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Sample records for mit bag model

  1. Gravitating lepton bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  2. Gravitating lepton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  3. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  4. Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.

    2011-03-15

    We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

  5. Vacuum energy in the bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, P.

    1986-04-01

    The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies is shown to be inconsistent since this would result in the bag constant and certain of the shape tensions being infinite. The manner in which the boundary conditions should be relaxed at high frequency is discussed. The most naive procedure for relaxing the boundary conditions, which is to apply confining conditions only on modes of frequency less than some cutoff frequency, results in a negative bag constant and surface tension and would render the vacuum unstable against the spontaneous breaking of Poincaré invariance. Consideration of the manner by which the interacting electromagnetic field avoids a similar instability suggests that a more realistic way to relax the boundary conditions on the bag surface is to endow the vacuum exterior to the bag with a frequency-dependent dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In this picture the stability of the vacuum is restored, the surface tension is finite and positive, and the bag constant is zero at least to lowest order in the coupling. It is pointed out that the fermion contributions to the bag constant and the surface tension may relate to the spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance. The aim throughout is to examine the bag model, as it relates to vacuum energy, strictly in its own terms with an emphasis on questions of principle. All too often is heard the alibi that since the theory itself is only approximate, the mathematics need be no better. In truth the opposite follows. Granted that the model represents but a part of nature, we are to find what such an ideal picture implies, a result strictly derived serves to test

  6. Excited states in the soliton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Saly, R.; Sundaresan, M.K.

    1984-02-01

    Numerical analysis of the solutions of the soliton bag model of Friedberg and Lee is performed. The recent analysis of Goldflam and Wilets is extended to include even-parity as well as odd-parity radially excited states. It is shown that the existence of the solutions (especially the odd-parity ones) restrict severely the allowed range of parameters.

  7. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  8. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, H. J.; Maslow, J. N.

    1980-09-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy.

  9. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H.; Efremov, A. V.; Schweitzer, P.; Yuan, F.

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading-twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark-model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model (in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology are discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  10. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  11. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Harut A. Avakian; Efremov, A. V.; Schweitzer, P.; Yuan, F.

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  12. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nuclon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of ~350 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS NN elastic scattering, Elab<=350 MeV. Coupling constants, form factors of renormalized OBE calculated from bag-model quark interchange. Phase shifts, deuteron parameters calculated from covariant partial-wave analysis.

  13. Gyrokinetic modeling: A multi-water-bag approach

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.

    2007-11-15

    Predicting turbulent transport in nearly collisionless fusion plasmas requires one to solve kinetic (or, more precisely, gyrokinetic) equations. In spite of considerable progress, several pending issues remain; although more accurate, the kinetic calculation of turbulent transport is much more demanding in computer resources than fluid simulations. An alternative approach is based on a water-bag representation of the distribution function that is not an approximation but rather a special class of initial conditions, allowing one to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations while keeping its kinetic character. The main result for the water-bag model is a lower cost in the parallel velocity direction since no differential operator associated with some approximate numerical scheme has to be carried out on this variable v{sub parallel}. Indeed, a small bag number is sufficient to correctly describe the ion temperature gradient instability.

  14. OBE approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1981-09-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of ≈350 MeV.

  15. Quark-meson coupling model with the cloudy bag

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, S.; Miyatsu, T.; Saito, Kenji; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Using the volume coupling version of the cloudy bag model, the quark-meson coupling model is extended to study the role of pion field and the properties of nuclear matter. The extended model includes the effect of gluon exchange as well as the pion-cloud effect, and provides a good description of the nuclear matter properties. The relationship between the extended model and the EFT approach to nuclear matter is also discussed.

  16. Modeling of drop breakup in the bag breakup regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, S.; Wu, H.; Xu, J.

    2014-04-01

    Several analytic models for predicting the drop deformation and breakup have been developed over the last three decades, but modeling drop breakup in the bag-type regime is less reported. In this Letter, a breakup model has been proposed to predict the drop deformation length and breakup time in the bag-type breakup regime in a more accurate manner. In the present model, the drop deformation which is approximately as the displacement of the centre of mass (c. m.) along the axis located at the centre of the drop, and the movement of c. m. is obtained by solving the pressure balance equation. The effects of the drop deformation on the drop external aerodynamic force are considered in this model. Drop breakup occurs when the deformation length reaches the maximum value and the maximum deformation length is a function of Weber number. The performance and applicability of the proposed breakup model are tested against the published experimental data.

  17. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  18. Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr-Newman solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-11-01

    We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring-string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.

  19. Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr–Newman solution

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-11-15

    We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr–Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring–string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.

  20. Source of Kerr-Newman solution as supersymmetric bag model: 50 years of the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, A.

    The ultra extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) solution(a = J/m >> m) produces the gravitational and EM fields of the electron. It has a naked singular ring - a topological defect which may be regularized by a solitonic source forming the pseudo-vacuum bubble filled by Higgs condensate in a supersymmetric superconducting state. Structure and stability of this source is determined by Bogomolnyi equations as a BPS-saturated soliton. The Principal Null Congruences of the KN solution determine consistent embedding of the Dirac equation, which acquires the mass from the Higgs condensate inside the soliton, indicating that this soliton forms a bag model. Shape of this bag is unambiguously determined by BPS-bound. The bag turns out to be flexible and takes the form of a very thin disk, which is completed by a ring-string along its sharp boundary. The ring-string traveling waves generate extra deformations of the bag creating a circulating singular pole. Bag model of the KN source integrates the dressed and pointlike electron in a bag-string-quark system, which removes the conflict between gravity and the point-like electron of the Dirac theory.

  1. Implementation of a capsular bag model to enable sufficient lens stabilization within a mechanical eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Natascha; Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Beckert, Erik; Drauschke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Cataract still remains the leading cause of blindness affecting 20 million people worldwide. To restore the patients vision the natural lens is removed and replaced by an intraocular lens (IOL). In modern cataract surgery the posterior capsular bag is maintained to prevent inflammation and to enable stabilization of the implant. Refractive changes following cataract surgery are attributable to lens misalignments occurring due to postoperative shifts and tilts of the artificial lens. Mechanical eye models allow a preoperative investigation of the impact of such misalignments and are crucial to improve the quality of the patients' sense of sight. Furthermore, the success of sophisticated IOLs that correct high order aberrations is depending on a critical evaluation of the lens position. A new type of an IOL holder is designed and implemented into a preexisting mechanical eye model. A physiological representation of the capsular bag is realized with an integrated film element to guarantee lens stabilization and centering. The positioning sensitivity of the IOL is evaluated by performing shifts and tilts in reference to the optical axis. The modulation transfer function is used to measure the optical quality at each position. Lens stability tests within the holder itself are performed by determining the modulation transfer function before and after measurement sequence. Mechanical stability and reproducible measurement results are guaranteed with the novel capsular bag model that allows a precise interpretation of postoperative lens misalignments. The integrated film element offers additional stabilization during measurement routine without damaging the haptics or deteriorating the optical performance.

  2. Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from records drawn only from the set of niche environments without records from non-niche environments for comparison? Here, I introduce a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data called range bagging. Range bagging draws on the concept of a species' environmental range, but was inspired by the empirical performance of ensemble learning algorithms in other areas of ecological research. This paper extends the concept of environmental range to multiple dimensions and shows that range bagging is computationally feasible even when the number of environmental dimensions is large. The target of the range bagging base learner is an environmental tolerance of the species in a projection of its niche and is therefore an ecologically interpretable property of a species' biological requirements. The computational complexity of range bagging is linear in the number of examples, which compares favourably with the main alternative, Qhull. In conclusion, range bagging appears to be a reasonable choice for niche modelling in applications in which a presence-only method is desired and may provide a solution to problems in other disciplines where one-class classification is required, such as outlier detection and concept learning. PMID:25948612

  3. The Bag-1 inhibitor, Thio-2, reverses an atypical 3D morphology driven by Bag-1L overexpression in a MCF-10A model of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, E S; Barker, C R; Syed, H; Reeves, T; Schwaiger, S; Stuppner, H; Troppmair, J; Blaydes, J P; Cutress, R I

    2016-01-01

    Mammary MCF-10A cells seeded on reconstituted basement membrane form spherical structures with a hollow central lumen, termed acini, which are a physiologically relevant model of mammary morphogenesis. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a multifunctional protein overexpressed in breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. When present in the nucleus Bag-1 is predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Bag-1 exists as three main isoforms, which are produced by alternative translation initiation from a single mRNA. The long isoform of Bag-1, Bag-1L, contains a nuclear localisation sequence not present in the other isoforms. When present in the nucleus Bag-1L, but not the other Bag-1 isoforms, can interact with and modulate the activities of estrogen-, androgen- and vitamin D-receptors. Overexpression of Bag-1 mRNA in MCF-10A is known to produce acini with luminal filling reminiscent of ductal carcinoma in situ. As this mRNA predominantly overexpresses the short isoform of Bag-1, Bag-1S, we set out to examine whether the nuclear Bag-1L isoform is sufficient to drive premalignant change by developing a Bag-1L-overexpressing MCF-10A model. Two clones differentially overexpressing Bag-1L were grown in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures and compared with an established model of HER2-driven transformation. In 2D cultures, Bag-1L overexpression reduced proliferation but did not affect growth factor responsiveness or clonogenicity. Acini formed by Bag-1L-overexpressing cells exhibited reduced luminal clearing when compared with controls. An abnormal branching morphology was also observed which correlated with the level of Bag-1L overexpression, suggesting further malignant change. Treatment with Thio-2, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bag-1, reduced the level of branching. In summary, 3D cultures of MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells overexpressing Bag-1L demonstrate a premalignant phenotype with features of ductal carcinoma in situ. Using this

  4. The Bag-1 inhibitor, Thio-2, reverses an atypical 3D morphology driven by Bag-1L overexpression in a MCF-10A model of ductal carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, E S; Barker, C R; Syed, H; Reeves, T; Schwaiger, S; Stuppner, H; Troppmair, J; Blaydes, J P; Cutress, R I

    2016-01-01

    Mammary MCF-10A cells seeded on reconstituted basement membrane form spherical structures with a hollow central lumen, termed acini, which are a physiologically relevant model of mammary morphogenesis. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a multifunctional protein overexpressed in breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. When present in the nucleus Bag-1 is predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Bag-1 exists as three main isoforms, which are produced by alternative translation initiation from a single mRNA. The long isoform of Bag-1, Bag-1L, contains a nuclear localisation sequence not present in the other isoforms. When present in the nucleus Bag-1L, but not the other Bag-1 isoforms, can interact with and modulate the activities of estrogen-, androgen- and vitamin D-receptors. Overexpression of Bag-1 mRNA in MCF-10A is known to produce acini with luminal filling reminiscent of ductal carcinoma in situ. As this mRNA predominantly overexpresses the short isoform of Bag-1, Bag-1S, we set out to examine whether the nuclear Bag-1L isoform is sufficient to drive premalignant change by developing a Bag-1L-overexpressing MCF-10A model. Two clones differentially overexpressing Bag-1L were grown in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures and compared with an established model of HER2-driven transformation. In 2D cultures, Bag-1L overexpression reduced proliferation but did not affect growth factor responsiveness or clonogenicity. Acini formed by Bag-1L-overexpressing cells exhibited reduced luminal clearing when compared with controls. An abnormal branching morphology was also observed which correlated with the level of Bag-1L overexpression, suggesting further malignant change. Treatment with Thio-2, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bag-1, reduced the level of branching. In summary, 3D cultures of MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells overexpressing Bag-1L demonstrate a premalignant phenotype with features of ductal carcinoma in situ. Using this

  5. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  6. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  7. Gyrokinetic-water-bag modeling of low-frequency instabilities in a laboratory magnetized plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Gravier, E.; Klein, R.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2008-12-15

    A new model is presented, named collisional-gyro-water-bag (CGWB), which describes the collisional drift waves and ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities in a plasma column. This model is based on the kinetic gyro-water-bag approach recently developed [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)] to investigate ion-temperature-gradient modes. In CGWB electron-neutral collisions have been introduced and are now taken into account. The model has been validated by comparing CGWB linear analysis with other models previously proposed and experimental results as well. Kinetic effects on collisional drift waves are investigated, resulting in a less effective growth rate, and the transition from collisional drift waves to ITG instability depending on the ion temperature gradient is studied.

  8. A Multi Water Bag model of drift kinetic electron plasmaa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Pierre; Ghiro, Florent Dreydemy; Berionni, Vincent; Coulette, David; Besse, Nicolas; Gürcan, Özgür D.

    2014-08-01

    A Multi Water Bag model is proposed for describing drift kinetic plasmas in a magnetized cylindrical geometry, relevant for various experimental devices, solar wind modeling... The Multi Water Bag (MWB) model is adapted to the description of a plasma with kinetic electrons as well as an arbitrary number of kinetic ions. This allows to describe the kinetic dynamics of the electrons, making possible the study of electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, in addition to the effects of non adiabatic electrons on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, that are of prime importance in the magnetized plasmas micro-turbulence [X. Garbet, Y. Idomura, L. Villard, T.H. Watanabe, Nucl. Fusion 50, 043002 (2010); J.A. Krommes, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 175 (2012)]. The MWB model is shown to link kinetic and fluid descriptions, depending on the number of bags considered. Linear stability of the ETG modes is presented and compared to the existing results regarding cylindrical ITG modes [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse, R. Klein, A. Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, W. Garbet, Ph. Ghendrih, V. Grandgirard, Y. Sarazin, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)].

  9. Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Ampère equations: From water-bags to N moment models

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, M.; Chandre, C.; Tassi, E.; Morrison, P. J.

    2015-09-15

    Moment closures of the Vlasov-Ampère system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two, and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed.

  10. A New Tool for Inundation Modeling: Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Greenslade, D. J. M.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Badal, R.; Synolakis, C. E.; Kânoğlu, U.

    2011-11-01

    Almost 5 years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, the 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami demonstrated that accurate forecasting is possible using the tsunami community modeling tool Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT). ComMIT is designed for ease of use, and allows dissemination of results to the community while addressing concerns associated with proprietary issues of bathymetry and topography. It uses initial conditions from a precomputed propagation database, has an easy-to-interpret graphical interface, and requires only portable hardware. ComMIT was initially developed for Indian Ocean countries with support from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To date, more than 60 scientists from 17 countries in the Indian Ocean have been trained and are using it in operational inundation mapping.

  11. Tight bag

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S; Ravishankar, M

    2010-01-01

    Tight bag is a clinical situation where excessive pressure needs to be applied to a reservoir bag of a breathing system to an intubated patient, which may or may not produce satisfactory ventilation. The various clinical scenarios and the appropriate steps for its prevention are described. PMID:20885863

  12. ComMIT and Tweb Integration: Global Tsunami Modeling Done Locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamb, L.; Moore, C. W.; Burger, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Tweb is a web-based tsunami modeling research tool that was developed to provide distributed and remote access to the modeling and forecasting infrastructure developed for operational use at NOAA's Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR). ComMIT is a desktop application providing a powerful and fully functional, yet easy-to use graphical user interface to the NCTR-developed MOST tsunami forecasting model. ComMIT is a self-contained downloadable application available from NCTR for use by qualified and novice modelers alike. We have recently added functionality that allows ComMIT to retrieve the prefered model solution for tsunami events from the Tweb Web Service. A ComMIT user with access to high resolution coastal bathymetry can generate detailed inundation models for real or synthetic events for their areas of interest. Then with the push of a button, the ComMIT user can upload their model results to Tweb where a community of tsunami modelers and forecasters can see these model results displayed in Tweb, along with other operational and contributed inundation forecast models. Besides the crowdsourcing aspect of tsunami modeling that will allow tsunami forecasters to get inundation model inputs from areas they normally would not consider, these contributed flooding models could provide forecasters with an early model solution verification capability by allowing model result comparisons with local tide gauge data in areas where operational models have not been developed. In addition, with the proper training this tool is very useful for education and as a vehicle for community tsunami hazard assessment. We will illustrate the model solution and results interchange capabilities now possible with these two applications.

  13. The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Défréville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-11-01

    The "bag-of-frames" (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscape modeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be. PMID:26627819

  14. Discrete element method model and damping performance of bean bag dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Li, Yinggang

    2014-11-01

    Bean bag dampers (BBDs) have been widely applied in engineering to attenuate the vibration of a structural system, but the theoretical analysis on BBDs has been scarcely reported because of their nonlinear damping performance and complex mechanism. In this work, a three-dimensional model of a BBD was established based on the discrete element method (DEM); its flexible boundary was discretized. The model was verified by comparing simulation with test data. Based on the model, the selection of proper particle diameter on the flexible boundary of the BBD was discussed first, and then the effects of internal particle size of the BBD, the BBD's tightness and the gap between BBD and the inner wall of its enclosure on the energy dissipation capacity were studied. Moreover, the filling ratio of BBD (total internal particles' volume/the flexible boundary's capacity) was defined to quantitatively describe the tightness of BBD, and the effects of the internal particle size, the natural frequency of primary system and the enclosure size on the optimum tightness of the BBD were also considered. The results can be used as a guide in the design of BBDs.

  15. The sand bag model of the dispersion of the cosmic body in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterev, A. V.; Nemchinov, I. V.

    1993-03-01

    The strength of the extraterrestrial bodies depends on their structure, composition, dimensions, and the history of this body. The fragmentation of the body due to aerodynamic stresses begins at sufficiently large heights above the surface of the Earth. The process of fragmentation and dispersion of the fragments usually is studied by the hydrodynamic or even gasdynamic models. If the fragmentation process begins due to the initial cracks and faults of the body, or this body consists of large boulders glued by ice, the strength of these boulders after fragmentation remains higher than the aerodynamic stresses exerted at the remaining part of the body. It is supposed that fragmentation occurs at initial moment t = 0 at some height zo above the surface of the air, these fragments remain solid. The possibility of further fragmentation during the remaining part of the trajectory is not taken into account. If the number of these parts is large enough and their size is small in comparison to the initial radius of the body than we can use the sand bag model proposed in qualitative form.

  16. The sand bag model of the dispersion of the cosmic body in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teterev, A. V.; Nemchinov, I. V.

    1993-01-01

    The strength of the extraterrestrial bodies depends on their structure, composition, dimensions, and the history of this body. The fragmentation of the body due to aerodynamic stresses begins at sufficiently large heights above the surface of the Earth. The process of fragmentation and dispersion of the fragments usually is studied by the hydrodynamic or even gasdynamic models. If the fragmentation process begins due to the initial cracks and faults of the body, or this body consists of large boulders glued by ice, the strength of these boulders after fragmentation remains higher than the aerodynamic stresses exerted at the remaining part of the body. It is supposed that fragmentation occurs at initial moment t = 0 at some height z(sub o) above the surface of the air, these fragments remain solid. The possibility of further fragmentation during the remaining part of the trajectory is not taken into account. If the number of these parts is large enough and their size is small in comparison to the initial radius of the body than we can use the sand bag model proposed in qualitative form.

  17. A food recognition system for diabetic patients based on an optimized bag-of-features model.

    PubMed

    Anthimopoulos, Marios M; Gianola, Lauro; Scarnato, Luca; Diem, Peter; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G

    2014-07-01

    Computer vision-based food recognition could be used to estimate a meal's carbohydrate content for diabetic patients. This study proposes a methodology for automatic food recognition, based on the bag-of-features (BoF) model. An extensive technical investigation was conducted for the identification and optimization of the best performing components involved in the BoF architecture, as well as the estimation of the corresponding parameters. For the design and evaluation of the prototype system, a visual dataset with nearly 5000 food images was created and organized into 11 classes. The optimized system computes dense local features, using the scale-invariant feature transform on the HSV color space, builds a visual dictionary of 10000 visual words by using the hierarchical k-means clustering and finally classifies the food images with a linear support vector machine classifier. The system achieved classification accuracy of the order of 78%, thus proving the feasibility of the proposed approach in a very challenging image dataset. PMID:25014934

  18. Accurate estimation of retinal vessel width using bagged decision trees and an extended multiresolution Hermite model.

    PubMed

    Lupaşcu, Carmen Alina; Tegolo, Domenico; Trucco, Emanuele

    2013-12-01

    We present an algorithm estimating the width of retinal vessels in fundus camera images. The algorithm uses a novel parametric surface model of the cross-sectional intensities of vessels, and ensembles of bagged decision trees to estimate the local width from the parameters of the best-fit surface. We report comparative tests with REVIEW, currently the public database of reference for retinal width estimation, containing 16 images with 193 annotated vessel segments and 5066 profile points annotated manually by three independent experts. Comparative tests are reported also with our own set of 378 vessel widths selected sparsely in 38 images from the Tayside Scotland diabetic retinopathy screening programme and annotated manually by two clinicians. We obtain considerably better accuracies compared to leading methods in REVIEW tests and in Tayside tests. An important advantage of our method is its stability (success rate, i.e., meaningful measurement returned, of 100% on all REVIEW data sets and on the Tayside data set) compared to a variety of methods from the literature. We also find that results depend crucially on testing data and conditions, and discuss criteria for selecting a training set yielding optimal accuracy. PMID:24001930

  19. Research on three-dimensional positioning method of big data image under bag of words model guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunsen; Wang, Xiqi; Qiu, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shihuan; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Sidong

    2015-12-01

    In order to retrieve the positioning image efficiently and quickly from a large number of different images to realize the three-dimensional spatial positioning, in this article, based on photogrammetry and computer vision theory, a new method of three-dimensional positioning of big data image under the bag of words model guidance is proposed. The method consists of two parts: image retrieving and spatial positioning. First, complete image retrieval by feature extraction, K-means clustering, bag of words model building and other processes, thus improve the efficiency of image matching. Second, achieve interior and exterior orientation element through image matching, building projection relationship and calculating the projection matrix, and then the spatial orientation is realized. The experimental result showed that the proposed method can retrieve the target image efficiently and achieve spatial orientation accurately, which made a beneficial exploration for achieving space positioning based on big data images.

  20. A Cloudy Quark Bag Model of S, P, and D wave interactions for the coupled channel antikaon-nucleon system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Guangliang.

    1992-05-15

    The Cloudy Quark Bag Model is extended from S-wave to P- and D-wave. The parameters of the model are determined by K{sup {minus}}p scattering cross section data, K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Sigma}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data, K{sup {minus}}p threshold branching ratio data, and K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Lambda}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data. The resonance structure of the {Lambda}(1405), {Sigma}(1385), and {Lambda}(1520) are studied in the model. The shift and width of kaonic hydrogen are calculated using the model.

  1. Bale Bagging Effect on Bale Weight Change During Storage: Measured and Modeled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Universal Density cotton bales were formed with relatively dry lint, covered with different types of cotton bale bagging materials, and the bales stored in a humid environment for more than 3 months. The bale coverings included coated woven polypropylene with and without holes, linear low density p...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  3. Model Based Structural Evaluation & Design of Overpack Container for Bag-Buster Processing of TRU Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    D. T. Clark; A. S. Siahpush; G. L. Anderson

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a materials and computational model based analysis utilized to design an engineered “overpack” container capable of maintaining structural integrity for confinement of transuranic wastes undergoing the cryo-vacuum stress based “Bag-Buster” process and satisfying DOT 7A waste package requirements. The engineered overpack is a key component of the “Ultra-BagBuster” process/system being commercially developed by UltraTech International for potential DOE applications to non-intrusively breach inner confinement layers (poly bags/packaging) within transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This system provides a lower cost/risk approach to mitigate hydrogen gas concentration buildup limitations on transport of high alpha activity organic transuranic wastes. Four evolving overpack design configurations and two materials (low carbon steel and 300 series stainless) were considered and evaluated using non-linear finite element model analyses of structural response. Properties comparisons show that 300-series stainless is required to provide assurance of ductility and structural integrity at both room and cryogenic temperatures. The overpack designs were analyzed for five accidental drop impact orientations onto an unyielding surface (dropped flat on bottom, bottom corner, side, top corner, and top). The first three design configurations failed the bottom and top corner drop orientations (flat bottom, top, and side plates breached or underwent material failure). The fourth design utilized a protruding rim-ring (skirt) below the overpack’s bottom plate and above the overpack’s lid plate to absorb much of the impact energy and maintained structural integrity under all accidental drop loads at both room and cryogenic temperature conditions. Selected drop testing of the final design will be required to confirm design performance.

  4. Source of the Kerr-Newman solution as a gravitating bag model: 50 years of the problem of the source of the Kerr solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    It is known that gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron are described by the ultra-extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with extremely high spin/mass ratio. This solution is singular and has a topological defect, the Kerr singular ring, which may be regularized by introducing the solitonic source based on the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking. The source represents a domain wall bubble interpolating between the flat region inside the bubble and external KN solution. It was shown recently that the source represents a supersymmetric bag model, and its structure is unambiguously determined by Bogomolnyi equations. The Dirac equation is embedded inside the bag consistently with twistor structure of the Kerr geometry, and acquires the mass from the Yukawa coupling with Higgs field. The KN bag turns out to be flexible, and for parameters of an electron, it takes the form of very thin disk with a circular string placed along sharp boundary of the disk. Excitation of this string by a traveling wave creates a circulating singular pole, indicating that the bag-like source of KN solution unifies the dressed and point-like electron in a single bag-string-quark system.

  5. Kinetic water-bag model of global collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient instabilities in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gravier, E.; Plaut, E.

    2013-04-15

    Collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied using a linear water-bag kinetic model [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. An efficient spectral method, already validated in the case of drift waves instabilities [E. Gravier et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 7 (2013)], allows a fast solving of the global linear problem in cylindrical geometry. The comparison between the linear ITG instability properties thus computed and the ones given by the COLUMBIA experiment [R. G. Greaves et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 34, 1253 (1992)] shows a qualitative agreement. Moreover, the transition between collisional drift waves and ITG instabilities is studied theoretically as a function of the ion temperature profile.

  6. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  7. The MIT Integrated Global System Model: A facility for Assessing and Communicating Climate Change Uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing major challenges that create tensions between human development and environmental sustenance. In facing these challenges, computer models are invaluable tools for addressing the need for probabilistic approaches to forecasting. To illustrate this, I use the MIT Integrated Global System Model framework (IGSM; http://globalchange.mit.edu ). The IGSM consists of a set of coupled sub-models of global economic and technological development and resultant emissions, and physical, dynamical and chemical processes in the atmosphere, land, ocean and ecosystems (natural and managed). Some of the sub-models have both complex and simplified versions available, with the choice of which version to use being guided by the questions being addressed. Some sub-models (e.g.urban air pollution) are reduced forms of complex ones created by probabilistic collocation with polynomial chaos bases. Given the significant uncertainties in the model components, it is highly desirable that forecasts be probabilistic. We achieve this by running 400-member ensembles (Latin hypercube sampling) with different choices for key uncertain variables and processes within the human and natural system model components (pdfs of inputs estimated by model-observation comparisons, literature surveys, or expert elicitation). The IGSM has recently been used for probabilistic forecasts of climate, each using 400-member ensembles: one ensemble assumes no explicit climate mitigation policy and others assume increasingly stringent policies involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels. These forecasts indicate clearly that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The value of such probability analyses for policy decision-making lies in their ability to compare relative (not just absolute) risks of various policies, which are less affected by the earth system model uncertainties. Given the uncertainties in forecasts, it is also clear that

  8. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  9. Defluoridation of water by Tea-bag model using La(3+) modified synthetic resin@chitosan biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Lee, Giehyeon; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to gain a better understanding of the formation of lanthanum complex onto iminodiacetic acid and chitosan (CS@La-IDAMP) composite for effective removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using a tea-bag model for the first time. The surface textural and chemical properties of the synthesized composites were characterized by FTIR, SEM with EDAX and mapping images. The experimental data revealed that the fluoride adsorption was rapid, maximum fluoride removal could be removed within 12min contact time at neutral pH in room temperature under batch equilibrium model. The equilibrium data for adsorption of fluoride on the synthesized blends were well represented by the Freundlich isotherm, giving a maximum adsorption capacity of 17.50mg/g. The adsorption kinetic models were also examined and it was found that all the sorption processes were better described by the pseudo-second-order model. This results suggested that the efficiency of the fluoride removal process was mainly controlled by electrostatic attraction and ion-exchange mechanism. Furthermore, the CS@La-IDAMP material was tested for the regeneration ability with the suitable regenerant to make this process as cost-effective. Finally, it can be concluded that the composite material is the potential adsorbent for the treatment of fluoride from water. PMID:27259649

  10. Bag molding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodzinsky, A.

    Features, materials, and techniques of vacuum, pressure, and autoclave FRP bag molding processes are described. The bags are used in sealed environments, inflated to flexibly force a curing FRP laminate to conform to a stiff mold form which defines the shape of the finished product. Densification is achieved as the bag presses out the voids and excess resin from the laminate, and consolidation occurs as the plies and adherends are bonded by the bag pressure. Curing techniques nominally involved room temperature or high temperature, and investigations of alternative techniques, such as induction, dielectric, microwave, xenon flash, UV, electron beam, and gamma radiation heating are proceeding. Polysulfone is the most common thermoplastic. Details are given of mold preparations, peel plies or release films and fabrics, bagging techniques, and reusable venting blankets and silicone rubber bags.

  11. Development of Improved Models, Stochasticity, and Frameworks for the MIT Extensible Air Network Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, John-Paul

    2004-01-01

    MEANS, the MIT Extensible Air Network Simulation, was created in February of 2001, and has been developed with support from NASA Ames since August of 2001. MEANS is a simulation tool which is designed to maximize fidelity without requiring data of such a low level as to preclude easy examination of alternative scenarios. To this end, MEANS is structured in a modular fashion to allow more detailed components to be brought in when desired, and left out when they would only be an impediment. Traditionally, one of the difficulties with high-fidelity models is that they require a level of detail in their data that is difficult to obtain. For analysis of past scenarios, the required data may not have been collected, or may be considered proprietary and thus difficult for independent researchers to obtain. For hypothetical scenarios, generation of the data is sufficiently difficult to be a task in and of itself. Often, simulations designed by a researcher will model exactly one element of the problem well and in detail, while assuming away other parts of the problem which are not of interest or for which data is not available. While these models are useful for working with the task at hand, they are very often not applicable to future problems. The MEAN Simulation attempts to address these problems by using a modular design which provides components of varying fidelity for each aspect of the simulation. This allows for the most accurate model for which data is available to be used. It also provides for easy analysis of sensitivity to data accuracy. This can be particularly useful in the case where accurate data is available for some subset of the situations that are to be considered. Furthermore, the ability to use the same model while examining effects on different parts of a system reduces the time spent learning the simulation, and provides for easier comparisons between changes to different parts of the system.

  12. The Museum Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammons, Betsy

    1998-01-01

    Relates an art project for seventh-grade students that uses the creation of museum bags to study portraiture and the painting styles of famous artists. Explains how students made a bag with a portrait of the artist on one side and a painting by that artist on the other. (DSK)

  13. MPD work at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel

    1991-01-01

    MPD work at MIT is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: the MIT program, its goals, achievements, and roadblocks; quasi one-dimensional modeling; two-dimensional modeling - transport effects and Hall effect; microscopic instabilities in MPD flows and modified two stream instability; electrothermal stability theory; separation of onset and anode depletion; exit plane spectroscopic measurements; phenomena of onset as performance limiter; explanations of onset; geometry effects on onset; onset at full ionization and its consequences; relationship to anode depletion; summary on self-field MPD; applied field MPD - the logical growth path; the case for AF; the challenges of AF MPD; and recommendations.

  14. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  15. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  16. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  17. A method of protein model classification and retrieval using bag-of-visual-features.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinlin; Ma, Ziping; Kang, Baosheng; Lu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel visual method for protein model classification and retrieval. Different from the conventional methods, the key idea of the proposed method is to extract image features of proteins and measure the visual similarity between proteins. Firstly, the multiview images are captured by vertices and planes of a given octahedron surrounding the protein. Secondly, the local features are extracted from each image of the different views by the SURF algorithm and are vector quantized into visual words using a visual codebook. Finally, KLD is employed to calculate the similarity distance between two feature vectors. Experimental results show that the proposed method has encouraging performances for protein retrieval and categorization as shown in the comparison with other methods. PMID:25258644

  18. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  19. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  20. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  1. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  2. Modeling water resource systems within the framework of the MIT Integrated Global System Model: IGSM-WRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Schlosser, Adam; Gueneau, Arthur; Gao, Xiang; Blanc, Élodie; Fant, Charles; Rasheed, Bilhuda; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2013-07-01

    Through the integration of a water resource system (WRS) component, the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework has been enhanced to study the effects of climate change on managed water-resource systems. Development of the WRS involves the downscaling of temperature and precipitation from the zonal representation of the IGSM to regional (latitude-longitude) scale, and the translation of the resulting surface hydrology to runoff at the scale of river basins, referred to as assessment subregions (ASRs). The model of water supply is combined with analysis of water use in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors and with a model of water system management that allocates water among uses and over time and routes water among ASRs. Results of the IGSM-WRS framework include measures of water adequacy and ways it is influenced by climate change. Here we document the design of WRS and its linkage to other components of the IGSM and present tests of consistency of model simulation with the historical record.

  3. BAG4/SODD Protein Contains a Short BAG Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Homma, Sachiko; Baker, Kelly; Cabezas, Edelmira; Hoyt, David W.; Li, Zhen; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2002-08-23

    BAG proteins are molecular chaperone regulators that affect diverse cellular pathways. All members share a conserved motif, called the ''BAG domain'' (BD), which binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 family proteins and modulates their activity. We have determined the solution structure of BD from BAG4/SODD (Bcl-2 ? Associated Athanogene / Silencer of Death Domains) by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods and compared it to the corresponding domain in BAG1 (Briknarova et al., Nature Struct. Biol. 8:349-352). The difference between BDs from these two BAG proteins is striking and the structural comparison defines two subfamilies of mammalian BD-containing proteins. One subfamily includes the closely related BAG3, BAG4 and BAG5 proteins, and the other is represented by BAG1 which contains a structurally and evolutionarily distinct BD. BDs from both BAG1 and BAG4 are three-helix bundles; however, in BAG4, each helix in this bundle is three to four turns shorter than its counterpart in BAG1, which reduces the length of the domain by one-third. BAG4 BD thus represents a prototype of the minimal functional fragment that is capable of binding to Hsc70 and modulating its chaperone activity.

  4. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  5. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  6. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  7. Hierarchical modeling for reliability analysis using Markov models. B.S./M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagundo, Arturo

    1994-01-01

    Markov models represent an extremely attractive tool for the reliability analysis of many systems. However, Markov model state space grows exponentially with the number of components in a given system. Thus, for very large systems Markov modeling techniques alone become intractable in both memory and CPU time. Often a particular subsystem can be found within some larger system where the dependence of the larger system on the subsystem is of a particularly simple form. This simple dependence can be used to decompose such a system into one or more subsystems. A hierarchical technique is presented which can be used to evaluate these subsystems in such a way that their reliabilities can be combined to obtain the reliability for the full system. This hierarchical approach is unique in that it allows the subsystem model to pass multiple aggregate state information to the higher level model, allowing more general systems to be evaluated. Guidelines are developed to assist in the system decomposition. An appropriate method for determining subsystem reliability is also developed. This method gives rise to some interesting numerical issues. Numerical error due to roundoff and integration are discussed at length. Once a decomposition is chosen, the remaining analysis is straightforward but tedious. However, an approach is developed for simplifying the recombination of subsystem reliabilities. Finally, a real world system is used to illustrate the use of this technique in a more practical context.

  8. The Bag Hatter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of a Hawaiian artist named Moses who made hats out of paper bags by twisting, crumbling, and other methods. Designs were inspired by a person, event, or idea. Provides a list of project ideas based on the work of Moses. (CMK)

  9. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  10. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  11. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  13. Δ S =2 and Δ C =2 bag parameters in the standard model and beyond from Nf=2 +1 +1 twisted-mass lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, N.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; Lubicz, V.; Rossi, G. C.; Simula, S.; Tarantino, C.; ETM Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We present unquenched lattice QCD results for the matrix elements of four-fermion operators relevant to the description of the neutral K and D mixing in the standard model and its extensions. We have employed simulations with Nf=2 +1 +1 dynamical sea quarks at three values of the lattice spacings in the interval 0.06-0.09 fm and pseudoscalar meson masses in the range 210-450 MeV. Our results are extrapolated to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass. Renormalization constants have been determined nonperturbatively in the RI-MOM scheme. In particular, for the kaon bag parameter, which is relevant for the K¯ 0-K0 mixing in the standard model, we obtain BKRGI=0.717 (24 ) .

  14. The purple bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    McSherry, J A

    1980-10-01

    This is an account of an unusual case of purple discoloration of plastic disposable urethral catheters and urine collecting bags. The likely causes are discussed with reference to the analogous situation of purple diapers in children. In this instance it appears that the phenomenon may have been due to the presence of indigo in the urine as a degradation product of tryptophan in the bowel lumen. PMID:21293710

  15. Material bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, Charles G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Brak, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  16. Fusion framework for color image retrieval based on bag-of-words model and color local Haar binary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Yu, Laihang; Wu, Jun; Liu, Shenglan

    2016-03-01

    Recently, global and local features have demonstrated excellent performance in image retrieval. However, there are some problems in both of them: (1) Local features particularly describe the local textures or patterns. However, similar textures may confuse these local feature extraction methods and get irrelevant retrieval results. (2) Global features delineate overall feature distributions in images, and the retrieved results often appear alike but may be irrelevant. To address problems above, we propose a fusion framework through the combination of local and global features, and thus obtain higher retrieval precision for color image retrieval. Color local Haar binary patterns (CLHBP) and the bag-of-words (BoW) of local features are exploited to capture global and local information of images. The proposed fusion framework combines the ranking results of BoW and CLHBP through a graph-based fusion method. The average retrieval precision of the proposed fusion framework is 83.6% on the Corel-1000 database, and its average precision is 9.9% and 6.4% higher than BoW and CLHBP, respectively. Extensive experiments on different databases validate the feasibility of the proposed framework.

  17. Bag-of-visual-phrases and hierarchical deep models for traffic sign detection and recognition in mobile laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongtao; Li, Jonathan; Wen, Chenglu; Guan, Haiyan; Luo, Huan; Wang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for detection and recognition of traffic signs in mobile laser scanning (MLS) data for intelligent transportation-related applications. The traffic sign detection task is accomplished based on 3-D point clouds by using bag-of-visual-phrases representations; whereas the recognition task is achieved based on 2-D images by using a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine-based hierarchical classifier. To exploit high-order feature encodings of feature regions, a deep Boltzmann machine-based feature encoder is constructed. For detecting traffic signs in 3-D point clouds, the proposed algorithm achieves an average recall, precision, quality, and F-score of 0.956, 0.946, 0.907, and 0.951, respectively, on the four selected MLS datasets. For on-image traffic sign recognition, a recognition accuracy of 97.54% is achieved by using the proposed hierarchical classifier. Comparative studies with the existing traffic sign detection and recognition methods demonstrate that our algorithm obtains promising, reliable, and high performance in both detecting traffic signs in 3-D point clouds and recognizing traffic signs on 2-D images.

  18. MIT: Shaping the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kenneth R., Ed.

    This book provides 16 essays by faculty and staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) concerning what MIT is like today and offering a guide to its possible future. Emphasis is placed on local, national, and global issues, providing a current sampling of the state of concerns and opinions around MIT. Topics include the question of…

  19. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  1. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  2. The bag-of-frames approach to audio pattern recognition: a sufficient model for urban soundscapes but not for polyphonic music.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Defreville, Boris; Pachet, François

    2007-08-01

    The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF) to audio pattern recognition represents signals as the long-term statistical distribution of their local spectral features. This approach has proved nearly optimal for simulating the auditory perception of natural and human environments (or soundscapes), and is also the most predominent paradigm to extract high-level descriptions from music signals. However, recent studies show that, contrary to its application to soundscape signals, BOF only provides limited performance when applied to polyphonic music signals. This paper proposes to explicitly examine the difference between urban soundscapes and polyphonic music with respect to their modeling with the BOF approach. First, the application of the same measure of acoustic similarity on both soundscape and music data sets confirms that the BOF approach can model soundscapes to near-perfect precision, and exhibits none of the limitations observed in the music data set. Second, the modification of this measure by two custom homogeneity transforms reveals critical differences in the temporal and statistical structure of the typical frame distribution of each type of signal. Such differences may explain the uneven performance of BOF algorithms on soundscapes and music signals, and suggest that their human perception rely on cognitive processes of a different nature. PMID:17672638

  3. Cross-Validated Bagged Learning

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Sinisi, Sandra E.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications aim to learn a high dimensional parameter of a data generating distribution based on a sample of independent and identically distributed observations. For example, the goal might be to estimate the conditional mean of an outcome given a list of input variables. In this prediction context, bootstrap aggregating (bagging) has been introduced as a method to reduce the variance of a given estimator at little cost to bias. Bagging involves applying an estimator to multiple bootstrap samples, and averaging the result across bootstrap samples. In order to address the curse of dimensionality, a common practice has been to apply bagging to estimators which themselves use cross-validation, thereby using cross-validation within a bootstrap sample to select fine-tuning parameters trading off bias and variance of the bootstrap sample-specific candidate estimators. In this article we point out that in order to achieve the correct bias variance trade-off for the parameter of interest, one should apply the cross-validation selector externally to candidate bagged estimators indexed by these fine-tuning parameters. We use three simulations to compare the new cross-validated bagging method with bagging of cross-validated estimators and bagging of non-cross-validated estimators. PMID:19255599

  4. Error modeling for differential GPS. M.S. Thesis - MIT, 12 May 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blerman, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) positioning is used to accurately locate a GPS receiver based upon the well-known position of a reference site. In utilizing this technique, several error sources contribute to position inaccuracy. This thesis investigates the error in DGPS operation and attempts to develop a statistical model for the behavior of this error. The model for DGPS error is developed using GPS data collected by Draper Laboratory. The Marquardt method for nonlinear curve-fitting is used to find the parameters of a first order Markov process that models the average errors from the collected data. The results show that a first order Markov process can be used to model the DGPS error as a function of baseline distance and time delay. The model's time correlation constant is 3847.1 seconds (1.07 hours) for the mean square error. The distance correlation constant is 122.8 kilometers. The total process variance for the DGPS model is 3.73 sq meters.

  5. Construction of the adjoint MIT ocean general circulation model and application to Atlantic heat transport sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotzke, Jochem; Giering, Ralf; Zhang, Kate Q.; Stammer, Detlef; Hill, Chris; Lee, Tong

    1999-12-01

    We first describe the principles and practical considerations behind the computer generation of the adjoint to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (GCM) using R. Giering's software tool Tangent-Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC). The TAMC's recipe for (FORTRAN-) line-by-line generation of adjoint code is explained by interpreting an adjoint model strictly as the operator that gives the sensitivity of the output of a model to its input. Then, the sensitivity of 1993 annual mean heat transport across 29°N in the Atlantic, to the hydrography on January 1, 1993, is calculated from a global solution of the GCM. The "kinematic sensitivity" to initial temperature variations is isolated, showing how the latter would influence heat transport if they did not affect the density and hence the flow. Over 1 year the heat transport at 29°N is influenced kinematically from regions up to 20° upstream in the western boundary current and up to 5° upstream in the interior. In contrast, the dynamical influences of initial temperature (and salinity) perturbations spread from as far as the rim of the Labrador Sea to the 29°N section along the western boundary. The sensitivities calculated with the adjoint compare excellently to those from a perturbation calculation with the dynamical model. Perturbations in initial interior salinity influence meridional overturning and heat transport when they have propagated to the western boundary and can thus influence the integrated east-west density difference. Our results support the notion that boundary monitoring of meridional mass and heat transports is feasible.

  6. Air Bag Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    May 10, 2003Prelaunch at Kennedy Space Center

    On Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) , air bags are installed on the lander. The airbags will inflate to cushion the landing of the spacecraft on the surface of Mars. When it stops bouncing and rolling, the airbags will deflate and retract, the petals will open to bring the lander to an upright position, and the rover will be exposed. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  7. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  8. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film. PMID:24552718

  9. Quark matter under strong magnetic fields in chiral models

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, Aziz; Providencia, Constanca

    2011-05-15

    The chiral model is used to describe quark matter under strong magnetic fields and is compared to other models, the MIT bag model and the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The effect of vacuum corrections due to the magnetic field is discussed. It is shown that if the magnetic-field vacuum corrections are not taken into account explicitly, the parameters of the models should be fitted to low-density meson properties in the presence of the magnetic field.

  10. Reverse gas-flow bag filter

    SciTech Connect

    Noddin, E.L.

    1981-01-13

    A description is given of a bag filter having a self-sealing cuff at the upper open end thereof, a bottom support at the closed end to tension the bag and prevent flapping and a plurality of spaced anticollapse rings each of which encircles an annular outer surface of the bag to which it is attached between the ends of the bag to prevent bag collapse.

  11. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  12. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  13. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  14. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  15. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

  16. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-07-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25925243

  17. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  18. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  19. Investigating reduced bag weight as an effective risk mediator for mason tenders.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kermit G; Kotowski, Susan E; Albers, James; Marras, William S

    2010-10-01

    Masonry workers face some of the highest physical demands in the construction industry where large bags of masonry material weighing 42.7 kg are commonly handled by mason tenders who mix the mortar, distribute mortar and bricks/blocks, and erect/dismantle scaffolding throughout the day. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using half-weight bags (21.4 kg) on reducing the biomechanical loading, physiological response, and perceived exertions. Ten male subjects performed asymmetric lifting tasks simulating unloading bags from a pallet. Muscle activity, trunk kinematics, heart rate, blood pressure and subjective rating data were collected. Spine loads were predicted from a well-validated EMG-assisted model. Bag weight, lift type, bag height at origin, and asymmetry at destination significantly impacted the spine loads. While there was a 50% reduction in bag weight, the peak loads for the half-weight bags were only 25% less than the more available full-weight bags (a reduction of about 320 N of shear and 1000 N of compression). Lifts allowing movement of the feet reduced the loads by about 22% in shear and 27% in compression compared to constrained postures. Interestingly, cumulative spine loads were greater for the lighter bags than the heavy bags ( approximately 40%). The subjective ratings of exertion and risk were significantly lower for the lighter bags. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY: The reduction in peak spine loading for the half-weight bags, particularly at the higher heights and when the feet were allowed to move could significantly reduce the injuries of masonry workers. However, there were trade-offs with cumulative loads that may minimize the reduced risk. Overall, given the limited amount of time lifting bags, the reduction of peak loads. PMID:20206915

  20. Brown Bag Ideas: The Parfleche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Art objects are often unique reflections of a culture. Procedures are described for having intermediate or secondary level students make a parfleche, a form of carrying case used by the Plains Indians. Materials for making the parfleche include two large grocery bags, pencil, white glue, wax crayons, string, and water. (RM)

  1. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  2. CUT BACK YOUR LOSSES IN BAG SILOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bag silos have grown in popularity among dairy producers. However, there has not been much information on density and losses in such silos. In a survey of bag silos made at three research farms, we found that density was most affected by dry matter content, particle size and bagging machine setup. D...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  8. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or fewer, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six...

  9. An integrated assessment modelling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes an integrated assessment modelling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) incorporates a human activity model, it is possible to analyse uncertainties in emissions resulting from both uncertainties in the economic model parameters and uncertainty in future climate policies. Another major feature is the flexibility to vary key climate parameters controlling the climate system response: climate sensitivity, net aerosol forcing and ocean heat uptake rate. Thus, the IGSM-CAM is a computationally efficient framework to explore the uncertainty in future global and regional climate change associated with uncertainty in the climate response and projected emissions. This study presents 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (unconstrained scenario and stabilization scenario at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent) and three sets of climate parameters. The chosen climate parameters provide a good approximation for the median, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of the probability distribution of 21st century global climate change. As such, this study presents new estimates of the 90% probability interval of regional climate change for different emissions scenarios. These results underscore the large uncertainty in regional climate change resulting from uncertainty in climate parameters and emissions, especially when it comes to changes in precipitation.

  10. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  11. Comparison of ventilation and chest compression performance by bystanders using the Impact Model 730 ventilator and a conventional bag valve with mask in a model of adult cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Victor; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2007-04-01

    "Bystanders" or lay persons are typically the first caregivers to attend to a victim of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) play a similar role to bystanders aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Studies have demonstrated the importance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) for patient survival before the arrival of emergency medical care. Recent apprehension from bystanders about the threat of contracting communicable diseases during BCPR, however, has led to the consideration of other ventilation systems such as the bag-valve mask (BVM) and automatic transport ventilators (ATV). BVM use is called for during CPR aboard the ISS. This study evaluated the ventilation and compression performance of 40 basic CPR-trained bystanders using either a BVM (adult-sized self-inflating bag with face mask) or an ATV (Model 730 ventilator (M730), Impact Instrumentation, Inc., West Caldwell, NJ). Each two-bystander team gave BCPR to a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest victim using the 2-breath/15-compression cycle for 4 min and then switched roles for another 4-min interval. Compared to BVM use, the M730 led to significantly (p<0.05) lower number of breaths, smaller tidal volumes, airway flows, airway pressures, volume of gas entering the stomach per breath and chest compressions for the 4-min period. The M730 also enabled a bystander to meet the recommendation of 4-breath and compression cycles per minute as per Guidelines 2000. Lastly, ease-of-use scores were significantly higher for the M730 compared to the BVM. Overall, the data suggest that the M730 improves the quality of performance for a bystander performing BCPR. PMID:17175090

  12. Improved material-bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, C.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Brak, S.B.

    1982-01-19

    A bagging device for transferring material; specifically contaminated material, from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  13. Abdichtungen mit Bitumenbahnen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Axel C.; Unger, Wolfram

    Das Werk Bauwerksabdichtung von Karl Lufsky, im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch auch Der Lufsky genannt, war immer das Standardwerk für Flächenabdichtungen mit Bitumenwerkstoffen. Karl Lufsky war erst Mitarbeiter des Geschäftsführers Otto Latendorf der 1924 in Berlin gegründeten Firma ARIDO Abdichtungs-GmbH und später ihr Geschäftsführer [8.1]. Eine Baustelle war seit 1950 der Keller der neuen Sowjetischen Botschaft Unter den Linden. Eines Tages sprach dort einer der russischen Ingenieur-Offiziere Otto Latendorf an und fragte ihn, ob er wohl eine schriftliche Zusammenfassung aller technischen Probleme der bituminösen Bauwerksabdichtung für ihn verfassen könnte. Mit dieser Schrift würde er sich dann zu seinem Abschlussexamen in Moskau melden. Vergüten wollte er den Arbeitsaufwand mit Lebensmittellieferungen. Otto Latendorf willigte ein und machte sich gemeinsam mit Karl Lufsky an die Arbeit. Dies war offensichtlich der Impuls für Karl Lufsky, einige Zeit später im Leipziger Teubner Verlag die erste Auflage des Buchs "Bauwerksabdichtungen“ herauszugeben, womit der Grundstein gelegt wurde, aus einer "Moskauer Examensarbeit“ in den letzten 50 Jahren ein bedeutendes Fachbuch zu machen.

  14. Casimir bag energy in the stochastic approximation to the pure QCD vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Fosco, C. D.; Oxman, L. E.

    2007-01-15

    We study the Casimir contribution to the bag energy coming from gluon field fluctuations, within the context of the stochastic vacuum model of pure QCD. After formulating the problem in terms of the generating functional of field strength cumulants, we argue that the resulting predictions about the Casimir energy are compatible with the phenomenologically required bag energy term.

  15. Gyro-water-bag approach in nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Besse, Nicolas Bertrand, Pierre

    2009-06-20

    Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (MHD, gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge computer resource request. An unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically-confined plasmas. The present paper addresses the derivation of the nonlinear gyro-water-bag model, its quasilinear approximation and their numerical approximations by Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes respectively.

  16. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Marinka D; Bosch, Tim; Eikhout, Sandra M; Vink, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistants, consumers and experts on several bag sealing systems was studied. It appeared that for sealing plastic bags, adhesive tape with paper is the best out of 4 systems, closely followed by adhesive tape. It is discussed that for the elderly, there is still room for improvement in opening bag seals. PMID:16219161

  17. Bag For Formulating And Dispersing Intravenous Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipp, Jim; Owens, Jim; Scharf, Mike; Finley, Mike; Dudar, Tom; Veillon, Joe; Ogle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag in which predetermined amount of sterile solution formulated by combining premeasured, prepackaged amount of sterile solute with predetermined amount of water. Bag designed to hold predetermined amount, typically 1 L, of sterile solution. Sterility of solution maintained during mixing by passing water into bag through sterilizing filter. System used in field or hospitals not having proper sterile facilities, and in field research.

  18. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  3. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  4. Alteration of the stability of Bag-1 protein in the control of olfactory neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sourisseau, T; Desbois, C; Debure, L; Bowtell, D D; Cato, A C; Schneikert, J; Moyse, E; Michel, D

    2001-04-01

    Normal apoptosis occurs continuously in the olfactory neuroepithelium of adult vertebrates, making it a useful model for studying neuronal apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the anti-apoptotic Bag-1 gene in olfactory neuronal cells confers a strong resistance to apoptosis. Conversely decreased levels of Bag-1 were found to precede a massive wave of olfactory neuronal apoptosis triggered by synaptic target ablation. We show that the decrease is brought about by ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the Bag-1 protein. The ring finger protein Siah-2 is a likely candidate for the ubiquitination reaction since Siah-2 mRNA accumulated in lesioned olfactory neuroepithelium and overexpression of Siah-2 stimulated Bag-1 ubiquitination and degradation in transient expression assays. These results together identify destabilization of Bag-1 as a necessary step in olfactory neuronal apoptosis. PMID:11257006

  5. Involvement of Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins in the neuroprotection by rasagiline

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ji-Feng; He, Shuang; Kang, Ji-Feng; Xu, Qian; Hu, Ya-Cen; Zhang, Hai-Nan; Wang, Chun-Yu; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2015-01-01

    Rasagiline, a novel monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, has a mild to moderate effect in relieving Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms as well as unique neuroprotective effects. Previous studies demonstrated rasagiline protect neurons by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. Our study aimed to study whether Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins, which were reported closely associated with neurodegenerative disease, were involved in the neuroprotective effect of rasagiline. We found that after the administration of 1-methy1-4-phenvl-1,2,3,6-tetrahvdropvridine (MPTP), BAG2 and BAG5 proteins were up-regulated in the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons of PD mouse model. A further increase of BAG2 and BAG5 was detected after intragastric administration of rasagiline to post-MPTP lesioned mice. Thus, the current study proved the association of BAG family proteins with PD, and suggested the involvement and a positive role of BAG2, BAG5 in the neuroprotection of rasagiline. These preliminary results implicate a novel pathway for further study on neuroprotection of rasagiline. PMID:26770414

  6. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  7. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) incorporates a human activity model, it is possible to analyze uncertainties in emissions resulting from both uncertainties in the underlying socio-economic characteristics of the economic model and in the choice of climate-related policies. Another major feature is the flexibility to vary key climate parameters controlling the climate system response to changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols concentrations, e.g., climate sensitivity, ocean heat uptake rate, and strength of the aerosol forcing. The IGSM-CAM is not only able to realistically simulate the present-day mean climate and the observed trends at the global and continental scale, but it also simulates ENSO variability with realistic time scales, seasonality and patterns of SST anomalies, albeit with stronger magnitudes than observed. The IGSM-CAM shares the same general strengths and limitations as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) models in simulating present-day annual mean surface temperature and precipitation. Over land, the IGSM-CAM shows similar biases to the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 3, which shares the same atmospheric model. This study also presents 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (unconstrained scenario and stabilization scenario at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent) similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and three sets of climate parameters. Results of the simulations with the chosen

  8. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ... organ during surgical procedures to prevent moisture loss. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ... organ during surgical procedures to prevent moisture loss. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  10. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baggage (BAG). 740.14 Section 740.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.14 Baggage (BAG). (a) Scope. This...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  14. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baggage (BAG). 740.14 Section 740.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.14 Baggage (BAG). (a) Scope. This...

  15. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  16. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    consequent breaking of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film - "bags". On the base of general principles of statistical physics (model of a canonical ensemble) we developed statistics of the "bag-breakup" events: their number and statistical distribution of geometrical parameters depending on wind speed. Basing on the developed statistics, we estimated the surface stress caused by bags as the average sum of stresses caused by individual bags depending on their eometrical parameters. The resulting stress is subjected to counteracting impacts of the increasing wind speed: the increasing number of bags, and their decreasing sizes and life times and the balance yields a peaking dependence of the bag resistance on the wind speed: the share of bag-stress peaks at U10  35 m/s and then reduces. Peaking of surface stress associated with the "bag-breakup" explains seemingly paradoxical non-monotonous wind-dependence of surface drag coefficient peaking at winds about 35 m/s. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (14-05-91767, 13-05-12093, 16-05-00839, 14-05-91767, 16-55-52025, 15-35-20953) and experiment and equipment was supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreements 14-17-00667 and 15-17-20009 respectively), Yu.Troitskaya, A.Kandaurov and D.Sergeev were partially supported by FP7 Collaborative Project No. 612610.

  17. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging. PMID:15506119

  18. Unit-Dose Bags For Formulating Intravenous Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Mike; Kipp, Jim; Scharf, Mike; Packard, Jeff; Owens, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Smaller unit-dose flowthrough bags devised for use with large-volume parenteral (LVP) bags in preparing sterile intravenous solutions. Premeasured amount of solute stored in such unit-dose bag flushed by predetermined amount of water into LVP bag. Relatively small number of LVP bags used in conjunction with smaller unit-dose bags to formulate large number of LVP intravenous solutions in nonsterile environment.

  19. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective. PMID:15003959

  20. Fuzzy logic application for modeling man-in-the-loop space shuttle proximity operations. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    A software pilot model for Space Shuttle proximity operations is developed, utilizing fuzzy logic. The model is designed to emulate a human pilot during the terminal phase of a Space Shuttle approach to the Space Station. The model uses the same sensory information available to a human pilot and is based upon existing piloting rules and techniques determined from analysis of human pilot performance. Such a model is needed to generate numerous rendezvous simulations to various Space Station assembly stages for analysis of current NASA procedures and plume impingement loads on the Space Station. The advantages of a fuzzy logic pilot model are demonstrated by comparing its performance with NASA's man-in-the-loop simulations and with a similar model based upon traditional Boolean logic. The fuzzy model is shown to respond well from a number of initial conditions, with results typical of an average human. In addition, the ability to model different individual piloting techniques and new piloting rules is demonstrated.

  1. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts.

    PubMed Central

    Zador, P L; Ciccone, M A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The effectiveness of air bags was estimated in this study by comparing driver fatalities in frontal crashes with driver fatalities in nonfrontal crashes, for cars with air bags and manual belts and cars with manual belts only. METHODS. Fatal Accident Reporting System data for drivers fatally injured during 1985 to 1991 in 1985 to 1991 model year cars that were equipped with air bags in or before model year 1991 were analyzed. RESULTS. Driver fatalities in frontal crashes in air bag cars were 28% lower than those in comparable cars with manual belts only. This percentage was used for estimating the overall fatality reduction in air bag cars. The reduction was greater in large cars (50%) than in midsize cars (19%) or in small cars (14%). Air bags reduced driver fatalities in frontal crashes involving ejection by about 9%. Fatalities in frontal crashes among drivers who were reportedly using manual belts at the time of the crash were reduced by about 15%. The comparable reduction among drivers who were reportedly not using manual belts was 31%. CONCLUSION. It was estimated that air bags reduced the total number of all driver fatalities by about 19%. PMID:8484445

  2. Astrophysical bags - A new paradigm for active galactic nuclei?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Active galaxies are believed to consist of a compact nucleus, the standard model for which is a massive black hole or a cluster of black holes. A different paradigm is considered here, deriving from quark confinement theory in QCD. It is an 'astrophysical bag', modelled after the 'hadron bags' of particle physics which have already been studied in astrophysics as quark stars. Another interpretation of the cosmological constant in general relativity, and possibly a new quasar redshift formula, are introduced. As a highly-energetic object, this model may resolve the baryonic matter problem for fuelling AGN accretion processes which black hole paradigms cannot account for. Here, baryons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos are free.

  3. Insulin binding to plastic bags: a methodologic study.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Z J; Nolph, K D; McGary, T J; Moore, H L; Collin, P; Ausman, R K; Slimack, W S

    1983-04-01

    A radiotracer method to assess insulin binding to commercially available plastic peritoneal dialysis solution containers was developed. A peritoneal dialysis bag (bag 2) was emptied and attached to another full bag (bag 1) of the same kind. In the syringe-to-bag method, bag 1 was symmetrically injected through the bag wall with four syringes containing dialysis solution and radioactive insulin, with or without regular insulin. The radioactivity in each syringe was measured with a gamma counter before injection, and all of the samples were counted afterwards directly in the syringes. Using a bag-to-bag transfer method, bag 1 was agitated, eight samples were taken from different parts through the wall, and then the contents were transferred to bag 2. Bag 2 was then agitated and eight samples were taken and counted. In the bag-pieces method, pieces of bag wall were cut and the radioactivity on the walls was measured to determine the amount of binding. The syringe-to-bag method gave negative results, severely underestimating the amount of insulin binding. The bag-to-bag transfer method yielded positive results in all instances. Increasing the amounts of regular insulin had no demonstrable impact on percent of binding. When the bag-to-bag method was compared with the bag-pieces method, it gave only slightly higher values; however, the bag-to-bag method was considered more reliable because the counting can be controlled more effectively. A 15-minute delay in sampling was not found to influence insulin binding. A reliable method of assessing insulin binding must be based on the following two principles: (1) The transfer of samples to intermediate containers should be avoided, and (2) radiotracer concentrations in the samples should be similar. PMID:6342377

  4. File System Support for Digital Evidence Bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Golden; Roussev, Vassil

    Digital Evidence Bags (DEBs) are a mechanism for bundling digital evidence, associated metadata and audit logs into a single structure. DEB-compliant applications can update a DEB's audit log as evidence is introduced into the bag and as data in the bag is processed. This paper investigates native file system support for DEBs, which has a number of benefits over ad hoc modification of digital evidence bags. The paper also describes an API for DEB-enabled applications and methods for providing DEB access to legacy applications through a DEB-aware file system. The paper addresses an urgent need for digital-forensics-aware operating system components that can enhance the consistency, security and performance of investigations.

  5. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  6. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  7. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  8. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  9. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  10. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  11. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag;...

  12. Developments at M.I.T. related to magnetic model suspension and balance systems for large scale facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldeman, C. W.; Way, P.; Kramer, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetic model suspension and balance systems for wind tunnel use. Particular attention is given to the extension of the electromagnetic position sensor (EPS) system producing roll position signals and the ac roll drive system producing closed loop control of rolling moment.

  13. Update: fatal air bag-related injuries to children--United States, 1993-1996.

    PubMed

    1996-12-13

    Dual air bags will be required standard equipment in all new passenger cars sold in the United States beginning in 1997 and all light trucks sold in the United States in 1998 but are available now in many earlier-model vehicles. Air bags are designed to supplement the protection provided by safety belts in frontal crashes; when combined with lap and shoulder safety belts, air bags assist in preventing fatal and nonfatal injuries in motor-vehicle crashes. However, passenger-side air bags have been associated with injuries to children who, in almost all cases, were unrestrained or incorrectly restrained in the front seat. In 1993, approximately 1.4 million (0.8% of all vehicles registered) were equipped with passenger-side air bags, compared with an estimated 21.6 million vehicles (11.4% of all vehicles registered) in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). NHTSA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Air Bag Safety Campaign, the National Safety Council, the Brain Injury Association, the National Association of Governors Highway Safety Representatives, the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and the Health Resources and Services Administration to examine crashes from the Special Crash Investigation Data File maintained by NHTSA, in which fatal injuries in children (aged < 12 years) were associated with passenger-side air bags. This report presents the findings of this review, which indicate that during January 1993-November 1996, annual increases occurred for both the number of fatal injuries to children resulting from air-bag deployments and the proportion of dual air bag-equipped vehicles (Table 1). PMID:8975120

  14. Linear analysis of the heave dynamics of a bag and finger air cushion vehicle skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1986-09-01

    A linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt is presented. A simplified geometry is considered; this is a two-dimensional section of the skirt without interior compartmentation. The bag is modeled as a membrane having distributed mass and viscoelasticity, and the fingers are modeled as rigid bodies having both mass and moment of inertia. A finite-element technique is used to discretize the equations of motion of the bag, but otherwise standard linear analysis techniques are used to obtain predictions of frequency response and stability characteristics. The stability results confirm the experimental observation that the dominant factor controlling the onset of skirt bounce is the bag-to-cushion pressure ratio.

  15. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  16. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  17. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  18. Improving ensemble decision tree performance using Adaboost and Bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Rajib; Siraj, Fadzilah; Sainin, Mohd Shamrie

    2015-12-01

    Ensemble classifier systems are considered as one of the most promising in medical data classification and the performance of deceision tree classifier can be increased by the ensemble method as it is proven to be better than single classifiers. However, in a ensemble settings the performance depends on the selection of suitable base classifier. This research employed two prominent esemble s namely Adaboost and Bagging with base classifiers such as Random Forest, Random Tree, j48, j48grafts and Logistic Model Regression (LMT) that have been selected independently. The empirical study shows that the performance varries when different base classifiers are selected and even some places overfitting issue also been noted. The evidence shows that ensemble decision tree classfiers using Adaboost and Bagging improves the performance of selected medical data sets.

  19. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  20. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  1. MIT-CSR XIS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines the proposers' progress toward MIT's contribution to the X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) experiment on the Japanese ASTRO-E mission. The report discusses electrical system design, mechanical system design, and ground support equipment.

  2. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to a... or pretensioner design type for which approval is sought and details on the complete package....

  3. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...) Definitions. An air bag inflator (consisting of a casing containing an igniter, a booster material, a gas... suitable material, or other dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag...

  4. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...) Definitions. An air bag inflator (consisting of a casing containing an igniter, a booster material, a gas... suitable material, or other dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag...

  5. MIT research in telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing MIT research in telerobotics (vehicles capable of some autonomous sensing and manipulating, having some remote supervisory control by people) and teleoperation (vehicles for sensing and manipulating which are fully controlled remotely by people) is discussed. The current efforts mix human and artificial intelligence/control. The idea of adjustable impedance at either end of pure master-slave teleoperation, and simultaneous coordinated control of teleoperator/telerobotic systems which have more than six degrees of freedom (e.g., a combined vehicle and arm, each with five or six DOF) are discussed. A new cable-controlled parallel link arm which offers many advantages over conventional arms for space is briefly described. Predictor displays to compensate for time delay in teleoperator loops, the use of state estimation to help human control decisions in space, and ongoing research in supervisory command language are covered. Finally, efforts to build a human flyable real-time dynamic computer-graphic telerobot simulator are described. These projects represent most, but not all, of the telerobotics research in our laboratory, supported by JPL, NASA Ames and NOAA.

  6. Some analytical models of anisotropic strange stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Over the years of the concept of local isotropy has become a too stringent condition in modeling relativistic self-gravitating objects. Taking local anisotropy into consideration, in this work, some analytical models of relativistic anisotropic charged strange stars have been developed. The Einstein-Maxwell gravitational field equations have been solved with a particular form of one of the metric potentials. The radial pressure and the energy density have been assumed to follow the usual linear equation of state of strange quark matter, the MIT bag model.

  7. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries. PMID:11226663

  8. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:26260302

  9. MIT's interferometer CST testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tupper; Kim, ED; Anderson, Eric; Blackwood, Gary; Lublin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) has developed a controlled structures technology (CST) testbed based on one design for a space-based optical interferometer. The role of the testbed is to provide a versatile platform for experimental investigation and discovery of CST approaches. In particular, it will serve as the focus for experimental verification of CSI methodologies and control strategies at SERC. The testbed program has an emphasis on experimental CST--incorporating a broad suite of actuators and sensors, active struts, system identification, passive damping, active mirror mounts, and precision component characterization. The SERC testbed represents a one-tenth scaled version of an optical interferometer concept based on an inherently rigid tetrahedral configuration with collecting apertures on one face. The testbed consists of six 3.5 meter long truss legs joined at four vertices and is suspended with attachment points at three vertices. Each aluminum leg has a 0.2 m by 0.2 m by 0.25 m triangular cross-section. The structure has a first flexible mode at 31 Hz and has over 50 global modes below 200 Hz. The stiff tetrahedral design differs from similar testbeds (such as the JPL Phase B) in that the structural topology is closed. The tetrahedral design minimizes structural deflections at the vertices (site of optical components for maximum baseline) resulting in reduced stroke requirements for isolation and pointing of optics. Typical total light path length stability goals are on the order of lambda/20, with a wavelength of light, lambda, of roughly 500 nanometers. It is expected that active structural control will be necessary to achieve this goal in the presence of disturbances.

  10. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  12. Recognizing purple bag syndrome at first look.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Caterina; Airoldi, Andrea; Quaglia, Marco; Barbè, Maria Cristina; Brustia, Maddalena; Vidali, Matteo; Bagnati, Marco; Andreone, Stefano; Corrà, Tjibbo; Sciarrabba, Calogera; Bellomo, Giorgio; Stratta, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a clinical entity first described in 1978. Its typical discoloration is worrying for clinicians. In the past, these patients sometimes reached the emergency unit only because of this exceptional worrying urinary sign and underwent invasive diagnostic examinations including cystoscopy, without any abnormal finding. It is now clear that this astonishing phenomenon of double discoloration of the urine, appearing purple in the bag and dark blue in the test tube, results from the formation of 2 different pigments (indirubin and indigo) in very alkaline urines due to enzymes produced by gram-negative bacteria, such as indoxyl phosphatase/sulfatase, which can convert urinary metabolites of dietary tryptophan. Practicing physicians should identify purple urine bag syndrome as a usually benign medical condition diagnosed in asymptomatic patients, which only requires treatment of bacteriuria with antibiotics, prevention of constipation, substitution of catheter and acidification of the urine. After these measures, urine typically returns to its normal color. PMID:22941873

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.

    PubMed

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-02-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  14. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  15. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. 41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING CONVEYOR SYSTEM WHICH BROUGHT PROPELLANTS FROM STORAGE MAGAZINE - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994

  18. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  19. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  20. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. MIT Space Engineering Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at MIT, started in Jul. 1988, has completed two years of research. The Center is approaching the operational phase of its first testbed, is midway through the construction of a second testbed, and is in the design phase of a third. We presently have seven participating faculty, four participating staff members, ten graduate students, and numerous undergraduates. This report reviews the testbed programs, individual graduate research, other SERC activities not funded by the Center, interaction with non-MIT organizations, and SERC milestones. Published papers made possible by SERC funding are included at the end of the report.

  2. Plastic bag clip discovered in partial colectomy accompanying proposal for phylogenic plastic bag clip classification.

    PubMed

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastrointestinal tract is frustrated due to radiographic translucency. This occult threat could likely be prevented by the design of gastrointestinally safe, plastic-bag-sealing devices. Presented here is a morphologically based classification of bag clips as a possible guide for determining the most hazardous varieties and to aid further discussions of their impact on health. PMID:22679182

  3. Plastic bag clip discovered in partial colectomy accompanying proposal for phylogenic plastic bag clip classification

    PubMed Central

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastrointestinal tract is frustrated due to radiographic translucency. This occult threat could likely be prevented by the design of gastrointestinally safe, plastic-bag-sealing devices. Presented here is a morphologically based classification of bag clips as a possible guide for determining the most hazardous varieties and to aid further discussions of their impact on health. PMID:22679182

  4. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  5. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  6. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  7. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  8. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  9. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  10. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  11. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  12. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  13. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  14. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  15. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  16. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  17. MIT January Operational Internship Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  18. Vacuum structure and gravitational bags produced by metric-independent space-time volume-form dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2015-07-01

    additional constant radial background electric field. As a result, we obtain two classes of gravitational bag-like configurations with properties, which on one hand partially parallel some of the properties of the solitonic “constituent quark” model and, on the other hand, partially mimic some of the properties of MIT bags in QCD phenomenology.

  19. miR-BAG: bagging based identification of microRNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Chauhan, Rohit; Mehra, Mrigaya; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG's performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version. PMID:23049860

  20. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  1. Cranking the chiral soliton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, G.; Stern, J.

    1988-10-01

    The generation of physical states from mean field hedgehogs by cranking is extended to coherent hedgehogs, thus improving the agreement between the cranking and coherent state projection methods, and enabling us to correct simultaneously for translational and rotational fluctuations. These corrections lead to a drastic reduction in the mean nucleon-delta mass which, for the physical values of m/sub ..pi../ and F/sub ..pi../, is lower than, or approximately equal to, the experimental value.

  2. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  3. Bagging, boosting, and C4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Breiman`s bagging and Freund and Schapire`s boosting are recent methods for improving the predictive power of classifier learning systems. Both form a set of classifiers that are combined by voting, bagging by generating replicated bootstrap samples of the data, and boosting by adjusting the weights of training instances. This paper reports results of applying both techniques to a system that learns decision trees and testing on a representative collection of datasets. While both approaches substantially improve predictive accuracy, boosting shows the greater benefit. On the other hand, boosting also produces severe degradation on some datasets. A small change to the way that boosting combines the votes of learned classifiers reduces this downside and also leads to slightly better results on most of the datasets considered.

  4. Air bags: lifesaving with toxic potential?

    PubMed

    Swanson-Biearman, B; Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1993-01-01

    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, "Occupant Crash Protection", requires that all passenger cars manufactured after September 1, 1989 be equipped with automatic crash protection. Car manufacturers met this requirement by installing automatic safety belts or air bags. No chemical injuries have been reported as a result of air bag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). A 6-month retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of the white powdery residue from air bags, a combination of talc and sodium hydroxide, found in the driver compartment after an MVA. The study reviewed time to onset of symptoms, symptomatology, and treatment. The study included seven patients exposed to deployed air bags after an MVA. Four cases resulted in dermal burns and three patients were diagnosed with unrelated injuries. Three patients presented to an emergency department within 48 hours of the exposure complaining of burns to the skin. Two patients attempted home therapy but became concerned when the symptoms did not subside. One patient was discharged with the diagnosis of first degree burns of the chin and left hand. Another patient experienced bilateral hand erythema and blisters. Standard burn therapy was instituted in both instances. A third patient arrived 1 hour post-exposure to the emergency department complaining of a burning sensation to the hands, but the skin appeared normal. Thorough irrigation was initiated and Silvadene (Marion, Kansas City, MO) applied. One patient notified the poison center 1 hour post-exposure complaining of erythema and burning to his hands after an MVA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8447868

  5. Fertilizer use by class: Bag, bulk, fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; McKinney, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    US fertilizer consumption (excluding natural organic, secondary, and micronutrient materials) increased slightly from 42.7 million tons in 1987--1988 to 42.8 million tons in 1988--1989-a gain of less than one percent. In 1988--1989, dry bulk materials represented 52.1 percent of total consumption, fluid fertilizers accounted for 38.9 percent, and bagged materials the remaining 9.0 percent. Both dry and fluid fertilizers increased in tonnage over last year but market shares of each remained essentially the same. Bagged fertilizer continued to drop in tonnage as well as in market share. Fluid fertilizer use (including anhydrous ammonia) exceeded 16.6 million tons. Solid materials accounted for 26.2 million tons. TVA estimates that total dry bulk fertilizer distribution was 22.3 million tons, representing 85 percent of all solid materials. Estimated fertilizer sales of bagged products was 3.9 million tons compared to 4.1 million tons in 1987--1988. Multiple-nutrient fertilizer consumption was 17.5 million tons in 1988--1989. Class distribution of these materials was 60.1 percent dry bulk form, 22.4 percent fluid, and 17.5 percent bagged. Fluid multiple-nutrient materials consumption remained about the same as for 1987--1988 but increased in total market share from 9.1 percent to 9.2 percent. This report is compiled annually from individual State fertilizer tonnage reports. Forty States provided complete breakdown by class in 1988-1989. Only numerical data is included.

  6. BAG (Continuous Round Robin Packet Capture)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-10

    Bag is a miniature pcap filter which takes pcap input (or input off the wire) using a bpf filter, if specified, and then writes the output to stdout or a file (in pcap format). It depends for some aspects of its functionality on a libpcap library which uses a shared memory packet capture ring bugger. There are two build in modules: chcksum and session. the build in chcksum modules is used to anonymize the ipmore » addresses and repair any checksums in the stream. % bag -r /tmp/*.pcap -Cchucksum, 128.1 65: 10.10 The session module generates sessions which are defined as a series of packets that have two things in common. the first is a unique five-tuple composed oi an IP protocol, IP source address, IP source port, IP destination address, and IP destination port. The second is that if the originating packet is associated with a bi-directional service such as ftpltcp, characteristics and data will be kept for both flows involved with the service. The only protocols evaluated beyond the IP header are ICMP, TCP and UDP. A session can last for as long as bag is running. However, under normal conditions, sessions are generated every time they appear to have closed down. There is a man page included with the distribution which goes into more detail.« less

  7. BAG (Continuous Round Robin Packet Capture)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C. Philip

    2006-03-10

    Bag is a miniature pcap filter which takes pcap input (or input off the wire) using a bpf filter, if specified, and then writes the output to stdout or a file (in pcap format). It depends for some aspects of its functionality on a libpcap library which uses a shared memory packet capture ring bugger. There are two build in modules: chcksum and session. the build in chcksum modules is used to anonymize the ip addresses and repair any checksums in the stream. % bag -r /tmp/*.pcap -Cchucksum, 128.1 65: 10.10 The session module generates sessions which are defined as a series of packets that have two things in common. the first is a unique five-tuple composed oi an IP protocol, IP source address, IP source port, IP destination address, and IP destination port. The second is that if the originating packet is associated with a bi-directional service such as ftpltcp, characteristics and data will be kept for both flows involved with the service. The only protocols evaluated beyond the IP header are ICMP, TCP and UDP. A session can last for as long as bag is running. However, under normal conditions, sessions are generated every time they appear to have closed down. There is a man page included with the distribution which goes into more detail.

  8. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Sampling Bags.

    PubMed

    Le, Hung V; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Odorous emissions from agricultural and waste management operations can cause annoyance to local populations. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are dominant odorants that are often lost during collection using sample bags. The degree of VSC losses depends on factors such as storage time, bag materials, temperature, sample relative humidity (RH), light exposure, and the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To assess the impact of those factors on the stability of 10 VSCs (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, tert-butanethiol, ethyl methyl sulfide, 1-butanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide), laboratory-based experiments were conducted according to a factorial experimental design. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed for loss predictions. The estimated recovery of HS in Tedlar bag was 8 to 10% higher than in Mylar and Nalophan between 6 and 30 h. At ≤20°C and without being exposed to light, at least 75% relative recovery of the 10 VSCs in Tedlar bags can be achieved after 18 h, whereas, a maximum of 12 h of storage should not be exceeded to ensure a minimum of 74% relative recovery of the VSCs in Mylar and Nalophan bags. PMID:26436269

  9. Assessment of MIT and UCB wall condensation tests and of the pre-release RELAP5/MOD3.2 code condensation models

    SciTech Connect

    Shumway, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, a new class of reactor designs has been proposed that utilize passive safety systems. General Electric has developed a Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) design that relies on such passive systems. The SBWR has two passive cooling systems that involve energy transfer by condensation. These are the isolation condenser system (ICS) and the passive containment cooling systems (PCCS). It is important that such heat transfer phenomena be correctly understood and quantified. The General Electric Company has sponsored tests at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) to obtain data simulating PCCS conditions. Data was obtained with pure steam, steam-air mixtures and steam-helium mixtures. INEL has been contracted by the NRC to evaluate these tests and assess existing condensation heat transfer correlations against the test data. This report assesses the relevance of the tests to SBWR conditions and shows RELAP5/MOD3.2 predictions of the tests.

  10. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators. PMID:26893969

  11. The US DOE/MIT Innovation Acceleration Competition

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-30

    The Competition asked student teams from several US Universities to propose business models, technological systems, and policy framework to accelerate the penetration of new vehicle and fuel technologies into the markets. In May 2009 the final selection of teams was announced and four of five finalist teams flew to Washington DC to present to the US Department of Energy. The five finalist teams were 1. Filter Sensing Technologies (FST) (MIT), 2. Flex Cathode Technology for Electric Vehicle Batteries, 3. Green Guidance (RPI), 4. Levant Power (MIT), and 5. Wind-Driven Paddlewheel Cylinder for Energy Storage in Freighter Trucks (Villanova). The five finalists entries are described.

  12. Educational Outreach at MIT PSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenberg, P.; Thomas, P.; Censabella, V.

    2001-10-01

    At the MIT PSFC student and staff volunteers work together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science and engineering, the PSFC hosts a number of outreach activities throughout the year, including Middle and High School Outreach Days. Key to the success of these tours is the interactive ``C-Mod, Jr.," which helps students understand magnetic confinement in MIT's Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The PSFC also has an in-school science demonstration program on the theme of magnetism. As ``Mr. Magnet" Technical Supervisor Paul Thomas brings a truck-load of hands-on demonstrations to K-12 schools, challenging students to help him with experiments. While teaching fundamentals of magnetism and electricity he shows that science is fun for all, and that any student can have a career in science. This year he reached 77 schools -- 30,000 teachers and students. We have also collaborated with the MIT Museum to create an interactive plasma demonstration device which students and the general public can use to create plasmas from different gasses. Pinch and deflection magnets are moveable along the axis of the display, allowing investigation of the magnetic behavior of plasmas.

  13. Steuerungsmodelle fur Schulen in Europa: Schwedische Erfahrungen mit alternativen Ordnungsmodellen (Models of School Management in Europe: The Swedish Experience with Alternative Models of Management).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekholm, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that recent changes in conceptions of state control over schools are due partially to the relaxation of Cold War politics. Shows that new models of management produce fewer changes in school quality than expected. Proposes that the determining factor in change is the mentality inherent in individual schools' working structures. (DSK)

  14. Helium leak test for sterility assurance of a sealed bag. I: Relationship of helium leak and pinhole diameter.

    PubMed

    Miyako, Yasuhiro; Tai, Hideaki; Saitoh, Izumi

    2002-01-01

    Described herein is an attempt to establish a simpler, more reliable method to maintain the aseptic condition of bulk materials of drug substances. The method would be used in the manufacturing process of our "double-bag" kit system for infusion, which has two compartments, one for the infusion liquid and another for the drug product. To manufacture the kit system, we used a flexible inner container to enclose the bulk under aseptic conditions and a method for ensuring sterility of the container. We used an aluminum laminate bag as the inner container, which was then enclosed in a polyethylene bag. To detect tears or pinholes in the bag, a helium leak test was evaluated. First, a simple experimental model of helium leakage from bags was established. In the model, a pinhole was made in a film disk of the aluminum laminate or polyethylene material used for the inner and outer bags. A helium leak detector was used to measure the escape of helium through the pinhole, and the leak could be detected from a pinhole from 10 microns in diameter. As the bulk product was doubly sealed in an aluminum bag and a polyethylene bag in the manufacturing process to maintain an aseptic condition, we also checked for helium leak from pinholes of film disks after connecting two film disks. The results showed that helium leak was detectable when the pinhole diameters of both film disks were more than 20 microns. Clearly, helium leak is strongly affected by pinhole diameter in both experimental models. We have calculated, for the pinhole geometries studied, helium leak rates by using the Poiseuille Equation. Calculated values were in agreement with experimental values. PMID:12181802

  15. Quark Interchange Model of Baryon Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslow, Joel Neal

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point -like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and we assume that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (qq) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of Yn scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  16. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  17. Pricing and hedging derivative securities with neural networks: Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging.

    PubMed

    Gençay, R; Qi, M

    2001-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of cross validation, Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging to mitigate overfitting and improving generalization for pricing and hedging derivative securities with daily S&P 500 index daily call options from January 1988 to December 1993. Our results indicate that Bayesian regularization can generate significantly smaller pricing and delta-hedging errors than the baseline neural-network (NN) model and the Black-Scholes model for some years. While early stopping does not affect the pricing errors, it significantly reduces the hedging error (HE) in four of the six years we investigated. Although computationally most demanding, bagging seems to provide the most accurate pricing and delta hedging. Furthermore, the standard deviation of the MSPE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in all six years, and the standard deviation of the average HE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in five out of six years. We conclude that they be used at least in cases when no appropriate hints are available. PMID:18249908

  18. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...) Definitions. An air bag inflator (consisting of a casing containing an igniter, a booster material, a gas... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An...

  19. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...) Definitions. An air bag inflator (consisting of a casing containing an igniter, a booster material, a gas... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An...

  20. Simulation of the Transition Between Meson-System and Qgp in a Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhiguang; Bonasera, Aldo; Yang, Chubin; Zhou, Daimei; Terranova, S.

    Some thermodynamical properties of the interacting meson system and QGP at finite temperature are discussed. For a pure meson gas the Hagedorn limiting temperature is reproduced when the experimentally observed resonances are included. For QGP our results for different numbers of flavors Nf compare very well to the theoretical ones. A transport model based on the mean free path approach is used to simulate the evolution of the system. During the evolution we use the MIT bag model to perform the transition between meson gas and QGP.

  1. An integrated texton and bag of words classifier for identifying anaplastic medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Galaro, Joseph; Judkins, Alexander R; Ellison, David; Baccon, Jennifer; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a combined Bag of Words and texton based classifier for differentiating anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastoma on digitized histopathology. The hypothesis behind this work is that histological image signatures may reflect different levels of aggressiveness of the disease and that texture based approaches can help discriminate between more aggressive and less aggressive phenotypes of medulloblastoma. The bag of words approach attempts to model the occurrence of differently expressed image features. In this work we choose to model the image features via textons which can quantitatively capture and model texture appearance in the images. The texton-based features, obtained via two methods, the Haar Wavelet responses and MR8 filter bank, provide spatial orientation and rotation invariant attributes. Applying these features to the bag of words framework yields textural representations that can be used in conjunction with a classifier (κ-nearest neighbor) or a content based image retrieval system. Over multiple runs of randomized cross validation, a κ-NN classifier in conjunction with Haar wavelets and the texton, bag of words approach yielded a mean classification accuracy of 80, an area under the precision recall curve of 87 and an area under the ROC curve of 83 in distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas on a cohort of 36 patient studies. PMID:22255080

  2. Helium leak test for sterility assurance of a sealed bag. II: Establishing a test method for the manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Miyako, Yasuhiro; Tai, Hideaki; Saitoh, Izumi; Ikeda, Kaori

    2003-01-01

    To establish a simpler and more reliable method for retaining the aseptic condition of freeze-dried bulk product of a drug substance, a helium leak test method was developed. The bulk product is for the new kit system for infusion of our antibiotic product. In manufacturing the kit system, the bulk product needs to be transported outside of the aseptic area. We had to use a proper container to enclose the bulk product under aseptic conditions and establish an appropriate method for sterility assurance of the container. We decided to use a flexible aluminum laminate bag as a container and to seal it in a polyethylene bag. To detect tears or pinholes in the bag, a helium leak test was considered. As a tear model, a pinhole of known diameter was made in the aluminum laminate bag which was then filled with helium and sealed in a polyethylene bag. Helium leaking from the pinholes was measured with a helium leak detector, and leakage from a pinhole of more than 50 microm in the aluminum laminate bag could be detected. The amount of leakage was strongly affected by the pinhole diameter, and we developed a scientific approach for measuring leakage using the Poiseiulle Equation. The detection sensitivity of our method was enough to retain an aseptic condition inside the aluminum laminate bag, confirmed by the results of the process simulation test using our helium leak test. We concluded that our helium leak test was useful for sterility assurance of the bulk product sealed in the aluminum laminate bag in the manufacturing process of our kit system for infusion of our antibiotic product. PMID:12877329

  3. Bagging and boosting negatively correlated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Monirul; Yao, Xin; Shahriar Nirjon, S M Shahriar; Islam, Muhammad Asiful; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we propose two cooperative ensemble learning algorithms, i.e., NegBagg and NegBoost, for designing neural network (NN) ensembles. The proposed algorithms incrementally train different individual NNs in an ensemble using the negative correlation learning algorithm. Bagging and boosting algorithms are used in NegBagg and NegBoost, respectively, to create different training sets for different NNs in the ensemble. The idea behind using negative correlation learning in conjunction with the bagging/boosting algorithm is to facilitate interaction and cooperation among NNs during their training. Both NegBagg and NegBoost use a constructive approach to automatically determine the number of hidden neurons for NNs. NegBoost also uses the constructive approach to automatically determine the number of NNs for the ensemble. The two algorithms have been tested on a number of benchmark problems in machine learning and NNs, including Australian credit card assessment, breast cancer, diabetes, glass, heart disease, letter recognition, satellite, soybean, and waveform problems. The experimental results show that NegBagg and NegBoost require a small number of training epochs to produce compact NN ensembles with good generalization. PMID:18558541

  4. The MIT / NASA Langley Magnetic Suspension/Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A shuttle model is magnetically suspended in the transparent octagonal test section of the MIT / NASA Langley 6 Inch MSBS. Massive power supplies are required to drive electromagnets for model position control. A unique electromagnetic position sensor, similar to a linear variable differential transformer, provides five degrees of freedom for the test model. The low speed (Mach 0.5) wind tunnel was hand crafted from mahogany. Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured by the proportional electrical current used to hold the model in place. The system was built by MIT in the late sixties and was relocated to Langley in the mid eighties. In a joint effort with Old Dominion University in 1992 the MSBS was used to test the aerodynamics of store separation, simulating a bomb released from an aircraft. The system has been donated to Old Dominion University.

  5. Impacts of Daily Bag Limit Reductions on Angler Effort in Wisconsin Walleye Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T.D., Jr.; Cox, S.P.; Carpenter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Angler effort is an important factor affecting recreational fisheries. However, angler responses are rarely incorporated into recreational fisheries regulations or predictions. Few have attempted to examine how daily bag limit regulations affect total angling pressure and subsequent stock densities. Our paper develops a theoretical basis for predicting angler effort and harvest rate based on stock densities and bag limit regulations. We examined data from a management system that controls the total exploitation of walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) in northern Wisconsin lakes and compared these empirical results with the predictions from a theoretical effort and harvest rate response model. The data indicated that higher general angler effort occurs on lakes regulated with a 5-walleye daily limit than on lakes regulated with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. General walleye catch rates were lower on lakes with a 5-walleye limit than on lakes with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. An effort response model predicted a logarithmic relationship between angler effort and adult walleye density and that an index of attractiveness would be greater on lakes with high bag limits. Predictions from the harvest rate model with constant walleye catchability indicated that harvest rates increased nonlinearly with increasing density. When the effort model was fitted to data from northern Wisconsin, we found higher lake attractiveness at 5-walleye-limit lakes. We conclude that different groups of anglers respond differently to bag limit changes and that reliance on daily bag limits may not be sufficient to maintain high walleye densities in some lakes in this region.

  6. Linear Heave Dynamics of an Air-Cushion Vehicle Bag-and-Finger Skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon; Sullivan, Phillip A.

    Results from a linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle equipped with a bag-and-finger skirt are described. A two-dimensional section of the cushion is subject to pure heave or long-wave surface motion inputs. The skirt mass is lumped in the fingers, with the bag being modelled as a combination of massless inelastic membranes and links. The airflows from bag to cushion and from cushion to atmosphere are assumed quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. For a configuration representative of a 37t vehicle, frequency response characteristics show the effect of skirt geometry and mass changes, and cushion capacitance. The results suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify an undesirable heave response, but reducing the skirt mass may be effective. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent at the low cushion-flow rates now used in practice.

  7. Heat and mass transfer from a baby manikin: impact of a chemical warfare protective bag.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Ulf

    2004-09-01

    A chemical warfare (CW) protective bag for babies, younger than 1 year, has been evaluated in respect of thermal load. Heat and water vapour dissipating from the baby make the climate in the protective bag more demanding than outside. The thermal strain on a baby was estimated from heat and mass transfer data using an electrically heated baby manikin and a water-filled tray. Furthermore, a theoretical baby model was developed based on relations valid for heat and mass transfer rates from a cylinder and flat surface. Convective and radiative (dry) and evaporative heat transfer coefficients calculated from this model agreed well with the measured values. The maximum heat dissipation from a baby was calculated for combinations of air temperatures (22-30 degrees C) and relative humidities (70-90% rh). The results indicate that a naked baby can dissipate about 100% more heat than is produced during basal conditions when the bag is ventilated (70 1 min(-1)) and the ambient climate is 30 degrees C and 90% rh. If the ventilation rate is 40 1 min(-1), the margin is reduced to 50%. Clothing reduces the margin further. Ventilating the bag with 70 1 min(-1), a dressed baby can dissipate only 10-20% more heat than is produced during basal conditions in a climate (27 degrees C and 80% rh) that is obtained in a crowded shelter after about 24 h of occupation. PMID:15150661

  8. MICROWAVE POPCORN EMISSIONS RELEASED DURING COOKING AND BAG OPENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are not currently available on the contaminants released when microwave popcorn, flavorings and bags are heated to microwave temperatures. Thus, the primary goal of this work is to identify and quantify contaminants emitted while popping and opening a bag of microwave popcor...

  9. 20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 448-C, GENERAL STOREHOUSE (HIGH EXPLOSIVES MAGAZINE-WEIGHING & MIXING), IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any...

  12. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a)...

  13. 50 CFR 622.408 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.408 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the southern Atlantic states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or... or possession limit of spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off Florida and off the Gulf states,...

  14. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  15. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  16. 50 CFR 622.408 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.408 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the southern Atlantic states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or... or possession limit of spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off Florida and off the Gulf states,...

  17. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  18. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of...

  19. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of...

  20. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of...

  1. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of...

  2. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of...

  3. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  4. EPA FABRIC FILTRATION STUDIES: 4. BAG AGING EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effects of aging on filter bags made of woven polyester. Fabric filter life can be divided into three periods: break-in, steady-state, and wear-out. During the break-in, both bag collection efficiency and the pressure drop acro...

  5. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  6. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... appropriate means, such as by the use of separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum...

  7. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... appropriate means, such as by the use of separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum...

  8. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... appropriate means, such as by the use of separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum...

  9. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212 Section... Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined) identified as... any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the MHI...

  10. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.