences by relating times of formation of authigenic phases to the time of illitization. In the Wilcox sandstone, calcite cement has Sm/Nd ratios of 0.187-0.204 (pre-dating illitization), whereas ankerite cement has Sm/Nd ratios of 0.39-0.71, and post-dates illitization.

  12. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2011-01-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  13. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2009-10-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  14. Evolution and structure of a coastal squirt off the Mississippi River delta: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nan D.; Huh, Oscar K.; Rouse, Lawrence J.; Murray, Stephen P.

    1996-09-01

    In early October 1992, satellite-derived sea surface temperature data revealed a 200 km long and 10- to 30-km-wide stream of cool water flowing toward the southwest from the Mississippi River delta region. Satellite imagery and in situ measurements have enabled a detailed study of the squirt's kinematics and subsurface characteristics over a 2-week period. In its early stages, the squirt appeared as a narrow, high-speed (>75 cm/s) jet of water which flowed westward over the Mississippi Canyon, forcing a semi-submersible drilling rig to suspend operations from October 2 to 4. After crossing back onto the shelf, the squirt spread laterally, yielding a mushroom-shaped feature, 75 km wide, which consisted of counter-rotating vortices. Northeasterly wind forcing (averaging 10-15 m/s) and water level setup east of the delta appear to have been the primary mechanisms for evolution of the high-velocity currents. Satellite and in situ measurements demonstrate that the dipole eddy was comprised of a cool, low-salinity, low-density water mass at least 26 m deep in the center and 16 m deep along its margins. This event demonstrates that strong northeasterly winds over the northern Gulf of Mexico can initiate along-shelf and off-shelf flows of cooler coastal waters, contributing significantly to seasonal cooling and freshening of the continental shelf and to shelf/slope exchanges of water. During this event, approximately 100 km3 of inner shelf and river water was transported off the continental shelf, a volume equivalent to 17% of the average annual discharge of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers.

  15. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  16. 77 FR 39169 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Blue Angels Air Show; Gulf of Mexico & Santa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Blue Angels Air Show; Gulf of Mexico & Santa Rosa Sound; Pensacola, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the...

  17. Impacts of the Anomalous Mississippi River Discharge and Diversions on Phytoplankton Blooming in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico in August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Brendan Sean

    On April 20, 2010 a tragic explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig marked the beginning of one of the worst environmental disasters in history. For 87 days oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico. In August 2010, anomalous phytoplankton activity was identified in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using the Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) ocean color product. The FLH anomaly was bound by approximately 30--28° North and 90--86° West and there was a suggestion that this anomaly may have occurred due to the presence of oil. This study was designed to examine alternative explanations and to determine what influence the Mississippi River and the freshwater diversions, employed in the response efforts, may have had on the development of the FLH anomaly. The combination of the anomalously high flow rate in the Mississippi River observed in June-August 2010, the use of freshwater diversions, and three severe storms increased the flow of water through the adjoining marshes. We propose that these conditions reduced the residence time of water and nutrients on the wetlands, and likely mobilized nutrients leading to increased fresh water and nutrients being discharge to the coasts around the Mississippi Delta. Salinity contour maps created from data collected by ships operating in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico showed that the 31 isohaline was upwards of 250km east of the Mississippi River Birds Foot Delta in August 2010. The American Seas (AmSeas) numerical circulation model was used to examine the dispersal and distribution of water parcels from the Mississippi River and freshwater diversions. Two virtual particle seeding locations were used to trace particles to obtain a measure of the percentage of particles entering a Region of Interest (ROI) located in the center of the FLH anomaly, i.e. 150 km east of the Mississippi Delta. All environmental data examined suggest that the eastward dispersal of the Mississippi River water including that

  18. Metal concentrations in pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata, collected from Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Sadig, M.; Alam, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a shallow semi-closed water body. Several industrial complexes have been established along its coast line during the past decade. The effluent from these facilities is being discharged into the Gulf. These discharges pose potential hazards to the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf. The Saudi Arabian government is striving to protect the marine environment of the Gulf and has commissioned several studies to assess the damage from the industrial and municipal discharges. In these studies, marine organisms, for example, fish, clams, sea urchins, oysters, and plankton, along with sediments and seawater, have been analyzed for various pollutants. This study reports metal concentrations in pearl oysters collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf.

  19. 77 FR 42653 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is amending an existing restricted area to reflect changes in responsible parties for the restricted area established around the AUSTAL, USA shipbuilding facility located in Mobile, Alabama. The Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion and Repair, United States Navy (USN), Gulf Coast (SUPSHIP Gulf Coast) assumed the duties of administering new......

  20. 78 FR 43959 - In the Matter of American Technologies Group, Inc., Bonanza Oil & Gas, Inc., and Gulf Coast Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of American Technologies Group, Inc., Bonanza Oil & Gas, Inc., and Gulf Coast Oil... information concerning the securities of Bonanza Oil & Gas, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports... a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gulf Coast Oil & Gas,...

  1. United States Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program. Annual report, 1 November 1980-31 October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.H.; Morton, R.A.; Dunlap, H.F.; Frederick, D.O.; Gray, K.E.; Peters, E.J.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Thompson, T.W.

    1982-07-01

    The following are included: objectives, overview, coordination assistance, compaction measurements on Texas Gulf Coast Sandstones and Shales; US Gulf Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Aquifer simulation, Preliminary Review of Subsidence Insurance Issues, Geopressured-Geothermal Information System, and Study of Log Derived Water Resistivity Values in Geopressured Geothermal Formations. (MHR)

  2. 78 FR 59234 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Act (APA) (5 U.S.C.(b)) (78 FR 24987). This regulation was later amended on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 34894... Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in the Mississippi Canyon Block 20 in...

  3. Implementation of Drainage Water Management in Open Ditch Drainage Systems of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased riverine nutrients linked to agricultural activities in the Mississippi River Basin have contributed to degraded surface waters within the basin as well as to the hypoxic zone along the Louisiana Gulf coast. In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), these nutrients are transported from agr...

  4. Katrina Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…

  5. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  6. Assessing the response of the Gulf Coast to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John B.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Day, John

    2012-11-01

    Gulf Coastal Science Consortium Workshop;Houston, Texas, 28-29 June 2012 The newly formed Gulf Coastal Science Consortium held its first workshop at Rice University. The creation of the consortium was prompted by two recent incidents. One incident involved censorship of a book chapter on Galveston Bay by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality that omitted all references to climate change and accelerated sea-level rise. The other incident was the adoption of legislation in North Carolina that requires planners and developers to assume a linear sea-level rise projection, despite compelling scientific evidence for a multifold increase in sea-level rise in historical time.

  7. A survey of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation in the northern Gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The status of submerged aquatic vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico is of concern because of its role in the ecology and economy of the coast. Recent studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists help assess the factors that contribute to SAV distribution and health.

  8. SULFATE REDUCTION RATES IN A THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED, NORTHWEST FLORIDA USA GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, R., D.F. Yates and Robert L. Quarles. In press. Sulfate Reduction Rates in a Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed, Northwest Florida USA Gulf of Mexico Coast (Abstract). To be presented at the ASLO 2004 Summer Meeting: The Changing Landscapes of Oceans and Freshwater, 13-1...

  9. Lessons learned using water quality models to develop numeric nutrient criteria for a Gulf coast estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pensacola Bay is a shallow, mesotrophic estuary located in the north-central coast of the Gulf of Mexico, US. In November 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) proposed numeric total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) water quality cr...

  10. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  11. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A GULF COAST OXIDANT TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION EXPERIMENT: WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty atmospheric scientists from government, industry, academia, and the private research sector participated in a workshop in November 1983, in Durham, NC to develop a conceptual design for a study of ozone transport and transformation in the western Gulf coast area. The purpo...

  12. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN ESTUARIES ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO AND WESTERN ATLANTIC COASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from 870 estuarine sites was examimed in order to either confirm or challenge established boundaries of biogeographical provinces along the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic coasts of the United States. The objective was t...

  13. Potential new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast region of the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several new elite rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry strains developed from diverse origins and having potential for release as new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. have been developed. Promising new early ripening and vigorous new rabbiteye blueberry strains being c...

  14. 75 FR 38913 - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... under the Oil Pollution Act and other applicable law. (d) The Plan shall identify long- and short-term...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Memorandum for the... from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the unique beauty and bounty of this region is...

  15. Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery to Map Black Mangrove on the Texas Gulf Coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QuickBird false color satellite imagery was evaluated for distinguishing black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations on the south Texas Gulf Coast. The imagery had three bands (green, red, and near-infrared) and contained 11-bit data. Two subsets of the satellite image were extracted ...

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Tertiary Strata of the Gulf Coast, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulf Coast Assessment Team

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 113.7 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 690 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 3.7 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  17. Landsat Imagery: A Tool for Updating Land Use in Gulf Coast Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnapp, Vern

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of Landsat imagery in mapping and updating land use for the purpose of planning. Examines Gulf Coast Mexico as a case study, because modern agricultural techniques used to expand the ranching industry have significantly altered the landscape. (Author/BC)

  18. The Gulf Coast Future Issues Council, Inc. Summary Report, June 1, 1984 to November 30, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Focusing on the period from June, 1984 through November, 1984, this report summarizes the activities of the Gulf Coast Future Issues Council (GCFIC), a non-profit corporation organized as a coordination center of community research, forecasting, trend analysis, and educational activities. After introductory material that highlights the role of the…

  19. 75 FR 29740 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Gulf Coast Recovery Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Gulf Coast Recovery Grant Initiative... (LEAs) in improving education in areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina, Ike, or Gustav. Priority: We...

  20. Potential new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast Region of the U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several new elite rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry strains developed from diverse origins and having potential for release as new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. have been developed. Promising new early ripening and vigorous new rabbiteye blueberry strains being c...

  1. 78 FR 54801 - Gulf Coast Restoration Trust Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... paid after July 6, 2012, under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in connection with the Deepwater...)(i) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by the RESTORE Act. Best available science... component of the Gulf RESTORE Program authorized by section 311(t)(2) of the Federal Water Pollution...

  2. A potential integrated water quality strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, S; Faeth, P

    2001-11-22

    Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation"s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water). The hypoxic "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the most striking illustrations of what can happen when too many nutrients from inland watersheds reach coastal areas. Despite programs to improve municipal wastewater treatment facilities, more stringent industrial wastewater requirements, and agricultural programs designed to reduce sediment loads in waterways, water quality and nutrient pollution continues to be a problem, and in many cases has worsened. We undertook a policy analysis to assess how the agricultural community could better reduce its contribution to the dead zone and also to evaluate the synergistic impacts of these policies on other environmental concerns such as climate change. Using a sectorial model of U.S. agriculture, we compared policies including untargeted conservation subsidies, nutrient trading, Conservation Reserve Program extension, agricultural sales of carbon and greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer reduction. This economic and environmental analysis is watershed-based, primarily focusing on nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, which allowed us to assess the distribution of nitrogen reduction in streams, environmental co-benefits, and impact on agricultural cash flows within the Mississippi River basin from various options. The model incorporates a number of environmental factors, making it possible to get a more a complete picture of the costs and co-benefits of nutrient reduction. These elements also help to identify the policy options that minimize the costs to farmers and maximize benefits to society. PMID:12805841

  3. Upper Maastrichtian ammonite biostratigraphy of the Gulf Coastal Plain (Mississippi Embayment, southern USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larina, Ekaterina; Garb, Matthew P.; Landman, Neil H.; Dastas, Natalie; Thibault, Nicolas; Edwards, Lucy E.; Phillips, George; Rovelli, Remy; Myers, Corinne; Naujokaityte, Jone

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous outcrop belt of the Mississippi Embayment in the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP) spans the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary. A detailed reconstruction of this time interval is critical for understanding the nature of biotic and environmental changes preceding the end-Cretaceous Mass Extinction event and for deciphering the likely extinction mechanism (i.e., bolide impact versus volcanism). Eight sections encompassing the K/Pg succession across the Mississippi Embayment were analyzed using biostratigraphic sampling of ammonites, dinoflagellates, and nannofossils. An upper Maastrichtian ammonite zonation is proposed as follows, from oldest to youngest:Discoscaphites conradi Zone, D. minardi Zone, and D. iris Zone. Our study documents that the ammonite zonation established in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) extends to the GCP. This zonation is integrated with nannofossil and dinoflagellate biostratigraphy to provide a framework to more accurately determine the age relationships in this region. We demonstrate that ammonites and dinoflagellates are more reliable stratigraphic indicators in this area than nannofossils because age-diagnostic nannofossils are not consistently present within the upper Maastrichtian in the GCP. This biostratigraphic framework has the potential to become a useful tool for correlation of strata both within the GCP and between the GCP, Western Interior, and ACP. The presence of the uppermost Maastrichtian ammonite D. iris, calcareous nannofossil Micula prinsii, and dinoflagellates Palynodinium grallator and Disphaerogena carposphaeropsis suggests that the K/Pg succession in the GCP is nearly complete. Consequently, the GCP is an excellent setting for investigating fine scale temporal changes across the K/Pg boundary and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms causing extinction.

  4. An evaluation of introgression of Atlantic coast striped bass mitochondrial DNA in a Gulf of Mexico population using formalin-preserved museum collections.

    PubMed

    Wirgin, I; Maceda, L; Stabile, J; Mesing, C

    1997-10-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in drainages along the Gulf of Mexico coast (Gulf) were depleted in the 1950s and 1960s, probably because of anthropogenic influences. It is believed that only the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (A-C-F) river system continually supported a naturally reproducing population of Gulf lineage. Striped bass juveniles of Atlantic coast (Atlantic) ancestry were introduced to restore population abundances in the A-C-F from the late 1960s to the mid 1970s and in many other Gulf rivers from the 1960s to the present. We previously identified mtDNA polymorphisms that were unique to approximately 60% of striped bass from the A-C-F and which confirmed the continued successful natural reproduction of striped bass of Gulf maternal ancestry within the system. However, the genetic relatedness of the extant A-C-F population to 'pure' Gulf striped bass was not addressed. In this study, we determined the frequency of a diagnostic mtDNA XbaI polymorphism in samples of 'pure' Gulf striped bass that were collected from the A-C-F prior to the introduction of Atlantic fish, that were obtained from museum collections, and that were originally preserved in formalin. PCR primers were developed that allowed for amplification of a 191-bp mtDNA fragment that contained the diagnostic XbaI restriction site. Using RFLP and direct sequence analyses of the PCR amplicons, we found no significant differences in mtDNA XbaI genotype frequencies between the archived samples and extant A-C-F samples collected over a 15-year period. This indicates that significant maternally mediated introgression of Atlantic mtDNA genomes into the A-C-F gene pool has not occurred. Additionally, we found no evidence of the unique Gulf mtDNA genotype in striped bass from extant populations in Texas, Louisiana and the Mississippi River. These results highlight the importance of the A-C-F as a repository of striped bass to restore extirpated Gulf populations and the potential use of

  5. The effect of Gulf Stream-induced baroclinicity on US East Coast winter cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Cione, J.J.; Raman, S.; Pietrafesa, L.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Midlatitude cyclones develop off the Carolinas during winters and move north producing gale-force winds, ice, and heavy snow. It is believed that boundary-layer and air-sea interaction processes are very important during the development stages of these East Coast storms. The marine boundary layer (MBL) off the mid-Atlantic coastline is highly baroclinic due to the proximity of the Gulf Stream just offshore. Typical horizontal distances between the Wilmington coastline and the western edge of the Gulf Stream vary between 90 and 250 km annually, and this distance can deviate by over 30 km within a single week. While similar weekly Gulf Stream position standard deviations also exist at Cape Hatteras, the average annual distance to the Gulf Stream frontal zone is much smaller off Cape Hatteras, normally ranging between 30 and 100 km. This research investigates the low-level baroclinic conditions present prior to observed storm events. The examination of nine years of data on the Gulf Stream position and East Coast winter storms seems to indicate that the degree of low-level baroclinicity and modification existing prior to a cyclonic event may significantly affect the rate of cyclonic deepening off the mid-Atlantic coastline. Statistical analyses linking the observed surface-pressure decrease with both the Gulf Stream frontal location and the prestorm coastal baroclinic conditions are presented. These results quantitatively indicate that Gulf Stream-induced wintertime baroclinicity may significantly affect the regional intensification of East Coast winter cyclones. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A new Holocene sea-level database for the US Gulf Coast: Improving constraints for past and future sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijma, M.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Hu, P.; Gonzalez, J.; Hill, D. F.; Horton, B. P.; Engelhart, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    . Second, we show the spatially variable RSL history along the US Gulf Coast. The rates of RSL rise reflect differential GIA, augmented in the Mississippi Delta region by enhanced rates of subsidence due to sediment loading. Similar to our conclusions from the Atlantic coast, the Holocene database constrains rates of vertical land movement, either caused by GIA or sediment loading, significantly better than currently available geodetic data.

  7. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations, Western Gulf Province of the Gulf Coast Region, Louisiana and Texas, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20.8 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 0.60 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Western Gulf Province of the Gulf Coast Region, Louisiana and Texas.

  9. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  10. Hurricane Wave Power Extremes Along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, P. D.; Kossin, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Extremes in wave power generated by tropical cyclones (TCs) will have an increasingly greater coastal impact as mean sea level rises. The Gulf 98th percentile (3 m) deep-water significant wave height, HS, measured at four open ocean NOAA buoys along the U.S. Atlantic coast and three Gulf buoys identifies extreme TC-generated wave events during the June-November hurricane season. Since 1978, there were substantially more significant HS events along the Atlantic coast than in the Gulf, with almost three times as many extreme wave events during September. The monthly distribution along both coasts peaks in September, with an equally likely chance of a significant TC wave event occurring during October as during August over the 1978-2006 data record. However, no clear trend in TC-generated extreme wave heights is observed. In general, the Atlantic buoys show a significant increase in seasonal wave power, PW, since 1995. PW during six of the hurricane seasons since 1995 exceeds all prior years at at least one of the Atlantic group buoys. In contrast to the Atlantic buoys, the Gulf buoys show exceptional seasonal PW levels only during the 2005 hurricane season when major Hurricanes Dennis, Emily, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma tracked trough the Gulf. The exceptional PW levels observed in the Gulf during 2005 were exceeded in the Atlantic during 1999, and approached during 1995 and 1996, attesting to a greater frequency of extreme TC-associated extreme wave events along the East Coast compared to the Gulf during the last four decades. A TC wave power index (WPI) increases significantly in the Atlantic during the mid-1990s, resulting largely from an increase in mid-to-late hurricane season TCs. The WPI is related to TC strength, size, duration, and frequency, and is highly correlated with the TC power dissipation index (PDI, Emanuel 2005). The close association of the WPI to hurricane activity implies that significant coastal impacts will increase as the PDI increases

  11. Houston, Texas and Gulf Coast area as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Houston, Texas and Gulf Coast area, looking southeast, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 91st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 101 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 144 hours and 26 minutes. The morning sun causes a reflection on the water surfaces such as the Gulf of Mexico, Galveston Bay, Buffalo Bayou and the Brazos River and causes a unique reflection in the canals and fields west of Alvin. Some of the landmarks visible in this picture include highways and freeways, the Astrodome, the Intercontinental Airport and the Manned Spacecraft Center.

  12. Giant oil fields of the Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1993-09-01

    The 134 giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area contain 29% of the total giant-field reserves. Cumulative production is 32% of the giant-field cumulative total and 20% of the United States cumulative production. Eighty-nine of the giant fields are offshore with 22% of the reserves, 11 fields are in east Texas with 24% of the reserves, and 1 field is in Florida with 1% of the reserves. In 106 of the giant fields the primary producing interval is Cenozoic with 65% of the reserves, and in 28 giant fields the producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval in 124 giant fields consists of clastics with 91% of the reserves, in 7 fields the primary lithology is carbonates with 6% of the reserves, and in 3 giant fields the lithology is mixed clastics and carbonates. A total of 127 fields are in structural traps with all of the reserves, 4 fields are stratigraphic traps (3%) with 18% of the reserves, and 3 fields are combination traps with 1% of the reserves. Over 50 of the giant oil fields in structural traps are salt domes. The most prevalent types of giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area are onshore structural traps with Cenozoic clastics as the primary producing intervals.

  13. Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2013-09-01

    Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after

  14. 75 FR 51943 - Safety Zone; DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...The Coast Guard is extending the effective period for the temporary safety zone around the riser for the DEEPWATER HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), at Mississippi Canyon 252, in the Outer Continental Shelf. The safety zone in place at 33 CFR 147.T08-849 terminates on August 26, 2010. Extending the effective period for this safety zone provides continued and uninterrupted......

  15. Archive of digital Chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS cruise 08CCT01, Mississippi Gulf Islands, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Worley, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    In July of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the geologic controls on island framework from Ship Island to Horn Island, Mississippi, for the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. Funding was provided through the Geologic Framework and Holocene Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi-Alabama Region Subtask (http://ngom.er.usgs.gov/task2_2/index.php); this project is also part of a broader USGS study on Coastal Change and Transport (CCT). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital Chirp seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  16. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001     ... South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico is ... 2348 miles long. Over the course of it's history, the mighty river has flooded many times. The largest flood recorded in the lower valley ...

  17. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... View Larger Image The mighty Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca, Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico, is ... heavy rainfall on areas traversed by the upper Mississippi River. Each image in this pair covers an identical 195-kilometer x ...

  18. 77 FR 66580 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Gulf Coast Pipeline Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Gulf Coast Pipeline Project AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS's) decision to subordinate its rights, acquired under...

  19. Coast Guard details causes of Gulf of Mexico offshore blowout

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, R.E.

    1980-11-17

    An investigation of the March 1979 gas blowout that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, leading to an explosion, fire, and loss of personnel, reveals that the casualties may have been fewer if the rig personnel had responded immediately to the abandon-rig alarm. The proximate cause of the explosion was the loss of well control; natural gas flowed into the wellbore, up through the drill pipe, and into the strainer cross on the mud pump. There, it simultaneously blew out the gate valve on the pump recirculation line, lifted the pressure-relief valve, and forced the relief valve line to part, thus venting to the atmosphere. The gas accumulated under, around, and in the living quarters, pump room, and engine room. The resultant explosion completely destroyed the living quarters. Seriously contributing to the accident was the crew's inability to close the kelly preventer; the blowout-preventer stack functioned properly throughout the blowout.

  20. The Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment: Mangrove, Tidal Emergent Marsh, Barrier Islands, and Oyster Reef

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Amanda; Reece, Joshua S.; Tirpak, Blair; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Geselbracht, Laura; Woodrey, Mark; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy)

    2015-01-01

    Climate, sea level rise, and urbanization are undergoing unprecedented levels of combined change and are expected to have large effects on natural resources—particularly along the Gulf of Mexico coastline (Gulf Coast). Management decisions to address these effects (i.e., adaptation) require an understanding of the relative vulnerability of various resources to these stressors. To meet this need, the four Landscape Conservation Cooperatives along the Gulf partnered with the Gulf of Mexico Alliance to conduct this Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA). Vulnerability in this context incorporates the aspects of exposure and sensitivity to threats, coupled with the adaptive capacity to mitigate those threats. Potential impact and adaptive capacity reflect natural history features of target species and ecosystems. The GCVA used an expert opinion approach to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of four ecosystems: mangrove, oyster reef, tidal emergent marsh, and barrier islands, and a suite of wildlife species that depend on them. More than 50 individuals participated in the completion of the GCVA, facilitated via Ecosystem and Species Expert Teams. Of the species assessed, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle was identified as the most vulnerable species across the Gulf Coast. Experts identified the main threats as loss of nesting habitat to sea level rise, erosion, and urbanization. Kemp’s ridley also had an overall low adaptive capacity score due to their low genetic diversity, and higher nest site fidelity as compared to other assessed species. Tidal emergent marsh was the most vulnerable ecosystem, due in part to sea level rise and erosion. In general, avian species were more vulnerable than fish because of nesting habitat loss to sea level rise, erosion, and potential increases in storm surge. Assessors commonly indicated a lack of information regarding impacts due to projected changes in the disturbance regime, biotic interactions, and synergistic effects in both

  1. Effects of anomalous salt features on caverns in Gulf Coast domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Early solution miners encountered occasional difficulties with nonsymmetric caverns (including wings'' and chimneys''), gas releases, insoluble stringers, and excessive anhydrite sands.'' Apparently there was no early recognition of trends for these encounters, although certain areas were avoided after problems appeared consistently within them. Solution mining has now matured, and an accumulation of experience indicates that anomalous salt features occur on a number of Gulf Coast domes. Trends incorporating concentrations of anomalous features will be referred to as anomalous zones,'' or AZs (after Kupfer). The main objective of this Project is to determine the effects of AZ encounters on solution-mined caverns and related storage operations in domes. Geological features of salt domes related directly to cavern operations and AZs will be described briefly, but discussions of topics related generally to the evolution of Gulf Coast salt structures are beyond the scope of this Project.

  2. Effects of anomalous salt features on caverns in Gulf Coast domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Early solution miners encountered occasional difficulties with nonsymmetric caverns (including ``wings`` and ``chimneys``), gas releases, insoluble stringers, and excessive anhydrite ``sands.`` Apparently there was no early recognition of trends for these encounters, although certain areas were avoided after problems appeared consistently within them. Solution mining has now matured, and an accumulation of experience indicates that anomalous salt features occur on a number of Gulf Coast domes. Trends incorporating concentrations of anomalous features will be referred to as ``anomalous zones,`` or AZs (after Kupfer). The main objective of this Project is to determine the effects of AZ encounters on solution-mined caverns and related storage operations in domes. Geological features of salt domes related directly to cavern operations and AZs will be described briefly, but discussions of topics related generally to the evolution of Gulf Coast salt structures are beyond the scope of this Project.

  3. Water Temperature Variability Along the West Coast of the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    God¡nez, L.; Gutierrez de Velasco, G.; Halfar, J.; Valdez, J. E.; Borges, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The seawater temperature variability along the west coast of the Gulf of California for the time period March 2002 to March 2003 is discussed. The observations used for the analysis correspond to hourly samples at 10, 15, 20, and 25 m depths from moorings deployed in 35 m total depth at four locations along the west gulf coast, from its mouth to Ballenas channel: Cabo Pulmo (23° 23' N, 109° 25 W), Isla Espíritu Santo (24° 33' N, 110° 24' W), Punta Chivato (27° 04' N, 111° 58' W), and Bahía de los Ángeles (28° 58' N, 113° 31' W). Mean sea water temperatures increase along the gulf from the temperate north region to the subtropical gulf entrance (17 to 26° C). Temperature variability shows periodicities ranging from the seasonal to the semi-diurnal frequencies with decreasing amplitudes as frequency increases. Temperature seasonal cycle changes along the Gulf coast. Its amplitude diminishes from north to south were maximum temperature values are reached about 30 days later. Maximum and minimum values in the cycle increase northward; in contrast to the southward decreasing amplitude. Frequencies higher than seasonal exhibit two distinct patterns: An active spring and summer period and a quiet fall and winter one. During spring and summer vertical temperature differences increase and variability is dominated by 2 to 5° C amplitude oscillations at diurnal, 5 to 7 day, and quarterly frequencies. Fall and winter exhibit an almost constant vertical temperature distribution with weak oscillations (<1° C amplitude) at the same frequencies.

  4. Oil and Water Don't Mix: The Gulf Coast Oil Disaster as a Preschool Social Studies Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an offshore oil-drilling platform exploded, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the gulf. From Louisiana to the Gulf Coast of Florida the effects are being felt by fisherman, shrimpers, dive charters, and other hardworking folks who depend on the water for their livelihood. But there is another population in these coastal…

  5. Biostratigraphy and paleoecologic tolerances of Oligocene through Paleocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Breard, S.Q.; Nault, M.J.; Callender, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    Operationally oriented biostratigraphic and paleoecologic models are developed for Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene foraminifera of the Gulf Coast Basin. This paper is a companion to Breard et al., which describes models of significant paleoecologic and biostratigraphic foraminifera of the Miocene through Pleistocene of this region. Key benthic paleoenvironmental markers for particular depth zones of the Paleogene are graphically presented, along with an updated biostratigraphic chart. Estimates of environmental ranges for optimal stratigraphic utility are listed for all marker species. Several trends are noted when comparing Paleogene to Neogene and younger foraminiferal assemblages. Pre-Oligocene planktic diversity tends to be high, and many planktic species range as high as the inner shelf, which is considerably shallower than most Neogene occurrences. This is probably a result of higher paleotemperatures during the Eocene and Paleocene. Because the Paleogene zonation was derived from both well and outcrop studies, the biostratigraphy of that time can be tied to Gulf Coast lithostratigraphy, whereas the Neogene of the Gulf Coast shelf section is known almost entirely from the subsurface. Recognition of finer environmental subdivisions is more difficult with increasing geologic time when biostratigraphic and environmental resolution become more broad. Reliance on similar morphotypes replaces the use of living fauna for determining environmental tolerances, especially in pre-Oligocene strata. Combination of data from these charts with Breard et al. (1993) will allow explorationists to estimate environmental tolerances for the entire Cenozoic biostratigraphic column. This should serve as a predictive tool for foraminiferal studies useful in the exploration and production of oil and gas for the post-Mesozoic strata of the Gulf Coast Basin and beyond.

  6. Assessment of in-place solution methane in tertiary sandstones: Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The higher prices obtained for commercial natural gas in recent years have stimulated interest in methane-saturated formation waters of sandstone reservoirs in the Texas Gulf Coast as a potential alternative source of energy. The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft) to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. Factors that must be evaluated to determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility. The latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 structural dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. These cross sections extend from near the Wilcox outcrop to the coastline. Reservoir bulk volume was determined by mapping the structural and stratigraphic framework of Tertiary sandstone units. Structural and stratigraphic boundaries were used to divide the Texas Gulf Coast into 24 subdivisions. Methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The total in-place methane for Tertiary sandstones below 8000 ft in the Texas Gulf Coast was found to be 690 TCF./sup 2/ The total in-place methane for effective Tertiary sandstones (sandstone units greater than 30 ft thick) below 8000 ft was 325 TCF.

  7. Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coast region with different depositional settings, structural styles, and sandstone distribution were studied with well log and seismic data to evaluate some of the controls on subsurface conditions in geopressured aquifers. Structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made primarily on the basis of well log correlations. Seismic data confirm the log interpretations but also are useful in structure mapping at depths below well control.

  8. Organic-rich source beds and hydrocarbon production in Gulf Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.; Lerche, I.

    1988-09-01

    Two models (I and II) are presented that relate the production of hydrocarbons in the Gulf Coast region to organic-rich source beds of ancient intraslope basins. Model I is empirical, based on present-day depositional environments like the anoxic Orca basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Bannock basin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Model I proposed that low oxygen levels in intraslope basins of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) have been a common mechanism for the accumulation of sediments with significantly increased amounts of marine organic carbon. In Model I progradation of the shelf-slope and regional salt tectonics control the occurrence and stratigraphic distribution of source beds throughout the Tertiary of the GOM. In turn, the maturation history of these organic-rich sediments is influenced by the high thermal conductivity of the underlying salt structures. Model II is statistical; it uses random number theory to suggest that the occurrence of organic-rich black muds in intraslope basins of the northwestern GOM had sufficient capacity to account for a dynamic range estimate of 30 to 500 billion bbl oil total and 30 to 300 bcf/million years per ephemeral basin of gas. These estimates, while approximate, clearly indicate the enormous hydrocarbon potential for generating oil and gas reserves in the Gulf Coast geosyncline. Such estimates underscore the need for a better understanding of intraslope basins of the northwestern GOM.

  9. Mississippi River Plume Enriches Microbial Diversity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Olivia U.; Canter, Erin J.; Gillies, Lauren E.; Paisie, Taylor K.; Roberts, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    The Mississippi River (MR) serves as the primary source of freshwater and nutrients to the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM). Whether this input of freshwater also enriches microbial diversity as the MR plume migrates and mixes with the nGOM serves as the central question addressed herein. Specifically, in this study physicochemical properties and planktonic microbial community composition and diversity was determined using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 23 samples collected along a salinity (and nutrient) gradient from the mouth of the MR, in the MR plume, in the canyon, at the Deepwater Horizon wellhead and out to the loop current. Analysis of these datasets revealed that the MR influenced microbial diversity as far offshore as the Deepwater Horizon wellhead. The MR had the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with increasing salinity. MR bacterioplankton communities were distinct compared to the nGOM, particularly in the surface where Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria dominated, while the deeper MR was also enriched in Thaumarchaeota. Statistical analyses revealed that nutrients input by the MR, along with salinity and depth, were the primary drivers in structuring the microbial communities. These results suggested that the reduced salinity, nutrient enriched MR plume could act as a seed bank for microbial diversity as it mixes with the nGOM. Whether introduced microorganisms are active at higher salinities than freshwater would determine if this seed bank for microbial diversity is ecologically significant. Alternatively, microorganisms that are physiologically restricted to freshwater habitats that are entrained in the plume could be used as tracers for freshwater input to the marine environment. PMID:27458442

  10. Mississippi River Plume Enriches Microbial Diversity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Canter, Erin J; Gillies, Lauren E; Paisie, Taylor K; Roberts, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The Mississippi River (MR) serves as the primary source of freshwater and nutrients to the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM). Whether this input of freshwater also enriches microbial diversity as the MR plume migrates and mixes with the nGOM serves as the central question addressed herein. Specifically, in this study physicochemical properties and planktonic microbial community composition and diversity was determined using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 23 samples collected along a salinity (and nutrient) gradient from the mouth of the MR, in the MR plume, in the canyon, at the Deepwater Horizon wellhead and out to the loop current. Analysis of these datasets revealed that the MR influenced microbial diversity as far offshore as the Deepwater Horizon wellhead. The MR had the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with increasing salinity. MR bacterioplankton communities were distinct compared to the nGOM, particularly in the surface where Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria dominated, while the deeper MR was also enriched in Thaumarchaeota. Statistical analyses revealed that nutrients input by the MR, along with salinity and depth, were the primary drivers in structuring the microbial communities. These results suggested that the reduced salinity, nutrient enriched MR plume could act as a seed bank for microbial diversity as it mixes with the nGOM. Whether introduced microorganisms are active at higher salinities than freshwater would determine if this seed bank for microbial diversity is ecologically significant. Alternatively, microorganisms that are physiologically restricted to freshwater habitats that are entrained in the plume could be used as tracers for freshwater input to the marine environment. PMID:27458442

  11. Biostratigraphy and paleoecologic tolerances of Oligocene through Paleocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Breard, S.Q.; Nault, M.J.; Callender, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    Operationally oriented biostratigraphic and paleoecologic models are developed for Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene foraminifera of the Gulf Coast Basin. This paper is a companion to Breard et al. (1993), which describes models of significant paleoecologic and biostratigraphic foraminifera of the Miocene through Pleistocene of this region. Key benthic paleoenvironmental markers for particular depth zones of the Paleogene are graphically presented with updated biostratigraphic charts. Estimates of environment ranges for optimal stratigraphic utility are listed for all marker species on the biostratigraphic charts. Species depth ranges on the two biostratigraphic charts are for their zones of optimum stratigraphic utility. It is also possible to find deeper water species ranging into shallower zones in the lower bathyal to abyssal zones of the Eocene and Paleocene, where species considered characteristic of these zones range above those environments. Because relatively few wells have penetrated such deep environments in the Eocene and Paleocene, we have relied on the literature for Paleogene deep-water sections of Mexico and Trinidad to supplement our list of environmentally important species. Published material on foraminifera from deep-water Eocene and Paleocene sections penetrated in oil and gas exploration wells is almost nonexistent. Combination of data from this paper with that of Breard et al.(1993) will allow explorationists to estimate environmental tolerances for the entire Gulf Coast Cenozoic biostratigraphic column. This should serve as a predictive tool for foraminiferal studies useful in the exploration and production of oil and gas for the post-Mesozoic strata of the Gulf Coast basin and beyond.

  12. Risks, natural coastal defenses and the Economics of Climate Adaptation in the Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguero, B. G.; Beck, M.; Bresch, D.; Calil, J.; Meliane, I.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal Development and Climate Change are rapidly altering the world's coastal zones, dramatically increasing risks of catastrophic damage to coastal communities. Natural defenses are increasingly cited as an element of the solution. However, their use and widespread acceptance are still under debate and there are limited data on their cost effectiveness. Our goal is to provide comparable cost effectiveness estimates of 'green' and 'gray' approaches for risk reduction. We follow the Economics of Climate Adaptation (ECA) methodology and further integrates nature-based solutions in to this approach. We propose an ecosystem based risk mitigation perspective and integrate it into local decision making and risk models. A pilot case has been developed for the US Gulf Coast with special emphasis on (1) nature based measures, (2) an open-knowledge approach and (3) on a spatially explicit analyses. We examine potential damage to residential and commercial properties, infrastructure and assets. Our specific goals were to: Assess risks from hurricanes in the Gulf Coast in an holistic manner from hazards to damages and possible solutions Define how cost- effective ecosystems are for coastal defense in the Gulf Coast Quantify how and where natural solutions may reduce risks accounting for coastal engineering indicators Analyze and compare different scenarios including additional risks from climate change such as sea-level rise, potential coastal policy responses and economic growth

  13. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. PMID:26336308

  14. Oil in the Gulf of Mexico after the capping of the BP/Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon (MC-252) well.

    PubMed

    Kolian, Steve R; Porter, Scott A; Sammarco, Paul W; Birkholz, Detlef; Cake, Edwin W; Subra, Wilma A

    2015-08-01

    Evidence of fresh oil from the BP/Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 (MC-252) well was found in the northern Gulf of Mexico up to 1 year and 10 months after it was capped on 15 July 2010. Offshore and coastal samples collected after capping displayed ratios of biomarkers matching those of MC-252 crude oil. Pre- and post-capping samples were compared. Little weathering had occurred, based on the abundance of low-molecular-weight (LMW) n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the post-capping samples. The occurrence of fresh oil in offshore waters and coastal areas suggest that the MC-252 well continued to leak hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico at least until 22 May 2012, the end of this study period. PMID:25874429

  15. Barrier backbeach shell assemblages from the central Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Albertzart, L.S.; Wilkinson, B.H. )

    1990-08-01

    Lateral variation in the abundance, taxonomic composition and amount of abrasion of approximately 14,000 mollusc shells, from 135 km of backbeach along Matagorda Island and Matagorda Peninsula of the central Texas coast, primarily reflect long-term patterns of shoreline progradation and recession. Disarticulated shell is concentrated as a gravel lag during landward transport of barrier island/peninsula sediment from storm washover and during lateral transport by fairweather longshore currents. Taxonomic dominance within any backbeach area directly relates to long-term Holocene patterns of shoreline migration. Shell along progradational Matagorda Island is largely derived from gulfward shoreface communities and valves of normal marine species are predominant. Shell along recessive beaches of Matagorda Peninsula, on the other hand, is primarily derived from the erosion of older bay-estuarine facies now exposed to shoreface currents, and values of brackish lagoonal species are predominant. Degree of valve abrasion reflects both the residence time of shell in shoreface settings and occurrence of shell with coarse, poorly sorted sediment. Central Texas coast backbeach molluscan death assemblages largely reflect a time-averaged census of both living communities and older shell assemblages that are sampled over an along-shore length of several kilometers and over a shore-to-basin distance of several hundred meters. These assemblages, accumulated over a time span of several thousand years, reflect the spatial and the temporal proximity of specific sedimentary environments to sites of sediment accumulation. Backbeach shell assemblages record both the ecologic preference of individual taxonomic groups to specific environmental parameters as well as the dominant processes of sediment transport in littoral depositional systems.

  16. Gas discoveries/reserves in Mississippi and Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    Discoveries within the Gulf Coast province of Alabama and Mississippi and extending offshore into state waters continue to support some of the stronger rig activity within the Lower 48 states. An update through 1984 of gas field discoveries, production and reserves in these two states was conducted by the author as a member of the American Gas Assn. Committee on Natural Gas Reserves.

  17. The Marine Inorganic Carbon System along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coast of the United States: Shelf-ocean exchange and Ocean Acidification Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Cai, W.; Byrne, R. H.; Hu, X.; Peng, T.; Huang, W.

    2011-12-01

    The inorganic carbon system of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Atlantic Coast of the United States (U.S.) was comprehensively surveyed in the summer of 2007 to obtain synoptic baseline conditions, carbon fluxes, and biogeochemistry. Most surveyed areas released CO2 to the atmosphere. The mean CO2 flux of surveyed waters was 1.6 mmol m^-2 d^-1. In contrast, the Mississippi River plume in the GOM and the Merrimack River plume in the Gulf of Maine (GoME) were strong biologically-driven CO2 sinks. The mean aragonite saturation state (ΩA) decreased latitudinally more than two fold (4.1 to 1.8) from northern GOM shelf waters to waters in the GoME. This change was accompanied by a 0.4-unit decrease in mean shelf-water pH (at 25 °C). The influence of biologically mediated processes on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), nutrients, and O2 in Gulf Stream Water (GSW) varied substantially with location. In the GOM, the GSW receives approximately 1.4 - 1.6 × 10^11 gC d^-1 of DIC exported from the shelf. Biologically induced chemical changes in GSW along the southeastern U.S. coast were dominated by physical mixing from North Atlantic sub-tropical recirculation. Southward, along-shore transport of the Labrador Coastal Current in the Mid-Atlantic Bight creates a mid-salinity end-member on the shelf. Mixing of the slope and shelf waters with this coastal current accounts for 47% of the total north-south gradient in the mean salinity-normalized DIC, while biological processes account for about 14%. Northeastern U.S. coastal water is vulnerable to ocean acidification due to its low ΩA and low buffer capacity.

  18. Differences in the stratigraphic framework of the Frio and Anahuac Formations in the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coast Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Desselle, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    The hydrocarbon endowment of the Frio and Anahuac formations of Louisiana and Texas has made them the most thoroughly studied geologic strata in the Gulf Coast Basin. A review of previous studies of the stratigraphic framework of the Frio and Anahuac formations in the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coast Basin reveals that researchers have placed the boundary between the Frio and Anahuac in this basin at different biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic levels. This review also reveals that in some previous studies the subdivision of the Frio in Texas into lower, middle, and upper zones does not conform with the traditional biostratigraphic zonation scheme. Biostratigraphically, the index fossils used to mark the boundary between the Frio and Anahuac differ in the Texas Gulf Coast from those employed in the Louisiana Gulf Coast. In the subsurface Frio of Louisiana, the paleontologic top of the Frio is historically placed at the highest occurrence of Camerina sp. A. In the subsurface Frio of Texas, the paleontologic top of the Frio is historically marked by the highest occurrence of Cibicides hazzardi. Although microfossils; characteristic of the Camerina A zone are reported from wells penetrating the subsurface Anahuac and Frio, their occurrence has proven too erratic to be employed in a regionally correlatable biostratigraphic framework. This review also shows that some workers place the lithostratigraphic top of the Frio in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin just above the first sands lying below the Anahuac shale wedge. These sands are actually lower Anahuac Marginulina sands in the lower and middle Texas Gulf Coast and upper Frio Cibicides hazzardi sands in the upper Texas Gulf Coast, depending on the dip position of the particular well.

  19. Tiered on-the-ground implementation projects for Gulf of Mexico water quality improvements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both the Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin (USEPA 2008) and the GOMA Governors’ Action Plan II for Healthy and Resilient Coasts (GOMA 2009) call for the development and ...

  20. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013. PMID:26407862

  1. Migratory Bird Pathways and the Gulf of Mexico: Importance of Louisiana's Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory J.; Barrow, Wylie

    2005-01-01

    Because of its geographic position, Louisiana plays an important role in the hemispheric-scale phenomenon known as the Nearctic-Neotropical bird migration system. Each year millions of landbirds migrate across or near to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Birds migrate in large, broad fronts that sometimes exceed 2 million individuals, and there is an advantage for them to take a direct north-south route (the shortest distance). * During migration seasons, nearly all of the migratory landbird species of the eastern United States, as well as many western species, use the coastal plains of the western gulf. * Spring migrants arrive with depleted energy reserves and depend on Louisiana's coastal habitats to provide food and cover after long gulf crossings. * Fall migrants depend on Louisiana?s coastal habitats for food to store fat reserves just prior to gulf crossings in autumn. * Mortality during the migratory period can be high. Recent research on the black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) indicates that more than 85% of the annual mortality for the species occurs during migration. Migrants en route tend to concentrate in habitats adjacent to ecological barriers; DOI land managers need to identify key coastal landscape features that are important to these birds. Because of the vastness of the North American continent, it is nearly impossible to delineate movement patterns and migration pathways by using traditional ground-based surveys.

  2. Mississippi freshwater discharge and terrigenous sediment supply into the northern Gulf of Mexico and Loop Current dynamics over glacial/interglacial changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuernberg, D.; Kujau, A.; Rieken, S.; Bahr, A.; Karas, C.; Ziegler, M.

    2011-12-01

    We here present (isotope)geochemical and sedimentological data from marine sediment cores from the northern Gulf of Mexico to approximate the temporally and spatially varying terrigenous sediment contribution via the Mississippi River and the related spread of freshwater over the last glacial-interglacial cycles, with specific focus on the last ca. 42.000 years. Our study is based on cores from the DeSoto Canyon (MD02-2576 and 2575), from ~90 km southeast off the Mississippi River delta (M78-181), and from southwest of the delta (IODP 1319A). The geochemical signature of the eastern cores closely matches that of the Mississippi catchment area rather than those of the Alabama and Mobile River catchments. In particular, the siliciclastic major element potassium (K), estimated from calibrated XRF core scanning, serves as a suitable proxy for Mississippi River sediment discharge, becoming less concentrated with distance from the delta. The K variability suggests enhanced glacial phase terrigenous influx triggered by strengthened fluvial runoff and changing fluvial and ice sheet dynamics. Mississippi River influx was at a maximum during glacial MIS 2/3, late MIS 8 and MIS 10, reflected by sedimentation rates being 4 to 5 times higher than in the Holocene. Late glacial to deglacial fluvial sediment supply, however, decreased abruptly at ca. 20 ka at our easternmost core location (MD02-2576), and ca. 2 kyr later at our core location closest to the Mississippi Delta, implying a gradual westward shift of the Mississippi outflow. Due to synchronous changes in sea-surface temperatures, we hypothesize an increasing impact of the northward extending Loop Current on the Mississippi outflow pattern. Combined stable oxygen isotope and element ratios from shallow and deep-dwelling as well as benthic foraminifers allow to approximate paleosalinity, and hence to follow the dispersal of freshwater across the Gulf of Mexico. According to our data, Mississippi freshwater discharge

  3. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the forest structure of taxodium distichum swamps of the Gulf Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pushed mixed Taxodium distichum forests toward a dominance of Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) because these species had lower levels of susceptibility to wind damage than other woody species. This study documents the volume of dead versus live material of woody trees and shrubs of T. distichum swamps following Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Louisiana. Pearl River Wildlife Management Area near Canton, Mississippi had the highest winds of the study areas, and these forests were located in the northeast quadrant of Hurricane Katrina (sustained wind 151 kph (94 mph)). Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve south of New Orleans had medium to high winds (sustained winds 111 kph (69 mph) at the New Orleans lakefront). Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge had a lower level of winds and was positioned on the western edge of the storm. The forests at Pearl River and to a lesser extent at Jean Lafitte had the highest amount of structural damage in the study. For Cat Island, Jean Lafitte, and Pearl River, the total volume of dead material (debris) was 50, 80, and 370 m3 ha-1, respectively. The ratio of dead to live volume was 0.010, 0.082, and 0.039, respectively. For both of the dominant species, T. distichum and N. aquatica, the percentage of dead to live volume was less than 1. Subdominant species including Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus lyrata, and Quercus nigra were more damaged by the storm at both Pearl River and Jean Lafitte. Only branches were damaged by Hurricane Katrina at Cat Island. Shrubs such as Morella cerifera, Euonymous sp., and Vaccinium sp. were often killed by the storm, while other species such as Cephalanthus occidentalis, Forestiera acuminata, and Cornus florida were not killed. Despite the fact that Hurricane Katrina was a Category 3 storm and struck Pearl River and Jean Lafitte fairly directly, dominant species of the T. distichum swamps were

  4. Paleoecologic and biostratigraphic models for pleistocene through miocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Breard, S.Q.; Callender, A.D.; Nault, M.J. )

    1993-09-01

    We have developed operationally oriented paleoecologic models used in hydrocarbon exploration of the Gulf Coast basin for Pleistocene through Miocene foraminifera and an updated, refined biostratigraphic chart. We also present estimated paleoecologic tolerances for major benthic and planktic foraminiferal markers, and discuss a number of rules and problems encountered in oil industry paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Key benthic paleoenvironmental markers for particular depth zones are graphically presented for the Pleistocene through Miocene. Improvements over previous models include greater use of calcareous and arenaceous foraminiferal species not used or recognized in earlier studies. Finer subdivisions of bathyal paleoenvironments are of particular significance due to current Gulf of Mexico deep-water exploration. Operationally, the abyssal environmental is difficult to recognize due to a reliance of faunal abundance to delineate abyssal from bathyal and the lack of abyssal zone markers. A number of genera and species are identified as having changed habitat preference through time. Some forms have moved progressively into deeper water (Ceratobulimina Cyclammina cancellata and Nonion pompiloides). Conversely, the movement of species into progressively shallower occurrences through time (Pullenia bullodies) appears to be less common. The widespread occurrence of known Gulf of Mexico foraminiferal species from countries such as Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, Jamaica, Trinidad, and the Dominican Republic, suggest that these; models have direct application to Neogene studies in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, and the U.S. Gulf Coast. We introduce a variety of deep-water benthic marker foraminifera, many for the first time. These taxa help fill gaps for deeper-water sections where standard benthic marker foraminifera do not occur, helping debunk the popular myth that benthic foraminifera are useless as markers in the exploration of deep-water sections.

  5. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  6. Estimating tsunami inundation from hurricane storm surge predictions along the U.S. gulf coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Horrillo, Juan; Figlus, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coasts have been included in the U.S. Tsunami Warning System since 2005. While the tsunami risk for the GOM is low, tsunamis generated by local submarine landslides pose the greatest potential threat, as evidenced by several large ancient submarine mass failures identified in the northern GOM basin. Given the lack of significant historical tsunami evidence in the GOM, the potential threat of landslide tsunamis in this region is assessed from a worst-case scenario perspective based on a set of events including the large ancient failures and most likely extreme events determined by a probabilistic approach. Since tsunamis are not well-understood along the Gulf Coast, we investigate tsunami inundation referenced to category-specific hurricane storm surge levels, which are relatively well established along the Gulf Coast, in order to provide information for assessing the potential threat of tsunamis which is more understandable and accessible to emergency managers. Based on tsunami inundation studies prepared for the communities of South Padre Island, TX, Galveston, TX, Mobile, AL, Panama City, FL, and Tampa, FL, we identify regional trends of tsunami inundation in terms of modeled storm surge inundation. The general trends indicate that tsunami inundation can well exceed the level of storm surge from major hurricanes in open beachfront and barrier island regions, while more interior areas are less threatened. Such information can be used to better prepare for tsunami events as well as provide a preliminary estimate of tsunami hazard in locations where detailed tsunami inundation studies have not been completed.

  7. Estimating tsunami inundation from hurricane storm surge predictions along the U.S. gulf coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Horrillo, Juan; Figlus, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coasts have been included in the U.S. Tsunami Warning System since 2005. While the tsunami risk for the GOM is low, tsunamis generated by local submarine landslides pose the greatest potential threat, as evidenced by several large ancient submarine mass failures identified in the northern GOM basin. Given the lack of significant historical tsunami evidence in the GOM, the potential threat of landslide tsunamis in this region is assessed from a worst-case scenario perspective based on a set of events including the large ancient failures and most likely extreme events determined by a probabilistic approach. Since tsunamis are not well-understood along the Gulf Coast, we investigate tsunami inundation referenced to category-specific hurricane storm surge levels, which are relatively well established along the Gulf Coast, in order to provide information for assessing the potential threat of tsunamis which is more understandable and accessible to emergency managers. Based on tsunami inundation studies prepared for the communities of South Padre Island, TX, Galveston, TX, Mobile, AL, Panama City, FL, and Tampa, FL, we identify regional trends of tsunami inundation in terms of modeled storm surge inundation. The general trends indicate that tsunami inundation can well exceed the level of storm surge from major hurricanes in open beachfront and barrier island regions, while more interior areas are less threatened. Such information can be used to better prepare for tsunami events as well as provide a preliminary estimate of tsunami hazard in locations where detailed tsunami inundation studies have not been completed.

  8. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  9. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  10. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  11. Pulses of middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene climatic deterioration in southern California and the Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1991-01-01

    A general deterioration of terrestrial climate took place during middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene time in southern California and in the Gulf Coast. Pollen data, calibrated by calcareous nannofossil ages, indicate four events of rapid floral and/or vegetational change among angiosperms during this time interval. The events can be correlated between the two regions even though these regions lay within different floristic provinces, and each event of angiosperm change is interpreted to indicate a pulse of rapid climatic shift. The most distinct of these events is the Middle Eocene Diversity Decline, which resulted from a peak in last appearances (extinctions, emigrations) centered in the early Bartonian. -from Author

  12. Radon in unconventional natural gas from gulf coast geopressured-geothermal reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in natural gas produced from experimental geopressured-geothermal test wells. Comparison with published data suggests that while radon activity of this unconventional natural gas resource is higher than conventional gas produced in the gulf coast, it is within the range found for conventional gas produced throughout the U.S. A method of predicting the likely radon activity of this unconventional gas is described on the basis of the data presented, methane solubility, and known or assumed reservoir conditions of temperature, fluid pressure, and formation water salinity.

  13. A computer-assisted analysis of trends among Gulf Coast blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, V.M.P. . Region VI); Podio, A.L.; Sepehrnoori, K. . Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of trends among 425 Gulf Coast blowouts through the utilization of a blowout data base indicates that the majority of the blowouts resulted from an influx of gas into the wellbore. The three major operations that were in progress when most of the wells blew out were drilling, coming out of the borehole, and workover procedures. The analysis also indicates that casing programs and blowout preventer selection should be improved. The introduction of mandatory well control training procedures in 1977--1978 seems to have assisted in the reduction of blowouts in relation to the number of wells drilled.

  14. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  15. Overview of Collaborative Project to Develop Tsunami Hazard Assessments for the US Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerer, A. M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Titov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and in anticipation of new license applications, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for coastal facilities on the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. For this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Key researchers from universities and other groups have also made important contributions to this program. The work undertaken represents the combined effort of a diverse group of marine geologists, geophysicists, geotechnical engineers, and hydrodynamic modelers. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts are the focus of this program due to the number of existing and proposed nuclear facilities located on these coasts and because less is generally known about tsunami hazard on these coasts. Because the US NRC is interested in understanding hazard associated with the rare large tsunami that may occur over long time periods (in excess of 10,000 years), the research program considers both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources. It also includes the study of both large far-field sources and near-field sources. The study of tsunamigenic landslides is a key difference between this research program and other tsunami hazard assessment programs. In the initial phase, significant effort was focused on identifying and characterizing offshore near-field landslides and on understanding their regional distribution along the coasts. Once early results were obtained, modeling of one of the larger slides was initiated to better understand the hazard posed by the slides identified. Important properties of the slide, such as flow velocity, were characterized through work that included analysis of the dynamic elements. The research related to far-field tsunamigenic landslides has similarly focused on

  16. Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny. A fairway of previously unmapped updip faults and drag folds has been mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery and seismic, structural, and resistivity maps near the Nixon field, Burleson County, Texas. This fairway, prospective for oil from the Austin Chalk, contains wells reported to produce from the Austin Chalk which lie along lineaments and linear features on the Thematic Mapper imagery and faults in the seismic and structure maps.

  17. Origin of Na-Ca-Cl brines in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs of Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.

    1985-02-01

    Na-Ca-Cl brines in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs in the Gulf Coast have been attributed to the diagenesis of concentrated Jurassic seawater related to Louann Salt deposition and alternatively to the diagenesis of brines produced by halie dissolution. These brines contain up to 35,000 mg/L Ca, up to 4000 mg/L, from 400 to 2400 mgL Br, and up to 13,000 mg/L K. Mutual relationships of Na, Cl, total divalent cations minus sulfate and bicarbonate, K, and Br are similar to those in seawater that has been evaporated past the initial stage of halite deposition, particularly when the K content of the brine exceeds 5000 mg/L. The concentrations of divalent cations and K increase, and the mutual relationships of all the dissolved salts become increasingly similar to those in seawater with increasing proximity to bedded salt. The abundance of authigenic K-feldspar in rocks above the salt beds explains the relatively rapid decrease in the K content of the brines upsection. The Ca and K contents of Jurassic Gulf Coast brines are similar to those in Na-Ca-Cl brines in feldspar-poor carbonate sequences in other basins.

  18. Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, Central Gulf Coast basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7,000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7,000 to 9,000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9,000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny.

  19. VULNERABILITY TO HURRICANE DAMAGE ON THE U.S. GULF COAST SINCE 1950

    PubMed Central

    LOGAN, JOHN R.; XU, ZENGWANG

    2015-01-01

    We study hurricane risk on the U.S. Gulf Coast during 1950–2005, estimating the wind damage and storm surge from every hurricane in this extended period. Wind damage is estimated from the known path and wind speeds of individual storms and calibrated to fit actual damage reports for a sample of Gulf Coast storms. Storm surge is estimated using the SLOSH model developed by NOAA. These models provide the first comprehensive overview of the hurricane storm hazard as it has been experienced over a fifty-six-year period. We link the estimated damage with information on the population and specific socio-demographic components of the population (by age, race, and poverty status). Results show that white, young adult, and nonpoor populations have shifted over time away from zones with higher risk of wind damage, while more vulnerable population groups–the elderly, African Americans, and poor—have moved in the opposite direction. All groups have moved away from areas with high risk of storm surge since 1970. But in this case, perhaps because living near the water is still perceived as an amenity, those at highest risk are whites, elderly, and nonpoor households. Here exposure represents a trade-off between the risk and the amenity. PMID:25926706

  20. Seismic stratigraphy of Pliocene-Pleistocene deposits, continental slope-upper Mississippi Fan, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.D.; Buffler, R.T.

    1985-02-01

    Regional multichannel seismic data are used to develop a seismic stratigraphic framework for the continental slope-upper Mississippi fan region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. In the Mississippi canyon area, upper Pliocene and Pleistocene paleontologic zones from wells provide age control for major seismic sequence boundaries. A major unconformity and high-amplitude reflector identified as the base of Pleistocene represents a break in sedimentation and probably marks onset of fan deposition. This unconformity and others within the Pleistocene define sequences showing cyclic patterns of deposition, which are related to Pleistocene sea level changes and salt mobilization. Interpretation of seismic facies and their relationships to sea level changes, glaciations, and salt movement results in a model for the depositional history of the Mississippi fan from the canyon area to the deep-water part of the fan. Low-amplitude, chaotic, onlapping facies are interpreted as slump or debris-flow deposits associated with canyon cutting by retrogressive failure and initiation of large-scale mass movement due to a relative lowering of sea level. High-amplitude, parallel, continuous reflectors at sequence boundaries represent pelagic and hemipelagic sediments associated with a succeeding rise in relative sea level. In the shelf-upper slope area, isolated salt diapirs influence sedimentation on a localized scale. In the lower slope to upper fan, most Pleistocenen section is extensively disrupted by parallel sets of salt ridges that result from differential loading of fan sediments. Shifting depocenters and migratory channel systems funnel sediment through this area onto the lower fan. Salt wedges in the eastern study area appear to represent detached salt masses isolated within the Pleistocene section.

  1. The Calm AFTER the Storm: An Interview with Laura Bush about the Caring Power of the Gulf Coast School Library Recovery Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, a record breaking 26 named tropical storms including 13 hurricanes ravaged the Gulf Coast of the United States. In response to the devastation of hundreds of schools, the Laura Bush Foundation swiftly created The Gulf Coast School Library Recovery Initiative to help school libraries become fully functional and to offer the needed print…

  2. Influence of water temperature and salinity on Vibrio vulnificus in Northern Gulf and Atlantic Coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Motes, M L; DePaola, A; Cook, D W; Veazey, J E; Hunsucker, J C; Garthright, W E; Blodgett, R J; Chirtel, S J

    1998-04-01

    This study investigated the temperature and salinity parameters associated with waters and oysters linked to food-borne Vibrio vulnificus infections. V. vulnificus was enumerated in oysters collected at three northern Gulf Coast sites and two Atlantic Coast sites from July 1994 through September 1995. Two of these sites, Black Bay, La., and Apalachicola Bay, Fla., are the source of the majority of the oysters implicated in V. vulnificus cases. Oysters in all Gulf Coast sites exhibited a similar seasonal distribution of V. vulnificus: a consistently large number (median concentration, 2,300 organisms [most probable number] per g of oyster meat) from May through October followed by a gradual reduction during November and December to < or = 10 per g, where it remained from January through mid-March, and a sharp increase in late March and April to summer levels. V. vulnificus was undetectable (< 3 per g) in oysters from the North and South Carolina sites for most of the year. An exception occurred when a late-summer flood caused a drop in salinity in the North Carolina estuary, apparently causing V. vulnificus numbers to increase briefly to Gulf Coast levels. At Gulf Coast sites, V. vulnificus numbers increased with water temperatures up to 26 degrees C and were constant at higher temperatures. High V. vulnificus levels (> 10(3) per g) were typically found in oysters from intermediate salinities (5 to 25 ppt). Smaller V. vulnificus numbers (< 10(2) per g) were found at salinities above 28 ppt, typical of Atlantic Coast sites. On 11 occasions oysters were sampled at times and locations near the source of oysters implicated in 13 V. vulnificus cases; the V. vulnificus levels and environmental parameters associated with these samples were consistent with those of other study samples collected from the Gulf Coast from April through November. These findings suggest that the hazard of V. vulnificus infection is not limited to brief periods of unusual abundance of V

  3. The Mississippi CCS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Cathro

    2010-09-30

    The Mississippi CCS Project is a proposed large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which would have demonstrated advanced technologies to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically, the Mississippi CCS Project was to accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petcoke to Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) plant that is selected for a Federal Loan Guarantee and would be the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Mississippi CCS Project was to promote the expansion of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana region which would supply greater energy security through increased domestic energy production. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure would have continued to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project were expected to be fulfilled through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 included the studies that establish the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the MG SNG Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Soso oil field in Mississippi. The overall objective of Phase 2, was to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, the Mississippi CO{sub 2} Pipeline to Denbury's Free State Pipeline, and an MVA system at the Soso oil field.

  4. Transport and diffusion climatology of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    This study is part of a larger study of coastal meteorology and diffusion and was planned to assist in site selection of energy facilities by describing the transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts in as much detail as can be extracted from readily available meteorological data. The area covered in this study is the United States east and Gulf coasts from Maine to Texas. The region studied is all within the coastal plain and is generally characterized by flat beaches and very gentle slopes inland except in New England, where the coast is more rugged and the terrain hilly close to the sea. Meteorological variables of primary concern in this study are those which govern or influence transport and diffusion of airborne gases and particles. The most important are wind direction and speed and some measure of diffusive capacity such as turbulence, gustiness or lapse rate. Eight stations were chosen to give four pairs for comparison between a coastal station and another somewhat farther inland. The pairs are Boston and Bedford, Massachusetts; Belmar and Lakehurst, New Jersey; Cape Kennedy and Orlando, Florida; and Galveston and Houston, Texas. The same years of data were obtained for both stations in each pair. Results of selected examples are presented. The frequency of calms and of winds in the three sectors relative to the coastline is reported for the 25 coastal stations from Portland, Maine (PWM) to Brownsville, Texas (BRO). Differences between day and night in wind direction distribution are shown for six selected stations. The frequency of the five diffusion rating classes at the same coastal stations during onshore winds is also shown. Differences in dffusion conditions between day and night at six selected stations are given. The results obtained were arranged for easy use with diffusion models in which the primary meteorological inputs are wind speed and measures of lateral and vertical diffusion. (JGB)

  5. Factors influencing safety among a group of commercial fishermen along the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2010-10-01

    The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives. PMID:20954032

  6. Review of the NURE Assessment of the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Susan M.

    2013-09-15

    Historic exploration and development were used to evaluate the reliability of domestic uranium reserves and potential resources estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province. NURE estimated 87 million pounds of reserves in the $30/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} cost category in the Coast Plain uranium resource region, most in the Gulf Coast Uranium Province. Since NURE, 40 million pounds of reserves have been mined, and 38 million pounds are estimated to remain in place as of 2012, accounting for all but 9 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the reserve or production categories in the NURE estimate. Considering the complexities and uncertainties of the analysis, this study indicates that the NURE reserve estimates for the province were accurate. An unconditional potential resource of 1.4 billion pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, 600 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the forward cost category of $30/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1980 prices), was estimated in 106 favorable areas by the NURE program in the province. Removing potential resources from the non-productive Houston embayment, and those reserves estimated below historic and current mining depths reduces the unconditional potential resource 33% to about 930 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and that in the $30/lb cost category 34% to 399 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Based on production records and reserve estimates tabulated for the region, most of the production since 1980 is likely from the reserves identified by NURE. The potential resource predicted by NURE has not been developed, likely due to a variety of factors related to the low uranium prices that have prevailed since 1980.

  7. Comparison of operational energy intensities and consumption of pipelines versus coastal tankers: US Gulf coast to northeast coast routes

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.; Rose, A.B.; Bertram, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report is a comparative analysis of operational energy intensities and consumption for pipeline shipments versus coastal tanker and tanker-barge movements of light petroleum products from the US Gulf Coast to US East Coast Mid-Atlantic states. It has been prepared for the Office of Transportation Programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a project designed to develop energy conservation strategies in the areas of modal shifts and energy materials transport. It also answers an expressed interest of DOE's Office of Competition as to whether energy penalties are being paid in this region by the shipment of this oil by tanker rather than pipeline. Detailed estimates are made of the 1977 energy intensities (EIs) for tankers and the two major pipelines serving these routes; these are the Colonial pipeline (from Houston) and the Plantation pipeline (from Baton Rouge). Estimates of potential operational energy savings gained from diverting these shipments from tankers to pipelines are figured from these EIs plus 1977 tanker short-ton volumes for these products. Also estimated for these diversions are additional savings of petroleum available through shifts from the fuel oil used to power tankers, to the other energy sources used by pipelines (e.g., coal, which is burned by the utilities serving them). Table 1 indicates that these tanker volumes have been large and steady as a whole; however, individual origin ports have had substantial variations since the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Indirect energy requirements of the two modes are not included in this analysis because the methodology for calculating them is still an unresolved research area (e.g., diagreements exist as to how much supporting-infrastructure energy usage should be included for a mode).

  8. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a
    Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

  9. MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT AQUIFER SYSTEM IN MISSISSIPPI: GEOHYDROLOGIC DATA COMPILATION FOR FLOW MODEL SIMULATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, J.K.; Taylor, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer System Analysis (GC RASA) study, data from 184 geophysical well logs were used to define the geohydrologic framework of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system in Mississippi for flow model simulation. Five major aquifers of Eocene and Paleocene age were defined within this aquifer system in Mississippi. A computer data storage system was established to assimilate the information obtained from the geophysical logs. Computer programs were developed to manipulate the data to construct geologic sections and structure maps. Data from the storage system will be input to a five-layer, three-dimensional, finite-difference digital computer model that is used to simulate the flow dynamics in the five major aquifers of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system.

  10. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Elisaveta P; Ebi, Kristie L; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-08-01

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region's coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region's unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region's ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades. PMID:26270669

  11. CONTAMINANT THRESHOLDS FOR PREDICTING ADVERSE IMPACTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITIES ALONG THE U.S. ATLANTIC AND GULF OF MEXICO COASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EMAP 2001 Symposium, April 24-27, 2001, Pensacola, FL

    Matching data on sediment contaminants and macroinfauna from 1,349 samples collected as part of EMAP in estuaries along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts were used to define thresholds for evaluating risks of ...

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Cretaceous-Tertiary Coal Beds of the Gulf Coast Region, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 4.06 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas in Cretaceous-Tertiary coal beds of the onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  13. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region’s coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region’s unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region’s ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades. PMID:26270669

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of the Gulf Coast, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Cook, Troy A.; Dennen, Kris; Doolan, Colin; Enomoto, Catherine; Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Merrill, Matt; Pearson, Krystal; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Rowan, Elizabeth L.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Valentine, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 147.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 2.4 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, and 2.96 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  15. Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Lessons Learned for Protecting and Educating Children. Briefing for Congressional Staff. GAO-06-680R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused devastating damage to states along the Gulf Coast. In the aftermath of the storms, many questions were raised about the status of the thousands of children living in the affected areas. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) prepared this preliminary information under the…

  16. 1978 Houston-Galveston and Texas Gulf Coast vertical-control surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, E.I.

    1980-11-01

    Comparisons between leveling surveys of different epochs are used to determine vertical displacement of permanent bench marks. Displacement of bench marks usually represents the movement of the surrounding area. In this report, the 1978 Houston-Galveston and Texas Gulf Coast releveling surveys are compared to the 1963, 1973, and 1976 releveling results. The changes in elevations of bench marks common to two or more epochs are tabulated and plotted in Appendix A. From these differences, contour maps were prepared for the 1963 to 1978 and 1973 to 1978 epochs in the 2/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ area of maximum subsidence. Annual subsidence rates computed for the 1973 to 1978 period are about 25% less in the maximum subsidence area than the rates computed for the 1963 to 1973 period.

  17. Data of heavy metals biosorption onto Sargassum oligocystum collected from the northern coast of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Delshab, Sedigheh; Kouhgardi, Esmaeil; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    This data article presents a simple method for providing a biosorbent from Sargassum oligocystum harvested from the northern coast of Persian Gulf, Bushehr, Iran. The characterization data of Sargassum oligocystum biochar (SOB) were analyzed using various instrumental techniques (FTIR and XPS). The kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics data of Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions onto SOB were presented. The maximum biosorption capacity of SOB to uptake Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions from aqueous solution was obtained 60.25, 153.85, and 45.25 mg/g, respectively. The experimental data showed that biochar prepared from Sargassum oligocystum is an efficient and promising biosorbent for the treatment of heavy metals-bearing wastewaters. PMID:27331094

  18. Uranium geochemistry in geopressured-geothermal aquifers of the U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    Formation water from U.S. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal sandstone aquifers has been analyzed to determine the geochemistry of uranium in these systems. Results of chemical analyses and chemical equilibrium modeling indicate the formation waters are in equilibrium with uraninite (UO2) and coffinite (USiO4). The 234U 238U activity ratios in the formation waters range from 1.06 to 1.69. These isotopic data suggest that at formation temperatures uranium is continually reequilibrating chemically and isotopically between water, a solid phase of either UO2 or USiO4 and a component of 234U supplied to solution from the aquifer matrix material by alpha recoil processes. ?? 1986.

  19. New distributional data on ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) from Mandapam coast, Gulf of Mannar, India

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Soban A; Arshan, Kaleem ML

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Ascidians play a key role in the ecology and biodiversity of marine ecosystem. Ascidians can be transported in ship ballast water and while attached to ship and boat hulls. Heavy traffic by domestic and international ships as well as cargo vessels between the major and minor ports warrants continuous monitoring for new introductions of ascidians. The Mandapam coast is situated in the Gulf of Mannar, India, a marine hot spot area in the Indian Ocean which provides an environment suitable for the settlement of ascidians. New information A total of 30 species of ascidians were reported from Mandapam coastal waters, of which 26 species were new to the study area and five species: Ecteinascidia turbinata, Eudistoma carnosum, Trididemnum caelatum, T. vermiforme and Didemnum spadix, were new to India. PMID:27099557

  20. Injecting polyacrylamide into Gulf Coast sands: The White Castle Q sand polymer-injectivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, G.T.; Thigpen, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    A polymer-injectivity test designed to control mobility in cosurfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding was performed in the Q sand of the White Castle field, LA. Analysis of test data indicates that a polymer bank with an average viscosity of 4 cp was propagated as far as 90 ft into the reservoir with no measurable sign of degradation. It is estimated from pilot and laboratory data that injection of 500 ppm polyacrylamide through perforations at a rate of at least 32 B-D/in{sup 2} of perforation into gulf coast sands is feasible. Monitoring of backproduced reservoir samples indicates that, to date, no detectable change in viscosity has occurred over a 2-year period.

  1. The utility of ERTS-1 data for applications in land use classification. [Texas Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dornbach, J. E.; Mckain, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken to determine the extent to which conventional image interpretation and computer-aided (spectral pattern recognition) analysis techniques using ERTS-1 data could be used to detect, identify (classify), locate, and measure current land use over large geographic areas. It can be concluded that most of the level 1 and 2 categories in the USGS Circular no. 671 can be detected in the Houston-Gulf Coast area using a combination of both techniques for analysis. These capabilities could be exercised over larger geographic areas, however, certain factors such as different vegetative cover, topography, etc. may have to be considered in other geographic regions. The best results in identification (classification), location, and measurement of level 1 and 2 type categories appear to be obtainable through automatic data processing of multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes.

  2. Vertical distributions of molecular hydrogen off the eastern and Gulf coasts of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Harriss, Robert C.; Levine, Joel S.; Edahl, Robert A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical distributions of molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were determined during spiraling maneuvers from aircraft off the eastern coast of the United States and over the Gulf of Mexico. H2 was always at its lowest levels in the boundary layer, averaging about 500 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). H2 mixing ratios determined in the free troposphere were typically higher (600-700 ppbv), and often suggested a small progressive increase with altitude. Several large free-tropospheric H2 plumes (mixing ratios as high as 1-2 parts per million by volume) were implied by the data. These H2 plumes were not always accompanied by corresponding increases in CO mixing ratios. This result is most difficult to explain when it is noted that the primary atmospheric sources for molecular H2 are considered to be combustion and photochemistry, both of which should be strong CO sources also.

  3. Hurricane Katrina's carbon footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast forests.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Fisher, Jeremy I; Zeng, Hongcheng; Chapman, Elise L; Baker, David B; Hurtt, George C

    2007-11-16

    Hurricane Katrina's impact on U.S. Gulf Coast forests was quantified by linking ecological field studies, Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image analyses, and empirically based models. Within areas affected by relatively constant wind speed, tree mortality and damage exhibited strong species-controlled gradients. Spatially explicit forest disturbance maps coupled with extrapolation models predicted mortality and severe structural damage to approximately 320 million large trees totaling 105 teragrams of carbon, representing 50 to 140% of the net annual U.S. forest tree carbon sink. Changes in disturbance regimes from increased storm activity expected under a warming climate will reduce forest biomass stocks, increase ecosystem respiration, and may represent an important positive feedback mechanism to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:18006740

  4. The impact of climate change on transportation in the gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savonis, M.J.; Burkett, V.R.; Potter, J.R.; Kafalenos, R.; Hyman, R.; Leonard, K.

    2009-01-01

    Climate affects the design, construction, safety, operations, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and systems. The prospect of a changing climate raises critical questions regarding how alterations in temperature, precipitation, storm events, and other aspects of the climate could affect the nation's transportation system. This regional assessment of climate change and its potential impacts on transportation systems addresses these questions for the central Gulf Coast between Houston and Mobile. Warming temperatures are likely to increase the costs of transportation construction, maintenance, and operations. More frequent extreme precipitation events will likely disrupt transportation networks with flooding and visibility problems. Relative sea level rise will make much of the existing infrastructure more prone to frequent or permanent inundation. Increased storm intensity may lead to increased service disruption and damage. Consideration of these factors in today's transportation decisions should lead to a more robust, resilient, and cost-effective transportation network in the coming decades. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. Receiver function study of the rifted margin of the Gulf Coast Plain: A Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundrett, M.; Gurrola, H.; Pulliam, J.; Stern, R. J.; Anthony, E. Y.; Keller, G. R.; Gao, S. S.; Mickus, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is one of the deepest sedimentary basins in the world; as a result little is known about the basement structure beneath this region. The few refraction seismic investigations of the GCP found sediment depths of 15 to 20 km, underlain by severely attenuated continental or transitional crust. A 2-D refraction investigation along the Texas-Louisiana Border, found the crystalline continental crust to be as little as 10 km thick, underlain by an anomalous lower crust/upper mantle body interpreted to be depleted mantle; a “rift pillow” developed during the Late Paleozoic through Early Mesozoic rifting. This rift pillow coincides with the magnetic high that parallels the coast line along the entire Texas GCP. This poster will present new receiver functions (RF) results using data from stations of the EarthScope Backbone array throughout the GCP and a temporary pilot deployment of five broadband instruments between Junction, TX and San Antonio, TX that took place in 2008. The stations at Kingsville, TX (KVTX) and Hockley, TX (HKT) are close to the coast. Receiver functions for KVTX have a very strong P20s phase that is likely from the sediment-basement contact and a Moho Ps phase at about 45 km deep. This depth to the Moho is greater than might be expected for a coastal setting. The 45 km depth is, however, similar to that found for the base of the “rift pillow” observed in the Northern GCP. KVTX is located in the magnetic high anomaly that was associated with the rift pillow in the Northern GCP. The station at Junction (JCT) appears to have about a 42 km depth to the Moho which is typical of a station from the stable continental (cratonic) setting. The station at Nacogdoches, TX (NATX) is situated in older Gulf Coast sediments in a similar position relative to GCP rifting as would be expected a few km outboard of San Antonio. The 36 km depth to the Moho estimated for KVTX appears shallower than those Moho depths estimated for JCT and

  6. Overpressure and hydrocarbon accumulations in Tertiary strata, Gulf Coast of Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2012-01-01

    Many oil and gas reservoirs in Tertiary strata of southern Louisiana are located close to the interface between a sand-rich, normally pressured sequence and an underlying sand-poor, overpressured sequence. This association, recognized for many years by Gulf Coast explorationists, is revisited here because of its relevance to an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential in the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The transition from normally pressured to highly overpressured sediments is documented by converting mud weights to pressure, plotting all pressure data from an individual field as a function of depth, and selecting a top and base of the pressure transition zone. Vertical extents of pressure transition zones in 34 fields across southern onshore Louisiana range from 300 to 9000 ft and are greatest in younger strata and in the larger fields. Display of pressure transition zones on geologic cross sections illustrates the relative independence of the depth of the pressure transition zone and geologic age. Comparison of the depth distribution of pressure transition zones with production intervals confirms previous findings that production intervals generally overlap the pressure transition zone in depth and that the median production depth lies above the base of the pressure transition zone in most fields. However, in 11 of 55 fields with deep drilling, substantial amounts of oil and gas have been produced from depths deeper than 2000 ft below the base of the pressure transition zone. Mud-weight data in 7 fields show that "local" pressure gradients range from 0.91 to 1.26 psi/ft below the base of the pressure transition zone. Pressure gradients are higher and computed effective stress gradients are negative in younger strata in coastal areas, indicating that a greater potential for fluid and sediment movement exists there than in older Tertiary strata.

  7. Relationships among carbon dioxide, pore-fluid chemistry, and secondary porosity, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.G.; Forester, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    Sequences of diagenetic minerals associated with secondary porosity show striking similarities. The formation of quartz overgrowths on detrital quartz grains is followed generally by carbonate cementation. The dissolution of this carbonate is the main secondary porosity-forming event, which commonly precedes kaolinite precipitation and iron-rich carbonate cementation. In the Texas Gulf Coast, oxygen isotopic analyses provide temperature estimates of authigenic phases that predate and postdate secondary porosity development: quartz, greater than or equal to 80/sup 0/C (176/sup 0/F); kaolinite, greater than or equal to 70/sup 0/C (158/sup 0/F); albite, 100/sup 0/-150/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/-302/sup 0/F); late carbonate, > 100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F). These data suggest that secondary porosity in the Tertiary Gulf Coast forms at temperatures of about 100/sup 0/ +/- 25/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/ +/- 45/sup 0/F). Correlations among calcite saturation indices in pore fluids, abnormally high permeabilities, and mole % CO/sub 2/ in natural gases of the Eocene Wilcox Group imply a strong interrelationship between CO/sub 2/ and secondary porosity development in clastic reservoirs. The CO/sub 2/ content of gases varies systematically with both the reservoirs. The CO/sub 2/ in natural gases increases rapidly at approximately 100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F); this coincides with a rapid increase in the ratio of secondary to primary porosity in associated sandstones. Stable isotopic analyses of carbonate cements indicate a strong component of organically derived carbon and therefore cycling of carbon between inorganic and organic systems. The type, amount and distribution of organic matter, and early carbonate in both shales and sandstones control the quantity of CO/sub 2/ available for generating secondary porosity.

  8. Carbon dioxide and organic acids: origin and role in burial diagenesis (Texas Gulf Coast Tertiary)

    SciTech Connect

    Lundegard, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon dioxide produced by decarboxylation of organic matter is not a dominant factor in secondary porosity development. Material balance calculations indicate the amount of feldspar and carbonate dissolution that has taken place in Tertiary sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast far exceeds that which is explainable by decarboxylation. Other potential sources of acid for dissolution reactions include reverse weathering reactions in shales, an hydrous pyrolysis reactions between organic carbon and oxygen in H/sub 2/O to yield CO/sub 2/ or organic acids. Considerations of CO/sub 2/ solubility and the temperature distribution of organic acids imply that these species must be generated locally to cause significant dissolution. The CO/sub 2/ content of gas from Gulf Coast Tertiary sandstones is proportional to reservoir age, and increases with depth and temperature at a rate that is approximately exponential. In the Wilcox Formation the increase in CO/sub 2/ content continues beyond depths where dissolved organic acids are abundant and where kerogen has lost its oxygen from functional groups that are readily liberated as CO/sub 2/. In this formation the /sup 13/C of CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ are proportional to temperature and to each other. Either mixing with fluids derived from the Mesozoic carbonate section of deep CO/sub 2/ generation by kinetically controlled organic reactions may explain these data. Organic acid concentration with depth and temperature indicates a non-biological origin by thermal cracking of kerogen during burial. Continued burial leads to their thermal decomposition. Cessation of burial may lead to meteoric water invasion and organic acid destruction by biological processes. The effect of time on organic acid production is minor compared to temperature.

  9. Modeling and Prediction of Oyster Norovirus Outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico Coast

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oyster norovirus outbreaks often pose high risks to human health. However, little is known about environmental factors controlling the outbreaks, and little can be done to prevent the outbreaks because they are generally considered to be unpredictable. Objective: We sought to develop a mathematical model for predicting risks of oyster norovirus outbreaks using environmental predictors. Methods: We developed a novel probability-based Artificial Neural Network model, called NORF model, using 21 years of environmental and norovirus outbreak data collected from Louisiana oyster harvesting areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast, USA. The NORF model involves six input variables that were selected through stepwise regression analysis and sensitivity analysis. Results: We found that the model-based probability of norovirus outbreaks was most sensitive to gage height (the depth of water in an oyster bed) and water temperature, followed by wind, rainfall, and salinity, respectively. The NORF model predicted all historical oyster norovirus outbreaks from 1994 through 2014. Specifically, norovirus outbreaks occurred when the NORF model probability estimate was > 0.6, whereas no outbreaks occurred when the estimated probability was < 0.5. Outbreaks may also occur when the estimated probability is 0.5–0.6. Conclusions: Our findings require further confirmation, but they suggest that oyster norovirus outbreaks may be predictable using the NORF model. The ability to predict oyster norovirus outbreaks at their onset may make it possible to prevent or at least reduce the risk of norovirus outbreaks by closing potentially affected oyster beds. Citation: Wang J, Deng Z. 2016. Modeling and prediction of oyster norovirus outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico coast. Environ Health Perspect 124:627–633; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509764 PMID:26528621

  10. Characterization and cycling of atmospheric mercury along the central US Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Tate, M.T.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Edgerton, E.S.; DeWild, J.F.; McPherson, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric Hg species, elemental Hg (Hg{ring operator}), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5) were measured at a coastal site near Weeks Bay, Alabama from April to August, 2005 and January to May, 2006. Mean concentrations of the species were 1.6 ?? 0.3 ng m-3, 4.0 ?? 7.5 pg m-3 and 2.7 ?? 3.4 pg m-3, respectively. A strong diel pattern was observed for RGM (midday maximum concentrations were up to 92.7 pg m-3), but not for Hg{ring operator} or Hg-PM2.5. Elevated RGM concentrations (>25 pg m-3) in April and May of 2005 correlated with elevated average daytime O3 concentrations (>55 ppbv) and high light intensity (>500 W m-2). These conditions generally corresponded with mixed continental-Gulf and exclusively continental air mass trajectories. Generally lower, but still elevated, RGM peaks observed in August, 2005 and January-March, 2006 correlated significantly (p 2.5 ??m). A potential source of the large fraction of coarse particulate Hg in the study area is sequestration of RGM within sea salt aerosols. The presence of rapidly depositing RGM and coarse particulate Hg may be important sources of Hg input along the Gulf Coast. However, the impact of these species on deposition rates is yet to be determined. ?? 2008.

  11. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in Spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Carton, X.; Louazel, S.; Boutin, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Persian Gulf produces a high salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter) flowing into the Sea of Oman, in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Past the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies with different thermohaline signatures and pathways depending of the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea an in the Sea of Oman. This study uses the results from the measurements to characterize the water masses, their thermohaline and dynamical signatures. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. This structure was present in 2011 and created a front between the eastern and western part of the basin. As well two energetic gyres were present along the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, injections of fresh and cold water are found in relation with the stirring of the eddies. The PGW observed below or between these eddies have a different dilution depending of the position and formation periods of the gyres. Furthermore, in the western Sea of Oman, the PGW is fragmented in filaments and submesoscale eddies. As well, recirculation of the PGW is observed, thus having the presence of salty nearby patches with two densities. Offshore, in the Arabian Sea, a submesoscale lens was recorded. The different mechanisms leading to its formation and presence are assessed here.

  12. Seismic stratigraphic comparison of DSDP Leg 96 results with older Mississippi fan lobes, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, P.; Buffler, R.T.

    1987-05-01

    DSDP Leg 96 drilled the youngest depositional lobe of the Mississippi fan at nine sites. These sites were designed to provide a set of reference cores to help explain the development of Quaternary and older submarine fans. The youngest fan lobe is dominated by a single, sinuous aggradational channel system, characterized by high-amplitude reflections that represent channel-lag gravels and sands, while adjacent laterally continuous reflections correspond to fine-grained overbank sediments. Analysis of 12,000 km of multifold seismic data from the Mississippi fan provides a method for comparing the drilling results with the seismic stratigraphy of the nine older Mississippi fan lobes. Sinuous channels and associated facies are present in all older lobes in the middle fan area, although there is a greater diversity in channel/overbank distribution and interpreted depositional processes. For example, four of the lobes have several coeval channels that are fed by separate submarine canyons in the slope, and a bifurcating channel pattern caused by channel avulsion is present in six different lobes along the middle and lower fan. In addition, an important seismic facies consisting of mounded, hummocky, and chaotic reflections is present at the base of six older lobes. This facies is more areally restricted than the overlying, well-developed channel/overbank deposits and is interpreted to represent coarse-grained channel sediments deposited during lowering sea level. Although Leg 96 drilling provides sedimentologic information that can be used for comparison with other fans, this seismic stratigraphic study of the entire Mississippi fan suggests that additional processes were operating that were not explained by the drilling results.

  13. Reconstructing Late Holocene Relative Sea-level Changes on the Gulf Coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, M. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kemp, A.; Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Bernhardt, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about late Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) along the Gulf Coast of Florida. A RSL reconstruction from this region is needed to fill a spatial gap in sea-level records which can be used to support coastal management, contribute geologic data for Earth-Ice models estimating late Holocene land-level change and serve as the basis for which future projections of sea-level rise must be superimposed. Further, this dataset is crucial to understanding the presence/absence and non-synchronous timing of small sea-level oscillations (e.g. rise at ~ 1000 A.D.; fall at ~ 1400 A.D.) during the past 2000 years on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States that may be linked to climate anomalies. We present the results of a high-resolution RSL reconstruction based on the sediment record of two salt marshes on the eastern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Two ~1.3m cores primarily composed of Juncus roemeranius peat reveal RSL changes over the past ~2000 years in the southern end of Tampa Bay and in Charlotte Harbor, Florida. Two study sites were used to isolate localized factors affecting RSL at either location. Lithostratigraphic analysis at both sites identifies a transition from sandy-silt layers into salt-marsh peat at the bottom of each core. The two records show continuous accumulation of salt-marsh peat with Juncus roemeranius macrofossils and intermittent sand horizons likely reflecting inundation events. We used vertically zoned assemblages of modern foraminifera to assign the indicative meaning. The high marsh is dominated by Ammoastuta inepta, Haplophragmoides wilberti, and Arenoparella mexicana, with low marsh and tidal flats identified by Ammobaculites spp. and Miliammina fusca. Chronologies for these study sites were established using AMS radiocarbon dating of in-situ plant macrofossils, Cs137, Pb210 and pollen and pollution chronohorizons. Our regional RSL curve will add additional data for constraining the mechanisms causing RSL change.

  14. Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges Statistical Data, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    This document presents the 1998-1999 statistical data for the following 15 Mississippi (MS) public community and junior colleges: Coahoma, Copiah-Lincoln, East Central, East MS, Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jones, Meridian, MS Delta, MS Gulf Coast, Northeast MS, Northwest MS, Pearl River, and Southwest MS. It begins with a list of State Board members…

  15. Evaluating Tsunami Impact on the Gulf of Cadiz Coast (Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz coasts are exposed to tsunamis. Emergency planning tools are now taking into account this fact, especially because a series of historical occurrences were strikingly significant, having left strong evidence behind, in the mareographic records, the geological evidence or simply the memory of the populations. The study area is a strip along the Algarve coast, south Portugal, an area known to have been heavily impacted by the 1 November 1755 event. In this study we use two different tsunami scenarios generated by the rupture of two thrust faults identified in the area, corresponding to 8.1-8.3 magnitude earthquakes. Tsunami propagation and inundation computation is performed using a non-linear shallow water code with bottom friction. Numerical modeling results are presented in terms of flow depth and current velocity with maximum values of 7 m and 8 m/s for inundation depth and flow speed, respectively. These results constitute a valuable tool for local authorities, emergency and decision planners to define the priority zones where tsunami mitigation measures must be implemented and to develop tsunami-resilient communities.

  16. Service-Learning in Disaster Recovery: Rebuilding the Mississippi Gulf Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Cowley, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a course in the City and Regional Planning program at the Ohio State University. Its overarching goal was to offer service-learning by providing students with an opportunity to apply what they learned in the classroom by meeting community needs following Hurricane Katrina and to reflect on their experiences through…

  17. Gulf Coast Subsidence: Integration of Geodesy, Geophysical Modeling, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; Chapman, B. D.; Deese, R.; Dokka, R. K.; Fielding, E. J.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Jones, C. E.; Kent, J. D.; Liu, Z.; Lohman, R.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The vulnerability of the US Gulf Coast has received increased attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Agencies responsible for the long-term protection of lives and infrastructure require precise estimates of future subsidence and sea level rise. A quantitative, geophysically based methodology can provide such estimates by incorporating geological data, geodetic measurements, geophysical models of non-elastic mechanical behavior at depth, and geographically comprehensive deformation monitoring made possible with measurements from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). To be effective, results must be available to user agencies in a format suitable for integration within existing decision-support processes. Work to date has included analysis of historical and continuing ground-based geodetic measurements. These reveal a surprising degree of complexity, including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered for hurricane protection planning of New Orleans and other coastal communities (http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pdf/hps_verticalsettlement.pdf) as well as Louisiana's coastal restoration strategies (http://www.coast2050.gov/2050reports.htm) (Dokka, 2011, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008). Traditional geodetic measurements provide precise information at single points, while InSAR observations provide geographically comprehensive measurements of surface deformation at lower vertical precision. Available InSAR data sources include X-, C- and L-band satellite, and NASA/JPL airborne UAVSAR L-band data. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. For example, the shorter wavelength C-band data decorrelates over short time periods requiring more elaborate time-series analysis techniques, with which we've had some success. Meanwhile, preliminary analysis of limited L-Band ALOS/PALSAR satellite data show promise

  18. Gulf Coast Subsidence: Crustal Loading, Geodesy, and Recent InSAR and UAVSAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; Dokka, R. K.; Fielding, E. J.; Hawkins, B. P.; Hensley, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Jones, C. E.; Lohman, R. B.; Zheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of the Gulf Coast has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. A quantitative geophysical basis for measuring, predicting, and understanding subsidence rates, their geographic distribution, and temporal variability, is necessary for long term protection of lives and property in addition to being a challenging scientific problem. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence, including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection of New Orleans and other population centers (http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pdf/hps_verticalsettlement.pdf), and for coastal restoration planning for coastal Louisiana (http://www.coast2050.gov/2050reports.htm) (Dokka, 2011, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008). Meanwhile, traditional geodetic data provide precise information at single points, InSAR observations provide geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. Available radar data sources include C and L band satellite, and NASA/JPL airborne UAVSAR L band data. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. The shorter wavelength C band data decorrelates over short time periods necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques. We have early results from new persistent scatterer methods and masking techniques to eliminate areas affected by water level changes, all applied to C-band satellite radar data. Limited L-Band ALOS/PALSAR satellite data are available for analysis using conventional interferometry, unfortunately this Japanese satellite system recently failed. Most importantly, we now have airborne UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data sets spanning a total interval of 514 days (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/). These data can constrain geophysical models of crustal behavior, leading to

  19. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    PubMed

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise. PMID:26934343

  20. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Lori A.; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H.; Heckscher, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species’ populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise. PMID:26934343

  1. Solutions Network Formulation Report. The Potential Contribution of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, Kent; Anderson, Daniel; Lewis, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season - especially Hurricane Katrina - left the Mississippi Gulf Coast devastated. In its efforts to assist in coastal re-building efforts, the U.S. Congress passed the Defense Appropriation Act of 2006. This legislation directed the Secretary of the Army, via the USACE, to generate reports discussing possible projects that would improve the State of Mississippi?s coastal region. These projects are referred to as the MsCIP. Data collected via the LDCM OLI could be used to evaluate the success of projects that result from the MsCIP by monitoring regional coastal changes associated with such projects. This Candidate Solution is in alignment with the Coastal Management, Water Management, and Disaster Management National Applications and will benefit society by improving the post-Hurricane Katrina Mississippi Gulf Coast.

  2. Breeding season survival and breeding incidence of female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula) studies suggested that high female breeding season survival may be caused by low nesting effort, but few breeding season estimates of survival associated with nesting effort exist on the western Gulf Coast. Here, breeding season survival (N = 40) and breeding incidence (N = 39) were estimated for female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas coast, 2006–2008. Females were fitted with backpack radio transmitters and visually relocated every 3–4 days. Weekly survival was estimated using the Known Fate procedure of program MARK with breeding incidence estimated as the annual proportion of females observed nesting or with broods. The top-ranked survival model included a body mass covariate and held weekly female survival constant across weeks and years (SW = 0.986, SE = 0.006). When compared to survival across the entire year estimated from previous band recovery and age ratio analysis, survival rate during the breeding season did not differ. Breeding incidence was well below 100% in all years and highly variable among years (15%–63%). Breeding season survival and breeding incidence were similar to estimates obtained with implant transmitters from the mid-coast of Texas. The greatest breeding incidence for both studies occurred when drought indices indicated average environmental moisture during the breeding season. The observed combination of low breeding incidence and high breeding season survival support the hypothesis of a trade-off between the ecological cost of nesting effort and survival for Mottled Duck females. Habitat cues that trigger nesting are unknown and should be investigated.

  3. Land subsidence along the northeastern Texas Gulf coast: Effects of deep hydrocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.M. Jr.; Hill, D.W.

    1995-04-01

    The Texas Gulf of Mexico coast is experiencing high (5-11 mm/yr) rates of relative sea level (RSL) rise that are the sum of subsidence and eustatic sea level (ESL) rise. Even higher rates are associated with areas of ground-water pumping from confined aquifers. We investigate the possibility of deep petroleum production as a cause for the high regional rates of subsidence. The northeast Texas coast was chosen for the study because it has a high rate of RSL rise, very limited groundwater production, and a long history of petroleum production. We examine in detail the Big Hill and Fannett fields, for which adequate bottom hole pressure (BHP) and well log data are available. The hypothesis of deep petroleum production is tested in three ways. First, industry BHP tests show many of the fields are depressurized to far below hydrostatic pressures. Second, analysis of BHP data over time in the Big Hill and Fannett fields indicates that some zones in these fields were below hydrostatic when production commenced. This indicates that depressurization from production in neighboring fields or zones within the same filed is not limited to the production zone. Third, three models for subsidence (a general 1-D regional model, an intra-reservoir model, and a reservoir bounding layer model), using reasonable hydrogeological parameters, predict subsidence within the inferred range of data. The latter two models use data from the Big Hill and Fannett fields. Additional verification of the hypothesis that deep petroleum production is causing or accelerating regional subsidence will require the collection and analysis of data on the subsurface hydrogeological parameters and detailed measure ments of the spatial and temporal distribution of subsidence along the Texas Coast.

  4. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  5. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  6. Mississippi Canyon 194, Gulf of Mexico: Development case history/engineering summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaston, J.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Mississippi Canyon 194 is located 12 mi southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1,024 ft of water. The field was originally developed by a 61 wells drilled from 1978-1981. A 20-well redevelopment program was executed during 1989-1990. Cumulative production is 120 MMBO and 220 bcf. Engineering studies have been fully integrated into the field development effort with focus on the following five aspects of the development program: (1) revision of initial petrophysical evaluation procedures to improve consistency between volumetric estimates and early reservoir performance. The new methods were derived from comprehensive integration of core analyses with wireline log data; (2) evaluation of areal and vertical sweep in the I Sand Reservoir A waterflood. Results suggested several redevelopment program locations directed at improving flood recovery; (3) recognition of commercial potential in zones characterized by poorer SP/gamma ray and resistivity response; (4) recorrelation of the K Sand Reservoir BC, initially defined as a single producing unit, into five layers that are now believed to be draining somewhat independently. Incorporation of the new correlation into the completion strategy has resulted in improved recover; (5) further studies are planned to predict reservoir compaction attributable to hydrocarbon production.

  7. Population genetic structure of annual and perennial populations of Zostera marina L. along the Pacific coast of Baja California and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz-Salazar, R.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Ward, D.H.; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula represents a biogeographical boundary contributing to regional differentiation among populations of marine animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of perennial and annual populations of the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina, along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, respectively. Populations of Z. marina from five coastal lagoons along the Pacific coast and four sites in the Gulf of California were studied using nine microsatellite loci. Analyses of variance revealed significant interregional differentiation, but no subregional differentiation. Significant spatial differentiation, assessed using θ values, was observed among all populations within the two regions. Z. marina populations along the Pacific coast are separated by more than 220 km and had the greatest θ (0.13-0.28) values, suggesting restricted gene flow. In contrast, lower but still significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations within the Gulf of California (θ = 0.04-0.18), even though populations are separated by more than 250 km. This suggests higher levels of gene flow among Gulf of California populations relative to Pacific coast populations. Direction of gene flow was predominantly southward among Pacific coast populations, whereas no dominant polarity in the Gulf of California populations was observed. The test for isolation by distance (IBD) showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances in Gulf of California populations, but not in Pacific coast populations, perhaps because of shifts in currents during El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the Pacific coast.

  8. A photographic and acoustic transect across two deep-water seafloor mounds, Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, P.E.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Gardner, J.; Carney, R.S.; Fornari, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the northern Gulf of Mexico, a series of seafloor mounds lie along the floor of the Mississippi Canyon in Atwater Valley lease blocks 13 and 14. The mounds, one of which was drilled by the Chevron Joint Industry Project on Methane Hydrates in 2005, are interpreted to be vent-related features that may contain significant accumulations of gas hydrate adjacent to gas and fluid migration pathways. The mounds are located ???150 km south of Louisiana at ???1300 m water depth. New side-scan sonar data, multibeam bathymetry, and near-bottom photography along a 4 km northwest-southeast transect crossing two of the mounds (labeled D and F) reveal the mounds' detailed morphology and surficial characteristics. Mound D, ???250 m in diameter and 7-10 m in height, has exposures of authigenic carbonates and appears to result from a seafloor vent of slow-to-moderate flux. Mound F, which is ???400 m in diameter and 10-15 m high, is covered on its southwest flank by extruded mud flows, a characteristic associated with moderate-to-rapid flux. Chemosynthetic communities visible on the bottom photographs are restricted to bacterial mats on both mounds and mussels at Mound D. No indications of surficial gas hydrates are evident on the bottom photographs.

  9. Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; DeWitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

  10. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively