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Sample records for mit elektrospray massenspektrometrie

  1. MIT: Shaping the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kenneth R., Ed.

    This book provides 16 essays by faculty and staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) concerning what MIT is like today and offering a guide to its possible future. Emphasis is placed on local, national, and global issues, providing a current sampling of the state of concerns and opinions around MIT. Topics include the question of…

  2. MPD work at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel

    1991-01-01

    MPD work at MIT is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: the MIT program, its goals, achievements, and roadblocks; quasi one-dimensional modeling; two-dimensional modeling - transport effects and Hall effect; microscopic instabilities in MPD flows and modified two stream instability; electrothermal stability theory; separation of onset and anode depletion; exit plane spectroscopic measurements; phenomena of onset as performance limiter; explanations of onset; geometry effects on onset; onset at full ionization and its consequences; relationship to anode depletion; summary on self-field MPD; applied field MPD - the logical growth path; the case for AF; the challenges of AF MPD; and recommendations.

  3. Abdichtungen mit Bitumenbahnen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Axel C.; Unger, Wolfram

    Das Werk Bauwerksabdichtung von Karl Lufsky, im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch auch Der Lufsky genannt, war immer das Standardwerk für Flächenabdichtungen mit Bitumenwerkstoffen. Karl Lufsky war erst Mitarbeiter des Geschäftsführers Otto Latendorf der 1924 in Berlin gegründeten Firma ARIDO Abdichtungs-GmbH und später ihr Geschäftsführer [8.1]. Eine Baustelle war seit 1950 der Keller der neuen Sowjetischen Botschaft Unter den Linden. Eines Tages sprach dort einer der russischen Ingenieur-Offiziere Otto Latendorf an und fragte ihn, ob er wohl eine schriftliche Zusammenfassung aller technischen Probleme der bituminösen Bauwerksabdichtung für ihn verfassen könnte. Mit dieser Schrift würde er sich dann zu seinem Abschlussexamen in Moskau melden. Vergüten wollte er den Arbeitsaufwand mit Lebensmittellieferungen. Otto Latendorf willigte ein und machte sich gemeinsam mit Karl Lufsky an die Arbeit. Dies war offensichtlich der Impuls für Karl Lufsky, einige Zeit später im Leipziger Teubner Verlag die erste Auflage des Buchs "Bauwerksabdichtungen“ herauszugeben, womit der Grundstein gelegt wurde, aus einer "Moskauer Examensarbeit“ in den letzten 50 Jahren ein bedeutendes Fachbuch zu machen.

  4. MIT-CSR XIS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines the proposers' progress toward MIT's contribution to the X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) experiment on the Japanese ASTRO-E mission. The report discusses electrical system design, mechanical system design, and ground support equipment.

  5. MIT research in telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing MIT research in telerobotics (vehicles capable of some autonomous sensing and manipulating, having some remote supervisory control by people) and teleoperation (vehicles for sensing and manipulating which are fully controlled remotely by people) is discussed. The current efforts mix human and artificial intelligence/control. The idea of adjustable impedance at either end of pure master-slave teleoperation, and simultaneous coordinated control of teleoperator/telerobotic systems which have more than six degrees of freedom (e.g., a combined vehicle and arm, each with five or six DOF) are discussed. A new cable-controlled parallel link arm which offers many advantages over conventional arms for space is briefly described. Predictor displays to compensate for time delay in teleoperator loops, the use of state estimation to help human control decisions in space, and ongoing research in supervisory command language are covered. Finally, efforts to build a human flyable real-time dynamic computer-graphic telerobot simulator are described. These projects represent most, but not all, of the telerobotics research in our laboratory, supported by JPL, NASA Ames and NOAA.

  6. MIT's interferometer CST testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tupper; Kim, ED; Anderson, Eric; Blackwood, Gary; Lublin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) has developed a controlled structures technology (CST) testbed based on one design for a space-based optical interferometer. The role of the testbed is to provide a versatile platform for experimental investigation and discovery of CST approaches. In particular, it will serve as the focus for experimental verification of CSI methodologies and control strategies at SERC. The testbed program has an emphasis on experimental CST--incorporating a broad suite of actuators and sensors, active struts, system identification, passive damping, active mirror mounts, and precision component characterization. The SERC testbed represents a one-tenth scaled version of an optical interferometer concept based on an inherently rigid tetrahedral configuration with collecting apertures on one face. The testbed consists of six 3.5 meter long truss legs joined at four vertices and is suspended with attachment points at three vertices. Each aluminum leg has a 0.2 m by 0.2 m by 0.25 m triangular cross-section. The structure has a first flexible mode at 31 Hz and has over 50 global modes below 200 Hz. The stiff tetrahedral design differs from similar testbeds (such as the JPL Phase B) in that the structural topology is closed. The tetrahedral design minimizes structural deflections at the vertices (site of optical components for maximum baseline) resulting in reduced stroke requirements for isolation and pointing of optics. Typical total light path length stability goals are on the order of lambda/20, with a wavelength of light, lambda, of roughly 500 nanometers. It is expected that active structural control will be necessary to achieve this goal in the presence of disturbances.

  7. MIT Space Engineering Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at MIT, started in Jul. 1988, has completed two years of research. The Center is approaching the operational phase of its first testbed, is midway through the construction of a second testbed, and is in the design phase of a third. We presently have seven participating faculty, four participating staff members, ten graduate students, and numerous undergraduates. This report reviews the testbed programs, individual graduate research, other SERC activities not funded by the Center, interaction with non-MIT organizations, and SERC milestones. Published papers made possible by SERC funding are included at the end of the report.

  8. MIT January Operational Internship Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  9. Educational Outreach at MIT PSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenberg, P.; Thomas, P.; Censabella, V.

    2001-10-01

    At the MIT PSFC student and staff volunteers work together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science and engineering, the PSFC hosts a number of outreach activities throughout the year, including Middle and High School Outreach Days. Key to the success of these tours is the interactive ``C-Mod, Jr.," which helps students understand magnetic confinement in MIT's Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The PSFC also has an in-school science demonstration program on the theme of magnetism. As ``Mr. Magnet" Technical Supervisor Paul Thomas brings a truck-load of hands-on demonstrations to K-12 schools, challenging students to help him with experiments. While teaching fundamentals of magnetism and electricity he shows that science is fun for all, and that any student can have a career in science. This year he reached 77 schools -- 30,000 teachers and students. We have also collaborated with the MIT Museum to create an interactive plasma demonstration device which students and the general public can use to create plasmas from different gasses. Pinch and deflection magnets are moveable along the axis of the display, allowing investigation of the magnetic behavior of plasmas.

  10. Positive Werkzeuge mit hohem IQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luik, Matthias

    Fräsen ist ein Verfahren, auf welches im modernen Produktionsprozess nicht verzichtet werden kann. Dabei stellt die zunehmende Komplexität der zu fertigenden Bauteile ganz neue Herausforderungen an ein Werkzeug. Konnten früher Bauteile nur mit hohem Aufwand durch Erodieren oder Außenräumen hergestellt werden, müssen heute bereits Fräswerkzeuge für solche Bearbeitungsaufgaben aus Zeitund Kostengründen eingesetzt werden. Dies führt dazu, dass viele Bauteile heute in einer Aufspannung bearbeitbar sind, welche früher nur durch mehrmaliges Umspannen erzeugt werden konnten. Um Bearbeitungszeiten und -kosten dabei gering zu halten, müssen aber dennoch universelle Werkzeuge eingesetzt werden, welche für verschiedenste Bearbeitungsaufgaben ausgelegt sind.

  11. Unfälle mit Pkw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Heinz

    Der Verkehrsunfall ereignete sich innerorts auf einer Kreuzung mit rechts vor links Regelung. Es galt dort die allgemeine Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung auf 50 km/h. Zur Unfallzeit war es hell und trocken. Die Fahrbahn hatte eine Schwarzdecke.

  12. Workstation-assisted education at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, George A.

    1992-06-01

    MIT launched a major new initiative called Project Athena in 1983 to improve the quality of education through the introduction of a high-quality computing infrastructure throughout the campus. Implementation of the Project Athena computing environment required eight years, cost about 100 million, and was sponsored by Digital Equipment and IBM in addition to MIT. The Athena computing environment is based almost entirely on workstations from these two vendors using the Unix operating system. Project Athena is now complete. The resulting computer system has been turned over to the campus computing organization for ongoing operation and maintenance. The computing environment available at MIT for education has been significantly improved. Students are graduating today that have never known life at MIT without the ubiquitous availability of high-quality computing. This article provides an overview of the initial objectives and strategies of Project Athena at MIT relative to its educational use. The specific strategies that MIT employed in the use of work-stations in educational are then described. These strategies are contrasted with other available strategies. Specific examples of the use of workstations are presented. An important element in current and future education delivery is multimedia. Athena in conjunction with the MIT Media Lab has one of the largest efforts in multimedia development of any of the universities, and MIT is using multimedia in education on a daily basis. A new laboratory, the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives, has been established with a major focus on multimedia. Finally the lessons learned from Athena relative to its primary objective — that of improving education — are reviewed.

  13. Photovoltaik Hybrid-Solarzellen mit Nanopartikeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leute, Angelika

    2004-09-01

    Die organische Photovoltaik auf der Basis halbleitender Polymere bietet eine kostengünstige Alternative zu Solarzellen aus Silizium. Allerdings weisen die organischen Materialien relativ schlechte Ladungstransporteigenschaften auf. Hybrid-Solarzellen, in denen Polymere mit geeigneten anorganischen Halbleitern kombiniert sind, besitzen einerseits die praktischen Vorteile der Organik und andererseits die hohe Elektronenbeweglichkeit der anorganischen Materialien. Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Eindhoven haben kürzlich Hybrid-Solarzellen vorgestellt, die aus einem halbleitenden Polymer mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln bestehen.

  14. MIT 12 Tesla Coil test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeves, M. M.; Hoenig, M. O.

    1985-07-01

    Test results from the MIT 12 Tesla Coil experiment are presented. The coil was tested in the High Field Test Facility (HFTF) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 1984 and January 1985. The experiment measured the performance of an Internally Cooled, Cabled Superconductor (ICCS) of practical size, intended for use in magnetic fusion experiments. The MIT coil carried 15 kA at 11 T for 5 min with no sign of instability. A half turn length in a 10 T field was able to absorb a heat load in 4 msec of more than 200 mJ sub cm of cable volume while carrying a current of 12 kA. The MIT coil successfully met the performance requirements of the Department of Energy's 12 Tesla Coil Program.

  15. Incentives in IT Yield Success at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes the role of information technology (IT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, explaining that attention to the unique characteristics of an MIT education and incentives for sustainable change are central to its IT efforts. Discusses various IT initiatives, such as Project Athena, provision on campus, international efforts, and…

  16. Erfahrungen mit den Pentax SDHF-Refraktoren.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lignie, J.

    1996-10-01

    Behandelt werden: die SDHF-Refraktoren, mechanische Eigenschaften und Verarbeitung, die Montierung MS-3n, Beobachtungen mit der SDHF-Optik und optische Qualität, der 75 SDHF, der 105 SDHF. Fotografischer Teil: die Pentax 645 als Astrokamera, fotografische Abbildung der Objektive zur Pentax 645 und der SDHF-Optik, Zubehör.

  17. Wrestling with Pedagogical Change: The TEAL Initiative at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lori

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the physics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) had a problem. The department was responsible for teaching the two required physics courses that are part of the General Institute Requirements (GIRs), MIT's core curriculum--Physics I (mechanics, or in MIT parlance, 8.01) and Physics II (electricity and…

  18. Flight research with the MIT Daedalus prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Youngren, Harold H.; Langford, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The MIT Light Eagle human-powered aircraft underwent long-duration testing over Rogers Dry Lake in California during January, 1987. Designed as a prototype for the MIT Daedalus Project, the Light Eagle's forty-eight flights provided pilot training, established new distance records for human-powered flight, and provided quantitative data through a series of instrumented flight experiments. The experiments focused on: (1) evaluating physiological loads on the pilot, (2) determining airframe power requirements, and (3) developing an electronic flight control system. This paper discusses the flight test program, its results and their implications for the follow-on Daedalus aircraft, and the potential uses of the Light Eagle as a low Reynolds number testbed.

  19. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  20. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  1. The MIT Program, Competition, and Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, Hale V.

    2013-01-01

    The MIT program in x-ray astronomy was, and still is, diverse and productive. Bruno Rossi and later George Clark, as the nominal leaders of the “x-ray astronomy group” created a “hands-off” culture wherein individual researchers could develop their own independent programs. Walter Lewin, Claude Canizares, and I as well as those in the next academic generations, e.g., Saul Rappaport and George Ricker, were able to thrive in this environment. MIT researchers were principal investigators or providers of x-ray instruments on sounding rockets and balloons in the 1960s and then in later years on nine satellite missions, OSO-7, SAS-3, HEAO-1, Einstein, ASCA, RXTE, Chandra, HETE-2, and Suzaku. Such a diverse program involved collaborations with other institutions and of course striving for primacy in discovery and competition for NASA resources. Looking back, I see a high degree of ethical behavior among the observational x-ray community during those years. In competition, we remembered that we might well be collaborating the following year and behaved accordingly. Many of us in the x-ray community had been friends since graduate school days and did not want to lose those relationships. Am I viewing the past through rose colored glasses? I think not. A vignette on this topic: In 1967, I was debating vigorously with Herb Gursky of AS&E about which institution, MIT or AS&E, should be the lead on the fourth paper (Oda et al. 1967, ApJ 148, L5) based on data from the 1966 AS&E rocket flight which had led to Allan Sandage’s (and Japanese) identification of Sco X-1 (Sandage, et al. 1966, ApJ. 146, 316). I and my Italian colleague, Gianfranco Spada, and our Japanese colleague, Minoru Oda, both then visiting MIT, had actively supported that flight. After one rather heated discussion with Herb about this, - I was the heated one; he always remained calm - he left my office saying: “Hale, however this comes out, let’s remain friends.” I treasured that comment and

  2. MIT Space Engineering Research Center testbed programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at M.I.T., started in July 1988, has completed two and one-half years of research. This Semi-Annual Report presents annotated viewgraph material presented at the January 1991 Steering Committee and Technical Representative Review. The objective of the Space Engineering Research Center is to develop and disseminate a unified technology of controlled structures. There has been continued evolution of the concept of intelligent structures (including in this past year the first successful embedding of a microelectronic component into a structural element).

  3. Historisches Rätsel Physik mit Gewehr und Eiern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Es fing schon gut an: Mit zehn Jahren saß der begabte Junge bereits in der Universität, wo ihn kein Geringerer als sein Vater persönlich unterrichtete. Damit schlug dieser zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe: Sein Sohn lernte etwas Gescheites, und er war zugleich in sicherer Obhut.

  4. MMPI and MIT Discriminators of Biogenic and Psychogenic Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Male patients complaining of impotence (N=32) were administered the Male Impotence Test (MIT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The results suggested that the MIT is without value for differentiating between psychogenic and biogenic impotence, whereas two rules from the MMPI appropriately classified 90 percent of the…

  5. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  6. The M.I.T. INSITE Space System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyros, Kreon L.

    1989-01-01

    The M.I.T. INSITE (INstitutional Space Inventory TEchniques) system, a management information system developed specifically to provide facilities management information for decision making in the planning stages, is described. Since 1973, M.I.T. has shared the INSITE technology with a consortium of users from academic, health care, corporate and…

  7. Teaching ``The Physics of Energy'' at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Robert

    2009-05-01

    New physics courses on energy are popping up at colleges and universities across the country. Many require little or no previous physics background, aiming to introduce a broad audience to this complex and critical problem, often augmenting the scientific message with economic and policy discussions. Others are advanced courses, focussing on highly specialized subjects like solar voltaics, nuclear physics, or thermal fluids, for example. About two years ago Washington Taylor and I undertook to develop a course on the ``Physics of Energy'' open to all MIT students who had taken MIT's common core of university level calculus, physics, and chemistry. By avoiding higher level prerequisites, we aimed to attract and make the subject relevant to students in the life sciences, economics, etc. --- as well as physical scientists and engineers --- who want to approach energy issues in a sophisticated and analytical fashion, exploiting their background in calculus, mechanics, and E & M, but without having to take advanced courses in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, or nuclear physics beforehand. Our object was to interweave teaching the fundamental physics principles at the foundations of energy science with the applications of those principles to energy systems. We envisioned a course that would present the basics of statistical, quantum, and fluid mechanics at a fairly sophisticated level and apply those concepts to the study of energy sources, conversion, transport, losses, storage, conservation, and end use. In the end we developed almost all of the material for the course from scratch. The course debuted this past fall. I will describe what we learned and what general lessons our experience might have for others who contemplate teaching energy physics broadly to a technically sophisticated audience.

  8. Stochastic noise characteristics in matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS).

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Devon J; McAdams, H P; Dobbins, James T Third

    2009-05-01

    Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses known imaging geometry and linear systems theory to deterministically separate in-plane detail from residual tomographic blur in a set of conventional tomosynthesis ("shift-and-add") planes. A previous investigation explored the effect of scan angle (ANG), number of projections (N), and number of reconstructed planes (NP) on the MITS impulse response and modulation transfer function characteristics, and concluded that ANG = 20 degrees, N = 71, and NP = 69 is the optimal MITS imaging technique for chest imaging on our prototype tomosynthesis system. This article examines the effect of ANG, N, and NP on the MITS exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) and seeks to confirm that the imaging parameters selected previously by an analysis of the MITS impulse response also yield reasonable stochastic properties in MITS reconstructed planes. ENNPS curves were generated for experimentally acquired mean-subtracted projection images, conventional tomosynthesis planes, and MITS planes with varying combinations of the parameters ANG, N, and NP. Image data were collected using a prototype tomosynthesis system, with 11.4 cm acrylic placed near the image receptor to produce lung-equivalent beam hardening and scattered radiation. Ten identically acquired tomosynthesis data sets (realizations) were collected for each selected technique and used to generate ensemble mean images that were subtracted from individual image realizations prior to noise power spectra (NPS) estimation. NPS curves were normalized to account for differences in entrance exposure (as measured with an ion chamber), yielding estimates of the ENNPS for each technique. Results suggest that mid- and high-frequency noise in MITS planes is fairly equivalent in magnitude to noise in conventional tomosynthesis planes, but low-frequency noise is amplified in the most anterior and posterior reconstruction planes. Selecting the largest available number of projections (N

  9. Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-31

    MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research ENergy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in poer density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghuse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  10. Unfälle mit motorisierten Zweirädern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Der Fahrer eines Pkw Opel Astra überquerte mit seinem Pkw von einer untergeordneten Einmündung kommend eine außerörtliche Bundesstraße in gerade Richtung. Dabei kam es zur Kollision mit einem sich von rechts vorfahrtsberechtigt annähernden Krad Suzuki RGV250. Der Anprall des Krades erfolgte mit dem Heck an die rechte Pkw-Flanke zwischen vorderem Radausschnitt und Fahrzeugecke. Der Krad-Fahrer, welcher sofort tot war und das Zweirad verklemmten sich am Pkw und verblieben relativ zu selbigem annähernd in Kollisionsstellung.

  11. Stochastic noise characteristics in matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Devon J.; McAdams, H. P.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2009-05-15

    Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses known imaging geometry and linear systems theory to deterministically separate in-plane detail from residual tomographic blur in a set of conventional tomosynthesis (''shift-and-add'') planes. A previous investigation explored the effect of scan angle (ANG), number of projections (N), and number of reconstructed planes (NP) on the MITS impulse response and modulation transfer function characteristics, and concluded that ANG=20 deg., N=71, and NP=69 is the optimal MITS imaging technique for chest imaging on our prototype tomosynthesis system. This article examines the effect of ANG, N, and NP on the MITS exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) and seeks to confirm that the imaging parameters selected previously by an analysis of the MITS impulse response also yield reasonable stochastic properties in MITS reconstructed planes. ENNPS curves were generated for experimentally acquired mean-subtracted projection images, conventional tomosynthesis planes, and MITS planes with varying combinations of the parameters ANG, N, and NP. Image data were collected using a prototype tomosynthesis system, with 11.4 cm acrylic placed near the image receptor to produce lung-equivalent beam hardening and scattered radiation. Ten identically acquired tomosynthesis data sets (realizations) were collected for each selected technique and used to generate ensemble mean images that were subtracted from individual image realizations prior to noise power spectra (NPS) estimation. NPS curves were normalized to account for differences in entrance exposure (as measured with an ion chamber), yielding estimates of the ENNPS for each technique. Results suggest that mid- and high-frequency noise in MITS planes is fairly equivalent in magnitude to noise in conventional tomosynthesis planes, but low-frequency noise is amplified in the most anterior and posterior reconstruction planes. Selecting the largest available number of projections (N=71) does

  12. Review of recent work on MPD thrusters at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: basic philosophy of MIT SSPL work; 2-D numerical magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) simulations; analysis of MPD boundary layers; and ignition of MPD thrusters.

  13. MIT gets good marks for fighting gender discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made "significant progress" in increasing the number of female faculty members, with their numbers in science and engineering almost doubling over the last decade.

  14. MIT ASTROMAG 1.7 meter disk magnet design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, P. G.; Hale, J. R.; Vieira, R.; Zhukovsky, A.; Titus, P. H.; Sullivan, J. D.; Dawson, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    MIT has proposed a magnet design for ASTROMAG, which has demonstrated substantial improvement in performance as compared with the present HEAO baseline design. Several advantages of the MIT disk design are listed along with design characteristics. Details of field contours and active field regions are shown along with comparisons with other designs. Three alternative design configurations for the ASTROMAG disk coils are summarized. The parameters of the conductors are listed and basic parameters for each of the complete systems are shown.

  15. Education Outreach at MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.; Rivenberg, P.

    1999-11-01

    Outreach at the MIT PSFC consists of volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science, engineering and mathematics, the PSFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Outreach also includes the Mr. Magnet Program, which uses an interactive strategy to engage elementary school children. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Widee Web, which can be reached at http://psfc.mit.edu.

  16. The US DOE/MIT Innovation Acceleration Competition

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-30

    The Competition asked student teams from several US Universities to propose business models, technological systems, and policy framework to accelerate the penetration of new vehicle and fuel technologies into the markets. In May 2009 the final selection of teams was announced and four of five finalist teams flew to Washington DC to present to the US Department of Energy. The five finalist teams were 1. Filter Sensing Technologies (FST) (MIT), 2. Flex Cathode Technology for Electric Vehicle Batteries, 3. Green Guidance (RPI), 4. Levant Power (MIT), and 5. Wind-Driven Paddlewheel Cylinder for Energy Storage in Freighter Trucks (Villanova). The five finalists entries are described.

  17. MIT Research Program on Communications Policy; First Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Research Program on Communications Policy.

    The first year's activities of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Program on Communication Policy are described. Among the projects undertaken were studies of: (1) land mobile radio systems, (2) direct satellite broadcasting in foreign countries, (3) communications regulation policy, (4) international data communication, and…

  18. MIT Orients Course Materials Online to K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Many science and mathematics educators across the country are taking advantage of a Web site created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the famed research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which offers free video, audio, and print lectures and course material taken straight from the school's classes. Those resources…

  19. MIT Mints a Valuable New Form of Academic Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has invented or improved many world-changing things--radar, information theory, and synthetic self-replicating molecules, to name a few. Last month the university announced, to mild fanfare, an invention that could be similarly transformative, this time for higher education itself. It is called MITx.…

  20. The Creation of OpenCourseWare at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Hal

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the genesis of the MIT OpenCourseWare project from its initial strategic precursors in 1999 and 2000, through its launch in 2001 and its subsequent evolution. The story told here illuminates the interplay among institutional leadership, and strategic planning, and with university culture in launching major educational technology…

  1. The MIT / NASA Langley Magnetic Suspension/Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A shuttle model is magnetically suspended in the transparent octagonal test section of the MIT / NASA Langley 6 Inch MSBS. Massive power supplies are required to drive electromagnets for model position control. A unique electromagnetic position sensor, similar to a linear variable differential transformer, provides five degrees of freedom for the test model. The low speed (Mach 0.5) wind tunnel was hand crafted from mahogany. Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured by the proportional electrical current used to hold the model in place. The system was built by MIT in the late sixties and was relocated to Langley in the mid eighties. In a joint effort with Old Dominion University in 1992 the MSBS was used to test the aerodynamics of store separation, simulating a bomb released from an aircraft. The system has been donated to Old Dominion University.

  2. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  3. The Harvard-MIT PHD Program in Bioastronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Laurence R.; Natapoff, Alan

    2008-06-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)1 supports a PhD program in Space Life Sciences with a specialty in Bioastronautics at MIT. (A sibling program operates at TAMU.) It gives broad training in life sciences, emphasizes hands-on field experience, provides access to laboratories in the Harvard-MIT community for thesis research, and prepares students for many options in space biomedicine. The Program trains prospective leaders in the field able to manage the challenges of design for the life-hostile space environment. Beyond subject and thesis work, students participate in a summer internship and a clinical preceptorship at a NASA center--and an introduction to clinical medicine and medical engineering.

  4. Stationäre Motorvermessung mit verschiedenen Methoden und Modellen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötter, Hinrich; Sequenz, Heiko

    Die kontinuierliche Verschärfung der gesetzlichen Vorgaben bezüglich Emissionen stellt die Motorenentwickler vor neue Herausforderungen (Bild 6-1, [1, 2]). Gleichzeitig ist zu erwarten, dass sich der langfristige Trend der letzten Jahren bei den Kraftstoffpreisen [3] trotz kurzzeitiger Schwankungen fortsetzen wird (Bild 6-1 rechts, Jahresmittelwerte). Auf die steigenden Kraftstoffpreise sowie die Verpflichtungen bezüglich der CO2- Emissionswerte kann dauerhaft nur mit Kraftstoff sparenden Motoren reagiert werden.

  5. Comments on the MIT Assessment of the Mars One Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    The MIT assessment of the Mars One mission plan reveals design assumptions that would cause significant difficulties. Growing crops in the crew chamber produces excessive oxygen levels. The assumed in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment has too low a Technology Readiness Level (TRL). The required spare parts cause a large and increasing launch mass logistics burden. The assumed International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) technologies were developed for microgravity and therefore are not suitable for Mars gravity. Growing food requires more mass than sending food from Earth. The large number of spares is due to the relatively low reliability of ECLS and the low TRL of ISRU. The Mars One habitat design is similar to past concepts but does not incorporate current knowledge. The MIT architecture analysis tool for long-term settlements on the Martian surface includes an ECLS system simulation, an ISRU sizing model, and an analysis of required spares. The MIT tool showed the need for separate crop and crew chambers, the large spare parts logistics, that crops require more mass than Earth food, and that more spares are needed if reliability is lower. That ISRU has low TRL and ISS ECLS was designed for microgravity are well known. Interestingly, the results produced by the architecture analysis tool - separate crop chamber, large spares mass, large crop chamber mass, and low reliability requiring more spares - were also well known. A common approach to ECLS architecture analysis is to build a complex model that is intended to be all-inclusive and is hoped will help solve all design problems. Such models can struggle to replicate obvious and well-known results and are often unable to answer unanticipated new questions. A better approach would be to survey the literature for background knowledge and then directly analyze the important problems.

  6. The MIT TEAL Simulations and Visualizations in Electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, John

    2007-03-01

    The Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at MIT has developed a broad range of 3D visualizations and simulations to foster student intuition about electromagnetic fields and phenomena (see http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/802TEAL3D/). In this talk we discuss the software approaches we use to create these simulations, including Macromedia Shockwave and Java 3D applets for interactive visualization, passive animations created with 3ds max, and the Dynamic Line Integral Convolution (DLIC) method for constructing time dependent representations of the electromagnetic field at close to the resolution of the computer display (Sundquist, 2003). The DLIC method, in particular, is far superior in delineating the spatial and temporal structure of fields as compared to e.g. field line displays or vector field grids. We also report on the use of these visualizations in instruction at the freshmen level. Our strong opinion is that for effective student learning, such visualizations must be embedded in a software framework for their interactive delivery. This ``guided inquiry'' framework is essential to influence and optimize what students take away from the visualizations. In our current research, we are delivering our visualizations using a commercial package, Addison Wesley's MasteringPhysics (MP), although any guided inquiry delivery system such as MP will be able to interact with our simulation software. We have released our Java 3D simulation software as open source with a liberal open source license (see http://jlearn.mit.edu/tealsim/ ), with support from the Davis Educational Foundation.

  7. Research in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at MIT LABA

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Howard, W.B.; Song, H.; Blackburn, B.; Binello, E.

    1997-02-01

    A 4.1 MeV tandem electrostatic accelerator designed for research into Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has recently been installed in the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). This accelerator uses a very high current switch mode high voltage power supply in conjunction with a multi-cusp negative ion source to supply the multimilliampere current required for clinical BNCT applications. A number of individual research projects aimed at evaluating the potential of this accelerator design as a hospital-based neutron source for radiation therapy of both tumors and rheumatoid arthritis are described here. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Characteristics of the MIT microwiggler for free electron laser applications

    SciTech Connect

    Catravas, P.; Stoner, R.; Bekefi, G.

    1995-12-31

    We report work on the development of microwiggler technology for free electron laser research. The MIT microwiggler is a pulsed electromagnet with 70 periods of 8.8 mm each which generates a peak on-axis field of 4.2 kG. The wiggler is characterized by extensive tunability. We developed a novel tuning regimen to control 140 degrees of freedom afforded by the individually tunable half periods and achieved an rms spread in the peak amplitudes of 0.08%. This is the lowest attained to date in any sub-cm period wiggler. The microwiggler design and comprehensive measurements of its characteristics will be described.

  9. Sicheres Navigieren in dynamischen Umgebungen mit 3D-Kollisionsvermeidung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiene, Stefan; Hertzberg, Joachim

    Diese Papier stellt eine neuartige Methode vor, die 3D-Hindernisvermeidung ermöglicht. Die Sensorkonfiguration beruht auf sechs Laserscannern, die die gesamte Roboteroberfläche abdecken. Die Daten der sechs Laserscanner werden zu einem virtuellen, zweidimensionalen, horizontal ausgerichteten 360°-Laserscanner kombiniert. Da der virtuelle Laserscanner die 3D-Umgebung in einem zweidimensionalen Datensatz repräsentiert, ermöglicht er in Kombination mit klassischen Hindernisvermeidungsalgorithmen wie der Vector Field Histogram Methode eine 3D-Hindernisvermeidung.

  10. Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

    Die Lösung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet tätig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militärischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das römische Imperium in starkem Maße auf militärisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische Überlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

  11. Was hat das Universum mit uns zu tun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Harald

    Was hat das Universum mit uns zu tun? Da der Mensch ein Teil des Universums ist, muss er etwas mit dem Universum zu tun haben. Das Universum stellt ja ganz allgemein den größten Ursache-Wirkung-Zusammenhang dar, über den hinaus zwar noch gedacht und gerechnet, aber nichts mehr beobachtet oder gemessen werden kann. Es definiert also nicht nur die Möglichkeiten materiell-energetischer Seinsformen sondern auch deren Grenzen. Leben, bzw. menschliches Leben stellt im Universum dann zwar eine spezielle Form, aber eben nur eine Form materieller Daseinsstruktur dar. Neben Galaxien, Gas, Sternen, Planeten, Asteroiden und anderen Formen unbelebter Materie gibt es eben auch noch Lebewesen. Das klingt nach Inventur, nach Aufzählung ohne Unterschied. Diese einfache erste Betrachtung liefert vielleicht die ein oder andere Anregung für ein weiteres Suchen nach Substanzen, aber ein wesentliches Moment geht hier verloren. Ich meine die empirische, sehr gut abgesicherte Tatsache, dass das Universum, wie alles was es enthält, eine Entwicklung durchlaufen hat und auch weiterhin durchläuft - nennen wir diese Entwicklung die kosmische Evolution.

  12. MIT image reconstruction based on edge-preserving regularization.

    PubMed

    Casanova, R; Silva, A; Borges, A R

    2004-02-01

    Tikhonov regularization has been widely used in electrical tomography to deal with the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. However, due to the fact that discontinuities are strongly penalized, this approach tends to produce blurred images. Recently, a lot of interest has been devoted to methods with edge-preserving properties, such as those related to total variation, wavelets and half-quadratic regularization. In the present work, the performance of an edge-preserving regularization method, called ARTUR, is evaluated in the context of magnetic induction tomography (MIT). ARTUR is a deterministic method based on half-quadratic regularization, where complementary a priori information may be introduced in the reconstruction algorithm by the use of a nonnegativity constraint. The method is first tested using an MIT analytical model that generates projection data given the position, the radius and the magnetic permeability of a single nonconductive cylindrical object. It is shown that even in the presence of strong Gaussian additive noise, it is still able to recover the main features of the object. Secondly, reconstructions based on real data for different configurations of conductive nonmagnetic cylindrical objects are presented and some of their parameters estimated. PMID:15005316

  13. DynaMIT: the dynamic motif integration toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Dassi, Erik; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    De-novo motif search is a frequently applied bioinformatics procedure to identify and prioritize recurrent elements in sequences sets for biological investigation, such as the ones derived from high-throughput differential expression experiments. Several algorithms have been developed to perform motif search, employing widely different approaches and often giving divergent results. In order to maximize the power of these investigations and ultimately be able to draft solid biological hypotheses, there is the need for applying multiple tools on the same sequences and merge the obtained results. However, motif reporting formats and statistical evaluation methods currently make such an integration task difficult to perform and mostly restricted to specific scenarios. We thus introduce here the Dynamic Motif Integration Toolkit (DynaMIT), an extremely flexible platform allowing to identify motifs employing multiple algorithms, integrate them by means of a user-selected strategy and visualize results in several ways; furthermore, the platform is user-extendible in all its aspects. DynaMIT is freely available at http://cibioltg.bitbucket.org. PMID:26253738

  14. Education Outreach at MIT Plasma Science Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.; Nachtrieb, R.; Rivenberg, P.

    1998-11-01

    Outreach at the MIT PSFC consists of volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science, engineering and mathematics, the PSFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Outreach also includes the Mr. Magnet Program, which uses an interactive strategy to engage elementary school children. Included in this year's presentation will be a live demo of a compressed-air bottle rocket (really a one-liter plastic soda bottle) for use in high school science classrooms that researchers at the Cambridge Physics Outlet (a PSFC spin-off company) have developed. To prepare the rocket for launch, the bottle is filled with compressed air at pressures up to 80 psi and the end is plugged. The rocket is released when the plug is pulled. The gas escapes at supersonic velocities and accelerates the bottle at over 1000 m/s^2. The velocity of the bottle is measured at many locations along its ``trajectory". A simple thermodynamic model predicts performance in excellent agreement with observation. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at http://pfc.mit.edu.

  15. PROPOSAL FOR A CAVITY POLARIMETER AT MIT-BATES.

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON,P.; BARRY,W.; CONTE,M.; GOLDBERG,D.A.; JACOBS,K.; LUCCIO,A.; PALAZZI,M.; PUSTERLA,M.; MACKAY,W.

    2001-06-18

    The possibility of successfully implementing a cavity polarimeter[1] has been greatly improved by the discovery[2] of a cavity mode for which the magnitude of the Stern-Gerlach force experienced by a magnetic moment traversing the cavity varies as the square of the relativistic factor gamma, so that the signal power varies as the fourth power of gamma. In addition, the interaction of this cavity mode with the beam charge varies as the inverse of the interaction with the magnetic moment, so that the background due to the beam charge varies as the inverse fourth power of gamma, If these gamma dependencies of moment and charge interaction with the pickup cavity do in fact exists the possibility is opened for very fast, accurate, and inexpensive polarimetry at accelerators like MIT-Bates and RHIC. In addition, it might become possible to seriously consider Stern-Gerlach polarization of beams at LHC. We present details of a quick polarimeter test at the electron storage ring at MIT-Bates, and of an extension of this test to a working polarimeter in the RHIC rings.

  16. Material Identification Technology (MIT) concept technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y.; Johnson, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has initiated the design and development of a novel pulsed accelerator-based, active interrogation concept. The proposed concept, referred to as the Material Identification Technology (MIT), enables rapid (between accelerator pulses), non-destructive, elemental composition analysis of both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Applications of this technique include material monitoring in support of counter-proliferation activities, such as export controls (at domestic and international inspection locations), SNM controls, nuclear weapon dismantlement, and chemical weapon verification. Material Identification Technology combines a pulsed, X-ray source (an electron accelerator) and a gamma detection system. The accelerator must maximize neutron production (pulse width, beam current, beam energy, and repetition rate) and minimize photon dose to the object. Current available accelerator technology can meet these requirements. The detection system must include detectors which provide adequate gamma energy resolution capability, rapid recovery after the initial X-ray interrogation pulse, and multiple single gamma event detection between accelerator pulses. Further research is required to develop the detection system. This report provides the initial feasibility assessment of the MIT concept.

  17. M.I.T. and the Federal Government. An Examination of the Effects of Government Regulation and Research Support on Selected Parts of M.I.T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, David

    A self-study was undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) to examine the impact of the federal government on it. M.I.T. is a large institution with an enrollment of 8,000, a faculty of 950, and a total teaching staff of 1,700. Of its operating expenses by far the largest source of funds in recent years has been sponsored…

  18. Multifunction Instrument Tree (MIT) Neutron and Gamma Probe Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU)

    SciTech Connect

    CANNON, N.S.

    1999-08-08

    The multifunction instrument tree (MIT) probe program has been developed to modify existing Liquid Observation Well (LOW) neutron and gamma probes for use in the validation shafts of the two MITs installed in Tank 241-SY-101. One of the program objectives is that the modified MIT probes be completely compatible with the existing LOW van instrumentation and procedures. The major program objective is to produce neutron and gamma scans from Tank 241-SY-101 that would assist in evaluating waste feature structure and elevation. The MIT probe program is described in greater detail in the engineering task plan (HNF-3322). In accordance with the engineering task plan, a test plan (HNF-3595) was written, reduced diameter (allowing insertion into the MIT validation tube) neutron and gamma probes were acquired, an acceptance and operational test procedure (HNF-3838) was written, acceptance and operational testing of the MIT probes was performed, and a report of these test results (HNF-4369) has been issued. A number of neutron and gamma probe scans have been obtained from the Tank 241-SY-101 MITs, starting on February 8, 1999, in cooperation with Operations. Now that the MIT probes are fully demonstrated, this document transfers ownership of these probes to Operations, utilizing the final acceptance for beneficial use (ABU) form that follows in Section 3.0.

  19. Announcing the Availability of the MIT SMASS and SMASSIR Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Bus, S. J.; Burbine, T. H.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    We announce the release of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy measurements for nearly 2000 asteroids obtained by the MIT Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) program. Data are being released via http://smass.mit.edu. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. MIT(1), a black mamba toxin with a new and highly potent activity on intestinal contraction.

    PubMed

    Schweitz, H; Pacaud, P; Diochot, S; Moinier, D; Lazdunski, M

    1999-11-19

    Mamba intestinal toxin (MIT(1)) isolated from Dendroaspis polylepis venom is a 81 amino acid polypeptide cross-linked by five disulphide bridges. MIT(1) has a very potent action on guinea-pig intestinal contractility. MIT(1) (1 nM) potently contracts longitudinal ileal muscle and distal colon, and this contraction is equivalent to that of 40 mM K(+). Conversely MIT(1) relaxes proximal colon again as potently as 40 mM K(+). The MIT(1)-induced effects are antagonised by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) in proximal and distal colon but not in longitudinal ileum. The MIT(1)-induced relaxation of the proximal colon is reversibly inhibited by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (200 microM). (125)I-labelled MIT(1) binds with a very high affinity to both ileum and brain membranes (K(d)=1.3 pM and 0.9 pM, and B(max)=30 fmol/mg and 26 fmol/mg, respectively). MIT(1) is a very highly selective toxin for a receptor present both in the CNS and in the smooth muscle and which might be an as yet unidentified K(+) channel. PMID:10567694

  1. Scratch that: MIT's Mitchel Resnick Says Kids Should Do It for Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Mitchel Resnick is a researcher, inventor, and professor at MIT's Media Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, and the founder of the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at MIT. He is the lead innovator behind many cutting-edge learning technologies and projects for children, including the Computer Clubhouse, PicoCrickets, and the wildly successful consumer…

  2. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  3. Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU): M-Learning Applications for Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, M.; Gips, J.; Eagle, N.; Madan, A.; Caneel, R.; DeVaul, R.; Bonsen, J.; Pentland, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU) system, which demonstrates the potential of using a distributed mobile device architecture for rapid prototyping of wireless mobile multi-user applications for use in classroom settings. MIT.EDU is a stable, accessible system that combines inexpensive, commodity hardware, a flexible…

  4. Temperature-driven and photo-induced MIT behaviors of VO2 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Byun, Ji-Won; Baik, Jeong Min

    2014-03-01

    VO2 shows a metal-insulator transition (MIT) and structural phase transition (SPT) at critical temperature (Tc) of 343K. It has been known that the MIT and SPT behaviors of VO2 can be tuned by external stimuli such as light, electric-field, and strain. We carried out comparative studies of MIT behaviors of VO2 nanowires during heating-cooling cycles with and without illumination using several light sources (red, blue, and UV). Light can induce change in Tc and hysteresis width of the resistance change. We have investigated influences of light on SPT during MIT. In this presentation, we will discuss possible physical origins for the photo-induced effects on the MIT behaviors of the VO2 nanowires.

  5. Child Care is Everybody's Baby: A Comprehensive Report of Child Care Services, Past, Present, and Future at M.I.T. Final Child Care Proposals as Accepted by M.I.T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Marilyn S.

    The report on child care services at M.I.T. explores the following areas: (1) Planning Issues: Why Should M.I.T. Be Involved in Child Care?--educational concerns, services, benefits and costs, priorities, resource allocation; (2) Background for Planning; Current Institute Child Care Programs--a concise history, M.I.T. summer day camp, the…

  6. MIT-KSC space life sciences telescience testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A Telescience Life Sciences Testbed is being developed. The first phase of this effort consisted of defining the experiments to be performed, investigating the various possible means of communication between KSC and MIT, and developing software and hardware support. The experiments chosen were two vestibular sled experiments: a study of ocular torsion produced by Y axis linear acceleration, based on the Spacelab D-1 072 Vestibular Experiment performed pre- and post-flight at KSC; and an optokinetic nystagmus (OKN)/linear acceleration interaction experiment. These two experiments were meant to simulate actual experiments that might be performed on the Space Station and to be representative of space life sciences experiments in general in their use of crew time and communications resources.

  7. Microfiche Image Transmission System (MITS) demonstration field evaluation of microfacsimile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, D. L., Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The MITS Demonstration was conducted for a 6-month period between 14 December 1981 and 11 June 1982. During that period, more than 1000 microfiche containing about 22,000 personnel document images were electronically transmitted between NMPC and the Personnel Support Detachment, Anacostia. These fiche represented nearly 300 active Navy personnel records. The average turnaround time was 46 minutes between making a request and receiving a facsimile record. This time included retrieval of the master microfiche, duplication, scanning, data transmission, and facsimile recording. The average scanning/transmission time was 15 minutes per record slightly less than 8 seconds per document image. The facsimile documents were found to be useful to the recipients, but improvements in both the output quality and the system itself are necessary to ensure effective implementation of an operational configuration.

  8. [R]MIT Research Centre at Delft University of Technology: A Bridge between Research, Education, Society and Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlstra, Hielkje

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we launched the [R]MIT Research Centre (Modification, Intervention Transformation) at the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. [R]MIT was founded to respond to the need for an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to the transformation of the built environment. [R]MIT aims to bring momentum to the renewal of…

  9. 2mit, an Intronic Gene of Drosophila melanogaster timeless2, Is Involved in Behavioral Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Benna, Clara; Leonardi, Emanuela; Romoli, Ottavia; Cognolato, Moira; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.; Costa, Rodolfo; Sandrelli, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Background Intronic genes represent ~6% of the total gene complement in Drosophila melanogaster and ~85% of them encode for proteins. We recently characterized the D. melanogaster timeless2 (tim2) gene, showing its active involvement in chromosomal stability and light synchronization of the adult circadian clock. The protein coding gene named 2mit maps on the 11th tim2 intron in the opposite transcriptional orientation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of 2mit. The 2mit gene is expressed throughout Drosophila development, localizing mainly in the nervous system during embryogenesis and mostly in the mushroom bodies and ellipsoid body of the central complex in the adult brain. In silico analyses revealed that 2mit encodes a putative leucine-Rich Repeat transmembrane receptor with intrinsically disordered regions, harboring several fully conserved functional interaction motifs in the cytosolic side. Using insertional mutations, tissue-specific over-expression, and down-regulation approaches, it was found that 2mit is implicated in adult short-term memory, assessed by a courtship conditioning assay. In D. melanogaster, tim2 and 2mit do not seem to be functionally related. Bioinformatic analyses identified 2MIT orthologs in 21 Drosophilidae, 4 Lepidoptera and in Apis mellifera. In addition, the tim2-2mit host-nested gene organization was shown to be present in A. mellifera and maintained among Drosophila species. Within the Drosophilidae 2mit-hosting tim2 intron, in silico approaches detected a neuronal specific transcriptional binding site which might have contributed to preserve the specific host-nested gene association across Drosophila species. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results indicate that 2mit, a gene mainly expressed in the nervous system, has a role in the behavioral plasticity of the adult Drosophila. The presence of a putative 2mit regulatory enhancer within the 2mit-hosting tim2

  10. Star in Deep Freeze Chills Theory, MIT Researchers Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- Like a frozen turkey that just won't thaw, a strange star near the center of the Milky Way is surprising MIT experts and colleagues with its remarkably low temperature. The odd behavior is chilling current theories of stellar physics. A famously battered neutron star named KS 1731-260 appears no hotter than some of its tranquil brethren, despite enduring the heat of constant thermonuclear explosions with the force of billions of hydrogen bombs every second across a region only a few miles wide for the past 12 years. Dr. Rudi Wijnands, an astrophysicist at MIT's Center for Space Research, used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to measure the temperature of the neutron star at a very opportune moment, only months after the nuclear war apparently ended and the smoke cleared. He presented his team's findings September 5 in Washington, D.C. at a scientific conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "Twelve years of constant thermonuclear explosions: One would think that would heat things up," said Wijnands. "This leaves us wondering whether some neutron stars are in the freezer for a much longer time than previously thought and consequently take a long time to heat up, or whether they cool down incredibly fast. Either explanation has profound implications for our field." Neutron stars are the dense, core remains of stars once many times more massive than our Sun. They are created in dazzling supernovas, in which the outer shell of the star explodes into space, and the core, containing about as much mass as the Sun, implodes and collapses into a sphere no wider than Cambridge, Massachusetts. Despite their tiny size, neutron stars are visible in several ways. One is through accretion. Neutron stars are a strong source of gravity. When they exist in binary star systems, such as KS 1731-260, they can attract the gas from what is often a "healthy" hydrogen-burning companion star (although the nature of KS 1731-260's companion is not clear.) Gas

  11. Having Fun with Physics at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenberg, P.; Thomas, P.; Censabella, V.; Granville, J.; Nachtrieb, R.; Gangadhara, S.

    1997-11-01

    MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center staff and students are convinced that students learn best not by studying but by doing. This was the impetus behind a group of MIT graduate students who created Cambridge Physics Outlet, a PSFC spin-off company dedicated to creating hands-on experiments. The same impulse fostered the award-winning Mr. Magnet Program, a traveling presentation which uses a hands-on strategy to engage elementary school children. A number of ingenious experiments will be demonstrated. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at HTTP://PFC.MIT.EDU.

  12. Solution of the inverse problem of magnetic induction tomography (MIT).

    PubMed

    Merwa, Robert; Hollaus, Karl; Brunner, Patricia; Scharfetter, Hermann

    2005-04-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) of biological tissue is used to reconstruct the changes in the complex conductivity distribution inside an object under investigation. The measurement principle is based on determining the perturbation DeltaB of a primary alternating magnetic field B0, which is coupled from an array of excitation coils to the object under investigation. The corresponding voltages DeltaV and V0 induced in a receiver coil carry the information about the passive electrical properties (i.e. conductivity, permittivity and permeability). The reconstruction of the conductivity distribution requires the solution of a 3D inverse eddy current problem. As in EIT the inverse problem is ill-posed and on this account some regularization scheme has to be applied. We developed an inverse solver based on the Gauss-Newton-one-step method for differential imaging, and we implemented and tested four different regularization schemes: the first and second approaches employ a classical smoothness criterion using the unit matrix and a differential matrix of first order as the regularization matrix. The third method is based on variance uniformization, and the fourth method is based on the truncated singular value decomposition. Reconstructions were carried out with synthetic measurement data generated with a spherical perturbation at different locations within a conducting cylinder. Data were generated on a different mesh and 1% random noise was added. The model contained 16 excitation coils and 32 receiver coils which could be combined pairwise to give 16 planar gradiometers. With 32 receiver coils all regularization methods yield fairly good 3D-images of the modelled changes of the conductivity distribution, and prove the feasibility of difference imaging with MIT. The reconstructed perturbations appear at the right location, and their size is in the expected range. With 16 planar gradiometers an additional spurious feature appears mirrored with respect to the median

  13. Internationalizing Practical ChE Education: The M.I.T. Practice School in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Andrea J.; Kandas, Angelo W.; Natori, Yukikazu; Hatton, T. Alan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the establishment, benefits, and difficulties of an overseas branch of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) chemical engineering Practice School for student internship study at the Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Mizushima Plant in Kurashiki, Japan. (WRM)

  14. Research Experiences for Undergraduates at MIT Haystack Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, J. E.; Erickson, P. J.; Pratap, P.

    2005-12-01

    Initiated in 1987, the NSF-supported Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program at MIT Haystack Observatory has provided internships in upper atmospheric physics and radio astronomy to over 150 science and engineering students recruited nationally. Post-REU surveys by Haystack indicate that the majority of the students elected to pursue graduate education and careers in science and engineering, with many of them citing the REU program as an important influence in their decision process. During their internships at Haystack, the students have utilized the Observatory's radar and radio telescope facilities and analyzed the resulting measurements, they developed instrumentation or software that were implemented as part of our projects, and they participated in professional conferences where they presented their project results. Mentored by a Haystack researcher, each undergraduate student selected a research project that was part of the Observatory's overall program and became engaged in a full research experience from inception to publication. The students also interacted with local area pre-college teachers and students who were actively pursuing educational outreach programs at Haystack that were synergistic with the REU efforts.

  15. Lessons learned from the MIT Tara control and data system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Fredian, T.W.; Irby, J.H.; Karcher, C.A.; Rameriz, R.A.; Sevillano, E.; Stillerman, J.A.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The control and data system of the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror has worked successfully throughout the lifetime of the experiment (1983 through 1987). As the Tara project winds down, it is appropriate to summarize the lessons learned from the implementation and operation of the control and data system over the years and in its final form. The control system handled approx.2400 I/0 points in real time throughout the 5 to 10 minute shot cycle while the data system, in near real time, handled approx.1000 signals with a total of 5 to 7 Mbytes of data each shot. The implementation depended upon a consistent approach based on separating physics and engineering functions and on detailed functional diagrams with narrowly defined cross communication. This paper is a comprehensive treatment of the principal successes, residual problems, and dilemmas that arose from the beginning until the final hardware and software implementation. Suggestions for future systems of either similar size or of larger scale such as CIT are made in the conclusion. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Educational Outreach at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenberg, Paul; Thomas, Paul

    2006-10-01

    At the MIT PSFC, student and staff volunteers work together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion science and plasma technology. Seeking to generate excitement in young people about science and engineering, the PSFC hosts a number of educational outreach activities throughout the year, including Middle and High School Outreach Days. The PSFC also has an in-school science demonstration program on the theme of magnetism. The Mr. Magnet Program, headed by Mr. Paul Thomas, has been bringing lively demonstrations on magnetism into local elementary and middle schools for 15 years. This year Mr. Magnet presented the program to nearly 30,000 students at over 67 schools and other events, reaching kindergartners through college freshmen. In addition to his program on magnetism, he is offering an interactive lecture about plasma to high schools. The "Traveling Plasma Lab" encourages students to learn more about plasma science while having fun investigating plasma properties using actual laboratory techniques and equipment. Beyond the classroom, Paul Thomas has provided technical training for Boston Museum of Science staff in preparation for the opening of a Star Wars exhibit. His hands-on demos have also been filmed by the History Channel for a one-hour program about Magnetism, which aired in June 2006.

  17. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  18. Knocking down mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) reprograms primary and secondary metabolism in rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Lehmann, Martin; Casiraghi, Fabio Marco; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Seki, Motoaki; Geigenberger, Peter; Zocchi, Graziano; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and its reduced bioavailability strongly impairs mitochondrial functionality. In this work, the metabolic adjustment in the rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial Fe transporter knockdown mutant (mit-2) was analysed. Biochemical characterization of purified mitochondria from rice roots showed alteration in the respiratory chain of mit-2 compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In particular, proteins belonging to the type II alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases accumulated strongly in mit-2 plants, indicating that alternative pathways were activated to keep the respiratory chain working. Additionally, large-scale changes in the transcriptome and metabolome were observed in mit-2 rice plants. In particular, a strong alteration (up-/down-regulation) in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism was found in mutant plants. This was reflected by changes in the metabolic profiles in both roots and shoots of mit-2 plants. Significant alterations in the levels of amino acids belonging to the aspartic acid-related pathways (aspartic acid, lysine, and threonine in roots, and aspartic acid and ornithine in shoots) were found that are strictly connected to the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, some metabolites (e.g. pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, ornithine, and oligosaccharides of the raffinose family) accumulated only in the shoot of mit-2 plants, indicating possible hypoxic responses. These findings suggest that the induction of local Fe deficiency in the mitochondrial compartment of mit-2 plants differentially affects the transcript as well as the metabolic profiles in root and shoot tissues. PMID:26685186

  19. Knocking down mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) reprograms primary and secondary metabolism in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Lehmann, Martin; Casiraghi, Fabio Marco; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Seki, Motoaki; Geigenberger, Peter; Zocchi, Graziano; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and its reduced bioavailability strongly impairs mitochondrial functionality. In this work, the metabolic adjustment in the rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial Fe transporter knockdown mutant (mit-2) was analysed. Biochemical characterization of purified mitochondria from rice roots showed alteration in the respiratory chain of mit-2 compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In particular, proteins belonging to the type II alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases accumulated strongly in mit-2 plants, indicating that alternative pathways were activated to keep the respiratory chain working. Additionally, large-scale changes in the transcriptome and metabolome were observed in mit-2 rice plants. In particular, a strong alteration (up-/down-regulation) in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism was found in mutant plants. This was reflected by changes in the metabolic profiles in both roots and shoots of mit-2 plants. Significant alterations in the levels of amino acids belonging to the aspartic acid-related pathways (aspartic acid, lysine, and threonine in roots, and aspartic acid and ornithine in shoots) were found that are strictly connected to the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, some metabolites (e.g. pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, ornithine, and oligosaccharides of the raffinose family) accumulated only in the shoot of mit-2 plants, indicating possible hypoxic responses. These findings suggest that the induction of local Fe deficiency in the mitochondrial compartment of mit-2 plants differentially affects the transcript as well as the metabolic profiles in root and shoot tissues. PMID:26685186

  20. A New Tool for Inundation Modeling: Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Greenslade, D. J. M.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Badal, R.; Synolakis, C. E.; Kânoğlu, U.

    2011-11-01

    Almost 5 years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, the 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami demonstrated that accurate forecasting is possible using the tsunami community modeling tool Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT). ComMIT is designed for ease of use, and allows dissemination of results to the community while addressing concerns associated with proprietary issues of bathymetry and topography. It uses initial conditions from a precomputed propagation database, has an easy-to-interpret graphical interface, and requires only portable hardware. ComMIT was initially developed for Indian Ocean countries with support from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To date, more than 60 scientists from 17 countries in the Indian Ocean have been trained and are using it in operational inundation mapping.

  1. MITR-III: Upgrade and relicensing studies for the MIT Research Reactor. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Trosman, H.G.; Lanning, D.D.; Harling, O.K.

    1994-08-01

    The current operating license of the MIT research reactor will expire on May 7, 1996 or possibly a few years later if the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission agrees that the license period can start with the date of initial reactor operation. Driven by the imminent expiration of the operating license, a team of nuclear engineering staff and students have begun a study of the future options for the MIT Research Reactor. These options have included the range from a major rebuilding of the reactor to its decommissioning. This document reports the results of a two year intensive activity which has been supported by a $148,000 grant from the USDOE contract Number DEFG0293ER75859, approximately $100,000 of internal MIT funds and Nuclear Engineering Department graduate student fellowships as well as assistance from international visiting scientists and engineers.

  2. Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Report on Activities (UCLA/MIT), 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Carter

    2011-04-18

    The final 'phaseout' year of the CMPD ended July 2010; a no cost extension was requested until May 2011 in order to enable the MIT subcontract funds to be fully utilized. Research progress over this time included verification and validation activities for the BOUT and BOUT++ code, studies of spontaneous reconnection in the VTF facility at MIT, and studies of the interaction between Alfven waves and drift waves in LAPD. The CMPD also hosted the 6th plasma physics winter school in 2010 (jointly with the NSF frontier center the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, significant funding came from NSF for this most recent iteration of the Winter School).

  3. 193-nm full-field step-and-scan prototype at MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbs, Michael S.; Kunz, Roderick R.

    1995-05-01

    Optical lithography at a 193-nm exposure wavelength has been under development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory for several years, supported by ARPA's Advanced Lithography Program. As part of this program, a prototype 193-nm full-field step-and-scan lithographic exposure system was built and installed in the clean-room facilities of MIT Lincoln Laboratory. This exposure system has now been in use for one year, supporting a program of photoresist and lithographic process development at 193 nm. This paper describes the characteristics of the exposure system and some of the advances in 193-nm lithography that have been achieved with the system.

  4. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jinjia; Bai, Peng; Shi, Lei; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Mian; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Cai, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    The alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is the most powerful and commonly used promoter for driving protein expression. However, mechanisms regulating its transcriptional activity are unclear. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2Cys6-type methanol-induced transcription factor 1 (Mit1) and elucidated its roles in regulating PAOX1 activity in response to glycerol and methanol. Mit1 regulated the expression of many genes involved in methanol utilization pathway, including AOX1, but did not participate in peroxisome proliferation and transportation of peroxisomal proteins during methanol metabolism. Structural analysis of Mit1 by performing domain deletions confirmed its specific and critical role in the strict repression of PAOX1 in glycerol medium. Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated PAOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to PAOX1 at different sites and did not interact with each other. However, these factors cooperatively activated PAOX1 through a cascade. Mxr1 mainly functioned during carbon derepression, whereas Mit1 and Prm1 functioned during methanol induction, with Prm1 transmitting methanol signal to Mit1 by binding to the MIT1 promoter (PMIT1), thus increasingly expressing Mit1 and subsequently activating PAOX1. PMID:26828066

  5. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jinjia; Bai, Peng; Shi, Lei; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Mian; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Cai, Menghao

    2016-03-18

    The alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is the most powerful and commonly used promoter for driving protein expression. However, mechanisms regulating its transcriptional activity are unclear. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2Cys6-type methanol-induced transcription factor 1 (Mit1) and elucidated its roles in regulating PAOX1 activity in response to glycerol and methanol. Mit1 regulated the expression of many genes involved in methanol utilization pathway, including AOX1, but did not participate in peroxisome proliferation and transportation of peroxisomal proteins during methanol metabolism. Structural analysis of Mit1 by performing domain deletions confirmed its specific and critical role in the strict repression of PAOX1 in glycerol medium. Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated PAOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to PAOX1 at different sites and did not interact with each other. However, these factors cooperatively activated PAOX1 through a cascade. Mxr1 mainly functioned during carbon derepression, whereas Mit1 and Prm1 functioned during methanol induction, with Prm1 transmitting methanol signal to Mit1 by binding to the MIT1 promoter (PMIT1), thus increasingly expressing Mit1 and subsequently activating PAOX1. PMID:26828066

  6. How Much Have They Retained? Making Unseen Concepts Seen in a Freshman Electromagnetism Course at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hult, Erin; Breslow, Lori; Belcher, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The introductory freshmen electromagnetism course at MIT has been taught since 2000 using a studio physics format entitled TEAL--Technology Enabled Active Learning. TEAL has created a collaborative, hands-on environment where students carry out desktop experiments, submit web-based assignments, and have access to a host of visualizations and…

  7. When Alcohol Kills, Who Is Responsible? MIT's Inaction Blamed for Contributing to Death of a Freshman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1998-01-01

    The alcohol-related death of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) freshman has focused attention on problems in the institution's housing policies and fraternity system, including unclear policy about housing and long-ignored complaints about hazing and dangerous drinking in the Greek system. (MSE)

  8. The MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Tokunaga, A.; Bus, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. All spectroscopic observations obtained in this campaign are being made publicly available in near-real time.

  9. Graduate Training and Potential Employment for Political Scientists: The MIT Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Alan

    This paper presents ideas on ways to help graduate students in political science to become more marketable for nonacademic positions. It also includes background information on the changing employment market for Ph.D.'s. These ideas were discussed at a 1980 meeting of teachers, graduate students, and recent Ph.D.'s at MIT. The purpose of the…

  10. Rapid Confirmation of Listeria spp. with the MIT 1000 Microbial Identification System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods that can rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The USDA has recently entered into a collaborative research agreement with Micro Imaging Technology to evaluate their MIT 1000 microbial identification system for its ability to identify Listeria species ...

  11. NASIC at MIT; Phase 1 Report, 16 July 1973 - 28 February 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenfeld, Alan R.; And Others

    An experimental, pilot operation of computer-based reference search services to users on a fee-for-service basis was initiated at M.I.T. as the first module in the development of the Northeast Academic Science Information Center (NASIC) under a New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) program. The development encompassed, among other tasks,…

  12. Lithium-metal infused trenches (LiMIT) for heat removal in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, D. N.; Xu, W.; Andruczyk, D.; Jaworski, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Observation of liquid lithium flow in metal trenches has been made using a lithium-metal infused trench (LiMIT) tile and is reported here. The flow is self-pumping and uses thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamics to remove heated lithium and replenish it at a lower temperature. Flow velocities have been measured and compared with theoretical predictions.

  13. ComMIT and Tweb Integration: Global Tsunami Modeling Done Locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamb, L.; Moore, C. W.; Burger, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Tweb is a web-based tsunami modeling research tool that was developed to provide distributed and remote access to the modeling and forecasting infrastructure developed for operational use at NOAA's Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR). ComMIT is a desktop application providing a powerful and fully functional, yet easy-to use graphical user interface to the NCTR-developed MOST tsunami forecasting model. ComMIT is a self-contained downloadable application available from NCTR for use by qualified and novice modelers alike. We have recently added functionality that allows ComMIT to retrieve the prefered model solution for tsunami events from the Tweb Web Service. A ComMIT user with access to high resolution coastal bathymetry can generate detailed inundation models for real or synthetic events for their areas of interest. Then with the push of a button, the ComMIT user can upload their model results to Tweb where a community of tsunami modelers and forecasters can see these model results displayed in Tweb, along with other operational and contributed inundation forecast models. Besides the crowdsourcing aspect of tsunami modeling that will allow tsunami forecasters to get inundation model inputs from areas they normally would not consider, these contributed flooding models could provide forecasters with an early model solution verification capability by allowing model result comparisons with local tide gauge data in areas where operational models have not been developed. In addition, with the proper training this tool is very useful for education and as a vehicle for community tsunami hazard assessment. We will illustrate the model solution and results interchange capabilities now possible with these two applications.

  14. Optimization of the matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) impulse response and modulation transfer function characteristics for chest imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Devon J.; McAdams, H.P.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2006-03-15

    Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory, along with a priori knowledge of the imaging geometry, to deterministically distinguish between true structure and overlying tomographic blur in a set of conventional tomosynthesis planes. In this paper we examine the effect of total scan angle (ANG), number of input projections (N), and plane separation/number of reconstructed planes (NP) on the MITS impulse response (IR) and modulation transfer function (MTF), with the purpose of optimizing MITS imaging of the chest. MITS IR and MTF data were generated by simulating the imaging of a very thin wire, using various combinations of ANG, N, and NP. Actual tomosynthesis data of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were acquired with a prototype experimental system, using the same imaging parameter combinations as those in the simulations. Thoracic projection data from two human subjects were collected for corroboration of the system response analysis in vivo. Results suggest that ANG=20 deg. , N=71, NP=69 is the optimal combination for MITS chest imaging given the inherent constraints of our prototype system. MITS chest data from human subjects demonstrates that the selected imaging strategy can effectively produce high-quality MITS thoracic images in vivo.

  15. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)-MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN-MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN-MTX produced nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN-MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  16. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  17. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  18. Executing a program on the MIT tagged-token dataflow architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind; Nikhil, R.S. . Lab. for Computer Science)

    1990-03-01

    The MIT tagged-token dataflow project has an unconventional, but integrated approach to general-purpose high-performance parallel computing. Rather than extending conventional sequential languages, the authors use Id, a high-level language with fine-grained parallelism and determinacy implicit in its operational semantics. Id programs are compiled to dynamic dataflow graphs, a parallel machine language. Dataflow graphs are directly executed on the MIT tagged-token dataflow architecture (TTDA), a novel multiprocessor architecture. Dataflow research has advanced significantly in the last few years; in this paper, the authors provide an overview of our current thinking, by describing example Id programs, their compilation to dataflow graphs, and their execution on the TTDA. Finally, the authors describe related work and the status of our project.

  19. Educational Outreach at the M.I.T. Plasma Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.

    1996-11-01

    Educational outreach at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center consists of volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science, engineering and mathematics, the PFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Outreach also includes the Mr. Magnet Program, which uses an interactive strategy to engage elementary school children. Included in this year's presentation will be a new and improved C-MOD Jr, a confinement video game which helps students to discover how computers manipulate magnetic pulses to keep a plasma confined for as long as possible. Also on display will be an educational toy created by the Cambridge Physics Outlet, a PFC spin-off company. The PFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at http://cmod2.pfc.mit.edu/.

  20. Teleoperation experiments with a Utah/MIT hand and a VPL DataGlove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D.; Demmel, J.; Hong, J.; Lafferriere, Gerardo; Salkind, L.; Tan, X.

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperation system capable of controlling a Utah/MIT Dextrous Hand using a VPL DataGlove as a master is presented. Additionally the system is capable of running the dextrous hand in robotic (autonomous) mode as new programs are developed. The software and hardware architecture used is presented and the experiments performed are described. The communication and calibration issues involved are analyzed and applications to the analysis and development of automated dextrous manipulations are investigated.

  1. The MIT high resolution X-ray spectroscopy instruments on AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Dewey, D.; Galton, E. B.; Markert, T. H.; Smith, Henry I.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Woodgate, B. E.; Jordan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The general design and performance characteristics of MIT's two dispersive spectrometers, the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) and the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG), now being developed for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), are described. Particular attention is given to the development of the critical technologies incorporated into these instruments, including BCS diffractors, imaging gas flow proportional counters, and grating elements for the HETG. The principal stages and the current status of the developments are reviewed.

  2. Acceptance and Operational Test Report for Neutron and Gamma Probe Application to Tank 241-SY-101 MITs

    SciTech Connect

    CANNON, N.S.

    1999-08-12

    This Operational Test Report (OTR) presents the results of the ATP/OTP testing performed to verify that newly procured neutron and gamma probes (reduced diameter design modifications) for operation in the Tank 241-SY-101 MITs are compatible with existing LOW van instrumentation and hardware. This verification was accomplished and a set of moisture data versus elevation were obtained from the Tank 241-SY-101 MITs as part of this testing program.

  3. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. PMID:27606616

  4. Magnetisches Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Wegner, Ingmar; Kenngott, Hannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gutt, Carsten N.

    In dieser Studie wurde untersucht ob in einem typischen OP-Aufbau mit dem da Vinci® Telemanipulator elektromagnetisches Tracking für die Realisation eines Navigationssystems eingesetzt werden kann. Hierfür wurde in einem realen OP-Aufbau untersucht, wie stark metallische und ferromagnetisch wirksame Objekte wie Operationstisch und Telemanipulator das elektromagnetische Feld des Trackingsystems beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Telemanipulator nur unwesentlich die Störung des Magnetfeldes durch den OP-Tisch verstärkt. Insbesondere die Bewegung der Instrumente im Trackingvolumen verursachte keine zusätzliche relevante Störung des Magnetfeldes. Bei Begrenzung des Trackingvolumens auf eine Länge von 190 mm, Höhe von 200mm und Breite von 400 mm war der maximale Fehler in diesem Bereich an allen Messpunkten kleiner 10 mm. Der Einsatz von elektromagnetischem Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System ist somit in einem begrenzten Arbeitsvolumen mit hinreichender Genauigkeit möglich.

  5. MIT: A Future Mission to Investigate Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling with Multipoint Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere (MIT) mission is one of the Space Science Strategic Pioneer Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Its major scientific objectives focus on the heating, acceleration and transport processes of ions in the polar regions and on their impact on the ring current and radiation belts. Because of the dynamic nature of these processes that also vary with altitude, it is imperative to cover with MIT altitudes from a few 100 km to several earth radii. This will be accomplished with a novel constellation of four spacecraft in polar orbits that provide periodic simultaneous measurements in the polar regions at three different altitudes. The two Ionospheric spacecraft have a polar orbit of 500km*1500km. The other two spacecraft have symmetric polar orbits with geocentric distances of 2Re*8Re (Re is the radius of the Earth).With instrument packages covering particle and field measurements over a wide energy range on all four spacecraft we will be able to monitor and investigate all relevant processes, including ion outflow from the source region in the ionosphere, their acceleration at mid-altitudes, to their final destination in the magnetosphere. Presently, MIT is in the background study stage that will be completed in 2015, with the engineering stage planed to start in 2016, if selected.

  6. May 1, 1989- A Critical Turning Point in the Cold Fusion Saga: APS, MIT and the Real Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Sc. D.; Eugene, F.; Chubb, Talbot

    2001-04-01

    As Chief Science Writer at the MIT News Office from 1987 through 1991, and as an engineer (MIT, S.B. 1969, S.M. 1970) familiar with heat measurements and the various other experiment claims, I was in a position to ascertain the true facts surrounding: the media and Press Conference events at MIT before and after May 1, 1989; the ill-fated calorimetric experiment performed by the MIT Plasma Fusion Center; and the MIT Administration's so-called investigation of this experiment. This activity led to wide-spread disparagement of the Fleischmann-Pons claims. A reconstruction of these events will be outlined, together with original supporting evidence that confirm that the "standard story" of how cold fusion was "debunked" at the May 1, 1989 APS meeting in Baltimore is not only wrong, but catastrophically so(Eugene Mallove, Fire from Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor. (John Wiley & Sons, 1991))^,(Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue #24, March/April 1999, 10th Anniversary of Cold Fusion issue. (Includes time-lines and 55-page "MIT Special Report") ).

  7. Teaching practical leadership in MIT satellite development class: CASTOR and Exoplanet projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Craig, Jennifer L.; Connor, Jane A.

    2012-08-01

    For more than a decade, the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT has offered undergraduate students the opportunity of conceiving, developing, implementing and operating new spacecraft's missions. During a three term class, junior and senior students experience all the challenges of a true engineering team project: design, analysis, testing, technical documentation development, team management, and leadership. Leadership instruction is an important part of the curricula; through the development of leadership skills, students learn to manage themselves and each other in a more effective way, increasing the overall productivity of the team. Also, a strong leadership education is a key factor in improving the abilities of future engineers to be effective team members and leaders in the companies and agencies in which they will work. However, too often leadership instruction is presented in an abstract way, which does not provide students with suggestions for immediate applicability. As a consequence, students underestimate the potential that leadership education can have on the development of their projects. To counteract that effect, a new approach for teaching "practical" leadership has been developed. This approach is composed of a set of activities developed to improve students' leadership skills in the context of a project. Specifically, this approach has been implemented in the MIT satellite development class. In that class, students experienced the challenges of building two satellites: CASTOR and Exoplanet. These two missions are real space projects which will be launched in the next two years, and which involve cooperation with different entities (MIT, NASA, and Draper). Hence, the MIT faculty was interested in developing leadership activities to improve the productivity of the teams in a short time. In fact, one of the key aspects of the approach proposed is that it can be quickly implemented in a single semester, requiring no more than 4 h of

  8. MitProNet: A Knowledgebase and Analysis Platform of Proteome, Interactome and Diseases for Mammalian Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Song; Chai, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yuling; Hou, Xugang; Tang, Yiheng; Bi, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrion plays a central role in diverse biological processes in most eukaryotes, and its dysfunctions are critically involved in a large number of diseases and the aging process. A systematic identification of mitochondrial proteomes and characterization of functional linkages among mitochondrial proteins are fundamental in understanding the mechanisms underlying biological functions and human diseases associated with mitochondria. Here we present a database MitProNet which provides a comprehensive knowledgebase for mitochondrial proteome, interactome and human diseases. First an inventory of mammalian mitochondrial proteins was compiled by widely collecting proteomic datasets, and the proteins were classified by machine learning to achieve a high-confidence list of mitochondrial proteins. The current version of MitProNet covers 1124 high-confidence proteins, and the remainders were further classified as middle- or low-confidence. An organelle-specific network of functional linkages among mitochondrial proteins was then generated by integrating genomic features encoded by a wide range of datasets including genomic context, gene expression profiles, protein-protein interactions, functional similarity and metabolic pathways. The functional-linkage network should be a valuable resource for the study of biological functions of mitochondrial proteins and human mitochondrial diseases. Furthermore, we utilized the network to predict candidate genes for mitochondrial diseases using prioritization algorithms. All proteins, functional linkages and disease candidate genes in MitProNet were annotated according to the information collected from their original sources including GO, GEO, OMIM, KEGG, MIPS, HPRD and so on. MitProNet features a user-friendly graphic visualization interface to present functional analysis of linkage networks. As an up-to-date database and analysis platform, MitProNet should be particularly helpful in comprehensive studies of complicated

  9. Using MFACE as input in the UAM to specify the MIT dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, B. E.; Förster, M.; He, M.; Namgaladze, A. A.; Holschneider, M.

    2014-08-01

    The magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) dynamic system significantly depends on the highly variable solar wind conditions, in particular, on changes of the strength and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The solar wind and IMF interactions with the magnetosphere drive the MIT system via the magnetospheric field-aligned currents (FACs). The global modeling helps us to understand the physical background of this complex system. With the present study, we test the recently developed high-resolution empirical model of field-aligned currents MFACE (a high-resolution Model of Field-Aligned Currents through Empirical orthogonal functions analysis). These FAC distributions were used as input of the time-dependent, fully self-consistent global Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM) for different seasons and various solar wind and IMF conditions. The modeling results for neutral mass density and thermospheric wind are directly compared with the CHAMP satellite measurements. In addition, we perform comparisons with the global empirical models: the thermospheric wind model (HWM07) and the atmosphere density model (Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Extended 2000). The theoretical model shows a good agreement with the satellite observations and an improved behavior compared with the empirical models at high latitudes. Using the MFACE model as input parameter of the UAM model, we obtain a realistic distribution of the upper atmosphere parameters for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres during stable IMF orientation as well as during dynamic situations. This variant of the UAM can therefore be used for modeling the MIT system and space weather predictions.

  10. Sampling Technique for Robust Odorant Detection Based on MIT RealNose Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    This technique enhances the detection capability of the autonomous Real-Nose system from MIT to detect odorants and their concentrations in noisy and transient environments. The lowcost, portable system with low power consumption will operate at high speed and is suited for unmanned and remotely operated long-life applications. A deterministic mathematical model was developed to detect odorants and calculate their concentration in noisy environments. Real data from MIT's NanoNose was examined, from which a signal conditioning technique was proposed to enable robust odorant detection for the RealNose system. Its sensitivity can reach to sub-part-per-billion (sub-ppb). A Space Invariant Independent Component Analysis (SPICA) algorithm was developed to deal with non-linear mixing that is an over-complete case, and it is used as a preprocessing step to recover the original odorant sources for detection. This approach, combined with the Cascade Error Projection (CEP) Neural Network algorithm, was used to perform odorant identification. Signal conditioning is used to identify potential processing windows to enable robust detection for autonomous systems. So far, the software has been developed and evaluated with current data sets provided by the MIT team. However, continuous data streams are made available where even the occurrence of a new odorant is unannounced and needs to be noticed by the system autonomously before its unambiguous detection. The challenge for the software is to be able to separate the potential valid signal from the odorant and from the noisy transition region when the odorant is just introduced.

  11. Estimates of intakes and internal doses from ingestion of {sup 32}P at MIT and NIH

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Toohey, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    A researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) became internally contaminated with {sup 32}P, probably due to an intentional act. The incident occurred on or about 14 August 1995. Subsequent measurement of activity in urine and a single whole body count were used to estimate the individual`s intake, with the assumption of ingestion as the route of intake. Two separate Sets of urine data were analyzed-one supplied by MIT and one from independent analyses of urine samples conducted at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); the former data set contained 35 samples, the latter 49. In addition, the results of 35 whole body counts, provided by MIT from a chair-type counter calibrated for 32p, were used to obtain a separate estimate of intake. The kinetic model for 32P proposed in ICRP Publication 30 and implemented in NUREG/CR-4884 was used to interpret the data. The data were analyzed using both the weighted and unweighted least squares techniques. All of the intake estimates were in very good agreement with each other, ranging from 18-22 MBq. Based on the dose model in ICRP 30, this would indicate a committed effective dose equivalent of 38-46 mSv. The incident was helpful in assessing the value of the least squares techniques in determining estimates of intake and dose. The ICRP model tended to slightly overestimate the whole body retention data and underestimate the urinary excretion at later times. Further results obtained by visual best fit and development of an individual-specific kinetic and dose model will also be discussed. This incident was quite similar to another case of ingestion of 32p that occurred at the National Institute of Health (NIH) on 28 June 1995. Dose assessment for the NIH case will also be presented if the data are available for public release.

  12. MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data.

  13. Lasers, their development, and applications at M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediker, R. H.; Melngailis, I.; Mooradian, A.

    1984-01-01

    A historical account of the work on lasers at MIT Lincoln Laboratory is presented. Highlighted are the efforts that led to the coinvention of the semiconductor laser and the Laboratory's later role in establishing the feasibility of GaInAsP/InP semiconductor lasers for use in fiber telecommunications at 1.3-1.5 micron wavelengths. Descriptions of other important developments include tunable lead-salt semiconductor and solid-state lasers for spectroscopy and LIDAR applications, respectively, as well as ultrastable CO2 lasers for coherent infrared radar.

  14. Considerations on Beam Quality Control in MIT X-Ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Graves, W.; Wang, D.; Zwart, T.; Emma, P.; Wu, J.; Huang, G.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-03-15

    The x-ray FEL at MIT is one example of a design for a new generation linac-based light source. Such a new machine requires very high quality electron beams. Besides the usual requirements on beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, peak current, there are new challenges emerging in the design studies, e.g., the arrival timing of electron beam must reach precision below tens of femtoseconds level to ensure the laser seed overlaps the desired sections of electron bunch in the multiple-stage HGHG process. In this paper we report the progress on design optimization towards high quality and low sensitivity beams.

  15. 50 years of helium liquefaction at the MIT Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph L.

    2002-05-01

    The evolution of the helium liquefaction facility of the MIT Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory and the history of its operation over the last 50 years are described. Professor Samuel C. Collins created the liquid-helium facility based on his earlier developments. The chronology of the laboratory helium liquefiers is given with a brief description of each one. The current facility based on the Model 2000 liquefier is described and operating experience is given. The reasons for the very high availability of the liquefaction system are developed.

  16. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  17. Messsysteme für die Bildgebung mit Röntgenstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Nach einem kurzen Überblick über die heute verwendeten Detektorsysteme zur Erzeugung von Röntgenbildern in der Projektionsradiografie folgt die ausführliche Darstellung der klassischen Kombination von Röntgenfilm und Verstärkungsfolien. Der nächste Abschnitt befasst sich mit den Ausführungen zu Bildverstärkern, den Speicherfolien und den anderen digitalen Festkörperdetektoren. Der Dosisbedarf eines bildgebenden Systems kann bei Film-Folien- Kombinationen durch die Angabe von Empfindlichkeitsklassen definiert werden, bei den digitalen Detektoren geschieht dies mit Hilfe der Dosisindikatoren (Exposure Indicator EI, Abweichungsindikator DI). Im zweiten großen Abschnitt dieses Kapitels werden die Grundlagen der Computertomografie erläutert. Dazu werden zunächst die CT-Gerätegenerationen und die CT-Detektoren besprochen. Nach einer Erläuterung der Rechenverfahren zur Bilderzeugung folgt die Definition der Hounsfield-Einheiten. Den Abschluss bildet eine ausführliche Darstellung der Bildartefakte bei der Computertomografie.

  18. MitBASE : a comprehensive and integrated mitochondrial DNA database. The present status

    PubMed Central

    Attimonelli, M.; Altamura, N.; Benne, R.; Brennicke, A.; Cooper, J. M.; D’Elia, D.; Montalvo, A. de; Pinto, B. de; De Robertis, M.; Golik, P.; Knoop, V.; Lanave, C.; Lazowska, J.; Licciulli, F.; Malladi, B. S.; Memeo, F.; Monnerot, M.; Pasimeni, R.; Pilbout, S.; Schapira, A. H. V.; Sloof, P.; Saccone, C.

    2000-01-01

    MitBASE is an integrated and comprehensive database of mitochondrial DNA data which collects, under a single interface, databases for Plant, Vertebrate, Invertebrate, Human, Protist and Fungal mtDNA and a Pilot database on nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MitBASE reports all available information from different organisms and from intraspecies variants and mutants. Data have been drawn from the primary databases and from the literature; value adding information has been structured, e.g., editing information on protist mtDNA genomes, pathological information for human mtDNA variants, etc. The different databases, some of which are structured using commercial packages (Microsoft Access, File Maker Pro) while others use a flat-file format, have been integrated under ORACLE. Ad hoc retrieval systems have been devised for some of the above listed databases keeping into account their peculiarities. The database is resident at the EBI and is available at the following site: http://www3.ebi.ac.uk/Research/Mitbase/mitbase.pl . The impact of this project is intended for both basic and applied research. The study of mitochondrial genetic diseases and mitochondrial DNA intraspecies diversity are key topics in several biotechnological fields. The database has been funded within the EU Biotechnology programme. PMID:10592207

  19. Deletion of PdMit1, a homolog of yeast Csg1, affects growth and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the fungus Penicillium digitatum, but does not alter virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Congyi; Wang, Weili; Wang, Mingshuang; Ruan, Ruoxin; Sun, Xuepeng; He, Meixian; Mao, Cungui; Li, Hongye

    2015-04-01

    GDP-mannose:inositol-phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and its derivatives are important for Ca(2+) sensitization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for the virulence of Candida albicans, but its role in the virulence of plant fungal pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of PdMit1, the gene encoding MIPC synthase in Penicillium digitatum, one of the most important pathogens of postharvest citrus fruits. To understand the function of PdMit1, a PdMit1 deletion mutant was generated. Compared to its wild-type control, the PdMit1 deletion mutant exhibited slow radial growth, decreased conidia production and delayed conidial germination, suggesting that PdMit1 is important for the growth of mycelium, sporulation and conidial germination. The PdMit1 deletion mutant also showed hypersensitivity to Ca(2+). Treatment with 250 mmol/l Ca(2+) induced vacuole fusion in the wild-type strain, but not in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. Treatment with 250mmol/lCaCl2 upregulated three Ca(2+)-ATPase genes in the wild-type strain, and this was significantly inhibited in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. These results suggest that PdMit1 may have a role in regulating vacuole fusion and expression of Ca(2+)-ATPase genes by controlling biosynthesis of MIPC, and thereby imparts P. digitatum Ca(2+) tolerance. However, we found that PdMit1 is dispensable for virulence of P. digitatum. PMID:25725383

  20. Deletion of PdMit1, a homolog of yeast Csg1, affects growth and Ca2+ sensitivity of the fungus Penicillium digitatum, but does not alter virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Congyi; Wang, Weili; Wang, Mingshuang; Ruan, Ruoxin; Sun, Xuepeng; He, Meixian; Mao, Cungui; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    GDP-mannose:inositol-phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and its derivatives are important for Ca2+ sensitization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for the virulence of Candida albicans, but its role in the virulence of plant fungal pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of PdMit1, the gene encoding MIPC synthase in Penicillium digitatum, one of the most important pathogens of postharvest citrus fruits. To understand the function of PdMit1, a PdMit1 deletion mutant was generated. Compared to its wild-type control, the PdMit1 deletion mutant exhibited slow radial growth, decreased conidia production and delayed conidial germination, suggesting that PdMit1 is important for the growth of mycelium, sporulation and conidial germination. The PdMit1 deletion mutant also showed hypersensitivity to Ca2+. Treatment with 250 mmol/l Ca2+ induced vacuole fusion in the wild-type strain, but not in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. Treatment with 250 mmol/lCaCl2 upregulated three Ca2+-ATPase genes in the wild-type strain, and this was significantly inhibited in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. These results suggest that PdMit1 may have a role in regulating vacuole fusion and expression of Ca2+-ATPase genes by controlling biosynthesis of MIPC, and thereby imparts P. digitatum Ca2+ tolerance. However, we found that PdMit1 is dispensable for virulence of P. digitatum. PMID:25725383

  1. TAF-4 is required for the life extension of isp-1, clk-1 and tpk-1 Mit mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hufnal, Bryce; Farber, Robert; Munkácsy, Erin; Rodriguez, Amanda; Dillow, Andy; Kahlig, Erynn; Rea, Shane L.

    2013-01-01

    While numerous life-extending manipulations have been discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, one that remains most enigmatic is disruption of oxidative phosphorylation. In order to unravel how such an ostensibly deleterious manipulation can extend lifespan, we sought to identify the ensemble of nuclear transcription factors that are activated in response to defective mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function. Using a feeding RNAi approach, we targeted over 400 transcription factors and identified 15 that, when reduced in function, reproducibly and differentially altered the development, stress response, and/or fecundity of isp-1(qm150) Mit mutants relative to wild-type animals. Seven of these transcription factors – AHA-1, CEH-18, HIF-1, JUN-1, NHR-27, NHR-49 and the CREB homolog-1 (CRH-1)-interacting protein TAF-4 – were also essential for isp-1 life extension. When we tested the involvement of these seven transcription factors in the life extension of two other Mit mutants, namely clk-1(qm30) and tpk-1(qm162), TAF-4 and HIF-1 were consistently required. Our findings suggest that the Mit phenotype is under the control of multiple transcriptional responses, and that TAF-4 and HIF-1 may be part of a general signaling axis that specifies Mit mutant life extension. PMID:24107417

  2. Excellence in Research: Creative Organizational Responses at Berkeley, Harvard, MIT, and Stanford. ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, John J.

    Research environments of four leading universities were studied: University of California at Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Stanford University. Attention was directed to organizational responses for encouraging collaboration in research at these leading universities, as well as to…

  3. Designing Materials for the Language Lab of the Future: An Overview of the MIT Athena Language Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Details the current status, the future plans and the reasoning behind a five-year, campus-wide educational experiment for the integration of computers into the foreign language curriculum at MIT. The project is to use artificial intelligence in natural processing and to include interactive video and interactive audio components. (Author/SED)

  4. Trouble and Triumph: German Life-Turkish Tradition in Renan Demirkan's "Schwarzer Tee mit drei Stuck Zucker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Reika

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores Demirkan's narrative strategies in "Schwarzer Tee mit drei Stuck Zucker" to negotiate issues of a life between two cultures and traditions. Based on Bhabha's insights that mainstream culture needs intellectual and artistic infusion from the margins of a society in order to remain vital; and that cultural production itself is a…

  5. Use of graphics in decision aids for telerobotic control: (Parts 5-8 of an 8-part MIT progress report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.; Roseborough, James B.; Das, Hari; Chin, Kan-Ping; Inoue, Seiichi

    1989-01-01

    Four separate projects recently completed or in progress at the MIT Man-Machine Systems Laboratory are summarized. They are: a decision aid for retrieving a tumbling satellite in space; kinematic control and graphic display of redundant teleoperators; real time terrain/object generation: a quad-tree approach; and two dimensional control for three dimensional obstacle avoidance.

  6. MitBASE pilot: a database on nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and its regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Pinto, B; Malladi, S B; Altamura, N

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the EU BIOTECH PROGRAM and within the 'MITBASE: a comprehensive and integrated database on mtDNA' project, we have prepared a pilot database (MitBASE Pilot) on nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and its regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MitBASE Pilot includes nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins as well as nuclear genes encoding products which are localised in other sub-cellular compartments but nevertheless interact with mitochondrial functions. Genes have been classified on the basis of the mitochondrial process in which they participate and the mitochondrial phenotype of the gene knockout. The structure of the MitBASE Pilot database has been conceived for a flexible organisation of the information. An intuitive visual query system has been developed which allows users to select information in different combinations, both in the query and the output format, according to their needs. MitBASE Pilot is a relational database, is maintained at the EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and is available at the World Wide Web site http://www3.ebi.ac. uk/Research/Mitbase/mitbiog.pl PMID:9847161

  7. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  8. Rapid identification of Listeria spp.: an AOAC performance test of the MIT 1000 rapid microbial identification system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods that rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a benchtop instrument that detects laser light scattered from individual bacterial cells in solution with an array of 35 ...

  9. Evaluation of the MIT RMID 1000 system for the identification of Listeria species:AOAC performance tested method 090325

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MIT 1000 RMID System is a rapid microbial identification device that uses the principles of light scattering coupled with proprietary algorithms to identify bacteria after being cultured and placed in a vial of filtered water. This specific method is for pure culture identification of Listeria ...

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Supercritical CO2-Tolerant Bacteria Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214

    PubMed Central

    Peet, Kyle C.

    2015-01-01

    We report draft genome sequences of Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214 isolated through enrichment of samples from geologic sequestration sites in pressurized bioreactors containing a supercritical (sc) CO2 headspace. Their genome sequences expand the phylogenetic range of sequenced bacilli and allow characterization of molecular mechanisms of scCO2 tolerance. PMID:25858826

  11. Integrated optomechanical analysis and testing software development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckel, Gerhard P.; Doyle, Keith B.

    2013-09-01

    Advanced analytical software capabilities are being developed to advance the design of prototypical hardware in the Engineering Division at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The current effort is focused on the integration of analysis tools tailored to the work flow, organizational structure, and current technology demands. These tools are being designed to provide superior insight into the interdisciplinary behavior of optical systems and enable rapid assessment and execution of design trades to optimize the design of optomechanical systems. The custom software architecture is designed to exploit and enhance the functionality of existing industry standard commercial software, provide a framework for centralizing internally developed tools, and deliver greater efficiency, productivity, and accuracy through standardization, automation, and integration. Specific efforts have included the development of a feature-rich software package for Structural-Thermal-Optical Performance (STOP) modeling, advanced Line Of Sight (LOS) jitter simulations, and improved integration of dynamic testing and structural modeling.

  12. MIT-NASA/KSC space life science experiments - A telescience testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Fiser, Richard L.; Vordermark, Deborah S.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments performed at MIT to better define Space Station information system telescience requirements for effective remote coaching of astronauts by principal investigators (PI) on the ground are described. The experiments were conducted via satellite video, data, and voice links to surrogate crewmembers working in a laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Teams of two PIs and two crewmembers performed two different space life sciences experiments. During 19 three-hour interactive sessions, a variety of test conditions were explored. Since bit rate limits are necessarily imposed on Space Station video experiments surveillance video was varied down to 50 Kb/s and the effectiveness of PI controlled frame rate, resolution, grey scale, and color decimation was investigated. It is concluded that remote coaching by voice works and that dedicated crew-PI voice loops would be of great value on the Space Station.

  13. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  14. Rapid Speech Transmission Index predictions and auralizations of unusual instructional spaces at MIT's new Stata Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, David A.

    2005-04-01

    The Stata Center for Computer, Information and Intelligence Sciences, recently opened at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, includes a variety of oddly-shaped seminar rooms in addition to lecture spaces of somewhat more conventional form. The architects design approach prohibited following conventional, well understood room-acoustical behavior yet MIT and the design team were keenly interested in ensuring that these spaces functioned exceptionally well, acoustically. CATT-Acoustic room modeling was employed to assess RASTI through multiple design iterations for all these spaces. Presented here are computational and descriptive results achieved for these rooms which are highly-regarded by faculty. They all sound peculiarly good, given their unusual form. In addition, binaural auralizations for selected spaces are provided.

  15. The standoff aerosol active signature testbed (SAAST) at MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jonathan M.; Aldridge, John C.

    2005-11-01

    Standoff LIDAR detection of BW agents depends on accurate knowledge of the infrared and ultraviolet optical elastic scatter (ES) and ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) signatures of bio-agents and interferents. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST) for measuring ES cross sections from BW simulants and interferents at all angles including 180º (direct backscatter). Measurements of interest include the dependence of the ES and UVF signatures on several spore production parameters including growth medium, sporulation protocol, washing protocol, fluidizing additives, and degree of aggregation. Using SAAST, we have made measurements of the ES signature of Bacillus globigii (atropheaus, Bg) spores grown under different growth methods. We have also investigated one common interferent (Arizona Test Dust). Future samples will include pollen and diesel exhaust. This paper presents the details of the SAAST apparatus along with the results of recent measurements.

  16. Space applications of the MITS electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, R.P.; Lorence, L.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Morel, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    The MITS multigroup/continuous-energy electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system has matured to the point that it is capable of addressing more realistic three-dimensional adjoint applications. It is first employed to efficiently predict point doses as a function of source energy for simple three-dimensional experimental geometries exposed to simulated uniform isotropic planar sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 4.0 MeV. Results are in very good agreement with experimental data. It is then used to efficiently simulate dose to a detector in a subsystem of a GPS satellite due to its natural electron environment, employing a relatively complex model of the satellite. The capability for survivability analysis of space systems is demonstrated, and results are obtained with and without variance reduction.

  17. Performance and reliability of photovoltaic modules at various MIT LL test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.; Themelis, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Between March 1977 and the present, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has placed 85 kW of photovoltaic modules at various experimental test sites in the United States. These sites range in size and function from a 25-kW System Test Facility, where all the components in a PV system are tested, down to a 0.1-kW Environmental Test Site, where modules alone undergo weathering and soil accumulation experiments. To date, 144 modules (amounting to 2.75 kW) of 4533 have experienced electrical failure. This report summarizes the performance and reliability of photovoltaic modules at two experimental test sites: a 25-kW array field at Mead, Nebraska, and a 7.5-kW array field at Arlington, Texas.

  18. MC21 analysis of the MIT PWR benchmark: Hot zero power results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Iii, D. J.; Aviles, B. N.; Herman, B. R.

    2013-07-01

    MC21 Monte Carlo results have been compared with hot zero power measurements from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR), as specified in a new full core PWR performance benchmark from the MIT Computational Reactor Physics Group. Included in the comparisons are axially integrated full core detector measurements, axial detector profiles, control rod bank worths, and temperature coefficients. Power depressions from grid spacers are seen clearly in the MC21 results. Application of Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration within MC21 has been accomplished, resulting in a significant reduction of inactive batches necessary to converge the fission source. CMFD acceleration has also been shown to work seamlessly with the Uniform Fission Site (UFS) variance reduction method. (authors)

  19. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  20. Calibrating a VPL DataGlove for teleoperating the Utah/MIT hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Jiawei; Tan, Xiaonan

    1989-01-01

    A system able to control the Utah/MIT hand with the VPL DataGlove has been developed. To get the actual joint angles from the DataGlove sensor values, a least-squares fit is used to find the best-fit exponential curve for each sensor, and then the correlation between the sensors is reduced by the iterative correlation elimination procedure. The calibration depends both on the wearer and the particular DataGlove being used. The first-level calibration is simple and can be done under 15 min with experience. The second level is fixed and requires no adjustments. To control the hand, a mapping from the DataGlove angles to the hand angles is applied, making the hand fingertips follow the DataGlove fingertips. The hand can successfully implement various high-level tasks under the DataGlove wearer's control.

  1. MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Program for Characterization of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan; Bus, S. J.; Binzel, R. P.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2006-09-01

    We describe an ongoing joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted on behalf of the community by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We utilize SpeX, a low-to-medium resolution near-infrared spectrograph and imager, to obtain 0.8- to 2.5-micron spectra. Under good seeing conditions the limiting magnitude for our program is near V=17.5 magnitudes. Our program goals are to provide an ongoing source of current spectral measurements allowing broad characterization of the near-Earth object population. Particular emphasis is placed on characterizing potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) and enhancing our understanding of asteroid-comet-meteorite interrelationships. NEOs residing in orbits that may be accessible as spacecraft targets are also given priority. All spectroscopic observations obtained in this program are being made publicly available in near-real time via the website: http://smass.mit.edu/ and are also linked through the IRTF website: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/ . We have as an operational goal to process and to make available in the public domain the spectral results within a few days of the observations. Spectra for nearly 100 NEOs are presently available. This program has been granted long-term planetary status and utilizes approximately one night per month. This frequent access enables routine characterization of both newly discovered targets of opportunity and previously known near-Earth objects. There is no pre-condition for collaboration for any researcher wishing to use these data. All data obtained and released by this program may be used freely. We welcome broad community participation in target selection, observing, and data utilization. This research supported by NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-538.

  2. Effects of tissue heterogeneity on single-coil, scanning MIT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldkamp, J. R.; Quirk, S.

    2016-03-01

    We recently reported on the use of a single induction coil to accomplish imaging of the electrical conductivity in human tissues via magnetic induction tomography (MIT). A key to the method was the development of a mapping equation that quantitatively relates an arbitrary electrical conductivity distribution to ohmic loss in a coil consisting of concentric circular loops in a plane. By making multiple coil loss measurements at a number of locations in the vicinity of the target (scan), this mapping equation can be used to build an algorithm for 3D image construction of electrical conductivity. Important assumptions behind the mathematical formula included uniform relative permittivity throughout all space and continuous variation in conductivity. In this paper, these two assumptions were tested in a series of experiments involving the use of human tissue phantoms created from agarose, doped with sufficient sodium chloride to yield physiological conductivities. Inclusions of doped agarose were scanned both while isolated and also while embedded in a matrix of agarose gel having lowered conductivity - to help evaluate the effects of abrupt permittivity change. The effects of discontinuous conductivity change were simulated by filling 5 cm diameter petri dishes with 1.4% aqueous KCl and placing them in a much larger, 14 cm diameter petri dish - gap distance varied from about 3 mm to 30 mm. In either case, we will show that these effects are minimal on resultant images, helping to further validate the mapping equation used to construct MIT images. Because of their simplicity, scans reported here did not include coil rotation. To acknowledge the importance of rotation, however, we have devoted a section of this work to illustrate the profound benefits of coil rotation during a scan - though virtual data are used, where coil rotation is more easily specified.

  3. Prophylaxe beim hereditären Angioödem (HAE) mit C1-Inhibitormangel.

    PubMed

    Greve, Jens; Strassen, Ulrich; Gorczyza, Marina; Dominas, Nina; Frahm, Uta-Marie; Mühlberg, Heike; Wiednig, Michaela; Zampeli, Vasiliki; Magerl, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Das hereditäre Angioödem (engl.: hereditary angioedema, HAE) ist eine seltene angeborene Erkrankung, die durch wiederkehrende Episoden subkutaner oder submuköser Ödeme charakterisiert ist. Kehlkopf-Manifestationen können lebensbedrohlich sein. In den meisten Fällen kann die Erkrankung mit einem On-Demand-Ansatz angemessen behandelt werden - in einigen Fällen ist jedoch eine Kurz- oder Langzeitprophylaxe angebracht. Attenuierte Androgene waren einmal das Standardmedikament; sie werden jedoch mit erheblichen Nebenwirkungen in Verbindung gebracht und sind in den deutschsprachigen Ländern der EU nicht mehr kommerziell erhältlich. Zurzeit werden sie von wirksameren und besser verträglichen Therapien wie C1-Esterase-Inhibitoren, dem Kallikrein-Inhibitor Ecallantid und dem B2-Rezeptorantagonisten Icatibant verdrängt, welche kürzlich auf dem Markt zugelassen wurden. Diese neuen Medikamente hatten einen erheblichen Einfluss, insbesondere auf die Indikationsstellung und das Vorgehen bei einer Langzeitprophylaxe. Nach den neuesten internationalen Konsenspapieren und unserer eigenen Erfahrung sind selbstverabreichte C1-Inhibitoren nun die erste Option bei der Langzeitprophylaxe. Die Entscheidung für eine Prophylaxe sollte nicht länger auf der Grundlage einzelner Parameter wie der Häufigkeit der Anfälle getroffen werden, sondern auf einer adäquaten allgemeinen Krankheitskontrolle, einschließlich der Lebensqualität. Zurzeit werden weitere Medikamente entwickelt, welche zu weiteren Veränderungen bei den Behandlungsalgorithmen des HAE führen könnten. PMID:26972190

  4. Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and "Two Space" Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Savadekar, Rupesh T.; Patel, Kaushal V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the entropy generation and availability energy loss analysis under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating helium gas flow in two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test rigs piston-cylinder and piston-cylinder-heat exchanger are presented. Two solution domains, the gas spring (single-space) in the piston-cylinder test rig and the gas spring + heat exchanger (two-space) in the piston-cylinder-heat exchanger test rig are of interest. Sage and CFD-ACE+ commercial numerical codes are used to obtain 1-D and 2-D computer models, respectively, of each of the two solution domains and to simulate the oscillating gas flow and heat transfer effects in these domains. Second law analysis is used to characterize the entropy generation and availability energy losses inside the two solution domains. Internal and external entropy generation and availability energy loss results predicted by Sage and CFD-ACE+ are compared. Thermodynamic loss analysis of simple systems such as the MIT test rigs are often useful to understand some important features of complex pattern forming processes in more complex systems like the Stirling engine. This study is aimed at improving numerical codes for the prediction of thermodynamic losses via the development of a loss post-processor. The incorporation of loss post-processors in Stirling engine numerical codes will facilitate Stirling engine performance optimization. Loss analysis using entropy-generation rates due to heat and fluid flow is a relatively new technique for assessing component performance. It offers a deep insight into the flow phenomena, allows a more exact calculation of losses than is possible with traditional means involving the application of loss correlations and provides an effective tool for improving component and overall system performance.

  5. Genetic Localization and Molecular Characterization of Two Key Genes (mitAB) Required for Biosynthesis of the Antitumor Antibiotic Mitomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingqing; Varoglu, Mustafa; Sherman, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MC) is an antitumor antibiotic derived biosynthetically from 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), d-glucosamine, and carbamoyl phosphate. A gene (mitA) involved in synthesis of AHBA has been identified and found to be linked to the MC resistance locus, mrd, in Streptomyces lavendulae. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that mitA encodes a 388-amino-acid protein that has 71% identity (80% similarity) with the rifamycin AHBA synthase from Amycolatopsis mediterranei, as well as with two additional AHBA synthases from related ansamycin antibiotic-producing microorganisms. Gene disruption and site-directed mutagenesis of the S. lavendulae chromosomal copy of mitA completely blocked the production of MC. The function of mitA was confirmed by complementation of an S. lavendulae strain containing a K191A mutation in MitA with AHBA. A second gene (mitB) encoding a 272-amino-acid protein (related to a group of glycosyltransferases) was identified immediately downstream of mitA that upon disruption resulted in abrogation of MC synthesis. This work has localized a cluster of key genes that mediate assembly of the unique mitosane class of natural products. PMID:10094699

  6. The MIT Integrated Global System Model: A facility for Assessing and Communicating Climate Change Uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing major challenges that create tensions between human development and environmental sustenance. In facing these challenges, computer models are invaluable tools for addressing the need for probabilistic approaches to forecasting. To illustrate this, I use the MIT Integrated Global System Model framework (IGSM; http://globalchange.mit.edu ). The IGSM consists of a set of coupled sub-models of global economic and technological development and resultant emissions, and physical, dynamical and chemical processes in the atmosphere, land, ocean and ecosystems (natural and managed). Some of the sub-models have both complex and simplified versions available, with the choice of which version to use being guided by the questions being addressed. Some sub-models (e.g.urban air pollution) are reduced forms of complex ones created by probabilistic collocation with polynomial chaos bases. Given the significant uncertainties in the model components, it is highly desirable that forecasts be probabilistic. We achieve this by running 400-member ensembles (Latin hypercube sampling) with different choices for key uncertain variables and processes within the human and natural system model components (pdfs of inputs estimated by model-observation comparisons, literature surveys, or expert elicitation). The IGSM has recently been used for probabilistic forecasts of climate, each using 400-member ensembles: one ensemble assumes no explicit climate mitigation policy and others assume increasingly stringent policies involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels. These forecasts indicate clearly that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The value of such probability analyses for policy decision-making lies in their ability to compare relative (not just absolute) risks of various policies, which are less affected by the earth system model uncertainties. Given the uncertainties in forecasts, it is also clear that

  7. The MIT IGSM-CAM framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) version 2.3 is an intermediate complexity fully coupled earth system model that allows simulation of critical feedbacks among its various components, including the atmosphere, ocean, land, urban processes and human activities. A fundamental feature of the IGSM2.3 is the ability to modify its climate parameters: climate sensitivity, net aerosol forcing and ocean heat uptake rate. As such, the IGSM2.3 provides an efficient tool for generating probabilistic distribution functions of climate parameters using optimal fingerprint diagnostics. A limitation of the IGSM2.3 is its zonal-mean atmosphere model that does not permit regional climate studies. For this reason, the MIT IGSM2.3 was linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 3 and new modules were developed and implemented in CAM in order to modify its climate sensitivity and net aerosol forcing to match that of the IGSM. The IGSM-CAM provides an efficient and innovative framework to study regional climate change where climate parameters can be modified to span the range of uncertainty and various emissions scenarios can be tested. This paper presents results from the cloud radiative adjustment method used to modify CAM's climate sensitivity. We also show results from 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (a median "business as usual" scenario where no policy is implemented after 2012 and a policy scenario where greenhouse-gas are stabilized at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent concentrations by 2100) and three sets of climate parameters. The three values of climate sensitivity chosen are median and the bounds of the 90% probability interval of the probability distribution obtained by comparing the observed 20th century climate change with simulations by the IGSM with a wide range of climate parameters values. The associated aerosol forcing values were chosen to ensure a good agreement of the simulations

  8. First Observations of a Stellar Occultation by KBO (50000) Quaoar from MIT's George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallum, Stephanie; Brothers, T.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A.; Zuluaga, C.; Levine, S.; Bright, L.; Sheppard, S.; Tilleman, T.

    2011-05-01

    Here we report the first recorded observations of a stellar occultation by Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) (50000) Quaoar. We detected a single-chord stellar occultation by Quaoar of a magnitude 16.2 star designated 26029635 UCAC2 (2MASS ID 1275509401), which occurred on 11 February 2011 UT. The prediction of the occultation was made using long baseline astrometric observations of Quaoar from several sites as part of the MIT Planetary Astronomy Laboratory's continuing effort to improve KBO positions for occultation prediction. The successful observations were made with a Celestron C14 0.36 m telescope and an SBIG STL-1001E CCD camera on a Paramount ME robotic mount. These observations show that a relatively accessible level of astronomical equipment, of the class often used by amateur astronomers, can be used to record KBO occultations. The data were taken at MIT's George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory in Westford, MA. A light curve was generated from the data using aperture photometry on the individual images and is presented here. This light curve is being analyzed by Person et al. (this meeting) to provide constraints on Quaoar's size. We also discuss various observing strategies that could be used in the future to optimize the data from this type of event. This work was supported in part by grant NNX10AB27G to MIT from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Division. Student participation was supported in part by NSF's REU program, MIT's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant, and the George R. Wallace, Jr., Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. Acceptance and operational test procedure for neutron and gamma probe application to tank 241-SY-101 MITs

    SciTech Connect

    CANNON, N.S.

    1999-06-02

    This ATP/OTP provides procedures for testing to be performed to verify that newly procured neutron and gamma probes (reduced diameter design modifications) for operation in the Tank 241-SY-101 MlTs are compatible with existing LOW van instrumentation and hardware. A set of moisture data versus elevation will be obtained from the Tank 241-SY-101 MITs, and (optionally) from the Tank 241-AX-I01 LOW as part of this testing program.

  10. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  11. NASA Education and Public Outreach Initiatives at the MIT Center for Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porro, I. L.

    2003-12-01

    Since its inception in 1999, the EPO office of the MIT Center for Space Research (CSR) has fostered direct participation of local scientists in educational initiatives such as teachers workshops and public tours of the Chandra Operations and Control Center. The role played by the CSR EPO office has grown significantly, thanks to the award of a number of EPO grants associated with the Chandra and HETE missions. In the past year about one-third of the CSR research staff was involved in the office's EPO initiatives: more than 500 K-12 students, about half from underrepresented groups, were included in formal education programs and informal education events attracted an estimated 900 people. Today the mission of the CSR EPO office is focused in two areas: professional development for K-12 science teachers, and educational programs in out-of-school time. To be associated with major NASA research missions is beneficial to our mission in several respects, but provides also specific challenges. We present here some of the strategies and intiatives that we have undertaken to overcome those challenges.

  12. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.

  13. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  14. Hover Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor Prototype Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sangloon

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter rotor individual blade control promises to provide a mechanism for increased rotor performance and reduced rotorcraft vibrations and noise. Active material methods, such as piezoelectrically actuated trailing-edge flaps and strain-induced rotor blade twisting, provide a means of accomplishing individual blade control without the need for hydraulic power in the rotating system. Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration an aeroelastically-scaled active-twist model rotor blade has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas environment of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The results of hover tests of the active-twist prototype blade are presented in this paper. Comparisons with applicable analytical predictions of active-twist frequency response in hovering flight are also presented.

  15. Examination of Climate Response to Historical and Projected Forcings Over Years 850-4000 with the MIT IGSM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Scott, J.; Monier, E.; Schlosser, C. A.; Kicklighter, D.; Dutkiewicz, S.

    2012-04-01

    The MIT IGSM is used for a study of the climate response to various historical and projected forcings over the period 850-4000 AD. The MIT IGSM includes a zonally-averaged atmospheric model coupled to land and ocean models. Both land and ocean models simulate carbon cycle. Two configurations of the IGSM were used in the simulations; one with the MIT 3D OGCM and other with anomaly diffusing ocean model. Over the period 850-2005, a historical run with all time-varying natural and anthropogenic forcings is compared to a set of runs where only a single component of the forcing time series is varied. Over 2005-3000, climate projections as forced by four different Representation Concentration Pathways are compared. These projections are extended by decreasing forcings back to pre-industrial levels over years 3000-4000. In addition to changes in surface air temperature, carbon uptake in the ocean and land systems and changes in the oceans' large-scale circulation are a focus in analyses of these simulations. Simulations with interactive carbon cycle and prescribed carbon emissions were also carried out. Dependency of the projected changes on assumptions about climate system parameters, such as climate sensitivity, rate of oceanic heat uptake and aerosol forcing were studied using the IGSM with simplified ocean model.

  16. Structural Fine-Tuning of MIT-Interacting Motif 2 (MIM2) and Allosteric Regulation of ESCRT-III by Vps4 in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Rieko; Obita, Takayuki; Onoue, Kousuke; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki

    2016-06-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) facilitates roles in membrane remodeling, such as multivesicular body biogenesis, enveloped virus budding and cell division. In yeast, Vps4 plays a crucial role in intraluminal vesicle formation by disassembling ESCRT proteins. Vps4 is recruited by ESCRT-III proteins to the endosomal membrane through the interaction between the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4 and the C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM) of ESCRT-III proteins. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Vps4-MIT in a complex with Vps20, a member of ESCRT-III, and revealed that Vps20 adopts a unique MIM2 conformation. Based on structural comparisons with other known MIM2s, we have refined the consensus sequence of MIM2. We have shown that another ESCRT-III protein, Ist1, binds to Vps4-MIT via its C-terminal MIM1 with higher affinity than Vps2, but lacks MIM2 by surface plasmon resonance. Surprisingly, the Ist1 MIM1 competed with the MIM2 of Vfa1, a regulator of Vps4, for binding to Vps4-MIT, even though these MIMs bind in non-overlapping sites on the MIT. These findings provide insight into the allosteric recognition of MIMs of ESCRT-III by Vps4 and also the regulation of ESCRT machinery at the last step of membrane remodeling. PMID:27075672

  17. Development of Improved Models, Stochasticity, and Frameworks for the MIT Extensible Air Network Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, John-Paul

    2004-01-01

    MEANS, the MIT Extensible Air Network Simulation, was created in February of 2001, and has been developed with support from NASA Ames since August of 2001. MEANS is a simulation tool which is designed to maximize fidelity without requiring data of such a low level as to preclude easy examination of alternative scenarios. To this end, MEANS is structured in a modular fashion to allow more detailed components to be brought in when desired, and left out when they would only be an impediment. Traditionally, one of the difficulties with high-fidelity models is that they require a level of detail in their data that is difficult to obtain. For analysis of past scenarios, the required data may not have been collected, or may be considered proprietary and thus difficult for independent researchers to obtain. For hypothetical scenarios, generation of the data is sufficiently difficult to be a task in and of itself. Often, simulations designed by a researcher will model exactly one element of the problem well and in detail, while assuming away other parts of the problem which are not of interest or for which data is not available. While these models are useful for working with the task at hand, they are very often not applicable to future problems. The MEAN Simulation attempts to address these problems by using a modular design which provides components of varying fidelity for each aspect of the simulation. This allows for the most accurate model for which data is available to be used. It also provides for easy analysis of sensitivity to data accuracy. This can be particularly useful in the case where accurate data is available for some subset of the situations that are to be considered. Furthermore, the ability to use the same model while examining effects on different parts of a system reduces the time spent learning the simulation, and provides for easier comparisons between changes to different parts of the system.

  18. The MitCHAP-60 disease is due to entropic destabilization of the human mitochondrial Hsp60 oligomer.

    PubMed

    Parnas, Avital; Nadler, Michal; Nisemblat, Shahar; Horovitz, Amnon; Mandel, Hanna; Azem, Abdussalam

    2009-10-01

    The 60-kDa heat shock protein (mHsp60) is a vital cellular complex that mediates the folding of many of the mitochondrial proteins. Its function is executed in cooperation with the co-chaperonin, mHsp10, and requires ATP. Recently, the discovery of a new mHsp60-associated neurodegenerative disorder, MitCHAP-60 disease, has been reported. The disease is caused by a point mutation at position 3 (D3G) of the mature mitochondrial Hsp60 protein, which renders it unable to complement the deletion of the homologous bacterial protein in Escherichia coli (Magen, D., Georgopoulos, C., Bross, P., Ang, D., Segev, Y., Goldsher, D., Nemirovski, A., Shahar, E., Ravid, S., Luder, A., Heno, B., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Skorecki, K., and Mandel, H. (2008) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83, 30-42). The molecular basis of the MitCHAP-60 disease is still unknown. In this study, we present an in vitro structural and functional analysis of the purified wild-type human mHsp60 and the MitCHAP-60 mutant. We show that the D3G mutation leads to destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer and causes its disassembly at low protein concentrations. We also show that the mutant protein has impaired protein folding and ATPase activities. An additional mutant that lacks the first three amino acids (N-del), including Asp-3, is similarly impaired in refolding activity. Surprisingly, however, this mutant exhibits profound stabilization of its oligomeric structure. These results suggest that the D3G mutation leads to entropic destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer, which severely impairs its chaperone function, thereby causing the disease. PMID:19706612

  19. The MitCHAP-60 Disease Is Due to Entropic Destabilization of the Human Mitochondrial Hsp60 Oligomer*

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Avital; Nadler, Michal; Nisemblat, Shahar; Horovitz, Amnon; Mandel, Hanna; Azem, Abdussalam

    2009-01-01

    The 60-kDa heat shock protein (mHsp60) is a vital cellular complex that mediates the folding of many of the mitochondrial proteins. Its function is executed in cooperation with the co-chaperonin, mHsp10, and requires ATP. Recently, the discovery of a new mHsp60-associated neurodegenerative disorder, MitCHAP-60 disease, has been reported. The disease is caused by a point mutation at position 3 (D3G) of the mature mitochondrial Hsp60 protein, which renders it unable to complement the deletion of the homologous bacterial protein in Escherichia coli (Magen, D., Georgopoulos, C., Bross, P., Ang, D., Segev, Y., Goldsher, D., Nemirovski, A., Shahar, E., Ravid, S., Luder, A., Heno, B., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Skorecki, K., and Mandel, H. (2008) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83, 30–42). The molecular basis of the MitCHAP-60 disease is still unknown. In this study, we present an in vitro structural and functional analysis of the purified wild-type human mHsp60 and the MitCHAP-60 mutant. We show that the D3G mutation leads to destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer and causes its disassembly at low protein concentrations. We also show that the mutant protein has impaired protein folding and ATPase activities. An additional mutant that lacks the first three amino acids (N-del), including Asp-3, is similarly impaired in refolding activity. Surprisingly, however, this mutant exhibits profound stabilization of its oligomeric structure. These results suggest that the D3G mutation leads to entropic destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer, which severely impairs its chaperone function, thereby causing the disease. PMID:19706612

  20. Measuring Neutron Spectrum at MIT Research Reactor Utilizing He-3 Bonner Cylinder Approach with an Unfolding Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, Alexander; Ricochet Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Ricochet experiment seeks to measure Coherent (neutral-current) Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CENNS) using dark matter style detectors placed near a neutrino source, possibly the MIT research reactor (MITR), which offers a high continuous neutrino flux at high energies. Currently, Ricochet is characterizing the backgrounds at MITR. The main background is the neutrons emitted simultaneously from the core. To characterize this background, we wrapped a Bonner cylinder around a 3He thermal neutron detector, whose data was then unfolded to produce a neutron energy spectrum across several orders of magnitude. We discuss the resulting spectrum as well its implications for deploying Ricochet in the future.

  1. A New Instrument for the IRTF: the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Rojas, F. E.; Bus, S. J.; Rayner, J. T.; Stahlberger, W. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Adams, E. R.; Person, M. J.

    2010-10-01

    NASA's 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI plays a leading role in obtaining planetary science observations. However, there has been no capability for high-speed, visible imaging from this telescope. Here we present a new IRTF instrument, MORIS, the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System. MORIS is based on POETS (Portable Occultation Eclipse and Transit Systems; Souza et al., 2006, PASP, 118, 1550). Its primary component is an Andor iXon camera, a 512x512 array of 16-micron pixels with high quantum efficiency, low read noise, low dark current, and full-frame readout rates of between 3.5 Hz (6 e /pixel read noise) and 35 Hz (49 e /pixel read noise at electron-multiplying gain=1). User-selectable binning and subframing can increase the cadence to a few hundred Hz. An electron-multiplying mode can be employed for photon counting, effectively reducing the read noise to sub-electron levels at the expense of dynamic range. Data cubes, or individual frames, can be triggered to nanosecond accuracy using a GPS. MORIS is mounted on the side-facing widow of SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003, PASP, 115, 362), allowing simultaneous near-infrared and visible observations. The mounting box contains 3:1 reducing optics to produce a 60 arcsec x 60 arcsec field of view at f/12.7. It hosts a ten-slot filter wheel, with Sloan g×, r×, i×, and z×, VR, Johnson V, and long-pass red filters. We describe the instrument design, components, and measured characteristics. We report results from the first science observations, a 24 June 2008 stellar occultation by Pluto. We also discuss a recent overhaul of the optical path, performed in order to eliminate scattered light. This work is supported in part by NASA Planetary Major Equipment grant NNX07AK95G. We are indebted to the University of Hawai'i Institute for Astronomy machine shop, in particular Randy Chung, for fabricating instrument components.

  2. The Ashima/MIT Mars GCM and argon in the martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yuan; Richardson, Mark I.; Newman, Claire E.; Lee, Christopher; Toigo, Anthony D.; Mischna, Michael A.; Campin, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the ability of modern general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate transport in the martian atmosphere using measurements of argon as a proxy for the transport processes. Argon provides the simplest measure of transport as it is a noble gas with no sinks or sources on seasonal timescales. Variations in argon result solely from 'freeze distillation', as the atmosphere condenses at the winter poles, and from atmospheric transport. Comparison of all previously published models when rescaled to a common definition of the argon enhancement factor (EF) suggest that models generally do a poor job in predicting the peak enhancement in southern winter over the winter pole - the time when the capability of the model transport approaches are most severely tested. Despite observed peak EF values of ˜6, previously published model predictions peaked at EF values of only 2-3. We introduce a new GCM that provides a better treatment of mass conservation within the dynamical core, includes more sophisticated tracer transport approaches, and utilizes a cube-sphere grid structure thus avoiding the grid-point convergence problem at the pole that exists for most current Mars GCMs. We describe this model - the Ashima Research/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mars General Circulation Model (Ashima/MIT Mars GCM) and use it to demonstrate the significant sensitivity of peak EF to the choices of transport approach for both tracers and heat. We obtain a peak EF of 4.75 which, while over 50% higher than any prior model, remains well short of the observed value. We show that the polar EF value in winter is primarily determined by the competition between two processes: (1) mean meridional import of lower-latitude air not enriched in argon and (2) the leakage of enriched argon out of the polar column by eddies in the lowest atmospheric levels. We suggest possibilities for improving GCM representation of the CO2 cycle and the general circulation that may further improve the

  3. Mit castor satellite: Design, implementation, and testing of the communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; McCormack, Matthew Michael; Munoz, Michael; Parra, Spencer; Miller, David W.

    2012-12-01

    Cathode Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Reposition (CASTOR) is an orbital manoeuvre and transfer micro-satellite bus developed at MIT Space System Laboratory. The technical objective of the mission is achieving 1 km/s of delta-V over a 1 year mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This will be accomplished using a novel electric propulsion system, the Diverging Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT), which enables high efficiency orbital changes of the ESPA-ring class satellite. CASTOR is capable of improving rapid access to space capabilities by providing an orbital transfer platform with a very high performance to mass ratio, thus greatly reducing launch costs and allowing for highly efficient orbital manoeuvre. Furthermore, CASTOR is highly scalable and modular, allowing it to be adapted to a wide range of scales and applications. CASTOR is developed as part of the University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) funded by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In order to accomplish CASTOR mission objective, a highly optimized, scalable, light weight, and low cost communication system needed to be developed. These constraints imply the development of trade studies to select the final communication system architecture able to maximize the amount of data transmitted, while guaranteeing reliability, redundancy and limited mass, power consumption, and cost. A special attention is also required to guarantee a reliable communication system in cases of tumbling, or in case of strong Doppler shift which is inevitable due to the high delta-V capabilities of the vehicle. In order to accomplish all the mission requirements, different features have been introduced in the design of the communication system for this mission. Specifically, customized patch antennas have been realized, and a customized communication protocol has been designed and implemented. The communication subsystem has been validated through an intense testing campaign which included software tests in the laboratory, hardware

  4. First results from the ‘Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Carbone, L.; Shapiro, B.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Bell, A.; Strain, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the first results from ‘Violin-Mode’ measurements made on the four suspension fibres of a fully suspended 40 kg test mass. These measurements were made at the LIGO lab, Gravitational Wave Observatory test facility, at MIT. Here, an aluminium-alloy (dummy) test mass, simulating an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) test mass/mirror, had been suspended in air from a test suspension by four fused-silica suspension fibres, each measuring 400 µm in diameter × 600 mm long. Violin-Mode measurements were made on these highly tensioned fibres by retrofitting a prototype system of four novel shadow sensors to the test suspension, one per fibre, these sensors having, collectively, a displacement sensitivity of (6.9 ± 1.3) × 10-11 m (rms) Hz-1/2, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm. Violin-Mode fundamental resonances were detected in all four fibres: with frequencies ˜ 485 Hz when the test mass was supported lightly from below, and at ˜500 Hz when it was fully suspended. In the latter case the Violin-Mode detection took place whilst the test mass, together with its suspension fibres, was undergoing relatively large-amplitude ‘pendulum-mode’ motion, at ˜0.6 Hz. This motion was measured to have a peak-peak amplitude at one of the suspension fibres of up to ˜140 µm (35 µm, rms)—the shadow sensors each having subsidiary outputs for monitoring such low-frequency, large amplitude, motion. Under fully suspended conditions, a calibrated Violin-Mode ‘free-oscillation’ amplitude of 430 ± 20 picometres, rms, was measured at 500.875 Hz, in the same suspension fibre which was found to be undergoing, simultaneously, the ˜140 µm peak-peak motion. Over the bandwidth monitored (dc to 3.2 kHz), Violin-Mode harmonics up to the sixth were recorded in an evoked response. It was concluded that the prototype system had demonstrated amply its practical viability as a detector of Violin-Mode resonances in the

  5. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  6. MIT jar test of the natural polymer chitosan with fresh pond water from the Cambridge Water Department, November-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Murcott, S.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) jar tests of chitosan using CWD (Cambridge Water Department Treatment Plant) water was to demonstrate the effectiveness of chitosan as a coagulant in drinking water applications. The approach was to compare the performance of the natural organic coagulant, chitosan, to the performance of alum and other chemical coagulants in terms of the parameters turbidity, color, pH and alkalinity. Twenty-five jar tests were conducted during November and December, 1992, at Parsons Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  7. The Effect of Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT)-based Instruction on Attitudes towards the Course, Academic Success, and Permanence of Teaching on the Topic of "Respiratory Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koksal, Mustafa Serdar; Yel, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the effective teaching of biology have been continuously increasing since the 1800s. New teaching approaches have been purposed and tried out along the way. The multiple intelligences theory (MIT)-based approaches which give more importance to individual in educational settings can provide alternatives for meeting this requirement. An…

  8. Reconstitution and Upgrade of the Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility in the Basement Medical Room of the MIT Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Harling, Otto, K.; Riley, Kent, J.; Binns, Peter J.

    2004-12-31

    The M-011 thermal neutron beam has been reconstituted and upgraded to provide a high intensity and high quality facility for preclinical and certain clinical studies. Intensities of thermal neutrons in the beam range from 5.0-8.5 x 109 n cm-2 s-1. Beam contamination is at a low level where it has no practical influence on beam performance. New computer controlled dose and beam monitoring systems have been implemented which assure precise dose delivery and redundant safety interlocks. An additional beam shutter and massive shielding in the back of the medical room have been added which significantly reduce room background and now permit staff entry without the necessity for lowering the reactor power. This system is needed for BNCT research by the MIT group as well as other US groups. This need became acute with the closure of the BMRR which previously had the only high quality thermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT in the USA.

  9. Enhancing undergraduate education in aerospace engineering and planetary sciences at MIT through the development of a CubeSat mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.; Seager, Sara

    2011-09-01

    CubeSats are a class of nanosatellites that conform to a standardized 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, 1 kg form factor. This miniaturization, along with a standardized deployment device for launch vehicles, allows CubeSats to be launched at low cost by sharing the trip to orbit with other spacecraft. Part of the original motivation for the CubeSat platform was also to allow university students to participate more easily in space technology development and to gain hands-on experience with flight hardware. The Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics along with the Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Studies (EAPS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) recently completed a three semester-long course that uses the development of a CubeSat-based science mission as its core teaching method. Serving as the capstone academic experience for undergraduates, the goal of this class is to design and build a CubeSat spacecraft that serves a relevant science function, such as the detection of exoplanets transiting nearby stars. This project-based approach gives students essential first hand insights into the challenges of balancing science requirements and engineering design. Students are organized into subsystem-specific teams that refine and negotiate requirements, explore the design trade space, perform modeling and simulation, manage interfaces, test subsystems, and finally integrate prototypes and flight hardware. In this work we outline the heritage of capstone design/build classes at MIT, describe the class format in greater detail, and give results on the ability to meet learning objectives using this pedagogical approach.

  10. The MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography and Applied Ocean Science and Engineering: An Ongoing Experiment in Graduate Education and the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming Influence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    On May 8, 1968 Paul M. Fye, President of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Howard W. Johnson, President of Massachusetts Institute of Oceanography, signed a Memorandum of Agreement of one and one-half pages in which both partner institutions "have each approved the creation of a Joint Graduate Program in Oceanography for which there will be established appropriate graduate degrees to be conferred jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution." The partnership brought together the MIT experience with formal graduate education in sciences and engineering involving classroom instruction and more traditional academic advising with the less formal one to one "apprenticeship" or European tutorial style of education at WHOI. During the first year the graduate program involved only the physical sciences with the MIT home being in the Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Department. Ocean Engineering was added the following year with the MIT home being the Ocean Engineering Department. Biological Oceanography was added in 1970 with the MIT home being the Biology Department. The existing graduate curricula of the home departments at MIT, the inclusion of ocean engineering, and the fact that several of the early program instructors and advisers at WHOI entered oceanography after formal graduate training in more traditional disciplines such as chemistry, geology, physics, biology and mathematics was not conducive to an automatic adoption of the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm of core courses that predominated in other leading graduate programs in oceanography. Despite this caveat, the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm has influenced the learning environment in the Joint Program. Taking into account lessons learned in the process, some suggestions for the future of graduate education in ocean sciences and ocean engineering will be presented.

  11. Realisierung eines verzerrungsarmen Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärkers mit SB-ZePoC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, O.; Mathis, W.

    2007-06-01

    In den letzten Jahren hat die Entwicklung von Klasse-D Verstärkern für Audio-Anwendungen ein vermehrtes Interesse auf sich gezogen. Eine Motivation hierfür liegt in der mit dieser Technik extrem hohen erzielbaren Effizienz von über 90%. Die Signale, die Klasse-D Verstärker steuern, sind binär. Immer mehr Audio-Signale werden entweder digital gespeichert (CD, DVD, MP3) oder digital übermittelt (Internet, DRM, DAB, DVB-T, DVB-S, GMS, UMTS), weshalb eine direkte Umsetzung dieser Daten in ein binäres Steuersignal ohne vorherige konventionelle D/A-Wandlung erstrebenswert erscheint. Die klassischen Pulsweitenmodulationsverfahren führen zu Aliasing-Komponenten im Audio-Basisband. Diese Verzerrungen können nur durch eine sehr hohe Schaltfrequenz auf ein akzeptables Maß reduziert werden. Durch das von der Forschungsgruppe um Prof. Mathis vorgestellte SB-ZePoC Verfahren (Zero Position Coding with Separated Baseband) wird diese Art der Signalverzerrung durch Generierung eines separierten Basisbands verhindert. Deshalb können auch niedrige Schaltfrequenzen gewählt werden. Dadurch werden nicht nur die Schaltverluste, sondern auch Timing-Verzerrungen verringert, die durch die nichtideale Schaltendstufe verursacht werden. Diese tragen einen großen Anteil zu den gesamten Verzerrungen eines Klasse-D Verstärkers bei. Mit dem SB-ZePoC Verfahren lassen sich verzerrungsarme Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärker realisieren, die ohne aufwändige Gegenkopplungsschleifen auskommen. Class-D amplifiers are suiteble for amplification of audio signals. One argument is their high efficiency of 90% and more. Today most of the audio signals are stored or transmitted in digital form. A digitally controlled Class-D amplifier can be directly driven with coded (modulated) data. No separate D/A conversion is needed. Classical modulation schemes like Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) cause aliasing. So a very high switching rate is required to minimize the aliasing component within the signal

  12. Solution of the inverse problem of magnetic induction tomography (MIT) with multiple objects: analysis of detectability and statistical properties with respect to the reconstructed conducting region.

    PubMed

    Merwa, Robert; Brunner, Patricia; Missner, Andreas; Hollaus, Karl; Scharfetter, Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a technique to image the passive electrical properties (i.e. conductivity, permittivity, permeability) of biological tissues. The inverse eddy current problem is nonlinear and ill-posed, thus a Gauss-Newton one-step method in combination with four different regularization schemes is used to obtain stable solutions. Simulations with 16 excitation coils, 32 receiving coils and different spherical perturbations inside a homogeneous cylinder were computed. In order to compare the statistical properties of the reconstructed results a Monte Carlo study with a SNR of 40 dB and 20 dB was carried out. Simulated conductivity perturbations inside a homogeneous cylinder can be localized and resolved and the results prove the feasibility of difference imaging with MIT. PMID:16636415

  13. Massachusetts Beryllium Screening Program for Former Workers of Wyman-Gordon, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, L. D.

    2008-05-21

    The overall objective of this project was to provide medical screening to former workers of Wyman-Gordon Company, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals (NMI) in order to prevent and minimize the health impact of diseases caused by site related workplace exposures to beryllium. The program was developed in response to a request by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that had been authorized by Congress in Section 3162 of the 1993 Defense Authorization Act, urging the DOE to carry out a program for the identification and ongoing evaluation of current and former DOE employees who are subjected to significant health risks during such employment." This program, funded by the DOE, was an amendment to the medical surveillance program for former DOE workers at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program's scope included workers who had worked for organizations that provided beryllium products or materials to the DOE as part of their nuclear weapons program. These organizations have been identified as Beryllium Vendors.

  14. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Sio, H.; Ruszczynski, J. K.; Zhou, L.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Leeper, R. J.

    2012-04-15

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) generates DD and D{sup 3}He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for Omega, Z, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Significant improvements to the system in recent years are presented. Fusion reaction rates, as high as 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} and 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} for DD and D{sup 3}He, respectively, are now well regulated with a new ion source and electronic gas control system. Charged fusion products are more accurately characterized, which allows for better calibration of existing nuclear diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are used to determine the metrology of the fusion-product source for particle-counting applications. Finally, neutron diagnostics development has been facilitated by detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) modeling of neutrons in the accelerator target chamber, which is used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform, which continues to support the existing nuclear diagnostics while simultaneously facilitating the development of new diagnostics in aid of the National Ignition Campaign at the National Ignition Facility.

  15. mit-o-matic: a comprehensive computational pipeline for clinical evaluation of mitochondrial variations from next-generation sequencing datasets.

    PubMed

    Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Dhiman, Heena; Joshi, Kandarp; Hasija, Yasha; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-04-01

    The human mitochondrial genome has been reported to have a very high mutation rate as compared with the nuclear genome. A large number of mitochondrial mutations show significant phenotypic association and are involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. In recent years, there has been a remarkable progress in the understanding of mitochondrial genetics. The availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have not only reduced sequencing cost by orders of magnitude but has also provided us good quality mitochondrial genome sequences with high coverage, thereby enabling decoding of a number of human mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we report a computational and experimental pipeline to decipher the human mitochondrial DNA variations and examine them for their clinical correlation. As a proof of principle, we also present a clinical study of a patient with Leigh disease and confirmed maternal inheritance of the causative allele. The pipeline is made available as a user-friendly online tool to annotate variants and find haplogroup, disease association, and heteroplasmic sites. The "mit-o-matic" computational pipeline represents a comprehensive cloud-based tool for clinical evaluation of mitochondrial genomic variations from NGS datasets. The tool is freely available at http://genome.igib.res.in/mitomatic/. PMID:25677119

  16. Effect of Adding a Regenerator to Kornhauser's MIT "Two-Space" (Gas-Spring+Heat Exchanger) Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Gidugu, Praveen

    2008-01-01

    This study employed entropy-based second law post-processing analysis to characterize the various thermodynamic losses inside a 3-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger+regenerator) operating under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow. The 3- space solution domain is adapted from the 2-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger) in Kornhauser's MIT test rig by modifying the heat exchanger space to include a porous regenerator system. A thermal nonequilibrium model which assumes that the regenerator porous matrix and gas average temperatures can differ by several degrees at a given axial location and time during the cycle is employed. An important and primary objective of this study is the development and application of a thermodynamic loss post-processor to characterize the major thermodynamic losses inside the 3-space model. It is anticipated that the experience gained from thermodynamic loss analysis of the simple 3-space model can be extrapolated to more complex systems like the Stirling engine. It is hoped that successful development of loss post-processors will facilitate the improvement of the optimization capability of Stirling engine analysis codes through better understanding of the heat transfer and power losses. It is also anticipated that the incorporation of a successful thermal nonequilibrium model of the regenerator in Stirling engine CFD analysis codes, will improve our ability to accurately model Stirling regenerators relative to current multidimensional thermal-equilibrium porous media models.

  17. Modeling water resource systems within the framework of the MIT Integrated Global System Model: IGSM-WRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Schlosser, Adam; Gueneau, Arthur; Gao, Xiang; Blanc, Élodie; Fant, Charles; Rasheed, Bilhuda; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2013-07-01

    Through the integration of a water resource system (WRS) component, the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework has been enhanced to study the effects of climate change on managed water-resource systems. Development of the WRS involves the downscaling of temperature and precipitation from the zonal representation of the IGSM to regional (latitude-longitude) scale, and the translation of the resulting surface hydrology to runoff at the scale of river basins, referred to as assessment subregions (ASRs). The model of water supply is combined with analysis of water use in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors and with a model of water system management that allocates water among uses and over time and routes water among ASRs. Results of the IGSM-WRS framework include measures of water adequacy and ways it is influenced by climate change. Here we document the design of WRS and its linkage to other components of the IGSM and present tests of consistency of model simulation with the historical record.

  18. The MIT/OSO 7 catalog of X-ray sources - Intensities, spectra, and long-term variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, T. H.; Laird, F. N.; Clark, G. W.; Hearn, D. R.; Sprott, G. F.; Li, F. K.; Bradt, H. V.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Schnopper, H. W.; Winkler, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the observations of the cosmic X-ray sky performed by the MIT 1-40-keV X-ray detectors on OSO 7 between October 1971 and May 1973. Specifically, mean intensities or upper limits of all third Uhuru or OSO 7 cataloged sources (185 sources) in the 3-10-keV range are computed. For those sources for which a statistically significant (greater than 20) intensity was found in the 3-10-keV band (138 sources), further intensity determinations were made in the 1-15-keV, 1-6-keV, and 15-40-keV energy bands. Graphs and other simple techniques are provided to aid the user in converting the observed counting rates to convenient units and in determining spectral parameters. Long-term light curves (counting rates in one or more energy bands as a function of time) are plotted for 86 of the brighter sources.

  19. Vfa1 binds to the N-terminal microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4 and stimulates its ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Vild, Cody J; Xu, Zhaohui

    2014-04-11

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are responsible for multivesicular body biogenesis, membrane abscission during cytokinesis, and retroviral budding. They function as transiently assembled molecular complexes on the membrane, and their disassembly requires the action of the AAA-ATPase Vps4. Vps4 is regulated by a multitude of ESCRT and ESCRT-related proteins. Binding of these proteins to Vps4 is often mediated via the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4. Recently, a new Vps4-binding protein Vfa1 was identified in a yeast genetic screen, where overexpression of Vfa1 caused defects in vacuolar morphology. However, the function of Vfa1 and its role in vacuolar biology were largely unknown. Here, we provide the first detailed biochemical and biophysical study of Vps4-Vfa1 interaction. The MIT domain of Vps4 binds to the C-terminal 17 residues of Vfa1. This interaction is of high affinity and greatly stimulates the ATPase activity of Vps4. The crystal structure of the Vps4-Vfa1 complex shows that Vfa1 adopts a canonical MIT-interacting motif 2 structure that has been observed previously in other Vps4-ESCRT interactions. These findings suggest that Vfa1 is a novel positive regulator of Vps4 function. PMID:24567329

  20. Genomic insights into growth and survival of supercritical-CO2 tolerant bacterium MIT0214 under conditions associated with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Hernandez, H.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 has the potential to significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with fossil fuel combustion. The largest potential for storing captured CO2 in the United Sates is in deep geologic saline formations. Currently, little is known about the effects of CO2 storage on biologically active microbial communities found in the deep earth biosphere. Therefore, to investigate how deep earth microbial communities will be affected by the storage of CO2 we have enriched for a microbial consortium from the saline formation waters of the Frio 2 project site (Texas Gulf Coast) that is capable of growth in nutrient media under a supercritical CO2 headspace (Hernandez, et al). The cultivation of actively growing cells in an environment containing scCO2 is unexpected based on previous experimental evidence of microbial sterilization attributed to the acidic, desiccating, and solvent-like properties of scCO2. We have isolated strain MIT0214 from this supercritical CO2 based enrichment and have sequenced its genome using the Illumina platform followed by de novo assembly of reads and targeted Sanger sequencing to reduce gaps in the draft assembly. The genome of strain MIT0214 is approximately 5,551,062 base pairs with 35% GC-content and is most similar to nonpathogenic Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14597. Annotation of the draft assembly of the MIT0214 genome by the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server revealed 5538 coding sequences where 4145 of the coding sequences were assigned putative functions. These functions were enriched in cell wall and capsule formation, phage/prophage and plasmids, gene regulation and signaling, and nitrogen and sulfur metabolism relative to the genome of the most closely-related surface-isolated B. cereus reference (ATCC 14597) and in total 773,416 bp of the MIT0214 genome content was distinct from the B. cereus reference. Notably, this set of distinct sequences were most

  1. Recent KBO (Pluto/Charon and beyond, including Quaoar) Occultation Observations by the Williams College Team as part of the Williams-MIT Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pandey, S.; Lu, M.; Rogosinski, Z.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Gulbis, A. S.; Naranjo, O.; Navas, G.; Zerpa, L.; Villarreal, J.; Rojo, P.; Förster, F.; Servajean, E.

    2013-10-01

    The Williams College-MIT collaboration has observed numerous occultations of stars by Pluto/Charon and other Kuiper-belt objects (www.stellaroccultations.info), since its establishment three decades ago with an attempted discovery of Neptune's rings in 1983. In this paper, we describe several recent occultation observations, both successful and (for reasons of path uncertainties and/or weather) unsuccessful. Light curves made or arranged by Williams College faculty and students were used together with light curves by MIT colleagues and others to study Pluto's atmosphere and Charon's size, to discover one of the highest-known solar-system albedos (KBO 55636), and to attempt to study 1000-km-diameter Quaoar. Observations discussed include light curves for KBO 55636 on 9 October 2009 from Hawaii; Pluto on 3/4 July 2010 from Chile, 22 May 2011 from Williamstown, Massachusetts, 23 June 2011 from Hawaii (in support of SOFIA observations of Pluto's atmosphere, discussed in an article in press in AJ and of the pair of Pluto/Charon occultations of the same star), and 4 May 2013 (Bosh et al., this conference) and 15 July 2013 from Williamstown; Charon on 15 June 2013 from Williamstown; Quaoar from a picket fence ranging from Chile through Venezuela (with a detection there) to Massachusetts on July 8/9 and in South Africa on 12 July 2013. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams; Steven Levine at Lowell Obs.; Jennifer G. Winters (GSU) in Chile; Richard Rojas/Jorge Moreno in Venezuela; Scott Sheppard; Federica Bianco; David Osip; and others. ZR (Vassar '14) was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow at Williams College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. ES: partial support from Programa Nacional de Becas de Postgrado (CONICYT Grant 21110496). FF

  2. Assessment of MIT and UCB wall condensation tests and of the pre-release RELAP5/MOD3.2 code condensation models

    SciTech Connect

    Shumway, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, a new class of reactor designs has been proposed that utilize passive safety systems. General Electric has developed a Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) design that relies on such passive systems. The SBWR has two passive cooling systems that involve energy transfer by condensation. These are the isolation condenser system (ICS) and the passive containment cooling systems (PCCS). It is important that such heat transfer phenomena be correctly understood and quantified. The General Electric Company has sponsored tests at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) to obtain data simulating PCCS conditions. Data was obtained with pure steam, steam-air mixtures and steam-helium mixtures. INEL has been contracted by the NRC to evaluate these tests and assess existing condensation heat transfer correlations against the test data. This report assesses the relevance of the tests to SBWR conditions and shows RELAP5/MOD3.2 predictions of the tests.

  3. Adjustable impedance, force feedback and command language aids for telerobotics (parts 1-4 of an 8-part MIT progress report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.; Raju, G. Jagganath; Buzan, Forrest T.; Yared, Wael; Park, Jong

    1989-01-01

    Projects recently completed or in progress at MIT Man-Machine Systems Laboratory are summarized. (1) A 2-part impedance network model of a single degree of freedom remote manipulation system is presented in which a human operator at the master port interacts with a task object at the slave port in a remote location is presented. (2) The extension of the predictor concept to include force feedback and dynamic modeling of the manipulator and the environment is addressed. (3) A system was constructed to infer intent from the operator's commands and the teleoperation context, and generalize this information to interpret future commands. (4) A command language system is being designed that is robust, easy to learn, and has more natural man-machine communication. A general telerobot problem selected as an important command language context is finding a collision-free path for a robot.

  4. Development of the system for visualization of electric conductivity distribution in human brain and its activity by the magnetic induction tomography (MIT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapetsky, S.; Cherepenin, V.; Korjenevsky, A.; Kornienko, V.; Vartanov, A.

    2010-04-01

    Currently rapid development of functional activity researches of human brain sets the problem of reliable and non-invasive detection of mental processes and states. At present we know some traditional methods of rapid and contactless acquisition of brain activity characteristics, such as functional tomography (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography. But these methods have low temporal resolution, complicated and ambiguous association of measured values with information processes in brain. So possibility of MIT application is investigated. Estimation of possibility of such changes registration is performed. Investigations of magnetic field configuration, schematics of transmit-receive modules and numerical algorithms are in progress. It may allow us to register high speed conductivity changes in brain tissues.

  5. Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- und Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden anhand der Edelgaszusammensetzung von Kimberliten und Lamproiten sowie ihrer gesteinsbildenden Minerale die Wechselwirkungen dieser Gesteine mit Fluiden diskutiert. Die untersuchten Proben stammen vom östlichen Baltischen Schild, vom Kola-Kraton (Poria Guba und Kandalaksha) und vom karelischen Kraton (Kostamuksha). Edelgasanalysen nach thermischer oder mechanischer Gasextraktion von 23 Gesamtgesteinsproben und 15 Mineralseparaten ergeben folgendes Bild: Helium- und Neon-Isotopendaten der Fluideinschlüsse von Lamproiten aus Kostamuksha lassen auf den Einfluss einer fluiden Phase krustaler Herkunft schliessen. Diese Wechselwirkungen fanden wahrscheinlich schon während des Magmenaufstiegs statt, denn spätere Einflüsse krustaler Fluide auf die Lamproite und ihr Nebengestein (Quarzit) sind gering, wie anhand der C/36Ar-Zusammensetzung gezeigt wird. Auch sind die mit verschiedenen Datierungsmethoden (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) an Mineralseparaten und teilweise an Gesamtgestein ermittelten Alter konsistent und machen eine metamorphe Überprägung unwahrscheinlich. Aufgrund der Verteilung der primordialen Edelgasisotope zwischen Fluideinschlüssen und Gesteinsmatrix ist ein langsamer Magmenaufstieg anzunehmen, was die Möglichkeit der Kontamination mit einem krustalen Fluid während des Magmenaufstiegs erhöht. Die Gasextraktion aus Mineralseparaten erfolgte thermisch, wodurch eine Freisetzung der Gase ausschließlich aus Fluideinschlüssen nicht möglich ist. Hierbei zeigen Amphibol und Klinopyroxen, separiert aus Kostamuksha-Lamproiten, in ihrer Neon-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Vergleich zur krustalen Zusammensetzung (Kennedy et al., 1990) ein leicht erhöhtes Verhältnis von 20Ne/22Ne, was ein Hinweis auf Mantel-Neon sein könnte. Kalifeldspäte, Quarz und Karbonate enthalten dagegen nur Neon krustaler Zusammensetzung. Phlogopite haben sehr kleine Verhältnisse von 20Ne/22Ne und 21Ne/22Ne, zurückzuführen auf in-situ-Produktion von 22Ne

  6. Parameter Tuning and Calibration of RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel Cumulus Parameterization Scheme over CORDEX East Asian Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Liwei; Qian, Yun; Zhou, Tianjun; Yang, Ben

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we calibrated the performance of regional climate model RegCM3 with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme over CORDEX East Asia domain by tuning the selected seven parameters through multiple very fast simulated annealing (MVFSA) sampling method. The seven parameters were selected based on previous studies, which customized the RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel scheme through three different ways by using the sensitivity experiments. The responses of model results to the seven parameters were investigated. Since the monthly total rainfall is constrained, the simulated spatial pattern of rainfall and the probability density function (PDF) distribution of daily rainfall rates are significantly improved in the optimal simulation. Sensitivity analysis suggest that the parameter “relative humidity criteria” (RH), which has not been considered in the default simulation, has the largest effect on the model results. The responses of total rainfall over different regions to RH were examined. Positive responses of total rainfall to RH are found over northern equatorial western Pacific, which are contributed by the positive responses of explicit rainfall. Followed by an increase of RH, the increases of the low-level convergence and the associated increases in cloud water favor the increase of the explicit rainfall. The identified optimal parameters constrained by the total rainfall have positive effects on the low-level circulation and the surface air temperature. Furthermore, the optimized parameters based on the extreme case are suitable for a normal case and the model’s new version with mixed convection scheme.

  7. An integrated assessment modelling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes an integrated assessment modelling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) incorporates a human activity model, it is possible to analyse uncertainties in emissions resulting from both uncertainties in the economic model parameters and uncertainty in future climate policies. Another major feature is the flexibility to vary key climate parameters controlling the climate system response: climate sensitivity, net aerosol forcing and ocean heat uptake rate. Thus, the IGSM-CAM is a computationally efficient framework to explore the uncertainty in future global and regional climate change associated with uncertainty in the climate response and projected emissions. This study presents 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (unconstrained scenario and stabilization scenario at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent) and three sets of climate parameters. The chosen climate parameters provide a good approximation for the median, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of the probability distribution of 21st century global climate change. As such, this study presents new estimates of the 90% probability interval of regional climate change for different emissions scenarios. These results underscore the large uncertainty in regional climate change resulting from uncertainty in climate parameters and emissions, especially when it comes to changes in precipitation.

  8. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) incorporates a human activity model, it is possible to analyze uncertainties in emissions resulting from both uncertainties in the underlying socio-economic characteristics of the economic model and in the choice of climate-related policies. Another major feature is the flexibility to vary key climate parameters controlling the climate system response to changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols concentrations, e.g., climate sensitivity, ocean heat uptake rate, and strength of the aerosol forcing. The IGSM-CAM is not only able to realistically simulate the present-day mean climate and the observed trends at the global and continental scale, but it also simulates ENSO variability with realistic time scales, seasonality and patterns of SST anomalies, albeit with stronger magnitudes than observed. The IGSM-CAM shares the same general strengths and limitations as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) models in simulating present-day annual mean surface temperature and precipitation. Over land, the IGSM-CAM shows similar biases to the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 3, which shares the same atmospheric model. This study also presents 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (unconstrained scenario and stabilization scenario at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent) similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and three sets of climate parameters. Results of the simulations with the chosen

  9. First Results from the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS) on the IRTF: A Stellar Occultation by Pluto and a Transit by Exoplanet XO-2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbis, A. A. S.; Bus, S. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Rayner, J. T.; Stahlberger, W. E.; Rojas, F. E.; Adams, E. R.; Person, M. J.; Chung, R.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Zuluaga, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    We present a high-speed, visible-wavelength imaging instrument: MORIS (the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System). MORIS is mounted on the 3 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its primary component is an Andor iXon camera, a nearly 60" square field of view with high quantum efficiency, low read noise, low dark current, and full-frame readout rates ranging from as slow as desired to a maximum of between 3.5 Hz and 35 Hz (depending on the mode; read noise of 6 e- pixel-1 and 49 e- pixel-1 with electron-multiplying gain = 1, respectively). User-selectable binning and subframing can increase the cadence to a few hundred hertz. An electron-multiplying mode can be employed for photon counting, effectively reducing the read noise to subelectron levels at the expense of dynamic range. Data cubes, or individual frames, can be triggered to several-nanosecond accuracy using the Global Positioning System. MORIS is mounted on the side-facing exit window of SpeX, allowing simultaneous near-infrared and visible observations. Here, we describe the components, setup, and measured characteristics of MORIS. We also report results from the first science observations: the 2008 June 24 stellar occultation by Pluto and an extrasolar planetary transit by XO-2b. The Pluto occultation of a 15.8R magnitude star has a signal-to-noise ratio of 35 per atmospheric scale height and a midtime error of 0.32 s. The XO-2b transit reaches photometric precision of 0.5 mmag in 2 minutes and has a midtime timing precision of 23 s.

  10. Grundsätze über die Anlagen neuer Sternwarten mit Beziehung auf die Sternwarte der Universität Göttingen. Von Georg Heinrich Borheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuermann, Klaus; Borheck, Georg Heinrich

    Die Göttinger Sternwarte, Wirkungsstätte des berühmten Gelehrten Carl Friedrich Gauß, ist ein bedeutendes Baudenkmal. Im Jahre 2005 wird sie gemeinsam von der Georg-August-Universität und der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen renoviert, um dann als repräsentatives Gebäude der Universität und Arbeitsstätte der Akademie zu dienen. Die Nutzung der historischen Räume für Ausstellungen macht diesen imposanten Bau erstmals der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich. Die Sternwarte war bei ihrer Errichtung vor 200 Jahren ein nach seinerzeit neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen konzipierter Bau, der die Universität Göttingen in eine der vordersten Stellen Europa rückte. Auch aufgrund ihrer Architektur ist sie ein großer Wurf des Göttinger Universitätsbaumeisters Georg Heinrich Borheck. Durch die Kriegswirren der Napoleonischen Zeit zerschlug sich Borhecks Versuch einer Publikation seiner Beschreibung des Baus der Göttinger Sternwarte 1805. Doch seine Schrift ist auch heute noch aktuell und wird mit diesem Band erstmals einer breiten Öffentlichkeit zugängig gemacht. Er zeigt die Grundsätze, nach denen damals öffentliche Bauten konzipiert wurden, erläutert die Bedeutung des Baus aus kunst- und wissenschaftshistorischer Sicht und informiert über die Pläne zur Restaurierung der Sternwarte in einem separaten Beitrag und im Geleitwort des Präsidenten der Georg-August Universität Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Kurt von Figura.

  11. Stabile Expression von Sulfotransferasen - allein oder in Kombination mit Cytochrom P450 - in Zelllinien für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabel, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    -dimethylaminoazobenzol; 0,1 µM für 2-Aminoanthracen; 10 µM für 2,4-Diaminotoluol). Die stärkste Aktivierung von 2-Acetylaminofluoren und 3′-Methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzol erfolgte in der Zelllinie, die CYP1A2 und SULT1A2 koexprimierte; die stärkste Aktivierung von 2,4-Diaminotoluol und 2-Aminoanthracen erfolgte in der Zelllinie, die CYP1A2 und SULT1A1 koexprimierte. Sowohl SULT1A1 als auch SULT1A2 sind im Menschen genetisch polymorph. Ein unterschiedlich starkes Aktivierungspotenzial der Alloenzyme könnte eine individuell unterschiedliche Suszeptibilität für die durch aAA ausgelöste Kanzerogenese bedingen. In HPRT-Mutationsuntersuchungen mit rekombinanten Zellen zeigten die allelischen Varianten der SULT1A2 starke Unterschiede in ihrem Aktivierungpotenzial. Nur in der Zelllinie, die das Alloenzym SULT1A2*1 mit CYP1A2 koexprimierte, wurde 2-Acetylaminofluoren zum Mutagen aktiviert. Zur Aktivierung von 3′-Methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzol waren jedoch sowohl das Alloenzym SULT1A2*1 als auch das Alloenzym SULT1A2*2 in der Lage. Die Alloenzyme der SULT1A1 zeigten ein ähnlich gutes Aktivierungspotenzial für aAA. In früheren Studien wurde gezeigt, dass die SULT1C1 der Ratte eine wichtige Rolle bei der Aktivierung der aAA in dieser Spezies spielt. Dahingegen war die humane SULT1C1 nicht in der Lage die untersuchten aAA zu aktivieren. Die Kenntnis solcher Spezieunterschiede könnte wichtig sein um unterschiedliche Organotropismen aAA in Menschen und Tiermodellen zu erklären, da SULT mit starker Gewebespezifität exprimiert werden und das Expressionsmuster für die einzelnen SULT-Formen in Menschen und Ratten sich stark unterscheidet. Aromatic amines and amides (aAA) represent a group of chemicals with great toxicological importance due to their wide distribution in the environment and their carcinogenic potency. The carcinogenicity of aAA is mediated by the mutagenic action of highly reactive metabolites. They are frequently formed by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic

  12. From Uhuru at CfA to SAS-3 at MIT: Looking for X-Ray Binaries in all the Right Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2013-01-01

    My career in X-ray astronomy started almost accidentally, when in 1975 I was hired fresh out of college as a “data aide” for the Uhuru satellite, in Riccardo Giacconi’s group at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Working first for Mel Ulmer, and later for Bill Forman and Christine Jones, I learned the fundamentals of data analysis, and helped produce the Fourth Uhuru catalog of X-ray sources (Forman et al. 1978), as well as studying transient X-ray sources (Cominsky et al. 1978). Christine was the first woman scientist I had ever met, and with her encouragement, I applied to graduate school to continue on in X-ray astronomy. Lured down the street to MIT by the chance to work on SAS-3, I eagerly learned how to operate the satellite from a control room in the Center for Space Research. The SAS-3 group was led by Prof. George Clark, and it was my good luck that he was around during the holiday break in January 1978 when everyone else in the group was at an AAS meeting in Hawaii. A source I recognized from my Uhuru work, 4U0115+63, had reappeared, and I knew that it was likely to be a pulsar. With the help of George and Project Scientist Bill Mayer, I managed to send the commands to stop SAS-3 and point at the source. The 3.6 second pulsations were so strong that they could be seen in the raw data! This discovery made the New York Times, as 4U0115+63 was the first transient x-ray source shown to be in a binary system (Cominsky et al. 1978, Rappaport et al. 1978). Another personal SAS-3 highlight included working on Prof. Walter Lewin’s “World-wide Burst Watch” - coordinated multi-wavelength observations of x-ray burst sources which led to the discoveries of slightly delayed but coincident optical bursts (Grindlay et al. 1978, McClintock et al. 1979). Although live operations of SAS-3 ended when it re-entered on April 9, 1979, many years of additional data analysis remained. And later, as a continuation of work I began in my Ph.D. Thesis on X

  13. Desorptions- und Reaktionskinetik der Erdalkalien Calcium und Strontium mit Chlor an Wolfram. Part II: Kinetics of the Elementary Steps of the Surface Reaction M + Cl MCl (M = Ca, Sr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, B.; Wassmuth, H. W.

    Mit Hilfe gepulster Atom-bzw. Molekularstrahlen wurde die Desorptionskinetik von Strontium, Calcium und Chlor sowie die Desorptionskinetik der sich auf einer heißen Wolframoberfläche bildenden SrCl-und CaCl- Moleküle untersucht. Als Aktivierungsenergien zur Desorption erhielten wir: = (3,76 +/- 0,05) eV, =(3,32 +/- 0,07) eV, =(4,16 +/- 0,05) eV sowie =(4,2 +/- 0,3) eV und =(3,9 +/- 0, 3)eV.In Kombination mit den im stationären Zustand erhaltenen Ergebnissen aus Teil I [1] läßt sich damit ein Einblick in die Kinetik der Reaktion M + Cl = MCl auf der wolframoberfläche gewinnen und die Temperaturabhängigkeit der Ratenkonstanten der Dissoziation und der Rekombination bestimmen. FuUr die Dissoziationsenergie DSMCl von SrCl bzw. CaCl an der Wolfram-Oberfläche erhielten wir (0,5 +/- 0,5) eV bzw. (0,3 +/- 0,5) eV; die MCl-Moleküle sind an der Oberfläche also praktisch nur durch die Aktivierungsschwelle zur Dissoziation SMCl stabilisiert, die wir für SrCl zu (2,8 +/- 0,5) eV und für CaCl zu (2,3 +/- 0,5) eV bestimmten.Translated AbstractDesorption- and Reactionkinetics of the Alkaline Earth Elements Calcium and Strontium with Chlorine on a Tungsten Surface - Part II: Kinetics of the Elementary Steps of the Surface Reaction M + Cl MCl (M = Ca, Sr)Utilizing pulsed molecular-beam-technique the kinetics of desorption of Strontium, Calcium, and Chlorine as well as that of the molecules SrCl and CaCl, which are formed at the hot tungsten surface, was investigated. Thereby, the following values were obtained for the activation energies of desorption: = (3.76 +/- 0.05) eV, = (3.32 +/- 0.07) eV, = (4.16 +/- 0.05) eV, = (4.2 +/- 0.3) eV and = (3.9 +/- 0.3) eV.Combining these results with the steady-state-results from part I [1] the temperature dependency of the rate constants of dissociation and recombination of MCl-molecules at the tungsten surface could be determined. The values obtained for the dissociation energies

  14. Supply Chain Management (SCM) mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Anja; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Gerth, Wolf-Michael; Graßy, Mario; Herron, Colin; Schmidt, Peter; Seidl, Florian; Wittmann, Claus-Eduard

    Nach Schätzungen von Mercer Management Consulting und dem Fraunhofer Institut wird der Wertschöpfungsanteil in der Automobilindustrie von durchschnittlich 35 % im Jahr 2002 auf 23 % im Jahr 2015 sinken [Merc 04]. Der Trend, die Produktionstiefe oder allgemeiner, die Wertschöpfungstiefe, zu reduzieren, hat zur Folge, dass die Kaufteile den größeren Teil der Wertschöpfung einnehmen. Die Optimierungspotentiale und der Einfluss auf die Kosten wandern immer mehr zu den Lieferanten, vor allem bei größeren Unternehmen oder Konzernen. Lieferanten-Philosophien, die auf oberflächlichen Verbindungen zu Lieferanten aufbauen, um immer optimal und schnell den günstigsten Teilepreis zu erhalten, haben sich in vielen Sparten oder Produktbereichen, z. B. im Maschinenbau, im besten Fall als kurzfristig erfolgreich erwiesen. Kooperative und nachhaltige Strategien sind der erfolgversprechendere Weg, zumindest mittelbis langfristig. In der Realität wird sehr wenig in Supply Chain-Konzepte investiert und die Umsetzungen sind daher vielmals oberflächlich.

  15. MIT Haystack Observatory Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niell, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The data from twenty years of the NCEP numerical weather model have been used to calculate the IMF hydrostatic mapping function for several sites distributed in latitude from -66 degrees to +78 degrees. Comparison of heights estimated with the NMF hydrostatic mapping function demonstrates that using NMFh results in height errors at annual and semi-annual periods with amplitudes as large as approximately 8 mm and 4 mm, respectively, when data down to 5 degrees are included. The errors are smallest at the equator and increase towards the poles.

  16. BEAMS Lab at MIT: Status report

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Rosa G.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The Biological Engineering Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (BEAMS) Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a facility dedicated to incorporating AMS into life sciences research. As such, it is focused exclusively on radiocarbon and tritium AMS and makes use of a particularly compact instrument of a size compatible with most laboratory space. Recent developments at the BEAMS Lab were aimed to improve different stages of the measurement process, such as the carbon sample injection interface, the simultaneous detection of tritium and hydrogen and finally, the overall operation of the system. Upgrades and results of those efforts are presented here. PMID:20383276

  17. Story I: Impella - Eine Erfolgsgeschichte mit Achterbahnfahrt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieß, Thorsten; Nix, Christoph; Michels, Dirk

    An der Entwicklung von Blutpumpen hatte man im Aachener Helmholtz-Institut für Biomedizinische Technik (HIA) schon seit längerem gearbeitet. Aber was der Forscher Thorsten Sieß da zu Beginn der 90er Jahre vorhat, das ist etwas ganz Besonderes. Nicht umsonst hat die Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG) Mittel für 4 Jahre zugeschossen. Sieß ist dabei, eine so genannte minimal-invasive Technik zur Blutförderung zu entwickeln - und das geht weit über den damaligen Stand der Technik hinaus.

  18. MIT Experiments with Joint Venture Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    A new dormitory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was constructed using a joint venture contract with safeguards and incentives that brought university, architect, and building contractor into a closer and more productive relationship than under conventional contract arrangements. (Author/MLF)

  19. Biotechnology Process Engineering Center at MIT Home

    Science.gov Websites

    ... &22; )&25;&2;tt &6; - &8; &22; )&28; p:www.w3. &6; - &8; &22; (&2;&6;&3;&1;o &6; - &8; &22; )&25; rgTRREC )&1;- &6; &1; - &8; &22; Q )&17;&1;h &6; - &8; &22; )&25;&1;t &6; &2; - &8; &1; &22; )&14;&1;m &6; &1; - ...

  20. Investigation of air transportation technology at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research done by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is addressed including Loran-C for guidance in flying approaches, an air traffic control simulator for the Manned Vehicle Simulation Research Facility, and an air traffic collision model theory.

  1. MIT-NASA Workshop: Transformational Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankins, J. C. (Editor); Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.; Simmons, A.; Mullins, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    As a space faring nation, we are at a critical juncture in the evolution of space exploration. NASA has announced its Vision for Space Exploration, a vision of returning humans to the Moon, sending robots and eventually humans to Mars, and exploring the outer solar system via automated spacecraft. However, mission concepts have become increasingly complex, with the potential to yield a wealth of scientific knowledge. Meanwhile, there are significant resource challenges to be met. Launch costs remain a barrier to routine space flight; the ever-changing fiscal and political environments can wreak havoc on mission planning; and technologies are constantly improving, and systems that were state of the art when a program began can quickly become outmoded before a mission is even launched. This Conference Publication describes the workshop and featured presentations by world-class experts presenting leading-edge technologies and applications in the areas of power and propulsion; communications; automation, robotics, computing, and intelligent systems; and transformational techniques for space activities. Workshops such as this one provide an excellent medium for capturing the broadest possible array of insights and expertise, learning from researchers in universities, national laboratories, NASA field Centers, and industry to help better our future in space.

  2. MIT January Operational Internship Experience 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLatte, Danielle; Furhmann, Adam; Habib, Manal; Joujon-Roche, Cecily; Opara, Nnaemeka; Pasterski, Sabrina Gonzalez; Powell, Christina; Wimmer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the 2011 January Operational Internship experience (JOIE) program which allows students to study operational aspects of spaceflight, how design affects operations and systems engineering in practice for 3 weeks. Topics include: (1) Systems Engineering (2) NASA Organization (3) Workforce Core Values (4) Human Factors (5) Safety (6) Lean Engineering (7) NASA Now (8) Press, Media, and Outreach and (9) Future of Spaceflight.

  3. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  4. Hydraulische Charakterisierung eines urbanen Karstgrundwasserleiters mit Pumpversuchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzberg, Stefan; Ufrecht, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Quantitatively defining the characteristics of groundwater flow in karst aquifers is still a difficult challenge, which requires the application of different methods and approaches, of which hydraulic tests are just one. Computer based acquisition of field data and the development of advanced evaluation methods have led to huge improvements in hydraulic testing and interpretation. However, although the so called diagnostic plot is particularly suited to gain detailed information of involved karst subsystems, these improvements have been scarcely reflected in the analysis of pumping tests in karst aquifers up to now. Against this background a systematic analysis of pumping tests from the Upper Muschelkalk in the urban area of Stuttgart was performed considering the 1st derivative of pressure with respect to time. The insights gained demonstrate the power of the diagnostic plot especially when interpreting pumping well data from karst aquifers.

  5. Miles In Trail (MIT) Restrictions: A Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Green, Steven; Roherty, Tom; Aston, John

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions are issued to meet the airport and/or airspace capacity. The purpose of this paper is to review the currently practiced miles-in-trail operations for traffic flow management at a typical en route Air Traffic Control Center. The paper describes roles and considerations of both traffic management coordinators and the controllers in planning, coordination, execution, and monitoring of miles-in-trail restrictions. The paper addresses the type of decisions that traffic management coordinators must make and the different information required to plan and monitor miles-in-trail restrictions. The implications of miles-in-trail restrictions on controller workload are also addressed. Using the Cleveland center as an example, the paper also identified some challenging traffic situations that required miles-in-trail restrictions on a regular basis. The paper is expected to benefit the research and development community as it provides the current challenges in traffic flow management and strengths and weakness of miles-in-trail operations.

  6. Dynamische Motorvermessung mit verschiedenen Methoden und Modellen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Alexander

    Die stark zunehmenden gesetzlichen und wirtschaftlichen Vorgaben zur Senkung von Kraftstoffverbrauch und Abgasemissionen stellen große Anforderungen an die weitere Entwicklung von Benzin- und Dieselmotoren. Hierbei sind grundlegende Fortschritte durch Konstruktion und auslegungsbedingte Maßnahmen im Bereich der Einspritzung, Gemischaufbereitung, Aufladung, Brennverfahren und Abgasnachbehandlung zu erreichen. Ein wesentlicher Teil dieser Verbesserungen wird jedoch durch eine Zunahme von Variabilitäten erreicht wie z.B. verstellbaren Vor-, Haupt- und Nacheinspritzungen, variablem Raildruck, variablen Nockenwellensteuerwinkeln, Ventilhüben, Drall-/Tumbleklappen sowie verstellbaren Abgasturbinen, Abgasrückführströmen und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen. Dadurch steigt die Zahl der Stellglieder (Aktoren) stark an. Hinzu kommen zusätzliche Sensoren wie z.B. für Luftzahl, NOx, Brennraumdruck, Abgastemperatur und Abgasdruck. Deshalb nimmt der Umfang der Steuerungs-, Regelungs- und Diagnosefunktionen in der Motorelektronik (ECU) stark zu. Bild 7-1 zeigt als Beispiel den Signalfluss für die gesteuerten und geregelten Größen eines Dieselmotors in einer beispielhaften Prüfstandsumgebung.

  7. MIT Adopts a Quiet Global Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Back in the 1960s and 1970s, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was in the university-building business. The elite institute is back in the university-building business. In addition to the thousands of faculty research collaborations around the globe, the university over the past five years has once more engaged in ambitious efforts to…

  8. Computerunterstütztes Modellieren mit Musiknetzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, Ulla

    In der folgenden Ausführung geht es um eine Anwendung von Petri-Netzen im Bereich Musik. Ausgehend von der Implementierung einer speziellen Anwendung, dem Programmsystem ScoreSynth, wird das zugrundeliegende Konzept erläutert und anschließend an einem kleinen Beispiel veranschaulicht. Dieser Beitrag ist ein Auszug aus [Lev95b].

  9. Pseudarthrose de l'extrémité inférieure du fémur traitée par mégaprothèse: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Elidrissi, Mohammed; Hammou, Nassereddine; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2013-01-01

    Les pseudarthroses de l'extrémité distale du fémur sont relativement rares du fait de la qualité de la vascularisation de cette région. La prise en charge d'une telle complication pose un certain nombre de difficultés. Le traitement chirurgical fait appel à plusieurs techniques conservatrices, le traitement par prothèse peut s'avérer utile quand la perte de substance est importante chez le sujet âgé. L'objectif de ce travail est de discuter l'intérêt de la mégaprothèse du genou dans le traitement de la pseudarthrose de l'extrémité distale du fémur, à travers l’étude de l'observation d'une patiente et revue de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une patiente âgée de 62 ans qui présente une pseudarthrose de l'extrémité distale du fémur gauche. Sur le plan clinique la patiente présente des douleurs du genou gauche, avec gène fonctionnelle importante. Le score de l'IKS préopératoire était de 60. Elle a bénéficié d'un remplacement prothétique par une mégaprothèse du genou. En postopératoire la flexion du genou était à 90°, le score de l'IKS était de 130. A travers l’étude de cette observation, et la revue de la littérature, nous pensons que l'utilisation de mégaprothèse du genou, constitue une solution efficace et durable pour le traitement des pseudarthroses du fémur distal et particulièrement chez le sujet âgé. Cette technique permet de répondre aux impératifs d'un tel aléa de la consolidation: lutter contre la douleur et garantir une mobilité satisfaisante permettant de répondre aux besoins de la vie quotidienne du patient et ainsi améliorer sa qualité de vie. PMID:24396555

  10. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report describes progress on five projects. The first project showed a 1000 fold concentration of the cationic complex {sup 99m}Tc (MIBI) in heart cell mitochondria vs heart cell cytoplasm, as determined by high resolution electron probe microanalysis. Additional technetium-99m based complexes are being developed and tested. The second project involves evaluating technetium acetylacteonates as potential indicators of cerebral blood flow. An intermediate in the synthesis of a technetium porphyrin complex has been synthesized; an oxotechnetium(V)-2,4-pentanedione complex has been prepared and is currently being characterized. The third project involves using radio labelled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. An early discovery was that chloramine-T based iodination protocols resulted in a reversal of the charge on mouse lgGs. Immunoperoxidase-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv 18 was shown to bind specifically to the most frequent ovarian aderon carcinomas, and not to healthy tissue, making this antibody a good candidate for immunotherapy or immunodetection. Work on a specific immunotherapy protocol suffered a setback when one reagent, a {sup 125}I-biotin complex, proved to be unstable in vivo. The fourth project involves labelling antibodies with positron emitting radionuclides. Radiofluorination was accomplished through reductive alkylation of {sup 18}F-aldehyde, or pentafluorophenyl esters. Radioiodination was accomplished using alkyl-tin derivation exchange. The fifth project examined antibody modification for use in radioimmune imaging. Technetium-99m-labelled lgG was shown to be biologically equivalent to Indium-III-labelled lgG for imaging focal sites of inflamation. Also, Indium III labelling of small bioactive peptides was examined as a means of imaging important physiological processes. 44 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Protein-Semisynthese mit Hilfe gemischter Anhydride und Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, H.; Naithani, V. K.; Gattner, H.-G.; Büllesbach, E. E.; Thamm, P. M.

    1981-02-01

    Proteins play a prominent role in nature and their biosynthesis occurs via stepwise combination of amino acids. One can imitate this method in laboratory or synthesize the polypeptide chain by combining smaller preformed fragments (fragment condensation). Reversible protection of reactive groups and solubility problems arising are the most important features in this regard. Semisynthesis, i.e., coupling of amino acids or peptides to natural material may help to overcome these difficulties. The preparation of hybrid preproinsulin by mixed anhydride synthesis and the conversion of pork insulin to human insulin by enzyme-catalyzed peptide synthesis are two examples of the semisynthesis of proteins. In both cases optimal reaction conditions are essential for maximal yield of the product desired. In spite of the rapid improvement of gene technology, chemical peptide synthesis will retain its value for the preparation of biologically and pharmacologically interesting substances.

  12. Measurements of Aerodynamic Damping in the MIT Transonic Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    A method was developed and demonstrated for the direct measurement of aerodynamic forcing and aerodynamic damping of a transonic compressor. The method is based on the inverse solution of the structural dynamic equations of motion of the blade disk system in order to determine the forces acting on the system. The disturbing and damping forces acting on a given blade are determined if the equations of motion are expressed in individual blade coordinates. If the structural dynamic equations are transformed to multiblade coordinates, the damping can be measured for blade disk modes, and related to a reduced frequency and interblade phase angle. In order to measure the aerodynamic damping in this way, the free response to a known excitation is studied.

  13. Anreicherung von Webinhalten mit Semantik - Microformats und RDFa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausenblas, Michael

    Semantik in Webinhalten wird heftig diskutiert. Teilweise wird es auch schon praktiziert. Dieser Beitrag geht auf semantisches HTML, Microformats und RDFa näher ein und zeigt anhand von praktischen Beispielen, wie und wo diese verwendet werden können.

  14. High data rate recorder development at MIT Haystack Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinteregger, H. F.

    1994-01-01

    Current operational capabilities of tape recording for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at the Haystack Observatory allow 0.7 terabytes (12 hours at 128 Mb/s) of data to be stored in a 128 cu. inch volume. On-going efforts are aimed at full time 1 Gb/s operation with two 36-channel headstacks. Applications for linear digital tape recording, with suitable development of thin-film head arrays, suggest a volume density exceeding 1 TB/cu. inch to be achievable in the future.

  15. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  16. Heuristic control of the Utah/MIT dextrous robot hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Andrew H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Basic hand grips and sensor interactions that a dextrous robot hand will need as part of the operation of an EVA Retriever are analyzed. What is to be done with a dextrous robot hand is examined along with how such a complex machine might be controlled. It was assumed throughout that an anthropomorphic robot hand should perform tasks just as a human would; i.e., the most efficient approach to developing control strategies for the hand would be to model actual hand actions and do the same tasks in the same ways. Therefore, basic hand grips that human hands perform, as well as hand grip action were analyzed. It was also important to examine what is termed sensor fusion. This is the integration of various disparate sensor feedback paths. These feedback paths can be spatially and temporally separated, as well as, of different sensor types. Neural networks are seen as a means of integrating these varied sensor inputs and types. Basic heuristics of hand actions and grips were developed. These heuristics offer promise of control dextrous robot hands in a more natural and efficient way.

  17. Optimierung und Charakterisierung einer transportablen optischen Gitteruhr mit Ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    This thesis deals with the improvement and the characterization of a transportable optical lattice clock with ytterbium. Building on results of former theses from T. Franzen [1] and C. Abou Jadoudeh [2] numerous improvements were needed to increase the overall stability of the whole apparatus. The improved stability should lead to a more accurate characterization of the system and a better mobility. Finally, the apparatus should be transported to the Instituto Nationale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) in Torino (Italy) in the course of the Space Optical Clocks 2 (SOC2) project.(Abridged)

  18. Some scientific landmarks of the MIT radium toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Until the recent forced termination of the studies on radium toxicity, more than six decades of investigation and research have been devoted to them. These studies involve {approximately}2400 subjects who were exposed to long-term internally deposited radium [high linear energy transfer (LET)], whose health status was evaluated in great detail and whose radiation dosimetry was based on measurements of their actual radium body burdens. The quality and usefulness of these studies are, therefore, in sharp contrast to other human radiation-exposure studies that involve instantaneous or somewhat protracted external low-LET exposures and inferred radiation dose, as in the atomic-bomb survivor studies. As a consequence of national news in 1932 concerning the gruesome death of a prominent Pittsburgh businessman and sportsman, Robley D. Evans became involved with radium toxicity, and its study became an important project when he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics department and set up the interdisciplinary Radioactivity Center.

  19. Intelligent produzieren - Prozesse verstehen und mit innovativen Werkzeugen verbessern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Dieter

    Im Umfeld der stetig fortschreitenden Globalisierung und der damit verbundenen Verlagerung von Produktionsstätten und dem Transfer bekannter Technologien ist eine stetige Weiterentwicklung der Fertigungstechnik unumgänglich, um auch zukünftig am Standort Deutschland einen Technologievorsprung zu halten und Produkte zu fertigen, die weltweit konkurrenzfähig sind. Die Notwendigkeit zur permanenten Innovation ist unbestritten. Das Ziel muss es dabei sein, die Produktivität zu erhöhen, die Qualität der Produkte auf stets hohem Niveau zu halten bzw. die Qualität noch weiter zu steigern und gleichzeitig die Kosten stetig zu senken. Dies erfordert intelligente und innovative Werkzeugkonzepte für die Hochleistungsfertigung.

  20. Retrieval of the 1964 Laser Literature Using MIT's Project Tip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Stella; Terry, Edward

    Reported are the performance characteristics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Technical Information Program (TIP) system based on a study involving three search strategies in retrieval o f laser articles published in 1964. The TIP system provides access to (1) title, (2) author(s), (3) bibliographic references, and (4) literature…

  1. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)

  2. Publishing Practices of NIH-Funded Faculty at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Courtney; Duranceau, Ellen Finnie; Gabridge, Tracy A.; Green, Remlee S.; Kajosalo, Erja; Noga, Michael M.; Silver, Howard J.; Stout, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Faculty and researchers who receive substantial funding from NIH were interviewed about their publication practices. Qualitative data was collected from interviews of eleven faculty members and one researcher representing six academic departments who received NIH funding. Interview responses were analyzed to identify a representative publication…

  3. The 2d MIT: The Pseudogap and Fermi Liquid Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, T. G.

    2005-06-01

    Fermi liquid theory for the 2d metal-insulator transition is extended to include the correlation gap in the density-of-states. The results are consistent with the scaling form g=gce[on(To/T)] at T larger than a characteristic T* ∝ xTc (Tc=Ec= mobility edge). The two-component model n1+nloc=n=nc(1+x) for n>nc is required and the theory explains the T-dependence of the data of Hanein et al. for p-type GaAs.

  4. MIT Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): noncollocated payload pointing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.

    1993-09-01

    The Middeck Active Control Experiment is a space shuttle flight experiment intended to demonstrate high authority active structural control in zero gravity conditions. The prediction of on-orbit closed-loop dynamics is based on analysis and ground testing. The MACE test article is representative of multiple payload platforms, and includes two 2-axis gimballing payloads connected by a flexible bus. The goal of active control is to maintain pointing accuracy of one payload, while the remaining payload is moving independently. Current control results on the ground test article are presented. Multiple input, multiple output controllers are designed based on high order measurement based models. Linear Quadratic Gaussian controllers yield reasonable performance. At high authority, however, these controllers destabilize the actual structure, due to parametric errors in the control design model. A robust control design procedure is required to yield high performance in the presence of these errors.

  5. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE): MIT Contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We describe in detail the instrumentation and calibrations used in the ALE, GAGE and AGAGE experiments and present a history of the majority of the anthropogenic ozone- depleting and climate-forcing gases in air based on these experiments. Beginning in 1978, these three successive automated high frequency in-situ experiments have documented the long-term behavior of the measured concentrations of these gases over the past twenty years, and show both the evolution of latitudinal gradients and the high frequency variability due to sources and circulation. We provide estimates of the long-term trends in total chlorine contained in long- lived halocarbons involved in ozone depletion. We summarize interpretations of these measurements using inverse methods to determine trace gas lifetimes and emissions. Finally, we provide a combined observational and modeled reconstruction of the evolution of chlorocarbons by latitude in the atmosphere over the past sixty years which can be used as boundary conditions for interpreting trapped air in glaciers and oceanic measurements of chlorocarbon tracers of the deep oceanic circulation. Some specific conclusions are: (a) International compliance with the Montreal Protocol is so far resulting in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon mole fractions comparable to target levels, (b) Mole fractions of total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons (CCl2F2, CCl3F, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHClF2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl2=CCl2) in the lower troposphere reached maximum values of about 3.6 ppb in 1993 and are beginning to slowly decrease in the global lower atmosphere, (c) The chlorofluorocarbons have atmospheric lifetimes consistent with destruction in the stratosphere being their principal removal mechanism, (d) Multi-annual variations in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon emissions deduced from ALUGAGWAGAGE data are consistent approximately with variations estimated independently from industrial production and sales data where available (CCl2F2 (CFC-12) and CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113) show the greatest discrepancies), (e) The mole fractions of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons, which are replacing the regulated halocarbons, are rising very rapidly in the atmosphere but, with the exception of the much longer manufactured CHClF2 (HCFC-22), they are not yet at levels sufficient to contribute significantly to atmospheric chlorine loading. These replacement species could in the future provide independent estimates of the global weighted-average OH concentration provided their industrial emissions are accurately documented, (f) In the future, analysis of pollution events measured using high frequency in-situ measurements of chlorofluorocarbons and their replacements may enable emission estimates at the regional level which, together with industrial end-use data, are of sufficient accuracy to be capable of identifying regional non-compliance with the Montreal Protocol.

  6. Managing Organization Vitality. M.S. Thesis - MIT, Cambridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, G. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The three major objectives are: (1) to measure the extent to which the organization renewal techniques have been adopted by organizations in both the private and public sectors; (2) to determine the overall results of these applications; and (3) to test a number of specific hypotheses regarding situational determinants of the success of this approach. It appears that top management involvement is the single most crucial determinant of the success of organization renewal. Organization renewal has considerable potential for increasing the commitment of individuals, and can have a significant positive influence on the results of the organization.

  7. Kommunikationsschulung mit englischen Werbetexten (Communication Training Using English Advertising Material)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiering, Christian

    1975-01-01

    Using English airline advertisements, the article shows how, at Secondary Grade 2, such material can be used to encourage active communication by the students. Advertising material is found more productive than traditional text analysis. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter

    2002-04-01

    Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Strategien zur Analyse von Transkripten erarbeitet. Die ersten Versuche zielten darauf ab, in mit Glaskapillaren genommenen Einzelzellproben verschiedener Gewebeschichten RT-PCR durchzuführen, um spezifische Transkripte nachweisen zu können. Dies gelang für eine Reihe von Genen aus verschiedenen Pflanzenspezies. Dabei konnten sowohl Transkripte stark wie auch schwach exprimierter Gene nachgewiesen werden. Für die Erstellung von Gewebe-spezifischen Expressionsprofilen war es notwendig, die in vereinigten Zellproben enthaltene mRNA zunächst zu amplifizieren, um eine ausreichende Menge für Arrayhybridisierungen zu erhalten. Vor der Vermehrung wurde die mRNA revers transkribiert. Es wurden daran anschließend verschiedene Amplifikationsstrategien getestet: Die neben Tailing, Adapterligation und anderen PCR-basierenden Protokollen getestete Arbitrary-PCR hat sich in dieser Arbeit als einfache und einzige Methode herausgestellt, die mit so geringen cDNA-Mengen reproduzierbar arbeitet. Durch Gewebe-spezifische Array-hybridisierungen mit der so amplifizierten RNA konnten schon bekannte Expressionsmuster verschiedener Gene, vornehmlich solcher, die an der Photosynthese beteiligt sind, beobachtet werden. Es wurden aber auch eine ganze Reihe neuer offensichtlich Gewebe-spezifisch exprimierter Gene gefunden. Exemplarisch für die differentiell exprimierten Gene konnte das durch Arrayhybridisierungen gefundene Expressionsmuster der kleinen Untereinheit von Rubisco verifiziert werden. Hierzu wurden Methoden zum Gewebe-spezifischen Northernblot sowie semiquantitativer und Echtzeit-Einzelzell-RT-PCR entwickelt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wurden Methoden zur Analyse von Metaboliten einschließlich anorganischer Ionen verwendet. Es stellte sich heraus, daß die multiparallele Methode der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie keine geeignete Methode für die Analyse selbst vieler vereinigter Zellinhalte ist. Daher wurde auf

  9. V845 Cas - ein RRab-Stern mit Blazhko-Effekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintz, Gisela

    2015-02-01

    CCD observations of V845 Cas (RA= 23 26 15.02, DE= +57 23 55.5 (2000)) were obtained at my private observatory. For V845 Cas 13 maxima were gained, showing a light curve, that varies from epoch to epoch. The irregularity of the lightcurves of V845 Cas is due to the Blazhko effect. Revised elements are given as: V845 Cas Max = 2456221.3450 + 0.570845 * E.

  10. DT Gem - ein RRab-Stern mit leichtem Blazhko-Effekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintz, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    CCD observations of the RRab star DT Gem (RA = 06 06 58.09, DE = +25 24 02.0 (2000)) were obtained at my private observatory. For DT Gem 8 maxima were obtained. The amplitude of the light-curve varies epoch to epoch. So does the stepness of the rising and descending branch also. These variations are due to a small Blazhko effect. The observations will be continued to find the Blazhko period. Elements of DT Gem are revised as: DT Gem: Max = 2456355.4134 + 0.611283 * E, which is shorter than given in GCVS. Phased lightcurves of DT Gem provided by IOMC, SuperWASP, ASAS and NSVS are given.

  11. Kindern das Wort Geben ein interkulturell-kreativer Arbeitsansatz, aufgezeigt an der Arbeit mit tibetischen Migrantenkindern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabkin, Gabriele

    2001-03-01

    Promotion of creativity in the cause of peace and international understanding is a fundamental part of the UNESCO programme to build a culture of peace. A central aspect of this undertaking consists in encouraging children to express themselves freely on this subject in writing and art. An approach has been developed to stimulate children's creativity and to create a link between creative expression and education for intercultural understanding. This article is divided into two parts. The first explains the pedagogical and psychological concepts behind this approach. The second describes a project in which these concepts were applied. It focuses on a minority dispersed over many parts of the world, namely children of Tibetan families. The description is accompanied by commentaries of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, arising from a personal audience granted to the author in 1999.

  12. Making Big Data Useful for Health Care: A Summary of the Inaugural MIT Critical Data Conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With growing concerns that big data will only augment the problem of unreliable research, the Laboratory of Computational Physiology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology organized the Critical Data Conference in January 2014. Thought leaders from academia, government, and industry across disciplines—including clinical medicine, computer science, public health, informatics, biomedical research, health technology, statistics, and epidemiology—gathered and discussed the pitfalls and challenges of big data in health care. The key message from the conference is that the value of large amounts of data hinges on the ability of researchers to share data, methodologies, and findings in an open setting. If empirical value is to be from the analysis of retrospective data, groups must continuously work together on similar problems to create more effective peer review. This will lead to improvement in methodology and quality, with each iteration of analysis resulting in more reliability. PMID:25600172

  13. Geodetic and Astrometric Measurements with Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations for the estimation of geodetic and astrometric parameters is discussed. Analytic models for the dependence of delay and delay rate on these parameters are developed and used for parameter estimation by the method of weighted least squares. Results are presented from approximately 15,000 delay and delay-rate observations, obtained in a series of nineteen VLBI experiments involving a total of five stations on two continents. The closure of baseline triangles is investigated and found to be consistent with the scatter of the various baseline-component results. Estimates are made of the wobble of the earth's pole and of the irregularities in the earth's rotation rate. Estimates are also made of the precession constant and of the vertical Love number, for which a value of 0.55 + or - 0.05 was obtained.

  14. "Mit dem Autoschwimmbad in die Verkehrsmarmelade: Learning To Use Bilingual Dictionaries Successfully.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Katharina

    2001-01-01

    Introduces activities designed to wean students from equivalency thinking in the German as a foreign language classroom. Suggests that with sufficient prior linguistic awareness and some target language knowledge, use of a bilingual dictionary--in book form or on a computer--can become a successful learning experience. (Author/VWL)

  15. Das Spiel mit dem Rollenspiel (The Game with Role-Playing)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Maintains that role-play should not become the pre-eminent method in foreign language teaching, since it does not reach the broad goals of learning, such as the systematic acquisition of language material, achievement measuring, or the expression of personal views of many participants in adult education (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Unterrichtsversuche mit dem franzosischen Chanson (Instruction Experiments with the French Song)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeck-Bollnow, Renate

    1974-01-01

    Five teaching experiments with French songs, in grades 7, 8 and 9, are described. Aural understanding was practiced first, then use of the text. In the 9th grade, work on the content became most important, with the aim of correcting and expanding the common conception of France. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  17. M.I.T. studies of transient X-ray phenomena. [astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of transient X-ray phenomena have been studied. Data from the OSO-7 satellite reveal both long and short time-scale transients. Extensive observations have been made of the Lupus X-ray Nova (3U1543-47) and GX339-4(MX 1658-48) which may represent a very different type of transient source. A unique, intense X-ray flare lasting ten minutes was also recorded, and the X-ray emission from the active galaxy Cen A was found to vary significantly over a period of several days. In a recent balloon flight the Crab pulsar, NP0532, was observed to exhibit a transient pulsed component distinct from the usual main pulse and interpulse. A sounding-rocket experiment detected an ultrasoft transient X-ray source tentatively associated with SS Cygni, and preliminary results from SAS-3 show a very hard spectrum for the new source A0535 + 26. On the other hand, extensive OSO-7 null observations of both Type I and II supernovae and of the flaring radio star Algol make it unlikely that these types of objects are potent transient X-ray emitters.

  18. Trajectory optimization for an asymmetric launch vehicle. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Jeanne Marie

    1990-01-01

    A numerical optimization technique is used to fully automate the trajectory design process for an symmetric configuration of the proposed Advanced Launch System (ALS). The objective of the ALS trajectory design process is the maximization of the vehicle mass when it reaches the desired orbit. The trajectories used were based on a simple shape that could be described by a small set of parameters. The use of a simple trajectory model can significantly reduce the computation time required for trajectory optimization. A predictive simulation was developed to determine the on-orbit mass given an initial vehicle state, wind information, and a set of trajectory parameters. This simulation utilizes an idealized control system to speed computation by increasing the integration time step. The conjugate gradient method is used for the numerical optimization of on-orbit mass. The method requires only the evaluation of the on-orbit mass function using the predictive simulation, and the gradient of the on-orbit mass function with respect to the trajectory parameters. The gradient is approximated with finite differencing. Prelaunch trajectory designs were carried out using the optimization procedure. The predictive simulation is used in flight to redesign the trajectory to account for trajectory deviations produced by off-nominal conditions, e.g., stronger than expected head winds.

  19. MIT modular x-ray source systems for the study of plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.W.; Wenzel, K.W.; Petrasso, R.D.; Lo, D.H.; Li, C.K.; Lierzer, J.R.; Wei, T. )

    1992-10-01

    Two new x-ray source systems are now on line at our facility. Each provides an {ital e}-beam to 25 kV. Targets are interchangeable between machines, and four x-ray detectors may be used simultaneously with a target. The gridded {ital e}-gun of the RACEHORSE system gives a 0.5--1.0-cm pulsable spot on target. The nongridded {ital e}-gun of the SCORPION system provides a 0.3-mm or smaller dc microspot on target. RACEHORSE is being used to study and characterize type-II diamond photoconductors for use in diagnosing plasmas, while SCORPION is being used to develop a slitless spectrograph using photographic film. Source design details and some RACEHORSE results are presented.

  20. Bestimmung des Verteilungskoeffizienten von Si in Fe mit Hilfe Spektroskopischer Methoden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenberger, Helga; Wernisch, Johann

    Spectroscopical methods have been used to determine the effective distribution coefficient of silicon within Fe-3% Si crystals, grown from Trafoperm N3 using the Bridgman method. A remarkable coincidence has been found between the values of the effective distribution coefficient determined by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and those determined with an electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). The investigations on single crystals, bicrystals and coarse-grained polycrystals show a strong dependence of the effective distribution coefficient k on the orientation as well as a big influence of enviromental conditions on crystal growth. Moreover, the analysis of the bicrystals prove a clear dependence of the effective distribution coefficient of one part of the bicrystal not only on its own crystallographic orientation but also on that of the other part.

  1. Organizational Transformation from the Inside Out: Reinventing the MIT Center for Organizational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanon, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    The 2-year process by which the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for Organizational Learning transformed into the self-governed Society for Organizational Learning illustrates new ways of conceiving organizations, the capabilities required for change, and critical elements of the process: diverse representation, grounding in business…

  2. Review of laser technology at M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, S.

    The research discussed is that done on low-power CO2 lasers and their application, in particular in infrared radars and communications. Attention is also given to recent advances in laser technology that have a bearing on these systems. The compact infrared radar being developed for tactical airborne applications is described, noting that the system can operate in either of two modes. These are a search mode, which employs a wide-field-of-view line scan and CW Doppler detection, and a pulsed imaging mode, in which the x, y image plane scanners are activated to produce a narrow-field-of-view image at 15 frames per second. In discussing infrared communications, a laser is described in which the CdTe crystal is mounted directly in the waveguide structure. This makes possible much lower switching voltages than would be the case if the crystal were positioned outside the waveguide in the expanding portion of the beam. Also described is the high-repetition-rate mini-TEA laser designed for use in pollution-monitoring radar.

  3. Flight testing a highly flexible aircraft - Case study on the MIT Light Eagle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerweckh, S. H.; Von Flotow, A. H.; Murray, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques developed for a flight test program of a human powered aircraft, the application of these techniques in the winter of 1987/88 and the results of the flight testing. A system of sensors, signal conditioning and data recording equipment was developed and installed in the aircraft. Flight test maneuvers which do not exceed the aircraft's limited capability were developed and refined in an iterative sequence of test flights. The test procedures were adjusted to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. Structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics are modeled in an ad hoc manner, capturing the effects observed during the test flights. A model with flexibility-extended equations of motion is presented. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions of that model and analyzed. Finally the results of the flight test program are examined critically, especially with respect to future applications, and suggestions are made in order to improve maneuvers for parameter estimation of very flexible aircraft.

  4. MIT's role in project Apollo. Volume 2: Optical, radar, and candidate subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of optical, radar, and candidate subsystems for Project Apollo is discussed. The design and development of the optical subsystems for both the Apollo command and lunar spacecraft are described. Design approaches, problems, and solutions are presented. The evolution of radar interfaces with the GN&C system is discussed; these interfaces involved both hardware and software in a relatively complex interrelationship. The design and development of three candidate subsystems are also described. The systems were considered for use in Apollo, but were not incorporated into the final GN&C system. The three subsystems discussed are the star tracker-horizon photometer, the map and data viewer and the lunar module optical rendezvous system.

  5. Informationsqualität für das Management mit TOPAS®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Otto-Ernst; Möller, Frank; Skrablies, Werner

    Management-Entscheidungen hängen nicht zuletzt von Informationen ab, die auf sinnvollen und verlässlichen Daten beruhen und kommuniziert werden. In diesem Kontext verwenden wir die folgende Sichtweise: Daten sind die Gesamtheit der verfügbaren Texte, Zahlen und Statistiken, Graphiken, Bilder, Audio- und Videodokumente usw. — unabhängig von deren Nutzung für die jeweilige Unternehmung.

  6. Dr. Robert S. Harris: nutritionist, oral science researcher, and visionary MIT educator.

    PubMed

    Navia, J M

    1998-03-01

    Efforts in dental research and training have received the contribution of individuals who had no formal training in dentistry, yet they understood the dental field and the educational needs of those who would be engaged in dental research, teaching, and service in industry and academia. Dr. Robert S. Harris (1904-1983) was such a man. What follows is a personal remembrance of his character, his research accomplishments, and his successful educational endeavors in the dental field. PMID:9496916

  7. Real time identification of large space structures. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Janice E.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes of large space structures (LSSs) are examined in real time. Real time processing allows for quick updates of model processing after a reconfiguration of structural failure. Recursive lattice least squares (RLLS) was selected as the baseline algorithm for the identification. Simulation results on a one dimensional LSS demonstrated that it provides good estimates, was not ill-conditioned in the presence of under-excited modes, allowed activity by a supervisory control system which prevented damage to the LSS or excessive drift, and was capable of real-time processing for typical LSS models. A suboptimal version of RLLS, which is equivalent to simulated parallel processing, was derived. A NASTRAN model of the dual keel U.S. space station was used to demonstrate the input/identification algorithm package in a more realistic simulation. Because the first eight flexible modes were very close together, the identification was much more difficult than in the simple examples. Even so, the model was accurately identified in real time.

  8. Lower hybrid rf heating experiments in the MIT Alcator A, C and Versator II tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, M.; Schuss, J.; Takase, Y.; Chen, K.I.; Knowlton, S.; Luckhardt, S.; McDermott, S.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results on lower hybrid heating in the Alcator A and the Versator II tokamaks with power levels up to 90 kW are presented. In Alcator A a double waveguide grill, and in Versator II a 4 waveguide grill with arbitrary phasing are used. Also, a 6 waveguide grill experiment in Versator II is described which launches a travelling wave aimed at driving toroidal currents. The forthcoming lower hybrid heating experiment in Alcator C, utilizing four 4 x 4 waveguide arrays with power levels up to 4 MW, is also described.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic response of wind turbine rotors. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, I.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear equations of motion for a rigid rotor restrained by three flexible springs representing the flapping, lagging and feathering motions are derived using Lagrange's equations for arbitrary angular rotations. These are reduced to a consistent set of nonlinear equations using nonlinear terms up to third order.

  10. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Susan Hockfield, MIT)

    ScienceCinema

    Hockfield, Susan (President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

    2014-04-10

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - reseachers, entrepeneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Susan Hockfield, President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, gave the first keynote address of the third day's sessions on February 29.

  11. Nonlinear compensation techniques for magnetic suspension systems. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumper, David L.

    1991-01-01

    In aerospace applications, magnetic suspension systems may be required to operate over large variations in air-gap. Thus the nonlinearities inherent in most types of suspensions have a significant effect. Specifically, large variations in operating point may make it difficult to design a linear controller which gives satisfactory stability and performance over a large range of operating points. One way to address this problem is through the use of nonlinear compensation techniques such as feedback linearization. Nonlinear compensators have received limited attention in the magnetic suspension literature. In recent years, progress has been made in the theory of nonlinear control systems, and in the sub-area of feedback linearization. The idea is demonstrated of feedback linearization using a second order suspension system. In the context of the second order suspension, sampling rate issues in the implementation of feedback linearization are examined through simulation.

  12. Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

  13. Aeroelastic Analysis of the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sangloon

    1999-01-01

    Aeroelastic modeling procedures used in the design of a piezoelectric controllable twist helicopter rotor wind tunnel model are described. Two aeroelastic analysis methods developed for active twist rotor studies, and used in the design of the model blade, are described in this paper. The first procedure uses a simple flap-torsion dynamic representation of the active twist blade, and is intended for rapid and efficient control law and design optimization studies. The second technique employs a commercially available comprehensive rotor analysis package, and is used for more detailed analytical studies. Analytical predictions of hovering flight twist actuation frequency responses are presented for both techniques. Forward flight fixed system nP vibration suppression capabilities of the model active twist rotor system are also presented. Frequency responses predicted using both analytical procedures agree qualitatively for all design cases considered, with best correlation for cases where uniform blade properties are assumed.

  14. Error modeling for differential GPS. M.S. Thesis - MIT, 12 May 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blerman, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) positioning is used to accurately locate a GPS receiver based upon the well-known position of a reference site. In utilizing this technique, several error sources contribute to position inaccuracy. This thesis investigates the error in DGPS operation and attempts to develop a statistical model for the behavior of this error. The model for DGPS error is developed using GPS data collected by Draper Laboratory. The Marquardt method for nonlinear curve-fitting is used to find the parameters of a first order Markov process that models the average errors from the collected data. The results show that a first order Markov process can be used to model the DGPS error as a function of baseline distance and time delay. The model's time correlation constant is 3847.1 seconds (1.07 hours) for the mean square error. The distance correlation constant is 122.8 kilometers. The total process variance for the DGPS model is 3.73 sq meters.

  15. Einführung in moderne analytische Verfahren mit ausgewählten Beispielen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Richard; Gude, Thomas

    Die Lebensmittelanalytik hat während der letzten zehn bis fünfzehn Jahre in den meisten Bereichen fundamentale und fast "exponentielle" Fortschritte erzielt. Es gibt viele unterschiedliche, aber zusammenhängende Gründe für diese rasche Entwicklung. Deutliche Impulse kommen aus dem zunehmenden Aufwand für Qualitätssicherungsmaßnahmen, die aus Kosten- bzw. Wirtschaftlichkeitsgründen möglichst einfach und leicht durchzuführende Tests fordern.

  16. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  17. Project ADAPT: Report Number 1: Description and Review of the MIT Orientation Program: [And Appendix].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning.

    The report of Project ADAPT (Aerospace and Defense Adaptation to Public Technology), describes the design, execution, and forthcoming evaluation of the program. The program's objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of redeploying surplus technical manpower into public service at State and local levels of government. The development of the…

  18. Status on the Michigan-MIT ultra-cold polarized hydrogen jet target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppov, V. G.; Blinov, B. B.; Bywater, J. A.; Chin, S.; Churakov, V. V.; Court, G. R.; Kaufman, W. A.; Kleppner, D.; Krisch, A. D.; Melnik, Yu. M.; Muldavin, J. B.; Nurushev, T. S.; Price, J. S.; Prudkoglyad, A. F.; Raymond, R. S.; Shutov, V. B.; Stewart, J. A.

    1995-07-01

    Progress on the Mark-II ultra-cold polarized atomic hydrogen gas Jet target for the experiments NEPTUN-A and NEPTUN at UNK is presented. We describe the performance and the present status of different components of the jet.

  19. Infektion mit Epstein-Barr-Virus und Tumor-Entstehung beim Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, H.

    1981-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the only infectious agent for which a close association with human malignant tumors has been clearly demonstrated. These tumors are one type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma which is frequent in parts of East Asia and the Burkitt lymphoma which predominantly occurs in parts of Africa and New Guinea. Nonetheless, the EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a benign, self-limiting lymphoproliferative disease of adolescents. The major difference between the countries in which the EBV-induced tumors occur and those in which IM occurs is the late primary EBV infection in the latter, whereas primary infection with EBV occurs in the first year of life in the former. All theories of viral carcinogenesis have to explain the long latency period between primary infection and tumor growth and how an ubiquitous virus may be oncogenic. Thus, invariably, one has to assume a role of cofactors, which may be of cytogenetic nature or may be represented by additional infections or by chemical agents. Since most modern theories of carcinogenesis consider a multi-step development of tumors, the theory that infection with an ubiquitous virus at the right time of life represents one step to carcinogenesis seems to be tenable.

  20. Individual-blade-control research in the MIT VTOL Technology Laboratory 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.

    1986-01-01

    A new, advanced system for active control of helicopters and its application to the solution of rotor aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems is described. Each blade is individually controlled in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies. Application of the system to gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, vibration alleviation, blade lag damping augmentation, stall flutter suppression, blade flapping stabilization, stall alleviation, and performance enhancement is outlined. The effectiveness of the system in achieving most of these applications is demonstrated by experimental results from wind tunnel tests of a model helicopter rotor with individual blade control. The feasibility of achieving many or all of the applications of individual blade control using the conventional helicopter swash plate is demonstrated, and the necessary control laws are presented.

  1. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1981-03-26

    Information on heterogeneous assembly evaluation is presented concerning ringed moderator description and flux trap description; cross section generation; ringed moderator results; effects of heterogeneous moderation; sodium void worth breakdown; flux trap configuration; flux trap results; the effects of stoichiometric variation in the moderator; and the effects of lattice representation. Also discussed is the engineering compatibility of heterogeneous assembly designs.

  2. Apple (LCSI) LOGO vs. MIT (Terrapin/Krell) LOGO: A Comparison for Grades 2 thru 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wappler, Reinhold D.

    Two LOGO dialects are compared for appropriateness for use with second, third, and fourth grade students on the basis of 18 months of experience with teaching LOGO programing language at this level in a four-machine laboratory setting. Benefits and drawbacks of the dialects are evaluated in the areas of editing. screen modes, debugging,…

  3. The Wired Homestead: An MIT Press Sourcebook on the Internet and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turow, Joseph, Ed.; Kavanaugh, Andrea L., Ed.

    The use of the Internet in homes rivals the advent of the telephone, radio, or television in social significance. This book compiles findings from communication theorists and social scientists concerning the effects of the Internet on the lives of the family unit and its members. The book examines historical precedents of parental concern over…

  4. Riding the Crest of the E-Commerce Wave: Transforming MIT's Campus Computer Resale Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallisey, Joanne

    1998-01-01

    Reengineering efforts, vendor consolidation, and rising costs prompted the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to convert its computer resale store to an online catalog that allows students, faculty, and staff to purchase equipment and software through a World Wide Web interface. The transition has been greeted with a mixed reaction. The next…

  5. Design of a memory controller for the MIT tagged token dataflow machine

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, S.K.; Arvind

    1983-01-01

    I-structure storage is a new type of random access storage for multiprocessor systems. By employing extra status bits, data slots can be tagged as data-present or data-absent, allowing reads which precede writes to be deferred until the data arrives. In order to implement an i-structure storage in hardware, a sophisticated controller is required. A functional overview of the i-structure storage controller (ISC) is presented. Based on experience developing the ISC in IDL (interactive design language), certain hardware design language issues are discussed which will challenge the hardware design language of the future. 9 references.

  6. Research in volcanic geology, petrology and planetary science at MIT, 1969 to 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of volcanoes was studied by geologic mapping, petrologic investigations of lava and xenoliths, physical measurements, and theoretical modelling. Field observations were conducted in Alaska (Nunivak Island), Iceland, Hawaii (Mauna Kea), Italy (Etna, Stromboli), and Arizona. The results are discussed and compared with known data for lunar and planetary gelogy. Field methods used for the volcano research are cited and a list is given of all participating scientists and students. Publications and abstracts resulting from the research are also listed.

  7. Less noise, more hacking: how to deploy principles from MIT's hacking medicine to accelerate health care.

    PubMed

    DePasse, Jacqueline W; Carroll, Ryan; Ippolito, Andrea; Yost, Allison; Santorino, Data; Chu, Zen; Olson, Kristian R

    2014-07-01

    Medical technology offers enormous potential for scalable medicine--to improve the quality and access in health care while simultaneously reducing cost. However, current medical device innovation within companies often only offers incremental advances on existing products, or originates from engineers with limited knowledge of the clinical complexities. We describe how the Hacking Medicine Initiative, based at Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed an innovative "healthcare hackathon" approach, bringing diverse teams together to rapidly validate clinical needs and develop solutions. Hackathons are based on three core principles; emphasis on a problem-based approach, cross-pollination of disciplines, and "pivoting" on or rapidly iterating on ideas. Hackathons also offer enormous potential for innovation in global health by focusing on local needs and resources as well as addressing feasibility and cultural contextualization. Although relatively new, the success of this approach is clear, as evidenced by the development of successful startup companies, pioneering product design, and the incorporation of creative people from outside traditional life science backgrounds who are working with clinicians and other scientists to create transformative innovation in health care. PMID:25096225

  8. Construction of the adjoint MIT ocean general circulation model and application to Atlantic heat transport sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotzke, Jochem; Giering, Ralf; Zhang, Kate Q.; Stammer, Detlef; Hill, Chris; Lee, Tong

    1999-12-01

    We first describe the principles and practical considerations behind the computer generation of the adjoint to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (GCM) using R. Giering's software tool Tangent-Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC). The TAMC's recipe for (FORTRAN-) line-by-line generation of adjoint code is explained by interpreting an adjoint model strictly as the operator that gives the sensitivity of the output of a model to its input. Then, the sensitivity of 1993 annual mean heat transport across 29°N in the Atlantic, to the hydrography on January 1, 1993, is calculated from a global solution of the GCM. The "kinematic sensitivity" to initial temperature variations is isolated, showing how the latter would influence heat transport if they did not affect the density and hence the flow. Over 1 year the heat transport at 29°N is influenced kinematically from regions up to 20° upstream in the western boundary current and up to 5° upstream in the interior. In contrast, the dynamical influences of initial temperature (and salinity) perturbations spread from as far as the rim of the Labrador Sea to the 29°N section along the western boundary. The sensitivities calculated with the adjoint compare excellently to those from a perturbation calculation with the dynamical model. Perturbations in initial interior salinity influence meridional overturning and heat transport when they have propagated to the western boundary and can thus influence the integrated east-west density difference. Our results support the notion that boundary monitoring of meridional mass and heat transports is feasible.

  9. Guidance, steering, load relief and control of an asymmetric launch vehicle. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boelitz, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    A new guidance, steering, and control concept is described and evaluated for the Third Phase of an asymmetrical configuration of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The study also includes the consideration of trajectory shaping issues and trajectory design as well as the development of angular rate, angular acceleration, angle of attack, and dynamic pressure estimators. The Third Phase guidance, steering and control system is based on controlling the acceleration-direction of the vehicle after an initial launch maneuver. Unlike traditional concepts, the alignment of the estimated and commanded acceleration-directions is unimpaired by an add-on load relief. Instead, the acceleration-direction steering-control system features a control override that limits the product of estimated dynamic pressure and estimated angle of attack. When this product is not being limited, control is based exclusively on the commanded acceleration-direction without load relief. During limiting, control is based on nulling the error between the limited angle of attack and the estimated angle of attack. This limiting feature provides full freedom to the acceleration-direction steering and control to shape the trajectory within the limit, and also gives full priority to the limiting of angle of attack when necessary. The flight software concepts were analyzed on the basis of their effects on pitch plane motion.

  10. The Use of Feedback in Lab Energy Conservation: Fume Hoods at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Daniel; Olivetti, Elsa; Graham, Amanda; Lanou, Steve; Cooper, Peter; Doughty, Jim; Wilk, Rich; Glicksman, Leon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an Massachusetts Institute of Technology Chemistry Department campaign to reduce energy consumption in chemical fume hoods. Hood use feedback to lab users is a crucial component of this campaign. Design/methodology/approach: Sash position sensor data on variable air volume fume…

  11. Grundwassermonitoring im Zusammenhang mit der hydraulischen Stimulation einer Erdölbohrung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönsch, Carola; Basan, Swantje

    2016-06-01

    The petroleum well Barth-11 in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania (2700 m deep) is the first well in eastern Germany to use horizontal directional drilling. Hydraulic stimulation was performed in June 2014, connecting the oil reservoir and borehole. Five Pleistocene aquifers lie within the investigation area, with aquifer depths ranging between 5 and 90 m below surface. Three observation wells were installed for groundwater monitoring. Two weeks before hydraulic stimulation, reference measurements were conducted and a data logger was installed for measurements of water level, temperature and electrical conductivity. To detect any possible influence of hydraulic stimulation on groundwater quality, groundwater samples were analysed for several organic and inorganic parameters. The investigation area is located in a natural saline water discharge zone. Hence, it was necessary to develop methods to distinguish hydraulic stimulation water from Triassic and Permian formation saline water in order to uniquely identify any trace of the injected fluid in the natural groundwater. These methods and the monitoring system design are presented and discussed.

  12. Prozessmodellierung hochsalinarer Wässer mit einem erweiterten PHREEQC-Datensatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, E.

    2013-06-01

    The modeling of hydrogeochemical processes in saline waters and brines is quite a challenge. The main prerequisite for the modeling is a suitable thermodynamic database. Such a database was developed for the PHREEQC computer code by extension of the PHREEQC database "pitzer.dat". The extended database presented here is named after the project "gebo" and includes additional solution master species of Fe, Fe(+2), Fe(+3), S(-2), N, N(+5), N(+3), N(0), N(-3), C(-4), Si, Zn, Pb, and Al. According to these solution master species, associated solution species, solid phases, and gases, as well as temperature dependences of the appropriate mass action law constants and Pitzer parameters for the calculation of activity coefficients in aqueous solutions of high ionic strength are implemented. In contrast to the conventional "pitzer.dat" database, the extended version allows calculating several additional hydrogeochemical equilibrium reactions that are crucial for the compositional development of brines and highly mineralized formation waters.

  13. Limiting vibration in systems with constant amplitude actuators through command preshaping. M.S Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Keith Eric

    1994-01-01

    The basic concepts of command preshaping were taken and adapted to the framework of systems with constant amplitude (on-off) actuators. In this context, pulse sequences were developed which help to attenuate vibration in flexible systems with high robustness to errors in frequency identification. Sequences containing impulses of different magnitudes were approximated by sequences containing pulses of different durations. The effects of variation in pulse width on this approximation were examined. Sequences capable of minimizing loads induced in flexible systems during execution of commands were also investigated. The usefulness of these techniques in real-world situations was verified by application to a high fidelity simulation of the space shuttle. Results showed that constant amplitude preshaping techniques offer a substantial improvement in vibration reduction over both the standard and upgraded shuttle control methods and may be mission enabling for use of the shuttle with extremely massive payloads.

  14. Hierarchical modeling for reliability analysis using Markov models. B.S./M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagundo, Arturo

    1994-01-01

    Markov models represent an extremely attractive tool for the reliability analysis of many systems. However, Markov model state space grows exponentially with the number of components in a given system. Thus, for very large systems Markov modeling techniques alone become intractable in both memory and CPU time. Often a particular subsystem can be found within some larger system where the dependence of the larger system on the subsystem is of a particularly simple form. This simple dependence can be used to decompose such a system into one or more subsystems. A hierarchical technique is presented which can be used to evaluate these subsystems in such a way that their reliabilities can be combined to obtain the reliability for the full system. This hierarchical approach is unique in that it allows the subsystem model to pass multiple aggregate state information to the higher level model, allowing more general systems to be evaluated. Guidelines are developed to assist in the system decomposition. An appropriate method for determining subsystem reliability is also developed. This method gives rise to some interesting numerical issues. Numerical error due to roundoff and integration are discussed at length. Once a decomposition is chosen, the remaining analysis is straightforward but tedious. However, an approach is developed for simplifying the recombination of subsystem reliabilities. Finally, a real world system is used to illustrate the use of this technique in a more practical context.

  15. Schnelle Herstellung photonischer Kristalle: Echtzeit-3D-Lithographie mit Hybridpolymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houbertz, Ruth; Schulz, Jochen; Serbin, Jesper; Chichkov, Boris

    2005-11-01

    Die Zwei-Photonen-Polymerisation bietet eine elegante Möglichkeit, komplexe Nano- und Mikrostrukturen photonischer Kristalle schnell herzustellen. Aus photonischen Kristallen sollen hoch integrierbare, aktive optische Elemente für Daten- und Telekommunkationsanwendungen der Zukunft entstehen. Als Material sind dafür anorganisch-organische Hybridpolymere besonders gut geeignet. Ihre Eigenschaften sind in einem weiten Bereich einstellbar, und sie sind sehr stabil. Das Fraunhofer-ISC und das Laserzentrum Hannover haben auf dieser Basis ein Verfahren entwickelt, in dem ein Laser dreidimensionale Strukturen schnell und direkt ins Material schreibt. Es erzielt eine hohe Auflösung im Submikrometer-Bereich und eine hohe Qualität. Auch Defektstrukturen kann es gezielt erzeugen. Das eröffnet vollkommen neue Perspektiven zur Herstellung photonischer Strukturen.

  16. Mit Training vom Tragen Wissen zum Kompetenten Handeln? (With Training from Inert Knowledge to Competent Acting?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Diethelm

    2002-01-01

    Argues that all forms of education have difficulty moving from knowledge to competent acting. Discusses practical exercise as an alternative to bridge the gap. Recognizes that exercises have to be embedded in trans-situational aims and planning and must include inert emotions. Proposes different training schemes for methodological-didactic and…

  17. Engineering Outreach through College Pre-Orientation Programs: MIT Discover Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Consi, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    Freshmen Pre-Orientation Programs (FPOPs) can be powerful outreach tools for incoming college students and provide an exciting introduction to the field of engineering. The benefits reach not only the first year students, but also the upperclassmen who help to run the programs and the departments that sponsor them. A family of three engineering…

  18. Real Science: MIT Reality Show Tracks Experiences, Frustrations of Chemistry Lab Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    A reality show about a college course--a chemistry class no less? That's what "ChemLab Boot Camp" is. The 14-part series of short videos is being released one episode at a time on the online learning site of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The novel show follows a diverse group of 14 freshmen as they struggle to master the laboratory…

  19. Grundwassermonitoring im Zusammenhang mit der hydraulischen Stimulation einer Erdölbohrung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönsch, Carola; Basan, Swantje

    2016-02-01

    The petroleum well Barth-11 in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania (2700 m deep) is the first well in eastern Germany to use horizontal directional drilling. Hydraulic stimulation was performed in June 2014, connecting the oil reservoir and borehole. Five Pleistocene aquifers lie within the investigation area, with aquifer depths ranging between 5 and 90 m below surface. Three observation wells were installed for groundwater monitoring. Two weeks before hydraulic stimulation, reference measurements were conducted and a data logger was installed for measurements of water level, temperature and electrical conductivity. To detect any possible influence of hydraulic stimulation on groundwater quality, groundwater samples were analysed for several organic and inorganic parameters. The investigation area is located in a natural saline water discharge zone. Hence, it was necessary to develop methods to distinguish hydraulic stimulation water from Triassic and Permian formation saline water in order to uniquely identify any trace of the injected fluid in the natural groundwater. These methods and the monitoring system design are presented and discussed.

  20. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Technical progress report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)

  1. Collision detection for spacecraft proximity operations. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robin M.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a new collision detection algorithm to be used when two spacecraft are operating in the same vicinity is described. The two spacecraft are modeled as unions of convex polyhedra, where the polyhedron resulting from the union may be either convex or nonconvex. The relative motion of the two spacecraft is assumed to be such that one vehicle is moving with constant linear and angular velocity with respect to the other. The algorithm determines if a collision is possible and, if so, predicts the time when the collision will take place. The theoretical basis for the new collision detection algorithm is the C-function formulation of the configuration space approach recently introduced by researchers in robotics. Three different types of C-functions are defined that model the contacts between the vertices, edges, and faces of the polyhedra representing the two spacecraft. The C-functions are shown to be transcendental functions of time for the assumed trajectory of the moving spacecraft. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated for several example cases.

  2. Cooperative control of two active spacecraft during proximity operations. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative autopilot is developed for the control of the relative attitude, relative position and absolute attitude of two maneuvering spacecraft during on orbit proximity operations. The autopilot consists of an open-loop trajectory solver which computes a nine dimensional linearized nominal state trajectory at the beginning of each maneuver and a phase space regulator which maintains the two spacecraft on the nominal trajectory during coast phases of the maneuver. A linear programming algorithm is used to perform jet selection. Simulation tests using a system of two space shuttle vehicles are performed to verify the performance of the cooperative controller and comparisons are made to a traditional passive target/active pursuit vehicle approach to proximity operations. The cooperative autopilot is shown to be able to control the two vehicle system when both the would be pursuit vehicle and the target vehicle are not completely controllable in six degrees of freedom. The cooperative controller is also shown to use as much as 37 percent less fuel and 57 percent fewer jet firings than a single pursuit vehicle during a simple docking approach maneuver.

  3. Performance analysis of an integrated GPS/inertial attitude determination system. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Wendy I.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of an integrated GPS/inertial attitude determination system is investigated using a linear covariance analysis. The principles of GPS interferometry are reviewed, and the major error sources of both interferometers and gyroscopes are discussed and modeled. A new figure of merit, attitude dilution of precision (ADOP), is defined for two possible GPS attitude determination methods, namely single difference and double difference interferometry. Based on this figure of merit, a satellite selection scheme is proposed. The performance of the integrated GPS/inertial attitude determination system is determined using a linear covariance analysis. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the baseline errors (i.e., knowledge of the GPS interferometer baseline relative to the vehicle coordinate system) are the limiting factor in system performance. By reducing baseline errors, it should be possible to use lower quality gyroscopes without significantly reducing performance. For the cases considered, single difference interferometry is only marginally better than double difference interferometry. Finally, the performance of the system is found to be relatively insensitive to the satellite selection technique.

  4. A cooperative program to stimulate student involvement through the MIT Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flow characteristics in the low speed Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel were studied. Calculations to check the precision of the tunnel were conducted. A program for generating computational grids around an airfoil was developed and compared with the wind tunnel model. Low Reynolds number flow phenomenon of periodic vortex shedding in a wake were also studied by applying a hot-wire anomemeter.

  5. Neue Systematik der allgemein-ärztlichen Problemlösung mit daraus abgeleiteten spezifischen Forschungswegen.

    PubMed

    Fischer

    1998-01-01

    A New Systematic Approach to Problems in General Practice and Its Consequences for ResearchMedical research finds its legitimation by improving the conditions of everyday life of sick people. Apart from purely biological effects, a lot of influence factors contribute to the outcomes of medical interventions in terms of 'social effectiveness' for the patient. These may concern the way a doctor or the medical system tackles the patient's problem as well as the relevant social and psychological conditions, the factors referring to work or family, and the patient's personality, health beliefs, expectations etc. Thus a specific transformation process must take place in order to achieve a real health gain as perceived by the patient. Until now medical research has developed impressive new therapeutic principles, however, it has widely neglected the processes of transfer and implementation and the field of its effectiveness for the patient apart from the biological effects. It still remains poorly understood that the confrontation of medical endeavours with the patient's life situation provokes a process of conflict and adaption which essentially contributes to the success or failure of medical practice. Here new fields of research for general practice arise. We should investigate the principles examining the effectiveness of medical interventions in the area of conflict between medicine and patient and the general practitioner's mediatory role in this process. This field of research is determined by the coordination of the following three elements forming a primary care scheme of action: 1. hierarchy of general therapeutic goals, 2. primary care description of health problems, 3. dimensions of possible help. PMID:9892838

  6. The design, testing and evaluation of the MIT individual-blade-control system as applied to gust alleviation for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckillip, R. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A type of active control for helicopters was designed and tested on a four foot diameter model rotor. A single blade was individually controlled in pitch in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies by electromechanical means. By utilizing a tip mounted accelerometer as a sensor in the feedback path, significant reductions in blade flapping response to gust were achieved at the gust excitation frequency as well as at super and subharmonics of rotor speed.

  7. Phonetische Korrektur mit dem Frequenzfiltergeraet SUVAG-Lingua (Phonetic Correction with the Frequency Filter Device SUVAG-Lingua)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettemann, Bernhard

    1977-01-01

    Maintains that teaching phonetics should be aimed at enabling the learner to correct himself and that intonation, rhythm and suprasegmental phonemes have commonly been neglected. Describes the value and use of the SUVAG-Lingua Frequency Filter for correcting pronunciation, individually and in groups. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. Uberlegungen zur Arbeit mit Strukturubungen nach dem "Tandemprinzip" (Reflections of Work with Structured Exercises Based on the "Tandem Principle")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leupold, Eynar

    1972-01-01

    The tandem principle grows from the belief that foreign languages can be mutually supportive and informative if taught together. The pairing of French and German students for pattern practice in each other's native language is a practical application of the principle. (RS)

  9. Electron acceleration in a flare plasma via coronal circuits. (German Title: Elektronenbeschleunigung im Flareplasma modelliert mit koronalen Schaltkreisen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önel, Hakan

    2008-08-01

    The Sun is a star, which due to its proximity has a tremendous influence on Earth. Since its very first days mankind tried to "understand the Sun", and especially in the 20th century science has uncovered many of the Sun's secrets by using high resolution observations and describing the Sun by means of models. As an active star the Sun's activity, as expressed in its magnetic cycle, is closely related to the sunspot numbers. Flares play a special role, because they release large energies on very short time scales. They are correlated with enhanced electromagnetic emissions all over the spectrum. Furthermore, flares are sources of energetic particles. Hard X-ray observations (e.g., by NASA's RHESSI spacecraft) reveal that a large fraction of the energy released during a flare is transferred into the kinetic energy of electrons. However the mechanism that accelerates a large number of electrons to high energies (beyond 20 keV) within fractions of a second is not understood yet. The thesis at hand presents a model for the generation of energetic electrons during flares that explains the electron acceleration based on real parameters obtained by real ground and space based observations. According to this model photospheric plasma flows build up electric potentials in the active regions in the photosphere. Usually these electric potentials are associated with electric currents closed within the photosphere. However as a result of magnetic reconnection, a magnetic connection between the regions of different magnetic polarity on the photosphere can establish through the corona. Due to the significantly higher electric conductivity in the corona, the photospheric electric power supply can be closed via the corona. Subsequently a high electric current is formed, which leads to the generation of hard X-ray radiation in the dense chromosphere. The previously described idea is modelled and investigated by means of electric circuits. For this the microscopic plasma parameters, the magnetic field geometry and hard X-ray observations are used to obtain parameters for modelling macroscopic electric components, such as electric resistors, which are connected with each other. This model demonstrates that such a coronal electric current is correlated with large scale electric fields, which can accelerate the electrons quickly up to relativistic energies. The results of these calculations are encouraging. The electron fluxes predicted by the model are in agreement with the electron fluxes deduced from the measured photon fluxes. Additionally the model developed in this thesis proposes a new way to understand the observed double footpoint hard X-ray sources.

  10. Auswerteverfahren zur Kontrolle der Verfüllqualität in Erdwärmesonden mit faseroptischen Temperaturmessungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegger, Mathieu; Heidinger, Philipp; Lorinser, Bruno; Stober, Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Borehole heat exchangers (BHE) are used for geothermal heating of buildings and infrastructure. To ensure ecologic and economic efficiency, the BHE and the bedrock must be hermetically sealed by grouting material. Incomplete grouting can also be dangerous for groundwater quality and can induce damage. This manuscript describes a new evaluation method for detection of defects in the grouting by continuous fibre optic temperature measurements along the borehole depth while carrying out enhanced geothermal response tests. The described method also works well without groundwater flow within the defects of the BHE grouting.

  11. Proceedings of the 2. MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to try to attract a variety of points of view from well-informed people to debate issues concerning nuclear power. Hopefully from that process a better understanding of what one should be doing will emerge. In organizing the conference lessons learned from the previous one were applied. A continuous effort was made to see to it that the arguments for the alternatives to nuclear power were given abundant time for presentation. This is ultimately because nuclear power is going to have to compete with all of the energy technologies. Thus, in discussing energy strategy all of the alternatives must be considered in a reasonable fashion. The structure the conference used has seven sessions. The first six led up to the final session which was concerned with what the future nuclear power strategy should be. Each session focused upon a question concerning the future. None of these questions has a unique correct answer. Rather, topics are addressed where reasonable people can disagree. In order to state some of the important arguments for each session`s question, the combination of a keynote paper followed by a respondent was used. The respondent`s paper is not necessarily included to be a rebuttal to the keynote; but rather, it was recognized that two people will look at a complex question with different shadings. Through those two papers the intention was to get out the most important arguments affecting the question for the session. The purpose of the papers was to set the stage for about an hour of discussion. The real product of this conference was that discussion.

  12. Ultrafast Pump-Probe Studies of the Light-Induced MIT and Recovery of Niobium Dioxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Melissa; Klopf, J. Michael; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lukaszew, R. Alejandra

    Niobium dioxide (NbO2) is a highly correlated binary oxide that, like vanadium dioxide (VO2) , exhibits a first-order insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) at a material-dependent critical temperature, accompanied by a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The nature of the IMT in VO2 has been discussed at length, while fewer studies have been carried out on NbO2. Previous studies show that the IMT can also be optically induced in VO2 on a sub-picosecond timescale; here, we present the first ultrafast pump-probe studies showing this optically-induced transition in NbO2 thin films and compare these results to similar ones carried out on VO2 thin films.

  13. Developments at M.I.T. related to magnetic model suspension and balance systems for large scale facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldeman, C. W.; Way, P.; Kramer, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetic model suspension and balance systems for wind tunnel use. Particular attention is given to the extension of the electromagnetic position sensor (EPS) system producing roll position signals and the ac roll drive system producing closed loop control of rolling moment.

  14. Low altitude, one centimeter, space debris search at Lincoln Laboratory's (M.I.T.) experimental test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Beatty, D. E.; Yakutis, A. J.; Randall, P. M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The majority of work performed by the Lincoln Laboratory's Space Surveillance Group, at the request of NASA, to define the near-earth population of man-made debris is summarized. Electrooptical devices, each with a 1.2 deg FOV, were employed at the GEODSS facility in New Mexico. Details of the equipment calibration and alignment procedures are discussed, together with implementation of a synchronized time code for computer controlled videotaping of the imagery. Parallax and angular speed data served as bases for distinguishing between man-made debris and meteoroids. The best visibility was obtained in dawn and dusk twilight conditions at elevation ranges of 300-2000 km. Tables are provided of altitudinal density distribution of debris. It is noted that the program also yielded an extensive data base on meteoroid rates.

  15. Deutsche Feste. Sitten und Brauche mit Liedern Gedichten Ratseln. (German Festivities. Habits and Customs Using Songs and Stories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawrysz, Ilse, Ed.

    This teacher's guide of supplemental cultural materials includes descriptions of major celebrations and cultural activities of the German people. The text includes songs, poems, and stories about the New Year, carnival, springtime, Easter, fall festivals, and Christmas, as well as a traditional German wedding. (TR)

  16. Tragic Accident or Wrongful Death? Assessing the Effectiveness of MIT's Responses in a High-Profile Student Suicide Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Tara D.

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health issues and suicidal ideation among U.S. college students, higher education institutions are likely to face a student suicide crisis at some point. The messages college administrators send in the aftermath of a student suicide crisis have the potential to placate or exacerbate the outrage that stakeholders…

  17. Zur Gestaltung von Uebungen und des Uebungsgeschehens zur Satznegation mit "nicht" (Developing and Applying Exercises on Sentence Negation with "Nicht")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Helga

    1974-01-01

    Discusses various utterance types calling for "nicht" in German, and suitable exercises for teaching them. It is felt that one should use particularly the receptive-reproductive/receptive-productive sequence. The negation of a sentence in the perfect tense is used for illustration. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Fuzzy logic application for modeling man-in-the-loop space shuttle proximity operations. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    A software pilot model for Space Shuttle proximity operations is developed, utilizing fuzzy logic. The model is designed to emulate a human pilot during the terminal phase of a Space Shuttle approach to the Space Station. The model uses the same sensory information available to a human pilot and is based upon existing piloting rules and techniques determined from analysis of human pilot performance. Such a model is needed to generate numerous rendezvous simulations to various Space Station assembly stages for analysis of current NASA procedures and plume impingement loads on the Space Station. The advantages of a fuzzy logic pilot model are demonstrated by comparing its performance with NASA's man-in-the-loop simulations and with a similar model based upon traditional Boolean logic. The fuzzy model is shown to respond well from a number of initial conditions, with results typical of an average human. In addition, the ability to model different individual piloting techniques and new piloting rules is demonstrated.

  19. Untergrundstörungen durch organische Lösungsmittel in der Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie mit Graphitöfen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gücer, S.; Massmann, H.

    In atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnaces, marked background interferences may occur during the atomization step, when organic solvents are used. Aromatic molecules can sorb to the graphite, partly very firmly, so that they appear in the absorption volume only during the atomizing step, even after preceding interim heating to 800°C. The undissociated molecules show characteristic vibrational spectra in which bands with relative sharp edges can be observed. No rotational structure is recognizable. Reliable background measurements may prove problematic if not entirely impossible in some wavelength regions.

  20. 76 FR 31230 - Safety Zone; M.I.T.'s 150th Birthday Celebration Fireworks, Charles River, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Fireworks, Charles River, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP....S. Coast Guard Sector Boston; telephone 617-223- 3010, e-mail david.j.labadie@uscg.mil . If you...

  1. The Federal Aviation Administration/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (FAA/MIT) Lincoln Laboratory Doppler weather radar program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The program focuses on providing real-time information on hazardous aviation weather to end users such as air traffic control and pilots. Existing systems will soon be replaced by a Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), which will be concerned with detecting such hazards as heavy rain and hail, turbulence, low-altitude wind shear, and mesocyclones and tornadoes. Other systems in process are the Central Weather Processor (CWP), and the terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR). Weather measurements near Memphis are central to ongoing work, especially in the area of microbursts and wind shear.

  2. Arbeit mit englischen Nachrichten auf der Sekundarstufe 1 (Work with English News Reports in Secondary Grade 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegler, Klaus

    1976-01-01

    Reports on work done with the "Humboldt Service" of the Berlin Humboldt Oberschule. Shows how work with English news can be begun, how further oral training can be accomplished, and what problems arise at different stages of development. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  3. Seeding Change through International University Partnerships: The MIT-Portugal Program as a Driver of Internationalization, Networking, and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.; Jacobs, Joshua S.; Pertuze, Julio A.; Newman, Dava J.; Roos, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education systems around the globe are experimenting with different strategies to foster internationalization and networking, achieve critical research mass, and strengthen innovation and labour market integration. This paper discusses how Portugal, since 2006, has pursued a distinctive international collaborative strategy to induce…

  4. Review of PV module performance at DOE/MIT Lincoln Laboratory test sites during the period 1977 to 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S E; Themelis, M P

    1982-01-01

    During the years 1977 to 1982, over 11,000 photovoltaic (PV) modules have been placed at experimental PV power generating systems in a number of field test sites in the United States. Prominent among these are a 100-kW system at Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah, a 25-kWp system at Mead, Nebraska, and a 15-kW system at Bryan, Ohio. Through a program of periodic surveillance, measurements, and inspections at the aforementioned sites, electrically failed modules were located, removed and analyzed during this six-year period. The principal causes of failure were: (1) cells cracked due to weathering or internal module stresses, (2) failed solder joints, (3) interconnects not soldered to rear sides of cells at assembly, (4) cells or interconnects electrically shorted to metallic substrates, and (5) broken or split interconnects. Details and photographs of many of the different types of failures are presented and some of the analysis techniques used to locate the failures are described.

  5. An Adaptive Numeric Predictor-corrector Guidance Algorithm for Atmospheric Entry Vehicles. M.S. Thesis - MIT, Cambridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spratlin, Kenneth Milton

    1987-01-01

    An adaptive numeric predictor-corrector guidance is developed for atmospheric entry vehicles which utilize lift to achieve maximum footprint capability. Applicability of the guidance design to vehicles with a wide range of performance capabilities is desired so as to reduce the need for algorithm redesign with each new vehicle. Adaptability is desired to minimize mission-specific analysis and planning. The guidance algorithm motivation and design are presented. Performance is assessed for application of the algorithm to the NASA Entry Research Vehicle (ERV). The dispersions the guidance must be designed to handle are presented. The achievable operational footprint for expected worst-case dispersions is presented. The algorithm performs excellently for the expected dispersions and captures most of the achievable footprint.

  6. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 31; Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, MIT, Cambridge, MA, Aug. 12-16, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on the applications of state-of-the-art cryogenic engineering technologies considers topics associated with the development status of the 'Superconducting SuperCollider', superconducting magnetic energy storage methods, large magnets for fusion and other physics researches, cryogenic hardware improvements, and phenomena and applications of superconducting magnet-employing acoustic emission test equipment. Also discussed are design criteria for superconducting magnet stability, heat exchangers and heat transfer to liquid He and N, heat and mass transfer characteristics of He II, refrigeration techniques for magnetic resonance imaging and other small systems, refrigeration for liquefaction and for superconducting fusion as well as for accelerator and generator systems, magnetic refrigeration, cryocooling and refrigeration for space applications, the storage and transfer of cryogenic fluids, the properties of cryogenic liquids, and air liquefaction equipment.

  7. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  8. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst. Sie ist als Entscheidungsgrundlage unabdingbar und gibt Antworten auf folgende Fragen: Was kostet unserem Unternehmen/unserer Organisation1 schlechte Datenqualität? Können wir uns das leisten?

  9. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst.

  10. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  11. The Data Warehouse: Keeping It Simple. MIT Shares Valuable Lessons Learned from a Successful Data Warehouse Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Explains why the data warehouse is important to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology community, describing its basic functions and technical design points; sharing some non-technical aspects of the school's data warehouse implementation that have proved to be important; examining the importance of proper training in a successful warehouse…

  12. PESC '91 - Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 22nd, MIT, Cambridge, MA, June 24-27, 1991, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    The present conference discusses a novel microtransformer for use in microswitching converters, a high torque/low-speed switched-reluctance machine, parameter and state estimation in power electronics, a general circuit topology for a multilevel inverter, dc/dc-conversion via saturable induction commutation, a self-oscillating and synchronously rectified dc/dc converter, an HF quasi-square-wave converter, a new family of isolated zero-voltage switched converters, the dual-flow pulse-trimming concept, solid-state reactive power modulation, the harmonic interaction of power systems with static switching, power MOSFETs for reverse conduction, repetitive switching using thyristors, voltage-mode resonant converters, thermal optimization in power electronics, a MOS gate drive with resonant transitions, a real-time estimation of induction-motor rotor time constant, short circuit impedance and leakage in transformer windings, the miniaturization of isolated gate drive circuitry, and one-cycle control of switching converters. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  13. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter

    2002-04-01

    Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Strategien zur Analyse von Transkripten erarbeitet. Die ersten Versuche zielten darauf ab, in mit Glaskapillaren genommenen Einzelzellproben verschiedener Gewebeschichten RT-PCR durchzuführen, um spezifische Transkripte nachweisen zu können. Dies gelang für eine Reihe von Genen aus verschiedenen Pflanzenspezies. Dabei konnten sowohl Transkripte stark wie auch schwach exprimierter Gene nachgewiesen werden. Für die Erstellung von Gewebe-spezifischen Expressionsprofilen war es notwendig, die in vereinigten Zellproben enthaltene mRNA zunächst zu amplifizieren, um eine ausreichende Menge für Arrayhybridisierungen zu erhalten. Vor der Vermehrung wurde die mRNA revers transkribiert. Es wurden daran anschließend verschiedene Amplifikationsstrategien getestet: Die neben Tailing, Adapterligation und anderen PCR-basierenden Protokollen getestete Arbitrary-PCR hat sich in dieser Arbeit als einfache und einzige Methode herausgestellt, die mit so geringen cDNA-Mengen reproduzierbar arbeitet. Durch Gewebe-spezifische Array-hybridisierungen mit der so amplifizierten RNA konnten schon bekannte Expressionsmuster verschiedener Gene, vornehmlich solcher, die an der Photosynthese beteiligt sind, beobachtet werden. Es wurden aber auch eine ganze Reihe neuer offensichtlich Gewebe-spezifisch exprimierter Gene gefunden. Exemplarisch für die differentiell exprimierten Gene konnte das durch Arrayhybridisierungen gefundene Expressionsmuster der kleinen Untereinheit von Rubisco verifiziert werden. Hierzu wurden Methoden zum Gewebe-spezifischen Northernblot sowie semiquantitativer und Echtzeit-Einzelzell-RT-PCR entwickelt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wurden Methoden zur Analyse von Metaboliten einschließlich anorganischer Ionen verwendet. Es stellte sich heraus, daß die multiparallele Methode der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie keine geeignete Methode für die Analyse selbst vieler vereinigter Zellinhalte ist. Daher wurde auf

  14. Entdeckung elektroschwacher Produktion einzelner Top-Quarks mit dem CDF II Experiment; Discovery electroweak production of single top quarks with the CDF II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a neural network search for combined as well as separate s- and t-channel single top-quark production with the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron using 3.2 fb-1 of collision data. It is the twelfth thesis dealing with single top-quark production performed within the CDF Collaboration, whereas three have been done in Run I [53–55] and eight in Run II [23, 25, 28, 39, 56–59].

  15. Ausbildung in der Arbeit mit dem Sprachlabor fuer Lehramtskandidaten der Anglistik. Ein Erfahrungsbericht (Training in Language Laboratory Work for English Teacher Candidates. A Report on an Experience)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbahn, Adeline; Wilpert, Klaus

    1975-01-01

    Reports on work at the University of Erlangen beginners' seminar on language laboratory work. This led to production of original laboratory exercises, which were tried out in a Gymnasium class. The aim was to introduce teacher candidates early to problems attending the introduction of language laboratories. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Der Padagogische Umgang mit dem weltanschaulich-religiosen Pluralismus auf dem Prufstein (A Touchstone for the Pedagogical Approach to Ideological-Religious Pluralism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nipkow, Karl Ernst

    1996-01-01

    Examines the model for ethical-religious instruction introduced in Brandenburg (Germany) from a constitutional and structural-pedagogical viewpoint. Points to problems with both the proposed "uniform" and "plural" models: the first infringes on minorities' interests and the second presupposes a high degree of cooperation between churches and state…

  17. Utopie: Eine Geschichte aus dem 15. Jahrhundert fur die Siebte Klasse, mit Ubungen (Utopia: A View of the 15th Century for the Seventh Class, with Exercises).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Michael

    This German language textbook is intended for classroom use. The theme of the text relates to the Renaissance, and the narrative is based on Sir Thomas More's "Utopia" (1516) and relates to the experiences of its central character Raphael among the inhabitants of the strange island. Each chapter touches lightly on some thought provoking issue,…

  18. Identifying the Role of the International Consortium ``MIT/ LINC'' in Supporting the Integration of ICT in Higher Education in Emerging Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young; Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this research effort is to provide insights on what core needs and difficulties exist toward the implementation of ICT in higher education in emerging countries and how a consortium like LINC can best support these efforts. An exploratory research design combining a survey, on-site interviews, participant observation and document analysis were employed to answer the research questions. Main challenges in establishing technology- based learning environments were identified in the area of pedagogies, finances, technological infrastructure, cultural change, organization, and management. LINC, as an non-political organization embedded in an academic environment, can take an important role in facilitating the dialogue among participants through various platforms, take an active role in promoting joint programs and assist with efforts to "localize" tools and practice.

  19. Die Religiose Konstante. Uber den padagogischen Umgang mit naturwissenshcaftlichen Hypothesen (The Religious Constant--The Interpretation of Hypotheses of the Natural Sciences in Educational Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Shows how evolution-theoretical behavioral research may serve to influence the theory production of pedagogics. Questions which truths and securities are required by educational practice and which consequences can be drawn for the level of theoretical cognition of the respective discipline. An analysis of the relation between religion in its…

  20. Five degree-of-freedom control of an ultra-precision magnetically-suspended linear bearing. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumper, David L.; Slocum, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors constructed a high precision linear bearing. A 10.7 kg platen measuring 125 mm by 125 mm by 350 mm is suspended and controlled in five degrees of freedom by seven electromagnets. The position of the platen is measured by five capacitive probes which have nanometer resolution. The suspension acts as a linear bearing, allowing linear travel of 50 mm in the sixth degree of freedom. In the laboratory, this bearing system has demonstrated position stability of 5 nm peak-to-peak. This is believed to be the highest position stability yet demonstrated in a magnetic suspension system. Performance at this level confirms that magnetic suspensions can address motion control requirements at the nanometer level. The experimental effort associated with this linear bearing system is described. Major topics are the development of models for the suspension, implementation of control algorithms, and measurement of the actual bearing performance. Suggestions for the future improvement of the bearing system are given.

  1. Franz Selety (1893-1933?). His cosmological investigations and the correspondence with Einstein (German Title: Franz Selety (1893-1933?). Seine kosmologischen Arbeiten und der Briefwechsel mit Einstein)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Tobias

    In 1922, Franz Selety, university-bred philosopher and self-educated physicist and cosmologist, developed a molecular hierarchical, spatially infinite, Newtonian cosmological model. His considerations were based on his earlier philosophical work published in 1914 as well as on the early correspondence with Einstein in 1917. Historically, the roots of hierarchical models can be seen in 18th century investigations by Thomas Wright of Durham, Immanuel Kant and Johann Heinrich Lambert. Those investigations were taken up by Edmund Fournier d'Albe and Carl Charlier at the beginning of the 20th century. Selety's cosmological model was criticized by Einstein mainly due to its spatial infiniteness which in Einstein's opinion seemed to contradict Mach's principle. This criticism sheds light on Einstein's conviction that with his first cosmological model, namely the static, spatially infinite, though unbounded Einstein Universe of 1917, the appropriate cosmological theory already had been established.

  2. Karstentwässerung im Kaisergebirge (Tirol, Österreich) - Abgrenzung hydrographischer Einzugsgebiete durch Kombination hydrogeologischer Untersuchungen mit Isotopenmethoden und hydrologischer Modellierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benischke, Ralf; Harum, Till; Reszler, Christian; Saccon, Pierpaolo; Ortner, Gerlinde; Ruch, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    Water resources investigations in karstic mountainous regions face the difficulty that the hydrological catchment boundaries are usually not identical with the orographic catchment boundaries. In this study an integrative method is presented that combines different sources of hydrogeological information and results of distributed water balance modelling to identify hydrological catchment boundaries and subsurface water ways in a karstic mountainous region. The different information comprises, in addition to meteorological and hydrographic data, region-wide point measurements of discharge, field surveys, isotope data, tracer tests, spring discharge data, soil and geological surveys and mapping, etc. The study was set-up in the Kaisergebirge mountain range in Tyrol/Austria, using the well known model MIKE SHE. Based on the additional information, the original model structure was adjusted to the specific situation in the karst, e.g. by introducing a bypass-flow within the unsaturated zone. The modelling results based on the orographic catchments were evaluated in terms of closure and—equally important—non-closure of the water balance. Spatial patterns of simulated hydrologic quantities are interpreted in light of the different sources of information. As a result, a regional map of surplus and deficit between observed and simulated runoff was drawn and combined with the additional information to form a general conceptual model of karst water flow directions and the location and altitude of the contributing recharge area in the high-alpine region. The results of the study provide a valuable basis for the assessment and protection of karst water resources for water supply.

  3. Steuerungsmodelle fur Schulen in Europa: Schwedische Erfahrungen mit alternativen Ordnungsmodellen (Models of School Management in Europe: The Swedish Experience with Alternative Models of Management).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekholm, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that recent changes in conceptions of state control over schools are due partially to the relaxation of Cold War politics. Shows that new models of management produce fewer changes in school quality than expected. Proposes that the determining factor in change is the mentality inherent in individual schools' working structures. (DSK)

  4. A six degree of freedom, plume-fuel optimal trajectory planner for spacecraft proximity operations using an A* node search. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark Charles

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.

  5. Identifying the Role of the International Consortium "MIT/LINC" in Supporting the Integration of ICT in Higher Education in Emerging Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young; Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this research effort is to provide insights on what core needs and difficulties exist toward the implementation of ICT in higher education in emerging countries and how a consortium like LINC can best support these efforts. An exploratory research design combining a survey, on-site interviews, participant observation and document…

  6. Die Arbeit mit Schulfernsehsendungen in Abschluss--und Aufbauklassen der Hauptschule (Working with School Television Broadcasts in Terminal and Continuation Grades of the Hauptschule ["Terminal" 9-Grade School])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebermeier, Hans

    1978-01-01

    Finds school television broadcasting a useful language teaching device, and television films in particular useful for "situational teaching." Various aspects are discussed, including the use of video recorders. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Fuzzy based attitude controller for flexible spacecraft with on/off thrusters. M.S. Thesis - M.I.T., 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Roger Glenn

    1993-01-01

    A fuzzy-based attitude controller is designed for attitude control of a generic spacecraft with on/off thrusters. The controller is comprised of packages of rules dedicated to addressing different objectives (e.g., disturbance rejection, low fuel consumption, avoiding the excitation of flexible appendages, etc.). These rule packages can be inserted or removed depending on the requirements of the particular spacecraft and are parameterized based on vehicle parameters such as inertia or operational parameters such as the maneuvering rate. Individual rule packages can be 'weighted' relative to each other to emphasize the importance of one objective relative to another. Finally, the fuzzy controller and rule packages are demonstrated using the high-fidelity Space Shuttle Interactive On-Orbit Simulator (IOS) while performing typical on-orbit operations and are subsequently compared with the existing shuttle flight control system performance.

  8. The Impact of Hidden Grades on Student Decision-Making and Academic Performance: An Examination of a Policy Change at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities work hard to create environments that encourage student learning, and they develop grading policies, in part, to motivate their students to perform well. Grades provide two kinds of information about a student's abilities and learned knowledge: "internal" information that informs the students themselves about the…

  9. The Impact of Hidden Grades on Student Decision-Making and Academic Performance: An Examination of a Policy Change at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities work hard to create environments that encourage student learning, and they develop grading policies, in part, to motivate their students to perform well. Grades provide two kinds of information about a student's abilities and learned knowledge: "internal" information that informs the students themselves about the…

  10. ON THE ACCURACY OF THE PROPAGATION THEORY AND THE QUALITY OF BACKGROUND OBSERVATIONS IN A SCHUMANN RESONANCE INVERSION PROCEDURE Vadim MUSHTAK, Earle WILLIAMS PARSONS LABORATORY, MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.

    2009-12-01

    Observations of electromagnetic fields in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range (5 to 40 Hz) contain information about both the major source of the electromagnetic radiation (repeatedly confirmed to be global lightning activity) and the source-to-observer propagation medium (the Earth-ionosphere waveguide). While the electromagnetic signatures from individual lightning discharges provide preferable experimental material for exploring the medium, the properties of the world-wide lightning process are best reflected in background spectral SR observations. In the latter, electromagnetic contributions from thousands of lightning discharges are accumulated in intervals of about 10-15 minutes - long enough to present a statistically significant (and so theoretically treatable) ensemble of individual flashes, and short enough to reflect the spatial-temporal dynamics of global lightning activity. Thanks to the small (well below 1 dB/Mm) attenuation in the SR range and the accumulated nature of background SR observations, the latter present globally integrated information about lightning activity not available via other (satellite, meteorological) techniques. The most interesting characteristics to be extracted in an inversion procedure are the rates of vertical charge moment change (and their temporal variations) in the major global lightning “chimneys”. The success of such a procedure depends critically on the accuracy of the propagation theory (used to carry out “direct” calculations for the inversion) and the quality of experimental material. Due to the nature of the problem, both factors - the accuracy and the quality - can only be estimated indirectly, which requires specific approaches to assure that the estimates are realistic and more importantly, that the factors could be improved. For the first factor, simulations show that the widely exploited theory of propagation in a uniform (spherically symmetrical) waveguide provides unacceptable (up to several tens of percent) errors when used to extract the rates of charge moment change in the major “chimneys”. A comparative analysis carried out on the basis of a more accurate two-dimensional telegraph equation (TDTE) technique shows that the above inaccuracy results mainly from neglecting the major non-uniformity of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide due to the electrodynamic contrast between its day- and nighttime hemispheres. To estimate improve the quality of observations, several approaches are presented. Generally, the approaches are based on dividing the observation interval into shorter (10-sec) segments and collecting their Fourier transforms via an “accept/reject” criterion dependent on both the statistics of the segments’ energy contents within the given interval and the observational history. Such a procedure allows the removal of “bad” segments contaminated by either cultural interference or local lightning activity, instead of rejecting the whole interval as a “bad” one. Several criteria are presented, their efficiencies demonstrated, compared, and tested on actual SR observations from various stations for various seasons and times; the effect of using improved (rectified) SR data in an actual multi-station inversion procedure is demonstrated.

  11. MIT/Marine Industry Collegium Opportunity Brief: Advanced composites for offshore structures. Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on October 30-31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.

    1991-01-01

    Synopses of Presentations: An Overview of Advanced Structural Composites for Offshore Structures; High-Performance Composites for Deepwater Risers; Failure and Damage Mechanisms in Composites; Environmental Degradation of Composites; Composites Manufacturing; Steel-Concrete-Steel Sandwich Composite Construction for Permanently Floating Platforms; High-Strength Cement Composites for Marine Applications; Minimum Weight Design of Foam Core Sandwich Panels; Design of Fiber Reinforced Brittle and Quasi-Brittle Matrix Composites for Marine Applications; Offshore Applications and Requirements for Use of Advanced Composites; Polymer Composites in Structures; Non-Conventional Profiles of Composites for Structural Applications; Composite in Construction Require a Structural Design System; Economic Evaluation of Composites for Offshore Use.

  12. OpenCourseWare Resources for Advanced High School Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) faculty first proposed putting the course materials from all 1,800 MIT classes online, free of charge. The idea behind MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) was to use the Internet for more than just distance learning. When MIT began placing the course materials online in 2002 and 2003, the audience…

  13. 76 FR 70780 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Technology (MIT) from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. on November 28, 2011. Advanced manufacturing will provide the... http://mit.edu/manufacturing/ . For questions regarding the facility and location-focused questions, please send an email to amp-event-mit@mit.edu . Please note that public seating for this meeting...

  14. Zur Arbeit mit der Zeitung im Deutschunterricht auf fortgeschrittener Stufe: Zur Erweiterung des Wortschatzes (On Working with the Newspaper in Teaching German at the Advanced Level: Toward Increasing the Vocabulary)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretschneider, Hildegund

    1974-01-01

    Using newspapers in FL teaching gives pupils experience reading original texts, and offers possibilities for vocabulary building. Here one must be aware of vocabulary differences between West and East Germany (FRG, GDR), particularly in ideological areas. The writer shows how vocabulary drills can be based on newspaper material. (Text is in…

  15. Technology for design of transport aircraft. Lecture notes for MIT courses: Seminar 1.61 freshman seminar in air transportation and graduate course 1.201, transportation systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The design parameters which determine cruise performance for a conventional subsonic jet transport are discussed. It is assumed that the aircraft burns climb fuel to reach cruising altitude and that aeronautical technology determines the ability to carry a given payload at cruising altitude. It is shown that different sizes of transport aircraft are needed to provide the cost optimal vehicle for different given payload-range objectives.

  16. Quantitative Analyse von Korallengemeinschaften des Sanganeb-Atolls (mittleres Rotes Meer). II. Vergleich mit einem Riffareal bei Aqaba (nördliches Rotes Meer) am Nordrande des indopazifischen Riffgürtels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhmacher, H.; Mergner, H.

    1985-12-01

    Quantitative studies of coral communities in the central and northern Red Sea were designed for comparison of the community structure in both areas. The central Red Sea provides reef-building Scleractinia and reef-inhabiting Alcyonaria with optimal temperature conditions, whereas the north tip of the Gulf of Aqaba (29°30' N) represents the northernmost outpost of coral reefs in the Indian Ocean. It is generally assumed that coral diversity decreases towards the margins of the global reef-belt. In the Red Sea, generic diversity of hermatypic Scleractinia slightly decreases from the central to the northern part (51 : 48 genera); but cnidarian species abundance (species number per 25 m2 area) was found to increase from 62 to 98 species and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index increased from 2.58 to 3.67 with regard to colony number. The mean colony size was 189 cm2 at Sanganeb-Atoll, but only 52 cm2 at Aqaba. The mean numbers of colonies were inversely related: 662 per 25 m2 at Sanganeb-Atoll and 2028 at Aqaba. Uninhabited parts of the studied areas amounted to 47 % at Sanganeb-Atoll and to 56 % at Aqaba. The community structure of the studied areas indicates that occasional perturbations prevent the progress of the community towards a low-diversity equilibrium state. Since severe hydrodynamic damage is extremely rare in 10 m depth, major disturbances may occur by sedimentation, by the interference of grazers (e. g. Diadema setosum) and due to overgrowth by space-competitors (mainly soft corals). These events are to be regarded as throwbacks in the process of monopolization of the area by well adapted species. Recovery from such perturbations (i.e. recolonization of dead areas) obviously takes place at different velocities in the northern and central Red Sea, for the mean water temperature at Aqaba is 5 °C lower than in the central Red Sea. Hence the process of taking over a given space by a few species proceeds further in the central Red Sea than at its northern end. The increase in diversity per area towards high latitudes is comparable to that with depth. It is concluded from the great number of species at Aqaba that these reefs mark the northernmost outpost of the Indian Ocean only geographically but not ecophysiologically; they would occur at even higher latitudes, if the Gulf of Aqaba extended farther north.

  17. The architecture of Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory 1906 - 1912, compared with other observatories (German Title: Die Architektur der Hamburg-Bergedorfer Sternwarte 1906 - 1912 im Vergleich mit anderen Observatorien)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Peter

    The foundation of the astrophysical observatories in Potsdam-Telegrafenberg in 1874, in Meudon near Paris in 1875 and in Mount Hamilton in California in 1875 resulted in a complete change of observatory architecture. Astrometry had become irrelevant; meridian halls, i.e. an exact north-south orientation, were no longer necessary. The location in the centre of a (university) town was disadvantageous, due to vibrations caused by traffic and artificial light at night. New principles were defined: considerable distance (from the city center), secluded and exposed position (on a mountain) and construction of pavilions: inside a park a pavilion was built for each instrument. Other observatories of this type are: Pic du Midi in the French Alps, built as from 1878 as the first permanent observatory in the high mountains; Nice, Mont Gros, (1879); Brussels, Uccle (1883); Edinburgh, Blackford Hill (1892); Heidelberg, Königstuhl (1896); Barcelona, Monte Tibidado (1902). The original Hamburg Observatory was a modest rectangular building near the Millernrtor; in 1833 it became a State institute. As from 1906 erection of a spacious complex in Bergedorf, 20 km northeast of the city center, took place. Except for the unavailable position on a mountain, this complex fulfilled all principles of a modern observatory: in a park pavilion architecture in an elegant neo-baroque style designed by Albert Erbe (architect of the new Hamburger Kunsthalle with cupola). At the Hamburg Observatory the domed structures were cleverly hierarchised leaving an open view to the south. At the beginning astrometry and astrophysics were equally important; there was still a meridian circle. Apart from that, the instruments were manifold: a large refractor 0.60 m (installed by Repsold/Hamburg, 9 m focal length) and a large reflector 1 m (Zeiss/Jena, 3m focal length). Both were the largest instruments of their kind in the German Empire. In addition, there was the Lippert Astrograph on an elegant polar-axis-type mounting, used for astrophotography. In 1931, Bernhard Schmidt developed the Schmidt telescope here, consisting of a special correction plate and a spherical mirror adequate for “coma-free” astrophotography. To this day, it is still used worldwide. In the Second World War Hamburg was severely hit by Anglo-American bombings. Fortunately, the Bergedorf Observatory on the outskirts was spared. In the meantime, many buildings have been repeatedly restored - the entire complex is of high monument value.

  18. Unwilling to see with others' eyes - Mästlin's position to the scientific progress of his time. (German Title: Nicht mit fremden Augen sehen wollen - Mästlins Stellung zum wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt seiner Zeit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Michael Mästlin, particularly well known as Kepler's teacher at Tübingen University, often commented on the scientific problems of his time. But before recognizing an innovation or discovery as a contribution to scientific progress, he felt bound to verify it thoroughly, as for example Galileo's celestial discoveries with the telescope. Mästlin's Lutheran beliefs abd subjective honesty let him always to search for convincing arguments to support his hesitantly expressed and critical views. We ourselves may ask whether his scientific postulate ``Unwilling to see with others' eyes'' may still be important for our own times.

  19. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). \\6\\ Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, DOE/FE Docket No. 10...\\ \\10\\ MIT Energy Initiative, MIT Study on the Future of Natural Gas, at 157 (2011). ] Further...

  20. Brief Report: Musical Interaction Therapy for Children with Autism: An Evaluative Case Study with Two-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpory, Dawn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This case study reports the effects of musical interaction therapy (MIT) on the social and symbolic development of a young autistic girl. MIT fosters interpersonal contact and joint attention by synchronizing live music to adult-child interactions. Results offer preliminary evidence that MIT facilitates playful joint action formats that generalize…

  1. Historisches Rätsel Er hatte den Durchblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    Seine Jugend ist voller Schicksalsschläge: Mit zwölf Jahren wird er als elftes und jüngstes Kind eines Glasermeisters Vollwaise, mit vierzehn stürzt das Haus seines Pflegevaters und Lehrherren über ihm zusammen. Auch ist ihm kein langes Leben vergönnt: Mit gerade 39 Jahren ereilt ihn die Lungen- und Nervenschwindsucht.

  2. The OpenCourseWare Story: New England Roots, Global Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The OpenCourseWare movement has its roots in New England. The concept emerged in 2000 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where then-President Charles Vest charged a faculty committee with answering two questions: "How is the Internet going to change education?" and "What should MIT do about it?" MIT moved quickly to build a team to…

  3. One for All and All for One: Using Multiple Identification Theory Simulations to Build Cooperative Attitudes and Behaviors in a Middle Eastern Conflict Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Howard; Williams, Alexander Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The authors previously developed multiple identification theory (MIT) as a system of simulation game design intended to promote attitude change. The present study further tests MIT's effectiveness. The authors created a game (CULTURE & CREED) via MIT as a complex simulation of Middle Eastern conflict resolution, designed to change attitudes and…

  4. Coming to Terms with MOOCs: A Community College Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifield, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    When MIT approached Bunker Hill Community College (BHCC) to participate in edX, the new Harvard/MIT massive open online course (MOOC) initiative, the administrators reacted with both interest and skepticism. What did MIT have in mind for Bunker Hill Community College? Today at BHCC, the establishment of "Learning Communities" transforms…

  5. 76 FR 52735 - Members of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ..., Deputy Associate CIO, Enterprise Operations (MITS); Richard E. Byrd, Commissioner (W&I); Robin L. Canady... CIO, Enterprise Services (MITS); Michael Danilack, Deputy Commissioner, International (LB&I); Jonathan...); Carl T. Froehlich, Associate CIO, End User and Equipment Services (MITS); Julieta Garcia,...

  6. 75 FR 51168 - Members of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... (MITS) Richard E. Byrd, Commissioner (W&I) Robin L. Canady, Director, Strategy and Finance (W&I) Susan W... (MITS) Michael Danilack, Deputy Commissioner, International, Large and Mid- Size Business (LMSB..., Associate CIO, End User and Equipment Services (MITS) Silvana G. Garza, Associate CIO, Affordable Care...

  7. Multifunctional hyaluronic acid modified graphene oxide loaded with mitoxantrone for overcoming drug resistance in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lin; Feng, Qianhua; Wang, Yating; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional nanosheets (HA-GO/Pluronic) with targeted chemo-photothermal properties were successfully developed for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). In vitro release profiles displayed that both an acidic environment and a NIR laser could trigger and accelerate the release of a drug, which ensured nanosheets were stable in blood circulation and released MIT within tumor cells under laser irradiation. HA-GO/Pluronic nanosheets were taken up into MCF-7/ADR cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which further facilitated escapement of P-gp efflux. Compared with MIT solution, MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic showed greater cytotoxicity and increase in cellular MIT accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies also revealed that MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic was more potent than MIT/GO/Pluronic and MIT solution. The anticancer efficacy in vivo was evaluated in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR-bearing mice, and inhibition of tumors by MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic with NIR laser irradiation was the most effective among all MIT formulations. In summary, the MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic system had striking functions such as P-gp reversible inhibitor and anticancer efficacy, and could present a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment.

  8. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer. PMID:25187709

  9. Infrared reflectance and photoemission spectroscopy studies across the phase transition boundary in thin film vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Zawilski, Kevin; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2008-01-01

    Optical properties and valence band density of states near the Fermi level of high-quality VO2 thin films have been investigated by mid-infrared reflectometry and hard-UV (h = 150 eV) photoemission spectroscopy. An exceptionally large change in reflectance from 2 to 94% is found upon the thermally driven metal insulator transition (MIT). The infrared dispersion spectra of the reflectance across the MIT are presented and evidence for the percolative nature of the MIT is pointed out. The discrepancy between the MIT temperatures defined from the electrical and optical properties is found and its origin is discussed. The manifestation of the MIT is observed in the photoemission spectra of the V 3d levels. The analysis of the changes of the V 3d density of states is done and the top valence band shift upon the MIT is measured to be 0.6 eV.

  10. Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD) Prototype System - Software Design Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturdy, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the software design of a prototype Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD) system that was evaluated in shadow mode operation at the Saint Louis (KSTL) and Houston (KIAH) airports. This document describes the software that provides the system framework, communications, user displays, and hosts the Wind Forecasting Algorithm (WFA) software developed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL). The WFA algorithms and software are described in a separate document produced by MIT-LL.

  11. Vitamin E succinate-conjugated F68 micelles for mitoxantrone delivery in enhancing anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuling; Xu, Yingqi; Wu, Minghui; Fan, Lijiao; He, Chengwei; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitoxantrone (MIT) is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES) amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT) micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines). In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. PMID:27471384

  12. 77 FR 2096 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times... a.m. Closed--Executive Session 8:15 a.m.-5 p.m. Open--Review of the MIT MRSEC 5 p.m.-6:45 p.m.... Open--Review of the MIT MRSEC 10 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Closed--Executive Session, Report Writing Reason...

  13. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  14. Die kreiselnde Büroklammer: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Mit Büroklammern lassen sich einfach und schnell physikalische Experimente realisieren. Vorgestellt werden zwei ungewöhnliche Kreisel (darunter ein Stehaufkreisel), die sich in wenigen Minuten biegen lassen. Weiterhin lässt sich mit Büroklammern die schon von Leibniz abgeleitete Kettenlinie simulieren. Mit etwas Mehraufwand lässt sich eine Hängebrücke bauen, bei der sich für das Tragkabel eine Parabel als Kurvenform ergibt. Im Internet sind Programme verfügbar, mit denen sich Kettenlinie und Hängeparabel simulieren lassen.

  15. Creating Catalytic Collaborations between Theater Artists, Scientists, and Research Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Catalyst Collaborative@MIT (CC@MIT) is a collaboration between MIT and Underground Railway Theater (URT), a company with 30 years experience creating theater through interdisciplinary inquiry and engaging community. CC@MIT is dedicated to creating and presenting plays that deepen public understanding about science, while simultaneously providing artistic and emotional experiences not available in other forms of dialogue about science. CC@MIT engages audiences in thinking about themes in science of social and ethical concern; provides insight into the culture of science and the impact of that culture on society; and examines the human condition through the lens of science that intersects our lives and the lives of scientists. Original productions range from Einstein's Dreams to From Orchids to Octopi -- an evolutionary love story; classics re-framed include The Life of Galileo and Breaking the Code (about Alan Turing). CC@MIT commissions playwrights and scientists to create plays; engages audiences with scientists; performs at MIT and a professional venue near the campus; collaborates with the Cambridge Science Festival and MIT Museum; engages MIT students, as well as youth and children. Artistic Director Debra Wise will address how the collaboration developed, what opportunities are provided by collaborations between theaters and scientific research institutions, and lessons learned of value to the field.

  16. Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  17. Theodore Richard Madden (1925-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Earle; Madden, Nadia; Madden, Jennifer; Madden, Halima

    2014-12-01

    Theodore R. Madden, lifelong professor of geophysics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), fascinated with all things electromagnetic, ingenious in bridging theory with experiment, AGU Fellow, and a geophysicist's geophysicist, died on 11 November 2013 at age 88. A special symposium and memorial (http://eapsweb.mit.edu/news/2014/madden-memorial) was held at MIT on 14 March 2014 on the occasion of his birthday. At that time, Frank Press, former president of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, said, "Ted Madden and his students put geophysics on the map at MIT."

  18. An Overview of Recent Application of Medical Infrared Thermography in Sports Medicine in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian; Ammer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (MIT) is used for analyzing physiological functions related to skin temperature. Technological advances have made MIT a reliable medical measurement tool. This paper provides an overview of MIT’s technical requirements and usefulness in sports medicine, with a special focus on overuse and traumatic knee injuries. Case studies are used to illustrate the clinical applicability and limitations of MIT. It is concluded that MIT is a non-invasive, non-radiating, low cost detection tool which should be applied for pre-scanning athletes in sports medicine. PMID:22399901

  19. Jumbled spine and ribs (Jsr): a new mutation on mouse chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, H; Kon, Y; Seo, K W; Jin, H K; Hasegawa, A; Watanabe, T

    1999-03-01

    Jumbled spine and ribs (Jsr) is an autosomal dominant mutation that results in malformation of the axial skeleton. The vertebrae of mutant mice (Jsr/+) are all shorter than those of normal mice (+/+) in the inbred line and show various abnormalities. In addition, several ribs are fused at their proximal region because of fusion of thoracic vertebrae. In this study, we localized the Jsr mutation on distal Chromosome (Chr) 5 and constructed a high-resolution map. Chromosomal mapping was performed with an inter-subspecific backcross of (CKH-Jsr/+ x MOG) F1 carrying the Jsr allele and CKH-+/+. The predicted gene order around Jsr was determined to be cen-(Epo, Pdgfa, D5Mit31, D5Mit374)-(Jsr, Nfe2u, D5Mit99, D5Mit247, D5Mit284, D5Mit292, D5Mit327)-D5Mit328-tel. Subsequently, high-resolution mapping concluded the Jsr localization to be cen-Nfe2u-1.0cM-Jsr-0.2cM-D5Mit247,292-tel . Jsr/Jsr homozygotes are alive, as the mutation is not lethal. Based on histological analysis of mutant embryos, Jsr is hypothesized to be caused by abnormal development of primordial cells in the axial skeleton. PMID:10051313

  20. Schule in der Transformation--Transformation der Schule? Was man aus Gesprachen mit ehemaligen Schulern uber die Schule "zwischen zwei Diktaturen" erfahren kann (Schools in Transitions--Transformation of the School? What Can Be Learnt from Former Students Who Experienced Schooling under Two Dictatorial Regimes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluchert, Gerhard; Leschinsky, Achim

    1998-01-01

    Addresses interviews that focused on former students' educations under two dictatorial regimes. All the interviewees took their school-leaving examinations between 1951 and 1954. Explains that the interviews are evaluated according to the preconditions, limits, and mechanisms of the school's influence on children and adolescents. (CMK)

  1. Combined therapy of septicemia with ofloxacin and/or synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) in irradiated and wounded mice (kombinierte therapie der septikaemie mit ofloxacin und/oder synthetischem trehalose-dicorynomycolat (s-tdcm) bei bestrahlten und verwundeten maeusen)

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, G.S.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Elliot, T.B.; Brook, I.

    1989-01-01

    Following lethal irradiation, mice usually succumb to sepsis as a result of translocation of intestinal bacteria and impairment of the host defense system. Additional trauma in these immunocompromised mice further increases susceptibility to bacterial infection from either endogenous or exogenous origin. Treatment with ofloxacin or synthetic trehalose dicorynemycolate (S-TDCM) was evaluated in mice, which were lethally irradiated and wounded, and which died with sepsis within six days. Wounding was performed on C3H/HeN mice anesthetized by inhalation of methoxyfurane. Dorsal skin and muscle equal to 30% total body surface was removed 1 h after 8.0 Gy gamma radiation. S-TDCM, which augments nonspecific resistance to infection in irradiated mice, was given once i.p. immediately after wounding. Oxfloxacin was injected s.c. daily from day 0 to day 10. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecium, and Escherichia coli were isolated from both the livers and wound sites of moribund, untreated mice 4 and 5 days postirradiation.

  2. Analyse de la variabilité de taille et de forme de l'extrémité distale de l'humérus chez les grands singes africains par la morphométrie géométrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie

    1999-11-01

    The variability of the humeral distal extremity, in inferior view, of three African hominoids, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla, was analysed using Procrustes methods in order to determine the effect of size on the morphology of the joint. The humeral contour was defined by 28 variables (14 landmarks in a two-dimensional space). A PCA analysis was made on superimposed coordinates. The results show that the intraspecific variation emphasized in Pan and Gorilla is highly size-dependent (axes 1 and 2). Pan paniscus is distinguished from Pan troglodytes by minor differences in the projection of both epicondyles (axis 3).

  3. Vernetztes Lernen: Eine Unterrichtseinheit mit Heinrich von Kleists Erzahlung "Das Erdbeben in Chili" und Crista Wolfs Roman "Kein Ort. Nirgends" (Networked Learning: An Instructional Unit with Heinrich von Kleist's Story "The Earthquake in Chile" and Christa Wolf's Novel "No Place, No Where").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidecker, Martina Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Presents an instructional model, using Kleist's story "Das Erdbeben in Chili" and Christa Wolf's novel Kei Ort. Nirgends" as a basis. The model clearly distinguishes itself from quantitative models and mediates solid literary knowledge through an inductive approach. Learning takes place in a multidimensional space that makes possible multiple…

  4. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  5. Using Web Technology to Teach Students about Their Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braender, Lynn M.; Kapp, Craig M.; Yeras, Jeddel

    2009-01-01

    In the School of Business at The College of New Jersey, students are required to take two courses in Management Information Technology (MIT). All students enroll in the same first course. This course focuses on Emerging Technologies and intermediate level data analysis skills. Students are then free to choose their second course. Each MIT course…

  6. Suppression of Structural Phase Transition in VO2 by Epitaxial Strain in Vicinity of Metal-insulator Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuanjun; Bin Hong; Wang, Liangxin; Hu, Kai; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; Huang, Haoliang; Zhao, Jiangtao; Chen, Haiping; Song, Li; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Bao, Jun; Li, Xiaoguang; Gu, Yueliang; Yang, Tieying; Gao, Xingyu; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strained VO2 thin films is very complicated and incompletely understood despite three scenarios with potential explanations including electronic correlation (Mott mechanism), structural transformation (Peierls theory) and collaborative Mott-Peierls transition. Herein, we have decoupled coactions of structural and electronic phase transitions across the MIT by implementing epitaxial strain on 13-nm-thick (001)-VO2 films in comparison to thicker films. The structural evolution during MIT characterized by temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping and Raman spectroscopy suggested that the structural phase transition in the temperature range of vicinity of the MIT is suppressed by epitaxial strain. Furthermore, temperature-dependent Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) revealed the changes in electron occupancy near the Fermi energy EF of V 3d orbital, implying that the electronic transition triggers the MIT in the strained films. Thus the MIT in the bi-axially strained VO2 thin films should be only driven by electronic transition without assistance of structural phase transition. Density functional theoretical calculations further confirmed that the tetragonal phase across the MIT can be both in insulating and metallic states in the strained (001)-VO2/TiO2 thin films. This work offers a better understanding of the mechanism of MIT in the strained VO2 films. PMID:26975328

  7. OpenCourseWare: A Case Study in Institutional Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Steven R.; Miyagawa, Shigeru

    2002-01-01

    Describes the OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The effort involves creating Web sites for all of the institution's courses, which will be open and freely accessible to the world. Explores how faculty governance and MIT's institutional values made the program possible. Includes an interview with an…

  8. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  9. Fazit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrenhoff, Hubertus

    Die im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereiches 442 (SFB 442) erarbeiteten Ergebnisse zeigen die Leistungsfähigkeit tribologischer Systeme bei Verwendung nativer Ester in Kombination mit PVD-Werkstoffverbundschichten. Gegenstand der Untersuchungen waren die tribologischen Systeme einer Werkzeugmaschine, wie z. B. Zahnräder, Wälz- und Spindellager, Kolben einer hydraulischen Pumpe sowie Werkzeuge mit geometrisch bestimmter Schneide und Tiefziehwerkzeuge.

  10. Protothecosis successfully treated with amikacin combined with tetracyclines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Liu, W; Lv, G; Shen, Y; Wu, S

    2004-04-01

    Summary We report a case of protothecosis in an 18-year-old female student caused by Prototheca zopfii successfully treated with amikacin combined with tetracyclines. Zusammenfassung Es wird über eine Protothecose, verursacht durch Prototheca zopfii, bei einer 18-jährigen Studentin berichtet, die erfolgreich mit Amikacin in Kombination mit Tetracyclinen behandelt wurde. PMID:15078433

  11. First-order metal-insulator transition not accompanied by the structural phase transition observed in VO2-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tak; Chae, Byung-Gyu; Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong-Wook; Yun, Sun-Jin; Kang, Kwang-Yong

    2006-03-01

    An abrupt first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) is observed during the application of a switching pulse voltage to VO2-based two-terminal devices. When the abrupt MIT occurs, the structural phase transition (SPT) is investigated by a micro- Raman spectroscopy and a micro-XRD. The result shows that the MIT is not accompanied with the structural phase transition (SPT); the abrupt MIT is prior to the SPT. Moreover, any switching pulse over a threshold voltage of 7.1 V for the MIT enabled the device material to transform efficiently from an insulator to a metal. The measured delay time from the source switching pulse to an induced MIT pulse is an order of 20 nsec which is much less than a delay time of about one msec deduced by thermal model. This indicates that the first-order MIT does not occur due to thermal. We think this MIT is the Mott transition. (Reference: New J. Phys. 6 (1994) 52 (www.njp.org), Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 242101, Physica B 369 (2005. December) xxxx)

  12. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992--1993 report to the President

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT`s plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics; rf plasma heating; gyrotron research; treatment of solid waste by arc plasma; divertor experiments; tokamak studies; and plasma and fusion theory.

  13. Suppression of Structural Phase Transition in VO2 by Epitaxial Strain in Vicinity of Metal-insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuanjun; Bin Hong; Wang, Liangxin; Hu, Kai; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; Huang, Haoliang; Zhao, Jiangtao; Chen, Haiping; Song, Li; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Bao, Jun; Li, Xiaoguang; Gu, Yueliang; Yang, Tieying; Gao, Xingyu; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2016-03-01

    Mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strained VO2 thin films is very complicated and incompletely understood despite three scenarios with potential explanations including electronic correlation (Mott mechanism), structural transformation (Peierls theory) and collaborative Mott-Peierls transition. Herein, we have decoupled coactions of structural and electronic phase transitions across the MIT by implementing epitaxial strain on 13-nm-thick (001)-VO2 films in comparison to thicker films. The structural evolution during MIT characterized by temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping and Raman spectroscopy suggested that the structural phase transition in the temperature range of vicinity of the MIT is suppressed by epitaxial strain. Furthermore, temperature-dependent Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) revealed the changes in electron occupancy near the Fermi energy EF of V 3d orbital, implying that the electronic transition triggers the MIT in the strained films. Thus the MIT in the bi-axially strained VO2 thin films should be only driven by electronic transition without assistance of structural phase transition. Density functional theoretical calculations further confirmed that the tetragonal phase across the MIT can be both in insulating and metallic states in the strained (001)-VO2/TiO2 thin films. This work offers a better understanding of the mechanism of MIT in the strained VO2 films.

  14. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  15. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides cause airway contraction and lung neutrophil infiltration via formyl peptide receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; Szasz, Theodora; McCarthy, Cameron G; Baban, Babak; NeSmith, Elizabeth; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory failure is a common characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MITs) are DAMPs that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides, and are potent immune system activators. Recently, we observed that hemorrhagic shock-induced increases in plasma levels of F-MITs associated with lung damage, and that antagonism of formyl peptide receptors (FPR) ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury in rats. Corroborating these data, in the present study, it was observed that F-MITs expression is higher in plasma samples from trauma patients with SIRS or sepsis when compared to control trauma group. Therefore, to better understand the role of F-MITs in the regulation of lung and airway function, we studied the hypothesis that F-MITs lead to airway contraction and lung inflammation. We observed that F-MITs induced concentration-dependent contraction in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. However, pre-treatment with mast cells degranulator or FPR antagonist decreased this response. Finally, intratracheal challenge with F-MITs increased neutrophil elastase expression in lung and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cell division control protein 42 expression in all airway segments. These data suggest that F-MITs could be a putative target to treat respiratory failure in trauma patients. PMID:26923940

  16. Brace to Grace wheaties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You have until July 15 to vote to put an AGU Fellow on the Wheaties cereal box.William F. Brace, head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, has been nominated as MIT's outstanding athlete in the current Wheaties nationwide “Search for Champions” contest.

  17. Tracking moving identities: after attending the right location, the identity does not come for free.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Yaïr; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, V A F

    2012-01-01

    Although tracking identical moving objects has been studied since the 1980's, only recently the study into tracking moving objects with distinct identities has started (referred to as Multiple Identity Tracking, MIT). So far, only behavioral studies into MIT have been undertaken. These studies have left a fundamental question regarding MIT unanswered, is MIT a one-stage or a two-stage process? According to the one-stage model, after a location has been attended, the identity is released without effort. However, according to the two-stage model, there are two effortful stages in MIT, attending to a location, and attending to the identity of the object at that location. In the current study we investigated this question by measuring brain activity in response to tracking familiar and unfamiliar targets. Familiarity is known to automate effortful processes, so if attention to identify the object is needed, this should become easier. However, if no such attention is needed, familiarity can only affect other processes (such as memory for the target set). Our results revealed that on unfamiliar trials neural activity was higher in both attentional networks, and visual identification networks. These results suggest that familiarity in MIT automates attentional identification processes, thus suggesting that attentional identification is needed in MIT. This then would imply that MIT is essentially a two-stage process, since after attending the location, the identity does not seem to come for free. PMID:22927940

  18. Evaluating Distance Education across Twelve Time Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerney, Melinda G.; Heines, Jesse M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA), a collaborative project in distance education that was developed to offer graduate engineering degree programs involving MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), the National University of Singapore (NUS), and the Nanyang Technological University (NTU). Discusses results of student evaluations of the…

  19. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  20. Thin Clients: Anwendungsvirtualisierung (SBC) oder Desktop-Virtualisierung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lamp, Frank

    Mit Thin Clients lassen sich verschiedene auf Virtualisierung basierende Infrastrukturen unterstützen, die jeweils unterschiedliche Vor- und Nachteile besitzen. Dieser Beitrag stellt die wichtigsten Vor- und Nachteile von Server Based Computing und Desktop-Virtualisierung mit Thin Clients gegenüber.

  1. Structural qualification of the multifunctional instrument tree for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Strohlow, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis and methodology for qualifying the multifunctional instrument tree (MIT) structure for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks. Structural qualification for MIT installations in specific tanks are also contained in this document.

  2. A Museum Learning Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Kathleen M.; Bijur, Jon Markowitz; Epstein, Ari W.; Rosenthal, Beryl; Stidsen, Don

    2008-01-01

    The "Learning Lab: The Cell" exhibit was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Museum and the MIT Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS). Specially designed for middle and high school students, the Learning Lab provides museum visitors of all ages with fascinating insights into how our living cells work. The…

  3. 76 FR 4885 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). FLEX states that as a result of technological.... \\6\\ The Future of Natural Gas, Interim Report MIT Energy Initiative at 9 (2010), ``For this study, we.... consumption of 22.8 Tcf in 2009'' (MIT Report). FLEX asserts that as U.S. natural gas reserves and...

  4. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). \\7\\ Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, DOE/FE.... MIT Energy Initiative Study on The Future of Natural Gas Massachusetts Institute of Technology Report (MIT REPORT), at 30 (2011). FLEX asserts that as U.S. natural gas reserves and production have risen,...

  5. The Unwalled Garden: Growth of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, 2001-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the development of the OpenCourseWare movement, including the origin of the concept at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the implementation of the MIT OpenCourseWare project, and the idea's spread into the global educational community, ultimately resulting in the formation of the OpenCourseWare Consortium. The…

  6. Panel Discussion on Libraries and Best Practices in Fair Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathemacher, Andree J.

    2012-01-01

    This report covers a panel discussion on the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries, published in January 2012 by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). The panel was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on March 23, 2012, and was hosted by the MIT Libraries. Panelists were Patricia…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  8. 77 FR 70998 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... resmethrin by the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, refer to Federal Register notice (74 FR 54416...-ethanediyl dichloride). 062910-00032 Arch CMIT/MIT 5-Chloro-2-methyl-3(2H)- isothiazolone, 2-Methyl-3(2H)- isothiazolone. 062910-00035 Arch CMIT/MIT 14 MUP 2-Methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone, 5-...

  9. 75 FR 4062 - Peer Review Best Practices Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Bonnvillian, MIT 9:45 a.m. Panel 1: Basic Science--NSF, NIH, DOE/SC, UCSB 11 a.m. Break 11:15 a.m. Panel 2: Applied Research, Technology Development--NIST, ARPA-E, ONR, MIT 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1 p.m. Panel...

  10. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  11. Math Intervention Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lisa Ivey

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship of math intervention teachers' (MITs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and students' math achievement gains in primary math interventions. The Kentucky Center for Mathematics gathered data on the MITs and primary math intervention students included in this study. Longitudinal data were…

  12. 76 FR 40646 - Notice of Availability of Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... be modified, streamlined, expanded, or repealed. (76 FR 6123, Feb. 3, 2011) In addition, DOE sought... their objectives. (AHRI, 2; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 1- 2). Another comment... federal research agreements. (Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), 3; MIT, 1-2). ] Three...

  13. Knowledge at No Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2009-01-01

    OpenCourseWare (OCW) program, offered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), provides open access to course materials for a large number of MIT classes. From this resource, American Megan Brewster, a recent graduate working in Guatemala, was able to formulate and implement a complete protocol to tackle Guatemala's need for a plastics…

  14. Transforming the Gray Factory: The Presidential Leadership of Charles M. Vest and the Architecture of Change at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daas, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The single-site exemplar study presents an in-depth account of the presidential leadership of Charles M. Vest of MIT--the second longest presidency in the Institute's history--and his leadership team's journey between 1990 and 2004 into campus architectural changes that involved over a billion dollars, added a quarter of floor space to MIT's…

  15. Sichtbeton Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Joachim

    Bereits 1960, d. h. vor 48 Jahren, hat der Architekt R. Probst einen Artikel verfasst mit dem Thema "Sichtbeton - eine Modetorheit". Er wollte mit diesem Beitrag bewusst provozieren und die Diskussion anregen, damit Architekten sich mehr mit dem Baustoff Sichtbeton auseinandersetzen, ihn kritischer bewerten, ihn bewusster und überlegter einsetzen. Trotz dieser schon damals vorhandenen Kritik an diesem Baustoff und dessen Verwendung, kam es in den 1960er und 1970er Jahren vermehrt zu "Bausünden" mit Sichtbeton. Die Welle der "Sichtbetonitis" kam über das Land und riss viele Planer mit sich. Das Lehrgeld wurde bezahlt. Seit den 1990er Jahren wird Sichtbeton wieder vermehrt von vielen Architekten und Bauherren als gestalterisches Mittel eingesetzt.

  16. Tuning directional dependent metal–insulator transitions in quasi-1D quantum wires with spin–orbit density wave instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy

    2016-07-01

    We study directional dependent band gap evolutions and metal–insulator transitions (MITs) in model quantum wire systems within the spin–orbit density wave (SODW) model. The evolution of MIT is studied as a function of varying anisotropy between the intra-wire hopping ({{t}\\parallel} ) and inter-wire hopping ({{t}\\bot} ) with Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We find that as long as the anisotropy ratio (β ={{t}\\bot}/{{t}\\parallel} ) remains below 0.5, and the Fermi surface nesting is tuned to {{\\mathbf{Q}}1}=≤ft(π,0\\right) , an exotic SODW induced MIT easily develops, with its critical interaction strength increasing with increasing anisotropy. As β \\to 1 (2D system), the nesting vector switches to {{\\mathbf{Q}}2}=≤ft(π,π \\right) , making this state again suitable for an isotropic MIT. Finally, we discuss various physical consequences and possible applications of the directional dependent MIT.

  17. Residential solar photovoltaic systems: Final report for the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers research and development work conducted by the MIT Energy Lab. from July 1982 through June 1986. This Energy Lab. work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems followed six years of similar work at the MIT Lincoln Lab. under the same contract with the US DOE. The final report from the Lincoln Lab. period was published by Lincoln Lab. in 1983. During the period of Energy Lab. involvement, the project focused on the refinement of residential scale, roof-mounted photovoltaic systems for application in the northeastern US. Concurrent with the conclusion of MIT`s involvement, the New England Electric Co. is building a major field test of residential photovoltaics in Gardner, Massachusetts to determine experimentally the effects of photovoltaics on electric power company operations. Using systems designs and technology developed at MIT, the long-term performance of these thirty residential systems in Gardner will provide a measure of our success.

  18. Key role of lattice symmetry in the metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Kim, Honggyu; Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Bulk NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is lowered that is also seen in tensile strained films. In contrast, films that are under a large compressive strain typically remain metallic at all temperatures. To clarify the microscopic origins of this behavior, we use position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize strained NdNiO3 films both above and below the MIT temperature. We show that a symmetry lowering structural change takes place in case of the tensile strained film, which undergoes an MIT, but is absent in the compressively strained film. Using space group symmetry arguments, we show that these results support the bond length disproportionation model of the MIT in the rare-earth nickelates. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the non-Fermi liquid phase that is observed in films for which the MIT is absent.

  19. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  20. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems.

  1. Investigation on onset voltage and conduction channel temperature in voltage-induced metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Joonseok; Kim, Howon; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Park, Changwoo; Ju, Honglyoul

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of onset voltages and conduction channel temperatures in the metal-insulator transition (MIT) of vanadium dioxide (VO2) devices are investigated as a function of dimensions and ambient temperature. The MIT onset voltage varies from 18 V to 199 V as the device length increases from 5 to 80 μm at a fixed width of 100 μm. The estimated temperature at local conduction channel increases from 110 to 370 °C, which is higher than the MIT temperature (67 °C) of VO2. A simple Joule-heating model is employed to explain voltage-induced MIT as well as to estimate temperatures of conduction channel appearing after MIT in various-sized devices. Our findings on VO2 can be applied to micro- to nano-size tunable heating devices, e.g., microscale scanning thermal cantilevers and gas sensors.

  2. Key role of lattice symmetry in the metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 films

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Kim, Honggyu; Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Bulk NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is lowered that is also seen in tensile strained films. In contrast, films that are under a large compressive strain typically remain metallic at all temperatures. To clarify the microscopic origins of this behavior, we use position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize strained NdNiO3 films both above and below the MIT temperature. We show that a symmetry lowering structural change takes place in case of the tensile strained film, which undergoes an MIT, but is absent in the compressively strained film. Using space group symmetry arguments, we show that these results support the bond length disproportionation model of the MIT in the rare-earth nickelates. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the non-Fermi liquid phase that is observed in films for which the MIT is absent. PMID:27033955

  3. Finite mass enhancement across bandwidth controlled Mott transition in NiS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Garam; Kyung, W. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Cheng, C. M.; Tsuei, K. D.; Lee, K. D.; Hur, N.; Kim, H.-D.; Kim, C.

    One of the most important and still debated issues in the strongly correlated electron systems is on the metal insulator transition (MIT) mechanism. In the bandwidth controlled Mott transition (BCMT) scenario, which Mott originally proposed, MIT occurs through a mass divergence in which the effective mass of the quasi-particle (QP) diverges approaching the MIT. The interpretation is supported by dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) model calculations. However, few direct observations have been made yet due to various experimental restrictions. In this talk, I present systematic angle resolved photoemission studies on the MIT in NiS2-xSex, which is a well-known BCMT material. We observed not only the bandwidth shrinkage but also the coherent quasi-particle peak (QP) which is not of the surface origin. In addition, we experimentally showed the mass of the QP remains finite approaching the MIT. This work was supported by IBS-R009-D1.

  4. Tuning directional dependent metal-insulator transitions in quasi-1D quantum wires with spin-orbit density wave instability.

    PubMed

    Das, Tanmoy

    2016-07-27

    We study directional dependent band gap evolutions and metal-insulator transitions (MITs) in model quantum wire systems within the spin-orbit density wave (SODW) model. The evolution of MIT is studied as a function of varying anisotropy between the intra-wire hopping ([Formula: see text]) and inter-wire hopping ([Formula: see text]) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that as long as the anisotropy ratio ([Formula: see text]) remains below 0.5, and the Fermi surface nesting is tuned to [Formula: see text], an exotic SODW induced MIT easily develops, with its critical interaction strength increasing with increasing anisotropy. As [Formula: see text] (2D system), the nesting vector switches to [Formula: see text], making this state again suitable for an isotropic MIT. Finally, we discuss various physical consequences and possible applications of the directional dependent MIT. PMID:27248294

  5. Ankle muscle strength discriminates fallers from non-fallers

    PubMed Central

    Cattagni, Thomas; Scaglioni, Gil; Laroche, Davy; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Gremeaux, Vincent; Martin, Alain

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that center of pressure (CoP) displacement correlates negatively with the maximal isometric torque (MIT) of ankle muscles. This relationship has never been investigated in elderly fallers (EF). The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the relationship between the MIT of ankle muscles and CoP displacement in upright stance in a sample aged between 18 and 90 years old that included EF. The aim was to identify a threshold of torque below which balance is compromised. The MIT of Plantar flexors (PFs) and dorsal flexors (DFs) and CoP were measured in 90 volunteers: 21 healthy young adults (YA) (age: 24.1 ± 5.0), 12 healthy middle-aged adults (MAA) (age: 50.2 ± 4.5), 27 healthy elderly non-fallers (ENF) (age: 75.5 ± 7.0) and 30 EF (age: 78.8 ± 6.7). The MIT of PF and DF were summed to obtain the overall maximal ankle muscle strength. Body weight and height were used to normalize MIT (nMIT) and CoP (nCoP), respectively. nCoP correlated negatively with nMIT. 90% of EF generated an nMIT <3.1 N·m·kg−1, whereas 85% of non-fallers generated an nMIT >3.1 N·m·kg−1. The relationship between nMIT and nCoP implies that ankle muscle weakness contributes to increased postural instability and the risk of falling. We observed that below the threshold of 3.1 N·m·kg−1, postural stability was dramatically diminished and balance was compromised. Our results suggest that measuring ankle torque could be used in routine clinical practice to identify potential fallers. PMID:25566068

  6. Minimally invasive versus open thymectomy: a systematic review of surgical techniques, patient demographics, and perioperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Nicholas R.; Pennathur, Arjun; Levy, Ryan M.; Christie, Neil A.; Luketich, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thymectomy is the mainstay of treatment for thymoma and other anterior mediastinal tumors, and is often utilized in the management of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). While traditionally approached through a median sternotomy, minimally invasive approaches to thymectomy have increasingly emerged. The present systematic review was conducted to compare perioperative and clinical outcomes following minimally invasive thymectomy (MIT) and open thymectomy (OT). Methods Articles were obtained through a PubMed literature search. Comparative studies reporting clinical outcomes following MIT and OT were eligible for inclusion. We selected studies with full text availability, written in the English language, published after 2005 and with at least 15 patients in each arm. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results Twenty studies were included, involving a total of 2,068 patients undergoing either MIT (n=838) or OT (n=1,230). Within individual studies, MIT and OT cohorts were well matched with regards to patient age and gender, but there was considerable variation across studies. Resected thymomas were consistently larger in OT groups, with mean diameter significantly larger in five studies (MIT, 29–52 mm; OT, 31–77 mm). MIT was consistently associated with a lower estimated blood loss (MIT, 20–200 mL; OT, 86–466 mL), chest tube duration (MIT, 1.3–4.1 days; OT, 2.4–5.3 days), and hospital length of stay (MIT, 1–10.6 days; OT, 4–14.6 days). There were no consistent differences in rates of perioperative complications, thymoma recurrence, MG complete stable remission, or 5-year survival. Conclusions In appropriately selected patients, MIT may reduce blood loss, chest tube duration, and hospital length of stay, with comparable clinical outcomes compared to OT via median sternotomy. PMID:26904425

  7. Molecular mapping of the tubby (tub) mutation on mouse chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W.K.; Goldberg-Berman, J.; Power-Kehoe, L.; Leibel, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Using 180 F2 progeny of a C57BL6/J x CAST/Ei tub/+F1 intersubspecific intercross, a map of 28 molecular markers (including eight genes) on chromosome 7 surrounding the tub locus was generated. Using 33 obese F2 progeny, tub was localized approximately 50-52 cM distal to the centromere on mouse chromosome 7 in the interval defined proximally by hemoglobin beta (Hbb), D7Mit38, D7Mit217, D7Mit37, D7Mit96, and D7Mit33 and distally by D7Mit 98. Using 39 obese F2 progeny from a similar intersubspecific intercross, a telomeric boundary of the interval defining tub was defined by D7Mit53; the order centromere-Hbb/tub-D7Mit53/D7Mit328/D7Mit220-parathyroid hormone (Pth)-calcitonin (Calc)-zona pellucida 2 (2p2) was established. By combining the data from the two crosses, the most likely gene order on mouse chromosome 7 is centromere-Hbb-tub-Pth-Calc, thus making it likely that the human homolog of tub resides on 11p15, where the gene order HBB-PTH-CALC is conserved. Assignment of the human tubby homolog to 11p15 allows selection and development of polymorphic molecular markers that can be used to examine segregation of a human homolog of tubby in pedigrees segregating for obesity. The gene sulfonylurea receptor was eliminated as a candidate gene for tubby on the basis of its map position, approximately 3.1 {plus_minus} 3.1 cM centromeric of tyrosinase and approximately 14.9 {plus_minus} 4.8 cM centromeric of Hbb. 47 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Synthesis and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünert, A.; Woidich, S.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2003-04-01

    Organic nitrates, as trace constituents in urban air, can be analyzed by adsorptive low volume sampling (LVS) as well as by adsorptive high volume sampling (HVS). Air samples ranging from 25 L to 100 L for the LVS and 100 m3 to 500 m3 for the (HVS) were collected, respectively. Analysis is performed by thermodesorption (LVS) or solvent elution combined with group separation (HVS) using normal-phase HPLC and high resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (HRGC-ECD) and mass selective detection (HRGC-MSD). For identification and quantification available reference compounds are required for both methods (1;2). Following numbers of congeners of organic nitrate have been synthesized: 77 monoalkyl nitrates (C1-C16), 43 dialkyl nitrates (C2-C10), 37 hydroxy alkyl nitrates (C2-C8) and 41 carbonyl alkyl nitrates (C3-C12). Alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones and halocarbons have been used as precursors. Characterisation of the reference compounds by retention-data and mass-spectra was performed by high resolution capillary gas chromatography with mass selective detection in the EI- and the NCI (CH4) mode (1-3). EI-ionization leads to the dominating indicator ion NO2+ for organic nitrates with m/z = 46 u. The characteristic fragments with NCI (CH4) show ions at m/z = 46 u and m/z = 62 u, corresponding to NO2- and NO3-. The use of flame ionisation detection (HRGC-FID) and the principle of the molar response for carbon allows the quantitation of reference solutions as the final tool for the determination of the levels and patterns of organic nitrates in urban air samples. (1) J. Kastler: "Analytik, Massenspektrometrie und Vorkommen multifunktioneller Alkylnitrate in belasteter und unbelasteter Atmosphäre" Dr.rer.nat.-Thesis, University of Ulm (1999) (2) G. Werner, J. Kastler, R. Looser, K. Ballschmiter: "Organic Nitrates of Isoprenes as Atmospheric Trace Compounds" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1999) 38(11): 1634-1637 (3) S.Woidich, O. Froscheis, O

  9. Simulated Evapotranspiration over South America by Different RegCM4.3 Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboita, Michelle; da Rocha, Rosmeri; Fernandez, Julio Pablo

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the simulated evapotranspiration by Regional Climate Model version 4.3 (RegCM4.3) over South America (SA). Seven different RegCM4.3 configurations are compared: control simulation (S_CTRL) used the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Holtslag for planetary boundary layer (PBL) and Mixed1 (Grell scheme over the continent and MIT scheme over the ocean) for cumulus convection; S_MIT changed Mixed1 by MIT convective scheme; and S_Tiedtke changed Mixed1 by Tiedtke scheme; S_PBL and S_PBL_MIT used University of Washington PBL (UW-PBL) instead Holtslag PBL; S_CLM and S_CLM_MIT changed BATS by Common Land Model (CLM). These experiments were carried out from January 1989 to January 2000 in a domain recommended by CORDEX to SA. S_Tiedtke underestimates the evapotranspiration in almost SA producing a precipitation dry bias over the continent. Simulations using MIT convective scheme overestimate the evapotranspiration resulting in positive bias in the precipitation mainly over the central part of Brazil during the wet season. Another interesting result is that changing the PBL scheme from Hosltslag to UW-PBL, the precipitation bias remains dry for the experiment with Mixed1 scheme (S_PBL) and wet for that with MIT scheme (S_PBL_MIT). Therefore, the convective scheme has a higher control over the precipitation than PBL scheme. When CLM is coupled to the RegCM4.3 it contributes for a general decrease in the evapotranspiration. Thus, (a) a more intense dry bias occurs in the experiment S_CLM (Mixed1 with CLM) compared with S_CTRL (Mixed1 with BATS) and (b) there is a reduction of the wet bias decrease in the experiment S_CLM_MIT (MIT with CLM) in relation to the S_MIT (MIT with BATS). The combination of CLM and MIT schemes produces the more realistic precipitation rate over Amazon and of the air temperature over all continental SA.

  10. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Page McAdams, H.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20 Degree-Sign and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS

  11. Tunable metal-insulator transition in Nd1-xYxNiO3 (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin film at near room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Guobin; Liu, Miao

    2015-07-01

    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs due to the charge disproportionation and lattice distortions in rare-earth nickelates. Existing studies revealed that the MIT behavior of rare-earth nickelates is fairly sensitive to external stress/pressure, suggesting a viable route for MIT strain engineering. Unlike applying extrinsic strain, the MIT can also be modulated by through rare-earth cation mixing, which can be viewed as intrinsic quantum stress. We choose Nd1-XYXNiO3 (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin films as a prototype system to exhibit the tunable sharp MIT at near room temperature. By adjusting Y concentration, the transition temperature of the thin films can be changed within the range of 340-360 K. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and in situ infrared spectroscopy are employed to probe the structural and optical property variation affected by composition and temperature. The infrared transmission intensity decreases with temperature across the MIT, indicating a pronounced thermochromic effect. Meanwhile, the XAFS result exhibits that the crystal atomistic structure changes accompanying with the Y atoms incorporation and MIT phase transition. The heavily doped Y atoms result in the pre-edge peak descent and Ni-O bond elongation, suggesting an enhanced charge disproportionation effect and the weakening of hybridization between Ni-3d and O-2p orbits.

  12. Field-induced quantum metal-insulator transition in the pyrochlore iridate Nd2Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhaoming; Kohama, Yoshimitsu; Tomita, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Hsieh, Timothy H.; Ishikawa, Jun J.; Kindo, Koichi; Balents, Leon; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2016-02-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) is a hallmark of strong correlation in solids. Quantum MITs at zero temperature have been observed in various systems tuned by either carrier doping or bandwidth. However, such transitions have rarely been induced by application of magnetic field, as normally the field scale is too small in comparison with the charge gap, whose size is a fraction of the Coulomb repulsion energy (~1 eV). Here we report the discovery of a quantum MIT tuned by a field of ~10 T, whose magnetoresistance exceeds 60,000%. In particular, our anisotropic magnetotransport measurements on the cubic insulator Nd2Ir2O7 (ref. ) reveal that the insulating state can be suppressed by such a field to a zero-temperature quantum MIT, but only for fields near the [001] axis. The strong sensitivity to the field direction is remarkable for a cubic crystal, as is the fact that the MIT can be driven by such a small magnetic field, given the 45 meV gap energy, which is of order of 50 times the Zeeman energy for an Ir4+ spin. The systematic change in the MIT from continuous near zero field to first order under fields indicates the existence of a tricritical point proximate to the quantum MIT. We argue that these phenomena imply both strong correlation effects on the Ir electrons and an active role for the Nd spins.

  13. Motor imagery training promotes motor learning in adolescents with cerebral palsy: comparison between left and right hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Sequeira, Audrey Sartori; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of pure motor imagery training (MIT) and its combination with physical practice on learning an aiming task with the more affected arm in adolescents suffering from cerebral palsy. Effect of MIT was evaluated as a function of side of hemiparesis. The experiment was accomplished by 11- to 16-year-old participants (M = 13.58 years), who suffered left (n = 16) or right (n = 15) mild hemiparesis. They were exposed to pure MIT (day 1) followed by physical practice (day 2) on an aiming task demanding movement accuracy and speed. Posttraining movement kinematics of the group receiving MIT were compared with movement kinematics of the control group after receiving recreational activities (day 1) and physical practice (day 2). Kinematic analysis showed that MIT led to decreased movement time and straighter hand displacements to the target. Performance achievements from MIT were increased with further physical practice, leading to enhanced effects on motor learning. Retention evaluation indicated that performance improvement from pure MIT and its combination with physical practice were stable over time. Performance achievements were equivalent between adolescents with either right or left hemiparesis, suggesting similar capacity between these groups to achieve performance improvement from pure imagery training and from its association with physical practice. Our results suggest that motor imagery training is a procedure potentially useful to increase motor learning achievements in individuals suffering from cerebral palsy. PMID:26821314

  14. Minimum ignition temperature of nano and micro Ti powder clouds in the presence of inert nano TiO2 powder.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chunmiao; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-30

    Minimum ignition temperature (MIT) of micro Ti powder increased gradually with increases in nano-sized TiO2 employed as an inertant. Solid TiO2 inertant significantly reduced ignition hazard of micro Ti powder in contact with hot surfaces. The MIT of nano Ti powder remained low (583 K), however, even with 90% TiO2. The MIT of micro Ti powder, when mixed with nano Ti powder at concentrations as low as 10%, decreased so dramatically that its application as a solid fuel may be possible. A simple MIT model was proposed for aggregate particle size estimation and better understanding of the inerting effect of nano TiO2 on MIT. Estimated particle size was 1.46-1.51 μm larger than that in the 20-L sphere due to poor dispersion in the BAM oven. Calculated MITs were lower than corresponding empirically determined values for micro Ti powder because nano-sized TiO2 coated the micro Ti powder, thereby decreasing its reaction kinetics. In the case of nano Ti powder, nano-sized TiO2 facilitated dispersion of nano Ti powder which resulted in a calculated MIT that was greater than the experimentally determined value. PMID:24830568

  15. Tunable metal-insulator transition in Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}NiO{sub 3} (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin film at near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Guobin; Wang, Yu; Liu, Miao

    2015-07-13

    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs due to the charge disproportionation and lattice distortions in rare-earth nickelates. Existing studies revealed that the MIT behavior of rare-earth nickelates is fairly sensitive to external stress/pressure, suggesting a viable route for MIT strain engineering. Unlike applying extrinsic strain, the MIT can also be modulated by through rare-earth cation mixing, which can be viewed as intrinsic quantum stress. We choose Nd{sub 1−X}Y{sub X}NiO{sub 3} (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin films as a prototype system to exhibit the tunable sharp MIT at near room temperature. By adjusting Y concentration, the transition temperature of the thin films can be changed within the range of 340–360 K. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and in situ infrared spectroscopy are employed to probe the structural and optical property variation affected by composition and temperature. The infrared transmission intensity decreases with temperature across the MIT, indicating a pronounced thermochromic effect. Meanwhile, the XAFS result exhibits that the crystal atomistic structure changes accompanying with the Y atoms incorporation and MIT phase transition. The heavily doped Y atoms result in the pre-edge peak descent and Ni-O bond elongation, suggesting an enhanced charge disproportionation effect and the weakening of hybridization between Ni-3d and O-2p orbits.

  16. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  17. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Enhances the Effects of Melodic Intonation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vines, Bradley W.; Norton, Andrea C.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that a fronto-temporal network in the right hemisphere may be responsible for mediating melodic intonation therapy’s (MIT) positive effects on speech recovery. We investigated the potential for a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), to augment the benefits of MIT in patients with non-fluent aphasia by modulating neural activity in the brain during treatment with MIT. The polarity of the current applied to the scalp determines the effects of tDCS on the underlying tissue: anodal-tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases excitability. We applied anodal-tDCS to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the right hemisphere, an area that has been shown both to contribute to singing through the mapping of sounds to articulatory actions and to serve as a key region in the process of recovery from aphasia, particularly in patients with large left hemisphere lesions. The stimulation was applied while patients were treated with MIT by a trained therapist. Six patients with moderate to severe non-fluent aphasia underwent three consecutive days of anodal-tDCS + MIT, and an equivalent series of sham-tDCS + MIT. The two treatment series were separated by 1 week, and the order in which the treatments were administered was randomized. Compared to the effects of sham-tDCS + MIT, anodal-tDCS + MIT led to significant improvements in fluency of speech. These results support the hypothesis that, as the brain seeks to reorganize and compensate for damage to left hemisphere language centers, combining anodal-tDCS with MIT may further recovery from post-stroke aphasia by enhancing activity in a right hemisphere sensorimotor network for articulation. PMID:21980313

  18. Linkage analysis of the whirler deafness gene on mouse chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.; Rogers, M.J.C.; Steel, K.P. ); Brown, S.D.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The whirler mouse harbors an autosomal recessive mutation on mouse chromosome 4 that causes deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the adult that is manifested as head-bobbing and circling behavior. Although there is no obvious human homologue for this mutation as yet, whirler is a potential mouse model for human autosomal recessive deafness. Many genetic markers for this region of mouse chromosome 4 are now available, and the authors have used these to construct genetic linkage maps in both inter- and intraspecific backcrosses as the first step toward the cloning of the whirler gene. A total of 19 loci were analyzed in these crosses, giving the following gene orders: Interspecific cross, centromere-(D4Mit5, D4Mit38)-D4Mit6-(Lv,Tzn,D4Mit44)-wi-Hxb-(D4Mit25, D4Nds9)-(D4Mit7, D4Ler2)-b-D4Mit45-(D4Wsm1, D4Mit27b)-(D4Rck65, D4Mit15), and intraspecific cross, centromere-(Mup-1, wi, Hxb)-b-D4Wsm1. This analysis has positioned the wi locus in the interval between the genes for [delta]-aminolevulinate dehydratase (Lv) and hexabrachion (Hxb). The human homologues of these genes, ALAD and HXB, both lie on human chromosome 9q32-q34. They therefore predict that a human homologue of the wi gene, involved in autosomal recessive deafness, lies in this region of conserved homology on 9q32-q34. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Refined localization of myd, a candidate animal model for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, K.A.; Bailey, H.L.; Murray, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    The mouse mutant myd is a candidate model for FSHD on the basis of phenotypic description and the linkage homology we have established between distal human chromosome 4q and the midregion of mouse chromosome 8. The human disease is associated with a deletion in a subtelomeric repeat element at 4q35, but isolation of genes from this region has been difficult to date. The myd gene will be an excellent candidate gene for the human disease. Refined genetic localization of the mutant is a first step in the positional cloning of the gene for myd. We have mapped myd in 128 affected mice (65 confirmed with muscle histology) from an intersubspecific backcross of B6C3Fe-a/a-myd/+ X Mus musculus castaneus (CAST/Ei). Previous work with 38 animals found two recombinants that placed the gene in the 3-6 cM interval between D8Mit30 and D8Mit75, with complete linkage to D8Mit74. New markers and an enlarged panel of affected animals now indicate 2 recombinants with D8Mit74 and complete linkage to D8Mit101. Our results suggest the order of genes and Mit markers is (F11/Kal-3/Clcn-3) - 30 - 101 - 74 - 75 - Ucp. The interval of interest, between D8Mit30 and D8Mit74, is about 1 cM by the current mouse SSLP map generated at MIT. We are currently screening mouse YAC libraries for clones covering this region. There may be a position effect on the FSHD gene by the subtelomeric deletion in its vicinity. If a structurally normal gene is being so affected, it will be difficult to show that is is the FSHD gene. The mouse gene is likely to be affected by a different type of mutation, and could facilitate analysis of candidate human genes.

  20. The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences. Annual report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    In 1985, the Energy Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) began a collaborative program of energy-related engineering research. This program was extended for another three years starting in January 1991. The program continues to pursue three broad goals: to perform quality research on energy-related technologies involved in industrial processes and productivity; to demonstrate the potential of collaborative programs between universities and the national laboratories; and to encourage the transfer of the technology developed to the industrial sector. This annual report describes progress at MIT under the MIT/INEL program during the past year.

  1. The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, D.E. . Energy Lab.)

    1992-09-01

    In 1985, the Energy Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) began a collaborative program of energy-related engineering research. This program was extended for another three years starting in January 1991. The program continues to pursue three broad goals: to perform quality research on energy-related technologies involved in industrial processes and productivity; to demonstrate the potential of collaborative programs between universities and the national laboratories; and to encourage the transfer of the technology developed to the industrial sector. This annual report describes progress at MIT under the MIT/INEL program during the past year.

  2. Utilizing mutual information for detecting rare and common variants associated with a categorical trait

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Leiming; Wang, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Genome-wide association studies have succeeded in detecting novel common variants which associate with complex diseases. As a result of the fast changes in next generation sequencing technology, a large number of sequencing data are generated, which offers great opportunities to identify rare variants that could explain a larger proportion of missing heritability. Many effective and powerful methods are proposed, although they are usually limited to continuous, dichotomous or ordinal traits. Notice that traits having nominal categorical features are commonly observed in complex diseases, especially in mental disorders, which motivates the incorporation of the characteristics of the categorical trait into association studies with rare and common variants. Methods. We construct two simple and intuitive nonparametric tests, MIT and aMIT, based on mutual information for detecting association between genetic variants in a gene or region and a categorical trait. MIT and aMIT can gauge the difference among the distributions of rare and common variants across a region given every categorical trait value. If there is little association between variants and a categorical trait, MIT or aMIT approximately equals zero. The larger the difference in distributions, the greater values MIT and aMIT have. Therefore, MIT and aMIT have the potential for detecting functional variants. Results.We checked the validity of proposed statistics and compared them to the existing ones through extensive simulation studies with varied combinations of the numbers of variants of rare causal, rare non-causal, common causal, and common non-causal, deleterious and protective, various minor allele frequencies and different levels of linkage disequilibrium. The results show our methods have higher statistical power than conventional ones, including the likelihood based score test, in most cases: (1) there are multiple genetic variants in a gene or region; (2) both protective and deleterious

  3. The electrochemical impact on electrostatic modulation of the metal-insulator transition in nickelates

    SciTech Connect

    Bubel, Simon; Glaudell, Anne M.; Mates, Thomas E.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-03-23

    For physical studies of correlated electron systems and for realizing novel device concepts, electrostatic modulation of metal-insulator transitions (MITs) is desired. The inherently high charge densities needed to modulate MITs make this difficult to achieve. The high capacitance of ionic liquids are attractive but, voltages are needed that can be in excess of the electrochemical stability of the system. Here, we show temperature/resistivity data that suggest electrostatic modulation of the MIT temperature of NdNiO{sub 3} in a wide regime. However, additional voltammetric and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the electrochemical impact of the electrostatic doping approach with ionic liquids.

  4. Mechanical control of electroresistive switching

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yunseok; Kelly, Simon J; Strelcov, Evgheni; Jesse, Stephen; Biegalski, Michael D; Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Hysteretic metal-insulator transitions (MIT) mediated by ionic dynamics or ferroic phase transitions underpin emergent applications for non-volatile memories and logic devices. The vast majority of applications and studies have explored the MIT coupled to the electric field or temperarture. Here, we argue that MIT coupled to ionic dynamics should allow control by mechanical stimuli, the behavior we refer to as piezochemical effect. We verify this effect experimentally, and demonstrate that it allows both studying materials physics and enabling novel data storage technologies with mechanical writing and current based read-out.

  5. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  6. Mikro- und Nanokapseln aus Funktionspolymeren, Biopolymeren und Proteinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Corinna

    2001-03-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Beschichtung von kolloidalen Templaten mit Hilfe der Layer-by-layer Technik beschrieben. Mit ihr ist es möglich, die Oberfläche der Template mit sehr dünnen und gut definierten Filmen zu versehen. Durch Auflösung der Template werden Kapseln hergestellt, die je nach Zusammensetzung der Beschichtung unterschiedliche Eigenschaften aufweisen. In this thesis the coating of colloid templates using the layer-by-layer technique is described. The surface of the templates is modified with thin, well defined films. After dissolving the templates, hollow capsules with different properties are obtained.

  7. Erfahrungen im Aufbau des IT Service Desks der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellguth, Karmela

    Durch das Projekt IntegraTUM und die darin eingebettete Einrichtung eines IT Service Desks mit 1st, 2nd und 3rd Level Support gelang eine an ITIL orientierte Neuausrichtung der internen IT-Dienstleistungen. Die vormals existierende Struktur mit einer Vielzahl an Ansprechpartnern bei auftretenden IT-Problemen wurde aufgelöst. Die Nutzer haben nun eine Anlaufstelle erhalten, die sich für die Beantwortung aller Incidents in kürzester Zeit und mit qualitativ hohem Niveau zuständig fühlt.

  8. Turning Europe"s innovation dream into a working reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindemans, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Opened in 1865 after the American Civil War, the world renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) aimed to provide a flow of ideas from academic research to industry in response to increasing industrialization in the US. Since then, more than 71 Nobel laureates have passed through MIT's doors and it now has a budget of 2.2bn per year that is spent on teaching, knowledge creation and technological innovation. Given its success, it is no wonder then that Europe has plans to replicate the MIT model and create a similar European institute of its own.

  9. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  10. Dimensional-Crossover-Driven Metal-Insulator Transition in SrVO3 Ultrathin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimatsu, K; Okabe, K; Kumigashira, H; Okamoto, Satoshi; Aizaki, S; Fujimori, A; Oshima, M

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the changes occurring in the electronic structure of digitally controlled SrVO3 ultrathin films across the dimensionality-controlled metal-insulator transition (MIT) by in situ photoemission spectroscopy. With decreasing film thickness, a pseudogap is formed at EF through spectral weight transfer from the coherent part to the incoherent part. The pseudogap finally evolves into an energy gap that is indicative of the MIT in a SrVO3 ultrathin film. The observed spectral behavior is reproduced by layer dynamical-mean-field-theory calculations, and it indicates that the observed MIT is caused by the reduction in the bandwidth due to the dimensional crossover.

  11. ISS Update: Students Test Their Satellite Control Skills – 01.10.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot conducts a phone interview with Dr. Alvar Saenz-Otero from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Saenz-Otero is the lead scientist for the SPHERES-Zero-Ro...

  12. Goddard Summer Interns: Alejandro Arambula

    NASA Video Gallery

    Alejandro Arambula is an aerospace engineering student at M.I.T. and a 2011 summer intern in Goddard's Propulsion Lab. This summer he is working with his mentor Khary Parker in building a test asse...

  13. Talks With Great Teachers: Philip Morrison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dana

    1982-01-01

    Presents excerpts of an interview with Philip Morrison, Institute Professor of Physics at M.I.T., who has made significant contributions to areas ranging from high-energy astrophysics to elementary school science education. (Author/SK)

  14. Testing the universality of the many-body metal-insulator transition by time evolution of a disordered one-dimensional ultracold fermionic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Masaki; García-García, Antonio M.

    2012-03-01

    It is now possible to study experimentally the combined effect of disorder and interactions in cold atom physics. Motivated by these developments we investigate the dynamics around the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in a one-dimensional Fermi gas with short-range interactions in a quasiperiodic potential by the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group technique. By tuning disorder and interactions we study the MIT from the weakly to the strongly interacting limit. The MIT is not universal as time evolution, well described by a process of anomalous diffusion, depends qualitatively on the interaction strength. By using scaling ideas we relate the parameter that controls the diffusion process with the critical exponent that describes the divergence of the localization length. In the limit of strong interactions theoretical arguments suggest that the motion at the MIT tends to ballistic and critical exponents approach mean-field predictions.

  15. Parkinson's Disease-Related Proteins PINK1 and Parkin Repress Mitochondrial Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, Diana; Sugiura, Ayumu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angélique; Laplante, Annie; Rondeau, Christiane; Chemali, Magali; Fazel, Ali; Bergeron, John J; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Burelle, Yan; Gagnon, Etienne; McBride, Heidi M; Desjardins, Michel

    2016-07-14

    Antigen presentation is essential for establishing immune tolerance and for immune responses against infectious disease and cancer. Although antigen presentation can be mediated by autophagy, here we demonstrate a pathway for mitochondrial antigen presentation (MitAP) that relies on the generation and trafficking of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) rather than on autophagy/mitophagy. We find that PINK1 and Parkin, two mitochondrial proteins linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), actively inhibit MDV formation and MitAP. In absence of PINK1 or Parkin, inflammatory conditions trigger MitAP in immune cells, both in vitro and in vivo. MitAP and the formation of MDVs require Rab9 and Sorting nexin 9, whose recruitment to mitochondria is inhibited by Parkin. The identification of PINK1 and Parkin as suppressors of an immune-response-eliciting pathway provoked by inflammation suggests new insights into PD pathology. PMID:27345367

  16. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  17. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992-1993 report to the President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT's plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics, RF plasma heating, gyrotron research, treatment of solid waste by arc plasma, divertor experiments, tokamak studies, and plasma and fusion theory.

  18. New US philanthropy alliance picks physicist as boss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2015-04-01

    Marc Kastner, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), has become the first president of the Science Philanthropy Alliance (SPA) - a new group of six organizations aiming to increase private funding for fundamental research in the US.

  19. News Note: Possible Ring System found around a Minor Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editors

    2015-04-01

    Astronomers at the SAAO and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA have recently detected what may be rings around Chiron, a minor planet in our solar system. Full paper published in Icarus (Ruprecht, J. et al).

  20. New Converging Collimator for Cold Neutrons Time-Of-Flight Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguib, K.; Sallam, O. H.; Salama, Mohamed

    An idea to design a new converging collimator for cold neutron time-of-flight measurements is presented. Using this new facility in combination with a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, we may have neutron intensity gain factors about three times that obtained using the conventional straight slit collimators. Expressions for calculating the collimators dimensions as well as the intensity gain and the time resolution broading were presented.Translated AbstractEin neuer, konvergierender Kollimator für Flugzeitmessungen mit langsamen NeutronenDie Idee der Konstruktion eines neuen, konvergierenden Kollimators für Flugzeitmessungen mit langsamen Neutronen wird vorgestellt. Mit diesem neuen Gerät in Kombination mit einem Neutronenflugzeitspektrometer sollte sich ein Intensitätsgewinn von drei gegenüber konventionellen Anordnungen ergeben. Die Kollimatordimensionen, der Intensitätsgewinn und die Verbreiterung der Zeitauflösung werden berechnet.

  1. Online-learning provider edX doubles membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2013-03-01

    A major digital education initiative set up by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has just doubled its number of university partners and signed up its first members from outside the US.

  2. Neutral-current x-distributions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; et al.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented.

  3. Substrate-mediated strain effect on the role of thermal heating and electric field on metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide nanobeams.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Woo; Jung, Wan-Gil; Hyun-Cho; Bae, Tae-Sung; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jang, Ja-Soon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Kim, Bong-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures have recently attracted great attention because of their single domain metal-insulator transition (MIT) nature that differs from a bulk sample. The VO2 nanostructures can also provide new opportunities to explore, understand, and ultimately engineer MIT properties for applications of novel functional devices. Importantly, the MIT properties of the VO2 nanostructures are significantly affected by stoichiometry, doping, size effect, defects, and in particular, strain. Here, we report the effect of substrate-mediated strain on the correlative role of thermal heating and electric field on the MIT in the VO2 nanobeams by altering the strength of the substrate attachment. Our study may provide helpful information on controlling the properties of VO2 nanobeam for the device applications by changing temperature and voltage with a properly engineered strain. PMID:26040637

  4. Substrate-mediated strain effect on the role of thermal heating and electric field on metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Woo; Jung, Wan-Gil; Hyun-Cho; Bae, Tae-Sung; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jang, Ja-Soon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Kim, Bong-Joong

    2015-06-01

    Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures have recently attracted great attention because of their single domain metal-insulator transition (MIT) nature that differs from a bulk sample. The VO2 nanostructures can also provide new opportunities to explore, understand, and ultimately engineer MIT properties for applications of novel functional devices. Importantly, the MIT properties of the VO2 nanostructures are significantly affected by stoichiometry, doping, size effect, defects, and in particular, strain. Here, we report the effect of substrate-mediated strain on the correlative role of thermal heating and electric field on the MIT in the VO2 nanobeams by altering the strength of the substrate attachment. Our study may provide helpful information on controlling the properties of VO2 nanobeam for the device applications by changing temperature and voltage with a properly engineered strain.

  5. DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haoliang; Luo, Zhenlin Yang, Yuanjun; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun; Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Lu, Yalin; Gao, Chen

    2014-05-15

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3} (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The T{sub MI} of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup −2} to 4.9 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup −2}. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

  6. Laos case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peuan Mit is a Lao organization working to address the needs of children and youth living and working on the streets. This case study outlines how a trusted and strong relationship with local police provides mutual benefit. PMID:22769869

  7. The 10-100 kW submillimeter gyrotron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spira, S.; Kreischer, K. E.; Temkin, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency high harmonic gyrotrons; cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM); CARM amplifier schematics; MIT electron gun; and baseline design for the 140 GHz CARM amplifier are briefly reviewed. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  8. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced power cycles. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  9. Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2000-04-01

    The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.

  10. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  11. Qualität auf dem Prüfstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Michael

    An einem Wochenende im Dezember 2009 beendete der chinesische Eisenbahn-Vizeminister Hu Yadong in Begleitung einer hochrangigen Delegation aus Experten des Department of Safety seines Ministeriums eine mehrtägige Europareise mit einem Besuch in der Konzernzentrale des weltweit führenden Herstellers von Bremssystemen für Schienen- und Nutzfahrzeuge in München. Schon in wenigen Jahren wird China über die weltweit größte Flotte an Hochgeschwindigkeitszügen verfügen und dabei sind Sicherheit und Qualität vorrangige Anforderungen. Knorr-Bremse liefert 100% der Bremsanlagen dieser Züge und hat vor kurzem mit rund 500 Millionen Euro den größten Auftrag in der Firmengeschichte erhalten. Das Unternehmen wird zusammen mit seinen chinesischen Partnern insgesamt 2.720 neue Wagen des chinesischen Hochgeschwindigkeitszuges CRH3 mit Brems- und Türsystemen ausrüsten.

  12. Computers, Electronic Networking and Education: Some American Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, David

    1991-01-01

    Describes new developments in distributed educational computing at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, "Athena"), Carnegie Mellon University ("Andrew"), Brown University "Intermedia"), Electronic University Network (California), Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (California), and University of California, Irvine. Topics discussed…

  13. A structural homologue of colipase in black mamba venom revealed by NMR floating disulphide bridge analysis.

    PubMed

    Boisbouvier, J; Albrand, J P; Blackledge, M; Jaquinod, M; Schweitz, H; Lazdunski, M; Marion, D

    1998-01-01

    The solution structure of mamba intestinal toxin 1 (MIT1), isolated from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom, has been determined. This molecule is a cysteine-rich polypeptide exhibiting no recognised family membership. Resistance to MIT1 to classical specific endoproteases produced contradictory NMR and biochemical information concerning disulphide-bridge topology. We have used distance restraints allowing ambiguous partners between S atoms in combination with NMR-derived structural information, to correctly determine the disulphide-bridge topology. The resultant solution structure of MIT1, determined to a resolution of 0.5 A, reveals an unexpectedly similar global fold with respect to colipase, a protein involved in fatty acid digestion. Colipase exhibits an analogous resistance to endoprotease activity, indicating for the first time the possible topological origins of this biochemical property. The biochemical and structural homology permitted us to propose a mechanically related digestive function for MIT1 and provides novel information concerning snake venom protein evolution. PMID:9761684

  14. Haystack Observatory Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, Chris; Corey, Brian; Niell, Arthur; Cappallo, Roger; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Technology development at MIT Haystack Observatory were focused on four areas in 2012: VGOS developments at GGAO; Digital backend developments and workshop; RFI compatibility at VLBI stations; Mark 6 VLBI data system development.

  15. Nostalgic Views from Building 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullum, Geoffrey K.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews a collection of essays dedicated to MIT philosopher Sylvain Bromberger by his colleagues in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. The prominent viewpoint emanating from these essays is one of nostalgia. (14 references) (CK)

  16. EVA Physiology

    NASA Video Gallery

    An introduction to the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in astronauts during EVA. This will include an explanation of Prebreathe Protocols (PB), to affect nitrogen washout as a primary risk mit...

  17. Substrate-mediated strain effect on the role of thermal heating and electric field on metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide nanobeams

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Woo; Jung, Wan-Gil; Hyun-Cho; Bae, Tae-Sung; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jang, Ja-Soon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Kim, Bong-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures have recently attracted great attention because of their single domain metal-insulator transition (MIT) nature that differs from a bulk sample. The VO2 nanostructures can also provide new opportunities to explore, understand, and ultimately engineer MIT properties for applications of novel functional devices. Importantly, the MIT properties of the VO2 nanostructures are significantly affected by stoichiometry, doping, size effect, defects, and in particular, strain. Here, we report the effect of substrate-mediated strain on the correlative role of thermal heating and electric field on the MIT in the VO2 nanobeams by altering the strength of the substrate attachment. Our study may provide helpful information on controlling the properties of VO2 nanobeam for the device applications by changing temperature and voltage with a properly engineered strain. PMID:26040637

  18. Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The literature suggests a beneficial effect of motor imagery (MI) if combined with physical practice, but detailed descriptions of MI training session (MITS) elements and temporal parameters are lacking. The aim of this review was to identify the characteristics of a successful MITS and compare these for different disciplines, MI session types, task focus, age, gender and MI modification during intervention. Methods An extended systematic literature search using 24 databases was performed for five disciplines: Education, Medicine, Music, Psychology and Sports. References that described an MI intervention that focused on motor skills, performance or strength improvement were included. Information describing 17 MITS elements was extracted based on the PETTLEP (physical, environment, timing, task, learning, emotion, perspective) approach. Seven elements describing the MITS temporal parameters were calculated: study duration, intervention duration, MITS duration, total MITS count, MITS per week, MI trials per MITS and total MI training time. Results Both independent reviewers found 96% congruity, which was tested on a random sample of 20% of all references. After selection, 133 studies reporting 141 MI interventions were included. The locations of the MITS and position of the participants during MI were task-specific. Participants received acoustic detailed MI instructions, which were mostly standardised and live. During MI practice, participants kept their eyes closed. MI training was performed from an internal perspective with a kinaesthetic mode. Changes in MI content, duration and dosage were reported in 31 MI interventions. Familiarisation sessions before the start of the MI intervention were mentioned in 17 reports. MI interventions focused with decreasing relevance on motor-, cognitive- and strength-focused tasks. Average study intervention lasted 34 days, with participants practicing MI on average three times per week for 17 minutes, with 34 MI

  19. Nano-Qubits für Quantencomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Gerd; Makhlin, Yuriy

    2000-01-01

    Quantencomputer können gewisse Aufgaben sehr viel schneller bewältigen als klassische Computer. Während die theoretischen Konzepte hierzu schon weit entwickelt sind, stecken die physikalischen Realisierungen noch in den Anfangsstadien. Für logische Operationen und Speicher sowie die Integration in elektronische Schaltungen erscheinen nanoelektronische Bauelemente am besten geeignet. Josephson-Kontakte mit kleiner Kapazität kombinieren die Phasenkohärenz des Supraleiters mit den Kontrollmöglichkeiten von Einzelelektronensystemen.

  20. A compact high-gradient 25 MeV 17 GHz RF linac for free-electron laser research

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, B.G.; Chen, S.C.; Kreischer, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    A new compact high-gradient (60 MeV/m) high-frequency (17.136 GHz) RF linac is presently under construction by Haimson Research Corp. (HRC) for installation at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center in the High-Gradient Accelerator and High Power Microwave Laboratory. This accelerator will utilize an existing traveling-wave relativistic klystron (TWRK) which is now operation at MIT with 25 MW power, 67 dB gain, and 52% efficiency at 17.136 GHz.

  1. Bauteiluntersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrenhoff, Hubertus

    Die Untersuchung der Beeinflussung der Zahnflankentragfähigkeit durch den Einsatz von PVD-Hartstoffschichten in Kombination mit Esterölen ist eine zentrale Aufgabe im SFB 442. Im Laufe des Projekts werden hierfür verschiedene Analogieversuche sowie standardisierte Testverfahren eingesetzt, mit denen eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungen durchgeführt wird. In diesem Kapitel werden zunächst die verwendeten Prüfverfahren erläutert und im Anschluss die erzielten Ergebnisse zusammenfassend dargestellt.

  2. Valence Band Character of NiS2-xSex using 3p-3d Resonant ARPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Garam; Kim, Yeongkwan; Koh, Yoonyoung; Kim, Beomyoung; Song, Dongjoon; Seo, Jungjin; Kyung, Wonshik; Lee, Kyungdong; Kim, Changyoung

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the strong correlated system is one of the most challenging tasks in condensed matter physics. Especially, the metal insulator transition (MIT) has been one of the major topics recent few decades. NiS2-xSex is known as one of famous material which has MIT. The cubic pyrite NiS2 is a charge-transfer (CT) insulator. NiS2 attracts particular interest as it easily forms a solid solution with NiSe2 (NiS2-xSex) which, while being isoelectronic and isostructural to NiS2, is nevertheless a good metal. MIT, induced by Se alloying, is observed at low temperature (T) for x =0.45. Perucchi and his collaborators revealed closed relation between MIT and band width through comparison of infrared spectroscopy result and LDA calculation. However, it was only an indirect observation, and is inconsistent with recent proposal that NiS2 is not a CT insulator but an insulator due to the bonding-antibonding splitting in the S - S (Se - Se) dimers. To reveal the true mechanism in the MIT in NiS2-xSex, resonant photoemission experiment is essential. According to competing theories (CT insulator and insulator due to bonding-antibonding splitting), it is expected that the character of the main band that is responsible for the MIT should be different. Therefore, we performed 3p->3d resonant ARPES for various Se dopings (x =0.43; insulator, x =0.5, 0.7, 2.0; metal) and observed a significant change between on- and off-resonances near the MIT. Our experimental result supports that the origin of MIT in NiS2-xSex is the CT theory rather than the dimer theory.

  3. [Intensive care and legislation].

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Alexander P F; Moroder, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit einem Überblick über den Rechtsrahmen von ärztlicher Behandlung am Lebensende und sodann mit den derzeit gültigen Maßstäben für Sterbehilfe. Dabei wird das neue Gesetz zur Strafbarkeit der geschäftsmäßigen Förderung der Selbsttötung berücksichtigt. PMID:27031200

  4. Empirical model of the main ionospheric trough for the nighttime winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpachev, A. T.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Pustovalova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we developed an empirical model of the main ionospheric trough, MIT, for quiet (Kp=2) nighttime (18:00-06:00 LT) winter conditions in the Northern and Southern hemispheres for all levels of solar activity. The model consists of two parts: (1) the MIT position model in terms of geographical latitude and longitude; (2) the MIT shape model in terms of the latitudinal-longitudinal foF2 variations in the range of 45-75 °N latitudes in the Northern hemisphere and of 40-80 °S in the Southern hemisphere. Thus, an empirical model of the quiet nighttime subauroral ionosphere has been developed. To construct this model the Interkosmos-19 and CHAMP satellites data have been used. The in-situ Ne measurements at the CHAMP heights were transformed to the electron density at F2 layer peak height (i.e. to NmF2 and then to foF2). In the frame of the model the diurnal and longitudinal variations in the MIT minimum position were revealed and studied in detail. Also the longitudinal and latitudinal variations in foF2 in the MIT region were investigated. Accuracy of the model was tested according to the ground-based ionospheric stations data. It is shown that the constructed model much more adequately reproduces the variations in the winter nighttime subauroral ionospheric structure, including the MIT position and shape variations, than the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012). The online version of the MIT model is available on the IZMIRAN website: http://www.izmiran.ru/ionosphere/sm-mit/.

  5. The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca's aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT's generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca's aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy. PMID:25157222

  6. Keine Panik vor Statistik!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Markus; Romberg, Oliver

    Die Statistik - unendliche Fragen. Sternzeit 0511,22: Wir schreiben das Jahr mit J wie "Juhu!" denn dies sind die Abenteuer der Doktorissimi Oestreich und Romberg, die mit Ihrem zusammen 28 Punkte zählenden IQ zwei Jahre lang unterwegs waren, um neue Statistik-Darstellungen zu erforschen, neue Formulierungen und neue Applikationen. Viele Lichtjahre von der faden Theorie entfernt, dringen die Autoren dabei in Phantasien vor, die nie ein Mensch zuvor so gehabt hat. Willkommen an Bord!

  7. 78 FR 57850 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Register issue of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35268) (FRL-9388-5). The comment period closed on July 12, 2013. VI... Microbiocide. hydrochloride. 062190-00032 Arch CMIT/MIT........ 5-Chloro-2-methyl- 3(2H)-isothiazolone, 2-Methyl-3(2H)- isothiazolone. 062190-00035 Arch CMIT/MIT 14 MUP. 2-Methyl-3(2H)- isothiazolone, 5-...

  8. Distinct Length Scales in the VO{sub 2} Metal–Insulator Transition Revealed by Bi-chromatic Optical Probing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Novikova, Irina B.; Klopf, John M.; Madaras, Scott E.; Williams, Gwyn P.; Madaras, Eric; Lu, Liwei; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lukaszew, Rosa A.

    2014-01-01

    Upon a heating-induced metal–instulator transition (MIT) in VO{sub 2}, microscopic metallic VO{sub 2} puddles nucleate and coarsen within the insulating matrix. This coexistence of the two phases across the transition spans distinct length scales as their relative domain sizes change. Far-field optical probing is applied to follow the dynamic evolution of the highly correlated metallic domains as the MIT progresses.

  9. MND2: A new mouse model of inherited motor neuron disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.M.; Albin, R.L.; Feldman, E.L.; Simin, K.; Schuster, T.G.; Dunnick, W.A.; Collins, J.T.; Chrisp, C.E.; Meisler, M.H. ); Taylor, B.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The autosomal recessive mutation mnd2 results in early onset motor neuron disease with rapidly progressive paralysis, severe muscle wasting, regression of thymus and spleen, and death before 40 days of age. mnd2 has been mapped to mouse chromosome 6 with the gene order: centromere-Tcrb-Ly-2-Sftp-3-D6Mit4-mnd2-D6Mit6, D6Mit9-D6Rck132-Raf-1, D6Mit11-D6Mit12-D6Mit14. mnd2 is located within a conserved linkage group with homologs on human chromosome 2p12-p13. Spinal motor neurons of homozygous affected animals are swollen and stain weakly, and electromyography revealed spontaneous activity characteristic of muscle denervation. Myelin staining was normal throughout the neuraxis. The clinical observations are consistent with a primary abnormality of lower motor neuron function. This new animal model will be of value for identification of a genetic defect responsible for motor neuron disease and for evaluation of new therapies. 36 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Golden Age of Radio: Solid State's Debt to the Rad Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2011-03-01

    While MIT's Radiation Laboratory is rightly celebrated for its contributions to World War II radar research, its legacy extended beyond the war. The Rad Lab provided a model for interdisciplinary collaboration that continued to influence research at MIT in the post-war decades. The Rad Lab's institutional legacy--MIT's interdepartmental laboratories--drove the Institute's postwar research agenda. This talk examines how solid state physics research at MIT was shaped by a laboratory structure that encouraged cross-disciplinary collaboration. As the sub-discipline of solid state physics emerged through the late-1940s and 1950s, MIT was unique among universities in its laboratory structure, made possible by a large degree of government and military funding. Nonetheless, the manner in which MIT research groups from physics, chemistry, engineering, and metallurgy interfaced through the medium of solid state physics exemplified how the discipline of solid state physics came to be structured in the rest of the country. Through examining the Rad Lab's institutional legacy, I argue that World War II radar research, by establishing precedent for a particular mode of interdisciplinary collaboration, shaped the future structure of solid state research in the United States. Research supported by a grant-in-aid from the Friends of the Center for the History of Physics, American Institute of Physics.

  11. A measurement system and image reconstruction in magnetic induction tomography.

    PubMed

    Vauhkonen, M; Hamsch, M; Igney, C H

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution of an object. In MIT current-carrying coils are used to induce eddy currents in the object and the induced voltages are sensed with other coils. From these measurements, the internal conductivity distribution of the object can be reconstructed. In this paper, we introduce a 16-channel MIT measurement system that is capable of parallel readout of 16 receiver channels. The parallel measurements are carried out using high-quality audio sampling devices. Furthermore, approaches for reconstructing MIT images developed for the 16-channel MIT system are introduced. We consider low conductivity applications, conductivity less than 5 S m(-1), and we use a frequency of 10 MHz. In the image reconstruction, we use time-harmonic Maxwell's equation for the electric field. This equation is solved with the finite element method using edge elements and the images are reconstructed using a generalized Tikhonov regularization approach. Both difference and static image reconstruction approaches are considered. Results from simulations and real measurements collected with the Philips 16-channel MIT system are shown. PMID:18544825

  12. ARPES studies on metal-insulator-transition in NiS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Garam; Kim, Y. K.; Kyung, W. S.; Kim, Chul; Koh, Y. Y.; Lee, K. D.; Kim, C.

    2012-02-01

    Understanding Metal insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most challenging issues in condensed matter physics. NiS2-xSex (NSS) is a well known system for band width controlled MIT studies while most of High-Tc superconductors (HTSCs) are described within band filling MIT picture. Cubic pyrite NiS2 is known as a charge-transfer (CT) insulator and easily forms a solid solution with NiSe2, which is a good metal even though it is isostrucural and isoelectronic to NiS2. MIT is induced by Se alloying and is observed at a low temperature for x=0.5. The important merit is that there is no structure transition which often accompanies MIT. In spite of the importance of the system, even the experimental band dispersion is not known so far along with many controversies. For this reason, we performed angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy on high quality single crystals and successfully obtained Fermi surface maps of x=0.5, x=0.7 and x=0.8 systems (the metallic side). By doping dependent systematic studies on NSS and comparison with LDA calculation, we try to explain the relationship between band width and the MIT.

  13. Composition dependence of charge and magnetic length scales in mixed valence manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed-valence manganese oxides present striking properties like the colossal magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transition (MIT) that may result from coexistence of ferromagnetic, metallic and insulating phases. Percolation of such phase coexistence in the vicinity of MIT leads to first-order transition in these manganites. However the length scales over which the electronic and magnetic phases are separated across MIT which appears compelling for bulk systems has been elusive in (La1‑yPry)1‑xCaxMnO3 films. Here we show the in-plane length scale over which charge and magnetism are correlated in (La0.4Pr0.6)1‑xCaxMnO3 films with x = 0.33 and 0.375, across the MIT temperature. We combine electrical transport (resistance) measurements, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and specular/off-specular x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) measurements as a function of temperature to elucidate relationships between electronic, magnetic and morphological structure of the thin films. Using off-specular XRMS we obtained the charge-charge and charge-magnetic correlation length of these LPCMO films across the MIT. We observed different charge-magnetic correlation length for two films which increases below the MIT. The different correlation length shown by two films may be responsible for different macroscopic (transport and magnetic) properties.

  14. Composition dependence of charge and magnetic length scales in mixed valence manganite thin films.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J W; Fitzsimmons, M R; Jeen, H; Biswas, A

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-valence manganese oxides present striking properties like the colossal magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transition (MIT) that may result from coexistence of ferromagnetic, metallic and insulating phases. Percolation of such phase coexistence in the vicinity of MIT leads to first-order transition in these manganites. However the length scales over which the electronic and magnetic phases are separated across MIT which appears compelling for bulk systems has been elusive in (La1-yPry)1-xCaxMnO3 films. Here we show the in-plane length scale over which charge and magnetism are correlated in (La0.4Pr0.6)1-xCaxMnO3 films with x = 0.33 and 0.375, across the MIT temperature. We combine electrical transport (resistance) measurements, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and specular/off-specular x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) measurements as a function of temperature to elucidate relationships between electronic, magnetic and morphological structure of the thin films. Using off-specular XRMS we obtained the charge-charge and charge-magnetic correlation length of these LPCMO films across the MIT. We observed different charge-magnetic correlation length for two films which increases below the MIT. The different correlation length shown by two films may be responsible for different macroscopic (transport and magnetic) properties. PMID:27461993

  15. The linker region plays a regulatory role in assembly and activity of the Vps4 AAA ATPase.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Curtiss, Matt; Davies, Brian A; Katzmann, David J; Babst, Markus

    2013-09-13

    The AAA-type ATPase Vps4 functions with components of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery in membrane fission events that are essential for endosomal maturation, cytokinesis, and the formation of retroviruses. A key step in these events is the assembly of monomeric Vps4 into the active ATPase complex, which is aided in part by binding of Vps4 via its N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain to its substrate ESCRT-III. We found that the 40-amino acid linker region between the MIT and the ATPase domain of Vps4 is not required for proper function but plays a role in regulating Vps4 assembly and ATPase activity. Deletion of the linker is expected to bring the MIT domains into close proximity to the central pore of the Vps4 complex. We propose that this localization of the MIT domain in linker-deleted Vps4 mimics a repositioning of the MIT domain normally caused by binding of Vps4 to ESCRT-III. This structure would allow the Vps4 complex to engage ESCRT-III subunits with both the pore and the MIT domain simultaneously, which might be essential for the ATP-driven disassembly of ESCRT-III. PMID:23913684

  16. [Japanese-applied melodic intonation therapy for Broca aphasia].

    PubMed

    Seki, K; Sugishita, M

    1983-10-01

    Since Albert et al. (1973) published Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT), this new technique for Broca type aphasics has won a good reputation because of its remarkable efficiency. Many improved cases have been reported. On the contrary, there seems to be no study on MIT in Japan. This gap may be mainly caused by the great difference between two languages which makes difficult to apply original MIT to Japanese language. Through a comparative study of two languages, we have made some amendments on original MIT, which just fit for Japanese. MIT is designed to generate verbal output by embedding target phrases and sentences in a simple, nonliguistically loaded melody pattern. The pattern is consisted of the melody line, the rhythm, and points of stress. Now let us explain our Japanese version of MIT concerning these three elements. As for melody line, our version has only two pitches; high and low, since Japanese language has a pitch accent which is decided in each word. As a result, the melody line of Japanese version is far more simple than the original one, which has four pitches. The rhythm of English is called "stress-timed rhythm", which means that a part between two syllables that have primary stresses tends to be spoken at regular intervals regardless of the number of syllables between them. Consequently, the tempo of speech varies depending on the number of syllables between them. On the other hand, Japanese has "syllable-timed rhythm", which means isosyllabic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6651979

  17. Genetic mapping of the polycystic kidney gene, pcy, on mouse chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Shizuko; Ogiso, Noboru; Takahashi, Hisahide

    1995-12-01

    The murine polycystic kidney disease gene, pcy, is an autosomal recessive trait located on chromosome 9. To determine the genetic locus of pcy, 222 intraspecific backcross mice were obtained by mating C57BL/6FG-pcy and Mus molossinus. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 70 of the 222 backcross progeny showed that pcy, dilute coat color (d), and cholecystokinin (Cck) were located in the order d-pcy-Cck from the centromere. Simple sequence repeat length polymorphism analysis of DNA of all 222 backcross mice was carried out using four markers which were located near the central regions of d and Cck. One and eight recombinations were detected between D9Mit24 and pcy and between D9Mit16 and pcy, respectively. However, no recombinant was observed among pcy, D9Mit14, and D9Mit148. These findings strongly suggest that D9Mit14 and D9Mit148 are located near the pcy gene and are good markers for chromosomal walking to this gene. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Residual capacitive coupling and the measurement of permittivity in magnetic induction tomography.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, H; Gough, W; Watson, S; Williams, R J

    2007-07-01

    In an ideal magnetic induction tomography (MIT) system, the coupling between the coils and the sample is entirely by the magnetic field. In a practical system, unwanted electric-field (capacitive) coupling can also exist and cause large errors in the MIT measurements unless the hardware is designed carefully. A series of tests was carried out to assess the magnitude of capacitive coupling present in a 10 MHz MIT system designed for biomedical use and other applications involving low-conductivity samples (MIT signal. Because the contamination was small, it was demonstrated possible to derive the permittivity of the sample from the real part of the MIT signal. This was shown to work well when the conductivity of the sample was less than about 0.5 S m(-1), but for higher conductivities, when the skin depth became comparable with the width of the sample, the commonly used theoretical expression for the MIT signal began to break down. This implies that the measurement of permittivity (and permeability) in real biological tissues (which have conductivities of up to 2 S m(-1)) will require a more detailed derivation taking into account both the real and imaginary parts of the signals. PMID:17664645

  19. Correlation Between Metal-Insulator Transition Characteristics and Electronic Structure Changes in Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzmetov,D.; Senanayake, S.; Narayanamurti, V.; Ramanathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    We correlate electron transport data directly with energy band structure measurements in vanadium oxide thin films with varying V-O stoichiometry across the VO2 metal-insulator transition. A set of vanadium oxide thin films were prepared by reactive dc sputtering from a V target at various oxygen partial pressures (O2 p.p.). Metal-insulator transition (MIT) characteristic to VO2 can be seen from the temperature dependence of electrical resistance of the films sputtered at optimal O2 p.p. Lower and higher O2 p.p. result in disappearance of the MIT. The results of the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the O K edge in identical VO films are presented. Redistribution of the spectral weight from {sigma}* to {pi}* bands is found in the vanadium oxide films exhibiting stronger VO2 MIT. This is taken as evidence of the strengthening of the metal-metal ion interaction with respect to the metal-ligand and indirect V-O-V interaction in vanadium oxide films featuring sharp MIT. We also observe a clear correlation between MIT and the width and area of the lower {pi}* band, which is likely to be due to the emergence of the d|| band overlapping with {pi}*. The strengthening of this d|| band near the Fermi level only in the vanadium oxide compounds displaying the MIT points out the importance of the role of the d|| band and electron correlations in the phase transition.

  20. Fine genetic map of mouse chromosome 10 around the polycystic kidney disease gene, jcpk, and ankyrin 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bryda, E.C.; Ling, H.; Rathbun, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    A chlorambucil (CHL)-induced mutation of the jcpk (juvenile congenital polycystic kidney disease) gene causes a severe early onset polycystic kidney disease. In an intercross involving Mus musculus castaneus, jcpk was precisely mapped 0.2 cM distal to D10Mit115 and 0.8 cM proximal to D10Mit173. In addition, five genes, Cdc2a, Col6al, Col6a2, Bcr, and Ank3 were mapped in both this jcpk intercross and a (BALB/c X CAST/Ei)F{sub 1} x BALB/c backcross. All five genes were eliminated as possible candidates for jcpk based on the mapping data. The jcpk intercross allowed the orientation of the Ank3 gene relative to the centromere to be determined. D10Mit115, D10Mit173, D10Mit199, and D10Mit200 were separated genetically in this cross. The order and genetic distances of all markers and gene loci mapped in the jcpk intercross were consistent with those derived from the BALB/c backcross, indicating that the CHL-induced lesion has not generated any gross chromosomal abnormalities detectable in these studies. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Reactive oxygen species induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs enhance the effects of photodynamic therapy in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Matsui, Hirofumi; Hirayama, Aki; Indo, Hiroko P.; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is useful for the treatment of cancer because it is minimally invasive for patients. Certain porphyrin compounds and their derivatives have been used as the photosensitizer because they accumulate specifically in cancerous tissues. However, the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon has not been clarified. We previously reported that a proton-coupled folate transporter, HCP1, transported porphyrins and that regulation of the protein was associated with cancer-specific reactive oxygen species from mitochondria (mitROS). Therefore, over-generation of mitROS could increase HCP1 expression and the effect of photodynamic therapy. We investigated whether pretreatment with indomethacin influenced photodynamic therapy by using a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM1, its cancer-like mutated cell line, RGK1, and a manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-overexpressing RGK cell line, RGK-MnSOD. Indomethacin promotes the generation of cellular mitROS by inhibiting the electron transport chain, and MnSOD scavenges the mitROS. We elucidated that indomethacin enhanced cancer-specific mitROS generation and increased HCP1 expression. Furthermore, RGK1 cells showed higher cellular incorporation of hematoporphyrin and better therapeutic effect with indomethacin treatment whereas RGK-MnSOD cells did not show a difference. Thus, we concluded that indomethacin improved the effect of photodynamic therapy by inducing increased mitROS generation in cancer cells. PMID:27257342

  2. Compatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes correlates with the quantitative trait of lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuobin; Lu, Qing; Zeng, Fangfang; Wang, Junjing; Huang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial genome have epistatic effects on organisms depending on the nuclear background, but a role for the compatibility of mitochondrial-nuclear genomes (mit-n) in the quantitative nature of a complex trait remains unexplored. We studied a panel of recombinant inbred advanced intercrossed lines (RIAILs) of C. elegans that were established from a cross between the N2 and HW strains. We determined the HW nuclear genome content and the mitochondrial type (HW or N2) of each RIAIL strain. We found that the degree of mit-n compatibility was correlated with the lifespans but not the foraging behaviors of RIAILs. Several known aging-associated QTLs individually showed no relationship with mitotypes but collectively a weak trend consistent with a role in mit-n compatibility. By association mapping, we identified 293 SNPs that showed linkage with lifespan and a relationship with mitotypes consistent with a role in mit-n compatibility. We further found an association between mit-n compatibility and several functional characteristics of mitochondria as well as the expressions of genes involved in the respiratory oxidation pathway. The results provide the first evidence implicating mit-n compatibility in the quantitative nature of a complex trait, and may be informative to certain evolutionary puzzles on hybrids. PMID:26601686

  3. Composition dependence of electronic, magnetic, transport and morphological properties of mixed valence manganite thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2016-07-27

    Mixed-valence manganese oxides present striking properties like the colossal magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transition (MIT) that may result from coexistence of ferromagnetic, metallic and insulating phases. Percolation of such phase coexistence in the vicinity of MIT leads to first-order transition in these manganites. However the length scales over which the electronic and magnetic phases are separated across MIT which appears compelling for bulk systems has been elusive in (La1-yPry)1-xCaxMnO3 films. Here we show the in-plane length scale over which charge and magnetism are correlated in (La0.4Pr0.6)1-xCaxMnO3 films with x = 0.33 and 0.375, across the MIT temperature. We combine electrical transport (resistance)more » measurements, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and specular/off-specular x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) measurements as a function of temperature to elucidate relationships between electronic, magnetic and morphological structure of the thin films. Using off-specular XRMS we obtained the charge-charge and charge-magnetic correlation length of these LPCMO films across the MIT. We observed different charge-magnetic correlation length for two films which increases below the MIT. The different correlation length shown by two films may be responsible for different macroscopic (transport and magnetic) properties.« less

  4. Activation of mitochondrial calpain and increased cardiac injury: beyond AIF release.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jeremy; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-01

    Calpain 1 (CPN1) is a ubiquitous cysteine protease that exists in both cytosol and cardiac mitochondria. Mitochondrial CPN1 (mit-CPN1) is located in the intermembrane space and matrix. Activation of mit-CPN1 within the intermembrane space increases cardiac injury by releasing apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We asked if activation of mit-CPN1 is involved in mitochondrial injury during IR. MDL-28170 (MDL) was used to inhibit CPN1 in buffer-perfused hearts following 25-min ischemia and 30-min reperfusion. MDL treatment decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into coronary effluent compared with untreated hearts, indicating that inhibition of CPN1 decreases cardiac injury. MDL also prevented the cleavage of spectrin (a substrate of CPN1) in cytosol during IR, supporting that MDL treatment decreased cytosolic calpain activation. In addition, MDL markedly improved calcium retention capacity compared with untreated heart, suggesting that MDL treatment decreases mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In addition, we found that IR led to decreased complex I activity, whereas inhibition of mit-CPN1 using MDL protected complex I. Pyruvate dehydrogenase content was decreased following IR. However, pyruvate dehydrogenase content was preserved in MDL-treated mitochondria. Taken together, MDL treatment decreased cardiac injury during IR by inhibiting both cytosolic and mit-CPN1. Activation of mit-CPN1 increases cardiac injury during IR by sensitizing mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and impairing mitochondrial metabolism through damage of complex I. PMID:26637561

  5. Atrial Fibrillation detection using time-varying coherence function and Shannon Entropy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; McManus, D; Chon, K

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for automatic detection of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) using time-varying coherence functions (TVCF) and Shannon Entropy (SE). The TVCF is estimated by the multiplication of two time-varying transfer functions (TVTFs). Two TVTFs are obtained using two adjacent data segments with one data segment as the input signal and the other data segment as the output to produce the first TVTF; the second TVTF is produced by reversing the input and output signals. The detection algorithm was tested on RR interval time series derived from two databases: the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and the MIT-BIH normal sinus rhythm (NSR). The MIT-BIH database contains a variety of short and long AF beats from 25 subjects and the MIT-BIH NSR database consists of only normal sinus rhythms from 18 subjects. Using the receiver operating characteristic curves from the combination of TVCF and SE, we obtained the accuracy of 97.49%, sensitivity of 97.41% and specificity of 97.54% for the MIT-BIH AF database. Furthermore, the specificity of the MIT-BIH NSR database was 100%. PMID:22255383

  6. Composition dependence of charge and magnetic length scales in mixed valence manganite thin films

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-valence manganese oxides present striking properties like the colossal magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transition (MIT) that may result from coexistence of ferromagnetic, metallic and insulating phases. Percolation of such phase coexistence in the vicinity of MIT leads to first-order transition in these manganites. However the length scales over which the electronic and magnetic phases are separated across MIT which appears compelling for bulk systems has been elusive in (La1−yPry)1−xCaxMnO3 films. Here we show the in-plane length scale over which charge and magnetism are correlated in (La0.4Pr0.6)1−xCaxMnO3 films with x = 0.33 and 0.375, across the MIT temperature. We combine electrical transport (resistance) measurements, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and specular/off-specular x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) measurements as a function of temperature to elucidate relationships between electronic, magnetic and morphological structure of the thin films. Using off-specular XRMS we obtained the charge-charge and charge-magnetic correlation length of these LPCMO films across the MIT. We observed different charge-magnetic correlation length for two films which increases below the MIT. The different correlation length shown by two films may be responsible for different macroscopic (transport and magnetic) properties. PMID:27461993

  7. Treatment with Combination of Mithramycin A and Tolfenamic Acid Promotes Degradation of Sp1 Protein and Synergistic Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhiliang; Gao, Yong; Wang, Liwei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Le, Xiangdong; Wei, Daoyan; Yao, James C.; Chang, David Z.; Huang, Suyun; Xie, Keping

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that both mithramycin (MIT) and tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibits the activity of the transcription factor Sp1. In the present study, we sought to determine whether treatment with a combination of these two compounds has a synergistic effect on Sp1 activity and pancreatic cancer growth and their underlying mechanisms. In xenograft mouse models of human pancreatic cancer, treatment with MIT and TA produced dose-dependent antitumor activity, and significant antitumor activity of either compound alone was directly associated with systemic side effects as determined according to overall weight loss. However, combination treatment with nontoxic doses of TA and MIT produced synergistic antitumor activity, whereas treatment with a nontoxic dose of either compound alone did not have a discernible antitumor effect. The synergistic therapeutic effects of MIT and TA correlated directly with synergistic antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis in vitro. Moreover, treatment with the combination of TA and MIT resulted in Sp1 protein degradation, leading to drastic downregulation of Sp1 and vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression. Our data demonstrated that Sp1 is a critical target of TA and MIT in human pancreatic cancer therapy. Further studies should be performed to determine the impact of existing pancreatic cancer therapy regimens on Sp1 signaling in tumors and normal pancreatic tissue and the ability of Sp1-targeting strategies to modify these responses and improve upon these regimens. PMID:20086170

  8. Time-varying coherence function for atrial fibrillation detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinseok; Nam, Yunyoung; McManus, David D; Chon, Ki H

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a novel method for the automatic detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) using time-varying coherence functions (TVCF). The TVCF is estimated by the multiplication of two time-varying transfer functions (TVTFs). The two TVTFs are obtained using two adjacent data segments with one data segment as the input signal and the other data segment as the output to produce the first TVTF; the second TVTF is produced by reversing the input and output signals. We found that the resultant TVCF between two adjacent normal sinus rhythm (NSR) segments shows high coherence values (near 1) throughout the entire frequency range. However, if either or both segments partially or fully contain AF, the resultant TVCF is significantly lower than 1. When TVCF was combined with Shannon entropy (SE), we obtained even more accurate AF detection rate of 97.9% for the MIT-BIH atrial fibrillation (AF) database (n = 23) with 128 beat segments. The detection algorithm was tested on four databases using 128 beat segments: the MIT-BIH AF database, the MIT-BIH NSR database ( n = 18), the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database ( n = 48), and a clinical 24-h Holter AF database ( n = 25). Using the receiver operating characteristic curves from the combination of TVCF and SE, we obtained a sensitivity of 98.2% and specificity of 97.7% for the MIT-BIH AF database. For the MIT-BIH NSR database, we found a specificity of 99.7%. For the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database, the sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 89.7%, respectively. For the clinical database (24-h Holter data), the sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% and 93.6%, respectively. We also found that a short segment (12 beats) also provided accurate AF detection for all databases: sensitivity of 94.7% and specificity of 90.4% for the MIT-BIH AF, specificity of 94.4% for the MIT-BIH-NSR, the sensitivity of 92.4% and specificity of 84.1% for the MIT-BIH arrhythmia, and sensitivity of 93.9% and specificity of 84.4% for the clinical database. The

  9. Melodic Intonation Therapy: Back to Basics for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca’s aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT’s efficacy do not match MIT’s therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  10. The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca’s Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca’s aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT’s generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca’s aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy. PMID:25157222

  11. Empirical model of the main ionospheric trough for the nighttime winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpachev, A. T.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Pustovalova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we developed an empirical model of the main ionospheric trough, MIT, for quiet (Kp=2) nighttime (18:00-06:00 LT) winter conditions in the Northern and Southern hemispheres for all levels of solar activity. The model consists of two parts: (1) the MIT position model in terms of geographical latitude and longitude; (2) the MIT shape model in terms of the latitudinal-longitudinal foF2 variations in the range of 45-75 °N latitudes in the Northern hemisphere and of 40-80 °S in the Southern hemisphere. Thus, an empirical model of the quiet nighttime subauroral ionosphere has been developed. To construct this model the Interkosmos-19 and CHAMP satellites data have been used. The in-situ Ne measurements at the CHAMP heights were transformed to the electron density at F2 layer peak height (i.e. to NmF2 and then to foF2). In the frame of the model the diurnal and longitudinal variations in the MIT minimum position were revealed and studied in detail. Also the longitudinal and latitudinal variations in foF2 in the MIT region were investigated. Accuracy of the model was tested according to the ground-based ionospheric stations data. It is shown that the constructed model much more adequately reproduces the variations in the winter nighttime subauroral ionospheric structure, including the MIT position and shape variations, than the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012). The online version of the MIT model is available on the IZMIRAN website:

  12. The tetragonal-like to rutile structural phase transition in epitaxial VO2/TiO2 (001) thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hongbo; Yang, Memgmeng; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; Hong, Bin; Gu, Yueliang; Yang, Yuanjun; Zou, Chongwen; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2015-11-01

    A controllable metal-insulator transition (MIT) of VO2 has been highly desired due to its huge potential applications in memory storage, smart windows or optical switching devices. Recently, interfacial strain engineering has been recognized as an effective approach to tuning the MIT of epitaxial VO2 films. However, the strain-involved structural evolution during the MIT process is still not clear, which prevents comprehensively understanding and utilizing interfacial strain engineering in VO2 films. In this work, we have systematically studied the epitaxial VO2 thick films grown on TiO2 (001) single crystal substrate and the structural transition at the boundary of MIT region. By using in situ temperature-dependent high-resolution x-ray diffractions, a tetragonal-like (‘T-like’) to ‘rutile’ structural phase transition is identified during the MIT process. The room-temperature crystal phase of epitaxial VO2/TiO2(001) thick film is clarified to be tetragonal-like, neither strained-rutile phase nor monoclinic phase. The calculated atomic structure of this T-like phase VO2 resembles that of the M1 phase VO2, which has been verified by their similar Raman spectra. More, the crystal lattices of the coexisted phases in the MIT region were revealed in detail. The current findings will not only show some clues on the MIT mechanism study from the structural point of view, but also favor the interface engineering assisted VO2-based devices and applications in the future.

  13. The Relationship of 3D Translabial Ultrasound Anal Sphincter Complex Measurements to Postpartum Anal and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    MERIWETHER, Kate V.; HALL, Rebecca J.; LEEMAN, Lawrence M.; MIGLIACCIO, Laura; QUALLS, Clifford; ROGERS, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine whether ASC measurements on translabial ultrasound (TL-US) were related to anal incontinence (AI) or fecal incontinence (FI) symptoms six months postpartum. Methods A prospective cohort of primiparous women underwent TL-US six months after a vaginal birth (VB) or Cesarean delivery (CD). Muscle thickness was measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o’clock positions of the external sphincter (EAS), the same four quadrants of the internal sphincter (IAS) at proximal, mid, and distal levels, and at the bilateral pubovisceralis muscle (PVM). Measurements were correlated to AI and FI on the Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale, with sub-analyses by mode of delivery. The odds ratio (OR) of symptoms was calculated for every one millimeter increase in muscle thickness (E1MIT). Results 423 women (299 VB, 124 CD) had TL-US six months postpartum. Decreased AI risk was associated with thicker measurements at the 6 o’clock (OR 0.74 E1MIT) and 9 o’clock proximal IAS (OR 0.71 E1MIT) in the entire cohort. For CD women, thicker measurements of the 9 o’clock proximal IAS were associated with decreased risk of AI (OR 0.56 E1MIT) and thicker distal 6 o’clock IAS measurements were related to a decreased risk of FI (OR 0.37 E1MIT). For VB women, no sphincter measurements were significantly related to symptoms, but thicker PVM measurements were associated with increased risk of AI (right side OR 1.32 E1MIT; left side OR 1.21 E1MIT). Conclusions ASC anatomy is associated with AI and FI in certain locations; these locations varybased on the patient’s mode of delivery. PMID:26085463

  14. The performance of land surface and cumulus convection scheme in the simulation of Indian Summer Monsoon using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, S.; Mandal, M.; Nayak, S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Sumer Monsoon (ISM) is the most dominant tropical circulation process in the Atmospheric General Circulation System. It contributes about 70% of the total annual precipitation during June-September over India. Summer rainfall has substantial effect to the agriculture and economy of the country. ISM is dominated by convection and land surface processes also play important role through transfer of energy and moisture. These processes must be well represented in the numerical models for better simulation of ISM. Therefore it is important to investigate the performance of various land surface and cumulus schemes in simulating ISM. In this study, performance of the convection and land surface schemes in simulating ISM are investigated using RegCM 4. The performance of two land surface schemes [BATS, CLM 3.5] and five convection schemes [MIT, Kuo, Grell, Grell over Land and MIT over Ocean (GL_MO), Grell over Ocean and MIT over Land (GO_ML)] are tested. The model at 30 km resolution covering (30˚E-120˚E, 15˚S-45˚N) is integrated for the period of 1st May-30thSeptember during 2007, 2008 and 2009. The initial and boundary conditions are derived from NNRP1 data at 2.5˚×2.5˚ resolution. The Sea Surface Temperature is taken from NOAA Optimum Interpolation weekly mean data at 1˚×1˚ resolution. Some important features of ISM simulated by the model; viz. Somaly jet, Tropical easterly jet (TEJ), Heat low, Tibetan high etc. are analyzed with NCEP reanalysis. Heat low is well produced by the model with MIT, GO_ML and GL_MO schemes. The Somaly jet is usually weak but better simulated with MIT scheme. Although the model is able to reproduce the TEJ and Subtropical westerly jet, the location and strength of the jets are varying scheme-wise and is better simulated by MIT scheme. The model is also able to simulate the stronger easterly jet in 2007 compared to 2009 with MIT scheme. The rainfall over Central and North West India is significantly under-predicted by the

  15. Modeling Weather Impact on Airport Arrival Miles-in-Trail Restrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Grabbe, Shon

    2013-01-01

    When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-intrail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011. Then, machine-learning methods for predicting (1) situations in which MIT restrictions for ATL arrivals are implemented under low demand scenarios, and (2) days in which a large number of MIT restrictions are required to properly manage and control ATL arrivals are presented. More specifically, these predictions were accomplished by using an ensemble of decision trees with Bootstrap aggregation (BDT) and supervised machine learning was used to train the BDT binary classification models. The models were subsequently validated using data cross validation methods. When predicting the occurrence of arrival MIT restrictions under low demand situations, the model was able to achieve over all accuracy rates ranging from 84% to 90%, with false alarm ratios ranging from 10% to 15%. In the second set of studies designed to predict days on which a high number of MIT restrictions were required, overall accuracy rates of 80% were achieved with false alarm ratios of 20%. Overall, the predictions proposed by the model give better MIT usage information than what has been

  16. MLVA Based Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineages for a Robust Phylogeographic Snapshot of Its Worldwide Molecular Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Sadikalay, Syndia; Viegas, Sofia; Streit, Elisabeth; Kallenius, Gunilla; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is useful to establish transmission routes and sources of infections for various microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The recently released SITVITWEB database contains 12-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units – Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) profiles and spoligotype patterns for thousands of MTC strains; it uses MIRU International Types (MIT) and Spoligotype International Types (SIT) to designate clustered patterns worldwide. Considering existing doubts on the ability of spoligotyping alone to reveal exact phylogenetic relationships between MTC strains, we developed a MLVA based classification for MTC genotypic lineages. We studied 6 different subsets of MTC isolates encompassing 7793 strains worldwide. Minimum spanning trees (MST) were constructed to identify major lineages, and the most common representative located as a central node was taken as the prototype defining different phylogenetic groups. A total of 7 major lineages with their respective prototypes were identified: Indo-Oceanic/MIT57, East Asian and African Indian/MIT17, Euro American/MIT116, West African-I/MIT934, West African-II/MIT664, M. bovis/MIT49, M.canettii/MIT60. Further MST subdivision identified an additional 34 sublineage MIT prototypes. The phylogenetic relationships among the 37 newly defined MIRU-VNTR lineages were inferred using a classification algorithm based on a bayesian approach. This information was used to construct an updated phylogenetic and phylogeographic snapshot of worldwide MTC diversity studied both at the regional, sub-regional, and country level according to the United Nations specifications. We also looked for IS6110 insertional events that are known to modify the results of the spoligotyping in specific circumstances, and showed that a fair portion of convergence leading to the currently observed bias in phylogenetic classification of strains may

  17. Volumetric magnetic induction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.-Y.; Ma, L.; Soleimani, M.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object. Because of its non-invasive feature, it becomes a suitable technique for many industries, such as metal processing and mining. This paper presents a volumetric MIT (VMIT) system based on an existing measurement setup in our 2D system (MIT Mk-I). By increasing the number of sensors in the axial direction, volumetric imaging can be realized and hence can improve the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images. All of the system control, data acquisition and signal demodulation are accomplished by a commercial data acquisition card and the National Instruments graphical programming language. In this paper, both the system architecture and the forward 3D sensitivity model will be presented. The image reconstruction scheme is modified by introducing a 3D sensitivity map to replace the previous 2D sensitivity map used for the MIT Mk-I system. The iterative Landweber technique was implemented as the inverse solver to reconstruct the images. Several laboratory-based experimental results are demonstrated in this paper, with different shapes of imaging objects. The reconstructed images are satisfactory showing for the first time volumetric conductivity reconstruction using a multi-layer MIT system. The results indicate the high-quality image reconstruction using our novel VMIT system for potential use in industrial applications, such as metal flow imaging.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Inna; Kessler, Naama; Moor, Nina; Klipcan, Liron; Koc, Emine; Templeton, Paul; Spremulli, Linda; Safro, Mark

    2007-09-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) are reported. Diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the mitPheRS structure was solved using the molecular-replacement method. Human monomeric mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the charging of tRNA with the cognate amino acid phenylalanine. Human mitPheRS is a chimera of the bacterial α-subunit of PheRS and the B8 domain of its β-subunit. Together, the α-subunit and the ‘RNP-domain’ (B8 domain) at the C-terminus form the minimal structural set to construct an enzyme with phenylalanylation activity. The recombinant human mitPheRS was purified to homogeneity and crystallized in complex with phenylalanine and ATP. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55, b = 90, c = 96 Å.

  19. Key role of lattice symmetry in the metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Kim, Honggyu; Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Here, bulk NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is lowered that is also seen in tensile strained films. In contrast, films that are under a large compressive strain typically remain metallic at all temperatures. To clarify the microscopic origins of this behavior, we use position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize strained NdNiO3 films both above and below the MIT temperature. We show that a symmetry lowering structural change takes place in case of the tensile strained film, which undergoes an MIT, but is absent in the compressively strained film. Usingmore » space group symmetry arguments, we show that these results support the bond length disproportionation model of the MIT in the rare-earth nickelates. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the non-Fermi liquid phase that is observed in films for which the MIT is absent.« less

  20. Statistical Characteristics of the Subauroral Ion Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Zhang, X.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    A database of subauroral ion drifts (SAIDs) is established using long-term observations by the DMSP satellites during 1987-2012. Based on this database, statistical investigations on SAIDs are carried out, including the occurrence location and probability, the solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal variations, the correlations among SAIDs, field-aligned currents (FACs), and electron precipitation, and the correlations among SAIDs, mid-latitude ionospheric troughs (MITs) and plasmapause (PP). Statistical results show that SAIDs occur mostly at 60.1° invariant latitude and 2230 magnetic local time with a typical half width of 0.57°, move equatorward during high solar activities with large widths, and have two occurrence peaks in spring and fall equinoxes and two valleys in summer and winter solstices. The seasonal variation of SAID latitude has two valleys in spring and fall, and SAID width has a valley distribution with a minimum in summer. SAIDs exhibit a clear day-to-night difference in latitude. The diurnal variation of SAID width has a morning valley and an afternoon peak. The generation mechanism of SAID associated with the electron precipitation and the downward field-aligned current is also supported by the statistics. The polar boundaries of SAIDs overlap with the plasmapause and are more poleward than the polar boundaries of MITs. The arrangement of SAID, MIT, and PP is in such a pattern that PP is the most poleward, MIT is the most equatorward, and SAID is between MIT and PP.