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Sample records for mite allergens der

  1. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  2. Biological activity of recombinant Der p 2, Der p 5 and Der p 7 allergens of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Lynch, N R; Thomas, W R; Garcia, N M; Di Prisco, M C; Puccio, F A; L'opez, R I; Hazell, L A; Shen, H D; Lin, K L; Chua, K Y

    1997-09-01

    Der p 2, Der p 5 and Der p 7 are three allergens of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus that have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). We showed that these recombinant allergens produced immediate hypersensitivity skin-test reactions in 70, 60 and 52% respectively of a group of mite-sensitive allergic patients who were strongly positive to whole mite extract (WME). Comparable positivities were found for serum levels of specific IgE antibody against these allergens, as measured by the radioallergosorbant test (RAST). Overall, for the group of allergic patients that we evaluated, the serum IgE antibody concentrations against Der p 2, 5 and 7 were calculated to represent about one third, one quarter and one fifth respectively of the levels measured against the WME. However, for some patients the activity determined against the separate allergens was far higher than that detected against the WME, thus indicating that the concentration of these can be limiting in the WME. We found no significant correlations between the RAST levels against Derp 2 and either Derp 5 or 7, and RAST-inhibition tests indicated a lack of cross-reactivity between Der p 2 and the other two allergens. In contrast, the RAST results revealed the existence of a significant immunological relationship between Der p 5 and 7. Although a certain degree of reactivity against the GST fusion partner was found in the allergic patients studied, this was not a significant influence in determining the positivity against the recombinant allergens. These results confirm the in vivo biological activity of recombinant Der p 2, 5 and 7, and indicate that whilst Der p 2 is undoubtedly a major mite allergen, both Der p 5 and 7 make important contributions toward the overall allergenic activity of house-dust mites. PMID:9303332

  3. Der p 5 Crystal Structure Provides Insight into the Group 5 Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.; Gosavi, R; Krahn, J; Edwards, L; Cuneo, M; Glesner, J; Pomes, A; Chapman, M; London, R; Pedersen, L

    2010-01-01

    Group 5 allergens from house dust mites elicit strong IgE antibody binding in mite-allergic patients. The structure of Der p 5 was determined by x-ray crystallography to better understand the IgE epitopes, to investigate the biologic function in mites, and to compare with the conflicting published Blo t 5 structures, designated 2JMH and 2JRK in the Protein Data Bank. Der p 5 is a three-helical bundle similar to Blo t 5, but the interactions of the helices are more similar to 2JMH than 2JRK. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains three dimers of Der p 5 that are not exactly alike. Solution scattering techniques were used to assess the multimeric state of Der p 5 in vitro and showed that the predominant state was monomeric, similar to Blo t 5, but larger multimeric species are also present. In the crystal, the formation of the Der p 5 dimer creates a large hydrophobic cavity of {approx}3000 {angstrom}{sup 3} that could be a ligand-binding site. Many allergens are known to bind hydrophobic ligands, which are thought to stimulate the innate immune system and have adjuvant-like effects on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses.

  4. Der p 11 is a major allergen for house dust mite-allergic patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N; Ndlovu, Portia; Thomas, Wayne R; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Tacke, Sebastian; Malkus, Ursula; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha-helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in feces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM-allergic patients from Europe and Africa in radioallergosorbent test-based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM-allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD. PMID:24999597

  5. Der p 11 Is a Major Allergen for House Dust Mite-Allergic Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N.; Ndlovu, Portia; Thomas, Wayne R.; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Tacke, Sebastian; Malkus, Ursula; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha-helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in feces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM-allergic patients from Europe and Africa in radioallergosorbent test–based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM-allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD. PMID:24999597

  6. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  7. Identification of Der p 23, a Peritrophin-like Protein, as a New Major Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Allergen Associated with the Peritrophic Matrix of Mite Fecal Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Weghofer, Margit; Grote, Monika; Resch, Yvonne; Casset, Anne; Kneidinger, Michael; Kopec, Jolanta; Thomas, Wayne R.; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Kabesch, Michael; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Horak, Friedrich; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of most important allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma. We screened a D. pteronyssinus expression cDNA library with IgE Abs from HDM allergic patients. A cDNA coding for a new major allergen was isolated, which showed sequence homology to peritrophins, which contain chitin-binding domains and are part of the peritrophic matrix lining the gut of arthropods. The mature Der p 23 allergen was expressed in Escherichia coli as an 8-kDa protein without its hydrophobic leader sequence and purified to homogeneity. It reacted with IgE Abs from 74% of D. pteronyssinus allergic patients (n = 347) at levels comparable to the two major HDM allergens, Der p 1 and Der p 2. Thus, Der p 23 represents a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen. Furthermore, rDer p 23 exhibited high allergenic activity as demonstrated by upregulation of CD203c expression on basophils from D. pteronyssinus allergic patients. Immunogold electron microscopy localized the allergen in the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut of D. pteronyssinus as well as on the surface of the fecal pellets. Thus, we identified a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen as peritrophin-like protein. The high allergenic activity of Der p 23 and its frequent recognition as respiratory allergen may be explained by the fact that it becomes airborne and respirable through its association with mite feces. Der p 23 may be an essential component for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. PMID:23460742

  8. Identification of Der p 23, a peritrophin-like protein, as a new major Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen associated with the peritrophic matrix of mite fecal pellets.

    PubMed

    Weghofer, Margit; Grote, Monika; Resch, Yvonne; Casset, Anne; Kneidinger, Michael; Kopec, Jolanta; Thomas, Wayne R; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Kabesch, Michael; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Horak, Friedrich; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of most important allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma. We screened a D. pteronyssinus expression cDNA library with IgE Abs from HDM allergic patients. A cDNA coding for a new major allergen was isolated, which showed sequence homology to peritrophins, which contain chitin-binding domains and are part of the peritrophic matrix lining the gut of arthropods. The mature Der p 23 allergen was expressed in Escherichia coli as an 8-kDa protein without its hydrophobic leader sequence and purified to homogeneity. It reacted with IgE Abs from 74% of D. pteronyssinus allergic patients (n = 347) at levels comparable to the two major HDM allergens, Der p 1 and Der p 2. Thus, Der p 23 represents a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen. Furthermore, rDer p 23 exhibited high allergenic activity as demonstrated by upregulation of CD203c expression on basophils from D. pteronyssinus allergic patients. Immunogold electron microscopy localized the allergen in the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut of D. pteronyssinus as well as on the surface of the fecal pellets. Thus, we identified a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen as peritrophin-like protein. The high allergenic activity of Der p 23 and its frequent recognition as respiratory allergen may be explained by the fact that it becomes airborne and respirable through its association with mite feces. Der p 23 may be an essential component for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. PMID:23460742

  9. Modelling and bioinformatics analysis of the dimeric structure of house dust mite allergens from families 5 and 21: Der f 5 could dimerize as Der p 5.

    PubMed

    Khemili, Souad; Kwasigroch, Jean Marc; Hamadouche, Tarik; Gilis, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Allergy represents an increasing thread to public health in both developed and emerging countries and the dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), Blomia tropicalis (Blo t), Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d) and Suidasia medanensis (Sui m) strongly contribute to this problem. Their allergens are classified in several families among which families 5 and 21 which are the subject of this work. Indeed, their biological function as well as the mechanism or epitopes by which they are contributing to the allergic response remain unknown and their tridimensional structures have not been resolved experimentally except for Blo t 5 and Der p 5. Blo t 5 is a monomeric three helical bundle, whereas Der p 5 shows a three helical bundle with a kinked N-terminal helix that assembles in an entangled dimeric structure with a large hydrophobic cavity. This cavity could be involved in the binding of hydrophobic ligands, which in turn could be responsible for the shift of the immune response from tolerance to allergic inflammation. We used molecular modelling approaches to bring out if other house dust mite allergens of families 5 and 21 (Der f 5, Sui m 5, Lep d 5, Der p 21 and Der f 21) could dimerize and form a large cavity in the same way as Der p 5. Monomeric models were first performed with MODELLER using the experimental structures of Der p 5 and Blo t 5 as templates. The ClusPro server processed the selected monomers in order to assess their capacity to form dimeric structures with a positive result for Der p 5 and Der f 5 only. The other allergens (Blo t 5, Sui m 5, Lep d 5, Der p 21 and Der f 21) did not present such a propensity. Moreover, we identified mutations that should destabilize and/or prevent the formation of the Der p 5 dimeric structure. The production of these mutated proteins could help us to understand the role of the dimerization process in the allergic response induced by Der p 5, and if Der p 5 and Der f 5 behave

  10. The Discovery of Potent, Selective, and Reversible Inhibitors of the House Dust Mite Peptidase Allergen Der p 1: An Innovative Approach to the Treatment of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Blocking the bioactivity of allergens is conceptually attractive as a small-molecule therapy for allergic diseases but has not been attempted previously. Group 1 allergens of house dust mites (HDM) are meaningful targets in this quest because they are globally prevalent and clinically important triggers of allergic asthma. Group 1 HDM allergens are cysteine peptidases whose proteolytic activity triggers essential steps in the allergy cascade. Using the HDM allergen Der p 1 as an archetype for structure-based drug discovery, we have identified a series of novel, reversible inhibitors. Potency and selectivity were manipulated by optimizing drug interactions with enzyme binding pockets, while variation of terminal groups conferred the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic attributes required for inhaled delivery. Studies in animals challenged with the gamut of HDM allergens showed an attenuation of allergic responses by targeting just a single component, namely, Der p 1. Our findings suggest that these inhibitors may be used as novel therapies for allergic asthma. PMID:25365789

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

  12. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  13. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  14. Dust mite allergens and asthma: a worldwide problem*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    After the discovery of house dust mites in 1964 their association with asthma has been reported from many different parts of the world including the developing countries. Two sets of major allergens from mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are now well recognized. The Group I allergens are glycoproteins of relative molecular mass (Mr) 25 000, which show both structural homology and cross-reactivity. The allergen Der p I has been cloned and sequenced confirming the Mr and establishing its nature as a protease. The Group II allergens (Mr 15 000) show even closer homology and cross-reactivity. Specific immunoassays for Group I and Group II allergens, using monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibodies, have been standardized and are suitable for measuring allergen levels in different parts of the world. Measures for reducing the levels of mite allergens in houses include the covering of mattresses, hot washing of bedding, and removal of carpets from bedrooms as well as humidity control, vacuum cleaning, and the use of acaricides in the rest of the house. There is already evidence that these procedures can cause a major improvement in the symptoms of asthma. While provisional standards for both sensitization to mites and also mite allergen exposure can now be recommended, there is an urgent need for controlled studies using protocols demonstrated to reduce mite allergen levels by at least tenfold and for further international collaboration. PMID:3069235

  15. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations. PMID:26433526

  16. Concentrations of cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1) and mite (Der f1 and Der p1) allergens in the clothing and school environment of Swedish schoolchildren with and without pets at home.

    PubMed

    Berge, M; Munir, A K; Dreborg, S

    1998-02-01

    To investigate whether our hypothesis that cat and dog owners bring allergens to public areas in their clothes was true or not, we studied the levels of Fel d1, Can f1, Der p1 and Der f1 in dust from the clothes and classrooms of children in a Swedish school. We also investigated the levels of allergen in different areas in the four classrooms used by the children. Thirty-one children were selected in four classes, forming three groups: cat owners, dog owners and children without a cat or dog at home. Furthermore, a group of children with asthma was included. Cat and dog allergens were detected in all 57 samples from clothes and classrooms. Mite allergen Der f1 was detected in low concentrations in 6 out of 48 and Der p1 in 5 out of 46 samples investigated. The concentrations of Can f1 were higher than those of Fel d1 in samples from clothes (geometric mean: 2676 ng/g fine dust and 444 ng/g) and classrooms (Can f1: 1092 ng/g, Fel d1: 240 ng/g). The dog owners had significantly higher concentrations of Can f1 (8434 ng/g fine dust) in their clothes than cat owners (1629 ng/g, p < 0.01), children without cat or dog (2742 ng/g, p < 0.05) and children with asthma (1518 ng/g, p < 0001). The cat owners did not have significantly higher levels of Fel d1 (1105 ng/g) in their clothes compared to the other three groups. (D: 247 ng/g, nCnD: 418 ng/g) but the levels were significantly higher than for all children without a cat at home (345 ng/g, p < 0.05). No concentrations of mite allergen and low concentrations of Fel d1 and Can f1 were found in the children's hair. There were significantly higher concentrations of Fel d1 and Can f1 in dust from curtains than in samples from floors and bookshelves (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the allergen concentrations in samples from curtains and from desks and chairs, including the teachers' chairs, the only upholstered furniture in the rooms. Our results support the hypothesis that cat and dog owners bring

  17. Determination of mite allergens in house dust using the enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Brcić Karaconji, Irena; Macan, Jelena

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of two major mite allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) in 30 urban homes in Zagreb, Croatia, using the enzyme immunoassay with two monoclonal antibodies which has been established as the reference method for indoor allergen analysis. Dust samples were taken by vacuuming a carpeted area and collected on cellulose filters. The ranges of Der p 1 and Der f 1 were (0.1-12.5) microg g-1 (median 0.32 microg g-1) and (0.1-31.2) microg g-1 (median 0.35 microg g-1), respectively. Der p 1 and Der f 1 (>2 microg g-1) associated with increased risk of sensitization to mite allergens were found in approximately 16% homes for each allergen. The sum of allergen (Der p 1 + Der f 1) exceeded the lower threshold in 27% of homes. Analytical evaluation of the ELISA assay showed satisfactory results for precision (intra-assay CV <6.9%, inter-assay CV<13.3%), accuracy (91% to 93%), and sensitivity (2 ng mL-1). The ELISA assay for the measurement of dust mite allergens demonstrated very good analytical characteristics for routine laboratory use, and will provide the essential basis for our future studies of various indoor allergens. PMID:18063526

  18. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D.

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  19. Analysis of cross-reactivity between group 1 allergens from mites.

    PubMed

    Mary, Cruz Luz; López-Malpica, Fernando; Díaz, Ana María

    2008-06-01

    Mite allergen exposure can lead to sensitization in genetically predisposed individuals, and the development of asthma in previously sensitized individuals. The major allergens of mites belong to Dermatophagoides spp. and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Various allergens of Bt have been cloned and sequenced. Some of them show homology sequence with purified allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronissynus (Dp). Recently, the allergen group 1 from Bt, Blo t 1, was cloned and sequenced at our laboratory. Recombinant Blo t 1 showed 35 % of identity and 50% of similarity with group 1 allergens as Der p 1 (from Dp), Der f 1 (from D. farinae) and Eur m 1 (from Euroglyphus maynei) at amino acid level. This would suggest that cross-reactivity between allergens of different mite species could exist. Here, we analyzed the crossreactivity between group 1 allergens from mites using recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies against them. ELISA inhibition assay showed that crossreactivity between homologous allergens from Dermatophagoides spp. is high, but it is low to moderate between mites from different species. IgE-reactivity analysis using serum samples from allergic individuals revealed a strong reactivity of rBlo t 1 for serum samples from subjects with highly positive reaction to Bt extract in skin test, but lack of reactivity of this protein with serum samples from individuals with highly positive reaction to house dust mite extract in the skin test. These results suggest that it is important to include Bt allergens in routine skin test in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and precision of allergies. PMID:18616045

  20. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always < 1 microgram/g dust and undetectable in 11% and 47% of samples, respectively. All HDM-sensitized asthmatics were exposed to Der p 1 levels > 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures. PMID:8899115

  1. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinaederived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen. PMID:27347356

  2. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  3. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495

  4. Characterization of Der f 29, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Congli; Fan, Xiaoqin; Li, Meng; Xing, Peng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yulan; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    More than 30 allergens have been identified from Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina), which is one of the main species of house dust mites. The mite allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease in the world. As the detection and identification of new allergens is critical for the diagnosis or treatment of allergic diseases, we sought to characterize the profilin of D. farina (Der f 29) in this study. The results showed that 21% of allergic patients displayed positive results in skin prick test with recombinant Der f 29 (rDer f 29) as the specific allergen; specific IgE reactivity to rDer f 29 was shown by Western Blot and ELISA. In addition, rDer f 29 induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) to produce T cells immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 4 (TIM4). Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established by challenging with rDer f 29. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased; the histology showed severe inflammation in the lung. In conclusion, Der f 29 is identified as a new type of the house dust mite allergen. PMID:26328014

  5. Efficacy of an In-home Test Kit in Reducing Dust Mite Allergen Levels: Results of a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Amber K.; Salo, Päivi M.; Klein, Cynthia; Sever, Michelle L.; Harris, Shawn F.; Johndrow, David; Crockett, Patrick W.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dust mite allergens can induce allergic sensitization and exacerbate asthma symptoms. Although dust mite reduction and control strategies exist, few asthmatics employ them. Objectives We examined whether an in-home test kit, which quantifies dust mite allergen levels, resulted in behavioral changes in implementation and maintenance of mite reduction strategies and helped reduce allergen levels in homes of dust mite-sensitive children. Methods We enrolled 60 households of children aged 5-15 with parent-reported dust mite allergy into a randomized controlled trial. Intervention homes (N=30) received educational material about reducing dust mites and test kits at 1,2,5, and 8 months. Control homes (N=30) received only educational material. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, study staff visited all homes, collected dust samples from 3 locations and obtained information about parents’ mite reduction behaviors by questionnaire. Allergen concentrations (Der f 2/Der p2) in dust were assessed by immunoassays. After adjusting for visit and location, allergen concentrations in intervention and control homes were compared using mixed effects model analysis. Results In the intervention homes, allergen concentrations in the child's bedroom and living room floors were significantly reduced over time compared to control homes. Although not all location-specific differences in allergen concentrations were statistically significant, combining data across locations, there was a differential reduction in allergen concentrations in the intervention group versus the control group (p =0.02). Conclusion The use of in-home test kits along with education may beneficially influence behaviors and attitudes towards dust mite reduction strategies and help reduce residential dust mite allergen levels. PMID:26308287

  6. Characterization of arginine kinase, anovel allergen of dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 20)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Peng; Yu, Haiqiong; Li, Meng; Xiao, Xiaojun; Jiang, Congli; Mo, Lihua; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize a novel allergen, the Dermatophagoides farinae-derived arginine kinase (Der f 20). Methods: The protein of Der f 20 was synthesized by genetic engineering approaches. The allergenicity of Der f 20 was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an airway allergy mouse model. Results: The Der f 20 gene was cloned andpresented in the Gene Bank with an accession number of AAP57094. The Der f 20 is an arginine kinase (AK), whichshowed a close relationship with D. pteronyssinus AK and Aleuroglyphusovatus AK. Western-blot and ELISA studies showed the IgE binding capacity of Der f 20 was 66.7% in the sera from 6 dust mite allergic patients. Immune inhibition assayresults showed the IgE cross-reactivity between Der f 20 and DME (Dust mite extract). Positive responses to Der f 20 were 41.2% as shown by skin prick tests in 17 DME-allergic patients. In vitro experimental results showed that Der f 20 induced Th2 cell differentiation and the expression of T cell Ig mucin domain molecule-4 (TIM4) in DCs. Conclusions; The Der f 20 protein is a novel subtype of thedust mite allergen. PMID:26885278

  7. Characterization of a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae—Der f 28

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Li; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yu-Lan; Sun, Bao-Qing; Gao, An-Jian; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are the major sources of indoor allergens which induce asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and some other allergic diseases. Close to 30 sub-allergens have been identified. Methods Through analyzing the full genome sequence of dust mite, a new allergen whose primary structure belongs to the heat shock protein family was identified. The sequence of this allergen was determined by cDNA cloning. The allergenicity was assayed by skin prick test, Western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results r-Der f 28 bound to serum IgE from mite allergic patients. Positive responses to r-Der f 28 were shown in 11.5% by skin prick testing from 26 DM-allergic patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased in allergic asthma mouse model sensitized to r-Der f 28. Conclusions Der f 28 is a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:26623108

  8. Immunoglobulin E to allergen components of house dust mite in Korean children with allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Kang, Sung Hee; Won, Sulmui; Lee, Eu Kyoung; Chun, Yoon Hong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Tack

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are important sources of indoor allergens. Seventeen components have been identified from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p). Objective Our aim was to define the prevalence of specific IgE to components of Der p in Korea and investigate the clinical features of them in children with allergic disease. Methods We performed a prospective evaluation of 80 HDM sensitized patients with history of allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma and urticaria (UC). Patients underwent ImmunoCAP for total IgE, Der p, Der f, Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10. Results Seventy-nine patients had detectable serum IgE to Der p, 80 patients were sensitized to Der f, 66 patients were sensitized to Der p 1, 63 patients to Der p 2, and 7 patients were sensitized to Der p 10. Der p 1 specific IgE was significantly lower in the UC group compared with the AD and AR group. Total IgE was significantly higher in the Der p 10 sensitized group. Der p 10 serum IgE level was highly correlated with crab and shrimp specific IgE. There was a significant positive correlation between total IgE and specific IgE to Der p and its components and Der f. Conclusion Sensitization to HDM and its components in Korea is similar to previous studies from temperate climate. The determination of Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 specific IgE helps in obtaining additional information in regards to allergic disease. PMID:26240792

  9. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  10. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  11. Perilla frutescens Leaf Extract Inhibits Mite Major Allergen Der p 2-induced Gene Expression of Pro-Allergic and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell BEAS-2B

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens. PMID:24204835

  12. House-dust mite allergy: mapping of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andreia Grilo; Pereira, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva; Goicoa, Ana; Semião-Santos, Saul José; Bento, Ofélia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific immunotherapy has shown to be very useful for allergy control in dogs, with a common success rate ranging from 65% to 70%. However, this efficacy could probably be improved and the identification of individual allergomes, with the choice of more adequate molecular allergen pools for specific immunotherapy, being the strategy. Aim To map Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) allergens for mite-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to house-dust mite immunotherapy. Material and methods To identify the Der p mite allergome for dogs, 20 individuals allergic to dust-mites and sensitized to Der p, were selected. The extract from Der p was submitted to isoelectric focusing (IEF), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Separated proteins were blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and immunoblottings were performed with patient sera. Allergen-bound specific IgE was detected. Results Eleven allergens were identified from isoelectric focusing (IEF), as well as from 1-D SDS PAGE. From 2-D SDS-PAGE, 24 spots were identified. Conclusions Several similarities were found between dog and human allergograms and no absolute correlation between sensitization and allergy was observed either. As in humans, different individual allergograms do not seem to implicate different clinical patterns, but may influence the response to specific immunotherapy. The molecular epidemiology approach in veterinary allergy management, by the characterization of individual patients’ allergoms and by choosing the best molecular allergen pool for each patient could also improve the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy. PMID:26015775

  13. Endotoxin and House Dust Mite Allergen Levels on Synthetic and Buckwheat Pillows

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Park, Choon-Sik; Crane, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Pillows are known to contain significant levels of indoor allergens and endotoxin, that are of importance to house dust mite sensitized asthmatics. Buckwheat pillows are commonly used in Korea. We studied the levels of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, and endotoxin on new synthetic and buckwheat pillows and their accumulation over three months. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher on new buckwheat pillows compared to synthetic pillows; geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 60,950 EU/g (30,270-122,700) and 4,887 EU/g (2,570-9,311) respectively (p<0.001). No Der f 1 was detected on the new pillows. After three months Der f 1 levels were similar on buckwheat and synthetic pillows, geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 1.16 µg/g (0.02-8.13) and 1.08 µg/g (0.19-1.68) respectively. These results indicate that buckwheat pillows are a source of very high endotoxin levels that may be of relevance to asthma severity of atopic asthmatics. PMID:15308838

  14. Optimization of a Der p 2-based prophylactic DNA vaccine against house dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Pulsawat, Pinya; Pitakpolrat, Patrawadee; Prompetchara, Eakachai; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Hannaman, Drew; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Jacquet, Alain

    2013-03-01

    DNA vaccines encoding allergens are promising immunotherapeutics to prevent or to treat allergy through induction of allergen-specific Th1 responses. Despite anti-allergy effects observed in small rodents, DNA-based vaccines are weak immunogens in primates and humans and particularly when administered by conventional injection. The goal of the present study was to improve the immunogenicity of a prophylactic vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2. In this context, we evaluated the influence of different DNA backbones including notably intron and CpG enriched sequence, the DNA dose, the in vivo delivery by electroporation as well as the heterologous prime boost regimen on the vaccine efficiency. We found that a minimal allergen expression level threshold must be reached to induce the production of specific antibodies but beyond this limit, the intensity of the immune response was independent on the DNA dose and allergen expression. The in vivo DNA delivery by electroporation drastically enhanced the production of specific antibodies but not the IFNg secretion. Vaccination of naïve mice with DNA encoding Der p 2 delivered by electroporation even at very low dose (2μg) prevented the development of house dust mite allergy through Th1-skewed immune response characterized by the drastic reduction of allergen-specific IgE, IL-5 and lung inflammation together with the induction of strong specific IgG2a titers and IFNg secretion. CpG cassette in the DNA backbone does not play a critical role in the efficient prophylaxis. Finally, comparable protective immune responses were observed when using heterologous DNA prime/protein boost or homologous DNA prime/boost. Taken together, these data suggest that the potent Th1 response induced by DNA-based vaccine encoding allergens through electroporation provides the rationale for the evaluation of DNA encoding Der p 2 into HDM allergy clinical trials. PMID:23396105

  15. Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hong; Winton, Helen L.; Soeller, Christian; Tovey, Euan R.; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Thompson, Philip J.; Stewart, Geoffrey A.; Taylor, Graham W.; Garrod, David R.; Cannell, Mark B.; Robinson, Clive

    1999-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important factors in the increasing prevalence of asthma. The lung epithelium forms a barrier that allergens must cross before they can cause sensitization. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the cysteine proteinase allergen Der p 1 from fecal pellets of the HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus causes disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs), which are the principal components of the epithelial paracellular permeability barrier. In confluent airway epithelial cells, Der p 1 led to cleavage of the TJ adhesion protein occludin. Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases. Putative Der p 1 cleavage sites were found in peptides from an extracellular domain of occludin and in the TJ adhesion protein claudin-1. TJ breakdown nonspecifically increased epithelial permeability, allowing Der p 1 to cross the epithelial barrier. Thus, transepithelial movement of Der p 1 to dendritic antigen-presenting cells via the paracellular pathway may be promoted by the allergen’s own proteolytic activity. These results suggest that opening of TJs by environmental proteinases may be the initial step in the development of asthma to a variety of allergens. PMID:10393706

  16. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-01-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  17. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-08-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  18. The effects of a newsletter on bedding control on house dust mite allergen concentrations in childcare centers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Yang, Heasuk; Yum, Hye Yung; Lee, Seon Ah; Kim, Chae-Bong; Kim, Hyunjung; Lim, Wan Ryung; Hong, Soyoung; Kim, Kyoosang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bedding in childcare centers (CCCs) can hold house dust mite (HDM) allergens. This study examined whether HDM allergen levels can be reduced through the distribution of an educational newsletter on bedding control to parents of CCC children in Korea. Methods All 38 CCCs were measured for Der 1 (sum of Der f 1 and Der p 1) concentrations on classroom floors and bedding before the intervention. Educational newsletters on children’s bedding control were sent to 21 CCCs by mail, and teachers were asked to distribute the newsletters to the parents of the children (intervention group). The remaining 17 CCCs were not sent newsletters (control group). The measurement of Der 1 concentrations in 38 CCCs was repeated after the intervention. Dust samples were collected with a vacuum cleaner and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Results The Der 1 concentrations on the bedding were significantly higher than those on the floors in 38 CCCs at baseline (p<0.05). Although changes of the Der 1 concentrations for the control group (n=17) were not significant, Der 1 concentrations for the intervention group (n=21) decreased significantly from 2077.9 ng/g dust to 963.5 ng/g dust on the floors and from 3683.9 ng/g dust to 610.4 ng/g dust on bedding (p<0.05). Conclusions The distribution of educational newsletters on bedding control to parents may be an effective means of controlling HDMs in CCCs. PMID:26602559

  19. Repetitive Immunoassay with a Surface Acoustic Wave Device and a Highly Stable Protein Monolayer for On-Site Monitoring of Airborne Dust Mite Allergens.

    PubMed

    Toma, Koji; Miki, Daisuke; Kishikawa, Chisato; Yoshimura, Naoyuki; Miyajima, Kumiko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-10-20

    This work describes a sensor to be incorporated into the on-site monitoring system of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device was combined with self-assembled monolayers of a highly stable antibody capture protein on the SAW surface that have high resistance to pH change. A sandwich assay was used to measure a HDM allergen, Der f 1 derived from Dermatophagoides farinae. Capture antibodies were cross-linked to a protein G based capture layer (ORLA85) on the sensor surface, thereby only Der f 1 and detection antibodies were regenerated by changing pH, resulting in fast repetition of the measurement. The sensor was characterized through 10 repetitive measurements of Der f 1, which demonstrated high reproducibility of the sensor with the coefficient of variation of 5.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 6.1 ng·mL(-1), encompassing the standard (20 ng·mL(-1)) set by the World Health Organization. Negligible sensor outputs were observed for five different major allergens including other HDM allergens which tend to have cross-reactivity to Der f 1 and their mixtures with Der f 1. Finally, the sensor lifetime was evaluated by conducting three measurements per day, and the sensor output did not substantially change for 4 days. These characteristics make the SAW immunosensor a promising candidate for incorporation into on-site allergen monitoring systems. PMID:26378678

  20. Low-flow, long-term air sampling under normal domestic activity to measure house dust mite and cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kang, Dae Bong; Lee, In Young; Choi, Soo Young; Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Dong Cheon; Kim, Kyu Earn; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2002-01-01

    Successful applications of air sampling for the quantification of exposure to indoor allergens have been reported, but its efficiency is still controversial. We evaluated whether the low-flow, long-term air sampling in normal domestic activity conditions can quantify the exposure of house dust mites (HDM) and cockroaches (CR) allergens or not. Airborne Der f 1 and Bla g 1 were captured with a personal air sampler in 25 bedrooms during normal domestic activity. Quantification of the major allergens in the reservoir dust and the extraction of the air sampler filters were done with two-site ELISA kits. Airborne Der f 1 was measured above the threshold level of detection in 15 houses (60%). Detection rate of airborne Der f 1 was significantly higher in those houses where D. farinae was microscopically found in the reservoir dusts (76.5% vs. 25%, chi 2 = 6.0, p = 0.014). Airborne Der f 1 was more frequently detected in the houses with higher Der f 1 (> or = 10 micrograms/g dust) in bedding reservoir dust than the other group (91% vs. 35.7%, chi 2 = 7.819, p = 0.005), and the median value of airborne Der f 1 was also significantly higher in that group (14.0 pg/m3 vs. below detection limit, p = 0.002). Airborne Der f 1 was significantly correlated with Der f 1 in bedding reservoir dust (r = 0.591, p < 0.01). Airborne Bla g 1 was measured with ELISA in 16 houses (64%), and it was more frequently detected in the houses where the CRs were captured by adhesive traps (91% vs. 57%, chi 2 = 3,484, p = 0.06). The median concentration of Bla g 1 in the filter was also higher in the houses with captured CRs (0.12 vs. 0.05 mU/m3, p = 0.06), but the level of Bla g 1 did not correlate with that of the bedding dusts or the floor dusts of kitchen. These results suggested that airborne HDM or CR allergens could be measured by low-flow, long-term air sampling, and that it might be one of appropriate modalities for evaluating personal exposure to HDM and CR allergens. PMID:12926189

  1. Effects of astragaloside IV on eosinophil activation induced by house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Desheng; Wang, Yuwei; Du, Qiang; Cai, Jiankang

    2012-07-01

    Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been noted for its reduction of eosinophilic airway inflammation in a murine model of chronic asthma. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this anti-inflammatory phenomenon, the effect of AS-IV on human blood eosinophils was studied in vitro. Eosinophils were isolated from the blood of patients with mild atopic asthma, preincubated with AS-IV for 1 h and stimulated in the presence or absence of the house dust mite allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 for 4 h. The survival of the eosinophils at 48 h was investigated using trypan blue and the surface expression of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by the eosinophils was analyzed using flow cytometry. The secretion of cytokines in the supernatants and the chemotaxis of the eosinophils were measured by ELISA and the transwell system, respectively. Der p 1 was found to prolong the survival of the eosinophils. Similarly, the expression of CCR3 and ICAM-1, secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transmigration of the eosinophils were increased in the presence of Der p 1. However, these inductive effects on the eosinophils were significantly inhibited by AS-IV (50 µg/ml). These findings suggest that AS-IV modulates eosinophil activation and trafficking in response to Der p 1 and may therefore be a useful therapeutic option in eosinophilic asthma. PMID:22505212

  2. Neighborhood differences in exposure and sensitization to cockroach, mouse, dust mite, cat and dog allergens in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo, Omar; Goldstein, Inge F.; Acosta, Luis; Divjan, Adnan; Rundle, Andrew G.; Chew, Ginger L.; Mellins, Robert B.; Hoepner, Lori; Andrews, Howard; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Quinn, James W.; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L.; Jacobson, Judith S.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Asthma prevalence varies widely among neighborhoods within New York City. Exposure to mouse and cockroach allergens has been suggested as a cause. Objective To test the hypotheses that children living in high asthma prevalence neighborhoods (HAPN) would have higher concentrations of cockroach and mouse allergens in their homes than children in low asthma prevalence neighborhoods (LAPN), and that these exposures would be related to sensitization and asthma. Methods In the NYC Neighborhood Asthma and Allergy Study, a case-control study of asthma, 7–8 year old children from HAPN (n=120) and LAPN (n=119) were recruited through the same middle-income health insurance plan. Children were classified as asthma cases (n=128) or non-asthma controls (n=111) based on reported symptoms or medication use. Allergens were measured in bed dust. Results HAPN homes had higher Bla g 2 (P=0.001), Mus m 1 (P=0.003) and Fel d 1 (P=0.003) and lower Der f 1 (P=0.001) than LAPN homes. Sensitization to indoor allergens was associated with asthma, but relevant allergens differed between LAPN and HAPN. Sensitization to cockroach was more common among HAPN than LAPN children (23.7% vs. 10.8%, P=0.011). Increasing allergen exposure was associated with increased probability of sensitization (IgE) to cockroach (P<0.001), dust mite (P=0.009) and cat (P=0.001), but not mouse (P=0.58) or dog (P=0.85). Conclusions These findings further demonstrate the relevance of exposure and sensitization to cockroach and mouse in an urban community and suggest that cockroach allergen exposure could contribute to the higher asthma prevalence observed in some compared with other NYC neighborhoods. PMID:21536321

  3. A novel nanostructured biosensor for the detection of the dust mite antigen Der p2

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Bau, I-Jiuan; Chen, He-Tsing; Lin, Yu-Ta; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The group 2 allergen, Der p2, has been reported to activate innate toll-like receptors (TLRs) on respiratory epithelial cells and thus aggravate respiratory diseases. In this study, a highly sensitive nanostructured biosensor based on a 3D sensing element with uniformly deposited gold nanoparticles is proposed for the detection of the dust mite antigen Der p2. The barrier layer comprises an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film which is used as the template in this highly sensitive nanostructured biosensor. Simple electrochemical deposition without reducing agent and stabilizer was enough to uniformly synthesize gold nanoparticles on the surface of the barrier layer. The size and the distribution density of the nanoparticles can be well controlled by the applied potential during electrochemical deposition. Following this procedure, the dust mite monoclonal antibodies (IgG) were then immobilized through the 11-MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid), (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-carbodiimide)/(N-hydroxysuccinimide) self-assembled monolayer approach for the dust mite antigen Der p2 detection. The detection limit of the proposed 3D gold nanoparticle-based nanostructured biosensor was examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis and found to be 1 pg/mL. The dynamic range was found to be 5 μg/mL. The proposed nanostructured biosensor would be useful for fast detection of rare molecules in a solution. PMID:21822382

  4. Modification of house dust mite allergens by monomethoxypolyethylene glycol. Allergenicity measured by in vitro and in vivo methods.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, H; Dreborg, S; Påhlman, I; Stahl Skov, P; Steringer, I; Weeke, B

    1988-01-01

    In animal models, allergen modification by coupling to monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules can reduce allergenicity of the extract and makes the allergen capable of suppressing boosted IgE response. To investigate in a human system the degree of attenuation implied by a mPEG modification of a house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) extract, 55 adults with asthma caused by house dust mites were tested by skin prick test (SPT) and histamine release assay (HR). RAST inhibition was performed on sera from 6 additional patients. Modified extract containing 0.42 mmol mPEG/g protein was used for the analyses. In order to get the same response of the two extracts when assessed by HR and SPT, a median increase in concentration of 10-fold of the mPEG-modified extract compared to the unmodified extract was needed. Interindividual variation was limited. Sixty-four to 72% needed a dose increase within +/- half a decade from this value. In 42-49% of the patients, results from SPT and HR deviated less than half a decade. The relative potency of the modified extract as measured by RAST inhibition was reduced to 17-78% (mean 39%). Reduced allergenicity would by itself mean less side effects in immunotherapy. When planning such therapy it is important to know that mPEG modification reduces the allergenicity to a similar extent in a majority of patients. PMID:2448247

  5. Effectiveness of vacuum cleaning and wet cleaning in reducing house-dust mites, fungi and mite allergen in a cotton carpet: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, D P

    1988-02-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of continuous, thorough vacuuming on house dust organisms and mite allergen, a cotton carpet was vacuumed every other day, six times in total. Seven weeks later, the carpet was cleaned by means of spray extraction. Samples were taken before and after this wet cleaning. In total 1150 g of dust was collected, containing approximately 174,000 arthropods (dead and alive) and 9000 X 10(6) fungal spores. In the course of the experiment, the amount of dust collected at each vacuuming decreased. The number of extracted house dust mites did not decrease significantly, but that of the predator mite Cheyletus did. The number of extracted fungal spores showed a significant decrease (from 142 to 16 X 10(6) spores/m2 per minute vacuuming), as did the extracted mite allergen per m2. After 7 weeks the number of mite eggs and complete house dust mites had increased enormously. After cleaning by spray extraction another increase in the number of complete mites and mite eggs was found, while the amount of mite allergen was diminished. The population growth of the house dust mite between the 6th and the 7th vacuuming is probably due to the decrease of their most important predator, Cheyletus. After the wet cleaning a number of extra eggs hatched, probably due to the high humidity in the carpet. The procedures used in this study to combat house dust mites may have an adverse effect in the long run. PMID:3378462

  6. Domestic Mite Antigens in Floor and Airborne Dust at Workplaces in Comparison to Living Areas: A New Immunoassay to Assess Personal Airborne Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Ingrid; Zahradnik, Eva; Kraus, Gerhard; Mayer, Stefan; Neumann, Heinz-Dieter; Fleischer, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Allergens produced by domestic mites (DM) are among the most common allergic sensitizers and risk factors for asthma. To compare exposure levels between workplaces and living areas a new assay able to measure airborne DM antigen concentrations was developed. Methods At workplaces and in living areas, 213 floor dust samples and 92 personal inhalable dust samples were collected. For sensitive quantification of DM antigens, a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on polyclonal antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae extract was developed. Reactivity of five house dust mite and four storage mite species was tested. All dust samples were tested with the new EIA and with the Der f 1 and Der p 1-EIAs (Indoor Biotechnologies, UK) which detect major allergens from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus by monoclonal antibodies. Samples below the detection limit in the DM-EIA were retested in an assay variant with a fluorogenic substrate (DM-FEIA). Results The newly developed DM-EIA detects antigens from all nine tested domestic mite species. It has a lower detection limit of 200 pg/ml of D.farinae protein, compared to 50 pg/ml for the DM-FEIA. DM antigens were detected by DM-EIA/FEIA in all floor dust and 80 (87%) of airborne samples. Der f 1 was found in 133 (62%) floor dust and in only 6 airborne samples, Der p 1 was found in 70 (33%) of floor samples and in one airborne sample. Der f 1 and DM concentrations were highly correlated. DM-antigens were significantly higher in inhalable airborne samples from textile recycling, bed feather filling, feed production, grain storage and cattle stables in comparison to living areas. Conclusions A new sensitive EIA directed at DM antigens was developed. DM antigen quantities were well correlated to Der f 1 values and were measurable in the majority (87%) of airborne dust samples. Some workplaces had significantly higher DM antigen concentrations than living areas. PMID:23285240

  7. House dust mite Der p 1 downregulates defenses of the lung by inactivating elastase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Farmer, Kinley; MacDonald, Louise; Kalsheker, Noor; Pritchard, Dave; Haslett, Chris; Lamb, Jonathan; Sallenave, J-M

    2003-09-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of aeroallergens and in genetic susceptible individuals can cause symptoms ranging from atopic dermatitis to bronchial asthma. Der p 1, a major target of the human immune responses to HDM, through its enzymatic properties can modulate the adaptive immune system by the cleavage of CD23 and CD25. The consequences of this would be to promote allergic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, by disrupting epithelial tight junctions Der p 1 facilitates the transport of allergen across the epithelium. Here, we report that Der p 1 has additional effects on the innate defense mechanisms of the lung, by inactivating in vitro and ex vivo the elastase inhibitors human (h) alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (h-A1-Pi), mouse (m-), (but not human [h])-SLPI and h-elafin. We confirm that Der p 1 contain both cysteine and serine proteinases, and extend this finding to demonstrate for the first time that h-elafin is particularly sensitive to the biological activity of the latter. Because these elastase inhibitors have antimicrobial, as well as antielastase activity, our results suggest that inactivation of these innate components of the lung defense system by Der p 1 may increase the susceptibility of patients with allergic inflammation to infection. PMID:12689923

  8. Effect of current exposure to Der p 1 on asthma symptoms, airway inflammation, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mite-allergic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Acero, S; García, B E; Tabar, A I; Urbiola, E

    2000-02-01

    The existence of a dose-response relationship between indoor allergen exposure and sensitization has been widely described, but the effect of allergen exposure on asthma activity (symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness [BHR], and inflammation) is not clear. Our aim was to determine the existence of an association among current exposure to mite allergens and symptoms, BHR, and airway inflammation assessed in blood and sputum from asthmatic patients sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. We selected 31 mild and recently diagnosed (12-24 months) asthma patients sensitized to D. pteronyssinus. Allergenic exposure (Der p 1, Der 2) was assessed by a commercial assay based on monoclonal antibodies (mAb), carried out on the dust samples collected from patients' beds in a standardized way. Patients completed an asthma symptom questionnaire and underwent skin tests, methacholine bronchial challenge, and sputum induction. Sputum cell profile was analyzed and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), tryptase, albumin, and interleukin(IL)-5 levels were quantified in sputum supernatant. Total eosinophil numbers and ECP levels were measured in blood samples. Most patients were exposed to Der p 1 levels under 2 microg/g of dust. Der p 1 exposure was higher among the subjects with positive sputum tryptase detection (P = 0.020). Der p 1 levels showed a trend toward correlation with asthma symptoms (P = 0.066, r = 0.36) and correlated with sputum tryptase levels (P = 0.032, r = 0.42). No relationship between BHR, eosinophilic inflammation, and allergenic exposure was found. Our results suggest that asthma symptoms and lung mast-cell activation are at least partially dependent on current allergen exposure. The lack of correlation between mite exposure, eosinophilic inflammation, and BHR supports the role of other factors that enhance the immunologic response initiated by allergen, increasing the activity of asthma. PMID:10726735

  9. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  10. [Biological observations of allergenic mites Suidasia nesbitti (Acarida, Saproglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, W

    1991-01-01

    Suidasia nesbitti specimens for laboratory cultures and for biological studies were isolated from infested fish meal. Rearing conditions: temperature +25 degrees C, relative humidity 85%, food - dried baker's yeast. One day old females and males were paired and placed into separate rearing cages and observations of longevity and oviposition of mites were conducted. Fresh laid eggs were observed and mite development cycle was examined. Mean longevity of male (preimaginal + imaginal periods) amount 84.4 days, female in average 67.0 days. Average egg production of female per its whole life was 172.9. Life history took in average 14.4 days and natural mortality of various instars was 25%. Frequency of females was slightly higher than frequency of males. PMID:1823475

  11. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  12. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  13. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, Group 2 mite allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2), domestic feline (Fel d 1), and canine (Can f 1). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1, 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1, and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies. PMID:25859563

  14. Group 1 Allergen Genes in Two Species of House Dust Mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): Direct Sequencing, Characterization and Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Klimov, Pavel B.; Inam, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz; OConnor, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Group 1 allergens of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) and D. pteronyssinus (Der p 1) dominate overall allergic responses in house dust mite allergy patients. The need for accurate identification and characterization of representative variants of group 1 allergens in any given geographic locality has been emphasized for development of appropriate allergen extracts. Regional amino acid sequence polymorphism has been described but the extent of this polymorphism is not well understood. Such data are completely absent for the USA and many other countries. Most previous studies used cDNA libraries generated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) and/or primers amplifying shorter fragments of this gene. Using novel species-specific primers and direct PCR, we document group 1 allergen gene sequence polymorphism in populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus from the USA and Pakistan. We report two novel introns (nt pos 87 and 291) in both species, and the absence of intron 3 in Der p 1. Thirteen silent and one novel non-synonymous mutation (Tryptophan W197 to Arginine R197) were detected in D. farinae. The potential medical significance of the latter mutation is discussed. Two haplotypes of the Der f 1 gene were identified, haplotype 1 (63%) was more frequent than haplotype 2 (18%). Polymorphism in Der f 1 displayed geographical localization, since both haplotypes were present in mite populations from Pakistan whereas haplotype 1 was observed only in the USA. In Der p 1, a silent mutation at nt (aa) position 1011(149) and four non-synonymous mutations at positions 589(50), 935(124), 971(136), 1268(215) were observed. These mutations were reported from many other geographic regions, suggesting that polymorphism in the Der p 1 gene is panmictic. The extent of polymorphism in both genes is substantially lower than that reported previously (0.10–0.16% vs 0.31–0.49%), indicating the need for careful evaluation of potential polymerase errors in studies utilizing RT

  15. Enhanced Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Type 1 Receptor Expression in T Cells from House Dust Mite-Allergic Individuals following Stimulation with Der p

    PubMed Central

    Thivierge, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the potential for allergen to modulate T cell expression of the CysLT1 receptor and responsiveness to leukotrienes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from house dust mite-allergic or nonallergic individuals were incubated with D. pteronyssinus allergen (Der p). Baseline CysLT1 expression was similar in both groups of donors, but Der p significantly enhanced CysLT1 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of only allergic individuals and induced enhanced responsiveness of CD4+ T cells to LTD4 in terms of calcium mobilisation. This effect was prevented by the CysLT1 antagonist MK571. Der p also induced IL-4 and IL-10 production, and neutralizing antibody to IL-4 prevented both the enhanced CysLT1 expression and the enhanced responsiveness of T cells to LTD4 induced by Der p. In allergic individuals, Der p also induced T cell proliferation and a Th2-biased phenotype. Our data suggest that, in allergen-sensitized individuals, exposure to allergen can enhance T cell expression of CysLT1 receptors through a mechanism involving IL-4 production. This, in turn, would induce CD4+ T cell responsiveness to cysteinyl-leukotrienes and Th2 cell activation. PMID:25918735

  16. Intranasal mite allergen induces allergic asthma-like responses in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Shibamori, Masafumi; Ogino, Keiki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ishiyama, Hironobu

    2006-01-25

    Airway responses induced by intranasal administration of mite allergen without adjuvant were studied in NC/Nga mice. A crude extract of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) was administered for 5 consecutive days and a single intranasal challenge booster dose was given 1 week after the last sensitization. 24 h after the single challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils, and both cytokine and chemokine levels. There were marked increases in number of eosinophils in the BALF, AHR, Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13), and chemokine (eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2) levels in the BALF following Df exposure. C57BL/6N, A/J, BALB/c, and CBA/JN mouse strains were also exposed to Df crude extract, but all of the measured responses were strongest in NC/Nga mice. Furthermore, Df-exposed NC/Nga mice showed the goblet cell hyperplasia, pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation, and increases in both total serum IgE and Df-specific IgG1. After intranasal exposure of NC/Nga mice to crude extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the BALF eosinophilia and AHR were similar to responses induced by Df. None of the study parameters were increased in response to intranasal exposure to ovalbumin. These data demonstrated that NC/Nga mice developed allergic asthma-like responses after intranasal exposure to mite allergens. PMID:16229861

  17. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  18. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen. PMID:27158348

  19. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness. PMID:25923543

  20. Prevalence of dust-mite allergens in homes and workplaces of the Upper Connecticut River Valley of New England.

    PubMed

    Friedman, F M; Friedman, H M; O'Connor, G T

    1992-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative abundance and seasonal variation of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus allergens in homes and workplaces of the Upper Connecticut River Valley of New England. Dust samples were obtained from 15 homes and 23 carpeted workplaces in public buildings. Half the samples were collected in June 1990 and half in September 1990. D pteronyssinus and D farinae content of the samples were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This observational study of homes and workplaces found a predominance of D pteronyssinus allergens in both homes and workplaces; a marked seasonal increase in total Dermatophagoides group I allergens from June to September; and only very low levels of allergens in workplaces. Workplaces seem an unlikely source of significant dust-mite allergen exposure, and workplace exposure does not negate efforts at home dust control by affected patients in this region. PMID:1483576

  1. Purification and characterization of Lep d I, a major allergen from the mite Lepidoglyphus destructor.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1992-04-01

    A major allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been purified by affinity chromatography using an anti-Lep d I monoclonal antibody. The purity of the protein obtained by this procedure was assessed by reverse-phase HPLC. Lep d I displayed a molecular weight of 14 kD on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions, and 16 kD in the presence of a reducing agent. Analytical IEF revealed a little charge microheterogeneity, showing three bands with pIs 7.6-7.8. Purified Lep d I retained IgE-binding ability, as proved by immunoblotting experiments after SDS-PAGE and RAST with individual sera from L. destructor-sensitive patients. Results from the latter technique demonstrated that 87% of L. destructor-allergic patients had specific IgE to Lep d I, and a good correlation between IgE reactivity with L. destructor extract and Lep d I was found. In addition, RAST inhibition experiments showed that IgE-binding sites on Lep d I are major L. destructor-allergenic determinants, since Lep d I could inhibit up to 75% the binding of specific IgE to L. destructor extract; on the other hand, Lep d I did not cross-react with D. pteronyssinus allergens. PMID:1611545

  2. House dust mite allergen induces asthma via TLR4 triggering of airway structural cells

    PubMed Central

    HAMMAD, Hamida; CHIEPPA, Marcello; PERROS, Frederic; WILLART, Monique A.; GERMAIN, Ronald N.; LAMBRECHT, Bart N.

    2009-01-01

    Barrier epithelial cells and airway dendritic cells (DC) make up the first line of defence against inhaled substances like house dust mite (HDM) allergen and endotoxin. We hypothesized that these cells need to communicate to cause allergic disease. Using irradiated chimeric mice, we demonstrate that TLR4 expression on radioresistant lung structural cells is required and sufficient for DC activation in the lung and for priming of effector T helper responses to HDM. TLR4 triggering on structural cells caused production of the innate proallergic cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-25 and IL-33. The absence of TLR4 on structural cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, abolished HDM driven allergic airway inflammation. Finally, inhalation of a TLR4 antagonist to target exposed epithelial cells suppressed the salient features of asthma including bronchial hyperreactivity. Our data identify an innate immune function of airway epithelial cells that drives allergic inflammation via activation of mucosal DCs. PMID:19330007

  3. Lack of cross-reactivity between the Bacillus thuringiensis derived protein Cry1F in maize grain and dust mite Der p7 protein with human sera positive for Der p7-IgE.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bardina, Luda; Cressman, Robert F; Mattsson, Joel L; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-03-01

    Cry1F protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is effective at controlling lepidopteran pests and a synthetic Cry1F transgene was transferred into maize. For the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops, the allergenic potential of the introduced novel trait(s) is evaluated. Because no single parameter is currently predictive of allergic potential, a 'weight of evidence' approach has been proposed. As part of this assessment, the amino acid (aa) sequence of the Cry1F protein was compared to a database of known allergens using recommended criteria. The Cry1F protein did not show significant similarity or a match of eight contiguous identical aa with any allergen. However, a single six contiguous aa match was identified between Cry1F and the Der p7 protein of the dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. To investigate whether Cry1F was cross-reactive with Der p7, sera from 10 dust mite allergic patients containing Der p 7-specific IgE antibody were used to compare IgE-specific binding. No evidence of cross-reactivity was observed between Cry1F and Der p7. This study provides in vitro IgE sera screening data, that when considered in the context of other bioinformatic data [Hileman R.E., Silvanovich, A., Goodman R.E., Rice E.A., Holleschak G., Astwood J.D., Hefle S.L., 2002. Bioinformatic methods for allergenicity assessment using a comprehensive allergen database. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 128, 280-291; Stadler, M.B., Stadler, B.M., 2003. Allergenicity prediction by protein sequence. FASEB J. 17, 1141-1143.], adds further evidence arguing against the use of a six contiguous identical amino acid search to identify potential cross-reactive allergens. Cry1F is heat labile, rapidly hydrolyzed in an in vitro pepsin resistance assay, not glycosylated and not from an allergenic source. Taken together, these data indicate a lack of allergenic concern for Cry1F. PMID:16406630

  4. Dermatophagoides farinae Allergens Diversity Identification by Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1–3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13–18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens. PMID:23481662

  5. Blomia tropicalis Blo t 5 and Blo t 21 recombinant allergens might confer higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than whole mite extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blomia tropicalis is a dust mite and an important source of allergens in tropical regions. Up to now, the assays to diagnose atopy to this mite use whole body extract as antigens. However, anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies cross-react with Ascaris lumbricoides antigens, hindering the diagnosis of allergy to this mite. In this study, B. tropicalis recombinant allergens were evaluated with the purpose of developing an immunodiagnostic assay for allergy to this mite with greater specificity than those commercially available. Methods Two B. tropicalis allergens (Blo t 5 and Blo t 21) were cloned into a plasmidial expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Sixty-three sera containing anti-B. tropicalis extract (BtE) IgE antibodies were used to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Blot 5 and 21 allergens. Inhibition assays with 20 sera pre-adsorbed with A. lumbricoides extract were performed using rBlo t 5, rBlo t 21, and BtE as antigens. All the assays were carried using indirect ELISA. Results Eighty-two point nine percent and 80.0% of the sera with anti-BtE antibodies from 35 children reacted with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21, respectively, whereas 92.8% and 89.3% of the 28 sera with anti-BtE antibodies from adult asthma patients reacted with the same allergens, and 96.4% of these sera reacted with a mixture of rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21. In an inhibition ELISA, the absorption of sera by A. lumbricoides extract affected less the reaction with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 than with BtE. Conclusions The rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 allergens contain important epitopes recognized by IgE antibodies of individuals allergic to B. tropicalis antigens. Moreover, the assays using the recombinant allergens had lower IgE cross-reactivity with A. lumbricoides antigens, a fact which would confers higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than the crude mite extract. However, additional recombinant allergens should be evaluated in

  6. Dust-mite-allergen concentrations in asthmatics' bedrooms in the Quad Cities (Illinois, USA) after the Mississippi River floods of 1993.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L; Ross, M; Scheff, P; Persky, V; Wadden, R; Ramakrishnan, V; Hryhorczuk, D

    1997-06-01

    This study aimed to measure allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and to examine possible relationships of these mite allergens with flooding and other housing factors. A total of 313 dust samples were collected from the bedrooms of 57 asthmatics in 45 homes in the Quad Cities (Illinois, USA) and analyzed by ELISA for the presence of the D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus allergens. Twenty of these homes had some flooding in the last 12 months due to the Mississippi River floods of 1993 and/or other factors. The log-transformed least-squares means of allergens collected were 28 ng/m2 for the D. farinae allergen and 26 ng/m2 for the D. pteronyssinus allergen. D. farinae allergen levels were significantly higher in homes located in the valley, in homes during the summer months, in homes with furred or feathered pets, in homes which had not been flooded in the last year, and in homes where rugs had been steam-cleaned in the last 12 months. D. pteronyssinus allergen levels were significantly higher in homes located in the valley, in homes during April and July-September, in homes with furred or feathered pets, and in homes with no dehumidifier. PMID:9226058

  7. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Sly, Peter D.; London, Stephanie J.; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  8. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  9. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Rhoads, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wail-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

  10. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Tina Fan, Zhi-Hua; Rhoads, George G

    2009-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wall-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

  11. The relative allergenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum compared to house dust mite extracts in a mouse model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to i...

  12. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  13. Allergenic Characterization of a Novel Allergen, Homologous to Chymotrypsin, from German Cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cockroach feces are known to be rich in IgE-reactive components. Various protease allergens were identified by proteomic analysis of German cockroach fecal extract in a previous study. In this study, we characterized a novel allergen, a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. Methods A cDNA sequence homologous to chymotrypsin was obtained by analysis of German cockroach expressed sequence tag (EST) clones. The recombinant chymotrypsins from the German cockroach and house dust mite (Der f 6) were expressed in Escherichia coli using the pEXP5NT/TOPO vector system, and their allergenicity was investigated by ELISA. Results The deduced amino acid sequence of German cockroach chymotrypsin showed 32.7 to 43.1% identity with mite group 3 (trypsin) and group 6 (chymotrypsin) allergens. Sera from 8 of 28 German cockroach allergy subjects (28.6%) showed IgE binding to the recombinant protein. IgE binding to the recombinant cockroach chymotrypsin was inhibited by house dust mite chymotrypsin Der f 6, while it minimally inhibited the German cockroach whole body extract. Conclusions A novel allergen homologous to chymotrypsin was identified from the German cockroach and was cross-reactive with Der f 6. PMID:25749759

  14. Encasing bedding in covers made of microfine fibers reduces exposure to house mite allergens and improves disease management in adult atopic asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of avoidance of exposure to group 1 allergens of the Dermatophagoides group (Der p 1) have not yielded consistent improvements in adult asthma through avoidance. We explored whether the use of pillow and bed covers and allergen-avoidance counseling resulted in Der 1-level reduction, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and thus improved asthma symptoms in adult patients. Methods Twenty-five adult patients with moderate or severe atopic asthma were randomized into intervention and control groups. Intervention patients slept on pillows and mattresses or futons encased in microfine-fiber covers and were counseled in allergen avoidance through bedroom cleaning. Control patients received neither special covers nor counseling. In the period August to October in 2009 (pre-intervention) and 2010 (post-intervention), dust samples were collected in open Petri dishes placed in bedrooms for 2 weeks and by rapid lifting of dust from bedding and skin using adhesive tape on the morning of 1 day of Petri dish placement. We examined the associations between changes in Der 1 level (as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and clinical symptom score, minimum % peak expiratory flow, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. Results Der 1 allergen levels on the mattress/futon covers and near the floor of the bedrooms of intervention patients, but not controls, were lower in 2010 than in 2009. From 2009 to 2010, asthma symptom scores decreased significantly, and minimum % peak expiratory flow increased significantly, in intervention patients. The fall in Der p 1 concentration was correlated with a reduction in the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. Conclusions Minimization of Der 1 allergen exposure by encasing pillows and mattresses or futons and receiving counseling on avoiding exposure to indoor allergens improved asthma control in adult patients. PMID:24499343

  15. The effects of inhaled corticosteroids on intrinsic responsiveness and histology of airways from infant monkeys exposed to house dust mite allergen and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P. Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Plopper, Charles G.; Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-01-15

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys were exposed by inhalation to (1) filtered air and saline, (2) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + ozone and saline, (3) filtered air and ICS (budesonide) or (4) HDMA + ozone and ICS. Allergen/ozone exposures started at 1 month and ICS at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, methacholine-induced changes in luminal area of airways in proximal and distal lung slices were determined using videomicrometry, followed by histology of the same slices. Proximal airway responsiveness was increased by allergen/ozone and by ICS. Eosinophil profiles were increased by allergen/ozone in both proximal and distal airways, an effect that was decreased by ICS in distal airways. In both allergen/ozone- and air-exposed monkeys, ICS increased the number of alveolar attachments in distal airways, decreased mucin in proximal airways and decreased epithelial volume in both airways. ICS increased smooth muscle in air-exposed animals while decreasing it in allergen/ozone-exposed animals in both airways. In proximal airways, there was a small but significant positive correlation between smooth muscle and airway responsiveness, as well as between alveolar attachments and responsiveness. ICS change morphology and function in normal airways as well as allergen/ozone-exposed airways, suggesting that they should be reserved for infants with active symptoms.

  16. Expressed sequence tag survey of gene expression in the scab mite Psoroptes ovis--allergens, proteases and free-radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, F; Welsh, M; Parkinson, J; Whitton, C; Blaxter, M L; Knox, D P

    2003-05-01

    Psoroptes ovis, the causative agent of sheep scab, is an important ectoparasitic mite infecting sheep, goats and cattle. Infection is characterized by an extensive dermatitis, scab formation and intense itching. Initial focal lesions spread outwards, coalesce and may extend over the whole body. The host response to infestation has all the characteristics of an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction but the mite antigens and allergens which initiate this response are almost completely undefined. Here, 507 randomly selected cDNAs derived from a mixed population of P. ovis were sequenced and the resultant nucleotide sequences subjected to Cluster analysis and Blast searches. This analysis yielded 280 clusters of which 49 had > 1 sequence with 24 showing significant Blast X homology to another protein in the databases. There were 231 sequences which appeared on one occasion and 109 of these showed significant Blast X homology to other sequences in the databases. This analysis identified homologues of 9 different types of allergens which have been characterized in other allergic conditions such as responses to house dust mites. It also identified a number of cysteine proteases which may contribute to lesion development as well as several free-radical scavenging enzymes which may protect the mite from host immune effector responses. PMID:12793649

  17. Protective effects of a recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mamta; Madan, Taruna; Waters, Patrick; Parida, Shreemanta K; Sarma, P Usha; Kishore, Uday

    2003-05-01

    Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a carbohydrate pattern recognition immune molecule. It can interact with a range of pathogens, stimulate immune cells and manipulate cytokine profiles during host's immune response. SP-D has also been shown to interact, via its carbohydrate recognition domains, with glycoprotein allergens of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding these allergens, and blocking subsequent histamine release from sensitized basophils. In the present study, we have examined the protection offered by various doses of intranasal administration of a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity to Derp allergens which showed characteristic high levels of specific IgE antibodies, peripheral blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment of Derp mice with rhSP-D led to significant reduction in Derp-specific IgE levels, blood eosinophilia and pulmonary cellular infiltration. The levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were decreased, while those of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were raised in the supernatant of the cultured splenocytes, indicating a Th2 to Th1 polarization. These results suggest that SP-D has a protective role in the modulation of allergic sensitization and in the development of allergic reactions to Derp allergens and highlight potential of the rhSP-D as a therapeutic for pulmonary hypersensitivity. PMID:12706535

  18. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  19. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  20. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals. PMID:12001789

  1. House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Bechtold, Andrea G.; Tham, Rick C.; Kott, Kayleen S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Joad, Jesse P.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-09-15

    Allergic airway diseases in children are a common and a growing health problem. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in contributing to some of the symptoms. We hypothesized that airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, where lung/airway and nasal sensory afferents terminate, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for histamine H3 receptors was performed on brainstem sections containing the NTS and the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus from 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys who had been exposed for 5 months to house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + O{sub 3} or to filtered air (FA). While histamine H3 receptors were found exclusively in astrocytes in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, they were localized to both neuronal terminals and processes in the NTS. HDMA + O{sub 3} exposure significantly decreased histamine H3 receptor immunoreactivity in the NTS at 6 months and in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus at 12 months of age. In conclusion, exposing young primates to HDMA + O{sub 3} changed histamine H3 receptor expression in CNS pathways involving lung and nasal afferent nerves in an age-related manner. Histamine H3 receptors may be a therapeutic target for allergic asthma and rhinitis in children.

  2. Oxidized cellulose binding to allergens with a carbohydrate-binding module attenuates allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Shani, Nir; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Mruwat, Rufayda; Shoseyov, David

    2011-01-15

    Grass and mite allergens are of the main causes of allergy and asthma. A carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) represents a common motif to groups I (β-expansin) and II/III (expansin-like) grass allergens and is suggested to mediate allergen-IgE binding. House dust mite group II allergen (Der p 2 and Der f 2) structures bear strong similarity to expansin's CBM, suggesting their ability to bind carbohydrates. Thus, this study proposes the design of a carbohydrate-based treatment in which allergen binding to carbohydrate particles will promote allergen airway clearance and prevent allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to identify a polysaccharide with high allergen-binding capacities and to explore its ability to prevent allergy. Oxidized cellulose (OC) demonstrated allergen-binding capacities toward grass and mite allergens that surpassed those of any other polysaccharide examined in this study. Furthermore, inhalant preparations of OC microparticles attenuated allergic lung inflammation in rye grass-sensitized Brown Norway rats and OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Fluorescently labeled OC efficiently cleared from the mouse airways and body organs. Moreover, long-term administration of OC inhalant to Wistar rats did not result in toxicity. In conclusion, many allergens, such as grass and dust mite, contain a common CBM motif. OC demonstrates a strong and relatively specific allergen-binding capacity to CBM-containing allergens. OC's ability to attenuate allergic inflammation, together with its documented safety record, forms a firm basis for its application as an alternative treatment for prevention and relief of allergy and asthma. PMID:21169552

  3. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Papazian, D; Wagtmann, V R; Hansen, S; Würtzen, P A

    2015-08-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form a polarized barrier along the respiratory tract. They are the first point of contact with airborne antigens and are able to instruct resident immune cells to mount appropriate immune responses by either soluble or contact-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesize that a healthy, polarized epithelial cell layer inhibits inflammatory responses towards allergens to uphold homeostasis. Using an in-vitro co-culture model of the airway epithelium, where a polarized cell layer of bronchial epithelial cells can interact with dendritic cells (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass and birch pollen. Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation significantly of Bet v 1-specific T cell lines as well as decrease interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 production, whereas inhibition of Phl p 5-specific T cells varied between different donors. Stimulating autologous CD4(+) T cells from allergic patients with AEC-imprinted DCs also inhibited proliferation significantly and decreased production of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines upon rechallenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had been exposed only to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T cell recall responses towards birch, grass and house dust mite allergens in vitro, suggesting that AECs-DC contact in vivo constitute a key element in mucosal homeostasis in relation to allergic sensitisation. PMID:25707463

  4. [Leather dust and sensitizing agents. A study on occupational indoor allergenic pollution in shoes].

    PubMed

    Cirla, Angelo Mario; Del Frate, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to ascertain a possible pollution by allergenic Mites in 15 samples of leather dust belonging to occupational environments of 4 Italian shoes factories. All dosages were both performed by a quantitative immunologic and ELISA method (Indoor Biotechnology Lmd) and a semi-quantitative colorimetric method (Aclotest Lofarma) and the results were compared according to a five steps risk-evaluation. In all factories allergenic components of Mites were documented. The highest concentration of Der p1 and Der f 1 in dust was 15,4 mcg/g, while allergens prevailed around the working-places, where discards of leather usually were collected. Moulds were studied in 29 samples of 9 shoes factories, adopting specific cultures. In all but one occupational environment moulds were present and taxa of Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium were prevalent, spores of them have known allergenic propert. Besides the identification, quantitative levels were not planned in this study. Dermatophytes were absent, while four taxa of Keratinophylic non allergenic moulds were observe. When leather dust are disperded in occupational environments a risk due to allergenic agents as secondary contamination must be carefully considered. Such a risk, according to our results, may be classified as "intermediate for allergenic Mites" and temptatively "light for allergenic moulds". Such a risk might be carefully considered for legal and preventive purposes and also monitored by occupational healthcare professionals. PMID:22697032

  5. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  6. House Dust Mite-Derived Chitin Enhances Th2 Cell Response to Inhaled Allergens, Mainly via a TNF-α-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Pyo; Lee, Sang-Min; Choi, Hyun-Il; Kim, Min-Hye; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Jang, Myoung Ho; Jee, Young-Koo; Yang, Sanghwa; Cho, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chitin is a potent adjuvant in the development of immune response to inhaled allergens in the airways. According to other studies, chitin is known as multi-faced adjuvants which can induce Th2 responses. Recently, we found that TNF-α is a key mediator in the development of Th2 cell response to inhaled allergens. Here, we evaluated the immunologic mechanisms in the development of airway hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens, enhanced by house dust mite (HDM)-derived chitin. Methods The role of TNF-α and TLRs was evaluated in an airway hypersensitivity mouse model induced by a sensitization with an allergen (ovalbumin, OVA) and HDM-derived chitin using mice with the null mutation of target genes. Results The present study showed that airway sensitization with HDM-derived chitin plus OVA enhanced OVA-induced airway inflammation v. OVA alone. This phenotype was associated with the increased expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines and also with the enhanced production of OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a. As for T cell responses, OVA-specific Th2 cell response, enhanced by chitin, was abolished by the treatment of chitinase, whereas Th1 and Th17 cell responses enhanced by this treatment. Moreover, the null mutation of the TNF-α gene revealed similar effects as the chitinase treatment. In contrast, all the OVA-specific T cell responses, enhanced by chitin, were blocked by the absence of TLR2, but not of TLR1, TLR4, or TLR6. Conclusions In conclusion, these data suggest that HDM-derived chitin may enhance airway hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens, via the TLR2-dependent pathway, and that chitin-induced TNF-α can be a key mediator in the development of Th2 cell response to inhaled allergens. PMID:27126730

  7. Early Exposure to Respiratory Allergens by Placental Transfer and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Macchiaverni, Patricia; Ynoue, Leandro H.; Arslanian, Christina; Verhasselt, Valérie; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between allergen exposure and the onset of or protection from allergic diseases remains unclear. Many factors could be related to immunological responses, such as the age when the exposure occurs, type of allergen, timing, dose, and allergen route. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to respiratory allergens could occur in pregnancy or early life. In particular, we assessed whether Der p 1 and Blo t 5, as well as specific antibodies against these allergens, could be detected in 90 paired cord blood and colostrum samples. Der p 1 was detected in 58.6% of colostrum and 29% of cord blood samples, whereas Blot 5 was positive in 41.3% and 9.6% of the samples, respectively. Similar to specific IgA, which could be detected in all samples for both mites, specific IgG was found in a high number of colostrum samples, 93.5% and 94.8% for Dp and Bt, respectively. Although allergens were not detected in all cord blood samples, a high percentage of them (≥95%) were positive for specific IgM to both mites in cord blood samples, suggesting that neonates can be exposed and sensitized to airborne allergens during pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to correlate allergen exposure or its prevention in early infancy with the onset of or protection from allergic diseases. However, conflicting and inconsistent data do not show a clear correlation with or suggest a way to prevent allergen sensitization. Nevertheless, these unconvincing results could be better understood if the relationship with many aspects of allergen exposure after pregnancy could be clarified. Thus, it is necessary to address basic issues related to allergen exposure, including the development of reproducible, standardized and reliable methods, and to determine how and where the exposure occurs. PMID:26398234

  8. Domestic allergens and endotoxin in three hospitals offering in-patient rehabilitation for allergic diseases in the alpine mountain climate of Bavaria - The AURA study.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, B; Gulyas, A F; Schultz, K; Lecheler, J; Flögel, S; Wolfmeyer, C; Thiessen, K; Jakob, T; Schuster, T; Hollweck, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2009-01-01

    Endotoxins and allergens represent the major relevant contents of the atmospheric bioaerosol with regard to the triggering and exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, mattress concentrations of endotoxin and indoor allergens were measured in three hospitals in the alpine climate of Bavaria and in adjacent homes. Dust was collected from each of 10 mattresses according to a standardized protocol, and endotoxin was analyzed with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, indoor allergens Der p 1, Der f 1 and Fel d 1 were analyzed by ELISAs. The concentration of endotoxin in the mattresses did not differ significantly between different cities. The percentiles of endotoxin were significantly higher in hospitals than in homes. The concentrations of mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) in the dust were significantly lower in all hospitals than in homes. There was no significant difference of mite allergens between different time points. The concentrations of Fel d 1 were significantly higher in the autumn than in the summer (median: 1376 vs. 478ng/g). No significant differences of Fel d 1 were found between hospitals and homes or between different hospitals. As Fel d 1 concentrations reached levels at which cat allergic patients can experience symptoms, efforts had to be made to reduce the concentrations of Fel d 1 especially in hospitals. In contrast, mite allergens were low in hospitals, which can be clinically beneficial for patients with mite allergies. PMID:18155959

  9. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT. PMID:24069042

  10. The glycosylation pattern of common allergens: the recognition and uptake of Der p 1 by epithelial and dendritic cells is carbohydrate dependent.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouleh, Abeer; Johal, Ramneek; Sharquie, Inas K; Emara, Mohammed; Harrington, Helen; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2012-01-01

    Allergens are initiators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are recognised at the site of entry by epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs), both of which activate innate inflammatory circuits that can collectively induce Th2 immune responses. In an attempt to have a better understanding of the role of carbohydrates in the recognition and uptake of allergens by the innate immune system, we defined common glycosylation patterns in major allergens. This was done using labelled lectins and showed that allergens like Der p 1 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1), Fel d 1 (Felis domisticus), Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea), Der p 2 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2), Bla g 2 (Blattella germanica) and Can f 1 (Canis familiaris) are glycosylated and that the main dominant sugars on these allergens are 1-2, 1-3 and 1-6 mannose. These observations are in line with recent reports implicating the mannose receptor (MR) in allergen recognition and uptake by DCs and suggesting a major link between glycosylation and allergen recognition. We then looked at TSLP (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin) cytokine secretion by lung epithelia upon encountering natural Der p 1 allergen. TSLP is suggested to drive DC maturation in support of allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Our data showed an increase in TSLP secretion by lung epithelia upon stimulation with natural Der p 1 which was carbohydrate dependent. The deglycosylated preparation of Der p 1 exhibited minimal uptake by DCs compared to the natural and hyperglycosylated recombinant counterparts, with the latter being taken up more readily than the other preparations. Collectively, our data indicate that carbohydrate moieties on allergens play a vital role in their recognition by innate immune cells, implicating them in downstream deleterious Th2 cell activation and IgE production. PMID:22479478

  11. The Glycosylation Pattern of Common Allergens: The Recognition and Uptake of Der p 1 by Epithelial and Dendritic Cells Is Carbohydrate Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghouleh, Abeer; Johal, Ramneek; Sharquie, Inas K.; Emara, Mohammed; Harrington, Helen; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2012-01-01

    Allergens are initiators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are recognised at the site of entry by epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs), both of which activate innate inflammatory circuits that can collectively induce Th2 immune responses. In an attempt to have a better understanding of the role of carbohydrates in the recognition and uptake of allergens by the innate immune system, we defined common glycosylation patterns in major allergens. This was done using labelled lectins and showed that allergens like Der p 1 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1), Fel d 1 (Felis domisticus), Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea), Der p 2 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2), Bla g 2 (Blattella germanica) and Can f 1 (Canis familiaris) are glycosylated and that the main dominant sugars on these allergens are 1–2, 1–3 and 1–6 mannose. These observations are in line with recent reports implicating the mannose receptor (MR) in allergen recognition and uptake by DCs and suggesting a major link between glycosylation and allergen recognition. We then looked at TSLP (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin) cytokine secretion by lung epithelia upon encountering natural Der p 1 allergen. TSLP is suggested to drive DC maturation in support of allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Our data showed an increase in TSLP secretion by lung epithelia upon stimulation with natural Der p 1 which was carbohydrate dependent. The deglycosylated preparation of Der p 1 exhibited minimal uptake by DCs compared to the natural and hyperglycosylated recombinant counterparts, with the latter being taken up more readily than the other preparations. Collectively, our data indicate that carbohydrate moieties on allergens play a vital role in their recognition by innate immune cells, implicating them in downstream deleterious Th2 cell activation and IgE production. PMID:22479478

  12. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  13. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  14. In Utero exposure to genistein enhanced intranasal house dust mite allergen-induced respiratory sensitization in young adult B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai L; Meng, Andrew H

    2016-06-24

    Despite many hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) deriving from soy-based products, questions surrounding GEN's developmental immunotoxic effects are increasing. To understand how in utero GEN exposure may modulate postnatal respiratory sensitization, we conducted a time course study using a common household allergen (house dust mites: HDM; 10μg/mouse) following intranasal instillation, a physiological route of allergen exposure. GEN was administered to dams by gavage from gestational day 14 to parturition at a physiologically relevant dose (20mg/kg bw). Female and male offspring were sensitized with HDM allergens beginning about one month prior to sacrifice followed by challenges with three weekly doses of HDM extracts, and they were euthanized at day 3 following the final HDM exposure at four different time points (postnatal day (PND) 80, 120, 160, and 200). In utero GEN combined with postnatal HDM exposures (GEN+HDM) increased total IgE production in both young female and male B6C3F1 offspring (e.g., PND 80 in females and PND 120 in males). Increased antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b levels were also observed at various time points in both female and male offspring. In addition, increases in macrophage number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both female and male GEN+HDM offspring at PND 80 and PND 120, respectively, were observed when compared to the vehicle group. For T cells, an increase over the vehicle in female GEN+HDM offspring was observed at PND 80. Due to similar patterns of increases, it seems likely that GEN+HDM-induced increases in total IgE and macrophages are related. Overall, in utero GEN plus later-life HDM exposures exert increases in total IgE and HDM-specific IgG production as well as macrophage recruitments to the lung in young adult mice. PMID:27113705

  15. Serum-IgE-facilitated allergen presentation in atopic disease.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, F L; Joost van Neerven, R J; van Katwijk, M; Bos, J D; Kapsenberg, M L

    1993-04-15

    The occurrence of facilitated Ag presentation (FAP) was investigated in atopic disease using an in vitro model in which the ability of CD23-expressing EBV-B cells was tested to present Der p II, a major allergen of housedust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, to cells of autologous Der p II-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte clones. Purified Der p II protein was immune complexed with Ig by preincubation in sera from atopic patients containing Der p II-specific IgE. Incubation of EBV-B cells with these complexes before using the cells as APC results in proliferation of the Der p II-specific T cells at a 1000-fold lower Der p II concentration than required for T cell activation by presentation of uncomplexed Der p II. FAP is not evident using sera from allergic and nonallergic control donors not containing Der p II-specific IgE. FAP is mediated by IgE and not by IgG, because it can be blocked completely by preincubating the serum from atopics with polyclonal anti-IgE and not with polyclonal anti-IgG. After pulsing EBV-B with precomplexed Der p II at 4 degrees C, FAP is as strong as after incubation at 37 degrees C, suggesting that FAP is the result of facilitated trapping of IgE-complexed allergen. CD23 was involved in facilitated trapping of the complexes, because FAP is blocked by preincubation of EBV-B with anti-CD23. In contrast to FAP of Der p II, which was mediated by all Der p II-specific sera tested, only one of four sera containing cat allergen-specific IgE was appropriate to mediate FAP to cat allergen-specific T cell clones. Inasmuch as FAP enables functional presentation of allergen in vivo at doses as low as several nanograms, FAP may contribute to the continuing of chronic allergic reactions in response to minute doses of aeroallergens, especially housedust mite allergens, in the environment. PMID:8468493

  16. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  17. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms. PMID:27090366

  18. Allergens in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. S.; Janda, J.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Rhyner, C.; Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  19. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  20. Cloning and characterization of tropomyosin from the mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus.

    PubMed

    López-Matas, M Angeles; Iraola, Victor; Moya, Raquel; Vailes, Lisa D; Pomés, Anna; Boquete, Manuel; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Arlian, L G; Chapman, Martin; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2015-12-01

    Tropomyosin is a pan-allergen that shares a high homology among species. It is involved in cross-reactivity among mites, crustaceans, mollusks and insects. The objectives were to express and purify recombinant tropomyosin from the storage mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and to investigate the homology and cross-reactivity with tropomyosin from other invertebrates. Recombinant C. arcuatus tropomyosin (r-Cho a 10) was selected from a library by screening with a pool of patient sera. r-Cho a 10 (UniProt: H2DFL1) was sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Polyclonal anti-tropomyosin antibodies were produced in mice. IgE recognition of r-Cho a 10 was checked by immunoblot. Immunoblot inhibition assays were used to identify the native tropomyosin in the complete extract from C. arcuatus and study cross-reactivity between r-Cho a 10 and Der p 10. Identification of tropomyosin in other allergenic sources was performed by immunoblot. r-Cho a 10 showed a high homology (54-96%) with other tropomyosins from different allergenic sources. IgE recognition was observed using a pool of sera from sensitized individuals. Tropomyosins from different extracts were identified not only in the whole C. arcuatus extract but also in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, shrimp, mussel, cockroach and Anisakis extracts with polyclonal α-Cho a 10. r-Cho a 10 completely inhibited the recognition of Der p 10. Recombinant C. arcuatus tropomyosin maintained its capacity to recognize IgE. r-Cho a 10 was used to prove cross-reactivity among tropomyosins from other invertebrate species, including mites. This is the first C. arcuatus allergen included in the WHO/IUIS (World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies) Allergen Nomenclature database. PMID:26522591

  1. Suppression of allergen-specific B lymphocytes by chimeric protein-engineered antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kerekov, Nikola; Michova, Antoaneta; Muhtarova, Maryia; Nikolov, Georgi; Mihaylova, Nikolina; Petrunov, Bogdan; Nikolova, Maria; Tchorbanov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) are among the most frequent causes of allergy symptoms in Europe. Der p 1 is one of the major allergenic compounds of Dpt and the pathological Der p 1-specific B cells play a key role as producers of allergen-binding antibodies. The selective elimination of these cells by artificial protein molecules which inhibit the production of Dpt-recognizing IgE antibodies is a perspective therapeutic goal of allergy. A protein engineered chimeric molecule has been constructed, which binds Der p 1-specific B cells via their BCR and suppresses selectively the production of anti-Der p 1 antibodies via CR1. The synthetic peptide Der p 1 p52-71 and an anti-CD35 monoclonal antibody were used for the construction of Der p 1 chimera. The functional effects of engineered antibodies were analyzed in vitro using PBMCs from allergy patients. Significant inhibition of allergen-specific proliferation and reduction of Der p 1-IgE antibody production were observed after treatment of PBMCs from allergic patients with Der p 1-peptide chimera. Culturing of these PBMCs in the presence of the chimeric molecule increased the percentage of apoptotic (Annexin V-positive) B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes. PMID:24021574

  2. Household characteristics and allergen and endotoxin levels in Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, W; Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Khoury, A; Woodcock, A

    2010-07-01

    Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. Dust samples were collected from mattresses and floors of 457 homes in the Syrian city of Aleppo and analysed for antigens and endotoxins. The most important predictors for detectable levels of house-dust mite allergen Der p 1 were Arabic-style houses (OR 3.21) and newer houses (OR 1.56). In homes without cats, rubber mattresses were associated with detectable cat allergen Fel d 1 in mattress dust (OR 1.6). Cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was significantly more likely to be detected in houses over 20 years old than newer houses. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in wool/cotton mattresses and older houses. PMID:20799527

  3. Allergens as immunomodulatory proteins: the cat dander protein Fel d 1 enhances TLR activation by lipid ligands.

    PubMed

    Herre, Jurgen; Grönlund, Hans; Brooks, Heather; Hopkins, Lee; Waggoner, Lisa; Murton, Ben; Gangloff, Monique; Opaleye, Olaniyi; Chilvers, Edwin R; Fitzgerald, Kate; Gay, Nick; Monie, Tom; Bryant, Clare

    2013-08-15

    Allergic responses can be triggered by structurally diverse allergens. Most allergens are proteins, yet extensive research has not revealed how they initiate the allergic response and why the myriad of other inhaled proteins do not. Among these allergens, the cat secretoglobulin protein Fel d 1 is a major allergen and is responsible for severe allergic responses. In this study, we show that similar to the mite dust allergen Der p 2, Fel d 1 substantially enhances signaling through the innate receptors TLR4 and TLR2. In contrast to Der p 2, however, Fel d 1 does not act by mimicking the TLR4 coreceptor MD2 and is not able to bind stably to the TLR4/MD2 complex in vitro. Fel d 1 does, however, bind to the TLR4 agonist LPS, suggesting that a lipid transfer mechanism may be involved in the Fel d 1 enhancement of TLR signaling. We also show that the dog allergen Can f 6, a member of a distinct class of lipocalin allergens, has very similar properties to Fel d 1. We propose that Fel d 1 and Can f 6 belong to a group of allergen immunomodulatory proteins that enhance innate immune signaling and promote airway hypersensitivity reactions in diseases such as asthma. PMID:23878318

  4. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    PubMed Central

    Surdu, Simona; Montoya, Lupita D; Tarbell, Alice; Carpenter, David O

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1) in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk). About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals. PMID:16859546

  5. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P < 0.0001). There were significant correlations between Der p 1 in house dust and food from the paper (P < 0.0001) and plastic bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. PMID:21106038

  6. Concentration and determinants of molds and allergens in indoor air and house dust of French dwellings.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Arnaud; Le Cann, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Chevrier, Cécile; Costet, Nathalie; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blanchard, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Molds and allergens are common indoor biocontaminants. The aims of this study were to assess the concentrations of common molds in indoor air and floor dust and the concentrations of house dust mite, cat and dog allergens in mattress dust in French dwellings, and to assess predictors of these concentrations. A sample of 150 houses in Brittany (western France) was investigated. Airborne Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in more than 90% of the dwellings, Aspergillus in 46% and Alternaria in only 6% of the housings. Regarding floor dust samples, Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in 92 and 80% of the housings respectively, Aspergillus in 49% and Alternaria in 14%. House dust mite allergens Der p1 and Der f1 were detected in 90% and 77% of the mattress dust samples respectively and Can f1 and Fel d1 in 37% and 89% of the homes. Airborne and dustborne mold concentrations, although not statistically correlated (except for Aspergillus) shared most of their predictors. Multivariate linear models for mold levels, explaining up to 62% of the variability, showed an influence of the season, of the age of the dwelling, of aeration habits, presence of pets, smoking, signals of dampness, temperature and relative humidity. Allergens in the dust of the mattress were strongly related to the presence of pets and cleaning practices of bedsheets, these factors accounting for 60% of the variability. This study highlights ubiquitous contamination by molds and underlines complex interaction between outdoor and indoor sources and factors. PMID:26094801

  7. Allergens as Immuno-Modulatory Proteins: the cat dander protein Fel d 1 enhances Toll-like receptor activation by lipid ligands

    PubMed Central

    Herre, Jurgen; Grönlund, Hans; Brooks, Heather; Hopkins, Lee; Waggoner, Lisa; Murton, Ben; Gangloff, Monique; Opaleye, Olaniyi; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Gay, Nick; Monie, Tom; Bryant, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Allergic responses can be triggered by structurally diverse allergens. Most allergens are proteins yet extensive research has not revealed how they initiate the allergic response and why the myriad of other inhaled proteins do not. Amongst these allergens, the cat secretoglobulin protein Fel d 1, is the major allergen and responsible for severe allergic responses. In this study we show that like the mite dust allergen Der p 2, Fel d 1 substantially enhances signalling through the innate receptors TLR4 and TLR2. In contrast to Der p 2 however, Fel d 1 does not act by mimicking the TLR4 co-receptor MD2 and is not able to bind stably to the TLR4/MD2 complex in vitro. Fel d 1 does however, bind to the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that a lipid transfer mechanism may be involved in the Fel d 1 enhancement of TLR signalling. We also show that the dog allergen Can f 6, a member of a distinct class of lipocalin allergens, has very similar properties to Fel d 1. We propose that Fel d 1 and Can f 6 belong to a group of allergen immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that enhance innate immune signalling and promote airway hypersensitivity reactions in diseases such as asthma. PMID:23878318

  8. Structural analysis of Der p 1-antibody complexes and comparison with complexes of proteins or peptides with monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Osinski, Tomasz; Pomés, Anna; Majorek, Karolina A.; Glesner, Jill; Offermann, Lesa R.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Chapman, Martin D.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2015-01-01

    Der p 1 is a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus that belongs to the papain-like cysteine protease family. To investigate the antigenic determinants of Der p 1, we determined two crystal structures of Der p 1 in complex with the Fab fragments of mAbs 5H8 or 10B9. Epitopes for these two Der p 1-specific antibodies are located in different, non-overlapping parts of the Der p 1 molecule. Nevertheless, surface area and identity of the amino acid residues involved in hydrogen bonds between allergen and antibody are similar. The epitope for mAb 10B9 only, showed a partial overlap with the previously reported epitope for mAb 4C1, a cross-reactive mAb that binds Der p 1 and its homolog Der f 1 from D. farinae. Upon binding to Der p 1, the Fab fragment of mAb 10B9 was found to form a very rare alpha-helix in its third CDR of the heavy chain. In order to provide an overview of the surface properties of the interfaces formed by the complexes of Der p 1-10B9 and Der p 1-5H8, along with the complexes of 4C1 with Der p 1 and Der f 1, a broad analysis of the surfaces and hydrogen bonds of all complexes of Fab-protein or Fab-peptide was performed. This work provides detailed insight into the cross-reactive and specific allergen-antibody interactions in Group 1 mite allergens. The surface data of Fab-protein and Fab-peptide interfaces can be used in the design of less potent conformational epitopes for immunotherapy. PMID:26026055

  9. Der p 1-pulsed myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from house dust mite-sensitized allergic patients dysregulate the T cell response.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Hammad, Hamida; Gosset, Philippe; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Alkan, Sefik; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Although reports suggest that dendritic cells (DC) are involved in the allergic reaction characterized by a T helper cell type 2 (Th2) profile, the role of myeloid (M-DC) and plasmacytoid DC (P-DC), controlling the balance Th1/Th2, remains unknown. Here, we showed that in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitized allergic patients and in healthy donors, M-DC displayed a higher capacity to capture Der p 1, a major allergen of Dpt, than did P-DC. However, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy subjects overexpressed CD80 and secreted interleukin (IL)-10, whereas M-DC from allergic patients did not. In contrast, with Der p 1-pulsed P-DC from both groups, no increase in human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD80, and CD86 and no IL-10 secretion were detected. When cocultured with allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells from healthy donors, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from allergic patients favored a Th1 profile [interferon (IFN)-gamma(high)/IL-4(low)] and Der p 1-pulsed P-DC, a Th2 profile (IFN-gamma(low)/IL-4(high)). In healthy donors, no T cell polarization (IFN-gamma(low)/IL-4(low)) was induced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC or P-DC, but in response to Der p 1-pulsed M-DC, T cells secreted IL-10. The neutralization of IL-10 produced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy donors led to an inhibition of IL-10 production by T cells and a polarization toward a type 1. Thus, IL-10 produced by M-DC might be an essential mediator controlling the balance between tolerance and allergic status. In addition, P-DC could contribute to the steady state in healthy donors or to the development of a Th2 response in allergic donors. PMID:12525566

  10. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  11. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  12. Quantitation of major allergens in dust samples from urban populations collected in different seasons in two climatic areas of the Basque region (Spain).

    PubMed

    Echechipía, S; Ventas, P; Audícana, M; Urrutia, I; Gastaminza, G; Polo, F; Fernández de Corres, L

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of allergen content evaluation in 80 dust samples from 31 homes of atopic patients from two climatic areas (humid and subhumid), collected in two seasons of the year (autumn and winter). Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays were used to quantify Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, Lep d 1, and Fel d 1. The results were compared according to climate, season, and the type of sensitization (Pyroglyphidae mites, storage mites, or grass pollens). We underline the predominance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (89% of samples) over D. farinae (16% of samples) in our environment. Der p 1 rates were higher in the humid area (Mann-Whitney P < 0.001), especially in the autumn (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). Lep d 1 was detected in 23% of samples and Lep d 1 levels were higher in the homes of patients sensitized to storage mites (Mann-Whitney P < 0.05), whereas this allergen was not detected in the homes of pollen-allergic patients. Fel d 1 was detected in nine of the 31 homes (16% of samples) although there was a cat in only one home. PMID:7573840

  13. Allergens causing atopic diseases in canine.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hwa-Young; Kang, Hyung-Seok; Bhang, Dong-Ha; Kim, Min-Kue; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Han, Hong-Ryul

    2002-12-01

    Canine atopic skin disease is seasonal or sometimes non-seasonal immune-mediated skin disease which occurs commonly in Korea. The definite clinical sign is systemic pruritus, especially on periocular parts, external ear, interdigit spaces and lateral flank. For diagnosis of this dermatitis, complete history taking followed by intradermal skin test and serum in vitro IgE test needs to be performed. Allergen selection for the diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis should be varied geographically. In this study, with intradermal skin test(IDST) the prevalence of atopic disease and what allergens are involved in are researched. Allergens used for IDST included 26 allergen extracts from six allergen groups: grasses, trees, weeds, molds, epidermal allergens and environmental allergens. The number of allergens was 42 in which the positive and negative controls are included. The most common positive allergen reaction was the house dust mites on IDST(22/35, 63%). The other positive allergen reactions were to flea(3/35, 9%), molds(1/35, 3%), house dusts(2/35, 6%), feathers (1/35, 3%), cedar/juniper(1/35, 3%), timothy grass(1/35, 3%) and dandelion(1/35, 3%). In this study, the most prevalent allergen causing atopic dermatitis in dogs in Korea was the house dust mites followed by the flea. PMID:12819384

  14. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  15. Specific IgE in the identification of allergens in allergic rhinitis Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Choon-Kook, S; Teck-Soong, S L

    1995-06-01

    The specific serum IgE levels to 20 allergens were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 90 Malaysian patients with allergic rhinitis. Ninety-two percent of patients had elevated IgE to at least 1 of the allergens. The housedust mites D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were the major allergens, elevated IgE to either allergen being present in 86% of the patients. Prick skin tests were carried out in some of the patients, housedust mites, cat fur, dog hair and shrimp were the allergens used. Close correspondence was found between IgE and prick skin tests to the mites. PMID:7488340

  16. Analysis of T-cell epitopes of Der f3 in Dermatophagoides farina

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Xu, Haifeng; Song, Hongyu; Wang, Kexia; Li, Chaopin

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are most important indoor allergens for humans. Der f3, one of the potent allergens with allergenicity, is derived from Dermatophagoides farina (D. farinae), and exhibits strong allergenicity that was confirmed in our previous work. The current study was undertaken to determine the localization of T-cell epitope of Der f3. We initially developed the T-cell fraction from BALB/c mice sensitized with recombinant Der f3 to determine the T-cell epitopes in the murine models, and performed T cell proliferation assay with 25 synthetic overlapping peptides of Der f3. The results indicated that T-cell reactive region of murine were assigned on amino acid range 41-60, 101-120, 161-180 and 201-220, respectively. In addition, we did T-cell proliferation experiment, respectively using the 4 murine T-cell epitope peptide and the human T-cell lines from three patients allergic to mite allergens in order to verify homogenous T-cell epitopes in humans. The results indicated that the amino acid sequences of 41-60, 101-120 and 161-180 had induced T cell proliferation in humans, yet 201-220 failed to. These findings suggest that T-cell epitope in Der f3 is located in the amino acid sequences of 41-60, 101-120 and 161-180, respectively. T-cell epitope localization detected in our study may provide a basis for development of animal therapeutic model and peptide vaccine for asthma. PMID:25755700

  17. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331

  18. Allergen nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310

  19. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  20. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  1. Epicutaneously applied Der p 2 induces a strong TH2-biased antibody response in C57BL/6 mice, independent of functional TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Stremnitzer, C; Manzano-Szalai, K; Starkl, P; Willensdorfer, A; Schrom, S; Singer, J; Reichart, U; Akira, S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2014-01-01

    Background The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 is a structural and functional homologue of MD-2 within the TLR4–CD14–MD-2 complex. An asthma mouse model in TLR4-deficient mice recently suggested that the allergic immune response against Der p 2 is solely dependent on TLR4 signaling. We investigated whether similar mechanisms are important for Der p 2 sensitization via the skin. Methods In an epicutaneous sensitization model, the response to recombinant Der p 2 in combination with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was compared between C57BL/6 WT and TLR4-deficient mice. We further analyzed possible adjuvant function of exogenous cysteine proteases. Results Sensitization with rDer p 2 induced similar levels of allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies in both mouse strains. LPS increased the systemic (antibody levels, cytokine release by restimulated splenocytes) and local (infiltration of immune cells into the skin) Th2 immune responses, which against our expectations were stronger in the absence of functional TLR4 expression. Barrier disruption by papain, a protease with structural homology to Der p 1, did not enhance the sensitization capacity of rDer p 2. However, the presence of LPS increased the stability of rDer p 2 against the protease. Conclusion Our data suggest that rDer p 2 alone can cause a strong TH2-biased response via the skin being enhanced in the presence of LPS. This response is not reliant on functional TLR4, but vice versa TLR4 expression rather protects against epicutaneous sensitization to house dust mite allergen Der p 2. PMID:24735481

  2. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  3. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID:24523884

  4. cDNA cloning and expression of Blo t 11, the Blomia tropicalis allergen homologous to paramyosin.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J D; Cheong, N; Lee, B W; Chua, K Y; Nge, C; Wah, L B; Yan, C K

    2001-12-01

    Blomia tropicalis is an important mite species in many parts of the world and the most predominant mite species in tropical countries. The prevalence of sensitization to this species has probably been underestimated because commercial extracts are largely unavailable. Identification and characterization of B. tropicalis allergens is an important step toward understanding the role of this species in allergic sensitization and could provide appropriate reagents for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This paper describes the isolation, sequence analysis, expression and allergenicity of a cDNA gene coding for a B. tropicalis allergen with homology to paramyosin, a high-molecular-weight allergen previously identified in Dermatophagoides farinae. The full-length Blo t 11 cDNA gene was isolated by cDNA library screening, 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and long-distance PCR. Sequence analysis was performed with a combination of CLUSTAL W, CGC and BLAST program packages. The cDNA gene was expressed as a GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography using the glutathione Sepharose column. Allergenicity of the rBlo t 11 was tested by human IgE dot blot immunoassay. Blo t 11 is a 3,111-bp cDNA gene with a 2,625-bp open reading frame coding for an 875-amino acid protein, exhibiting significant homology with different invertebrate paramyosins. The human IgE dot blot immunoassay showed that the rBlo t 11 reacted positively to 52% (33/63) of sera from asthmatic patients. Blo t 11 is the homolog of Der f 11 exhibiting potentially important allergenic activity. PMID:11815735

  5. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  6. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  7. Peptide specificity and HLA restriction do not dictate lymphokine production by allergen-specific T-lymphocyte clones.

    PubMed Central

    van Neerven, R J; van de Pol, M M; Wierenga, E A; Aalberse, R C; Jansen, H M; Kapsenberg, M L

    1994-01-01

    Human and murine CD4+ T lymphocytes can be subdivided into distinct subsets [T-helper type 0 (Th0), Th1 or Th2], based on their lymphokine production profiles. Not much is known about the factors that determine these restricted lymphokine secretion profiles. Peptide specificity and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) restriction may be such factors. As it is well established that allergen-specific T lymphocytes from atopic individuals and non-atopic controls differ in their lymphokine secretion profile, we studied two allergen-specific T-lymphocyte clones (TLC) with identical peptide specificity and HLA restriction that were generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor and a non-atopic control donor. The two CD4+ TLC recognize the same epitope (20-33) of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen Der p II. Both TLC recognize the epitope in an HLA-DQB1*0602-restricted manner. However, the lymphokine production profiles of these TLC show clear differences after allergen-specific or polyclonal activation. As expected, TLC JBD4 from the atopic donor produced high levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) without detectable interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas TLC PBA1 from the non-atopic donor produced both IFN-gamma and IL-4 upon allergen-specific or polyclonal activation. Inasmuch as both TLC recognized the same epitope of Der p II in association with the same HLA-DQ molecule, these data suggest that peptide specificity and HLA restriction of human allergen-specific TLC do not dictate their lymphokine secretion profile. PMID:7525459

  8. Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are normal inhabitants of human hair follicles. D folliculorum is found predominantly in the follicular infundibulum of facial skin and is typically present in small groups. D brevis, the smaller of the two species, predominates on the trunk, typically as solitarily mites within the sebaceous glands and ducts. In a wide variety of animals, Demodex mites are recognized as a cause of mange. The role of Demodex mites as agents of human disease has been more controversial, but evidence favors their involvement in acneiform eruptions, folliculitis, and a range of eruptions in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25441466

  9. Th2 polarization by Der p 1--pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells is due to the allergic status of the donors.

    PubMed

    Hammad, H; Charbonnier, A S; Duez, C; Jacquet, A; Stewart, G A; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    2001-08-15

    The polarization of the immune response toward a Th2 or a Th1 profile can be mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) following antigen presentation and interaction with T cells. Costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 expressed by DCs, the polarizing cytokine environment during DC--T-cell interaction, and also the nature of the antigen are critical in the orientation of the immune response. In this study, the effect of the cysteine protease Der p 1, one of the major allergens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, on these different parameters was evaluated comparatively on monocyte-derived DCs obtained from healthy donors, from pollen-sensitive patients, or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Results showed that Der p 1 induced an increase in CD86 expression only on DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients. This was also associated with a higher capacity to induce T-cell proliferation, a rapid increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor--alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and the type 2 cytokine IL-10. No changes in the release of IL-12 p70 were induced by Der p 1. Finally, purified T cells from house dust mite-sensitive patients stimulated by autologous Der p 1--pulsed DCs preferentially produced IL-4 rather than interferon-gamma. These effects were abolished in the presence of the inactive precursor of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1). Taken together, these data suggest that DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients, in contrast to DCs from healthy donors and from pollen-sensitive patients, exposed to Der p 1 play a pivotal role in the enhancement of the Th2 response associated with the allergic reaction developed in response to house dust mite exposure. (Blood. 2001;98:1135-1141) PMID:11493462

  10. Allergens and Activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Response.

    PubMed

    Monie, Tom P; Bryant, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) provide a crucial function in the detection of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family of PRRs to be discovered and have been extensively studied since. Whilst TLRs remain the best characterized family of PRRs there is still much to be learnt about their mode of activation and the mechanisms of signal transduction they employ. Much of our understanding of these processes has been gathered through the use of cell based signaling assays utilizing specific gene-reporters or cytokine secretion based readouts. More recently it has become apparent that the repertoire of ligands recognized by these receptors may be wider than originally assumed and that their activation may be sensitized, or at least modulated by the presence of common household allergens such as the cat dander protein Fel d 1, or the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. In this chapter we provide an overview of the cell culture and stimulation processes required to study TLR signaling in HEK293 based assays and in bone marrow-derived macrophages. PMID:26803639

  11. Characterization of an immunomodulatory Der p 2-FIP-fve fusion protein produced in transformed rice suspension cell culture.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Fen; Kuo, I-Chun; Chen, Peng-Wen; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Seow, See Voon; Chua, Kaw Yan; Yu, Su-May

    2012-02-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens to allergic patients worldwide. FIP-fve protein (Fve) from the golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) is an immunomodulatory protein with potential Th1-skewed adjuvant properties. Here, we produced and immunologically evaluated a Der p 2-Fve fusion protein as a potential immunotherapeutic for allergic diseases. Using an inducible expression system in cultured rice suspension cells, the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein (designated as OsDp2Fve) was expressed in rice cells under the control of an α-amylase gene (αAmy8) promoter and secreted under sucrose starvation. OsDp2Fve was partially purified from the cultured medium. The conformation of Der p 2 in OsDp2Fve remains intact as reflected by its unaltered allergenicity, as assessed by human IgE ELISA and histamine release assays, compared to non-fusion Der p 2 protein. Furthermore, the Fve protein expressed in OsDp2Fve retains its in vitro lymphoproliferative activity but loses its hemagglutination and lymphoagglutination effects compared to the native protein. Notably, in vivo evaluation showed that mice administered with OsDp2Fve possessed an enhanced production of Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies without potentiating the production of Der p 2-specific IgE and Th2 effector cytokines in comparison with mice co-administered with native Fve and Der p 2 proteins. These results suggest that the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein produced in rice suspension cell cultures has a great potential for allergy immunotherapy. PMID:21556691

  12. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  13. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  14. Effect of high-dose sublingual immunotherapy on respiratory infections in children allergic to house dust mite

    PubMed Central

    Barberi, Salvatore; Verduci, Elvira; D'Auria, Enza; Poli, Piercarlo; Pietra, Benedetta; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Buttafava, Serena; Frati, Franco; Riva, Enrica

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is characterized by eosinophil inflammation. Allergic inflammation may induce susceptibility to respiratory infections (RI). House dust mite (HDM) sensitization is very frequent in childhood. Allergen immunotherapy may cure allergy as it restores a physiologic immune and clinical tolerance to allergen and exerts anti-inflammatory activity. Objective This study investigated whether six-month high-dose, such as 300 IR (index of reactivity), HDM-sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) could affect RI in allergic children. Methods Globally, 40 HDM allergic children (18 males; mean age, 9.3 years) were subdivided in 2 groups: 20 treated by symptomatic drugs (group 1) and 20 by high-dose HDM-SLIT (group 2), since September 2012 to April 2013. The daily maintenance dose of HDM-SLIT was 4 pressures corresponding to 24, 4.8, and 60 µg, respectively of the major allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1, Der p 2, and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) 1. RI was diagnosed when at least 2 symptoms or signs, and fever were present for at least 48 hours. A family pediatrician provided diagnosis on a clinical ground. Results SLIT-treated children had significantly (p = 0.01) less RI episodes (3.5) than control group (5.45). About secondary outcomes, SLIT-treated children had less episodes of pharyngo-tonsillitis (p < 0.05) and bronchitis (p < 0.005), and snoring (p < 0.05) than control group. In addition, SLIT-treated children had less fever (p < 0.01) and took fewer medications, such as antibiotics (p < 0.05) and fever-reducers (p < 0.01), than control group. Conclusion This preliminary study might suggest that also a short course (6 months) of high-dose SLIT, titrated in µg of major allergens, could reduce RI in allergic children. PMID:26240793

  15. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  16. Detection of haplotype mutations of the MD-2 gene promoter associated with Der p2-induced allergy using a nanostructured biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Yu-Ting; Liao, En-Chih; Wu, Chia-Che; Wang, Gou-Jen; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-01-01

    Group 2 allergens (Der p2) have been reported to be a major cause of the human immune response to dust mite allergens. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the effective differentiation between haplotype mutation and normal genes in the MD-2 gene promoter using a nanostructured biosensor. A 70-mer gene fragment containing the haplotype of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MD-2 gene promoter region was used as a probe to detect haplotype mutations associated with Der p2-induced allergy. Discrimination was achieved using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The discrimination experiments employed 30 haplotype mutation samples and 30 normal target samples. The haplotype mutation samples and normal target samples could be clearly discriminated, even using samples produced by a five-cycle polymerase chain reaction process. The time and cost of sample preparation for the polymerase chain reaction process in the clinical setting can thus be reduced. PMID:24648737

  17. Clinical and Laboratory Studies of the Fate of Intranasal Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, Janet; Santos, Conceição; Yli-Panula, Eija; Noronha, Virginia; Viander, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Background The precise way in which allergen is handled by the nose is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine recovery of Der p 1 allergen following nasal administration and to determine whether Der p 1 can be detected in nasal biopsies after natural exposure and nasal challenge to allergen. Methods (1) 20 nonatopic non-rhinitics were challenged with Der p 1 and recovery was measured by ELISA in the nasal wash, nasal mucus and induced sputum up to 30 minutes. Particulate charcoal (<40 μm) served as control. (2) In 8 subjects (5 atopics), 30 to 60 minutes after challenge histological localisation of Der p 1 in the nasal mucosal epithelium, subepithelial mucous glands and lamina propria was performed. Co-localisation of Der p 1 with macrophages and IgE-positive cells was undertaken. Results (1) Less than 25% of total allergen was retrievable after aqueous or particulate challenge, most from the nasal mucus during 1-5 min after the challenge. The median of carbon particles recovered was 9%. (2) Prechallenge Der p 1 staining was associated with the epithelium and subepithelial mucous glands. After challenge there was a trend for greater Der p 1 deposition in atopics, but both atopics and nonatopics showed increases in the number of Der p 1 stained cells and stained tissue compartments. In atopics, increased eosinophils, macrophages and IgE positive cells co-localized with Der p 1 staining. Conclusions Der p 1 allergen is detected in nasal tissue independent of atopic status after natural exposure. After challenge the nose effectively retains allergen, which remains mucosally associated; in atopics there is greater Der p 1 deposition and inflammatory response than in nonatopics. These results support the hypothesis that nasal mucus and tissue act as a reservoir for the inhaled Der p 1 allergen leading to a persistent allergic inflammatory response in susceptible individuals. PMID:25969994

  18. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  19. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  20. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy: to mix or not to mix?

    PubMed

    Nony, Emmanuel; Martelet, Armelle; Jain, Karine; Moingeon, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is established as a curative treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, as well as insect venom allergy. AIT is based on the administration of natural allergen extracts via the subcutaneous or sublingual routes to reorient the immune system towards tolerogenic mechanisms. In this regard, since many patients are poly-allergic, mixtures of allergen extracts are often used with a potential risk to cause allergen degradation, thereby affecting treatment efficacy. Herein, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of mixing homologous (i.e., related) or heterogeneous (i.e., unrelated) allergen extracts. We provide evidence for incompatibilities between mixes of grass pollen and house dust mite extracts containing bodies and feces, and summarize critical points to consider when mixing allergen extracts for AIT. PMID:26652799

  1. Efficacies of immunotherapy with polypeptide vaccine from ProDer f 1 in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaopin; Li, Qiuyu; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with the major house dust mite group 1 allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1, which belongs to the papin-like protease family and is the most potent of indoor allergens and allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), is seen as effective intervention for the entity. The current study was designed to verify the SIT efficacies of the enzymatic hydrolysates (papain and trypsin) in mice with asthma. We initially developed the asthmatic mouse models with ProDer f 1, and respectively applied recombinant ProDer f 1 protein and the two kinds of enzymatic hydrolysates for SIT. The results were verified by measuring the contents of IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ changed in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and supernatant of splenocyte culture as well as level changes of specific IgE and IgG2a in the serum. After SIT intervention, the symptoms of allergic inflammation was alleviated significantly in mice treated with ProDer f 1 protein and the two enzymatic hydrolysates via detection of the lung tissue sections, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was also notably depressed as compared with the models, though the epithelial structure in airways remained similar with the PBS group. In addition, we observed lower serum contents of the specific IgE antibody and lower levels of IL-4, IL-17 in BALF and splenic cells in mice undergone SIT, whereas specific IgG2a, IFN-γ and IL-10 in BALF and supernatant of splenocyte culture were higher as compared to the asthma group. The findings suggest the SIT using the above two kinds of hydrolysates may effectively inhibit the allergic inflammation in the airways of mouse models sensitized with ProDer f 1 protein. PMID:25932130

  2. Structural and functional localization of airway effects from episodic exposure of infant monkeys to allergen and/or ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P. . E-mail: jesse.joad@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Plopper, Charles G.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2006-08-01

    Both allergen and ozone exposure increase asthma symptoms and airway responsiveness in children. Little is known about how these inhalants may differentially modify airway responsiveness in large proximal as compared to small distal airways. We evaluated whether bronchi and respiratory bronchioles from infant monkeys exposed episodically to allergen and/or ozone differentially develop intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and whether eosinophils and/or pulmonary neuroendocrine cells play a role. Infant monkeys were exposed episodically for 5 months to: (1) filtered air, (2) aerosolized house dust mite allergen, (3) ozone 0.5 ppm, or (4) house dust mite allergen + ozone. Studying the function/structure relationship of the same lung slices, we evaluated methacholine airway responsiveness and histology of bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, intrinsic responsiveness was increased by allergen exposure, an effect reduced by bombesin antagonist. In respiratory bronchioles, intrinsic airway responsiveness was increased by allergen + ozone exposure. Eosinophils were increased by allergen and allergen + ozone exposure in bronchi and by allergen exposure in respiratory bronchioles. In both airways, exposure to allergen + ozone resulted in fewer tissue eosinophils than did allergen exposure alone. In bronchi, but not in respiratory bronchioles, the number of eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells correlated with airway responsiveness. We conclude that episodically exposing infant monkeys to house dust mite allergen with or without ozone increased intrinsic airway responsiveness to methacholine in bronchi differently than in respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells may play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.

  3. Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rael, Efren

    2016-09-01

    Allergies affect a large proportion of the population. Allergies can adversely affect productivity, sleep, and quality of life and can lead to life-threatening reactions. Allergies can spread to affect multiple organ systems. Allergen immunotherapy is the only therapy that can change the natural history of allergic disease. PMID:27545737

  4. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  5. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  7. [Allergen analysis].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental requirement when testing for and ensuring compliance with legally required labelling regulations is the reliable analysis of food allergens. This can be carried out by means of either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or protein detection. Protein detection has the advantage of directly detecting the allergenic component and can currently be carried out using immunological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA])/lateral flow devices [LFD]) or mass spectrometry-based techniques. DNA detection is indirect, but allows the presence of food allergens to be validated through the use of another marker. Each method has its pros and cons, which have to be considered on a case-by-case basis. ELISA is quantitative, quick and easy to carry out and has high sensitivity. LFD testing is ideal for industrial applications, as the tests can be carried out on-site. Both antibody-based tests may have problems with processed foods and false positive results. Mass-spectrometric techniques show a lot of promise, but are currently still time-consuming and complex to carry out. They also run into problems with processed foods and their degree of sensitivity is matrix and parameter dependent. For these reasons, this technique is only occasionally used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the highest specificity and, depending on the target sequence, a very good to good level of sensitivity. Despite the high stability of DNA, PCR is still subject to the influence of processing and matrix related factors. Due to natural variation and production-related changes in the structures relevant in the process of detection, all methods exhibit a relatively high level of uncertainty of measurement. At present, there is no method which provides the absolute correct quantification. However, by means of laboratory-based analyses it is possible to calibrate for the allergen in question and thus be able to make reliable measurements using methods that are already available. PMID

  8. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  9. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  10. Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

  11. Review on immunotherapy in airway allergen sensitised patients.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; de Jong, N W; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2015-07-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a more than 100-year-old treatment in particular for birch pollen, grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander sensitised allergic patients. The mechanism of allergen-specific immunotherapy is complex. Different hypotheses have been postulated to explain the mode of action, such as a decrease of the number of tissue mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, an increase of IgG4 and IgA synthesis, a shift from Th2 to Th1 cells and an increase in the number and function of IL-10 producing T-regulatory cells (T-reg). All these immunological effects may contribute to immune tolerance and long-term changes in the immune system. The efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with pollen and house dust mite have been investigated in many trials, meta-analyses and reviews. Nowadays grass pollen SLIT and SCIT, and birch pollen and house dust mite SCIT are implemented in clinical practice to treat therapy-resistant patients. However, the treatment is not effective for all patients and often not without side effects. Therefore, the development of new, safer and more effective immunotherapies is needed. These are approached along novel routes, including improved administration, combined treatment with immune response modifiers, fusion with immune response modifiers, allergen coupled to adjuvants and reconstruction of natural extracts with multiple recombinant allergens or with modified allergens. These developments are promising, but more research is required to implement them in clinical practice. PMID:26228190

  12. Orchestrating house dust mite-associated allergy in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) are one of the commonest aeroallergens worldwide and up to 85% of asthmatics are typically HDM allergic. Allergenicity is associated both with the mites themselves and with ligands derived from mite-associated bacterial and fungal products. Murine models of allergic airways disease for asthma research have recently switched from the use of surrogate allergen ovalbumin together with adjuvant to use of the HDM extract. This has accelerated understanding of how adaptive and innate immunity generate downstream pathology. We review the myriad ways in which HDM allergic responses are orchestrated. Understanding the molecular pathways that elicit HDM-associated pathology is likely to reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21783420

  13. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Vejvar, Eva; Kitzmüller, Claudia; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Nagl, Birgit; Vrtala, Susanne; Briza, Peter; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Bohle, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. The mediator-releasing activity of bGST was analysed with IgE-loaded rat basophil leukaemia cells (RBL) expressing human FcεRI. BALB/c mice were immunized with bGST or Bet v 1. Antibody and T cell responses to either protein were assessed. IgE-cross-reactivity between bGST with GST from house dust mite, Der p 8, was studied with murine and human sera in ELISA. The release kinetics of bGST and Bet v 1 from birch pollen were assessed in water, simulated lung fluid, 0.9% NaCl and PBS. Eluted proteins were quantified by ELISA and analysed by immunoblotting. Principle findings Only 13% of 217 birch pollen-allergic patients showed IgE-reactivity to bGST. In RBL assays bGST induced mediator release. Immunization of mice with bGST induced specific IgE and a Th2-dominated cellular immune response comparably to immunization with Bet v 1. bGST did not cross-react with Der p 8. In contrast to Bet v 1, only low amounts of bGST were released from pollen grains upon incubation in water and the different physiological solutions. Conclusion/Significance Although bGST is abundant in birch pollen, immunogenic in mice and able to induce mediator release from effector cells passively loaded with specific IgE, it is a minor allergen for birch pollen-allergic patients. We refer this discrepancy to its limited release from hydrated pollen. Hence, bGST is an example demonstrating that allergenicity depends mainly on rapid elution from airborne particles. PMID:25275548

  14. [Cross reactivity of food allergens and its clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, Denise Anne

    2005-10-01

    Cross-reactions between food allergens and other allergens are a major focus of interest. They include cross-allergies between Betulaceae and Compositae pollen, and also between fruits and vegetables (Prunoideae and Apiaceae). Cross-allergies between animal allergens include mites, cockroaches and crustaceans, milk and meat, animal epithelia, meat and egg. Cross-reactivity results from homology between protein sequences, and is highly likely when this homology reaches about 70%. Phylogenetically similar proteins occur in all species and are known as pan allergens. Profilins, Bet v1 homologues, and lipid transfer proteins have varying degrees of clinical relevance. The involvement of cross-reactivity in the persistence of sensitization and in allergic disorders is unclear. The consequences of cross-reactivity during specific immunotherapy with total allergenic extracts are random. Interpretation of biological tests of IgE binding is also biased by cross-reactivity. The use of panels of major recombinant allergens should help to identify specific sensitization profiles as well as clinically relevant sensitization. Cross-reactivity between epitopes of inhalants and of food allergens may perpetuate and intensify allergic disorders. The consequences of cross-reactivity between allergens and autologous proteins are unknown. PMID:16669147

  15. The evaluation of allergens and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, C S; Tang, R B; Chung, R L

    2000-12-01

    Knowing the incidence of allergic diseases and their relationship with allergens is a crucial requirement for therapeutic judgment. We present our experience on the incidence, clinical features and allergens of the allergic diseases detected by multiple allergosorbent chemiluminescent assay (MAST-CLA) in children from 1997 to 1999 at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The incidence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are significantly different when stratified by age groups. Among the enrolled 2008 patients, 980 (48.8%) patients have positive MAST-CLA results. Of these, 562 (57.3%) are male and 418 (42.7%) are female. A significant increase among patients with positive allergens is also found when stratified by age group. Inhalant allergen is the major allergen detected in our patients. House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), cockroaches, feathers, and dog dander show the highest incidence in the 7- to 12-year-old group. In the fungal group, Aspergillus and Penicillium also show a significant difference in the incidence among different age groups. Pollen allergens, on a whole, show significant difference in incidence among different age groups. The food allergen group shows variable significant difference in incidence. Crab, milk, and egg white show the highest significant incidence in the 2- to 6-year-old group. These results suggest that the incidence of allergens detected in allergic diseases varies among different age groups. PMID:11269366

  16. Allergens in school settings: results of environmental assessments in 3 city school systems.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Stuart L; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P; Bartholomew, L Kay; Joseph, Christine L M; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-08-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children. PMID:16918848

  17. Results of a field study on the influence of HygienicWood mattress toppers on the number of mites in bed dust and the state of health of people with house dust mite allergies

    PubMed Central

    Koburger, Torsten; Pitts, Deike; Kramer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: So far, there has been no practical or toxicologically non-hazardous way to decimate mites – without interrupting use of beds – in their main reservoir on bed mattresses to such an extent that the allergic condtion of people suffering from house dust mite allergies is reduced or even remedied. As so-called HygienicWood was effective against mites under simulated conditions, the influence of a mattress topper filled with HygienicWood chips on the content of mite antigen Der p1 was to be investigated and the influence on the state of health of the persons concerned analysed at the same time. Procedure: 32 test persons suffering from dust mite allergy were randomly selected. During the course of 5 months, the influence of a HygienicWood mattress topper on the content of the mite antigen Der p1 as well as the number of bacteria, dermatophytes and yeasts in the bed dust were determined and compared with the values obtained during the 5 weeks prior to the application of HygienicWood mattress toppers. The samples were taken from between the HygienicWood mattress topper and the sheet below. At the same time, changes in well-being, state of health, typical allergy symptoms and frequency of taking antihistamines and glucocorticoids were recorded as self-assessments in the form of questionnaires. Findings: The most striking finding was the significant decrease (p=0.000) of the house dust mite antigen Der p1 during usage of the HygienicWood mattress toppers. The effect started immediately after applying the toppers and continued with little fluctuation until the end of the observation period without lessening. At the end of the study, 43% of the test persons stated a slight improvement in their well-being. 13% of the test persons felt no change, and 6% of the test persons stated a slight deterioration. The situation was similar with regard to allergy symptoms: 43% reported a significant reduction, 38% a slight reduction, and 19% did not notice any change. The

  18. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  19. Allergen structures and epitopes.

    PubMed

    Meno, K H

    2011-07-01

    Human type 1 hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis are characterized by allergen-specific IgE antibodies produced in allergic individuals after allergen exposure. IgE antibodies bound to receptors on the surface of effector cells trigger an allergic response by interacting with three-dimensional (conformational) epitopes on the allergen surface. Crystal structures are available for complexes of antibody specifically bound to five allergens, from birch pollen, bee venom, cockroach, cow's milk and timothy grass pollen. The details of the antibody-allergen interaction extending all the way to atomic resolution are available from such complexes. In vitro investigations using recombinant monoclonal antibodies and human basophils show that binding affinity is a key to triggering the allergic response. Continued molecular characterization of antibody-allergen interactions is paving the way for the use of recombinant allergens in allergen-specific diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:21668845

  20. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  1. Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many patients with allergic rhinitis have symptoms due to sensitization to more than one kind of allergens, and mixed allergen extracts are widely used for immunotherapy, there are few published trials. Objective Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple-allergen immunotherapy on improving the symptoms and quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients. Methods We performed a 1-year single-center observation study of subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract (n = 12), weed pollen extract (n = 21), or mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract (n = 11) in 44 allergic rhinitis patients. All the allergens responsible for the symptom of each patient were included in his immunotherapy. Symptom score, medication score, and quality of life of the patients were evaluated before and after 1-year immunotherapy. Quality of life was evaluated with the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results In all 3 groups receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy, significant improvement of symptom score, medication score, and quality of life was found vs. baseline at 1 year, irrespective of the allergen used. In the weed pollen season, the changes of quality of life questionnaire score after 1-year treatment were not significantly different between the weed pollen group (1.55 ± 1.24) and the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen group (1.14 ± 1.01). The same happened in the nonpollen seasons, during which dust mite immunotherapy (1.23 ± 1.63) and mixed immunotherapy (0.60 ± 0.47) did not show significantly different effect on the quality of life. Conclusion The multiple-allergen immunotherapy might be effective in polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients, and could improve their quality of life. Our result did not show significant difference between the effects of multiple-allergen immunotherapy and mono-allergen immunotherapy. PMID:27489789

  2. Peanut allergens: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided. PMID:23638932

  3. Comparative analysis of biological activities of Der p I-derived peptides on Fc epsilon receptor-bearing cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-sensitive patients.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Pestel, J; Bossus, M; Lassalle, P; Tartar, A; Tonnel, A B

    1993-04-01

    The ability of four uncoupled synthetic peptides (p52-71, p117-133, p176-187, p188-199) derived from Der p I, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) to stimulate Fc epsilon R+ cells from Dpt-sensitive patients was comparatively analysed. Each free peptide may specifically stimulate basophils (Fc epsilon RI+ cells) and platelets (Fc epsilon RII+ cells) from patients with significant levels of anti-Der p I IgE antibodies; p52-71 and p117-133 appear the best cell stimulation inducers. Both concentration-dependent biological activities of Der p I-peptide on Fc epsilon R+ cells are enhanced by coupling peptide to a carrier (as human serum albumin). Interestingly each Der p I-sensitive patient tested presents an individual pattern of response to peptide. Thus, from our results it appears that different Der p I sequences could be involved in the immune response to Der p I. PMID:7682161

  4. Comparative analysis of biological activities of Der p I-derived peptides on Fc epsilon receptor-bearing cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-sensitive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jeannin, P; Pestel, J; Bossus, M; Lassalle, P; Tartar, A; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    The ability of four uncoupled synthetic peptides (p52-71, p117-133, p176-187, p188-199) derived from Der p I, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) to stimulate Fc epsilon R+ cells from Dpt-sensitive patients was comparatively analysed. Each free peptide may specifically stimulate basophils (Fc epsilon RI+ cells) and platelets (Fc epsilon RII+ cells) from patients with significant levels of anti-Der p I IgE antibodies; p52-71 and p117-133 appear the best cell stimulation inducers. Both concentration-dependent biological activities of Der p I-peptide on Fc epsilon R+ cells are enhanced by coupling peptide to a carrier (as human serum albumin). Interestingly each Der p I-sensitive patient tested presents an individual pattern of response to peptide. Thus, from our results it appears that different Der p I sequences could be involved in the immune response to Der p I. PMID:7682161

  5. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and relationship to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Crockett, Patrick W.; Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing was the first population-based study to measure indoor allergen levels in US homes. Objective We characterized the overall burden to multiple allergens and examined whether elevated allergen levels were associated with occupants’ asthma status. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the US. Information was collected by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Allergen concentrations in dust samples were assessed by immunoassays. The following cut points were used to define elevated allergen levels: 10 μg/g for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Can f 1; 8 μg/g for Fel d 1; 8 U/g Bla g 1; 1.6 μg/g for mouse urinary protein; and 7 μg/g for Alternaria antigens. Allergen burden was considered high when 4 or more allergens exceeded elevated levels in any of the sampling locations. Results Exposure to multiple allergens was common in US homes. Of the surveyed homes, 51.5% had at least 6 detectable allergens and 45.8% had at least 3 allergens exceeding elevated levels. Occupants’ race, income, housing type, absence of children, and presence of smokers, pets, cockroaches, rodents and mold/moisture related problems were independent predictors of high allergen burden. Among atopics, high allergen burden increased the odds of having asthma symptoms (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.04-3.15). Conclusion Elevated allergen levels in the home are associated with asthma symptoms in allergic individuals. Clinical implication In allergic asthma, indoor allergen exposures play an important role in asthma exacerbations. PMID:18255132

  6. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3–5 years: 1500 children; Age 6–12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3–5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3–5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite. PMID:26371014

  7. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. PMID:25778347

  8. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance. PMID:1722776

  9. Sensitization to house-dust mite and mite fauna in selected children's homes in Kütahya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Yilmaz, Sema

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the house-dust mite allergy and prevalence of house-dust mites in dwellings of children who were tested for specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and D. farinae on the suspicion of allergic rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma. All dust specimens collected from children's houses were investigated under a light microscope. House-dust mites were found in 31.7% of houses of children with a specific IgE, while the rate was 27.5% in houses of those without a specific IgE. Overall, house dust specimens collected from a total of 92 houses were examined, and mites were found in 27 (29.3%) of them. Both Der p and Der f were found in 38 (92.7%), while mixed allergy (D. pteronyssinus + D. farinae) was found in 3 (7.3%). Der p allergy (100%) was found in all of the allergic children, while no child was found with specific IgE for Der f allergy, except in mixed allergies. PMID:19817266

  10. PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

  11. Lipocalins as allergens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, R; Rautiainen, J; Virtanen, T

    2000-10-18

    The term allergy refers to clinical conditions caused by an inappropriate immune response to innocuous proteins in genetically predisposed persons. Allergens of animal origin are responsible for a significant proportion of allergies. In recent years, it has become evident that practically all respiratory animal allergens characterized at the molecular level belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. The current list comprises the major allergens of horse, cow, dog, mouse, rat and cockroach as well as beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. While the molecular structure of all these allergens is known, far less information is available regarding their immunological characteristics. Knowing the way the immune system recognizes these allergens and reacts to them might, however, be the key for discovering the common denominator of the allergenicity of lipocalins. The human body contains numerous endogenous lipocalins, and the immune system has to adapt to their presence. We have proposed that under these conditions the immune response against the lipocalin allergens which are structurally related to endogenous lipocalins might be the pathway to allergy in genetically predisposed persons. The same might well apply also to other allergens with homologous endogenous counterparts. PMID:11058771

  12. Peanut Allergens and Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolu...

  13. Dimerization of lipocalin allergens

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Merja H.; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Miettinen, Ilja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins are one of the most important groups of inhalant animal allergens. The analysis of structural features of these proteins is important to get insights into their allergenicity. We have determined two different dimeric crystal structures for bovine dander lipocalin Bos d 2, which was earlier described as a monomeric allergen. The crystal structure analysis of all other determined lipocalin allergens also revealed oligomeric structures which broadly utilize inherent structural features of the β-sheet in dimer formation. According to the moderate size of monomer-monomer interfaces, most of these dimers would be transient in solution. Native mass spectrometry was employed to characterize quantitatively transient dimerization of two lipocalin allergens, Bos d 2 and Bos d 5, in solution. PMID:26346541

  14. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. PMID:12915766

  15. Evaluation on the immunotherapy efficacies of synthetic peptide vaccines in asthmatic mice with group I and II allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaopin; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Haifeng; Zhu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    To assess the immunotherapy efficacies of recombinant vaccines containing T-cell epitopes derived from group I and allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1, Der p2). Forty female BALB/c mice were randomized into groups of negative control (PBS group), positive controls (Asthma group), immunotherapy with rDer p1 and rDer p2 protein suspension (rDer p1/rDer p2 group) and specific immunotherapy with fusion peptide T1-8 (T1-8 group). Asthmatic mouse models were initially established with the crude extract from house dust mites (HDM), and PBS models were solely treated with PBS buffer. The two treatment groups were managed with corresponding protein via subcutaneous injection at the back 30 minutes before inhalation sensitization from day 25 to 27. Twenty-four hour following the final inhalation challenge, sera, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the supernatant of splenocyte cultures (SSCC) were collected in each group of mice. ELISA was used to assay the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 in the BALF and SSCC, as well as serum levels of specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a. The lung tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for pathological examination. ELISA detection revealed reduced levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in the BALF and SSCC, yet increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-10, and decreased specific serum IgE and IgG1, yet increased serum IgG2a in T1-8 group and rDer p1/rDer p2 group than asthma group (P<0.05). T1-8 group had lower IL-4 and IL-17 level and higher IFN-γ and IL-10 level in the BALF and SSCC as well as reduced specific serum IgE and IgG1, yet elevated IgG2a level compared to rDer p1/rDer p2 group (P<0.05). Examination on the lung sections indicated significantly abated pulmonary inflammation, less inflammatory cell infiltration and better remodeled airway epithelia in T1-8 group and rDer p1/rDer p2 group than asthma group. However, the airway epithelium structure T1-8 group and rDer p1/rDer p2 group remained similar to

  16. Inhaled allergen bronchoprovocation tests.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail M; Cockcroft, Don W; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Sterk, Peter J; de Jongh, Frans H C; Dahlén, Barbro; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    The allergen bronchoprovocation test is a long-standing exacerbation model of allergic asthma that can induce several clinical and pathophysiologic features of asthma in sensitized subjects. Standardized allergen challenge is primarily a research tool, and when properly conducted by qualified and experienced investigators, it is safe and highly reproducible. In combination with validated airway sampling and sensitive detection techniques, allergen challenge allows the study of several features of the physiology of mainly TH2 cell-driven asthma in relation to the kinetics of the underlying airway pathology occurring during the allergen-induced late response. Furthermore, given the small within-subject variability in allergen-induced airway responses, allergen challenge offers an adequate disease model for the evaluation of new (targeted) controller therapies for asthma in a limited number of subjects. In proof-of-efficacy studies thus far, allergen challenge showed a fair positive predicted value and an excellent negative predictive value for the actual clinical efficacy of new antiasthma therapies, underscoring its important role in early drug development. In this review we provide recommendations on challenge methods, response measurements, sample size, safety, and harmonization for future applications. PMID:24119772

  17. Common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301

  18. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  19. Allergens stimulate store-operated calcium entry and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Prakriya, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca2+ elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca2+ elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca2+ entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412

  20. Allergens stimulate store-operated calcium entry and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H; Schleimer, Robert P; Prakriya, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca(2+) elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca(2+) elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca(2+) entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412

  1. Cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and food allergens.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2015-06-26

    In patients with respiratory allergy, cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and foods may induce food allergy, symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Clinical entities due to IgE sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are described for many sources of plant origin (pollen-food syndromes and associations, such as birch-apple, cypress-peach and celery-mugwort-spice syndromes, and mugwort-peach, mugwort-chamomile, mugwort-mustard, ragweed-melon-banana, goosefoot-melon associations), fungal origin (Alternaria-spinach syndrome), and invertebrate, mammalian or avian origin (mite-shrimp, cat-pork, and bird-egg syndromes). Clinical cases of allergic reactions to ingestion of food products containing pollen grains of specific plants, in patients with respiratory allergy to Asteraceae pollen, especially mugwort and ragweed, are also mentioned, for honey, royal jelly and bee polen dietary supplements, along with allergic reactions to foods contaminated with mites or fungi in patients with respiratory allergy to these aeroallergens. Medical history and diagnosis approach may be guided by the knowledge about the diverse cross-reacting allergens involved, and by the understanding of these clinical entities which may vary significantly or may be overlapping. The association between primary IgE sensitization with respiratory symptoms to inhaled allergens and food allergy due to cross-reactive allergen components is important to assess in allergy practice. The use of molecular-based diagnosis improves the understanding of clinically relevant IgE sensitization to cross-reactive allergen components from aeroallergen sources and foods. PMID:26140270

  2. Cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and food allergens

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2015-01-01

    In patients with respiratory allergy, cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and foods may induce food allergy, symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Clinical entities due to IgE sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are described for many sources of plant origin (pollen-food syndromes and associations, such as birch-apple, cypress-peach and celery-mugwort-spice syndromes, and mugwort-peach, mugwort-chamomile, mugwort-mustard, ragweed-melon-banana, goosefoot-melon associations), fungal origin (Alternaria-spinach syndrome), and invertebrate, mammalian or avian origin (mite-shrimp, cat-pork, and bird-egg syndromes). Clinical cases of allergic reactions to ingestion of food products containing pollen grains of specific plants, in patients with respiratory allergy to Asteraceae pollen, especially mugwort and ragweed, are also mentioned, for honey, royal jelly and bee polen dietary supplements, along with allergic reactions to foods contaminated with mites or fungi in patients with respiratory allergy to these aeroallergens. Medical history and diagnosis approach may be guided by the knowledge about the diverse cross-reacting allergens involved, and by the understanding of these clinical entities which may vary significantly or may be overlapping. The association between primary IgE sensitization with respiratory symptoms to inhaled allergens and food allergy due to cross-reactive allergen components is important to assess in allergy practice. The use of molecular-based diagnosis improves the understanding of clinically relevant IgE sensitization to cross-reactive allergen components from aeroallergen sources and foods. PMID:26140270

  3. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut. PMID:26593515

  4. Allergens on Desktop Surfaces in Preschools and Elementary Schools of Urban Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, James; Chapman, Martin D.; King, Eva-Maria; Martirosyan, Karine; Baxi, Sachin N.; Permaul, Perdita; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kopel, Lianne; Bailey, Ann; Fu, Chunxia; Petty, Carter R.; Gold, Diane R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Desktop dust has been studied as a source of food allergen, but not as a source of potential aeroallergen exposure. Methods 36 wiped samples from desktop surfaces were collected from preschools and schools. Samples were analyzed for detectable levels of common aeroallergens including Alternaria, cockroach, dog, dust mite, cat, mouse, and rat allergens by immunoassay. Results Mouse allergen was the most prevalent, detectable in 97.2% of samples. Cat allergen was detectable in 80.6% of samples and dog allergen was detectable in 77.8% of samples. Other allergens were not as prevalent. Mouse was the only allergen that was highly correlated with settled floor dust collected from the same rooms (r=0.721, p<0.001). Conclusion This is the first study to detect aeroallergens on desktop surfaces by using moist wipes. Allergens for mouse, cat, and dog were highly detectable in wipes with mouse desktop surface levels correlating with levels in vacuumed floor dust. PMID:24750034

  5. Allergens on desktop surfaces in preschools and elementary schools of urban children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Kanchongkittiphon, W; Sheehan, W J; Friedlander, J; Chapman, M D; King, E-M; Martirosyan, K; Baxi, S N; Permaul, P; Gaffin, J M; Kopel, L; Bailey, A; Fu, C; Petty, C R; Gold, D R; Phipatanakul, W

    2014-07-01

    Desktop dust has been studied as a source of food allergen, but not as a source of potential aeroallergen exposure. Thirty-six wiped samples from desktop surfaces were collected from preschools and schools. Samples were analyzed for detectable levels of common aeroallergens including Alternaria, cockroach, dog, dust mite, cat, mouse, and rat allergens by immunoassay. Mouse allergen was the most prevalent, detectable in 97.2% of samples. Cat allergen was detectable in 80.6% of samples, and dog allergen was detectable in 77.8% of samples. Other allergens were not as prevalent. Mouse was the only allergen that was highly correlated with settled floor dust collected from the same rooms (r = 0.721, P < 0.001). This is the first study to detect aeroallergens on desktop surfaces by using moist wipes. Allergens for mouse, cat, and dog were highly detectable in wipes with mouse desktop surface levels correlating with levels in vacuumed floor dust. PMID:24750034

  6. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg−1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg−1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

  7. A survey of serum specific-lgE to common allergens in primary school children of Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Yang, Winnie; Wu, Wei-Fong

    2010-03-01

    Environmental factors and eating habits have had a significant impact on the increased sensitization to allergens in children. This study investigated changes in common allergen sensitivities among children in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total of 142 primary schools in Taipei City, which included 25,094 students aged 7-8 years, were surveyed using an ISAAC questionnaire to screen for allergies. For positive responders, serum allergen-specific IgE was confirmed using the Pharmacia CAP system. A total of 1,500 students (5.98%) had confirmed sensitivities to allergens. Dust mite sensitivity among these children was nearly 90%. The prevalences of sensitivities to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis were 90.79%, 88.24%, and 84.63%, respectively. Dog dander (29.95%) was the second most common aeroallergen to induce sensitivity. Allergies to cat dander (8.69%) and to cockroach (15.48%) had decreased dramatically compared with previous analyses. Among the food allergens studied, the most common allergens that induced sensitization were (in order of prevalence) crab, milk, egg white, and shrimp (88.08%, 22.45%, 24.23%, and 21.44%, respectively). Mold and pollen sensitization was identified in fewer than 2% of the schoolchildren. Dust mites remain the most common allergen to induce allergic sensitization among children in Taipei City, while cockroach and mold sensitivities have dramatically declined. Food allergens should also be considered as a trigger of respiratory allergy. Except for dust mites, American cockroach and crab, allergens commonly reported to induce sensitization in other Asian counties are not common in Taiwan. PMID:20527509

  8. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  9. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  10. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies. PMID:26826364

  11. Combined Sensitization of Mice to Extracts of Dust Mites, Ragweed and Aspergillus Breaks through Tolerance and Establishes Chronic Features of Asthma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goplen, Nicholas; Karim, M. Zunayet; Liang, Qiaoling; Gorska, Magdalena M; Rozario, Sadee; Guo, Lei; Alam, Rafeul

    2009-01-01

    Background Existing asthma models develop tolerance when chronically exposed to the same allergen. Objective To establish a chronic model that sustains features of asthma long after discontinuation of allergen exposure. Methods We immunized and exposed mice to a combination of single, double or triple allergens (dust-mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus) intranasally for 8 weeks. Airway hyperreactivity and morphological features of asthma were studied 3 weeks after the allergen exposure. Signaling effects of the allergens were studied on dendritic cells. Results Sensitization and repeated exposure to a single allergen induced tolerance. Sensitization to double, and especially triple allergens broke through tolerance and established AHR, eosinophilic inflammation, mast cell and smooth muscle hyperplasia, mucus production and airway remodeling that persisted at least 3 weeks after allergen exposure. Mucosal exposure to triple allergens in the absence of an adjuvant was sufficient to induce chronic airway inflammation. Anti-IL5 and -IL13 antibodies inhibited inflammation and AHR in the acute asthma model but not in the chronic triple allergen model. Multiple allergens produce a synergy in p38 MAPK signaling and maturation of dendritic cells, which provides a heightened T cell co-stimulation at a level that cannot be achieved with a single allergen. Conclusions Sensitivity to multiple allergens leads to chronic asthma in mice. Multiple allergens synergize in dendritic cell signaling and T cell stimulation that allows escape from the single allergen-associated tolerance development. Clinical Implications We have developed a model of chronic asthma that allows for the study and treatment of long-lasting features of asthma obviating the need for acute de novo allergen challenges. PMID:19348928

  12. Mammalian lipocalin allergens--insights into their enigmatic allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, T; Kinnunen, T; Rytkönen-Nissinen, M

    2012-04-01

    Most of the important mammal-derived respiratory allergens, as well as a milk allergen and a few insect allergens, belong to the lipocalin protein family. As mammalian lipocalin allergens are found in dander, saliva and urine, they disperse effectively and are widely present in the indoor environments. Initially, lipocalins were characterized as transport proteins for small, principally hydrophobic molecules, but now they are known to be involved in many other biological functions. Although the amino acid identity between lipocalins is generally at the level of 20-30%, it can be considerably higher. Lipocalin allergens do not exhibit any known physicochemical, functional or structural property that would account for their allergenicity, that is, the capacity to induce T-helper type 2 immunity against them. A distinctive feature of mammalian lipocalin allergens is their poor capacity to stimulate the cellular arm of the human or murine immune system. Nevertheless, they induce IgE production in a large proportion of atopic individuals exposed to the allergen source. The poor capacity of mammalian lipocalin allergens to stimulate the cellular immune system does not appear to result from the function of regulatory T cells. Instead, the T cell epitopes of mammalian lipocalin allergens are few and those examined have proved to be suboptimal. Moreover, the frequency of mammalian lipocalin allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells is very low in the peripheral blood. Importantly, recent research suggests that the lipocalin allergen-specific T cell repertoires differ considerably between allergic and healthy subjects. These observations are compatible with our hypothesis that the way CD4(+) T-helper cells recognize the epitopes of mammalian lipocalin allergens may be implicated in their allergenicity. Indeed, as several lipocalins exhibit homologies of 40-60% over species, mammalian lipocalin allergens may be immunologically at the borderline of self and non-self, which would not

  13. Enhancement of mite antigen-induced histamine release by deuterium oxide from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamura, T.

    1981-09-01

    The mite antigen-induced histamine release from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients was enhanced in the presence of deuterium oxide, which stabilizes microtubules. This enhancing effect of deuterium oxide on the histamine release from leucocytes may provide a useful means for the detection of allergens in vitro in chronic urticaria.

  14. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Asthmatic Children Sensitized to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei; Hu, Qi; Shen, Lei-Lei; Hu, Ying; Tao, Hai-feng; Li, Hui-fan; Fan, Wen-ting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The house dust mite is one of the most common allergens worldwide. There is good evidence that house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy is efficacious and has long-term benefit in children. However, the evidence of the benefit of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is less convincing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate that efficacy and safety of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases until February 2014 were searched. The primary outcome was mean change in asthma symptom score. Secondary outcomes included mean change in serum immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4), specific Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and medication score. Safety was also assessed. We found that SLIT significantly decreased asthma symptom score (P = 0.007) and increased sIgG4 levels (P = 0.011) greater than control in children (<18 years of age) with asthma. There was no difference between SLIT and control groups in specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels (P = 0.076) and medication score (P = 0.408). The safety profile was similar between groups. Our study indicates that dust mite SLIT therapy was effective in reducing asthma symptoms and in increasing sIgG4 but did not significantly reduce medication scores or specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels. Our findings are not enough to support the use of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma.

  15. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  16. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products. PMID:21901563

  17. Modeling responses to respiratory house dust mite exposure.

    PubMed

    Cates, Elizabeth C; Fattouh, Ramzi; Johnson, Jill R; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Jordana, Manel

    2007-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is the most pervasive indoor aeroallergen source worldwide. Allergens derived from HDM are associated with sensitization and allergic asthma. Allergic asthma is an immunologically driven disease characterized by a Th2-polarized immune response, eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, and remodeling. Animal models of asthma utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) exposure have afforded us considerable insight with respect to the mediators and cell types involved in allergic airway inflammation. However, OVA preparations and HDM are two vastly different materials. This chapter is specifically concerned with modeling responses to HDM exposure in mice. These studies have furnished new information and unlocked new lines of inquiry regarding biological responses to common aeroallergens. The complexity of HDM as an allergen source, with its plethora of protein and nonprotein immunogenic components, may influence the mechanisms underlying sensitization, inflammation and remodeling. Here, we will discuss this issue, along with giving critical thought to the use of experimental models. PMID:17684332

  18. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  19. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J; Shek, L P; Shek, L; Khor, E S; Wang, D Y; Lee, B W

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the sensitization pattern to a range of common allergens in young Singaporean children. A cross-sectional study involving 75 children aged below 3 years was carried out. They presented between December 1995 and April 2000 with symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits. Serum IgE levels greater than 0.35 kU/l represented a positive result. Four children could not be tested with the complete panel because of insufficient serum. The prevalence of sensitization was highest for cow's milk (45.9%) followed by egg white (38.7%), dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.4%) and Blomia tropicalis (25.5%). Sensitization to ingested allergens was significantly more prevalent in children aged 1 year or younger than in the older children (70.4% of those below 1 year, and 50% of those aged 1-3 years; p < 0.02). Sensitization to inhaled allergens, such as dust mites, was more likely to manifest as respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis and asthma), while ingested allergens were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and eczema (p < 0.001). It was concluded that infants and young children are at high risk of sensitization to common environmental substances. Allergen avoidance is therefore important even in the very young. The prevalence of sensitization to food allergens is higher compared to inhalant allergens in young children. PMID:12009071

  20. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  1. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes. PMID:25577848

  2. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen. PMID:12134645

  3. Glycoproteomic Analysis of Seven Major Allergenic Proteins Reveals Novel Post-translational Modifications*

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C.; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L.; Wandall, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM1 characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines. PMID:25389185

  4. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  5. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins and IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologues were performed. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and non-homologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of Immunocap™ identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologues in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologues in helminths. Mice infected with helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologues in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and brings a new perspective to the Hygiene Hypothesis. PMID:25404363

  6. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis." PMID:25404363

  7. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    PubMed Central

    Haahtela, T; Burbach, G J; Bachert, C; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Bousquet, J; Bousquet-Rouanet, L; Bousquet, P J; Bresciani, M; Bruno, A; Canonica, G W; Darsow, U; Demoly, P; Durham, S R; Fokkens, W J; Giavi, S; Gjomarkaj, M; Gramiccioni, C; Kowalski, M L; Losonczy, G; Orosz, M; Papadopoulos, N G; Stingl, G; Todo-Bom, A; von Mutius, E; Köhli, A; Wöhrl, S; Järvenpää, S; Kautiainen, H; Petman, L; Selroos, O; Zuberbier, T; Heinzerling, L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Within a large prospective study, the Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA2LEN) has collected skin prick test (SPT) data throughout Europe to make recommendations for SPT in clinical settings. Objective To improve clinical interpretation of SPT results for inhalant allergens by providing quantitative decision points. Methods The GA2LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy). The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed. For each allergen, the wheal size in mm with an 80% positive predictive value (PPV) for being clinically relevant was calculated. Results Depending on the allergen, from 40% (blatella) to 87–89% (grass, mites) of the positive SPT reactions (wheal size ≥ 3 mm) were associated with patient-reported clinical symptoms when exposed to the respective allergen. The risk of allergic symptoms increased significantly with larger wheal sizes for 17 of the 18 allergens tested. Children with positive SPT reactions had a smaller risk of sensitizations being clinically relevant compared with adults. The 80% PPV varied from 3 to 10 mm depending on the allergen. Conclusion These ‘reading keys’ for 18 inhalant allergens can help interpret SPT results with respect to their clinical significance. A SPT form with the standard allergens including mm decision points for each allergen is offered for clinical use. PMID:24283409

  8. Mechanisms of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Ozge U; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative approach in the treatment of allergic diseases defined up-to-date. Peripheral T-cell tolerance to allergens, the goal of successful allergen-SIT, is the primary mechanism in healthy immune responses to allergens. By repeated administration of increased doses of the causative allergen, allergen-SIT induces a state of immune tolerance to allergens through the constitution of T regulatory (Treg) cells, including allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells; induction of suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor β; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4 and IgA; and suppression of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and inflammatory dendritic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen-SIT with emphasis on the roles of Treg cells in allergen-SIT. PMID:21530813

  9. A study on the prevalence of house dust mites in Al-Arish city, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Gihad T; El-Sherbini, Eman T; Saled, Nagla Mostafa K; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-04-01

    Free living mites comprise a huge and various groups of tiny arthropods in the class Arachida, mainly of the Pyroglyphidae family. Exposure to allergens derived from house dust mite (HDM) feces is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development and asthma morbidity. However, practical and effective method to mitigate these allergens in low-income, urban home environments remains elusive. It well known that (HDM) physiology is greatly affected by hydrothermal microclimatic condition. El Arish has subtropical climate and warm humid summer, such situation are favourable to proliferate house dust mites. As no valid data are available for house dust mites fauna of El Arish, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and contamination rates of homes in El Arish city. Samples of house dust collected in 2008 from 50 houses in El Arish city were subjected to acarological examination. Acri were found in (34.6 %) of the samples collected from these homes. Results indicated that dust mites were present in all humid environments. Also, hypersensitivity to dust mites was common among patients with asthma. PMID:20503586

  10. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  11. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  12. Rebamipide suppresses mite-induced asthmatic responses in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Ikuo; Zhang, Ran; Kubo, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Eri; Ogino, Keiki

    2015-10-15

    Allergic asthma caused by continuous allergen exposure evokes allergen-specific Th2 responses and is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. A previous report showed that rebamipide improved asthmatic symptoms in an ovalbumin/trypsin mice model. However, it is still unclear how rebamipide exerts its effects in asthma. In this study, rebamipide improved the asthmatic responses induced by mite exposure in NC/Nga mice, revealing the mechanism of this therapeutic effect. Rebamipide suppressed the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and lung as well as attenuating the production of reactive oxygen species in tissues. In addition to these anti-inflammatory effects, rebamipide inhibited the production of IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family that drives the subsequent production of Th2-associated cytokines. These observations identify the point where rebamipide exerts its suppressive action on asthma and suggest that rebamipide has therapeutic potential in preventing mite-induced asthma. PMID:26472814

  13. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  14. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens. PMID:1482294

  15. New strategies for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carnés, Jerónimo; Robinson, Douglas S

    2008-06-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy, consisting in the administration of increasing amounts of offending allergens into sensitive patients was first used nearly one hundred years ago and remains in use worldwide for treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. It has been recognised as the only effective treatment for type I allergic diseases when the appropriate quantities of allergens are used. The immunological mechanisms by which specific immunotherapy is effective include the modulation of T cells and the response of B-cells and is accompanied by significant decreases of specific IgE and increases in allergen specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG4. While specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective and the most common way of administration other routes such as oral or intranasal ways have been considered as and alternative to subcutaneous injections. During the last century, allergenic vaccines have been prepared using individual allergens adsorbed to different adjuvant substances. These vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and good results in different clinical trials. However, many novel approaches to allergen immunotherapy have been developed in the last years in order to increase the safety and efficacy of allergenic vaccines. In that way, different and modern vaccines have been prepared including more purified products such as depigmented allergen extracts; allergoids, consisting on big molecules of thousands of kDa, which contain all the individual allergens and show a significant decrease in severe adverse reactions; peptides or small aminoacid sequences; recombinant allergens; hypoallergenic vaccines where the IgE binding sites have been modified; or allergen-CpG fusion molecules. New presentations are under study and new treatments will be developed in the near future with the objective that the prevention of allergic disease may become a reality. The review article also discuss recent patent related to the field. PMID:19075996

  16. Maternal respiratory sensitization and gestational allergen exposure does not affect subsequent pup responses to homologous or heterologous allergen.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the predisposition towards atopy begins early in life. Maternal allergy has been associated with an increased risk of the development of allergic disease in offspring. Some studies suggest that the development of childhood atopy may also be influenced by prenatal allergen exposure. In this study, a respiratory allergen exposure model was used to determine the impact of maternal sensitization (with or without additional exposures during pregnancy) on subsequent pup responses to homologous or heterologous allergen. Female BALB/c mice received two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) prior to breeding. Some mice also received three additional exposures during pregnancy. Control mothers did not receive treatment. Young adult offspring received three IA exposures to MACA, house dust mite extract (HDM) or HBSS. Offspring sensitized as young adults to either HDM or MACA developed an airway inflammatory response, including increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lactate dehydrogenase activity, total protein and total and differential cell counts compared to offspring exposed to HBSS. Increased airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in pups treated with HDM but not with MACA. Maternal sensitization status (with or without gestational allergen exposure) had no effect on offspring response to either MACA or HDM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IA administration of MACA or HDM extract to young adult BALB/c mice induces the development of an inflammatory airway response. In contrast to previous reports, neither maternal sensitization nor gestational allergen exposure could be demonstrated to have a clear effect on offspring sensitization. This discrepancy may be a function of the respiratory sensitization and exposure protocol used in this study, which mimics natural sensitization more closely than do parenteral routes of exposure. PMID

  17. Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month

    SciTech Connect

    Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

  18. Primary structure of Lep d I, the main Lepidoglyphus destructor allergen.

    PubMed

    Varela, J; Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Barbas, J A; Gimenez-Gallego, G; Polo, F

    1994-10-01

    The most relevant allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been characterized. Lep d I is a monomer protein of 13273 Da. The primary structure of Lep d I was determined by N-terminal Edman degradation and partially confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Sequence polymorphism was observed at six positions, with non-conservative substitutions in three of them. No potential N-glycosylation site was revealed by peptide sequencing. The 125-residue sequence of Lep d I shows approximately 40% identity (including the six cysteines) with the overlapping regions of group II allergens from the genus Dermatophagoides, which, however, do not share common allergenic epitopes with Lep d I. PMID:7925475

  19. House dust mite control measures in the treatment of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Gillian; McSharry, Charles; Wood, Stuart; Thomson, Neil C

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization to the house dust mite (Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus) (HDM) is the most common risk factor associated with the development of asthma in adults and children. The effectiveness of HDM control measures in the treatment of asthma is not yet proven. The strategies for control for avoidance depend on our understanding of the biology of the HDM. The evidence suggests a favorable effect of transferring allergic asthmatic children to naturally low dust mite environments, such as at altitude or in hospital, but little to suggest that this can be replicated in general practice by simple practical measures such as mattress covers. However, a recent multi-allergen reduction approach has suggested benefits may be achievable. HDM densities tend to be high in warm, humid conditions in the home, which may be modified by external factors, such as ventilation. However, ventilation control to reduce indoor humidity has had inconsistent effects on dust mite levels and asthma. The challenge is to further refine the interventions in large placebo-controlled trials such that clinical outcomes may be more easily demonstrated. PMID:18360647

  20. Immune response to flour and dust mites in a United Kingdom bakery.

    PubMed Central

    Tee, R D; Gordon, D J; Gordon, S; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Taylor, A J

    1992-01-01

    In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent of both groups were atopic (had a positive skin prick response greater than negative controls to D pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur by 2 mm or more) and 33% had an immediate skin prick test response to at least one of four storage mites (L destructor, G domesticus, T putrescentiae, A Siro). A higher percentage of the salt packing workers than the bakery workers had a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (greater than or equal to 0.35 PRU) to D pteronyssinus and to the four storage mites. Logistic regression analysis identified atopy as the most significant variable for a positive skin test and RAST response to storage mites in both groups of workers. RAST inhibition was used to analyse extracted area and personal air samples. Analysis of static area samples for aeroallergen showed immunological identity with flour but L destructor was found in only one of seven exposed filters. The concentration of airborne flour was related to exposure rank of perceived dustiness and gravimetric measurement of total dust. Nineteen out of 32 filters from workers in jobs with higher dust exposure (rank >/=6) had a level of > 10 microgram/m(3) flour whereas this concentrations was exceeded in only one of 23 filters from workers in low dust exposure (< rank 6). It is concluded that storage mites are not of special significance in allergic responses in bakery workers. The development of immunological (and airway) responsiveness to inhaled flour dust is increased in those exposed to higher concentrations of airborne allergen, which appears to be predominantly flour and not storage mites. PMID:1515350

  1. Allergen source materials: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Esch, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    A variety of positive outcomes can be realized from validation and risk management activities (see Table 4). They are dependent on the participation of multiple functional groups including the quality unit, regulatory and legal affairs, engineering and production operations, research and development, and sales and marketing. Quality risk management is receiving increased attention in the area of public health, pharmacovigilance, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recent examples of its regulatory use in our industry include the assessment of the potential risks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) agents through contaminated products], the risks of precipitates in allergenic extracts, and the revision of the potency limits for standardized dust mite and grass allergen vaccines. Its application to allergen source material process validation activities allowed for a practical strategy, especially in a complex manufacturing environment involving hundreds of products with multiple intended uses. In addition, the use of tools such as FMEA was useful in evaluating proposed changes made to manufacturing procedures and product specifications, new regulatory actions, and customer feedback or complaints. The success of such a quality assurance programs will ultimately be reflected in the elimination or reduction of product failures, improvement in the detection and prediction of potential product failures, and increased confidence in product quality. PMID:20799440

  2. Allergen skin test reactivities among asthmatic Thai children.

    PubMed

    Kongpanichkul, A; Vichyanond, P; Tuchinda, M

    1997-02-01

    Skin prick tests with 14 selected local aeroallergens were performed on 100 asthmatic children aged 0-16 years attending the Pediatric Allergy Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital. The 14 allergens included Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), Johnson grass (Sorghum halopense), Cladosporium clarosporoides, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium mix, Aspergillus mix, cat dander, dog dander, milk, egg white, soy and shrimp. Positive skin test reactivity was defined as a mean wheal diameter > or = 3 mm at the 20 minute reading. There were 68 males and 32 females. Their ages were between 0-2 years (n = 1), 2-5 years (n = 19), 5-10 years (n = 49) and 10-16 years (n = 31). Of all the subjects, 22 were classified as having mild asthma, 74 with moderate asthma and 4 with severe asthma. At least one skin prick test was positive in 74 subjects (74%) and two positive tests in 66 subjects (66%). The prevalence of sensitization to various allergens was as follows; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 67%, Dermatophagoides farinae 62%, American cockroach 44%, shrimp 14%, Johnson grass 14%, cat dander 10%, Alternaria 7%, Cladosporium 7%, dog dander 5%, soy 4%, Penicillium 3%, Aspergillus 2%, milk 2% and egg white 1%. The wheal size to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus did not correlate with age. In this group of asthmatic Thai children, house dust mites are the most important allergen causing sensitization. PMID:9078689

  3. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    PubMed Central

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F.; Van Dyck, K.; De Lepeleire, I.; Rivas, Veronica M.; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Ruddy, Marcella K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measured in this study. Methods Thirteen non-smoking, allergic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-period cross-over study following a single-blind placebo run-in period. Each period consisted of three consecutive days, separated by a wash-out period of at least 3 weeks. Subjects randomly received inhaled fluticasone ((FP) MDI; 500 mcg BID×5 doses in total) or placebo. On day 2, house dust mite extract was inhaled and airway response was measured by FEV1 at predefined time points until 7 h post-allergen. Sputum was induced by NaCl 4.5%, processed and analysed at 24 h pre-allergen and 7 and 24 h post-allergen. RNA was isolated from eligible sputum cell pellets (<80% squamous of 500 cells), amplified according to NuGEN technology, and profiled on Affymetrix arrays. Gene expression changes from baseline and fluticasone treatment effects were evaluated using a mixed effects ANCOVA model at 7 and at 24 h post-allergen challenge. Results Inhaled allergen-induced statistically significant gene expression changes in sputum, which were effectively blunted by fluticasone (adjusted p<0.025). Forty-seven RNA signatures were selected from these responses for correlation analyses and further validation. This included Th2 mRNA levels for cytokines, chemokines, high-affinity IgE receptor FCER1A, histamine receptor HRH4, and enzymes and receptors in the arachidonic pathway. Individual messengers from the 47 RNA signatures correlated significantly

  4. Demodex mites: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-01

    Because Demodex mites are ubiquitous, their potential as human pathogens has often been ignored. This contribution focuses on the growing body of evidence linking Demodex mites with various skin disorders. Histologically, spongiosis and lymphoid inflammation are regularly seen in follicles containing Demodex mites. In animals, they are well established as a cause of mange, and a human counterpart-demodectic alopecia-appears to exist. There is also a statistical association between Demodex mite density and rosacea, facial itching, and chronic blepharitis. Papulovesicular rosacealike lesions and spiny blepharitis often respond to agents that reduce Demodex numbers. Although these observations are not sufficient to fulfill Koch's postulates, Koch's postulates are also not fulfilled for the association between brown recluse spiders and dermal necrosis or the association between streptococci and guttate psoriasis. The evidence linking Demodex mites to human disease has implications regarding treatment. PMID:20797509

  5. Longitudinal profiles of serum specific IgE and IgG4 to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen and its major components during allergen immunotherapy in a cohort of southern Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangqiao; Zheng, Peiyan; Luo, Wenting; Huang, Huimin; Wei, Nili; Sun, Baoqing

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal data on serum specific sIgE and sIgG4 to allergen component of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) during allergen immunotherapy (AIT) are limited in Chinese populations. We serially followed up serum sIgE and sIgG4 to Der p and its components (Der p 1 and 2) in 51 Der p-sensitized children receiving guideline-based medications alone and additional 36-month AIT. The the Der p 1 and Der p 2 sIgE levels were elevated at 6 months and progressively declined from 12 months; the sIgG4 levels for Der p, Der p 1 and Der p 2 were increasing during the first year and reached a plateau thereafter; the sIgE/sIgG4 ratios for Der p 1 and Der p 2 decreased continuously from 6 through 24 months of AIT. Subgroup analysis showed that younger children (≤8years) experienced a greater increase in sIgG4 levels for Der p, Der p 1 and Der p 2 during AIT compared with older children (9-16 years). In summary, sIgE and sIgG4 to Der p 1 and Der p 2 may be more useful than those to Der p in reflecting the change in immunological reactivity during AIT. Earlier delivery of AIT may yield greater increase in sIgG4 after 36-month treatment than given later in life. PMID:27111568

  6. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible. PMID:24030367

  7. Suppression of allergic inflammation by allergen-DNA-modified dendritic cells depends on the induction of Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kui; Bi, Yuttian; Sun, Kun; Xia, Junbo; Wang, Yan; Wang, Changzheng

    2008-02-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play important roles in regulating allergic inflammation. To analyse if allergen-DNA-modified dendritic cells (DC) can suppress allergic responses and what roles Treg cells play in DC-based allergen-specific immunotherapy. Immature DC were transfected with retrovirus encoding Der p2 DNA, and administered to mice that sensitized and challenged with Der p2 protein. After Treg cells were depleted with anti-CD25 mAb, mice were re-challenged to observe the airway inflammation, and Treg cells in spleen CD4(+) T cells. And responses of spleen CD4(+) T cells to Der p2 were determined. Co-culture of naïve CD4(+) T cells with allergen-modified DC induced Foxp3+ Tregs. Sensitized and challenged mice developed allergic airway inflammation and Th2 responses, and decreased Foxp3(+) Tregs. Treatment with allergen-modified-DC suppressed airway inflammation and Th2 responses, and increased IL-10 and IFN-gamma production and Foxp3(+) Tregs significantly; and eliminated the responses of CD4(+) T cells to allergen. Administration of anit-CD25 mAb eliminated all the effects of modified-DC except for the increasing of IFN-gamma. Allergen-modified DC can induce immune tolerance to allergens and reverse the established Th2 responses induced by allergen, with dependence on the induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs. PMID:18201369

  8. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    PubMed

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy. PMID:8526179

  9. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  10. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  11. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  12. Testing small molecule analogues of the Acanthocheilonema viteae immunomodulator ES-62 against clinically relevant allergens.

    PubMed

    Janicova, L; Rzepecka, J; Rodgers, D T; Doonan, J; Bell, K S; Lumb, F E; Suckling, C J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2016-06-01

    ES-62 is a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae that protects against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in mice by virtue of covalently attached anti-inflammatory phosphorylcholine (PC) residues. We have recently generated a library of small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 based around its active PC moiety as a starting point in novel drug development for asthma and identified two compounds - termed 11a and 12b - that mirror ES-62's protective effects. In this study, we have moved away from OVA, a model allergen, to test the SMAs against two clinically relevant allergens - house dust mite (HDM) and cockroach allergen (CR) extract. We show that both SMAs offer some protection against development of lung allergic responses to CR, in particular reducing eosinophil infiltration, whereas only SMA 12b is effective in protecting against eosinophil-dependent HDM-induced allergy. These data therefore suggest that helminth molecule-induced protection against model allergens may not necessarily translate to clinically relevant allergens. Nevertheless, in this study, we have managed to demonstrate that it is possible to produce synthetic drug-like molecules based on a parasitic worm product that show therapeutic potential with respect to asthma resulting from known triggers in humans. PMID:27059010

  13. Improvement on the extraction method of RNA in mites and its quality test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Hu, Li; Yang, Yuan Jun; Niu, Dong Ling; Wang, Rui Ling; Li, Wen Hao; Ma, Si Jia; Cheng, Juan

    2016-02-01

    To solve the long-existing difficult problems in extracting RNA and constructing a complementary DNA (cDNA) library for trace mites, we conducted a further comparative experiment among three RNA extraction methods (TRIzol method, Omega method, and Azanno method) based on our previous attempts at the construction of cDNA library of mites, with Psoroptes cuniculi still used as the experimental subject. By subsequently decreasing the number of mites, the least number of mites needed for RNA extraction of each method were found by criteria of completeness, concentration, and purity of the extracted RNA. Specific primers were designed according to the allergen Pso c1, Pso c2, and Actin gene sequences of Psoroptes to test the reliability of cDNA library. The results showed that Azanno method needed only 10 mites with sensitivity 204 times higher than previously used TRIzol method and 20 times higher than Omega method; clear RNA band was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis; and ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination showed that RNA concentration, 260/280, and 260/230 were in the range of 102 to 166 ng/μl, 1.83 to 1.99, and 1.49 to 1.72, respectively. Finally, specific primers detection showed that the amplified sequences had 98.33, 98.19, and 99.52% identities with those of P. cuniculi or Psoroptes ovis in GenBank, respectively, indicating that the cDNA library constructed using 10 mites was successful and it could meet the requirements for molecular biology research. Therefore, we concluded that Azanno method was more effective than TRIzol method and Omega method in RNA extraction and cDNA library construction of trace mites. PMID:26545909

  14. Is There Any Parameter Helpful for Predicting a Suitable Candidate for Mite Immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Sait; Can, Demet; Erdem, Semiha Bahçeci; Nacaroğlu, Hikmet Tekin; Karkıner, Canan Şule; Günay, İlker

    2016-04-01

    Few biomarkers that can predict the clinical response to allergen immunotherapy (AIT) have been identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate parameters that could be used "in predicting the clinical response to AIT" in children with asthma caused by house dust mites. We evaluated 107 children with mild persistent asthma who were sensitised only to mite aeroallergens. The study group included 47 patients who underwent a 4-to-5-year course of subcutaneous immunotherapy with standardised mite allergenic extract. Sixty patients who had not undergone AIT but were allergic to house mites were included in the control group. The clinical features and laboratory parameters of patients who did and did not sustain remission were compared. Remission was achieved in 74.5% of the 47 patients in the study group and in 20% of those in the control group. In the study group, one parameter predictive of a clinical response to AIT was identified by multivariate logistic analysis. This parameter was the serum total IgE level (tIgE) at the time of diagnosis (OR 131.64 and CI 0.858-20193; p = 0.032). Serum tIgE levels ≤ 339 kU/L at diagnosis were associated with an effective clinical response to AIT, with a sensitivity of 64.5% and specificity of 88.9%. We conclude that measurement of the serum tIgE level can be used as a predictive test prior to AIT in patients sensitized to mite aeroallergens. PMID:27090363

  15. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  16. IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediate immune pathology in response to chronic airborne allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Koji; Kobayashi, Takao; Hara, Kenichiro; Kephart, Gail M; Ziegler, Steven F; McKenzie, Andrew N; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-08-15

    Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens in the atmospheric environment. These allergens may trigger a complex network of immune responses in the airways, resulting in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. In this study, we investigated the immunological mechanisms involved in the pathological changes induced by chronic exposure to multiple airborne allergens. Naive mice were exposed intranasally to a combination of common airborne allergens, including the house dust mite, Alternaria, and Aspergillus, for up to 8 wk. These allergens acted synergistically and induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, specific IgE Ab production, type 2 cytokine response, and airway hyperresponsiveness in 4 wk, followed by airway remodeling in 8 wk. Increased lung infiltration of T cells, B cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells was observed. CD4(+) T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells contributed to the sources of IL-5 and IL-13, suggesting involvement of both innate and adaptive immunity in this model. The lung levels of IL-33 increased quickly within several hours after allergen exposure and continued to rise throughout the chronic phase of inflammation. Mice deficient in IL-33R (Il1rl1(-/-)) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (Tslpr(-/-)) showed significant reduction in airway inflammation, IgE Ab levels, and airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, mice deficient in IL-25R or IL-1R showed minimal differences as compared with wild-type animals. Thus, chronic exposure to natural airborne allergens triggers a network of innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses and airway pathology, and IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin most likely play key roles in this process. PMID:25015831

  17. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30 % of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine. PMID:27002515

  18. Proteomic and immunological identification of two new allergens from silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiangjie; Li, Lin; Kuang, Zheshi; Luo, Guoqing; Li, BING

    2015-01-01

    This study explored food allergy caused by eating silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae, a traditionally accepted food and animal feed in East and Southeast Asia, and identified two new allergens by proteomic and immunological methods. Proteins isolated from silkworm pupae were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE); pooled sera from patients allergic to silkworm pupa proteins were used to detect immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding proteins by western blotting, and allergens specific for silkworm pupa consumption-caused allergy were visualised with the ECL reagents. The selected allergen proteins were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Finally, chitinase and paramyosin were identified as silkworm pupa proteins showing strong immunoglobulin (IgE)-binding reaction. Analysis of the sequence homology of the two proteins using the AllergenOnline database indicated that chitinase and paramyosin shared 24.8% and 62.8% sequence homology with known allergens Der f 18 (Dermatophagoides farinae) and Der p 11 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), respectively. Our results shed light on the understanding and treatment of silkworm pupa allergy. PMID:26155181

  19. A revisit to cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed. PMID:21038777

  20. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasitic mites (Acarina: Podapolipidae) and ectoparasitic fungi (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) occur on ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) throughout the world (Riddick et al., 2009). This study documents the interaction of a coccinellid-specific mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (McDaniel &...

  1. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  2. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  3. Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.

    PubMed

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  4. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  5. Understanding allergic asthma from allergen inhalation tests.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Donald W; Hargreave, Fredrick E; O'Byrne, Paul M; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2007-10-01

    The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors' involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta(2)-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation), advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a multicentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma. PMID:17948142

  6. Recombinant allergens for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Oliver; Häfner, Dietrich; Nandy, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Recombinant DNA technology provides the means for producing allergens that are equivalent to their natural counterparts and also genetically engineered variants with reduced IgE-binding activity. The proteins are produced as chemically defined molecules with consistent structural and immunologic properties. Several hundred allergens have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins, and these provide the means for making a very detailed diagnosis of a patient's sensitization profile. Clinical development programs are now in progress to assess the suitability of recombinant allergens for both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Recombinant hypoallergenic variants, which are developed with the aim of increasing the doses that can be administered while at the same time reducing the risks for therapy-associated side effects, are also in clinical trials for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Grass and birch pollen preparations have been shown to be clinically effective, and studies with various other allergens are in progress. Personalized or patient-tailored immunotherapy is still a very distant prospect, but the first recombinant products based on single allergens or defined mixtures could reach the market within the next 5 years. PMID:21377719

  7. Induction of vascular remodeling in the lung by chronic house dust mite exposure.

    PubMed

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Johnson, Jill R; Fattouh, Ramzi; Jordana, Manel; Erjefält, Jonas S

    2008-07-01

    Structural changes to the lung are associated with chronic asthma. In addition to alterations to the airway wall, asthma is associated with vascular modifications, although this aspect of remodeling is poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the character and kinetics of vascular remodeling in response to chronic aeroallergen exposure. Because many ovalbumin-driven models used to investigate allergic airway disease do so in the absence of persistent airway inflammation, we used a protocol of chronic respiratory exposure to house dust mite extract (HDME), which has been shown to induce persistent airway inflammation consistent with that seen in humans with asthma. Mice were exposed to HDME intranasally for 7 or 20 consecutive weeks, and resolution of the inflammatory and remodeling response to allergen was investigated 4 weeks after the end of a 7-week exposure protocol. Measures of vascular remodeling, including total collagen deposition, procollagen I production, endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation, smooth muscle area, and presence of myofibroblasts, were investigated histologically in lung vessels of different sizes and locations. We observed an increase in total collagen content, which did not resolve upon cessation of allergen exposure. Other parameters were significantly increased after 7 and/or 20 weeks of allergen exposure but returned to baseline after allergen withdrawal. We conclude that respiratory HDME exposure induces airway remodeling and pulmonary vascular remodeling, and, in accordance with airway remodeling, some components of these structural changes may be irreversible. PMID:18314535

  8. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  9. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  10. Allergenic potential of novel foods.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Clive

    2005-11-01

    Concerns have been expressed that the introduction of novel foods into the diet might lead to the development of new food allergies in consumers. Novel foods can be conveniently divided into GM and non-GM categories. Decision-tree approaches (e.g. International Life Sciences Institute-International Food Biotechnology Council and WHO/FAO) to assess the allergenic potential of GM foods were developed following the discovery, during product development, of the allergenic potential of GM soyabean expressing a gene encoding a storage protein from Brazil nut (Bertolletia excelsa). Within these decision trees considerations include: the source of the transgene; amino acid homology with known allergens; cross-reactivity with IgE from food-allergic individuals; resistance to proteolysis; prediction using animal models of food allergy. Such decision trees are under constant review as new knowledge and improved models emerge, but they provide a useful framework for the assessment of the allergenic potential of GM foods. For novel non-GM foods the assessment of allergenic potential is more subjective; some foods or food ingredients will need no assessment other than a robust protein assay to demonstrate the absence of protein. Where protein is present in the novel non-GM food, hazard and risk assessments need to be made in terms of the quantity of protein that might be consumed, the identity of individual protein components and their relationships to known food allergens. Where necessary, this assessment would extend to serum screening for potential cross-reactivities, skin-prick tests in previously-sensitised individuals and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges. PMID:16313692