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Sample records for mite varroa jacobsoni

  1. Field evaluation of neem and canola oil for the selective control of the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    PubMed

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M

    2000-06-01

    Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers. PMID:10902299

  2. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  3. Morphological features of gut ontogeny in the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Gorgol, V T

    1991-01-01

    The study was focused on the morphological features of the gut through all of its developmental stages in both male and female V. jacobsoni from the drone brood. Histochemical methods were used. Along with histophysiological similarities, there are morphological differences in the gut structure in male and female. Gut development in this parasite's ontogeny is characterized by both morphological conservatism and substantial functional flexibility. PMID:1823504

  4. Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L; Trueman, J W

    2000-03-01

    Varroa jacobsoni was first described as a natural ectoparasitic mite of the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana) throughout Asia. It later switched host to the Western honeybee (A. mellifera) and has now become a serious pest of that bee worldwide. The studies reported here on genotypic, phenotypic and reproductive variation among V. jacobsoni infesting A. cerana throughout Asia demonstrate that V. jacobsoni is a complex of at least two different species. In a new classification V. jacobsoni is here redefined as encompassing nine haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA CO-I gene sequences) that infest A. cerana in the Malaysia Indonesia region. Included is a Java haplotype, specimens of which were used to first describe V. jacobsoni at the beginning of this century. A new name, V. destructor n. sp., is given to six haplotypes that infest A. cerana on mainland Asia. Adult females of V. destructor are significantly larger and less spherical in shape than females of V. jacobsoni and they are also reproductively isolated from females of V. jacobsoni. The taxonomic positions of a further three unique haplotypes that infest A. cerana in the Philippines is uncertain and requires further study. Other studies reported here also show that only two of the 18 different haplotypes concealed within the complex of mites infesting A. cerana have become pests of A. mellifera worldwide. Both belong to V. destructor, and they are not V. jacobsoni. The most common is a Korea haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in South Korea. It was identified on A. mellifera in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Less common is a Japan/Thailand haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in Japan and Thailand. It was identified on A. mellifera in Japan, Thailand and the Americas. Our results imply that the findings of past research on V. jacobsoni are applicable mostly to V. destructor. Our results will also influence quarantine

  5. Multiple host shifts by the emerging honeybee parasite, Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J M K; Anderson, D L; Tay, W T

    2015-05-01

    Host shifts are a key mechanism of parasite evolution and responsible for the emergence of many economically important pathogens. Varroa destructor has been a major factor in global honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines since shifting hosts from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) > 50 years ago. Until recently, only two haplotypes of V. destructor (Korea and Japan) had successfully host shifted to A. mellifera. In 2008, the sister species V. jacobsoni was found for the first time parasitizing A. mellifera in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This recent host shift presents a serious threat to world apiculture but also provides the opportunity to examine host shifting in this system. We used 12 microsatellites to compare genetic variation of V. jacobsoni on A. mellifera in PNG with mites on A. cerana in both PNG and surrounding regions. We identified two distinct lineages of V. jacobsoni reproducing on A. mellifera in PNG. Our analysis indicated independent host shift events have occurred through small numbers of mites shifting from local A. cerana populations. Additional lineages were found in the neighbouring Papua and Solomon Islands that had partially host shifted to A. mellifera, that is producing immature offspring on drone brood only. These mites were likely in transition to full colonization of A. mellifera. Significant population structure between mites on the different hosts suggested host shifted V. jacobsoni populations may not still reproduce on A. cerana, although limited gene flow may exist. Our studies provide further insight into parasite host shift evolution and help characterize this new Varroa mite threat to A. mellifera worldwide. PMID:25846956

  6. Comparative laboratory toxicity of neem pesticides to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), their mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and brood pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascophaera apis.

    PubMed

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Smith, T; Lindberg, C; Mukai, A; Moore, M

    2000-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate neem oil and neem extract for the management of key honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pests. Neem pesticides inhibited the growth of Paenibacillus larvae (Ash, Priest & Collins) in vitro but had no effect on the growth of Ascophaera apis (Olive & Spiltoir). Azadirachtin-rich extract (neem-aza) was 10 times more potent than crude neem oil (neem oil) against P. larvae suggesting that azadirachtin is a main antibiotic component in neem. Neem-aza, however, was ineffective at controlling the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Ouduemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie). Honey bees also were deterred from feeding on sucrose syrup containing > 0.01 mg/ml of neem-aza. However, neem oil applied topically to infested bees in the laboratory proved highly effective against both mite species. Approximately 50-90% V. jacobsoni mortality was observed 48 h after treatment with associated bee mortality lower than 10%. Although topically applied neem oil did not result in direct A. woodi mortality, it offered significant protection of bees from infestation by A. woodi. Other vegetable and petroleum-based oils also offered selective control of honey bee mites, suggesting neem oil has both a physical and a toxicological mode of action. Although oils are not as selective as the V. jacobsoni acaricide tau-fluvalinate, they nonetheless hold promise for the simultaneous management of several honey bee pests. PMID:10826163

  7. Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, C M; Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory bioassay was developed to evaluate miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans), an important parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Bees and mites were exposed to applications of essential oil constituents in petri dishes (60 by 20 mm). The registered mite control agents tau-fluvalinate (Apistan) and formic acid also were evaluated as positive controls. Treatments that caused high mite mortality (> 70%) at doses that produced low bee mortality (< 30%) were considered mite selective. The six most selective of the 22 treatments tested (clove oil, benzyl acetate, thymol, carvacrol, methyl salicylate, and Magic3) were further evaluated to estimate LD50 values and selectivity ratios (A. mellifera LD50/V. jacobsoni LD50) at 24, 43, and 67 h after exposure. Tau-fluvalinate was the most selective treatment, but thymol, clove oil, Magic3, and methyl salicylate demonstrated selectivity equal to or greater than formic acid. The effect of mode of application (complete exposure versus vapor only) on bee and mite mortality was assessed for thymol, clove oil, and Magic3 by using a 2-chambered dish design. Estimated V. jacobsoni LD50 values were significantly lower for complete exposure applications of thymol and Magic3, suggesting that both vapor and topical exposure influenced mite mortality, whereas estimated values for clove oil suggested that topical exposure had little or no influence on mite mortality. These results indicate that essential oil constituents alone may not be selective enough to control Varroa under all conditions, but could be a useful component of an integrated pest management approach to parasitic mite management in honey bee colonies. PMID:10826162

  8. DNA evidence of the origin of Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans in the Americas.

    PubMed

    de Guzman, L I; Rinderer, T E; Stelzer, J A

    1997-10-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to examine possible origin of Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans in the Americas. Among 64 primers screened, 2 primers provided variation which was informative for this study. All V. jacobsoni collected from the United States had the same banding pattern to that of mites collected from Russia, Morocco, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal (Russian pattern). This banding pattern was different from the pattern found for mites collected from Japan, Brazil, and Puerto Rico (Japanese pattern). The Japanese pattern lacked a 766-bp band found in the Russian pattern (OPE-07). With primer OPP-03, the Russian pattern had a distinct band at 442 bp not found in the Japanese pattern. Two bands located at 675 and 412 bp were specific to the Japanese pattern. These results suggest that the V. jacobsoni of the United States is probably predominantly Russian in origin (via Europe), while the V. jacobsoni of Brazil and Puerto Rico are probably predominantly Japanese in origin. PMID:9475957

  9. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  10. Variability of the honey bee mite Varroa destructor in Serbia, based on mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajic, Bojan; Radulovic, Zeljko; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Kulisic, Zoran; Vucicevic, Milos; Simeunovic, Predrag; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Only two mitochondrial haplotypes (Korea and Japan) of Varroa destructor, the ectoparasitic honey bee mite, are known to be capable of infesting and successfully reproducing in Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Varroa destructor (then called Varroa jacobsoni) was observed in Serbia for the first time in 1976. In order to obtain insight into the genetic variability of the mites parasitizing A. mellifera we analyzed 45 adult female mites sampled from nine localities dispersed throughout Serbia. Four fragments within cox1, atp6, cox3 and cytb mtDNA genes were sequenced. The Korea haplotype of V. destructor was found to be present at all localities, but also two new haplotypes (Serbia 1 and Peshter 1) were revealed, based on cox1 and cytb sequence variability. The simultaneous occurrence of Korea and Serbia 1 haplotypes was observed at five localities, whereas Peshter 1 haplotype was identifed at only one place. PMID:23471517

  11. Attraction of the Parasitic Mite Varroa to the Drone Larvae of Honey Bees by Simple Aliphatic Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Conte, Yves; Arnold, Gerard; Trouiller, Jerome; Masson, Claudine; Chappe, Bertrand; Ourisson, Guy

    1989-08-01

    An important parasitic threat to honey bees, the mite Varroa jacobsoni, is attracted to its major prey, drone larvae, by methyl and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids, in particular methyl palmitate. These esters were extracted from drone larvae with n-hexane and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their behavioral effect was evaluated with the use of a four-arm airflow olfactometer.

  12. Effective fall treatment of Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) with a new formulation of formic acid in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Calderone, N W

    2000-08-01

    New formulations of formic acid and thymol, both individually and in combination with various essential oils, were compared with Apistan to determine their efficacy as fall treatments for control of Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans), a parasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Percent mite mortality in colonies treated with 300 ml of 65% formic acid averaged 94.2 +/- 1.41% (least square means +/- SE, n = 24), equivalent to those receiving four, 10% strips of Apistan (92.6 +/- 1.79%, n = 6). Treatment with thymol (n = 24) resulted in an average mite mortality of 75.4 +/- 5.79%, significantly less than that attained with Apistan or formic acid. The addition of essential oils did not affect treatment efficacy of either formic acid or thymol. The ratio of the coefficients of variation for percentage mortality for the formic acid (CVFA) and Apistan (CVA) groups was CVFA/CVA = 0.66. This indicates that the formic acid treatment was as consistent as the Apistan treatment. Thymol treatments did not provide as consistent results as Apistan or formic acid. Coefficient variation ratios for percentage mortality for the thymol group (CVT) with the Apistan and formic acid groups were CVT/CVA = 4.47 and CVT/CVFA = 6.76, respectively. In a second experiment, colonies received a 4-wk fall treatment of either 300 ml of 65% formic acid (n = 24) or four, 10% strips of Apistan (n = 6). The next spring, mite levels in the formic acid group (554.3 +/- 150.20 mites) were similar to those in the Apistan treatment group (571.3 +/- 145.05 mites) (P = 0.93). Additionally, the quantities of bees, brood, pollen, and nectar/honey in the two treatment groups were not significantly different (P > or = 0.50 each variable). These results suggest that formic acid is an effective alternative to Apistan as a fall treatment for varroa mites in temperate climates. PMID:10985013

  13. A new product with formic acid for Varroa jacobsoni Oud. control in Argentina. I. Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Eguaras, M; Del Hoyo, M; Palacio, M A; Ruffinengo, S; Bedascarrasbure, E L

    2001-02-01

    An organic product based on formic acid in a gel matrix was evaluated for use in Varroa control under autumnal climatic conditions in Argentina. Twenty colonies each received two gel packets with formic acid in two applications and numbers of falling mites were registered. After this treatment colonies received two other acaricides in order to compare efficacy. Average final efficacy in colonies treated with the organic product was 92% with a low variability. The gel matrix kept an adequate formic acid concentration inside the colonies with only two applications. This product is, therefore, a good alternative for Varroa control because it is organic, easy to use and presents a low variability in final efficacy between colonies. No queen, brood, or adult honeybee mortality was registered. PMID:11254094

  14. The efficacy of small cell foundation as a varroa mite (Varroa destructor) control.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A M; Hayes, G W; Ellis, J D

    2009-04-01

    Due to a continuing shift toward reducing/minimizing the use of chemicals in honey bee colonies, we explored the possibility of using small cell foundation as a varroa control. Based on the number of anecdotal reports supporting small cell as an efficacious varroa control tool, we hypothesized that bee colonies housed on combs constructed on small cell foundation would have lower varroa populations and higher adult bee populations and more cm(2) brood. To summarize our results, we found that the use of small cell foundation did not significantly affect cm(2) total brood, total mites per colony, mites per brood cell, or mites per adult bee, but did affect adult bee population for two sampling months. Varroa levels were similar in all colonies throughout the study. We found no evidence that small cell foundation was beneficial with regard to varroa control under the tested conditions in Florida. PMID:19067184

  15. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  16. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  17. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of Varroa mite in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  18. DURATION AND SPREAD OF AN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS USED TO TREAT VARROA MITES IN HONEYBEE HIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites was used to treat bees against varroa mites in southern France. Fungal treatment was associated with a considerable increase in the percentage of infected varroa mites over baseline levels in two field experiments. The percentage of infecte...

  19. Asynchronous development of Honey Bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high proportion of non-reproductive (NR) Varroa destructor, is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the Varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). These studies were conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host re-invasion of Varroa mites on mite reproduction...

  20. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic targ...

  1. High Varroa mite abundance influences chemical profiles of worker bees and mite-host preferences.

    PubMed

    Cervo, R; Bruschini, C; Cappa, F; Meconcelli, S; Pieraccini, G; Pradella, D; Turillazzi, S

    2014-09-01

    Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. PMID:25165133

  2. Gene expression in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae exposed to pesticides and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    PubMed

    Gregorc, Aleš; Evans, Jay D; Scharf, Mike; Ellis, James D

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae reared in vitro were exposed to one of nine pesticides and/or were challenged with the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Total RNA was extracted from individual larvae and first strand cDNAs were generated. Gene-expression changes in larvae were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting transcripts for pathogens and genes involved in physiological processes, bee health, immunity, and/or xenobiotic detoxification. Transcript levels for Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein (PGRPSC), a pathogen recognition gene, increased in larvae exposed to Varroa mites (P<0.001) and were not changed in pesticide treated larvae. As expected, Varroa-parasitized brood had higher transcripts of Deformed Wing Virus than did control larvae (P<0.001). Varroa parasitism, arguably coupled with virus infection, resulted in significantly higher transcript abundances for the antimicrobial peptides abaecin, hymenoptaecin, and defensin1. Transcript levels for Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPOact), an immune end product, were elevated in larvae treated with myclobutanil and chlorothalonil (both are fungicides) (P<0.001). Transcript levels for Hexameric storage protein (Hsp70) were significantly upregulated in imidacloprid, fluvalinate, coumaphos, myclobutanil, and amitraz treated larvae. Definitive impacts of pesticides and Varroa parasitism on honey bee larval gene expression were demonstrated. Interactions between larval treatments and gene expression for the targeted genes are discussed. PMID:22497859

  3. Three Halloween genes from the Varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) and their expression during reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Evans, J D; Hung, K; Sims, J; Alborn, H; Teal, P E A

    2015-06-01

    The ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by a group of enzymes collectively known as Halloween gene proteins. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), were identified in varroa mites and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of predicted amino acid sequences for Halloween orthologues showed that the acarine orthologues were distantly associated with insect and crustacean clades indicating that acarine genes had more ancestral characters. The lack of orthologues or pseudogenes for remaining genes suggests these pathway elements had not evolved in ancestral arthropods. Vdspo transcript levels were highest in gut tissues, while Vddib transcript levels were highest in ovary-lyrate organs. In contrast, Vdshd transcript levels were lower overall but present in both gut and ovary-lyrate organs. All three transcripts were present in eggs removed from gravid female mites. A brood cell invasion assay was developed for acquiring synchronously staged mites. Mites within 4 h of entering a brood cell had transcript levels of all three that were not significantly different from mites on adult bees. These analyses suggest that varroa mites may be capable of modifying 7-dehydro-cholesterol precursor and hydroxylations of other steroid precursors, but whether the mites directly produce ecdysteroid precursors and products remains undetermined. PMID:25488435

  4. Variable induction of vitellogenin genes in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) by the honeybee, Apis mellifera L, host and its environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcript levels of vitellogenins (Vgs) in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) were variably induced by interactions between the developing honeybee as a food source and the capped honeybee cell environment. Transcripts for 2 Vgs of varroa mites were sequenced and putative Vg pr...

  5. Effects of varroa mites and bee diseases on pollination efficacy of honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites and viral diseases are known to affect the efficiency of crop pollination by honey. This study elucidates effects of varroa mites and bee diseases on the foraging behavior of adult bees and the consequences on successful fruit pollination. Four honey bee colonies of about 4,500 bees eac...

  6. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

  7. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from varroa mites in southern France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are currently being considered as alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling varroa mites of honey bees. Varroa mites were collected from 112 beehives in southern France and evaluated for the presence of entomopathogenic fungi. Eight strains of Beauveria bassiana we...

  8. Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with the Trait of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Remove Brood with All Reproductive Stages of Varroa Mites (Mesostigmata: Varroidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) is a trait of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., which supports resistance to Varroa destructor mites. VSH is the hygienic removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. Bees selectively bred for VSH produce colonies in which the fertility of mites decreases over time...

  9. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies is affected by the number of foragers with mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of Varroa populations including mite migration into colonie...

  10. A method for rapidly marking adult varroa mites for use in brood inoculation experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We explored a method for marking varroa mites using correction fluid (PRESTO!TM Jumbo Correction Pen, Pentel Co., Ltd., Japan). Individual mites were placed on a piece of nylon mesh (165 mesh) to prevent the mites from moving during marking. A small piece of nylon fishing line (diameter = 0.30 mm)...

  11. Screening for bacterial contaminants in a Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticide against varroa mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaborative effort to develop a biopesticide against varroa, strains of entomopathogenic fungus, a Beauveria bassiana isolate was isolated from varroa mites found in beehives in France and tested in bioassays at the European Biological Control Laboratory. This isolate was shown to be virulent...

  12. Cloning and submission to the Natural Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database of two complete vitellogenin genes from the varroa mite, Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a honeybee ectoparasite considered the most important pest in apiaries throughout the US. Vitellogenins are the yolk proteins produced by the ovipositing female mite and deposited into the oocytes to provide nutrients to the developing embryo. Scientists at CMA...

  13. Identification and molecular cloning of three Halloween genes in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in insects involves the action of five cytochrome P450s collectively known as Halloween genes. The complete transcripts of 3 Halloween genes [spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd)] from the varroa mite were identified, sequenced and mapped to t...

  14. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  15. Deformed wing virus is a recent global epidemic in honeybees driven by Varroa mites.

    PubMed

    Wilfert, L; Long, G; Leggett, H C; Schmid-Hempel, P; Butlin, R; Martin, S J M; Boots, M

    2016-02-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) and its vector, the mite Varroa destructor, are a major threat to the world's honeybees. Although the impact of Varroa on colony-level DWV epidemiology is evident, we have little understanding of wider DWV epidemiology and the role that Varroa has played in its global spread. A phylogeographic analysis shows that DWV is globally distributed in honeybees, having recently spread from a common source, the European honeybee Apis mellifera. DWV exhibits epidemic growth and transmission that is predominantly mediated by European and North American honeybee populations and driven by trade and movement of honeybee colonies. DWV is now an important reemerging pathogen of honeybees, which are undergoing a worldwide manmade epidemic fueled by the direct transmission route that the Varroa mite provides. PMID:26912700

  16. Genomic organization and reproductive regulation of a large lipid transfer protein in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Duehl, A J; Donohue, K V; Grozinger, C M; Evans, J D; Teal, P E A

    2013-10-01

    The complete genomic region and corresponding transcript of the most abundant protein in phoretic varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), were sequenced and have homology with acarine hemelipoglycoproteins and the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) super family. The genomic sequence of VdLLTP included 14 introns and the mature transcript coded for a predicted polypeptide of 1575 amino acid residues. VdLLTP shared a minimum of 25% sequence identity with acarine LLTPs. Phylogenetic assessment showed VdLLTP was most closely related to Metaseiulus occidentalis vitellogenin and LLTP proteins of ticks; however, no heme binding by VdLLTP was detected. Analysis of lipids associated with VdLLTP showed that it was a carrier for free and esterified C12 -C22 fatty acids from triglycerides, diacylglycerides and monoacylglycerides. Additionally, cholesterol and β-sitosterol were found as cholesterol esters linked to common fatty acids. Transcript levels of VdLLTP were 42 and 310 times higher in phoretic female mites when compared with males and quiescent deutonymphs, respectively. Coincident with initiation of the reproductive phase, VdLLTP transcript levels declined to a third of those in phoretic female mites. VdLLTP functions as an important lipid transporter and should provide a significant RNA interference target for assessing the control of varroa mites. PMID:23834736

  17. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies is affected by the number of foragers with mites.

    PubMed

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Zazueta, Victor; Chambers, Mona; Hidalgo, Geoffrey; deJong, Emily Watkins

    2016-05-01

    Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of varroa populations including mite migration into colonies on foragers from other hives. We measured the proportion of foragers carrying mites on their bodies while entering and leaving hives, and determined its relationship to the growth of varroa populations in those hives at two apiary sites. We also compared the estimates of mite population growth with predictions from a varroa population dynamics model that generates estimates of mite population growth based on mite reproduction. Samples of capped brood and adult bees indicated that the proportion of brood cells infested with mites and adult bees with phoretic mites was low through the summer but increased sharply in the fall especially at site 1. The frequency of capturing foragers with mites on their bodies while entering or leaving hives also increased in the fall. The growth of varroa populations at both sites was not significantly related to our colony estimates of successful mite reproduction, but instead to the total number of foragers with mites (entering and leaving the colony). There were more foragers with mites at site 1 than site 2, and mite populations at site 1 were larger especially in the fall. The model accurately estimated phoretic mite populations and infested brood cells until November when predictions were much lower than those measured in colonies. The rapid growth of mite populations particularly in the fall being a product of mite migration rather than mite reproduction only is discussed. PMID:26910522

  18. A New Stratified Sampling Procedure which Decreases Error Estimation of Varroa Mite Number on Sticky Boards.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, A; Durand, E; Maisonnasse, A; Vallon, J; Le Conte, Y

    2015-06-01

    A new procedure of stratified sampling is proposed in order to establish an accurate estimation of Varroa destructor populations on sticky bottom boards of the hive. It is based on the spatial sampling theory that recommends using regular grid stratification in the case of spatially structured process. The distribution of varroa mites on sticky board being observed as spatially structured, we designed a sampling scheme based on a regular grid with circles centered on each grid element. This new procedure is then compared with a former method using partially random sampling. Relative error improvements are exposed on the basis of a large sample of simulated sticky boards (n=20,000) which provides a complete range of spatial structures, from a random structure to a highly frame driven structure. The improvement of varroa mite number estimation is then measured by the percentage of counts with an error greater than a given level. PMID:26470273

  19. Effects of varroa mites and bee disease on pollination efficacy of honeybees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single-stranded RNA viruses cause disease and behavioral changes in many insects, especially honey bees. Varroa mites and viral diseases are known to affect the efficiency of crop pollination by honey bees by eliminating colonies, but almost no information exists about their influence on pollination...

  20. Monitoring for resistance to organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in varroa mite populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of resistance in Varroa mite populations is a serious threat to the beekeeping industry and crops that rely on the honey bee for pollination. Integrated pest management strategies for control of this pest include the judicious use of insecticides. To monitor field populations of Varro...

  1. Bees with Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene Preferentially Remove Mite-infested Pupae Aged <5 Days Postcapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suppressed mite reproduction (SMR) is a heritable trait of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) that provides resistance to thee ectoparasite, Varroa destructor. The primary mechanism of resistance in SMR bees is the hygienic removal of infested pupae from capped brood, and a better name for them is V...

  2. Identification of three Halloween genes from the varroa mite and their expression during brood cell invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in insects involves the action of five cytochrome P450s collectively known as Halloween genes. Transcripts from 3 Halloween genes [spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd)] from the varroa mite were identified, sequenced and mapped to their genomi...

  3. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis Mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-05-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the transmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main causes of CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder). In this work we discuss an [Formula: see text] model that describes how the presence of the mite affects the epidemiology of these viruses on adult bees. The acronym [Formula: see text] means that the disease affects both populations. In fact it accounts for the bee and mite populations, that are each divided among the S (susceptible) and I (infected) states. We characterize the system behavior, establishing that ultimately either only healthy bees survive, or the disease becomes endemic and mites are wiped out. Another dangerous alternative is the Varroa invasion scenario with the extinction of healthy bees. The final possible configuration is the coexistence equilibrium in which honey bees share their infected hive with mites. The analysis is in line with some observed facts in natural honey bee colonies. Namely, these diseases are endemic. Further, if the mite population is present, necessarily the viral infection occurs. The findings of this study indicate that a low horizontal transmission rate of the virus among honey bees in beehives will help in protecting bee colonies from Varroa infestation and viral epidemics. PMID:27441276

  4. Isolation, characterization, and expression analyses of ecdysone receptor 1, ecdysone receptor 2 and ultraspiracle genes in varroa destructor mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a honeybee ectoparasite considered the most important pest in apiaries throughout the US. Ecdysone receptor is a hormone secreted by the prothoracic gland of insects that controls ecdysis and stimulates metamorphosis. The ecdysone receptor is a nuclear receptor...

  5. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana

    PubMed Central

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L.; Dinh, Tam Q.; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation. PMID:26248192

  6. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Truong, Tuan A; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Dinh, Tam Q; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation. PMID:26248192

  7. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbo; Kim, Donghun; Dobesh, Sharon; Evans, Jay D.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Park, Yoonseong

    2016-01-01

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic target of varroa mites, we investigated two closely related neuropeptidergic systems, tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) and natalisin (NTL), and their respective receptors. Honey bees lack both NTL and the NTL receptor in their genome sequences, providing the rationale for investigating these receptors to understand their specificities to various ligands. We characterized the receptors for NTL and TRP of V. destructor (VdNTL-R and VdTRP-R, respectively) and for TRP of A. mellifera (AmTRP-R) in a heterologous reporter assay system to determine the activities of various ligands including TRP/NTL peptides and peptidomimetics. Although we found that AmTRP-R is highly promiscuous, activated by various ligands including two VdNTL peptides when a total of 36 ligands were tested, we serendipitously found that peptides carrying the C-terminal motif -FWxxRamide are highly specific to VdTRP-R. This motif can serve as a seed sequence for designing a VdTRP-R-specific agonist. PMID:26817786

  8. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongbo; Kim, Donghun; Dobesh, Sharon; Evans, Jay D; Nachman, Ronald J; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Park, Yoonseong

    2016-01-01

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic target of varroa mites, we investigated two closely related neuropeptidergic systems, tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) and natalisin (NTL), and their respective receptors. Honey bees lack both NTL and the NTL receptor in their genome sequences, providing the rationale for investigating these receptors to understand their specificities to various ligands. We characterized the receptors for NTL and TRP of V. destructor (VdNTL-R and VdTRP-R, respectively) and for TRP of A. mellifera (AmTRP-R) in a heterologous reporter assay system to determine the activities of various ligands including TRP/NTL peptides and peptidomimetics. Although we found that AmTRP-R is highly promiscuous, activated by various ligands including two VdNTL peptides when a total of 36 ligands were tested, we serendipitously found that peptides carrying the C-terminal motif -FWxxRamide are highly specific to VdTRP-R. This motif can serve as a seed sequence for designing a VdTRP-R-specific agonist. PMID:26817786

  9. Varroa-tolerant Italian honey bees introduced from Brazil were not more efficient in defending themselves against the mite Varroa destructor than Carniolan bees in Germany.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Marques, M H; De Jong, D; Rosenkranz, P; Gonçalves, L S

    2002-01-01

    In Europe and North America honey bees cannot be kept without chemical treatments against Varroa destructor. Nevertheless, in Brazil an isolated population of Italian honey bees has been kept on an island since 1984 without treatment against this mite. The infestation rates in these colonies have decreased over the years. We looked for possible varroa-tolerance factors in six Italian honey bee colonies prepared with queens from this Brazilian island population, compared to six Carniolan colonies, both tested at the same site in Germany. One such factor was the percentage of damaged mites in the colony debris, which has been reported as an indicator of colony tolerance to varroa. A mean of 35.8% of the varroa mites collected from the bottoms of the Italian bee colonies were found damaged, among which 19.1% were still alive. A significantly greater proportion of damaged mites were found in the Carniolan bees (42.3%) and 22.5% were collected alive. The most frequent kind of damage found was damaged legs alone, affecting 47.4% of the mites collected from debris in Italian bees, which was similar to the amount found in Carniolan colonies (46%). The mean infestation rate by the varroa mite in the worker brood cells in the Italian bee colonies was 3.9% in June and 3.5% in July, and in drone brood cells it was 19.3% in June. In the Carniolan honey bee colonies the mean infestation rates in worker brood cells were 3.0 and 6.7%, respectively in the months of June and July and 19.7% in drone brood cells in June. In conclusion, the 'Varroa-tolerant' Italian honey bees introduced from Brazil produced lower percentages of damaged mites (Varroa destructor) in hive debris and had similar brood infestation rates when compared to 'susceptible' Carniolan bees in Germany. In spite of the apparent adaptation of this population of Italian bees in Brazil, we found no indication of superiority of these bees when we examined the proportions of damaged mites and the varroa-infestation rates

  10. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the synganglion from the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor and RNAi knockdown of neural peptide targets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ewan M; Budge, Giles E; Watkins, Max; Bowman, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    Varroa mites (Varroa destructor) and the viruses that they transmit are one of the major contributing factors to the global honey bee crisis. Gene products within the nervous system are the targets of all the insecticides currently used to control Varroa but there is a paucity of transcriptomic data available for Varroa neural tissues. A cDNA library from the synganglia ("brains") of adult female Varroa was constructed and 600 ESTs sequenced and analysed revealing several current and potential druggable targets. Contigs coding for the deformed wing virus (DWV) variants V. destructor virus-1 (VDV-1) and the recombinant (VDV-1DVD) were present in the synganglion library. Negative-sense RNA-specific PCR indicated that VDV-1 replicates in the Varroa synganglion and all other tissues tested, but we could not detect DWV replicating in any Varroa tissue. Two neuropeptides were identified in the synganlion EST library: a B-type allatostatin and a member of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) superfamily. Knockdown of the allatostatin or the CHH-like gene by double-stranded RNA-interference (dsRNAi) resulted in 85% and 55% mortality, respectively, of Varroa. Here, we present the first transcriptomic survey in Varroa and demonstrate that neural genes can be targeted by dsRNAi either for genetic validation of putative targets during drug discovery programmes or as a potential control measure in itself. PMID:26721201

  12. RT-PCR analysis of Deformed wing virus in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and mites (Varroa destructor).

    PubMed

    Yue, Constanze; Genersch, Elke

    2005-12-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a honeybee viral pathogen either persisting as an inapparent infection or resulting in wing deformity. The occurrence of deformity is associated with the transmission of DWV through Varroa destructor during pupal stages. Such infections with DWV add to the pathology of V. destructor and play a major role in colony collapse in the course of varroosis. Using a recently developed RT-PCR protocol for the detection of DWV, individual bees and mites originating from hives differing in Varroa infestation levels and the occurrence of crippled bees were analysed. It was found that 100 % of both crippled and asymptomatic bees were positive for DWV. However, a significant difference in the spatial distribution of DWV between asymptomatic and crippled bees could be demonstrated: when analysing head, thorax and abdomen of crippled bees, all body parts were always strongly positive for viral sequences. In contrast, for asymptomatic bees viral sequences could be detected in RNA extracted from the thorax and/or abdomen but never in RNA extracted from the head. DWV replication was demonstrated in almost all DWV-positive body parts of infected bees. Analysing individual mites for the presence of DWV revealed that the percentage of DWV-positive mites differed between mite populations. In addition, it was demonstrated that DWV was able to replicate in some but not all mites. Interestingly, virus replication in mites was correlated with wing deformity. DWV was also detected in the larval food, implicating that in addition to transmission by V. destructor DWV is also transmitted by feeding. PMID:16298989

  13. Immunogene and viral transcript dynamics during parasitic Varroa destructor mite infection of developing honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-15

    The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. PMID:24829325

  14. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response. PMID:25860860

  15. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    PubMed

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones. PMID:25911034

  16. Evaluating pure Africanized honey bees and hybrid crosses for colony health and resistance to varroa mites in a subtropical climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different honey bee, Apis mellifera L., breeds were evaluated for overall health and for resistance to the parastic mite, Varroa destructor Oud. in the subtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in south Texas from June 2005 through October 2006. Breeds examined that have shown genetic resistance ...

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites. PMID:26345948

  18. Genomic survey of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major pest of the honey bee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has emerged as the primary pest of domestic honey bees (Apis mellifera). Here we present an initial survey of the V. destructor genome carried out to advance our understanding of Varroa biology and to identify new avenues for mite control. This sequence survey provides immediate resources for molecular and population-genetic analyses of Varroa-Apis interactions and defines the challenges ahead for a comprehensive Varroa genome project. Results The genome size was estimated by flow cytometry to be 565 Mbp, larger than most sequenced insects but modest relative to some other Acari. Genomic DNA pooled from ~1,000 mites was sequenced to 4.3× coverage with 454 pyrosequencing. The 2.4 Gbp of sequencing reads were assembled into 184,094 contigs with an N50 of 2,262 bp, totaling 294 Mbp of sequence after filtering. Genic sequences with homology to other eukaryotic genomes were identified on 13,031 of these contigs, totaling 31.3 Mbp. Alignment of protein sequence blocks conserved among V. destructor and four other arthropod genomes indicated a higher level of sequence divergence within this mite lineage relative to the tick Ixodes scapularis. A number of microbes potentially associated with V. destructor were identified in the sequence survey, including ~300 Kbp of sequence deriving from one or more bacterial species of the Actinomycetales. The presence of this bacterium was confirmed in individual mites by PCR assay, but varied significantly by age and sex of mites. Fragments of a novel virus related to the Baculoviridae were also identified in the survey. The rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pooled mites was estimated to be 6.2 × 10-5per bp, a low rate consistent with the historical demography and life history of the species. Conclusions This survey has provided general tools for the research community and novel directions for investigating the biology and control of Varroa mites. Ongoing

  19. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia from 2 strains of Beauveria bassiana – one commercial (GHA) and the other isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto...

  20. Three QTL in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. suppress reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Dieter; Huang, Qiang; Geßner, Cornelia; Rosenkranz, Peter; Frey, Eva; Locke, Barbara; Moritz, Robin F A; Kraus, F B

    2011-01-01

    Varroa destructor is a highly virulent ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee Apis mellifera and a major cause of colony losses for global apiculture. Typically, chemical treatment is essential to control the parasite population in the honey bee colony. Nevertheless a few honey bee populations survive mite infestation without any treatment. We used one such Varroa mite tolerant honey bee lineage from the island of Gotland, Sweden, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling reduced mite reproduction. We crossed a queen from this tolerant population with drones from susceptible colonies to rear hybrid queens. Two hybrid queens were used to produce a mapping population of haploid drones. We discriminated drone pupae with and without mite reproduction, and screened the genome for potential QTL using a total of 216 heterozygous microsatellite markers in a bulk segregant analysis. Subsequently, we fine mapped three candidate target regions on chromosomes 4, 7, and 9. Although the individual effect of these three QTL was found to be relatively small, the set of all three had significant impact on suppression of V. destructor reproduction by epistasis. Although it is in principle possible to use these loci for marker-assisted selection, the strong epistatic effects between the three loci complicate selective breeding programs with the Gotland Varroa tolerant honey bee stock. PMID:22393513

  1. Evidence for passive chemical camouflage in the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Drijfhout, Falko P; Shemilt, Sue; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Social insect colonies provide a stable and safe environment for their members. Despite colonies being heavily guarded, parasites have evolved numerous strategies to invade and inhabit these hostile places. Two such strategies are (true) chemical mimicry via biosynthesis of host odor, and chemical camouflage, in which compounds are acquired from the host. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor feeds on hemolymph of its honey bee host, Apis mellifera. The mite's odor closely resembles that of its host, which allows V. destructor to remain undetected as it lives on the adult host during its phoretic phase and while reproducing on the honeybee brood. During the mite life cycle, it switches between host adults and brood, which requires it to adjust its profile to mimic the very different odors of honey bee brood and adults. In a series of transfer experiments, using bee adults and pupae, we tested whether V. destructor changes its profile by synthesizing compounds or by using chemical camouflage. We show that V. destructor required direct access to host cuticle to mimic its odor, and that it was unable to synthesize host-specific compounds itself. The mite was able to mimic host odor, even when dead, indicating a passive physico-chemical mechanism of the parasite cuticle. The chemical profile of V. destructor was adjusted within 3 to 9 h after switching hosts, demonstrating that passive camouflage is a highly efficient, fast and flexible way for the mite to adapt to a new host profile when moving between different host life stages or colonies. PMID:25620373

  2. Identification of developmentally-specific kinotypes and mechanisms of Varroa mite resistance through whole-organism, kinome analysis of honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Albert J.; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Robertson, Thomas; Mostajeran, Mohammad; Connor, Wayne; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations associate Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) parasitism and its associated pathogens and agricultural pesticides with negative effects on colony health, resulting in sporadic global declines in domestic honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations. These events have motivated efforts to develop research tools that can offer insight into the causes of declining bee health as well as identify biomarkers to guide breeding programs. Here we report the development of a bee-specific peptide array for characterizing global cellular kinase activity in whole bee extracts. The arrays reveal distinct, developmentally-specific signaling profiles between bees with differential susceptibility to infestation by Varroa mites. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially phosphorylated peptides indicates that the differential susceptibility to Varroa mite infestation does not reflect compromised immunity; rather, there is evidence for mite-mediated immune suppression within the susceptible phenotype that may reduce the ability of these bees to counter secondary viral infections. This hypothesis is supported by the demonstration of more diverse viral infections in mite-infested, susceptible adult bees. The bee-specific peptide arrays are an effective tool for understanding the molecular basis of this complex phenotype as well as for the discovery and utilization of phosphorylation biomarkers for breeding programs. PMID:24904639

  3. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV), as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations. PMID:27070422

  4. Honey Bee Apis mellifera Parasites in the Absence of Nosema ceranae Fungi and Varroa destructor Mites

    PubMed Central

    Shutler, Dave; Head, Krista; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L.; Colwell, Megan J.; Levitt, Abby L.; Ostiguy, Nancy; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi) and Varroa destructor (mites). Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%). Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray), tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0%) were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3%) had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%). Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively) with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present. PMID:24955834

  5. Honey bee Apis mellifera parasites in the absence of Nosema ceranae fungi and Varroa destructor mites.

    PubMed

    Shutler, Dave; Head, Krista; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L; Colwell, Megan J; Levitt, Abby L; Ostiguy, Nancy; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi) and Varroa destructor (mites). Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%). Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray), tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0%) were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3%) had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%). Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively) with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present. PMID:24955834

  6. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.; Toth, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV), as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations. PMID:27070422

  7. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America. PMID:24634296

  8. Resistance rather than tolerance explains survival of savannah honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ursula; Dietemann, Vincent; Human, Hannelie; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2016-03-01

    Varroa destructor is considered the most damaging parasite affecting honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). However, some honeybee populations such as the savannah honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) can survive mite infestation without treatment. It is unclear if survival is due to resistance mechanisms decreasing parasite reproduction or to tolerance mechanisms decreasing the detrimental effects of mites on the host. This study investigates both aspects by quantifying the reproductive output of V. destructor and its physiological costs at the individual host level. Costs measured were not consistently lower when compared with susceptible honeybee populations, indicating a lack of tolerance. In contrast, reproduction of V. destructor mites was distinctly lower than in susceptible populations. There was higher proportion of infertile individuals and the reproductive success of fertile mites was lower than measured to date, even in surviving populations. Our results suggest that survival of savannah honeybees is based on resistance rather than tolerance to this parasite. We identified traits that may be useful for breeding programmes aimed at increasing the survival of susceptible populations. African honeybees may have benefited from a lack of human interference, allowing natural selection to shape a population of honeybees that is more resistant to Varroa mite infestation. PMID:26690678

  9. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to manipulate ventilation rate to characterize interactions between stocks of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and ventilation setting on varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) mortality in honey bee colonies kept indoors over winter. The first experiment used colonies established from stock selected locally for wintering performance under exposure to varroa (n = 6) and unselected bees (n = 6) to assess mite and bee mortality and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the bee cluster when kept under a simulated winter condition at 5°C. The second experiment, used colonies from selected bees (n = 10) and unselected bees (n = 12) that were exposed to either standard ventilation (14.4 liter/min per hive) or restricted ventilation (0.24 liter/min per hive, in a Plexiglas ventilation chamber) during a 16-d treatment period to assess the influence of restricted air flow on winter mortality rates of varroa mites and honey bees. Experiment 2 was repeated in early, mid-, and late winter. The first experiment showed that under unrestricted ventilation with CO2 concentrations averaging <2% there was no correlation between CO2 and varroa mite mortality when colonies were placed under low temperature. CO2 was negatively correlated with O2 in the bee cluster in both experiments. When ventilation was restricted, mean CO2 level (3.82 ± 0.31%, range 0.43-8.44%) increased by 200% relative to standard ventilation (1.29 ± 0.31%; range 0.09-5.26%) within the 16-d treatment period. The overall mite mortality rates and the reduction in mean abundance of varroa mite over time was greater under restricted ventilation (37 ± 4.2%) than under standard ventilation (23 ± 4.2%) but not affected by stock of bees during the treatment period. Selected bees showed overall greater mite mortality relative to unselected bees in both experiments. Restricting ventilation increased mite mortality, but did not

  10. Development of a user-friendly delivery method for the fungus Metarhizium anisopliac to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A user-friendly method to deliver Metarhizium spores to honey bee colonies for control of Varroa mites was developed and tested. Patty blend formulations protected the fungal spores at brood nest temperatures and served as an improved delivery system of the fungus to bee hives. Field trials conducte...

  11. Pseudomonas contamination of a fungal-based biopesticide: implications for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) health and varroa mite (Acari: Varroidae) control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biopesticide, formulated with commercially-prepared conidia of a strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Varroa mites, was tested in a field experiment in southern France to compare published results from the same geographic region with the same biopesticide but made with laboratory-prepared co...

  12. Impact of a treatment of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health and on varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2 field experiments bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia of an isolate of Beauveria bassiana collected from varroa mites in the region. The main objectives were to evaluate the effect of treatment on colony growth, on total adult bee weights, on the amounts of sealed brood an...

  13. Hygienic Responses to Varroa Destructor by Commercial and Feral Honey Bees from the Big Island of Hawaii Before Exposure to Mites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The important honey bee queen production industry on the Big Island of Hawaii is threatened by the recent discovery of Varroa destructor on the island. We tested the pre-exposure level of resistance to mites of three sources of commercial Hawaiian bees and feral Hawaiian bees based on their expressi...

  14. Autumn invasion rates of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) into honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and the resulting increase in mite populations.

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The honey bee parasite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman can disperse and invade honey bee colonies by attaching to "drifting" and "robbing" honey bees that move into nonnatal colonies. We quantified the weekly invasion rates and the subsequent mite population growth from the end of July to November 2011 in 28 honey bee colonies kept in two apiaries that had high (HBD) and low (LBD) densities of neighboring colonies. At each apiary, half (seven) of the colonies were continuously treated with acaricides to kill all Varroa mites and thereby determine the invasion rates. The other group of colonies was only treated before the beginning of the experiment and then left untreated to record Varroa population growth until a final treatment in November. The numbers of bees and brood cells of all colonies were estimated according to the Liebefeld evaluation method. The invasion rates varied among individual colonies but revealed highly significant differences between the study sites. The average invasion rate per colony over the entire 3.5-mo period ranged from 266 to 1,171 mites at the HBD site compared with only 72 to 248 mites at the LBD apiary. In the untreated colonies, the Varroa population reached an average final infestation in November of 2,082 mites per colony (HBD) and 340 mites per colony (LBD). All colonies survived the winter; however, the higher infested colonies lost about three times more bees compared with the lower infested colonies. Therefore, mite invasion and late-year population growth must be considered more carefully for future treatment concepts in temperate regions. PMID:24772528

  15. Effect of concentration and exposure time on treatment efficacy against Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) during indoor winter fumigation of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with formic acid.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2005-12-01

    The combination of the concentration of formic acid and the duration of fumigation (CT product) during indoor treatments of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies to control the varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, determines the efficacy of the treatment. Because high concentrations can cause queen mortality, we hypothesized that a high CT product given as a low concentration over a long exposure time rather than as a high concentration over a short exposure time would allow effective control of varroa mites without the detrimental effects on queens. The objective of this study was to assess different combinations of formic acid concentration and exposure time with similar CT products in controlling varroa mites while minimizing the effect on worker and queen honey bees. Treated colonies were exposed to a low, medium, or high concentration of formic acid until a mean CT product of 471 ppm*d in room air was realized. The treatments consisted of a long-term low concentration of 19 ppm for 27 d, a medium-term medium concentration of 42 ppm for 10 d, a short-term high concentration of 53 ppm for 9 d, and an untreated control. Both short-term high-concentration and medium-term medium-concentration fumigation with formic acid killed varroa mites, with averages of 93 and 83% mortality, respectively, but both treatments also were associated with an increase in mortality of worker bees, queen bees, or both. Long-term low-concentration fumigation had lower efficacy (60% varroa mite mortality), but it did not increase worker or queen bee mortality. This trend differed slightly in colonies from two different beekeepers. Varroa mite mean abundance was significantly decreased in all three acid treatments relative to the control. Daily worker mortality was significantly increased by the short-term high concentration treatment, which was reflected by a decrease in the size of the worker population, but not an increase in colony mortality. Queen mortality was

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of Varroa destructor mites in brood, fallen injured mites and worker bee longevity in honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important traits that contribute to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony survival are resistance to Varroa destructor and longevity of worker bees. We investigated the relationship between a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and three phenotypic measurements of colonies: a) perc...

  17. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries. PMID:21484423

  18. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions. PMID:24772529

  19. Responses to Varroa by honey bees with different levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mite-resistance trait called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) is a form of hygienic behavior that we have named varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) disrupt the population growth of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) by removing mite-infested bee p...

  20. In-depth proteomic analysis of Varroa destructor: Detection of DWV-complex, ABPV, VdMLV and honeybee proteins in the mite.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Harant, Karel; Hubalek, Martin; Vitamvas, Pavel; Kamler, Martin; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Tyl, Jan; Markovic, Martin; Titera, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    We investigated pathogens in the parasitic honeybee mite Varroa destructor using nanoLC-MS/MS (TripleTOF) and 2D-E-MS/MS proteomics approaches supplemented with affinity-chromatography to concentrate trace target proteins. Peptides were detected from the currently uncharacterized Varroa destructor Macula-like virus (VdMLV), the deformed wing virus (DWV)-complex and the acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV). Peptide alignments revealed detection of complete structural DWV-complex block VP2-VP1-VP3, VDV-1 helicase and single-amino-acid substitution A/K/Q in VP1, the ABPV structural block VP1-VP4-VP2-VP3 including uncleaved VP4/VP2, and VdMLV coat protein. Isoforms of viral structural proteins of highest abundance were localized via 2D-E. The presence of all types of capsid/coat proteins of a particular virus suggested the presence of virions in Varroa. Also, matches between the MWs of viral structural proteins on 2D-E and their theoretical MWs indicated that viruses were not digested. The absence/scarce detection of non-structural proteins compared with high-abundance structural proteins suggest that the viruses did not replicate in the mite; hence, virions accumulate in the Varroa gut via hemolymph feeding. Hemolymph feeding also resulted in the detection of a variety of honeybee proteins. The advantages of MS-based proteomics for pathogen detection, false-positive pathogen detection, virus replication, posttranslational modifications, and the presence of honeybee proteins in Varroa are discussed. PMID:26358842

  1. In-depth proteomic analysis of Varroa destructor: Detection of DWV-complex, ABPV, VdMLV and honeybee proteins in the mite

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Harant, Karel; Hubalek, Martin; Vitamvas, Pavel; Kamler, Martin; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Tyl, Jan; Markovic, Martin; Titera, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    We investigated pathogens in the parasitic honeybee mite Varroa destructor using nanoLC-MS/MS (TripleTOF) and 2D-E-MS/MS proteomics approaches supplemented with affinity-chromatography to concentrate trace target proteins. Peptides were detected from the currently uncharacterized Varroa destructor Macula-like virus (VdMLV), the deformed wing virus (DWV)-complex and the acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV). Peptide alignments revealed detection of complete structural DWV-complex block VP2-VP1-VP3, VDV-1 helicase and single-amino-acid substitution A/K/Q in VP1, the ABPV structural block VP1-VP4-VP2-VP3 including uncleaved VP4/VP2, and VdMLV coat protein. Isoforms of viral structural proteins of highest abundance were localized via 2D-E. The presence of all types of capsid/coat proteins of a particular virus suggested the presence of virions in Varroa. Also, matches between the MWs of viral structural proteins on 2D-E and their theoretical MWs indicated that viruses were not digested. The absence/scarce detection of non-structural proteins compared with high-abundance structural proteins suggest that the viruses did not replicate in the mite; hence, virions accumulate in the Varroa gut via hemolymph feeding. Hemolymph feeding also resulted in the detection of a variety of honeybee proteins. The advantages of MS-based proteomics for pathogen detection, false-positive pathogen detection, virus replication, posttranslational modifications, and the presence of honeybee proteins in Varroa are discussed. PMID:26358842

  2. Field trials using the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes: Hyphomycetes) to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert Houssou Ble; Jones, Walker A; James, Rosalind R

    2003-08-01

    The potential for Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) to control the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in honey bee colonies was evaluated in field trials against the miticide, tau-fluvalinate (Apistan). Peak mortality of V. destructor occurred 3-4 d after the conidia were applied; however, the mites were still infected 42 d posttreatments. Two application methods were tested: dusts and strips coated with the fungal conidia, and both methods resulted in successful control of mite populations. The fungal treatments were as effective as the Apistan, at the end of the 42-d period of the experiment. The data suggested that optimum mite control could be achieved when no brood is being produced, or when brood production is low, such as in the early spring or late fall. M. anisopliae was harmless to the honey bees (adult bees, or brood) and colony development was not affected. Mite mortality was highly correlated with mycosis in dead mites collected from sticky traps, indicating that the fungus was infecting and killing the mites. Because workers and drones drift between hives, the adult bees were able to spread the fungus between honey bee colonies in the apiary, a situation that could be beneficial to beekeepers. PMID:14503579

  3. How does the mite Varroa destructor kill the honeybee Apis mellifera? Alteration of cuticular hydrcarbons and water loss in infested honeybees.

    PubMed

    Annoscia, Desiderato; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Nazzi, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Several factors threaten the health of honeybees; among them the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the Deformed Wing Virus play a major role. Recently, the dangerous interplay between the mite and the virus was studied in detail and the transition, triggered by mite feeding, from a benign covert infection to a devastating viral outbreak, characterized by an intense viral replication, associated with some characteristic symptoms, was described. In order to gain insight into the events preceding that crucial transition we carried out standardized lab experiments aiming at studying the effects of parasitization in asymptomatic bees to establish a relationship between such effects and bee mortality. It appears that parasitization alters the capacity of the honeybee to regulate water exchange; this, in turn, has severe effects on bee survival. These results are discussed in light of possible novel strategies aiming at mitigating the impact of the parasite on honeybee health. PMID:23041382

  4. Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites.

    PubMed

    Delaplane, Keith S; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Brown, Mike A; Budge, Giles E

    2015-01-01

    A honey bee queen mates on wing with an average of 12 males and stores their sperm to produce progeny of mixed paternity. The degree of a queen's polyandry is positively associated with measures of her colony's fitness, and observed distributions of mating number are evolutionary optima balancing risks of mating flights against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of this behavior that can be expected to confer colony benefit. In this study we used instrumental insemination to create three classes of queens with exaggerated range of polyandry--15, 30, or 60 drones. Colonies headed by queens inseminated with 30 or 60 drones produced more brood per bee and had a lower proportion of samples positive for Varroa destructor mites than colonies whose queens were inseminated with 15 drones, suggesting benefits of polyandry at rates higher than those normally obtaining in nature. Our results are consistent with two hypotheses that posit conditions that reward such high expressions of polyandry: (1) a queen may mate with many males in order to promote beneficial non-additive genetic interactions among subfamilies, and (2) a queen may mate with many males in order to capture a large number of rare alleles that regulate resistance to pathogens and parasites in a breeding population. Our results are unique for identifying the highest levels of polyandry yet detected that confer colony-level benefit and for showing a benefit of polyandry in particular toward the parasitic mite V. destructor. PMID:26691845

  5. Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites

    PubMed Central

    Delaplane, Keith S.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Brown, Mike A.; Budge, Giles E.

    2015-01-01

    A honey bee queen mates on wing with an average of 12 males and stores their sperm to produce progeny of mixed paternity. The degree of a queen’s polyandry is positively associated with measures of her colony’s fitness, and observed distributions of mating number are evolutionary optima balancing risks of mating flights against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of this behavior that can be expected to confer colony benefit. In this study we used instrumental insemination to create three classes of queens with exaggerated range of polyandry– 15, 30, or 60 drones. Colonies headed by queens inseminated with 30 or 60 drones produced more brood per bee and had a lower proportion of samples positive for Varroa destructor mites than colonies whose queens were inseminated with 15 drones, suggesting benefits of polyandry at rates higher than those normally obtaining in nature. Our results are consistent with two hypotheses that posit conditions that reward such high expressions of polyandry: (1) a queen may mate with many males in order to promote beneficial non-additive genetic interactions among subfamilies, and (2) a queen may mate with many males in order to capture a large number of rare alleles that regulate resistance to pathogens and parasites in a breeding population. Our results are unique for identifying the highest levels of polyandry yet detected that confer colony-level benefit and for showing a benefit of polyandry in particular toward the parasitic mite V. destructor. PMID:26691845

  6. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Mercadier, Guy; Holst, Niels; Girod, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia (asexual spores) from two strains of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus. One strain was commercial (GHA) and the other had been isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto sticky boards. Treatments included conidia formulated with either carnauba or candelilla wax powder, candelilla wax powder alone, or control; in two treatment groups formulation was applied a second time after one week. Treatment did not affect colony health. Colonies treated twice with Bb05002 conidia and carnauba wax powder had significantly higher mite fall compared to colonies treated with blank candelilla wax powder. The proportion of fallen mites that were infected in both conidia treatments was higher than controls for 18 days after the second treatment. The number of fungal propagules on the bees themselves remained elevated for about 14 days after the second treatment. These results were compared to published results from previous experiments with regard to infection duration. PMID:18506583

  7. Lower Virus Infections in Varroa destructor-Infested and Uninfested Brood and Adult Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) of a Low Mite Population Growth Colony Compared to a High Mite Population Growth Colony

    PubMed Central

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md.; Goodwin, Paul H.; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection. PMID:25723540

  8. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Goodwin, Paul H; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection. PMID:25723540

  9. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and no...

  10. Simplified methods of evaluating colonies for levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is a trait of honey bees, Apis mellifera, that supports resistance to varroa mites, Varroa destructor. Components of VSH were evaluated to identify simple methods for selection of the trait. Varroa mite population growth was measured in colonies with variable levels of...

  11. Microbial control of varroa: misadventures in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report six different field trials testing the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, against varroa mites in honey bee hives. Varroa mites are parasitic on honey bees and cause serious damage to Apis mellifera colonies. Several control methods are available for varroa mit...

  12. Development of a gel formulation of formic acid for control of parasitic mites of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kochansky, J; Shimanuki, H

    1999-09-01

    Formic acid has been used in various countries for the control of parasitic mites of honey bees (Apis mellifera), particularly the Varroa mite (Varroa jacobsoni) and the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi). Its corrosivity and consequent fear of liability have precluded commercial interest in the United States, and its rapid vaporization requires frequent reapplication. We have developed a gel formulation of formic acid which provides controlled release over 2-3 weeks and improves the convenience and safety of handling of formic acid. The strong acidity of formic acid restricts the choice of gelling agents; vegetable gellants such as agar are destroyed, and bentonite clay derivatives do not gel, even with high-shear mixing. Polyacrylamides lead to viscous liquids lacking thixotropic properties. High-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) and fumed silicas provided gels with suitable physical characteristics. The poly(acrylic acid) gels were difficult to mix and gave slower and nonlinear release behavior, while the fumed silica gels were easy to prepare and linear in formic acid vaporization. PMID:10552733

  13. Status of bees with the trait of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) for varroa resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

  14. Evaluation of Mite-Away-II for fall control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Calderone, Nicholas W

    2010-02-01

    Mite-Away II, a recently-registered product with a proprietary formulation of formic acid, was evaluated under field conditions in commercial apiaries in upstate New York (USA) for the fall control of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Ambient temperatures during the treatment period were in the lower half of the range recommended on the label, but were typical for early fall in upstate New York. Average mite mortality was 60.2 +/- 2.2% in the Mite-Away II group and 23.3 +/- 2.6% in the untreated control group. These means were significantly different from each other, but the level of control was only moderate. These results demonstrate that Mite-Away II may not always provide an adequate level of control even when the temperature at the time of application falls within the recommended range stated on the product's label. To make the best use of temperature-sensitive products, I suggest that the current, single-value, economic treatment threshold be replaced with an economic treatment range. The limits for this range are specified by two pest density values. The lower limit is the usual pest density that triggers a treatment. The upper limit is the maximum pest density that one can expect to reduce to a level below the lower limit given the temperatures expected during the treatment period. When the actual pest density exceeds the upper limit, the product should not be recommended; or, a warning should be included indicating that acceptable control may not be achieved. PMID:19588256

  15. Fine-Scale Linkage Mapping Reveals a Small Set of Candidate Genes Influencing Honey Bee Grooming Behavior in Response to Varroa Mites

    PubMed Central

    Arechavaleta-Velasco, Miguel E.; Alcala-Escamilla, Karla; Robles-Rios, Carlos; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Hunt, Greg J.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees in North America have been experiencing high annual colony mortality for 15–20 years. Many apicultural researchers believe that introduced parasites called Varroa mites (V. destructor) are the most important factor in colony deaths. One important resistance mechanism that limits mite population growth in colonies is the ability of some lines of honey bees to groom mites from their bodies. To search for genes influencing this trait, we used an Illumina Bead Station genotyping array to determine the genotypes of several hundred worker bees at over a thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a family that was apparently segregating for alleles influencing this behavior. Linkage analyses provided a genetic map with 1,313 markers anchored to genome sequence. Genotypes were analyzed for association with grooming behavior, measured as the time that individual bees took to initiate grooming after mites were placed on their thoraces. Quantitative-trait-locus interval mapping identified a single chromosomal region that was significant at the chromosome-wide level (p<0.05) on chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 2.72. The 95% confidence interval for quantitative trait locus location contained only 27 genes (honey bee official gene annotation set 2) including Atlastin, Ataxin and Neurexin-1 (AmNrx1), which have potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects. Atlastin and Ataxin homologs are associated with neurological diseases in humans. AmNrx1 codes for a presynaptic protein with many alternatively spliced isoforms. Neurexin-1 influences the growth, maintenance and maturation of synapses in the brain, as well as the type of receptors most prominent within synapses. Neurexin-1 has also been associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia in humans, and self-grooming behavior in mice. PMID:23133594

  16. Rapid method for DNA extraction from the honey bee Apis mellifera and the parasitic bee mite Varroa destructor using lysis buffer and proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Issa, M R C; Figueiredo, V L C; De Jong, D; Sakamoto, C H; Simões, Z L P

    2013-01-01

    We developed a rapid method for extraction of DNA from honey bees, Apis mellifera, and from the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The advantages include fast processing and low toxicity of the substances that are utilized. We used lysis buffer with nonionic detergents to lyse cell walls and proteinase K to digest proteins. We tested whole thorax, thoracic muscle mass, legs, and antennae from individual bees; the mites were processed whole (1 mite/sample). Each thorax was incubated whole, without cutting, because exocuticle color pigment darkened the extraction solution, interfering with PCR results. The procedure was performed with autoclaved equipment and laboratory gloves. For each sample, we used 100 µL lysis buffer (2 mL stock solution of 0.5 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.5, 10 mL stock solution of 2 M KCl, 500 µL solution of 1 M MgCl2, 2 mL NP40, and 27.6 g sucrose, completed to 200 mL with bidistilled water and autoclaved) and 2 µL proteinase K (10 mg/mL in bidistilled water previously autoclaved, as proteinase K cannot be autoclaved). Tissues were incubated in the solutions for 1-2 h in a water bath (62°-68 °C) or overnight at 37 °C. After incubation, the tissues were removed from the extraction solution (lysis buffer + proteinase K) and the solution heated to 92 °C for 10 min, for proteinase K inactivation. Then, the solution with the extracted DNA was stored in a refrigerator (4°-8 °C) or a freezer (-20 °C). This method does not require centrifugation or phenol/chloroform extraction. The reduced number of steps allowed us to sample many individuals/day. Whole mites and bee antennae were the most rapidly processed. All bee tissues gave the same quality DNA. This method, even using a single bee antenna or a single mite, was adequate for extraction and analysis of bee genomic and mitochondrial DNA and mite genomic DNA. PMID:24301746

  17. Correlation of proteome-wide changes with social immunity behaviors provides insight into resistance to the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disease is a major factor driving the evolution of many organisms. In honey bees, selection for social behavioral responses is the primary adaptive process facilitating disease resistance. One such process, hygienic behavior, enables bees to resist multiple diseases, including the damaging parasitic mite Varroa destructor. The genetic elements and biochemical factors that drive the expression of these adaptations are currently unknown. Proteomics provides a tool to identify proteins that control behavioral processes, and these proteins can be used as biomarkers to aid identification of disease tolerant colonies. Results We sampled a large cohort of commercial queen lineages, recording overall mite infestation, hygiene, and the specific hygienic response to V. destructor. We performed proteome-wide correlation analyses in larval integument and adult antennae, identifying several proteins highly predictive of behavior and reduced hive infestation. In the larva, response to wounding was identified as a key adaptive process leading to reduced infestation, and chitin biosynthesis and immune responses appear to represent important disease resistant adaptations. The speed of hygienic behavior may be underpinned by changes in the antenna proteome, and chemosensory and neurological processes could also provide specificity for detection of V. destructor in antennae. Conclusions Our results provide, for the first time, some insight into how complex behavioural adaptations manifest in the proteome of honey bees. The most important biochemical correlations provide clues as to the underlying molecular mechanisms of social and innate immunity of honey bees. Such changes are indicative of potential divergence in processes controlling the hive-worker maturation. PMID:23021491

  18. Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene and Recapped Brood Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...

  19. Evaluation of the impact of Exomite Pro on Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations and honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies: efficacy, side effects and residues.

    PubMed

    Tananaki, Chrysoula; Goras, Georgios; Huggett, Nicola; Karazafiris, Emmanouel; Dimou, Maria; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this research, we examined the application of thymol-based powder, directly over the top of the brood frames in colonies with different population in a 2-year study. The efficacy against mites, the side effects on bees and the contamination of honey were studied comparably to thymol-based gel treatment. In one-store colonies, thymol-based powder treatment gave average efficacy 64.5% and did not differ significantly from thymol-based gel treatment (65.4%). The natural mortality in control colonies was 41.4% and the corrected efficacy (E T) during 2 years was 39.4 and 40.9%, respectively. In two-store bee colonies, the application of thymol-based powder on top of each hive body gave higher E T (45,4%) than on top of the double body hive (40.4%), without statistically significant differences. The average concentration of thymol residues in honey 24 days after the application was 368 and 1,119 μg kg(-1) for the honey of colonies treated with thymol-based powder and thymol-base gel, respectively. PMID:24549753

  20. Occurrence of Deformed wing virus, Chronic bee paralysis virus and mtDNA variants in haplotype K of Varroa destructor mites in Syrian apiaries.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Daher-Hjaij, Nouraldin; Ismaeil, Faiz; Mando, Jamal; Khaled, Bassem Solaiman; Kubaa, Raied Abou

    2016-05-01

    A small-scale survey was conducted on 64 beehives located in four governorates of Syria in order to assess for the first time the presence of honeybee-infecting viruses and of Varroa destructor mites in the country. RT-PCR assays conducted on 192 honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) using virus-specific primers showed that Deformed wing virus (DWV) was present in 49 (25.5%) of the tested samples and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) in 2 (1.04%), whereas Acute bee paralysis virus, Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus and Kashmir bee virus were absent. Nucleotide sequences of PCR amplicons obtained from DWV and CBPV genomes shared 95-97 and 100% identity with isolates reported in the GenBank, respectively. The phylogenetic tree grouped the Syrian DWV isolates in one cluster, distinct from all those of different origins reported in the database. Furthermore, 19 adult V. destructor females were genetically analyzed by amplifying and sequencing four fragments in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), ATP synthase 6 (atp6), cox3 and cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. Sequences of concatenated V. destructor mtDNA genes (2696 bp) from Syria were similar to the Korean (K) haplotype and were found recurrently in all governorates. In addition, two genetic lineages of haplotype K with slight variations (0.2-0.3%) were present only in Tartous and Al-Qunaitra governorates. PMID:26914360

  1. Disease dynamics of honeybees with Varroa destructor as parasite and virus vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses carried by Varroa mites. In this article, we propose a honeybee-mite-virus model that incorporates (1) par...

  2. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene and more specific VarroaVarroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) provide resistance toward the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, Russian (RHB) and Italian honey bees were assessed for the VSH trait. Two...

  3. Varroa destructor: research avenues towards sustainable control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent review article about sustainable control of Varroa mites implies that little progress has been made in developing and applying honey bees that have genetic resistance to mites. Here we explain some of the successes that have resulted from research into genetic resistance In sum, we suggest ...

  4. Comparison of Varroa destructor and Worker Honeybee Microbiota Within Hives Indicates Shared Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the honeybee Apis mellifera. In a previous study, bacteria were found in the guts of mites collected from winter beehive debris and were identified using Sanger sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. In this study, community comparison and diversity analyses were performed to examine the microbiota of honeybees and mites at the population level. The microbiota of the mites and honeybees in 26 colonies in seven apiaries in Czechia was studied. Between 10 and 50 Varroa females were collected from the bottom board, and 10 worker bees were removed from the peripheral comb of the same beehive. Both bees and mites were surface sterilized. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the Varroa and honeybee microbiota. The Varroa microbiota was less diverse than was the honeybee microbiota, and the relative abundances of bacterial taxa in the mite and bee microbiota differed. The Varroa mites, but not the honeybees, were found to be inhabited by Diplorickettsia. The relative abundance of Arsenophonus, Morganella, Spiroplasma, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas was higher in Varroa than in honeybees, and the Diplorickettsia symbiont detected in this study is specific to Varroa mites. The results demonstrated that there are shared bacteria between Varroa and honeybee populations but that these bacteria occur in different relative proportions in the honeybee and mite bacteriomes. These results support the suggestion of bacterial transfer via mites, although only some of the transferred bacteria may be harmful. PMID:27129319

  5. A Genome Wide Genotyping Study To Find Candidate Genes That Influence Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa parasitism of honey bees is widely considered by apicultural researchers to be the greatest threat to beekeeping. Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) is one of two identified behaviors that are highly important for controlling the growth of Varroa mite populations in bee hives. Bees exhibiting th...

  6. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Roy M.; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin. PMID:23526946

  7. High-Resolution Linkage Analyses to Identify Genes That Influence Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Behavior in Honey Bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving be...

  8. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  9. Factors influencing the prevalence and infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies in two highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chemurot, Moses; Akol, Anne M; Masembe, Charles; de Smet, Lina; Descamps, Tine; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2016-04-01

    Varroa mites are ecto-parasites of honeybees and are a threat to the beekeeping industry. We identified the haplotype of Varroa mites and evaluated potential factors that influence their prevalence and infestation levels in the eastern and western highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda. This was done by collecting samples of adult worker bees between December 2014 and September 2015 in two sampling moments. Samples of bees were screened for Varroa using the ethanol wash method and the mites were identified by molecular techniques. All DNA sequences obtained from sampled mite populations in the two zones were 100 % identical to the Korean Haplotype (AF106899). Mean mite prevalence in the apiaries was 40 and 53 % for the western and eastern zones, respectively, during the first sampling. Over the second sampling, mean mite prevalence increased considerably in the western (59 %) but not in the eastern (51 %) zone. Factors that were associated with Varroa mite infestation levels include altitude, nature of apiary slope and apiary management practices during the first sampling. Our results further showed that Varroa mites were spreading from lower to higher elevations. Feral colonies were also infested with Varroa mites at infestation levels not significantly different from those in managed colonies. Colony productivity and strength were not correlated to mite infestation levels. We recommend a long-term Varroa mite monitoring strategy in areas of varying landscape and land use factors for a clear understanding of possible changes in mite infestation levels among African honeybees for informed decision making. PMID:26801158

  10. A new detection method for a newly revealed mechanism of pyrethroid resistance development in Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Strachecka, Aneta; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa destructor mite has recently displayed an ever increasing resistance to new drugs, contributing to CCD proliferation. This work was aimed at determining new viable methods for identifying the pyrethroid resistance of V. destructor and DNA methylation in resistant and sensitive mites. DNA was extracted from Varroa mites. Nucleotide changes in the DNA of pyrethroid-resistant, pyrethroid-sensitive, and control mites were identified with polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in the case of five mitochondrial gene fragments. More bands were observed in the drug-resistant mites than in the other two groups. Sequencing confirmed these observations. Decreased global DNA methylation levels were observed in the pyrethroid-resistant mites. There exists a previously undescribed mechanism of pyrethroid resistance development in Varroa mites. The PCR-SSCP methods can be considered and further developed as useful tools for detecting V. destructor resistance. PMID:26210302

  11. Changes in infestation, cell cap condition, and reproductive status of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varrroidae) in brood exposed to honey bees with Varroa sensitive hygiene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) bred for Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) selectively remove pupae infested with Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman from capped brood that is inserted into the nest. After one week, remaining brood cells tend to have been uncapped and recapped, and remaining mites are...

  12. Population dynamics of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in commercial honey bee colonies and implications for control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment schedules to maintain low levels of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on predictions of Varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony ...

  13. New Asian Types of Varroa Destructor: A Potential New Threat for World Apiculture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasion of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) by the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is attributed to two haplotypes (K and J) that shifted last century from their primary Eastern honeybee host (A. cerana) in north-east Asia. Molecular evidence indicates that both haplotypes are two partiall...

  14. Expression of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) that were bred to include the trait of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman. Queens from these sources were established in colonies which later were measure...

  15. Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious pest of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and has caused the death of millions of colonies worldwide. We investigated whether Varroa infestation induces changes in Apis mellifera gene expression, and whether there are genotypic differen...

  16. Global Status of Honey Bee Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitic bee mites have become a major problem to both beekeepers and honey bees. This chapter updates the latest information we have on the three mite species, Acarapis (tracheal), Varroa and Tropilaelaps that are currently a threat to honey bees. It also updates the current information on the ...

  17. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  18. Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection

    PubMed Central

    Navajas, M; Migeon, A; Alaux, C; Martin-Magniette, ML; Robinson, GE; Evans, JD; Cros-Arteil, S; Crauser, D; Le Conte, Y

    2008-01-01

    Background The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious pest of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and has caused the death of millions of colonies worldwide. This mite reproduces in brood cells and parasitizes immature and adult bees. We investigated whether Varroa infestation induces changes in Apis mellifera gene expression, and whether there are genotypic differences that affect gene expression relevant to the bee's tolerance, as first steps toward unravelling mechanisms of host response and differences in susceptibility to Varroa parasitism. Results We explored the transcriptional response to mite parasitism in two genetic stocks of A. mellifera which differ in susceptibility to Varroa, comparing parasitized and non-parasitized full-sister pupae from both stocks. Bee expression profiles were analyzed using microarrays derived from honey bee ESTs whose annotation has recently been enhanced by results from the honey bee genome sequence. We measured differences in gene expression in two colonies of Varroa-susceptible and two colonies of Varroa-tolerant bees. We identified a set of 148 genes with significantly different patterns of expression: 32 varied with the presence of Varroa, 116 varied with bee genotype, and 2 with both. Varroa parasitism caused changes in the expression of genes related to embryonic development, cell metabolism and immunity. Bees tolerant to Varroa were mainly characterized by differences in the expression of genes regulating neuronal development, neuronal sensitivity and olfaction. Differences in olfaction and sensitivity to stimuli are two parameters that could, at least in part, account for bee tolerance to Varroa; differences in olfaction may be related to increased grooming and hygienic behavior, important behaviors known to be involved in Varroa tolerance. Conclusion These results suggest that differences in behavior, rather than in the immune system, underlie Varroa tolerance in honey bees, and give an indication

  19. Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama Beekeeping Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

  20. On the Front Line: Quantitative Virus Dynamics in Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) Colonies along a New Expansion Front of the Parasite Varroa destructor

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Kretzschmar, Andre; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, annual honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony losses have been steadily increasing worldwide. These losses have occurred in parallel with the global spread of the honeybee parasite Varroa destructor. Indeed, Varroa mite infestations are considered to be a key explanatory factor for the widespread increase in annual honeybee colony mortality. The host-parasite relationship between honeybees and Varroa is complicated by the mite's close association with a range of honeybee viral pathogens. The 10-year history of the expanding front of Varroa infestation in New Zealand offered a rare opportunity to assess the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes in honeybee viral landscapes in response to the arrival, spread and level of Varroa infestation. We studied the impact of de novo infestation of bee colonies by Varroa on the prevalence and titres of seven well-characterised honeybee viruses in both bees and mites, using a large-scale molecular ecology approach. We also examined the effect of the number of years since Varroa arrival on honeybee and mite viral titres. The dynamic shifts in the viral titres of black queen cell virus and Kashmir bee virus mirrored the patterns of change in Varroa infestation rates along the Varroa expansion front. The deformed wing virus (DWV) titres in bees continued to increase with Varroa infestation history, despite dropping infestation rates, which could be linked to increasing DWV titres in the mites. This suggests that the DWV titres in mites, perhaps boosted by virus replication, may be a major factor in maintaining the DWV epidemic after initial establishment. Both positive and negative associations were identified for several pairs of viruses, in response to the arrival of Varroa. These findings provide important new insights into the role of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in influencing the viral landscape that affects honeybee colonies. PMID:25144447

  1. Can We Disrupt the Sensing of Honey Bees by the Bee Parasite Varroa destructor?

    PubMed Central

    Eliash, Nurit; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kamer, Yosef; Pinnelli, Govardhana Reddy; Plettner, Erika; Soroker, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is considered to be one of the most significant threats to apiculture around the world. Chemical cues are known to play a significant role in the host-finding behavior of Varroa. The mites distinguish between bees from different task groups, and prefer nurses over foragers. We examined the possibility of disrupting the Varroa – honey bee interaction by targeting the mite's olfactory system. In particular, we examined the effect of volatile compounds, ethers of cis 5-(2′-hydroxyethyl) cyclopent-2-en-1-ol or of dihydroquinone, resorcinol or catechol. We tested the effect of these compounds on the Varroa chemosensory organ by electrophysiology and on behavior in a choice bioassay. The electrophysiological studies were conducted on the isolated foreleg. In the behavioral bioassay, the mite's preference between a nurse and a forager bee was evaluated. Principal findings We found that in the presence of some compounds, the response of the Varroa chemosensory organ to honey bee headspace volatiles significantly decreased. This effect was dose dependent and, for some of the compounds, long lasting (>1 min). Furthermore, disruption of the Varroa volatile detection was accompanied by a reversal of the mite's preference from a nurse to a forager bee. Long-term inhibition of the electrophysiological responses of mites to the tested compounds was a good predictor for an alteration in the mite's host preference. Conclusions These data indicate the potential of the selected compounds to disrupt the Varroa - honey bee associations, thus opening new avenues for Varroa control. PMID:25226388

  2. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in commercial honey bee colonies treated with beta plant acids.

    PubMed

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Curry, Robert; Probasco, Gene; Schantz, Lloyd

    2014-10-01

    Varroa (Varroa destuctor Anderson and Trueman) populations in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies might be kept at low levels by well-timed miticide applications. HopGuard(®) (HG) that contains beta plant acids as the active ingredient was used to reduce mite populations. Schedules for applications of the miticide that could maintain low mite levels were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on defined parameters for efficacy of the miticide and predictions of varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony-varroa population dynamics. Colonies started from package bees and treated with HG in the package only or with subsequent HG treatments in the summer had 1.2-2.1 mites per 100 bees in August. Untreated controls averaged significantly more mites than treated colonies (3.3 mites per 100 bees). By October, mite populations ranged from 6.3 to 15.0 mites per 100 bees with the lowest mite numbers in colonies treated with HG in August. HG applications in colonies started from splits in April reduced mite populations to 0.12 mites per 100 bees. In September, the treated colonies had significantly fewer mites than the untreated controls. Subsequent HG applications in September that lasted for 3 weeks reduced mite populations to levels in November that were significantly lower than in colonies that were untreated or had an HG treatment that lasted for 1 week. The model accurately predicted colony population growth and varroa levels until the fall when varroa populations measured in colonies established from package bees or splits were much greater than predicted. Possible explanations for the differences between actual and predicted mite populations are discussed. PMID:24828399

  3. Using Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genetic Mapping to find Candidate Genes that Influence Varroa-Specific Hygiene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa-sensitive hygienic (VSH) behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa mite populations in bee hives. A study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence VSH so that resistance genes could be identified. Crosses ...

  4. Du nouveau dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European Biological Control Laboratory and the Association for the Development of Professional Beekeeping are working together to find a biological control solution against varroa mites. In spring 2005 the insect pathology team at EBCL found entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, on varro...

  5. Challenges for developing biopesticides against Varroa destructor (Mesostigamata: Varroidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of the major pest of apiculture, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, using biopesticides would resolve many of the problems experienced with other forms of control, such as chemical control, hive manipulation or selection of resistant strains. Several research groups have developed and...

  6. FIELD TRIALS ON THE MICROBIAL CONTROL OF VARROA WITH THE FUNGUS METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of chemical controls products are currently available to the beekeeping industry for varroa mite control. However, we find that beekeepers are frequently dissatisfied with the level of mite control they are able to achieve, and a biological control agent could potentially offer an entirely...

  7. Host volatiles mediate cell invasion of honey bee brood cells by Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A female Varroa destructor mite parasitizes capped bee brood by invading the cell of a late 5th instar larvae just before the cell is capped, usually by transfer from a worker bee to the new larval host. Female mites must rely on chemical cues to successfully locate and transfer to an appropriate ag...

  8. Concurrent infestations by Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor alters thermoregulation in Apis mellifera winter clusters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, and the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, are parasites of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Both parasites overwinter in honeybee colonies. The efficacy of thermoregulation might be reduced in beetle and mite infested clusters, due to altered activity of host...

  9. Selecting honey bees for worker brood that reduces the reproduction of Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated an effect of Apis mellifera worker brood on the reproduction of Varroa destructor as a resistance trait by conducting seven generations of bidirectional selection. Initial tests showed two-fold differences in mite fecundity (progeny per foundress mites) between colonies of different...

  10. Varroa destructor resistance of honey bees in Hawaii, USA, that express various levels of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Big Island of Hawaii, USA, supports an important honey bee (Apis mellifera) queen rearing industry that has been threatened by Varroa destructor since 2008. Miticides widely used to manage mites are known to interfere with queen rearing and sperm production. We investigated whether bees bred for...

  11. Disease dynamics of honeybees with Varroa destructor as parasite and virus vector.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun; Blanco, Krystal; Davis, Talia; Wang, Ying; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria

    2016-05-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses carried by Varroa mites. In this paper, we propose a honeybee-mite-virus model that incorporates (1) parasitic interactions between honeybees and the Varroa mites; (2) five virus transmission terms between honeybees and mites at different stages of Varroa mites: from honeybees to honeybees, from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites, from brood to the reproductive mites, from the reproductive mites to brood, and from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites; and (3) Allee effects in the honeybee population generated by its internal organization such as division of labor. We provide completed local and global analysis for the full system and its subsystems. Our analytical and numerical results allow us have a better understanding of the synergistic effects of parasitism and virus infections on honeybee population dynamics and its persistence. Interesting findings from our work include: (a) due to Allee effects experienced by the honeybee population, initial conditions are essential for the survival of the colony. (b) Low adult honeybees to brood ratios have destabilizing effects on the system which generate fluctuating dynamics that lead to a catastrophic event where both honeybees and mites suddenly become extinct. This catastrophic event could be potentially linked to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of honeybee colonies. (c) Virus infections may have stabilizing effects on the system, and parasitic mites could make disease more persistent. Our model illustrates how the synergy between the parasitic mites and virus infections consequently generates rich dynamics including multiple attractors where all species can coexist or go extinct depending on initial conditions. Our findings may provide important insights on honeybee viruses and parasites and how to best control them. PMID

  12. The influence of Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) infection on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) defense against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the costs and benefits of co-parasitism with Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) and Nosema (Nosema ceranae Fries and Nosema apis Zander) on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different defense levels. Newly-emerged worker bees from either high-mite-mortality-rate (high-MMR) bees or low-mite-mortality-rate (low-MMR) bees were confined in forty bioassay cages which were either inoculated with Nosema spores [Nosema (+) group] or were left un-inoculated [Nosema (-) group]. Caged-bees were then inoculated with Varroa mites [Varroa (+) group] or were left untreated [Varroa (-) group]. This established four treatment combinations within each Nosema treatment group: (1) low-MMR Varroa (-), (2) high-MMR Varroa (-), (3) low-MMR Varroa (+) and (4) high-MMR Varroa (+), each with five replicates. Overall mite mortality in high-MMR bees (0.12±0.02 mites per day) was significantly greater than in the low-MMR bees (0.06±0.02 mites per day). In the Nosema (-) groups bee mortality was greater in high-MMR bees than low-MMR bees but only when bees had a higher mite burden. Overall, high-MMR bees in the Nosema (-) group showed greater reductions in mean abundance of mites over time compared with low-MMR bees, when inoculated with additional mites. However, high-MMR bees could not reduce mite load as well as in the Nosema (-) group when fed with Nosema spores. Mean abundance of Nosema spores in live bees and dead bees of both strains of bees was significantly greater in the Nosema (+) group. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of both Nosema species in inoculated bees but N. ceranae was more abundant than N. apis and unlike N. apis increased over the course of the experiment. Collectively, this study showed differential mite mortality rates among different genotypes of bees, however, Nosema infection restrained Varroa removal success in high-MMR bees. PMID:26283465

  13. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts.

    PubMed

    Le Conte, Y; Huang, Z Y; Roux, M; Zeng, Z J; Christidès, J-P; Bagnères, A-G

    2015-06-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera. PMID:26041867

  14. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts

    PubMed Central

    Le Conte, Y.; Huang, Z. Y.; Roux, M.; Zeng, Z. J.; Christidès, J.-P.; Bagnères, A.-G.

    2015-01-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera. PMID:26041867

  15. Associations of Parameters Related to the Fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Russian and Italian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Truman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite populations and mite fall in colonies of Russian (RHB) and Italian (I) honey bees using 29 candidate measurements. Measurements included damaged and non-damaged younger mites, damag...

  16. The effects of temperature and dose of formic acid on treatment efficacy against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), a parasite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    In order to decrease the variability of formic acid treatments against the honey bee parasite the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman 2000), it is necessary to determine the dose-time combination that best controls mites without harming bees. The concentration x time (CT) product is a valuable tool for studying fumigants and how they might perform under various environmental conditions. This laboratory study is an assessment of the efficacy of formic acid against the varroa mite under a range of formic acid concentrations and temperatures. The objectives are 1) to determine the effect of temperature and dose of formic acid on worker honey bee and varroa mite survival, 2) to determine the CT50 products for both honey bees and varroa mites and 3) to determine the best temperature and dose to optimize selectivity of formic acid treatment for control of varroa mites. Worker honey bees and varroa mites were fumigated at 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.16 mg/L at 5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C for 12 d. Mite and bee mortality were assessed at regular intervals. Both mite and bee survival were affected by formic acid dose. Doses of 0.08 and 0.16 mg/L were effective at killing mites at all temperatures tested above 5 degrees C. There was a significant interaction between temperature, dose, and species for the CT50 product. The difference between the CT50 product of bees and mites was significant at only a few temperature-dose combinations. CT product values showed that at most temperatures the greatest fumigation efficiency occurred at lower doses of formic acid. However, the best fumigation efficiency and selectivity combination for treatments occurred at a dose of 0.16 mg/L when the temperature was 35 degrees C. PMID:14635816

  17. Varroa destructor and viruses association in honey bee colonies under different climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, Agostina; Molineri, Ana I; Pacini, Adriana; Fondevila, Norberto; Pietronave, Hernán; Rodríguez, Graciela; Palacio, Alejandra; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Orellano, Emanuel; Salto, César E; Signorini, Marcelo L; Merke, Julieta

    2016-06-01

    Honey bee colonies are threatened by multiple factors including complex interactions between environmental and diseases such as parasitic mites and viruses. We compared the presence of honeybee-pathogenic viruses and Varroa infestation rate in four apiaries: commercial colonies that received treatment against Varroa and non-treated colonies that did not received any treatment for the last 4 years located in temperate and subtropical climate. In addition, we evaluated the effect of climate and Varroa treatment on deformed wing virus (DWV) amounts. In both climates, DWV was the most prevalent virus, being the only present virus in subtropical colonies. Moreover, colonies from subtropical climate also showed reduced DWV amounts and lower Varroa infestation rates than colonies from temperate climate. Nevertheless, non-treated colonies in both climate conditions are able to survive several years. Environment appears as a key factor interacting with local bee populations and influencing colony survival beyond Varroa and virus presence. PMID:27083139

  18. Examining the role of foraging and malvolio in host-finding behavior in the honey bee parasite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When a female varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), invades a honey bee brood cell, the physiology rapidly changes from the feeding phoretic to reproductive. Changes in the foraging and malvolio transcript levels in the brain have been associated with modulated intra-specific food sea...

  19. Differential gene expression of two extreme honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies showing varroa tolerance and susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Robertson, T; Mostajeran, M; Robertson, A J; Qiu, X

    2016-06-01

    Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite of honey bees (Apis mellifera), is the most serious pest threatening the apiculture industry. In our honey bee breeding programme, two honey bee colonies showing extreme phenotypes for varroa tolerance/resistance (S88) and susceptibility (G4) were identified by natural selection from a large gene pool over a 6-year period. To investigate potential defence mechanisms for honey bee tolerance to varroa infestation, we employed DNA microarray and real time quantitative (PCR) analyses to identify differentially expressed genes in the tolerant and susceptible colonies at pupa and adult stages. Our results showed that more differentially expressed genes were identified in the tolerant bees than in bees from the susceptible colony, indicating that the tolerant colony showed an increased genetic capacity to respond to varroa mite infestation. In both colonies, there were more differentially expressed genes identified at the pupa stage than at the adult stage, indicating that pupa bees are more responsive to varroa infestation than adult bees. Genes showing differential expression in the colony phenotypes were categorized into several groups based on their molecular functions, such as olfactory signalling, detoxification processes, exoskeleton formation, protein degradation and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that these biological processes play roles in conferring varroa tolerance to naturally selected colonies. Identification of differentially expressed genes between the two colony phenotypes provides potential molecular markers for selecting and breeding varroa-tolerant honey bees. PMID:26919127

  20. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  1. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood.

    PubMed

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  2. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

  3. Increased Tolerance and Resistance to Virus Infections: A Possible Factor in the Survival of Varroa destructor-Resistant Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases. However, Varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. This means that honey bee resistance to Varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. The aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (MR) European honey bees on the island of Gotland, Sweden. This population has survived uncontrolled mite infestation for over a decade, developing specific mite-related resistance traits to do so. Using RT-qPCR techniques, we monitored late season virus infections, Varroa mite infestation and honey bee colony population dynamics in the Gotland MR population and compared this to mite-susceptible (MS) colonies in a close by apiary. From summer to autumn the deformed wing virus (DWV) titres increased similarly between the MR and MS populations, while the black queen cell virus (BQCV) and sacbrood virus (SBV) titres decreased substantially in the MR population compared to the MS population by several orders of magnitude. The MR colonies all survived the following winter with high mite infestation, high DWV infection, small colony size and low proportions of autumn brood, while the MS colonies all perished. Possible explanations for these changes in virus titres and their relevance to Varroa resistance and colony winter survival are discussed. PMID:24926792

  4. Increased tolerance and resistance to virus infections: a possible factor in the survival of Varroa destructor-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases. However, Varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. This means that honey bee resistance to Varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. The aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (MR) European honey bees on the island of Gotland, Sweden. This population has survived uncontrolled mite infestation for over a decade, developing specific mite-related resistance traits to do so. Using RT-qPCR techniques, we monitored late season virus infections, Varroa mite infestation and honey bee colony population dynamics in the Gotland MR population and compared this to mite-susceptible (MS) colonies in a close by apiary. From summer to autumn the deformed wing virus (DWV) titres increased similarly between the MR and MS populations, while the black queen cell virus (BQCV) and sacbrood virus (SBV) titres decreased substantially in the MR population compared to the MS population by several orders of magnitude. The MR colonies all survived the following winter with high mite infestation, high DWV infection, small colony size and low proportions of autumn brood, while the MS colonies all perished. Possible explanations for these changes in virus titres and their relevance to Varroa resistance and colony winter survival are discussed. PMID:24926792

  5. An Amino Acid Substitution (L925V) Associated with Resistance to Pyrethroids in Varroa destructor

    PubMed Central

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Davies, T. G. Emyr; Field, Linda M.; Kennedy, Peter J.; Williamson, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an important pest of honeybees and has played a prominent role in the decline in bee colony numbers over recent years. Although pyrethroids such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin can be highly effective in removing the mites from hives, their intensive use has led to many reports of resistance. To investigate the mechanism of resistance in UK Varroa samples, the transmembrane domain regions of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel (the main target site for pyrethroids) were PCR amplified and sequenced from pyrethroid treated/untreated mites collected at several locations in Central/Southern England. A novel amino acid substitution, L925V, was identified that maps to a known hot spot for resistance within the domain IIS5 helix of the channel protein; a region that has also been proposed to form part of the pyrethroid binding site. Using a high throughput diagnostic assay capable of detecting the mutation in individual mites, the L925V substitution was found to correlate well with resistance, being present in all mites that had survived tau-fluvalinate treatment but in only 8 % of control, untreated samples. The potential for using this assay to detect and manage resistance in Varroa-infected hives is discussed. PMID:24367572

  6. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.

  7. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite. PMID:19050844

  8. How Varroa Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Aronstein, Katherine A; Saldivar, Eduardo; Vega, Rodrigo; Westmiller, Stephanie; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. Varroa‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecin) was either not significantly different between Varroa-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in Varroa-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of Varroa on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in Varroa-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high Varroa abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore Varroa. PMID:26466617

  9. Varroa destructor, a potential vector of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the role of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, as a vector in transmission of viruses between honey bees is well established, no study has shown that it can similarly transmit Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus that was found to be associated with Colony Collapse Disorder (CC...

  10. Les micro-champignons, nouvel espoir dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After almost twenty years, research on the chemical control of Varroa destructor has still not provided a final answer. This mite parasite is still a serious menace to colonies of Apis mellifera. Laboratory work has shown that several species of entomopathogenic fungi, which are found naturally in ...

  11. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  12. How Varroa parasitism affects the immunological and nutritional status of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from up to 10 colonies at one site ...

  13. Examining the role of foraging and malvolio in host-finding behavior in the honey bee parasite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Shirk, Paul D; Teal, Peter E A; Grozinger, Christina M; Evans, Jay D

    2014-02-01

    When a female varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), invades a honey bee brood cell, the physiology rapidly changes from feeding phoretic to reproductive. Changes in foraging and malvolio transcript levels in the brain have been associated with modulated intra-specific food searching behaviors in insects and other invertebrates. Transcription profiles for both genes were examined during and immediately following brood cell invasion to assess their role as potential control elements. Vdfor and Vdmvl transcripts were found in all organs of varroa mites with the highest Vdfor transcript levels in ovary-lyrate organs and the highest Vdmvl in Malpighian tubules. Changes in transcript levels of Vdfor and Vdmvl in synganglia were not associated with the cell invasion process, remaining comparable between early reproductive mites (collected from the pre-capping brood cells) and phoretic mites. However, Vdfor and Vdmvl transcript levels were lowered by 37 and 53%, respectively, in synganglia from reproductive mites compared to early reproductive mites, but not significantly different to levels in synganglia from phoretic mites. On the other hand, in whole body preparations the Vdfor and Vdmvl had significantly higher levels of transcript in reproductive mites compared to phoretic and early reproductive, mainly due to the presence of both transcripts accumulating in the eggs carried by the ovipositing mite. Varroa mites are a critical component for honey bee population decline and finding varroa mite genes associated with brood cell invasion, reproduction, ion balance and other physiological processes will facilitate development of novel control avenues for this honey bee parasite. PMID:24375502

  14. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population. PMID:20069828

  15. A selective sweep in a Varroa destructor resistant honeybee (Apis mellifera) population.

    PubMed

    Lattorff, H Michael G; Buchholz, Josephine; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-04-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is one of the most dangerous parasites of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) causing enormous colony losses worldwide. Various chemical treatments for the control of the Varroa mite are currently in use, which, however, lead to residues in bee products and often to resistance in mites. This facilitated the exploration of alternative treatment methods and breeding for mite resistant honeybees has been in focus for breeders in many parts of the world with variable results. Another approach has been applied to a honeybee population on Gotland (Sweden) that was exposed to natural selection and survived Varroa-infestation for more than 10years without treatment. Eventually this population became resistant to the parasite by suppressing the reproduction of the mite. A previous QTL mapping study had identified a region on chromosome 7 with major loci contributing to the mite resistance. Here, a microsatellite scan of the significant candidate QTL regions was used to investigate potential footprints of selection in the original population by comparing the study population on Gotland before (2000) and after selection (2007). Genetic drift had caused an extreme loss of genetic diversity in the 2007 population for all genetic markers tested. In addition to this overall reduction of heterozygosity, two loci on chromosome 7 showed an even stronger and significant reduction in diversity than expected from genetic drift alone. Within the selective sweep eleven genes are annotated, one of them being a putative candidate to interfere with reduced mite reproduction. A glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase (GMCOX18) might be involved in changing volatiles emitted by bee larvae that might be essential to trigger oogenesis in Varroa. PMID:25660040

  16. Genome Characterization, Prevalence and Distribution of a Macula-Like Virus from Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Cornman, R Scott; Evans, Jay D; Semberg, Emilia; Haddad, Nizar; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    Around 14 distinct virus species-complexes have been detected in honeybees, each with one or more strains or sub-species. Here we present the initial characterization of an entirely new virus species-complex discovered in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and varroa mite (Varroa destructor) samples from Europe and the USA. The virus has a naturally poly-adenylated RNA genome of about 6500 nucleotides with a genome organization and sequence similar to the Tymoviridae (Tymovirales; Tymoviridae), a predominantly plant-infecting virus family. Literature and laboratory analyses indicated that the virus had not previously been described. The virus is very common in French apiaries, mirroring the results from an extensive Belgian survey, but could not be detected in equally-extensive Swedish and Norwegian bee disease surveys. The virus appears to be closely linked to varroa, with the highest prevalence found in varroa samples and a clear seasonal distribution peaking in autumn, coinciding with the natural varroa population development. Sub-genomic RNA analyses show that bees are definite hosts, while varroa is a possible host and likely vector. The tentative name of Bee Macula-like virus (BeeMLV) is therefore proposed. A second, distantly related Tymoviridae-like virus was also discovered in varroa transcriptomes, tentatively named Varroa Tymo-like virus (VTLV). PMID:26154017

  17. Differential viral levels and immune gene expression in three stocks of Apis mellifera induced by different numbers of Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; de Guzman, Lilia I; Tarver, Matthew R; Rinderer, Thomas E; Chen, Yanping; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    The viral levels and immune responses of Italian honey bees (IHB), Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL) deliberately infested with one or two foundress Varroa were compared. We found that the Deformed wing virus (DWV) level in IHB inoculated with one or two foundress Varroa increased to about 10(3) or 10(5) fold the levels of their uninfested brood. In contrast, POL (10(2) or 10(4) fold) and RHB (10(2) or l0(4) fold) supported a lower increase in DWV levels. The feeding of different stages of Varroa nymphs did not increase DWV levels of their pupal hosts. Analyses of their corresponding Varroa mites showed the same trends: two foundress Varroa yielded higher DWV levels than one foundress, and the addition of nymphs did not increase viral levels. Using the same pupae examined for the presence of viruses, 16 out of 24 genes evaluated showed significant differential mRNA expression levels among the three honey bee stocks. However, only four genes (Defensin, Dscam, PPOact and spaetzle), which were expressed at similar levels in uninfested pupae, were altered by the number of feeding foundress Varroa and levels of DWV regardless of stocks. This research provides the first evidence that immune response profiles of different honey bee stocks are induced by Varroa parasitism. PMID:25456452

  18. Phenotypic and Genetic Analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic Trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Kirrane, Maria J.; de Guzman, Lilia I.; Holloway, Beth; Frake, Amanda M.; Rinderer, Thomas E.; Whelan, Pádraig M.

    2015-01-01

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH), provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB) and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an “actual brood removal assay” that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL) to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25). Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa) out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock. PMID:25909856

  19. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the varroa sensitive hygienic trait in Russian honey bee (hymenoptera: apidae) colonies.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Holloway, Beth; Frake, Amanda M; Rinderer, Thomas E; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2014-01-01

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH), provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB) and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an "actual brood removal assay" that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL) to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25). Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa) out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock. PMID:25909856

  20. Ecology of Varroa destructor, the Major Ectoparasite of the Western Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Francesco; Le Conte, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasite of Apis mellifera. This review addresses the interactions between the varroa mite, its environment, and the honey bee host, mediated by an impressive number of cues and signals, including semiochemicals regulating crucial steps of the mite's life cycle. Although mechanical stimuli, temperature, and humidity play an important role, chemical communication is the most important channel. Kairomones are used at all stages of the mite's life cycle, and the exploitation of bees' brood pheromones is particularly significant given these compounds function as primer and releaser signals that regulate the social organization of the honey bee colony. V. destructor is a major problem for apiculture, and the search for novel control methods is an essential task for researchers. A detailed study of the ecological interactions of V. destructor is a prerequisite for creating strategies to sustainably manage the parasite. PMID:26667378

  1. The New Zealand experience of varroa invasion highlights research opportunities for Australia.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Jay M; Barratt, Barbara I P; Lord, Janice M; Mercer, Alison R; Dickinson, Katharine J M

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is implicated as a major disease factor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide. Honey bees are extensively relied upon for pollination services, and in countries such as New Zealand and Australia where honey bees have been introduced specifically for commercial pollinator services, the economic effects of any decline in honey bee numbers are predicted to be profound. V. destructor established in New Zealand in 2000 but as yet, Australia remains Varroa-free. Here we analyze the history of V. destructor invasion and spread in New Zealand and discuss the likely long-term impacts. When the mite was discovered in New Zealand, it was considered too well established for eradication to be feasible. Despite control efforts, V. destructor has since spread throughout the country. Today, assessing the impacts of the arrival of V. destructor in this country is compromised by a paucity of data on pollinator communities as they existed prior to invasion. Australia's Varroa-free status provides a rare and likely brief window of opportunity for the global bee research community to gain understanding of honey bee-native pollinator community dynamics prior to Varroa invasion. PMID:26133152

  2. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test.

    PubMed

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance. PMID:26910521

  3. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

  4. Dead or alive: Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated winter losses of managed honey bee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae and associated viruses. Here, we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expecta...

  5. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera): The role of infestations with Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple infections and infestations of honeybee colonies with pathogens and parasites are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be one of the mechanisms underlying winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alo...

  6. The effects of beta acids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.)on mortality of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta acids from hop plants (Humulus lupulus L.) reduce feeding and oviposition behaviors and increase mortality in certain phytophagous mites. These compounds were tested for their effects on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) mortality. The effects of hops beta acids (HBA) on honey bee (Apis ...

  7. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor. PMID:20857710

  8. Short-term fumigation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with formic and acetic acids for the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Underwood, Robyn M; Cox-Foster, Diana L

    2008-04-01

    Controlling populations of varroa mites is crucial for the survival of the beekeeping industry. Many treatments exist, and all are designed to kill mites on adult bees. Because the majority of mites are found under capped brood, most treatments are designed to deliver active ingredients over an extended period to control mites on adult bees, as developing bees and mites emerge. In this study, a 17-h application of 50% formic acid effectively killed mites in capped worker brood and on adult bees without harming queens or uncapped brood. Neither acetic acid nor a combined treatment of formic and acetic acids applied to the West Virginia formic acid fumigator was as effective as formic acid alone in controlling varroa mites. In addition, none of the treatments tested in late summer had an effect on the late-season prevalence of deformed wing virus. The short-term formic acid treatment killed > 60% of varroa mites in capped worker brood; thus, it is a promising tool for beekeepers, especially when such treatments are necessary during the nectar flow. PMID:18459386

  9. Superinfection exclusion and the long-term survival of honey bees in Varroa-infested colonies.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Gideon J; Brettell, Laura E; Martin, Stephen J; Dixon, David; Jones, Ian M; Schroeder, Declan C

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 50 years, many millions of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies have died as the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has spread around the world. Subsequent studies have indicated that the mite's association with a group of RNA viral pathogens (Deformed Wing Virus, DWV) correlates with colony death. Here, we propose a phenomenon known as superinfection exclusion that provides an explanation of how certain A. mellifera populations have survived, despite Varroa infestation and high DWV loads. Next-generation sequencing has shown that a non-lethal DWV variant 'type B' has become established in these colonies and that the lethal 'type A' DWV variant fails to persist in the bee population. We propose that this novel stable host-pathogen relationship prevents the accumulation of lethal variants, suggesting that this interaction could be exploited for the development of an effective treatment that minimises colony losses in the future. PMID:26505829

  10. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md. Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G.; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results. PMID:27252482

  11. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Anguiano-Baez, Ricardo; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results. PMID:27252482

  12. Antennae hold a key to Varroa-sensitive hygiene behaviour in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; Alaux, Cédric; Severac, Dany; Rohmer, Marine; Mercer, Alison R.; Le Conte, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In honey bees, Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) behaviour, which involves the detection and removal of brood parasitised by the mite Varroa destructor, can actively participate in the survival of colonies facing Varroa outbreaks. This study investigated the mechanisms of VSH behaviour, by comparing the antennal transcriptomes of bees that do and do not perform VSH behaviour. Results indicate that antennae likely play a key role in the expression of VSH behaviour. Comparisons with the antennal transcriptome of nurse and forager bees suggest that VSH profile is more similar to that of nurse bees than foragers. Enhanced detection of certain odorants in VSH bees may be predicted from transcriptional patterns, as well as a higher metabolism and antennal motor activity. Interestingly, Deformed wing virus/Varroa destructor virus infections were detected in the antennae, with higher level in non-VSH bees; a putative negative impact of viral infection on bees’ ability to display VSH behaviour is proposed. These results bring new perspectives to the understanding of VSH behaviour and the evolution of collective defence by focusing attention on the importance of the peripheral nervous system. In addition, such data might be useful for promoting marker-assisted selection of honey bees that can survive Varroa infestations. PMID:26000641

  13. Antennae hold a key to Varroa-sensitive hygiene behaviour in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Mondet, Fanny; Alaux, Cédric; Severac, Dany; Rohmer, Marine; Mercer, Alison R; Le Conte, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In honey bees, Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) behaviour, which involves the detection and removal of brood parasitised by the mite Varroa destructor, can actively participate in the survival of colonies facing Varroa outbreaks. This study investigated the mechanisms of VSH behaviour, by comparing the antennal transcriptomes of bees that do and do not perform VSH behaviour. Results indicate that antennae likely play a key role in the expression of VSH behaviour. Comparisons with the antennal transcriptome of nurse and forager bees suggest that VSH profile is more similar to that of nurse bees than foragers. Enhanced detection of certain odorants in VSH bees may be predicted from transcriptional patterns, as well as a higher metabolism and antennal motor activity. Interestingly, Deformed wing virus/Varroa destructor virus infections were detected in the antennae, with higher level in non-VSH bees; a putative negative impact of viral infection on bees' ability to display VSH behaviour is proposed. These results bring new perspectives to the understanding of VSH behaviour and the evolution of collective defence by focusing attention on the importance of the peripheral nervous system. In addition, such data might be useful for promoting marker-assisted selection of honey bees that can survive Varroa infestations. PMID:26000641

  14. Genetic structure of Varroa destructor populations infesting Apis mellifera colonies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maggi, M; Medici, S; Quintana, S; Ruffinengo, S; Marcángeli, J; Gimenez Martinez, P; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, M

    2012-04-01

    Although mitochondrial DNA mapping of Varroa destructor revealed the presence of several haplotypes, only two of them (Korean and Japanese haplotypes) were capable to infest Apis mellifera populations. Even though the Korean haplotype is the only one that has been reported in Argentina, these conclusions were based on mites sampled in apiaries from a specific geographical place (Buenos Aires province). To study mites from several sites of Argentina could reveal the presence of the Japanese genotype, especially considering sites near to Brazil, where Japanese haplotype was already detected. The aim of this work was to study the genetic structure of V. destructor populations from apiaries located in various provinces of Argentina, in order to determine the presence of different haplotypes. The study was carried out between January 2006 and December 2009. Phoretic adult Varroa mites were collected from honey bee workers sampled from colonies of A. mellifera located in Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Río Negro, Santa Cruz and Neuquén provinces. Twenty female mites from each sampling site were used to carry out the genetic analysis. For DNA extraction a nondestructive method was used. DNA sequences were compared to Korean haplotype (AF106899) and Japanese haplotype (AF106897). All DNA sequences obtained from mite populations sampled in Argentina, share 98% of similitude with Korean Haplotype (AF106899). Taking into account these results, we are able to conclude that Korean haplotype is cosmopolite in Argentina. PMID:22349941

  15. Identification and gene-silencing of a putative odorant receptor transcription factor in Varroa destructor: possible role in olfaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Eliash, N; Stein, I; Kamer, Y; Ilia, Z; Rafaeli, A; Soroker, V

    2016-04-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is one of the major threats to apiculture. Using a behavioural choice bioassay, we determined that phoretic mites were more successful in reaching a bee than reproductive mites, suggesting an energy trade-off between reproduction and host selection. We used both chemo-ecological and molecular strategies to identify the regulation of the olfactory machinery of Varroa and its association with reproduction. We focused on transcription regulation. Using primers designed to the conserved DNA binding region of transcription factors, we identified a gene transcript in V. destructor homologous to the pheromone receptor transcription factor (PRTF) gene of Pediculus humanus corporis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that this PRTF-like gene transcript is expressed in the forelegs at higher levels than in the body devoid of forelegs. Subsequent comparative qPCR analysis showed that transcript expression was significantly higher in the phoretic as compared to the reproductive stage. Electrophysiological and behavioural studies revealed a reduction in the sensitivity of PRTF RNA interference-silenced mites to bee headspace, consistent with a reduction in the mites' ability to reach a host. In addition, vitellogenin expression was stimulated in PRTF-silenced mites to similar levels as found in reproductive mites. These data shed light upon the regulatory mechanism of host chemosensing in V. destructor. PMID:26801167

  16. Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are normal inhabitants of human hair follicles. D folliculorum is found predominantly in the follicular infundibulum of facial skin and is typically present in small groups. D brevis, the smaller of the two species, predominates on the trunk, typically as solitarily mites within the sebaceous glands and ducts. In a wide variety of animals, Demodex mites are recognized as a cause of mange. The role of Demodex mites as agents of human disease has been more controversial, but evidence favors their involvement in acneiform eruptions, folliculitis, and a range of eruptions in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25441466

  17. High-Resolution Linkage Analyses to Identify Genes That Influence Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Behavior in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Bourgeois, Lanie; Danka, Robert G.; Hunt, Greg J.

    2012-01-01

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95). The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene ‘no receptor potential A’ and a dopamine receptor. ‘No receptor potential A’ is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection. PMID:23133626

  18. Key management practices to prevent high infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies at the beginning of the honey yield season.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, Agostina; Molineri, Ana; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Masciangelo, Germán; Pietronave, Hernán; Pacini, Adriana; Salto, Cesar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the main threats to worldwide apiculture causing a variety of physiological effects at individual and colony level. Also, Varroa mites are often associated with several honey bee viruses presence. Relatively low levels of Varroa during the spring, at the beginning of the honey yield season, can have a significant economic impact on honey production and colony health. Winter treatments against Varroa and certain management practices may delay mite population growth during following spring and summer improving colonies performance during the honey yield season. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in late spring in apiaries from temperate climate. A longitudinal study was carried out in 48 apiaries, randomly selected to evaluate V. destructor infestation level throughout the year. The percentage of infestation with V. destructor was assessed four times during one year and the beekeepers answered a survey concerning all management practices applied in the colonies. We used a generalized linear mixed model to determine association between risk of achieving 2% infestation on adult bees at the beginning of the honey yield season and all potential explanatory variables. The complete dataset was scanned to identify colonies clusters with a higher probability of achieving damage thresholds throughout the year. Colonies that achieved ≥2% of infestation with V. destructor during spring were owned by less experienced beekeepers. Moreover, as Varroa populations increase exponentially during spring and summer, if the spring sampling time is later this growth remains unobserved. Monitoring and winter treatment can be critical for controlling mite population during the honey production cycle. Spatial distribution of colonies with a higher risk of achieving high Varroa levels seems to be better explained by management practices than a geographical condition. PMID:27544258

  19. Effects of multiple applications of a Beauveria based biopesticide on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) densities in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biopesticide, formulated with a strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites, was tested in an experiment in southern France and the results were were compared to published results from previous experiments with the same biopesticide. Bee colonies were treated either with biopesticide, ...

  20. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated. PMID:21735889

  1. LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Ruffinengo, Sergio; Eguaras, Martin; Floris, Ignazio; Faverin, Claudia; Bailac, Pedro; Ponzi, Marta

    2005-06-01

    The repellent and acaricidal effects of some essential oils from the most typical wild plant species of northern Patagonia, Argentina, on Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated using a complete exposure test. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and mites (five specimens of each per dish) were introduced in petri dishes having different oil concentrations (from 0.1 to 25 micro per cage). Survival of bees and mites was registered after 24, 48, and 72 h. An attraction/repellence test was performed using a wax tube impregnated with essential oil and another tube containing wax only. The lowest LD50 values for mites were registered for Acantholippia seriphioides (A. Gray) Mold. (1.27 microl per cage) and Schinus molle L. (2.65 microl per cage) after 24 h, and for Wedelia glauca (Ortega) O. Hoffm. ex Hicken (0.59 microl per cage) and A. seriphioides (1.09 microl per cage) after 72 h of treatment. The oil with the highest selectivity ratio (A. mellifera LD50/V. destructor LD50) was the one extracted from S. molle (>16). Oils of Lippia junelliana (Mold.) Troncoso, Minthostachys mollis (HBK) Grieseb., and Lippia turbinata Grieseb. mixed with wax had repellent properties. None of the oils tested had attractive effects on Varroa mites. PMID:16022288

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. PMID:26774061

  3. Next generation sequencing of Apis mellifera syriaca identifies genes for Varroa resistance and beneficial bee keeping traits.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nizar; Mahmud Batainh, Ahmed; Suleiman Migdadi, Osama; Saini, Deepti; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Parameswaran, Sriram; Alhamuri, Zaid

    2016-08-01

    Apis mellifera syriaca exhibits a high degree of tolerance to pests and pathogens including varroa mites. This native honey bee subspecies of Jordan expresses behavioral adaptations to high temperature and dry seasons typical of the region. However, persistent honey bee imports of commercial breeder lines are endangering local honey bee population. This study reports the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to study the A. m. syriaca genome and to identify genetic factors possibly contributing toward mite resistance and other favorable traits. We obtained a total of 46.2 million raw reads by applying the NGS to sequence A. m. syriaca and used extensive bioinformatics approach to identify several candidate genes for Varroa mite resistance, behavioral and immune responses characteristic for these bees. As a part of characterizing the functional regulation of molecular genetic pathway, we have mapped the pathway genes potentially involved using information from Drosophila melanogaster and present possible functional changes implicated in responses to Varroa destructor mite infestation toward this. We performed in-depth functional annotation methods to identify ∼600 candidates that are relevant, genes involved in pathways such as microbial recognition and phagocytosis, peptidoglycan recognition protein family, Gram negative binding protein family, phagocytosis receptors, serpins, Toll signaling pathway, Imd pathway, Tnf, JAK-STAT and MAPK pathway, heamatopioesis and cellular response pathways, antiviral, RNAi pathway, stress factors, etc. were selected. Finally, we have cataloged function-specific polymorphisms between A. mellifera and A. m. syriaca that could give better understanding of varroa mite resistance mechanisms and assist in breeding. We have identified immune related embryonic development (Cactus, Relish, dorsal, Ank2, baz), Varroa hygiene (NorpA2, Zasp, LanA, gasp, impl3) and Varroa resistance (Pug, pcmt, elk, elf3-s10, Dscam2, Dhc64C, gro

  4. Brood cell size of Apis mellifera modifies the reproductive behavior of Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Damiani, Natalia; Ruffinengo, Sergio; De Jong, David; Principal, Judith; Eguaras, Martín

    2010-03-01

    We undertook a field study to determine whether comb cell size affects the reproductive behavior of Varroa destructor under natural conditions. We examined the effect of brood cell width on the reproductive behavior of V. destructor in honey bee colonies, under natural conditions. Drone and worker brood combs were sampled from 11 colonies of Apis mellifera. A Pearson correlation test and a Tukey test were used to determine whether mite reproduction rate varied with brood cell width. Generalized additive model analysis showed that infestation rate increased positively and linearly with the width of worker and drone cells. The reproduction rate for viable mother mites was 0.96 viable female descendants per original invading female. No significant correlation was observed between brood cell width and number of offspring of V. destructor. Infertile mother mites were more frequent in narrower brood cells. PMID:19768560

  5. A comparison of the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata:Varroidae) in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Calderón, Rafael A; Zamora, Luis G; Van Veen, Johan W; Quesada, Mariela V

    2007-01-01

    Colony infestation by the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor is one of the most serious problems for beekeeping worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females, enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. To test the hypothesis that, due to the preference of mites to invade drone brood to reproduce, a high proportion of the mite reproduction should occur in drone cells, a comparative study of mite reproductive rate in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) was done for 370 mites. After determining the number, developmental stage and sex of the offspring in worker cells, the foundress female mite was immediately transferred into an uninfested drone cell. Mite fertility in single infested worker and drone brood cells was 76.5 and 79.3%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2)= 0.78, P = 0.37). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring (cells that contain one live adult male and at least one adult female mite) in drone cells (38.1%) compared to worker cells (13.8%) (X(2)= 55.4, P < 0.01). Furthermore, a high level of immature offspring occurred in worker cells and not in drone cells (X(2)= 69, P < 0.01). Although no differences were found in the percentage of non-reproducing mites, more than 74% (n = 85) of the mites that did not reproduce in worker brood, produced offspring when they were transferred to drone brood. PMID:17828439

  6. Towards a better understanding of Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor microbiomes: introducing 'phyloh' as a novel phylogenetic diversity analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Sandionigi, A; Vicario, S; Prosdocimi, E M; Galimberti, A; Ferri, E; Bruno, A; Balech, B; Mezzasalma, V; Casiraghi, M

    2015-07-01

    The study of diversity in biological communities is an intriguing field. Huge amount of data are nowadays available (provided by the innovative DNA sequencing techniques), and management, analysis and display of results are not trivial. Here, we propose for the first time the use of phylogenetic entropy as a measure of bacterial diversity in studies of microbial community structure. We then compared our new method (i.e. the web tool phyloh) for partitioning phylogenetic diversity with the traditional approach in diversity analyses of bacteria communities. We tested phyloh to characterize microbiome in the honeybee (Apis mellifera, Insecta: Hymenoptera) and its parasitic mite varroa (Varroa destructor, Arachnida: Parasitiformes). The rationale is that the comparative analysis of honeybee and varroa microbiomes could open new perspectives concerning the role of the parasites on honeybee colonies health. Our results showed a dramatic change of the honeybee microbiome when varroa occurs, suggesting that this parasite is able to influence host microbiome. Among the different approaches used, only the entropy method, in conjunction with phylogenetic constraint as implemented in phyloh, was able to discriminate varroa microbiome from that of parasitized honeybees. In conclusion, we foresee that the use of phylogenetic entropy could become a new standard in the analyses of community structure, in particular to prove the contribution of each biological entity to the overall diversity. PMID:25367306

  7. Evidence for damage-dependent hygienic behaviour towards Varroa destructor-parasitised brood in the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Schöning, Caspar; Gisder, Sebastian; Geiselhardt, Sven; Kretschmann, Ivonne; Bienefeld, Kaspar; Hilker, Monika; Genersch, Elke

    2012-01-15

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and honey bee pathogenic viruses have been implicated in the recent demise of honey bee colonies. Several studies have shown that the combination of V. destructor and deformed wing virus (DWV) poses an especially serious threat to honey bee health. Mites transmitting virulent forms of DWV may cause fatal DWV infections in the developing bee, while pupae parasitised by mites not inducing or activating overt DWV infections may develop normally. Adult bees respond to brood diseases by removing affected brood. This hygienic behaviour is an essential part of the bees' immune response repertoire and is also shown towards mite-parasitised brood. However, it is still unclear whether the bees react towards the mite in the brood cell or rather towards the damage done to the brood. We hypothesised that the extent of mite-associated damage rather than the mere presence of parasitising mites triggers hygienic behaviour. Hygienic behaviour assays performed with mites differing in their potential to transmit overt DWV infections revealed that brood parasitised by 'virulent' mites (i.e. mites with a high potential to induce fatal DWV infections in parasitised pupae) were removed significantly more often than brood parasitised by 'less virulent' mites (i.e. mites with a very low potential to induce overt DWV infections) or non-parasitised brood. Chemical analyses of brood odour profiles suggested that the bees recognise severely affected brood by olfactory cues. Our results suggest that bees show selective, damage-dependent hygienic behaviour, which may be an economic way for colonies to cope with mite infestation. PMID:22189770

  8. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems. PMID:26470066

  9. Statistical methods to quantify the effect of mite parasitism on the probability of death in honey bee colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor is a mite parasite of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, that weakens the population, can lead to the death of an entire honey bee colony, and is believed to be the parasite with the most economic impact on beekeeping. The purpose of this study was to estimate the probability of ...

  10. Reproduction of Varroa destructor and offspring mortality in worker and drone brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    PubMed

    Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W

    2012-04-01

    Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P < 0.05). A greater proportion of mites in worker brood cells produced non-viable female offspring. Mite offspring mortality in both worker and drone cells was high in the protonymph stage (mobile and immobile). A significant finding was the high rate of male mortality. The worker and drone brood revealed that 23.9 and 6.9%, respectively, of the adult male offspring was found dead. If the absence (missing) of the male and adult male mortality are taken together the percentage of cells increased to 40.0 and 21.3% in worker and drone cells, respectively (X(2) = 28.8, P < 0.05). The absence of the male or male mortality in a considerable number of worker cells naturally infested with varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica. PMID:22270116

  11. Indoor winter fumigation of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies infested with Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) with formic acid is a potential control alternative in northern climates.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2004-04-01

    Formic acid treatment for the control of the ectoparasitic varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, infesting honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies is usually carried out as an in-hive outdoor treatment. This study examined the use of formic acid on wintered colonies kept indoors at 5 degrees C from 24 November 1999 to 24 March 2000. Colonies were placed in small treatment rooms that were not treated (control) or fumigated at three different concentrations of formic acid: low (mean 11.9 +/- 1.2 ppm), medium (mean 25.8 +/- 1.4 ppm), or high (mean 41.2 +/- 3.3 ppm), for 48 h on 22-24 January 2000. Queen bee, worker bee, and varroa mite mortality were monitored throughout the winter, and tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), prevalence and mean abundance of nosema, Nosema apis Zander, spores were assessed. This study revealed that formic acid fumigation of indoor-wintered honey bees is feasible and effective. The highest concentration significantly reduced the mean abundance of varroa mites and nosema spores without increasing bee mortality. Tracheal mite prevalence did not change significantly at any concentration, although we did not measure mortality directly. The highest concentration treatment killed 33.3% of queens compared with 4.8% loss in the control. Repeated fumigation periods at high concentrations or extended fumigation at low concentrations may increase the efficacy of this treatment method and should be tested in future studies. An understanding of the cause of queen loss and methods to prevent it must be developed for this method to be generally accepted. PMID:15154434

  12. Impact of the Phoretic Phase on Reproduction and Damage Caused by Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) to Its Host, the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Piou, Vincent; Tabart, Jérémy; Urrutia, Virginie; Hemptinne, Jean-Louis; Vétillard, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the honeybee that causes thousands of colony losses worldwide. The parasite cycle is composed of a phoretic and a reproductive phase. During the former, mites stay on adult bees, mostly on nurses, to feed on hemolymph. During the latter, the parasites enter brood cells and reproduce. We investigated if the type of bees on which Varroa stays during the phoretic phase and if the duration of this stay influenced the reproductive success of the parasite and the damage caused to bees. For that purpose, we used an in vitro rearing method developed in our laboratory to assess egg laying rate and the presence and number of fully molted daughters. The expression level of two Varroa vitellogenin genes (VdVg1 and VdVg2), known to vary throughout reproduction, was also quantified. Results showed that the status of the bees or time spent during the phoretic phase impacts neither reproduction parameters nor the Varroa vitellogenin genes levels of expression. However, we correlated these parameters to the gene expression and demonstrated that daughters expressed the vitellogenin genes at lower levels than their mother. Regarding the damage to bees, the data indicated that a longer stay on adult bees during the phoretic phase resulted in more frequent physical deformity in newborn bees. We showed that those mites carry more viral loads of the Deformed Wing Virus and hence trigger more frequently overt infections. This study provides new perspectives towards a better understanding of the Varroa-honeybee interactions. PMID:27096154

  13. Impact of the Phoretic Phase on Reproduction and Damage Caused by Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) to Its Host, the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Piou, Vincent; Tabart, Jérémy; Urrutia, Virginie; Hemptinne, Jean-Louis; Vétillard, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the honeybee that causes thousands of colony losses worldwide. The parasite cycle is composed of a phoretic and a reproductive phase. During the former, mites stay on adult bees, mostly on nurses, to feed on hemolymph. During the latter, the parasites enter brood cells and reproduce. We investigated if the type of bees on which Varroa stays during the phoretic phase and if the duration of this stay influenced the reproductive success of the parasite and the damage caused to bees. For that purpose, we used an in vitro rearing method developed in our laboratory to assess egg laying rate and the presence and number of fully molted daughters. The expression level of two Varroa vitellogenin genes (VdVg1 and VdVg2), known to vary throughout reproduction, was also quantified. Results showed that the status of the bees or time spent during the phoretic phase impacts neither reproduction parameters nor the Varroa vitellogenin genes levels of expression. However, we correlated these parameters to the gene expression and demonstrated that daughters expressed the vitellogenin genes at lower levels than their mother. Regarding the damage to bees, the data indicated that a longer stay on adult bees during the phoretic phase resulted in more frequent physical deformity in newborn bees. We showed that those mites carry more viral loads of the Deformed Wing Virus and hence trigger more frequently overt infections. This study provides new perspectives towards a better understanding of the Varroa-honeybee interactions. PMID:27096154

  14. An atypical residue in the pore of Varroa destructor GABA-activated RDL receptors affects picrotoxin block and thymol modulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-12-01

    GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6'M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6'M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6' residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. PMID:25460510

  15. An atypical residue in the pore of Varroa destructor GABA-activated RDL receptors affects picrotoxin block and thymol modulation

    PubMed Central

    Price, Kerry L.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2014-01-01

    GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6′M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6′M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6′ residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. PMID:25460510

  16. Reproduction of Varroa destructor in worker brood of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Medina, Luis Medina; Martin, Stephen J; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2002-01-01

    Reproduction and population growth of Varroa destructor was studied in ten naturally infested, Africanized honey bee (AHB) (Apis mellifera) colonies in Yucatan, Mexico. Between February 1997 and January 1998 monthly records of the amount of pollen, honey, sealed worker and drone brood were recorded. In addition, mite infestation levels of adult bees and worker brood and the fecundity of the mites reproducing in worker cells were determined. The mean number of sealed worker brood cells (10,070 +/- 1,790) remained fairly constant over the experimental period in each colony. However, the presence and amount of sealed drone brood was very variable. One colony had drone brood for 10 months and another for only 1 month. Both the mean infestation level of worker brood (18.1 +/- 8.4%) and adult bees (3.5 +/- 1.3%) remained fairly constant over the study period and did not increase rapidly as is normally observed in European honey bees. In fact, the estimated mean number of mites fell from 3,500 in February 1997 to 2,380 in January 1998. In May 2000 the mean mite population in the study colonies was still only 1,821 mites. The fertility level of mites in this study was much higher (83-96%) than in AHB in Brazil (25-57%). and similar to that found in EHB (76-94%). Mite fertility remained high throughout the entire study and was not influenced by the amount of pollen, honey or worker brood in the colonies. PMID:12593514

  17. Dead or Alive: Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa destructor Reduce the Life Span of Winter Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jay D.; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Elevated winter losses of managed honeybee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among the suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, and associated viruses. Here we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expectancy of winter bees, thereby constituting a proximate mechanism for colony losses. A monitoring of colonies was performed over 6 months in Switzerland from summer 2007 to winter 2007/2008. Individual dead workers were collected daily and quantitatively analyzed for deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), N. ceranae, and expression levels of the vitellogenin gene as a biomarker for honeybee longevity. Workers from colonies that failed to survive winter had a reduced life span beginning in late fall, were more likely to be infected with DWV, and had higher DWV loads. Colony levels of infection with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and individual infections with DWV were also associated with reduced honeybee life expectancy. In sharp contrast, the level of N. ceranae infection was not correlated with longevity. In addition, vitellogenin gene expression was significantly positively correlated with ABPV and N. ceranae loads. The findings strongly suggest that V. destructor and DWV (but neither N. ceranae nor ABPV) reduce the life span of winter bees, thereby constituting a parsimonious possible mechanism for honeybee colony losses. PMID:22179240

  18. A Mathematical Model of the Honeybee-Varroa destructor-Acute Bee Paralysis Virus System with Seasonal Effects.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Vardayani; Kevan, Peter G; Eberl, Hermann J

    2015-08-01

    A mathematical model for the honeybee-varroa mite-ABPV system is proposed in terms of four differential equations for the: infected and uninfected bees in the colony, number of mites overall, and of mites carrying the virus. To account for seasonal variability, all parameters are time periodic. We obtain linearized stability conditions for the disease-free periodic solutions. Numerically, we illustrate that, for appropriate parameters, mites can establish themselves in colonies that are not treated with varroacides, leading to colonies with slightly reduced number of bees. If some of these mites carry the virus, however, the colony might fail suddenly after several years without a noticeable sign of stress leading up to the failure. The immediate cause of failure is that at the end of fall, colonies are not strong enough to survive the winter in viable numbers. We investigate the effect of the initial disease infestation on collapse time, and how varroacide treatment affects long-term behavior. We find that to control the virus epidemic, the mites as disease vector should be controlled. PMID:26382876

  19. Proteome Analysis of the Hemolymph, Mushroom Body, and Antenna Provides Novel Insight into Honeybee Resistance against Varroa Infestation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Han; Bienefeld, Kaspar; Wegener, Jakob; Zautke, Fred; Hao, Yue; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Wubie, Abebe Jenberie; Li, Jianke

    2016-08-01

    Varroa destructor has been identified as a major culprit responsible for the losses of millions of honeybee colonies. Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is a suite of behaviors from adult bees to suppress mite reproduction by uncapping and/or removing mite infested pupae from a sealed brood. Despite the efforts to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of VSH, they remain largely unknown. We investigated the proteome of mushroom bodies (MBs) and antennae of adult bees with and without VSH from a stock selected for VSH based on their response to artificially Varroa-infected brood cells by near-infrared camera observation. The pupal hemolymph proteome was also compared between the VSH-line and the line that was not selected for VSH. The identified 8609 proteins in the hemolymph, MBs, and antennae represent the most depth coverage of the honeybee proteome (>55%) to date. In the hemolymph, the VSH-line adapts a unique strategy to boost the social immunity and drive pupal organogenesis by enhancing energy metabolism and protein biosynthesis. In MBs, the up-regulated proteins implicated in neuronal sensitivity suggest their roles to promote the execution of VSH by activation of synaptic vesicles and calcium channel activities. In antennae, the highly expressed proteins associated with sensitivity of olfactory senses and signal transmissions signify their roles by inputting a strong signal to the MBs for initiating VSH. These observations illustrate that the enhanced social immunities and olfactory and neuronal sensitivity play key roles in the combat against Varroa infestation. The identified candidate markers may be useful for accelerating marker-associated selection for VSH to aid in resistance to a parasite responsible for decline in honeybee health. PMID:27384112

  20. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    PubMed

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges. PMID:27583438

  1. Body size variability of Varroa destructor and its role in acaricide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Peralta, Luciano; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, Martín

    2012-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been defined as the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes when exposed to distinct environments throughout its ontogeny. Morphological variability of individuals is an example of this plasticity. Taking into account that several studies have reported a wide morphological variability in Varroa destructor populations, we evaluated if the body size plasticity of the parasite constituted a key factor able to modulate mites survival when they were exposed to a drug bioassays. Drug bioassays against mites were conducted using three different Syzygium aromaticum essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5 μl/capsule) and controls. After 4 h of exposition, mite mortality was registered. The width (WS) and length (LS) of the dorsal shield were measured in dead mites. General lineal models were carried to determine if V. destructor survival to acaricides was related to the explanatory variables. Data modelling confirmed that WS and LS variables, together with time interaction, were significantly related to V. destructor survival when the parasites were exposed to acaricides. The models proposed demonstrated that for the smaller S. aromaticum essential oil concentration, the larger the parasite body, the greater the probability that it remains alive at the end of the bioassay. Such relationship was inverse for the other two concentrations tested. Possible causes explaining the body size variability in V. destructor individuals were discussed. PMID:22190127

  2. A mutualistic symbiosis between a parasitic mite and a pathogenic virus undermines honey bee immunity and health.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Annoscia, Desiderato; Margiotta, Marina; Ferrara, Rosalba; Varricchio, Paola; Zanni, Virginia; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-03-22

    Honey bee colony losses are triggered by interacting stress factors consistently associated with high loads of parasites and/or pathogens. A wealth of biotic and abiotic stressors are involved in the induction of this complex multifactorial syndrome, with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the associated deformed wing virus (DWV) apparently playing key roles. The mechanistic basis underpinning this association and the evolutionary implications remain largely obscure. Here we narrow this research gap by demonstrating that DWV, vectored by the Varroa mite, adversely affects humoral and cellular immune responses by interfering with NF-κB signaling. This immunosuppressive effect of the viral pathogen enhances reproduction of the parasitic mite. Our experimental data uncover an unrecognized mutualistic symbiosis between Varroa and DWV, which perpetuates a loop of reciprocal stimulation with escalating negative effects on honey bee immunity and health. These results largely account for the remarkable importance of this mite-virus interaction in the induction of honey bee colony losses. The discovery of this mutualistic association and the elucidation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms sets the stage for a more insightful analysis of how synergistic stress factors contribute to colony collapse, and for the development of new strategies to alleviate this problem. PMID:26951652

  3. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  4. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used for western U.S. honey production and almond pollination.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Tihomas E; Danka, Robert G; Johnson, Stephanie; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Frake, Amanda M; Villa, José D; De Guzman, Lilia I; Harris, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees and outcrossed honey bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were compared with control colonies of Italian honey bees. All colonies were managed without miticide treatments. In total, 185 and 175 colonies were established for trials in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, respectively. Survival of colonies with original queens or with supersedure queens was similar among stocks for both years. Colony sizes of the Varroa-resistant stocks were as large as or larger than the control colonies during periods critical to honey production and almond pollination. Honey production varied among stocks. In the first year, all stocks produced similar amounts of honey. In the second year, Russian honey bees colonies produced less honey than the control colonies. V. destructor infestations also varied among stocks. In the first year, control colonies had more infesting mites than either of the Varroa-resistant stocks, especially later in the year. In the second year, the control and outcrossed Varroa-sensitive hygiene colonies had high and damaging levels of infestation while the Russian honey bees colonies maintained lower levels of infestation. Infestations of Acarapis woodi (Rennie) were generally infrequent and low. All the stocks had similarly high Nosema ceranae infections in the spring and following winter of both years. Overall, the two Varroa-resistant stocks functioned adequately in this model beekeeping system. PMID:24772530

  5. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-06-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. PMID:26174825

  6. Spermatozoa capacitation in female Varroa destructor and its influence on the timing and success of female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Häußermann, Claudia Katharina; Ziegelmann, Bettina; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Mating of Varroa destructor takes place inside the sealed honey bee brood cell. During copulation, male mites transfer the spermatozoa into the genital openings of the females. Before the fertilization of female germ cells, the transferred spermatozoa have to pass through a final maturation process inside the genital tract of the female, the so-called capacitation. We here describe for the first time the morphological changes and chronological sequence of spermatozoa capacitation within female V. destructor. We have defined seven distinct stages of spermatozoa during the process of capacitation and have shown that it takes about 5 days from mating to the occurrence of spermatozoa ready for fertilization. This might explain the results of an additional experiment where we could show that freshly mated daughter mites need a phoretic phase on bees before their first reproduction cycle. The transfer of non-capacitated spermatozoa from male V. destructor and the resulting long capacitation period within the female mites seems to be a consequence of an adaptive pressure for the male mites to inseminate several daughter mites within the short time span inside the sealed honey bee brood cell. PMID:27209572

  7. Novel Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Varroa destructor Populations from the Southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Davies, T G Emyr; Field, Linda M; Schmehl, Daniel; Ellis, James D; Krieger, Klemens; Williamson, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor has a significant worldwide impact on bee colony health. In the absence of control measures, parasitized colonies invariably collapse within 3 years. The synthetic pyrethroids tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin have proven very effective at managing this mite within apiaries, but intensive control programs based mainly on one active ingredient have led to many reports of pyrethroid resistance. In Europe, a modification of leucine to valine at position 925 (L925V) of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel was correlated with resistance, the mutation being found at high frequency exclusively in hives with a recent history of pyrethroid treatment. Here, we identify two novel mutations, L925M and L925I, in tau-fluvalinate resistant V. destructor collected at seven sites across Florida and Georgia in the Southeastern region of the USA. Using a multiplexed TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay, these mutations were found to be present in 98% of the mites surviving tau-fluvalinate treatment. The mutations were also found in 45% of the non-treated mites, suggesting a high potential for resistance evolution if selection pressure is applied. The results from a more extensive monitoring programme, using the Taqman® assay described here, would clearly help beekeepers with their decision making as to when to include or exclude pyrethroid control products and thereby facilitate more effective mite management programmes. PMID:27191597

  8. Novel Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Varroa destructor Populations from the Southeastern USA

    PubMed Central

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Davies, T. G. Emyr; Field, Linda M.; Schmehl, Daniel; Ellis, James D.; Krieger, Klemens; Williamson, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor has a significant worldwide impact on bee colony health. In the absence of control measures, parasitized colonies invariably collapse within 3 years. The synthetic pyrethroids tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin have proven very effective at managing this mite within apiaries, but intensive control programs based mainly on one active ingredient have led to many reports of pyrethroid resistance. In Europe, a modification of leucine to valine at position 925 (L925V) of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel was correlated with resistance, the mutation being found at high frequency exclusively in hives with a recent history of pyrethroid treatment. Here, we identify two novel mutations, L925M and L925I, in tau-fluvalinate resistant V. destructor collected at seven sites across Florida and Georgia in the Southeastern region of the USA. Using a multiplexed TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay, these mutations were found to be present in 98% of the mites surviving tau-fluvalinate treatment. The mutations were also found in 45% of the non-treated mites, suggesting a high potential for resistance evolution if selection pressure is applied. The results from a more extensive monitoring programme, using the Taqman® assay described here, would clearly help beekeepers with their decision making as to when to include or exclude pyrethroid control products and thereby facilitate more effective mite management programmes. PMID:27191597

  9. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates on Varroa destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-kheirabadi, Khodadad; Teixeira-da-Silva, Jaime A; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Nazemnia, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C) on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field. Methods: A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group). The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C) and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 106 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted. Results: Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall) as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment. Conclusion: Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping. PMID:23785691

  10. A mutualistic symbiosis between a parasitic mite and a pathogenic virus undermines honey bee immunity and health

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Annoscia, Desiderato; Margiotta, Marina; Ferrara, Rosalba; Varricchio, Paola; Zanni, Virginia; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee colony losses are triggered by interacting stress factors consistently associated with high loads of parasites and/or pathogens. A wealth of biotic and abiotic stressors are involved in the induction of this complex multifactorial syndrome, with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the associated deformed wing virus (DWV) apparently playing key roles. The mechanistic basis underpinning this association and the evolutionary implications remain largely obscure. Here we narrow this research gap by demonstrating that DWV, vectored by the Varroa mite, adversely affects humoral and cellular immune responses by interfering with NF-κB signaling. This immunosuppressive effect of the viral pathogen enhances reproduction of the parasitic mite. Our experimental data uncover an unrecognized mutualistic symbiosis between Varroa and DWV, which perpetuates a loop of reciprocal stimulation with escalating negative effects on honey bee immunity and health. These results largely account for the remarkable importance of this mite–virus interaction in the induction of honey bee colony losses. The discovery of this mutualistic association and the elucidation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms sets the stage for a more insightful analysis of how synergistic stress factors contribute to colony collapse, and for the development of new strategies to alleviate this problem. PMID:26951652

  11. Gene silencing by RNA interference in the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Marr, Edward J; Sargison, Neil D; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Burgess, Stewart T G

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report of gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Trouessart, 1897. Using a non-invasive immersion method first developed for the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor, a significant reduction in the expression of D. pteronyssinus glutathione-S-transferase mu-class 1 enzyme (DpGST-mu1) was achieved following overnight immersion in double stranded RNA encoding DpGST-mu1. Although no detrimental phenotypic changes were observed following silencing, this technique can now be used to address fundamental physiological questions and assess the potential therapeutic benefit in silencing D. pteronyssinus target genes in selected domestic situations of high human-mite interface. PMID:26212476

  12. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen) were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome). Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce the susceptibility of bees

  13. Gryphopsylla segregata Beaucournu & Sountsov, 1999 : Nouveau statut pour G. jacobsoni segregata, description de la femelle et proposition d’une nouvelle clé pour le genre Gryphopsylla traub, 1957 (Siphonaptera – Pygiopsyllidae – Stivaliinae)

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Wells, K.

    2011-01-01

    La collecte d’une femelle de Gryphopsylla jacobsoni segregata Beaucournu & Sountsov, 1999 du nord de Bornéo nous permet de modifier le statut de ce taxon en celui de bonne espèce, proche mais distincte de G. jacobsoni (Jordan & Rothschild, 1922). La femelle de G. segregata est décrite et une clé remise à jour de ce genre est donnée. PMID:21894266

  14. The ectoparasitic mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae reduces western honey bee, Apismellifera, longevity and emergence weight, and promotes Deformed wing virus infections.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2016-06-01

    Historically an ectoparasite of the native Giant honey bee Apis dorsata, the mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae has switched hosts to the introduced western honey bee Apis mellifera throughout much of Asia. Few data regarding lethal and sub-lethal effects of T. mercedesae on A. mellifera exist, despite its similarity to the devastating mite Varroa destructor. Here we artificially infested worker brood of A. mellifera with T. mercedesae to investigate lethal (longevity) and sub-lethal (emergence weight, Deformed wing virus (DWV) levels and clinical symptoms of DWV) effects of the mite on its new host. The data show that T. mercedesae infestation significantly reduced host longevity and emergence weight, and promoted both DWV levels and associated clinical symptoms. Our results suggest that T. mercedesae is a potentially important parasite to the economically important A. mellifera honey bee. PMID:27126517

  15. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, A; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Salto, C; Signorini, M

    2014-08-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the major threats for worldwide apiculture. Damage caused by varroa mite includes body weight loss, malformation and weakening of the bees. It was also suggested as the main cause associated with colony winter mortality and as an important vector for several honey bee viruses. Little is known about multiple factors and their interaction affecting V. destructor prevalence in apiaries from South America. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with V. destructor prevalence in east-central Argentina. Parasitic mite infestation level and colony strength measures were evaluated in 63 apiaries distributed in 4 different regions in east-central Argentina in a cross sectional study. Data regarding management practices in each apiary were collected by means of a questionnaire. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was constructed to associate management variables with the risk of achieving mite infestation higher than 3%. Colonies owned by beekeepers who indicated that they did not monitor colonies after mite treatment (OR=2.305; 95% CI: 0.944-5.629) nor disinfect hives woodenware material (OR=2.722; 95% CI: 1.380-5.565) were associated with an increased risk of presenting high intensity infestation with V. destructor (>3%). On the other hand, beekeepers who reported replacing more than 50% of the queens in their operation (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.107-0.872), feeding colonies protein substitute containing natural pollen (OR=0.348; 95% CI: 0.129-0.941) and feeding colonies High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (OR=0.108; 95% CI: 0.032-0.364), had colonies that were less likely to have V. destructor infestations above 3%, than beekeepers who did not report using these management practices. Further research should be conducted considering that certain management practices were associated to mite infestation level in order to improve the sanitary condition in the colonies. Epidemiological studies provide key information to

  16. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  17. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae): the role of infestations with Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Marc O; Ritter, Wolfgang; Pettis, Jeff S; Neumann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Multiple infections of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be an underlying cause of winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alone and in combination with V. destructor for winter losses and for infections with the microsporidian endoparasite Nosema ceranae. We found no significant influence of A. tumida and V. destructor alone or in combination on the numbers of N. ceranae spores. Likewise, A. tumida alone had no significant effects on winter losses, which is most likely due to the observed high winter mortality of the adult beetles. Therefore, our data suggest that A. tumida is unlikely to contribute to losses of overwintering honeybee colonies. However, high losses occurred in all groups highly infested with V. destructor, supporting the central role of the mite for colony losses. PMID:20214362

  18. ULTRASTRUCURAL STUDY OF BEE LOUSE VARROA DESTRUCTOR ANDERSON & TRUEMAN 2000 (ACARI: VARROIDAE) WITH RESISTANCE MODELS FROM APIS MELLIFERA L.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2015-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most dangerous pest of honeybee Egyptian race Apis mellifera L., as it causes many losses in apiculture worldwide. Adult female mites are flattened with a dome-shaped dorsal shield. The present SEM study revealed that the flat ventral surface is composed of series of plates. There are 5 rows of small, chemoreceptor papillae posterior to the genito-ventro anal shield, and a unique respiratory structure (peritreme) is located laterally above Coxa III. Peritreme is a chitinized elongated area surrounding stigma opening, provided by a lid that looks like a rose with a curly thick inner membrane which has numerous teeth-like projections. Mite' legs appeared to be modified for parasitism and each is tipped by one distal empodium. The pretarsus of the first pair of legs becomes a concave sucker and the pretarsus of the 3 pairs of the posterior legs consists of membranous amblacral pad (the caruncle). The mouthparts appeared well modified for its diet on bee hernolymph with its' powerful pedipalp for host attachment. High magnification revealed different types of setae distributed on the body, the mechano-receptor pedipalp short. and long anal setae and dorsal shield sensory simple setae. PMID:26485856

  19. Evaluation of spring organic treatments against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Giovenazzo, Pierre; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of two organic acid treatments, formic acid (FA) and oxalic acid (OA) for the spring control of Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Forty-eight varroa-infested colonies were randomly distributed amongst six experimental groups (n = 8 colonies per group): one control group (G1); two groups tested applications of different dosages of a 40 g OA/l sugar solution 1:1 trickled on bees (G2 and G3); three groups tested different applications of FA: 35 ml of 65% FA in an absorbent Dri-Loc(®) pad (G4); 35 ml of 65% FA poured directly on the hive bottom board (G5) and MiteAwayII™ (G6). The efficacy of treatments (varroa drop), colony development, honey yield and hive survival were monitored from May until September. Five honey bee queens died during this research, all of which were in the FA treated colonies (G4, G5 and G6). G6 colonies had significantly lower brood build-up during the beekeeping season. Brood populations at the end of summer were significantly higher in G2 colonies. Spring honey yield per colony was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G1. Summer honey flow was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G3 and G5. During the treatment period, there was an increase of mite drop in all the treated colonies. Varroa daily drop at the end of the beekeeping season (September) was significantly higher in G1 and significantly lower in G6. The average number of dead bees found in front of hives during treatment was significantly lower in G1, G2 and G3 versus G4, G5 and G6. Results suggest that varroa control is obtained from all spring treatment options. However, all groups treated with FA showed slower summer hive population build-up resulting in reduced honey flow and weaker hives at the end of summer. FA had an immediate toxic effect on bees that resulted in queen death in five colonies. The OA treatments that were tested have minimal toxic impacts on the

  20. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. PMID:26470288

  1. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.

    PubMed

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G

    2004-05-01

    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite. PMID:15109733

  2. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  3. Comparative reproduction of Varroa destructor in different types of Russian and Italian honey bee combs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied whether or not older comb supported less varroa reproduction in both Russian and Italian honey bees, whether Russian bees produced comb which inhibited varroa reproduction and whether comb foundation contained enough acaricides to influence varroa reproduction. The major differences foun...

  4. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes. PMID:25577848

  5. Comparison between two thymol formulations in the control of Varroa destructor: effectiveness, persistence, and residues.

    PubMed

    Floris, Ignazio; Satta, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo L; Angioni, Alberto

    2004-04-01

    An apiary trial on the use of two acaricide formulations (gel-Apiguard and vermiculite and Api Life VAR) in the control of Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) was conducted in summer 2001 in Sardinia (Italy). The main goals were 1) to determine their effectiveness against V. destructor, taking into account natural mite mortality in control hives; and simultaneously 2) to determine the persistence of both formulations and residues in honey and wax, by using a new extraction method. Both thymol formulations, after the treatments, reduced significantly the levels of mite infestations of adult bees and sealed brood, but their efficacy, expressed as percentage of mortality, was lower for both products (Api Life VAR 74.8 +/- 13.1 and 81.3 +/- 15.5, Apiguard 90.4 +/- 8.3 and 95.5 +/- 8.7 for sealed brood and adult bees, respectively) than the efficacy previously obtained with the same products in other experimental conditions. Moreover, a considerable colony-to-colony variability was recorded, and a significant negative effect of the thymol treatments on colony development was observed. During 2 wk of treatment, the bees removed nearly 95% of all the applied product (gel or vermiculite). Residues found in honey collected from the nest varied from 0.12 to 4.03 mg/kg for Api Life VAR and from 0.40 to 8.80 mg/kg for Apiguard. The residues were relatively higher in wax (Api Life VAR = 21.6 +/- 13.0; Apiguard = 147.7 +/- 188.9) than in honey, because thymol is a fat-soluble ingredient. PMID:15154435

  6. Interaction between Varroa destructor and imidacloprid reduces flight capacity of honeybees.

    PubMed

    Blanken, Lisa J; van Langevelde, Frank; van Dooremalen, Coby

    2015-12-01

    Current high losses of honeybees seriously threaten crop pollination. Whereas parasite exposure is acknowledged as an important cause of these losses, the role of insecticides is controversial. Parasites and neonicotinoid insecticides reduce homing success of foragers (e.g. by reduced orientation), but it is unknown whether they negatively affect flight capacity. We investigated how exposing colonies to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid affect flight capacity of foragers. Flight distance, time and speed of foragers were measured in flight mills to assess the relative and interactive effects of high V. destructor load and a field-realistic, chronic sub-lethal dose of imidacloprid. Foragers from colonies exposed to high levels of V. destructor flew shorter distances, with a larger effect when also exposed to imidacloprid. Bee body mass partly explained our results as bees were heavier when exposed to these stressors, possibly due to an earlier onset of foraging. Our findings contribute to understanding of interacting stressors that can explain colony losses. Reduced flight capacity decreases the food-collecting ability of honeybees and may hamper the use of precocious foraging as a coping mechanism during colony (nutritional) stress. Ineffective coping mechanisms may lead to destructive cascading effects and subsequent colony collapse. PMID:26631559

  7. The field efficacy of Lepidium latifolium and Zataria multiflora methanolic extracts against Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Asadpour, Mohammad; Jafari, Arash; Malekpour, Seyed Hossein

    2015-11-01

    Varroa destructor is the most serious pest of honeybee (Apis mellifera), causing high economic losses in the beekeeping industry worldwide. The intensive utilization of many chemical substances against the mites resulted in resistance development. One of the applicable and alternative treatments being used for their control is plant-derived products (PDSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of Lepidium latifolium and Zataria multiflora leaf extracts on V. destructor in field conditions. Four different concentrations (100, 200, 400, and 500 ppm) of the methanolic extracts were sprayed to treat each colony. The efficacy and side effects on adult bees were compared to Apistan chemical strips (ACSS). The acaricidal activity was the highest (100%) for L. latifolium extract at 500 ppm after 12 days and 86.26% for Z. multiflora. The infestation rate was decreased to 0.0% with L. latifolium and to 13.74% with Z. multiflora. The highest reduction was observed with L. latifolium followed by Z. multiflora extract at 500 ppm concentration. Both of the extracts showed negligible effect on bees, and it can be concluded that these PDSS as biodegradable agents could be used for V. destructor control in honeybee colonies. PMID:26342827

  8. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  9. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis in varroa mites: identification of halloween genes from the biosynthetic pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of ecdysteroids involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by microsomal enzymes and mitochondrial cytochrome P450’s. Enzymes of the pathway are collectively known as Halloween genes. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), w...

  10. [Experiences with varroatosis control (field cases)].

    PubMed

    Sabolic, M; Liebig, G

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of Varroa jacobsoni in 20 bee-farms with an average of 371 swarms in the administrative districts of Tübingen and Stuttgart was investigated between 1983 and 1987. In summer as well as after each treatment the debris was examined regularly. On 19 bee-farms the population dynamics of the mites showed a similar pattern. During the first year after the varroatosis diagnosis we found an average of 30-50 mites after autumn treatment. This number increased to 300-600 varroa mites during the second and to several thousand during the third and fourth year. Evidently, the late autumn/early winter treatment of the more heavily infected swarms (during the third or fourth year after diagnosis) with Perizin or Folbex-VA-neu was usually insufficient to prevent damage or even a complete breakdown. In such swarms formic acid in form of the Illertisser mite plate must be applied as early as August or at the latest in September (after the end of the honey season). On one of the 20 bee-farms the development of the varroa mite infection differed from the other 19 farms. In this case the mite infection developed very slowly. The husbandry and environmental conditions could not explain this phenomenon. We think that this warrants further investigations. PMID:2617530

  11. Demodex mites: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-01

    Because Demodex mites are ubiquitous, their potential as human pathogens has often been ignored. This contribution focuses on the growing body of evidence linking Demodex mites with various skin disorders. Histologically, spongiosis and lymphoid inflammation are regularly seen in follicles containing Demodex mites. In animals, they are well established as a cause of mange, and a human counterpart-demodectic alopecia-appears to exist. There is also a statistical association between Demodex mite density and rosacea, facial itching, and chronic blepharitis. Papulovesicular rosacealike lesions and spiny blepharitis often respond to agents that reduce Demodex numbers. Although these observations are not sufficient to fulfill Koch's postulates, Koch's postulates are also not fulfilled for the association between brown recluse spiders and dermal necrosis or the association between streptococci and guttate psoriasis. The evidence linking Demodex mites to human disease has implications regarding treatment. PMID:20797509

  12. Formic acid treatment for control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) and safety to Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) under southern United States conditions.

    PubMed

    Elzen, Patti J; Westervelt, David; Lucas, Raymond

    2004-10-01

    The efficacy of a formic acid pad formulation was field tested for control of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in Florida and Texas. This pad formulation gave 39.8 +/- 11.1% control at the end of a 6-wk treatment period, which did not significantly differ from the initial sample date. Coumaphos treatment provided poor control (38.4 +/- 11.1%) over the 6-wk period, confirming reports of coumaphos resistance in the region. Under relatively warm winter conditions in southern Texas, formic acid caused mortality of developing eggs and brood. If resistance by V. destructor to the two acaricides registered for its control in the United States continues, the formic acid pad could provide an alternative compound to use as part of an integrated pest management approach. Given the low control seen in this trial, however, modifications of application technology would seem necessary. PMID:15568336

  13. Differential viral levels and immune gene expression in three stocks of Apis mellifera induced by different numbers of Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viral levels and immune responses of Italian honey bees (IHB), Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL) deliberately infested with one or two foundress Varroa were compared. We found that the viral load in POL inoculated with one or two foundress Varroa in...

  14. Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio; Eguaras, Martin; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Melis, Marinella

    2005-04-01

    Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and their residues in honey in a Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Italy). Both treatments were efficient in the apiary control of the varroosis, with values of percentage of mite mortality ranging between 93.6 and 100%, without statistical differences between them. The more gradual release of formic acid from the gel application allowed a longer action (2 wk for each treatment) compared with the Liebig-Dispenser (approximately 3d for each treatment). The rate of daily evaporation ranged between approximately 5 and 9 g/d from BeeVar and approximately 26 and 35 g/d from the Liebig-Dispenser, in the first and second treatment, respectively. The total amount of formic acid administered per hive during all the treatment period was approximately 200 g for either treatment. A significantly higher adult bee mortality was recorded in the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives compared with the BeeVar-treated group. On the contrary, BeeVar treatment produced an interruption of brood reared, whereas the extension of the sealed brood area of the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives was not significantly different from that of the control hives. Neither queen mortality nor robbing activity was observed due to the treatments. Formic acid residues in honey collected in the nest were 3,855 +/- 2,061 and 3,030 +/- 1,624 mg/kg for the BeeVar- and the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives, respectively. After 21 d from the end of the treatment, the residues fell to 1,261 +/- 1,054 and 794 +/- 518 mg/kg for the honey sampled from the BeeVar and Liebig-Dispenser groups, respectively. PMID:15889712

  15. Effects of brood type on Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) by worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been selectively bred for varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of pupae that are infested by Varroa destructor from capped brood cells. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells are inspected, and then brood is either remo...

  16. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    PubMed Central

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  17. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasitic mites (Acarina: Podapolipidae) and ectoparasitic fungi (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) occur on ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) throughout the world (Riddick et al., 2009). This study documents the interaction of a coccinellid-specific mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (McDaniel &...

  18. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  19. Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.

    PubMed

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  20. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  1. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  2. Differences in Varroa destructor infestation rates of two indigenous subspecies of Apis mellifera in the Republic of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Schmehl, Daniel R; Allsopp, Mike; Bustamante, Tomas A; Kimmel, Chase B; Dykes, Mark E; Ellis, James D

    2016-04-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Varroa) is a damaging pest of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, in North America, Europe, and Asia. However, Varroa infestations have not produced equivalent colony losses of African subspecies of honey bee throughout Africa and parts of the Americas. We surveyed the Varroa infestation rates (number of Varroa per 100 adult honey bees) in colonies of A. m. scutellata, A. m. capensis, and hybrids of the two subspecies throughout the Republic of South Africa in the fall of 2014. We found that A. m. scutellata colonies had significantly higher Varroa infestations than did A. m. capensis colonies. Furthermore, hybridized colonies of the two subspecies had Varroa infestations intermediate to those of A. m. scutellata and A. m. capensis. This is the first documentation of a clear difference in Varroa infestation rates of A. m. scutellata, A. m. capensis, and hybridized colonies in South Africa. Furthermore, our data confirm that Varroa populations in A. m. scutellata colonies are within the range of populations that are damaging to European honey bees. PMID:26704261

  3. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C

    2016-05-01

    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents. PMID:26695086

  4. [Recent experience with mites in stored products].

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Ceccarelli, M T; Mellino, M; Marinelli, P

    1989-01-01

    The A.A. refer a recent experience about the isolation and identification of same species of storaged timber mites. They believe that these mites are responsible of dermatitis at the trunk and the arms of timber workers. Mites are the most elderly living species on the earth, they can live and grow in different environments, such as plants, flowers, animals, men, earth, lake and sea waters, organical rubles, houses, mattresses, old books etc. There are free-living, saprophitic, parasitic and predator mites. Generally, primary mites live either freely or as commensals feeding on conserved foodstuff and on what they find available. Secondary mites, i.e. parasites and predators, live off primary mites and insects infesting foodstuff. Direct damage to foodstuff are not to be considered important, whereas indirect damages are more serious, due to the contamination of bodies and stools of mites that are rich in nitrogen. Some secondary mites may attack foodstuff workers causing characteristic dermatitis: they can act either directly, by sting and bites, or indirectly, provoking on allergic hypersensitivity. In this study the A.A. used the floating method to isolate timber mites, and then, these have been photographed at the microscope to obtain an easier and more complete identification. The A.A. describe a heterogeneous fauna consisting of both adult and larval-status insects, some species of free-living mites (Oribatula Tibialis) and, in particular, of two species secondary mites, predator, belonging to the Prostigmata sub-order. The Cheyletus Eruditus (Cheylatidae family) is a whitish mite feeding mostly on insect larva and primary mites living in foodstuff. When no prey is available, the Cheyletus Eruditus eats individuals of its own species. The Pyemotes Herfsi (Pyemotidae family) is a little white mite feeding on insect larva. It lives in conserved foodstuff and may attack man causing characteristic dermatitis such as those described by the A.A. The A.A. conclude

  5. terMITEs: miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in the termite genome (Blattodea: Termitoidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are discrete DNA sequences which are able to replicate and jump into different genomic locations. Miniature inverted-repeats TEs (MITEs) are non-autonomous DNA elements whose origin is still poorly understood. Recently, some MITEs were found to contain core repeats that can be arranged in tandem arrays; in some instances, these arrays have even given rise to satellite DNAs in the (peri)centromeric region of the host chromosomes. I report the discovery and analysis of three new MITEs found in the genome of several termite species (hence the name terMITEs) in two different families. For two of the MITEs (terMITE1-Tc1/mariner superfamily; terMITE2-piggyBac superfamily), evidence of past mobility was retrieved. Moreover, these two MITEs contained core repeats, 16 bp and 114 bp long respectively, exhibiting copy number variation. In terMITE2, the tandem duplication appeared associated with element degeneration, in line with a recently proposed evolutionary model on MITEs and the origin of tandem arrays. Concerning their genomic distribution, terMITE1 and terMITE3 appeared more frequently inserted close to coding regions while terMITE2 was mostly associated with TEs. Although MITEs are commonly distributed in coding regions, terMITE2 distribution is in line with that of other insects' piggyBac-related elements and of other small TEs found in termite genomes. This has been explained through insertional preference rather than through selective processes. Data presented here add to the knowledge on the poorly exploited polyneopteran genomes and will provide an interesting framework in which to study TEs' evolution and host's life history traits. PMID:25711308

  6. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects. PMID:26154346

  7. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects. PMID:26154346

  8. Selection of VSH-derived Pol-line honey bees and evaluation of their Varroa-resistance characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera, that have high expression of the trait “Varroa sensitive hygiene” (VSH) have good resistance to Varroa destructor. We selected “Pol-line” bees by outcrossing VSH queens in three U.S. commercial beekeeping companies annually during 2008-2014 and selecting colonies with the...

  9. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  10. Isoform-specific modulation of the chemical sensitivity of conserved TRPA1 channel in the major honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Kashio, Makiko; Peng, Guangda; Wang, Xinyue; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Tropilaelaps mercedesae (TmTRPA1), one of two major species of honeybee ectoparasitic mite. Three TmTRPA1 isoforms with unique N-terminal sequences were activated by heat, and the isoform highly expressed in the mite's front legs, TmTRPA1b, was also activated by 27 plant-derived compounds including electrophiles. This suggests that the heat- and electrophile-dependent gating mechanisms as nocisensitive TRPA1 channel are well conserved between arthropod species. Intriguingly, one TmTRPA1 isoform, TmTRPA1a, was activated by only six compounds compared with two other isoforms, demonstrating that the N-terminal sequences are critical determinants for the chemical sensitivity. This is the first example of isoform-specific modulation of chemical sensitivity of TRPA1 channel in one species. α-terpineol showed repellent activity towards T. mercedesae in a laboratory assay and repressed T. mercedesae entry for reproduction into the brood cells with fifth instar larvae in hives. Thus, α-terpineol could be used as the potential compound to control two major honeybee ectoparasitic mites, T. mercedesae and Varroa destructor, in the apiculture industry. PMID:27307515

  11. Isoform-specific modulation of the chemical sensitivity of conserved TRPA1 channel in the major honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Kashio, Makiko; Peng, Guangda; Wang, Xinyue; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    We identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Tropilaelaps mercedesae (TmTRPA1), one of two major species of honeybee ectoparasitic mite. Three TmTRPA1 isoforms with unique N-terminal sequences were activated by heat, and the isoform highly expressed in the mite's front legs, TmTRPA1b, was also activated by 27 plant-derived compounds including electrophiles. This suggests that the heat- and electrophile-dependent gating mechanisms as nocisensitive TRPA1 channel are well conserved between arthropod species. Intriguingly, one TmTRPA1 isoform, TmTRPA1a, was activated by only six compounds compared with two other isoforms, demonstrating that the N-terminal sequences are critical determinants for the chemical sensitivity. This is the first example of isoform-specific modulation of chemical sensitivity of TRPA1 channel in one species. α-terpineol showed repellent activity towards T. mercedesae in a laboratory assay and repressed T. mercedesae entry for reproduction into the brood cells with fifth instar larvae in hives. Thus, α-terpineol could be used as the potential compound to control two major honeybee ectoparasitic mites, T. mercedesae and Varroa destructor, in the apiculture industry. PMID:27307515

  12. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis in varroa mites: identification of halloween genes from the biosynthetic pathway and their regulation during reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of ecdysteroids involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by microsomal enzymes and mitochondrial cytochrome P450’s. Enzymes of the pathway are collectively known as Halloween genes. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), w...

  13. Genomic survey of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major pest of the honey bee Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are an important agricultural commodity providing honey, other bee products, and pollination services. Domesticated honey bees in the United States and elsewhere have been in decline in recent years, despite an increasing need for honey bee pollination services. This fact...

  14. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  15. A Virulent Strain of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) of Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Prevails after Varroa destructor-Mediated, or In Vitro, Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ryabov, Eugene V.; Wood, Graham R.; Fannon, Jessica M.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Bull, James C.; Chandler, Dave; Mead, Andrew; Burroughs, Nigel; Evans, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The globally distributed ectoparasite Varroa destructor is a vector for viral pathogens of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in particular the Iflavirus Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). In the absence of Varroa low levels DWV occur, generally causing asymptomatic infections. Conversely, Varroa-infested colonies show markedly elevated virus levels, increased overwintering colony losses, with impairment of pupal development and symptomatic workers. To determine whether changes in the virus population were due Varroa amplifying and introducing virulent virus strains and/or suppressing the host immune responses, we exposed Varroa-naïve larvae to oral and Varroa-transmitted DWV. We monitored virus levels and diversity in developing pupae and associated Varroa, the resulting RNAi response and transcriptome changes in the host. Exposed pupae were stratified by Varroa association (presence/absence) and virus levels (low/high) into three groups. Varroa-free pupae all exhibited low levels of a highly diverse DWV population, with those exposed per os (group NV) exhibiting changes in the population composition. Varroa-associated pupae exhibited either low levels of a diverse DWV population (group VL) or high levels of a near-clonal virulent variant of DWV (group VH). These groups and unexposed controls (C) could be also discriminated by principal component analysis of the transcriptome changes observed, which included several genes involved in development and the immune response. All Varroa tested contained a diverse replicating DWV population implying the virulent variant present in group VH, and predominating in RNA-seq analysis of temporally and geographically separate Varroa-infested colonies, was selected upon transmission from Varroa, a conclusion supported by direct injection of pupae in vitro with mixed virus populations. Identification of a virulent variant of DWV, the role of Varroa in its transmission and the resulting host transcriptome changes furthers our

  16. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  17. Plant-Derived Tick Repellents Activate the Honey Bee Ectoparasitic Mite TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guangda; Kashio, Makiko; Morimoto, Tomomi; Li, Tianbang; Zhu, Jingting; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2015-07-14

    We have identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Varroa destructor (VdTRPA1), a major ectoparasitic mite of honey bee. One of the two VdTRPA1 isoforms, VdTRPA1L, was activated by a variety of plant-derived compounds, including electrophilic compounds, suggesting that chemical activation profiles are mostly shared between arthropod TRPA1 channels. Nevertheless, carvacrol and α-terpineol activated VdTRPA1L but not a honey bee noxious-stimuli-sensitive TRPA, AmHsTRPA, and Drosophila melanogaster TRPA1. Activation of VdTRPA1L in D. melanogaster taste neurons by the above compounds was sufficient to modify the gustatory behaviors. Carvacrol and α-terpineol repelled V. destructor in a laboratory assay, and α-terpineol repressed V. destructor entry for reproduction into the brood cells in hives. Understanding the functions of parasite TRP channels not only gives clues about the evolving molecular and cellular mechanisms of parasitism but also helps in the development of control methods. PMID:26146083

  18. An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ? Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida—potentially Opiloacarus—in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites.

  19. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  20. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  1. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  2. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  3. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed. PMID:26732998

  4. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  5. Finding and Selecting Russian Honey Bees to be Resistant to Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the mid-1800’s, farmers from western Russia settled far-eastern Russia. Some brought Apis mellifera with them. The area is within the home range of Apis cerana and consequently within the home range of Varroa destructor. Preliminary studies suggested that the honey bee population in far-easte...

  6. [Foci of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Mesostigmata, Macronyssidae) and rat-mite dermatitis in Moscow].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Sokolova, T V; Niiazova, M V

    1992-01-01

    High density of the rat population in Moscow in 1990-1991 resulted in the appearance of Ornithonyssus bacoti foci and of cases of the rat-mite dermatitis in humans. A total of 36 foci of the disease were examined and eradicated. A method for the detection of such foci has been developed. Two types of foci are distinguished, communal and industrial, and their specific features as regards the rodent and mite populations and clinical features of dermatitis in humans are described. A system of measures for liquidation of foci of rat mites is suggested, including rat and mite eradication and treatment of the patients. Specific features of these measures for various types of foci and in case of a focus reappearance are enumerated. PMID:1299760

  7. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  8. Tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) - serious ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2009-08-01

    In Germany there is limited information available about the distribution of the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in rodents. A few case reports show that this hematophagous mite species may also cause dermatitis in man. Having close body contact to small rodents is an important question for patients with pruritic dermatoses. The definitive diagnosis of this ectoparasitosis requires the detection of the parasite, which is more likely to be found in the environment of its host (in the cages, in the litter or in corners or cracks of the living area) than on the hosts' skin itself. A case of infestation with tropical rat mites in a family is reported here. Three mice that had been removed from the home two months before were the reservoir. The mites were detected in a room where the cage with the mice had been placed months ago. Treatment requires the eradication of the parasites on its hosts (by a veterinarian) and in the environment (by an exterminator) with adequate acaricides such as permethrin. PMID:19508683

  9. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers. PMID:26689423

  10. Computer analysis of the exploratory behavior of insects and mites in an olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Bakchine, E; Pham-Delegue, M H; Kaiser, L; Masson, C

    1990-07-01

    A method of quantification of the exploratory behavior of small animals stimulated by an odorant in a four-choice olfactometer, taking into account the interindividual variability of responses, was developed: individual tracks were time sampled according to the animal's walking speed and its positions were recorded according to the X-Y coordinates of the grid set underneath the device, the mesh of the grid suiting the animal's body size. A software, written in BASIC APPLESOFT on an APPLE IIe computer, allowed us to analyze the coordinates either of a single individual or of an experimental sample, leading to: a) the quantification of the insect distribution all over the experimental chamber, expressed in a table numbered according to the grid, where the percentage of position per square either for a given time fraction or the total observation period were reported, b) a graphic representation of the data according to several levels of greys, expressing the frequentation for each square for a given duration of observation. An analysis per time fraction allowed the chronological setup of events to appreciate. c) The collection of the positions among each flow field of the olfactometer for each individual of the experimental sample, for a given duration, was translated as the percentage of time spent in each flow field. Data files gathered these percentages for further statistical treatments. This computer method, which requires little equipment and appears to be easily adaptable to the study of biological models of various size and speed such as honeybees, trichogrammas and varroas mites, is a powerful tool for behavioral studies of small organisms tested in restricted areas. PMID:2236268

  11. P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

  12. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. PMID:26946468

  13. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  14. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  15. Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; Burgess, Stewart T G; Reynolds, Simone L; Mahmood, Wajahat; Fischer, Katja

    2013-02-01

    Among arthropod pests, mites are responsible for considerable damage to crops, humans and other animals. However, detailed physiological data on these organisms remain sparse, mainly because of their small size but possibly also because of their extreme diversity. Focusing on intestinal proteases, we draw together information from three distinct mite species that all feed on skin but have separately adapted to a free-living, a strictly ecto-parasitic and a parasitic lifestyle. A wide range of studies involving immunohistology, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry of mite gut proteases suggests that these creatures have diverged considerably as house dust mites, sheep scab mites and scabies mites. Each species has evolved a particular variation of a presumably ancestral repertoire of digestive enzymes that have become specifically adapted to their individual environmental requirements. PMID:22427061

  16. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences. PMID:25921489

  17. [Animal mites transmissible to humans and associated zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Jofré M, Leonor; Noemí H, Isabel; Neira O, Patricia; Saavedra U, Tirza; Díaz L, Cecilia

    2009-06-01

    Mites that affect animals (acariasis) can occasionally be transmitted to humans by incidental contact producing pruritus and dermatitis. Animals such as dogs, cats, mice, birds and reptiles, harbour several mite species. Hemophage mites and those that feed on lymph have the potential of transmitting important zoonotic agents (cuales??). The presence of lesions of unclear origin and a history of contact with pets or wild animals should alert towards the possibility of acariasis. Diagnosis is based on direct visualization of the mite,analysis of its morphology and obtaining information on the animal host. Awareness of these acarosis and the responsible care of pets and animals are the most relevant preventive measures. PMID:19621159

  18. Mites associated with stored grain commodities in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Zannou, Ignace D; Adebo, Habib O; Zannou, Elisabeth; Hell, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris were collected in May and September 2011. More than 56 species belonging to 24 mite families were recorded in the four products. These mite species included predators, parasites, fungivorous, phytophagous and other groups whose feeding habits are not well known. The family Cheyletidae was the most prevalent and the most diverse predatory mite family encountered, in which Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most abundant species. Several families of mite pests and mites responsible for allergies (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Pyroglyphidae, Pyemotidae and Saproglyphidae) were also detected. The three most dominant and frequent species were C. malaccensis, Suidasia nesbitti (Hughes) and Suidasia sp. Statistical analysis showed that densities of these three mite species were higher in Parakou than in Glazoue and Dantokpa, on one hand, and higher in debris than in grains, on the other hand. The densities of S. nesbitti and Suidasia sp. decreased significantly during the dry season, whereas C. malaccensis remained stable throughout the two samplings. Of all grains, sorghum was the least infested with mites. This study shows that in Benin mites are present in stored agricultural products to which they cause serious damage, and may cause various allergies to people. PMID:23793792

  19. Scent of a mite: origin and chemical characterization of the lemon-like flavor of mite-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Cheese infested with cheese mites is usually treated as unpalatable. Nevertheless, some traditional cheese manufactories in Germany and France intentionally use mites for fermentation of special varieties (i.e. Milbenkäse and Mimolette). While their production includes different mite species, both are characterized by a "lemon-like" flavor. However, the chemical nature and origin of this flavor-component is unknown. The cheese mites possess a pair of opisthosomal glands producing blends of hydrocarbons, terpenes and aromatics. Here, we describe the chemical profiles of the astigmatid mite species Tyrolichus casei (Milbenkäse) and Acarus siro (Mimolette). Although the chemical profiles differ in several aspects, both mite species produce neral (a volatile flavor component of lemon oil), which was absent from the headspace of both cheeses without mites. We conclude that the lemon-like flavor of mite cheese is not a consequence of fermentation of the cheese itself but a component from secretions of the cheese mites. PMID:27059866

  20. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495

  1. Feeding Essential Oils and 2-Heptanone in Sugar Syrup and Protein Diets to Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) as Potential Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Controls and Traced by SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils and oil components were fed to honey bees in a sugar syrup and liquid protein diet in order to determine if the oils were being incorporated into the bee larvae and could be traced by means of SPME. The compounds used were origanum, 2-heptanone, thymol and connamon oil. The main com...

  2. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  3. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  4. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  5. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  6. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used in Migratory Beekeeping for Crop Pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., that were bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used for beekeeping in an intensive, migratory crop pollination system. Colonies of these stocks (Russian honey bees [RHB] and outcrosses of bees with...

  7. The Salivary Glands of Adult Female Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an Ectoparasite of the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000, an ectoparasite of honey bees, causes huge economic losses to apiculture annually. Its role as a vector of diseases is thought to involve the salivary glands as the terminal organs of transmission. The salivary glands are paired, oval, non-acinar organs...

  8. Eriophyoid mites from Northeast China (Acari: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe and illustrate herein one new genus and eighteen new eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) collected in northeast China. They are: Shevtchenkella huzhongiensis sp. nov. on Ulmus davidiana Planch. var. japonica (Sarg. ex Rehder) Nakai (Ulmaceae), Shevtchenkella jingboicus sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Calepitrimerus flexuosus sp. nov. on Spiraea flexuosa Fisch. ex Cambess. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus maximowiczii sp. nov. on Crataegus maximowiczii Schneid. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus pilosus sp. nov. on Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus yichunensis sp. nov. on Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A.Br. (Rosaceae), Cupacarus oxyphyllus sp. nov. on Euonymus oxyphyllus Miq. (Cel-astraceae), Epitrimerus sambucus sp. nov. on Sambucus williamsii Hance (Caprifoliaceae), Epitrimerus wuyingensis sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Longisolenidionus amurensis gen. nov & sp. nov. on Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Tiliaceae), Phyllocoptes jiagedaqiensis sp. nov. on Cunninghamia sp. (Taxodiaceae), Aculops huzhongensis sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Sali-caceae), Aculus huzhongsalixus sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Salicaceae), Tetra angelica sp. nov. on Angelica sp. (Apiaceae), Tetra jiagedaqia sp. nov. on Lespedeza sp. (Fabaceae), Vittacus mandshurica sp. nov. on Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid. (Betulaceae), Vittacus cannabus sp. nov. on Cannabis sativa L. (Moraceae), and Peralox dentatis sp. nov. on Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae). Two species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. abiesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) and R. fabris (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) were reassigned to Nalepella, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, and other characteristics of Nalepella. One species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. fargesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) was reassigned to Pentaporca, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, opisthosoma with five ridges and other characteristics of Pentaporca. At the same time, four new eriophyoid

  9. Sensitization to different mite species in German farmers: clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Müsken, H; Franz, J T; Wahl, R; Paap, A; Cromwell, O; Masuch, G; Bergmann, K C

    2000-01-01

    Various mite species referred to collectively as house dust and storage mites are recognized worldwide as a cause of allergic airway disease. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency of sensitization and potential importance of mite species in farmers using a broad mite spectrum. A total of 86 German farmers with rhinitis and/or asthma were studied by skin prick testing and/or enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) with the following mites: Blomia tjibodas, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia kulagini, Glycyphagus domesticus, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Euroglyphus maynei, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus farris and Cheyletus eruditus. Sensitization to at least one mite species was detected in 51 patients (59%) by skin prick testing, and in 31 patients (36%) by EAST. The most frequent sensitizations determined by skin tests were found for the three Blomia species, E. maynei and G. domesticus. Twelve patients (14%) gave a positive EAST with the predator mite C. eruditus. A total of 22 patients gave positive EAST results with the Dermatophagoides species. We were able to document sensitization to C. arcuatus, E. maynei and T. entomophagus for the first time in Germany. A considerable proportion of the German farmers tested were sensitized to storage mites. The allergological potential of various mite species has been recognized, some for the first time. It was concluded that B. tjibodas, G. domesticus, C. arcuatus and C. eruditus in particular should be included in an allergy diagnosis. Further investigations into the clinical relevance of the sensitizations and possible cross-reactivity between the mite species are necessary. PMID:11206935

  10. Do plant mites commonly prefer the underside of leaves?

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    The adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) surfaces of a plant leaf provide heterogeneous habitats for small arthropods with different environmental conditions, such as light, humidity, and surface morphology. As for plant mites, some agricultural pest species and their natural enemies have been observed to favor the abaxial leaf surface, which is considered an adaptation to avoid rain or solar ultraviolet radiation. However, whether such a preference for the leaf underside is a common behavioral trait in mites on wild vegetation remains unknown. The authors conducted a 2-year survey on the foliar mite assemblage found on Viburnum erosum var. punctatum, a deciduous shrub on which several mite taxa occur throughout the seasons, and 14 sympatric tree or shrub species in secondary broadleaf-forest sites in Kyoto, west-central Japan. We compared adaxial-abaxial surface distributions of mites among mite taxa, seasons, and morphology of host leaves (presence/absence of hairs and domatia). On V. erosum var. punctatum, seven of 11 distinguished mite taxa were significantly distributed in favor of abaxial leaf surfaces and the trend was seasonally stable, except for Eriophyoidea. Mite assemblages on 15 plant species were significantly biased towards the abaxial leaf surfaces, regardless of surface morphology. Our data suggest that many mite taxa commonly prefer to stay on abaxial leaf surfaces in wild vegetation. Oribatida displayed a relatively neutral distribution, and in Tenuipalpidae, the ratio of eggs collected from the adaxial versus the abaxial side was significantly higher than the ratio of the motile individuals, implying that some mite taxa exploit adaxial leaf surfaces as habitat. PMID:21472503

  11. MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

  12. Geotaxis and leaf-surface preferences mitigate negative effects of a predatory mite on an herbivorous mite.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Reproductive success and population growth of an herbivorous mite are limited by activities of phytoseiid predators. However, occurrences on upper versus lower leaf surfaces are sometimes mismatched between these prey and predators. The mismatch potentially mitigates predation risk for the prey species. We assessed factors that affect mite distributions on leaf surfaces, testing whether the presence of the phytoseiid mite Phytoseius nipponicus alters the leaf-surface distribution and reproductive success of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus. The host plant was Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae). Leaves were set in natural (TRUE) and reversed (upside down; INVERTED) orientations using experimental devices. Both surfaces were accessible to mites. We detected lower and abaxial leaf-surface preferences in P. nipponicus. In contrast, upper and adaxial surfaces were preferred by B. obovatus. Thus, prey and predatory mites accumulated on different sides of leaves. Presence of the predator also indirectly decreased egg production in B. obovatus. Brevipalpus obovatus females actively avoided leaf surfaces with elevated predator numbers; these females shifted their distributions and changed oviposition sites to leaf surfaces with fewer predators. In consequence, B. obovatus eggs on the upper sides of leaves were less frequently preyed upon than were those on lower sides. We suggest that upper leaf-surface exploitation in this particular herbivorous mite species mitigates predation risk from phytoseiid mites, which prefer lower leaf surfaces. PMID:23011108

  13. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  14. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed. PMID:22286142

  15. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  16. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test. PMID:24020263

  17. Cyclodextrins as Carriers of Monterpenes into the Hemolymph of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) for Integrated Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), is becoming ubiquitous worldwide and is a serious threat to honey bees. The cultivation of certain food crops are at risk. The most noted acaricides against Varroa mites are with tau-fluvaninate and with coumaphos, but the mites are showing resistance. Since t...

  18. Nasal mites (Gamasida: Rhinonyssidae) of Paroaria coronata (Miller) (Passeriformes: Emberezidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Coimbra, M A A; Müller, G; Brum, J G W

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the species of nasal mites of Paroaria coronata (red-crested cardinal), the nasal cavity of 40 birds were examined. The nasal mites were identified as Ptilonyssus sairae de Castro and Sternostoma pirangae Pence, with 50% and 7.5% of prevalence, respectively. This is the first record of these mite species parasitizing P. coronata. This report also amplifies the area of occurrence of S. pirangae for Brazil and that of P. sairae for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:21952970

  19. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil. PMID:26675921

  20. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  1. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  2. Role of the Varroa mite in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony loss: A case study for adverse outcome pathway development with a nonchemical stressor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant honeybee colony losses have been reported across North America and Europe in recent years. A number of factors, both chemical and nonchemical, have been associated with such losses. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) provide a conceptual framework to describe and evalu...

  3. Susceptibilities of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina: Macronyssidae), and chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M G; Axtell, R C

    1991-12-01

    The relative toxicities of ten acaricides to northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were determined simultaneously by holding the mites inside disposable glass Pasteur pipettes previously immersed in acetone solutions of various concentrations (w/v) of technical grade acaricides. The LC90s (parts per million) of the acaricides after 24 h exposure for the northern fowl mite and the chicken mite, respectively, were: bendiocarb (13.1, 0.18), tetrachlorvinphos (14.5, 4.07), carbaryl (15.0, 0.83), pirimiphos methyl (18.3, 2.03), permethrin (23.1, 8.46), lambda cyhalothrin (80.7, 11.4), dichlorvos (252.8, 3.75), malathion (238.4, 6.59), amitraz (6741, 9430) and fenvalerate (greater than 10,000, 60.2). After 48 h exposure there were only slight increases in mortalities of both species except for increased mortalities for the northern fowl mite with lambda cyhalothrin, amitraz and fenvalerate, and for the chicken mite with amitraz. PMID:1786744

  4. Biological control of spider mites on grape by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae): emphasis on regional aspects.

    PubMed

    Prischmann, D A; Croft, B A; Luh, H K

    2002-04-01

    Leaf samples were taken from 34 (1998) and 10 (1999) vineyards in five valleys in western Oregon to assess spider mite pests and biological control by predaceous phytoseiid mites. A leaf at a coordinate of every 10 m of border, 5 m into a vineyard, was taken to minimize edge effects; 20 leaves were taken at regular intervals from vineyard centers. Variables recorded at each site included grape variety and plant age, chemicals used, and vegetation next to vineyards. Sites were rated as occurring in agricultural versus riparian settings based on surrounding vegetation types. Multiple linear regressions and a computer genetic algorithm with an information content criterion were used to assess variables that may explain mite abundances. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was the dominant phytoseiid mite species and Tetranychus urticae Koch the dominant tetranychid mite species. High levels of T. urticae occurred when phytoseiid levels were low, and low levels of T. urticae were present when phytoseiid levels were high to moderate. T. urticae densities were higher in vineyards surrounded by agriculture, but phytoseiid levels did not differ between agricultural and riparian sites. Phytoseiids had higher densities on vineyard edges; T. urticae densities were higher in centers. Biological control success of pest mites was rated excellent in 11 of 44 vineyards, good in 27, and poor in only six sites. Predaceous mites appeared to be the principal agents regulating spider mites at low levels in sites where pesticides nontoxic to predators were used. Effects of surrounding vegetation, grape variety, growing region, and other factors on mites are discussed. PMID:12020011

  5. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:20689407

  6. Two new quill mite species (Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitizing Australian birds.

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Laniecka, Izabella

    2013-01-01

    Two new quill mite species (Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae), Syringophilopsis philemonis sp. nov. from Philemon citreogularis (Gould) (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae) and Megasyringophilus cacatua sp. nov. from Cacatua galerita (Latham) (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) are described from Australia. PMID:26438949

  7. Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atyeo, W.T.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1979-01-01

    New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given.

  8. Impeding movement of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, James; Küster, Tatiana; George, David; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2016-07-30

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control. PMID:27369583

  9. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  10. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  11. Sensitization of Children to Storage Mites in Kutahya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Soyucen, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Specific IgE against Acarus siro, Glycphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor have been investigated by ELISA in sera of 92 children. Of them, 41 were found to be specific IgE positive (≥ 0.35 IU/ml) against at least one of house dust mite species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, by an immunoblot. In 65.9% of the dust mite-sensitized children, specific IgE against at least one of these mite species was found. Sensitization levels, including co-sensitization cases were found to be 35.7% against A. siro, 24.4% against T. putrescentiae, 31.7% against L. destructor, and 26.8% against G. domesticus. In non-sensitized children, dust mite sensitization level was found to be 25.5%. Breakdown of sensitization by individual species in this group was; against A. siro and T. putrescentiae at 7.8%, against L. destructor at 13.7%, and against G. domesticus at 9.8%. When all children were reckoned, 43.5% was found to be sensitized against at least one storage mite species, with sensitizations against A. siro at 18.5%, T. putrescentiae at 26.1%, L. destructor at 21.7%, and G. domesticus at 17.4%. In dust samples collected from the dwellings of children, distribution of species was found to be A. siro (17%), G. domesticus (23%), T. putrescentiae (29%), L. destructor (25%), and unidentified (6%). In Fisher's chi-square test on SPSS program, there was a relationship between dust mite sensitization and storage mite sensitization (P < 0.05), but no meaningful relationship was found on the basis of individual mite species. PMID:19967087

  12. detectMITE: A novel approach to detect miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in genomes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes, including plants and animals. Classified as a type of non-autonomous DNA transposable elements, they play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Comprehensive and accurate genome-wide detection of MITEs in various eukaryotic genomes can improve our understanding of their origins, transposition processes, regulatory mechanisms, and biological relevance with regard to gene structures, expression, and regulation. In this paper, we present a new MATLAB-based program called detectMITE that employs a novel numeric calculation algorithm to replace conventional string matching algorithms in MITE detection, adopts the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm to filter out MITE candidates with low complexity, and utilizes the powerful clustering program CD-HIT to cluster similar MITEs into MITE families. Using the rice genome as test data, we found that detectMITE can more accurately, comprehensively, and efficiently detect MITEs on a genome-wide scale than other popular MITE detection tools. Through comparison with the potential MITEs annotated in Repbase, the widely used eukaryotic repeat database, detectMITE has been shown to find known and novel MITEs with a complete structure and full-length copies in the genome. detectMITE is an open source tool (https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectmite). PMID:26795595

  13. detectMITE: A novel approach to detect miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes, including plants and animals. Classified as a type of non-autonomous DNA transposable elements, they play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Comprehensive and accurate genome-wide detection of MITEs in various eukaryotic genomes can improve our understanding of their origins, transposition processes, regulatory mechanisms, and biological relevance with regard to gene structures, expression, and regulation. In this paper, we present a new MATLAB-based program called detectMITE that employs a novel numeric calculation algorithm to replace conventional string matching algorithms in MITE detection, adopts the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm to filter out MITE candidates with low complexity, and utilizes the powerful clustering program CD-HIT to cluster similar MITEs into MITE families. Using the rice genome as test data, we found that detectMITE can more accurately, comprehensively, and efficiently detect MITEs on a genome-wide scale than other popular MITE detection tools. Through comparison with the potential MITEs annotated in Repbase, the widely used eukaryotic repeat database, detectMITE has been shown to find known and novel MITEs with a complete structure and full-length copies in the genome. detectMITE is an open source tool (https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectmite). PMID:26795595

  14. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

  15. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system. PMID:25541519

  16. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has been the avoidance of patches with high predation risk. Less attention has been given to the dense web produced by spider mites, which is a complex structure of silken threads that is thought to hinder predators. Here, we investigate the effects of the web produced by the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, on its interactions with the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes Evans. We tested whether female spider mites recognize predator cues and whether these can induce the spider mites to produce denser web. We found that the prey did not produce denser web in response to such cues, but laid more eggs suspended in the web, away from the leaf surface. These suspended eggs suffered less from predation by P. longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring. PMID:20191311

  17. Dust mite allergens and asthma: a worldwide problem*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    After the discovery of house dust mites in 1964 their association with asthma has been reported from many different parts of the world including the developing countries. Two sets of major allergens from mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are now well recognized. The Group I allergens are glycoproteins of relative molecular mass (Mr) 25 000, which show both structural homology and cross-reactivity. The allergen Der p I has been cloned and sequenced confirming the Mr and establishing its nature as a protease. The Group II allergens (Mr 15 000) show even closer homology and cross-reactivity. Specific immunoassays for Group I and Group II allergens, using monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibodies, have been standardized and are suitable for measuring allergen levels in different parts of the world. Measures for reducing the levels of mite allergens in houses include the covering of mattresses, hot washing of bedding, and removal of carpets from bedrooms as well as humidity control, vacuum cleaning, and the use of acaricides in the rest of the house. There is already evidence that these procedures can cause a major improvement in the symptoms of asthma. While provisional standards for both sensitization to mites and also mite allergen exposure can now be recommended, there is an urgent need for controlled studies using protocols demonstrated to reduce mite allergen levels by at least tenfold and for further international collaboration. PMID:3069235

  18. Effectiveness of vacuum cleaning and wet cleaning in reducing house-dust mites, fungi and mite allergen in a cotton carpet: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, D P

    1988-02-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of continuous, thorough vacuuming on house dust organisms and mite allergen, a cotton carpet was vacuumed every other day, six times in total. Seven weeks later, the carpet was cleaned by means of spray extraction. Samples were taken before and after this wet cleaning. In total 1150 g of dust was collected, containing approximately 174,000 arthropods (dead and alive) and 9000 X 10(6) fungal spores. In the course of the experiment, the amount of dust collected at each vacuuming decreased. The number of extracted house dust mites did not decrease significantly, but that of the predator mite Cheyletus did. The number of extracted fungal spores showed a significant decrease (from 142 to 16 X 10(6) spores/m2 per minute vacuuming), as did the extracted mite allergen per m2. After 7 weeks the number of mite eggs and complete house dust mites had increased enormously. After cleaning by spray extraction another increase in the number of complete mites and mite eggs was found, while the amount of mite allergen was diminished. The population growth of the house dust mite between the 6th and the 7th vacuuming is probably due to the decrease of their most important predator, Cheyletus. After the wet cleaning a number of extra eggs hatched, probably due to the high humidity in the carpet. The procedures used in this study to combat house dust mites may have an adverse effect in the long run. PMID:3378462

  19. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  20. Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: <5 % of the mites were able to pass the bifurcation of the "Y". On the cross-shaped arenas, however, a large number of coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified. PMID:25033768

  1. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  2. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    PubMed

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy. PMID:8526179

  3. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  5. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  6. Checklist of the Quill mites (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) of the World.

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Chrzanowski, Mateusz; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea) are ectoparasites inhabiting the quills of various feather types in many groups of birds. Until now, 334 valid species and 60 genera of quill mites have been described and recorded from 482 bird species (95 families and 24 orders). Currently, the family is divided into 2 subfamilies: Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 with 260 species grouped in 49 genera, and Picobinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 with 74 species grouped in 11 genera. Mites of the subfamily Syringophilinae inhabit quills of primaries, secondaries, tertials, rectrices and wing coverts and just occasionally the body feathers; representatives of the subfamily Picobinae live predominantly inside the body feathers. The rapid increase of the knowledge on biodiversity and systematics of quill mites started in end of the 1990s; numerous new descriptions appeared since that time and taxonomic rearrangements make an urgent need to summarize all previous data. We present a complete checklist of the family Syringophilidae of the world including the following data: a species name, author(s), references, a number of first page of description, figure numbers in descriptions, depository of type and non-type materials, host spectrum and geographical distribution. The checklist is additionally provided with the table including bird hosts and associated quill mite species. PMID:26249476

  7. A Rice Stowaway MITE for Gene Transfer in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fattash, Isam; Bhardwaj, Priyanka; Hui, Caleb; Yang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) lack protein coding capacity and often share very limited sequence similarity with potential autonomous elements. Their capability of efficient transposition and dramatic amplification led to the proposition that MITEs are an untapped rich source of materials for transposable element (TE) based genetic tools. To test the concept of using MITE sequence in gene transfer, a rice Stowaway MITE previously shown to excise efficiently in yeast was engineered to carry cargo genes (neo and gfp) for delivery into the budding yeast genome. Efficient excision of the cargo gene cassettes was observed even though the excision frequency generally decreases with the increase of the cargo sizes. Excised elements insert into new genomic loci efficiently, with about 65% of the obtained insertion sites located in genes. Elements at the primary insertion sites can be remobilized, frequently resulting in copy number increase of the element. Surprisingly, the orientation of a cargo gene (neo) on a construct bearing dual reporter genes (gfp and neo) was found to have a dramatic effect on transposition frequency. These results demonstrated the concept that MITE sequences can be useful in engineering genetic tools to deliver cargo genes into eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23704977

  8. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. PMID:25824504

  9. Leaf domatia mediate mutualism between mites and a tropical tree.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Benson, Woodruff W

    2004-08-01

    Although associations between mites and leaf domatia have been widely reported, their consequences for plants, especially for natural tree populations, particularly in the tropics, are largely unknown. In experiments with paired Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae) saplings in a semi-deciduous forest in south-east Brazil, we blocked leaf domatia to examine their effect: (1) on mites and other arthropods, and (2) on damage caused by fungi and herbivorous arthropods. In general, plants with resin-blocked domatia had fewer predaceous mites on leaves than control plants with unaltered domatia, but the total abundances of fungivorous and of phytophagous mites remained unchanged. However, phytophagous eriophyid mites, the most numerous inhabitants of domatia, decreased on leaf surfaces with the blocking treatment. In a second experiment, treated plants lacking functional domatia developed significantly greater numbers and areas of chlorosis, apparently due to increased eriophyid attacks, whereas fungal attack, epiphyll abundance and leaf-area loss were unaffected. This seems to be the first experimental study to demonstrate that leaf domatia can benefit plants against herbivory in a natural system. The possible stabilizing effect of leaf domatia on predator-prey interactions is discussed. PMID:15205936

  10. Detection and Identification of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, have been reported in almost all the Caribbean islands and Venezuela. Correct identification of the mite and host associations is essential for the management and biocontrol of this invasive mite pest. This paper provides information o...

  11. Mobilization and evolutionary history of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Beta vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Dechyeva, Daryna; Keller, Heiko; Lange, Cornelia; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We have identified three families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (VulMITEs) in the genome of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), evidently derived from a member of the Vulmar family of mariner transposons. While VulMITEs I are typical stowaway-like MITEs, VulMITEs II and VulMITEs III are rearranged stowaway elements of increased size. The integration of divergent moderately and highly repetitive sequences into VulMITEs II and, in particular in VulMITEs III, respectively, shows that amplification of repetitive DNA by MITEs contribute to the increase of genome size with possible implications for plant genome evolution. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), for the first time visualizing stowaway MITE distribution on plant chromosomes, revealed a dispersed localization of VulMITEs along all B. vulgaris chromosomes. Analysis of the flanking sequences identified a dispersed repeat as target site for the integration of the stowaway element VulMITE I. Recent transposition of VulMITE I, which most likely occurred during the domestication of cultivated beets, was concluded from insertional polymorphisms between different B. vulgaris cultivars and species. PMID:17171577

  12. The presence of eriophyid mites on native and weed Cirsium species in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aceria anthocoptes is an eriophyid mite that is known to feed on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). While this mite species has been considered to be host specific, a detailed evaluation of its host range has yet to be determined. To assess the risks associated with using this mite as a biological ...

  13. Are Demodex mites principal, conspirator, accomplice, witness or bystander in the cause of rosacea?

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    As the only permanent human ectoparasite, the role of human Demodex mites in health and diseases remains largely unclarified. In view of the ecological interaction between organisms of two different species, a type of commensalism between Demodex mites and humans (the former benefit, the latter unaffected) is most likely, while parasitism occurs temporarily and spatially in the diseased state (the former benefit, the latter harmed). As part of normal skin microbiota, the causal role of Demodex mites in the initiation of rosacea can neither fulfill the classical Henle-Koch's principal nor the advanced criteria proposed by Fredericks and Relman for molecular detection of non-cultivatable microorganisms. Epidemiological analysis using Hill's criteria fails to support the causative role of Demodex mites in rosacea regarding the strength of association, specificity and temporality of association, biological gradient and plausibility as well as clinical coherence, therapeutic experimentation and medical analogy. In application of Rothman's sufficient cause model to evaluate the contribution of Demodex mites to rosacea on a population basis, Demodex mites can be regarded as a non-necessary, non-sufficient causal factor for certain forms of rosacea. Further strategies to dissect the association between Demodex mites and rosacea may include studying the possible existence of more virulent forms of mites with a higher pathogenicity, the endosymbiotic bacteria in certain life periods of mites, the interactions between mites and human hosts or between mites and environment, and to set up ex vivo culture models for Demodex mites. PMID:25666117

  14. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    PubMed

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys. PMID:1288436

  15. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given. PMID:26266306

  16. Orchestrating house dust mite-associated allergy in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) are one of the commonest aeroallergens worldwide and up to 85% of asthmatics are typically HDM allergic. Allergenicity is associated both with the mites themselves and with ligands derived from mite-associated bacterial and fungal products. Murine models of allergic airways disease for asthma research have recently switched from the use of surrogate allergen ovalbumin together with adjuvant to use of the HDM extract. This has accelerated understanding of how adaptive and innate immunity generate downstream pathology. We review the myriad ways in which HDM allergic responses are orchestrated. Understanding the molecular pathways that elicit HDM-associated pathology is likely to reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21783420

  17. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  18. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  19. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Asthmatic Children Sensitized to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei; Hu, Qi; Shen, Lei-Lei; Hu, Ying; Tao, Hai-feng; Li, Hui-fan; Fan, Wen-ting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The house dust mite is one of the most common allergens worldwide. There is good evidence that house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy is efficacious and has long-term benefit in children. However, the evidence of the benefit of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is less convincing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate that efficacy and safety of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases until February 2014 were searched. The primary outcome was mean change in asthma symptom score. Secondary outcomes included mean change in serum immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4), specific Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and medication score. Safety was also assessed. We found that SLIT significantly decreased asthma symptom score (P = 0.007) and increased sIgG4 levels (P = 0.011) greater than control in children (<18 years of age) with asthma. There was no difference between SLIT and control groups in specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels (P = 0.076) and medication score (P = 0.408). The safety profile was similar between groups. Our study indicates that dust mite SLIT therapy was effective in reducing asthma symptoms and in increasing sIgG4 but did not significantly reduce medication scores or specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels. Our findings are not enough to support the use of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma.

  20. A Toolbox for Quantitative Gene Expression in Varroa destructor: RNA Degradation in Field Samples and Systematic Analysis of Reference Gene Stability.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ewan M; McIntosh, Catriona H; Bowman, Alan S

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is the major pest of Apis mellifera and contributes to the global honey bee health crisis threatening food security. Developing new control strategies to combat Varroa will require the application of molecular biology, including gene expression studies by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Both high quality RNA samples and suitable stable internal reference genes are required for accurate gene expression studies. In this study, ten candidate genes (succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), large ribsosmal subunit, TATA-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 18S rRNA (18S), heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), cyclophilin, α-tubulin, actin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes using the geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and comparative ΔCq algorithims. Our study proposes the use of no more than two of the four most stable reference genes (NADH, 18S, SDHA and HSP90) in Varroa gene expression studies. These four genes remain stable in phoretic and reproductive stage Varroa and are unaffected by Deformed wing virus load. When used for determining changes in vitellogenin gene expression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the relatively unstable genes actin and α-tubulin was much lower than for the stable gene combinations (NADH + HSP90 +18S; NADH + HSP90; or NADH). Using both electropherograms and RT-qPCR for short and long amplicons as quality controls, we demonstrate that high quality RNA can be recovered from Varroa up to 10 days later stored at ambient temperature if collected into RNAlater and provided the body is pierced. This protocol allows the exchange of Varroa samples between international collaborators and field sample collectors without requiring frozen collection or shipping. Our results make important contributions to gene expression studies in Varroa by proposing a validated sampling protocol to obtain high quality Varroa RNA and the

  1. A Toolbox for Quantitative Gene Expression in Varroa destructor: RNA Degradation in Field Samples and Systematic Analysis of Reference Gene Stability

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ewan M.; McIntosh, Catriona H.; Bowman, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is the major pest of Apis mellifera and contributes to the global honey bee health crisis threatening food security. Developing new control strategies to combat Varroa will require the application of molecular biology, including gene expression studies by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Both high quality RNA samples and suitable stable internal reference genes are required for accurate gene expression studies. In this study, ten candidate genes (succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), large ribsosmal subunit, TATA-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 18S rRNA (18S), heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), cyclophilin, α-tubulin, actin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes using the geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and comparative ΔCq algorithims. Our study proposes the use of no more than two of the four most stable reference genes (NADH, 18S, SDHA and HSP90) in Varroa gene expression studies. These four genes remain stable in phoretic and reproductive stage Varroa and are unaffected by Deformed wing virus load. When used for determining changes in vitellogenin gene expression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the relatively unstable genes actin and α-tubulin was much lower than for the stable gene combinations (NADH + HSP90 +18S; NADH + HSP90; or NADH). Using both electropherograms and RT-qPCR for short and long amplicons as quality controls, we demonstrate that high quality RNA can be recovered from Varroa up to 10 days later stored at ambient temperature if collected into RNAlater and provided the body is pierced. This protocol allows the exchange of Varroa samples between international collaborators and field sample collectors without requiring frozen collection or shipping. Our results make important contributions to gene expression studies in Varroa by proposing a validated sampling protocol to obtain high quality Varroa RNA and the

  2. [The tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti attacks humans in Iceland.].

    PubMed

    Skírnisson, K

    2001-12-01

    In the summer of 2001 the obligate, intermittent tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti attacked humans in an Icelandic household where infected Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), bought in a local pet shop, had been kept for few months. After a rapid proliferation the mite started attacking the humans living in the house. A boy sharing room with the pets suffered from extensive dermatitis. Optimal conditions for O. bacoti are at 24-26 degrees C and a relative humidity of 47%. Similar conditions frequently occur indoors in Icelandic premises. Therefore, if O. bacoti has been noticed indoors, necessary measures should be undertaken to immediately eliminate the pest. PMID:17019023

  3. Differential Water Mite Parasitism, Phenoloxidase Activity, and Resistance to Mites Are Unrelated across Pairs of Related Damselfly Species

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarek, Julia J.; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five “species pairs”), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species’ relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity. PMID:25658982

  4. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species. PMID:26240900

  5. Rickettsial pathogens in the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Macronyssidae) from Egyptian rats (Rattus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals. PMID:17225079

  6. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  7. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

  8. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  9. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  10. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales. PMID:27115500

  11. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  12. Assessment of Bacterial Communities in Thirteen Species of Laboratory-Cultured Domestic Mites (Acari: Acaridida).

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Kopecky, Jan; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Nesvorna, Marta; Zurek, Ludek; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) and stored-product mites (SPMs) of various species inhabit human homes and stored agricultural products. These mites are carriers and hosts of microorganisms that enable their survival. The bacteriome from 13 species of SPMs and HDMs was analyzed and compared by 454 pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Altogether 128,052 sequences were obtained and assigned to 71 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% identity level. The number of sequences in the OTUs between species of mites ranged from 6 to 31 in the individual mite species. We did not find any significant effect of diet or evolutionary origin of mites or their interaction on the composition of the mite bacteriome. In mite species with low bacterial diversity, the bacterial communities were dominated by potential symbiotic or parasitic bacteria, i.e., Cardinium in Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) and Aeroglyphus robustus (Banks 1906) and the enteric bacteria Erwinia in Blomia tropicalis Van Bronswijk, de Cock & Oshima, 1974 and Xenorhabdus in Tyroborus lini (Oudemans, 1924). Among the bacterial species identified, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Kocuria, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Brachybacterium likely serve as food sources for the mites. The domestic acaridid mites carried high numbers of various bacteria that are potential threats to human health. These results contribute to the general understanding of the ecology of mite adaptation to human-made habitats. PMID:27122496

  13. Response of soil mites to organic cultivation in an ultisol in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; De-Polli, Helvecio; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    Soil-dwelling mites of four plots under organic management were investigated in April and December 1998 and in December 1999. Their populations were compared with mite populations in a pasture and forest in the vicinity. It was observed that there was always an initial reduction in the populations of soil mites and in the activity of the epigeic forms whenever a plot was opened up and disturbed mechanically in preparation for cultivation, irrespective of previous organic inputs. With time, the densities and activities of mites recovered under organic management. The uropodine and oribatid mites in particular benefited more from organic management than gamasine and actinedid mites. Uropodine mites increased tremendously under banana where there was fresh cow dung manure. Oribatid mite species Nothrus seropedicalensis and Archegozetes magnus were dominant in organic plots where the soil was moist and temperatures were lower than the ambient. Protoribates rioensis was dominant in organic plots where the soil was drier and temperatures were higher than the ambient. Galumna was the most active oribatid taxon on the floor of all plots, with the highest activity recorded under maracuja and in pasture plots. The results suggest that while densities and activities of soil mites increased in the organic plots, the community structure and recruitment period of oribatid mites were altered. Oribatid mite diversity was higher in the organic plots than in the pasture but lower than in the forest, where Belba sp. and many Eremobelboid brachypiline genera were present, but absent in the organic plots and pasture. PMID:15651531

  14. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  15. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p < 0.05) but no significance difference was observed among the age groups and body condition score of camels (p > 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry. PMID:25568694

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis control of synanthropic mites (Acari: Acaridida) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Erbanova, Michaela; Hubert, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins present a potential for control of pest mites. Information concerning the effect of Bt and its possible application to the biocontrol of synathropic mites is rare. The toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis producing Cry3A toxin was tested on the mites Acarus siro L., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, and Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) via feeding tests. Fifty mites were reared on Bt additive diets in concentrations that ranged from 0 to 100 mg g(-1) under optimal conditions for their development. After 21 days, the mites were counted and the final populations were analyzed using a polynomial regression model. The Bt diet suppressed population growth of the four mite species. The fitted doses of Bt for 50% suppression of population growth were diets ranging from 25 to 38 mg g(-1). There were no remarkable differences among species. Possible applications of Bt for the control of synanthropic mites are discussed. PMID:19381844

  17. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  18. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Thoemmes, Megan S; Fergus, Daniel J; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

  19. COCCINELLIDAE AS PREDATORS OF MITES: STETHORINI IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stethorini are unique among the Coccinellidae in specializing on mites (principally Tetranychidae) as prey. Consisting of 90 species in two genera, Stethorus and Parasthethorus, the tribe is practically cosmopolitan, and found in diverse habitats, including many agricultural systems, as well as ...

  20. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  1. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  2. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites are thought to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant genotype...

  3. Exceptional running and turning performance in a mite.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Samuel; Young, Maria Ho-Yan; Wright, Jonathan C; Whitaker, Dwight L; Ahn, Anna N

    2016-03-01

    The Southern California endemic mite Paratarsotomus macropalpis was filmed in the field on a concrete substrate and in the lab to analyze stride frequency, gait and running speed under different temperature conditions and during turning. At ground temperatures ranging from 45 to 60 °C, mites ran at a mean relative speed of 192.4 ± 2.1 body lengths (BL) s(-1), exceeding the highest previously documented value for a land animal by 12.5%. Stride frequencies were also exceptionally high (up to 135 Hz), and increased with substrate temperature. Juveniles exhibited higher relative speeds than adults and possess proportionally longer legs, which allow for greater relative stride lengths. Although mites accelerated and decelerated rapidly during straight running (7.2 ± 1.2 and -10.1 ± 2.1 m s(-2), respectively), the forces involved were comparable to those found in other animals. Paratarsotomus macropalpis employs an alternating tetrapod gait during steady running. Shallow turns were accomplished by a simple asymmetry in stride length. During tight turns, mites pivoted around the tarsus of the inside third leg (L3), which thus behaved like a grappling hook. Pivot turns were characterized by a 42% decrease in turning radius and a 40% increase in angular velocity compared with non-pivot turns. The joint angle amplitudes of the inner L2 and L3 were negligible during a pivot turn. While exceptional, running speeds in P. macropalpis approximate values predicted from inter-specific scaling relationships. PMID:26787481

  4. MITES (FAMILY TROMBICULIDAE) PARASITIZING BIRDS MIGRATING FROM AFRICA TO EUROPE.

    PubMed

    VARMA, M G

    1964-01-01

    The mechanisms of dissemination of arthropod-borne human and animal pathogens are of considerable interest to the epidemiologist, veterinarian and biologist. Birds which are hosts to such pathogens and their arthropod vectors could transport them over long distances during their spring and autumn migratory flights.In April 1961, birds migrating from Africa to Europe were collected in south-western Spain and examined for ectoparasites and antibodies to arboviruses. Fully engorged larvae of two species of trombiculid mites unknown in Europe (genera Neoschoengastia and Blankaartia) but found in Africa were collected from two of the migrating birds (redstart and little bittern), suggesting that the birds were carrying the mites from Africa to Europe.Trombiculid mites are the proven vectors of scrub typhus; they have also been implicated in the transmission of human haemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis. The finding of the mite larvae on migrating birds is therefore of some epidemiological interest and underlines the importance of obtaining more data on the dispersal of trombiculids by migrating birds. PMID:14267750

  5. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants. PMID:27395681

  6. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  7. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites < 1 mm in size were found on the patient's body. The family were residing in the city centre and had no pets, but there were pigeon nests in close proximity to the house. Most dermatologists have difficulties identifying ectoparasitosis. In the case of D. gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments. PMID:23530520

  8. Catalogue of snout mites (Acariformes: Bdellidae) of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bdellidae (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are moderate to large sized predatory mites that inhabit soil, leaves, leaf litter, and intertidal rocks. They are readily recognized by an elongated, snout-like gnathosoma and by elbowed pedipalps bearing two (one in Monotrichobdella) long terminal setae. Des...

  9. New hosts for the mite Ornithonyssus bursa in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M Á; Grande, J M; Liébana, M S; Martínez, P; Díaz, L A; Bragagnolo, L A; Solaro, C; Galmes, M A; Sarasola, J H

    2015-12-01

    The mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is considered a poultry pest causing important infestations in chickens and it is considered a potential vector of arbovirus. Despite being considered a common parasite in wild birds, there is scarce published information about its potential hosts and effects on them. Here we present new bird hosts for O. bursa, assess the presence of Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Bunyavirus in mites from three host species, and discuss its potential impact on wild bird populations. We found O. bursa infecting five raptor and six passerine wild bird species. For nine of these species, this is the first record of infection by O. bursa. Although all analysed mites were negative for the examined arboviruses, the small sample size of mites does not allow further conclusions at the present moment. Because of the general nature of this ectoparasite, its presence in migratory long dispersal and endangered bird species, and the seropositivity for arboviruses in some of the species studied here, we consider it critical to assess the role of O. bursa and other ectoparasites as vectors and reservoirs of pathogens and as potential deleterious agents in wild bird populations. PMID:26258483

  10. Ubiquity and Diversity of Human-Associated Demodex Mites

    PubMed Central

    Thoemmes, Megan S.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

  11. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  12. Handbook of forage and rangeland insects: Timothy Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several eriophyid rust mites are important and have been recently recognized as pests on timothy grass. They live and feed in the grooves of the leaves, are cold-adapted, and populations begin to grow gradually in the fall and peak in the spring. Damage can cause up to 50% yield loss and results i...

  13. Acquired immune response of white leghorn hens to populations of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago).

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A; Ziprin, R L

    1980-08-01

    Three levels (high, low and control) of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), were maintained on White Leghorn hens for 24 weeks. The hens were then treated with carbaryl to eradicate the mites, were induced to molt, and were reinfested with mites 9 weeks later. Subsequent levels of mites on the three groups showed that the degree of acquired immunity was related to the initial level of mite infestation. PMID:7413581

  14. Ubiquiter circovirus sequences raise challenges in laboratory diagnosis: the case of honey bee and bee mite, reptiles, and free living amoebae.

    PubMed

    Marton, Szilvia; Ihász, Katalin; Lengyel, György; Farkas, Szilvia L; Dán, Ádám; Paulus, Petra; Bányai, Krisztián; Fehér, Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Circoviruses of pigs and birds are established pathogens, however, the exact role of other, recently described circoviruses and circovirus-like viruses remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was the detection of circoviruses in neglected host species, including honey bees, exotic reptiles and free-living amoebae by widely used broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for the replication initiation protein coding gene of these viruses. The majority of sequences obtained from honey bees were highly similar to canine and porcine circoviruses, or, were distantly related to dragonfly cycloviruses. Other rep sequences detected in some honey bees, reptiles and amoebae showed similarities to various rep sequences deposited in the GenBank. Back-to-back PCR primers designed for the amplification of whole viral genomes failed to work that suggested the existence of integrated rep-like elements in many samples. Rolling circle amplification and exonuclease treatment confirmed the absence of small circular DNA genomes in the specimens analysed. In case of honey bees Varroa mite DNA contamination might be a source of the identified endogenous rep-like elements. The reptile and amoebae rep-like sequences were nearly identical with each other and with sequences detected in chimpanzee feces raising the possibility that detection of novel or unusual rep-like elements in some host species might originate from the microbial community of the host. Our results indicate that attention is needed when broad-spectrum rep gene specific polymerase chain reaction is chosen for laboratory diagnosis of circovirus infections. PMID:25823454

  15. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  16. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. PMID:26089530

  17. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. PMID:26089530

  18. Changes in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colony Swarming and Survival Pre- and Post- Arrival of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman on colonies of Apis mellifera L. in southern Louisiana was evaluated by analyzing changes in swarming and longevity of colonies for 17 years. Swarming rates were calculated from yearly captures of swarms in bait hives placed in five areas of Loui...

  19. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  20. Sensitization to house-dust mite and mite fauna in selected children's homes in Kütahya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Yilmaz, Sema

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the house-dust mite allergy and prevalence of house-dust mites in dwellings of children who were tested for specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and D. farinae on the suspicion of allergic rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma. All dust specimens collected from children's houses were investigated under a light microscope. House-dust mites were found in 31.7% of houses of children with a specific IgE, while the rate was 27.5% in houses of those without a specific IgE. Overall, house dust specimens collected from a total of 92 houses were examined, and mites were found in 27 (29.3%) of them. Both Der p and Der f were found in 38 (92.7%), while mixed allergy (D. pteronyssinus + D. farinae) was found in 3 (7.3%). Der p allergy (100%) was found in all of the allergic children, while no child was found with specific IgE for Der f allergy, except in mixed allergies. PMID:19817266

  1. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) and dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious d...

  2. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: the first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yie...

  3. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages

    PubMed Central

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T.; Simison, W. Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S.; Dunn, Robert R.; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  4. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards. PMID:25234440

  5. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages.

    PubMed

    Palopoli, Michael F; Fergus, Daniel J; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T; Simison, W Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-12-29

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  6. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line

  7. Photo-orientation regulates seasonal habitat selection in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Kojima, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio; Sakuma, Masayuki

    2013-03-15

    Non-diapausing spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) live on the undersurface of host leaves during summer, but diapausing mites overwinter in dark hibernacula. The light environments of these habitats differ: visible radiation (VIS) but not ultraviolet radiation (UV) reaches the undersurface of leaves, but neither enters dark hibernacula. Thus, mites of either seasonal form could locate their preferred habitat by photo-orientation responses to UV and VIS. To investigate this possibility, we analysed the mites' locomotion behaviour on a virtual field with a programmed chequered pattern of light and dark patches in a micro-locomotion compensator. Both non-diapausing and diapausing mites moved away from UV-illuminated patches into dark patches. Non-diapausing mites moved towards VIS-illuminated patches, whereas diapausing mites did not show a preference. Our results show that non-diapausing mites avoid UV and are attracted to VIS, suggesting that this can guide them beneath a leaf. Diapausing mites simply avoid UV. The lack of a preference for VIS during diapause could be due to changes in carotenoid metabolism, which also involve orange pigmentation of diapausing mites. We consider that a diapause-mediated switch of the response to VIS, together with regular avoidance of UV, plays a key role in the seasonal change of habitat selection in this species. This seasonal polyphenism involves alterations in not only reproductive state and pigmentation, but also in photo-spectral responses. PMID:23197101

  8. Shift of Bacterial Community in Synanthropic Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae Induced by Fusarium Fungal Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Astigmata) and Fusarium sp. co-occur in poorly managed grain. In a laboratory experiment, mite grazing resulted in significant reduction of fungal mycelium on cultivation plates. The destruction of mycelium appeared to be a result of an interaction between the mites, fungi and associated bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings A laboratory experiment was performed to simulate a situation of grain multiinfested by mites and Fusarium fungi. Changes of mite-associated bacterial community in T. putrescentiae were described in 3 habitats: (i) T. putrescentiae mites from a rearing diet prior to their transfer to fungal diet; (ii) fungal mycelium before mite introduction; (iii) mites after 7 day diet of each Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae and F. verticillioides. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In total, 157 nearly full-length 16 S rRNA gene sequences from 9 samples representing selected habitats were analyzed. In the mites, the shift from rearing to fungal diet caused changes in mite associated bacterial community. A diverse bacterial community was associated with mites feeding on F. avenaceum, while feeding on the other three Fusarium spp. led to selection of a community dominated by Bacillaceae. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated changes of bacterial community associated with T. putrescentiae after shift to fungal diets suggesting selection for Bacillaceae species known as chitinase producers, which might participate in the fungal mycelium hydrolysis. PMID:23119013

  9. Characterization of active ribosomal RNA harboring MITEs insertion in microsporidian Nosema bombycis genome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Handeng; Pan, Guoqing; Dang, Xiaoqun; Li, Tian; Zhou, Zeyang

    2013-03-01

    Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasites of medical and agricultural importance, which can infect almost all animals, including human beings. Using the genome data of Nosema bombycis, four families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were characterized in the microsporidian N. bombycis and were named LSUME1, ITSME1, SSUME1, and SSUME2, respectively. The genome-wide investigation of these MITEs shows that these MITEs families distribute randomly in N. bombycis genome. All insertion sequences have conserved characteristics of MITEs, the direct repeat sequence and terminal inverted-repeat sequence at both ends of each MITEs sequence. Additionally, using the CLC RNA Workbench Software, secondary structures of rRNA containing MITEs sequence have been predicted and were located in variable region or expansion segment. Furthermore, using two different probes, one is prepared by MITE sequence only (short probe) and the other is prepared by MITE sequence flanking partial rDNA sequence (long probe); northern blotting and dot blotting have been performed to detect the transcriptional and functional activity of the rDNA containing MITEs insertion. Fortunately, we found that the rDNA, which harbors the MITE, not only can be transcripted but also can form a complete ribosome. This is an interesting thing that one gene can keep active even when it has been inserted with another sequence. But the biological and structural significance of this observation is not readily apparent. PMID:23254587

  10. Faunal analysis of chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu

    2015-08-01

    This paper studied the species diversity and fauna distribution of chigger mites on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest Yunnan. In total, 120,138 individuals of chigger mites were collected from 13,760 individual small mammals, and these mites were identified as comprising two families, 26 genera, and 274 species. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, the mite species diversity in subregions I and II was higher than that in subregions III, IV, and V. Four mite species (Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, Leptotrombidium deliense, and Helenicula simena) were the most dominant species in the whole province. Several vector species of chigger mites co-existed in Yunnan, and L. deliense (a main vector of scrub typhus in China) was mainly distributed in subregions IV and V with lower latitude and average altitude whereas L. scutellare (also a main vector in China) was mainly distributed in subregions I, II, and III with higher latitude and average altitude. Some geographically widely distributed mite species were also the mites with wide host ranges and low host specificity. The dominant mite species and their clustering tendency in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis were highly in accordance with the zoogeographical divisions. The species diversity of chigger mites showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3,500 m) along the vertical gradients and reached the highest value in the middle altitude regions in 2,000-2,500 m. The highest species diversity of the mites and their small mammal hosts happened in the regions around the Hengduan Mountains, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in Asia continent. The host and its sample size, geographical scope, landscape, topography, and some other factors comprehensively influence the species diversity and faunal distribution of chigger mites. A systematic field investigation with a wide geographical scope and large host sample is strongly recommended

  11. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  12. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites. PMID:27085719

  13. The Role of Mites in the Transmission and Maintenance of Hantaan Virus (Hantavirus: Bunyaviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xue-jie; Tesh, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the evidence indicating a role for parasitic mites in the transmission and maintenance of Hantaan virus in nature. The available data, much of it from recent studies in China, indicate that both trombiculid and gamasid mites are naturally infected with Hantaan virus and that infected mites can transmit the virus by bite to laboratory mice and transovarially (vertically) through eggs to their offspring. Collectively, these findings challenge the current paradigm of hantavirus transmission, namely, that rodents serve as the reservoir of human pathogenic hantaviruses in nature and that humans are infected with these viruses by inhalation of aerosols of infectious rodent excreta. Further research is needed to confirm the mite-hantavirus association and to determine if parasitic mites are in fact the major source and principal vectors of human pathogenic hantaviruses, such as Hantaan. If the mite hypothesis is correct, then it will significantly alter current concepts about the epidemiology, prevention, and control of human hantavirus infection. PMID:24958909

  14. Pollen consumption by flower mites in three hummingbird-pollinated plant species.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Tonatiuh; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that pollen consumption by flower mites may decrease the male fitness of the plant by reducing the available pollen for dispersal. Here we assessed pollen consumption by flower mites under natural conditions in three plant species with long-lived, protandrous flowers, Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), Lobelia laxiflora and L. cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Total pollen mass was measured after 24 and 48 h in flowers exposed to flower mites and excluded from hummingbirds, flowers exposed to mites and hummingbird visitation, and in flowers recently opened with dehisced anthers. Compared with recently opened flowers, pollen availability was reduced about half in the presence of flower mites and the same effect was observed in the three plant species. Our results suggest that flower mites are removing a great deal of pollen and the reduction of pollen implies the possibility of direct impact on pollen transfer. PMID:19763848

  15. Outbreak of tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) dermatitis in a home for disabled persons.

    PubMed

    Baumstark, J; Beck, W; Hofmann, H

    2007-01-01

    Five mentally handicapped individuals living in a home for disabled persons in Southern Germany were seen in our outpatient department with pruritic, red papules predominantly located in groups on the upper extremities, neck, upper trunk and face. Over several weeks 40 inhabitants and 5 caretakers were affected by the same rash. Inspection of their home and the sheds nearby disclosed infestation with rat populations and mites. Finally the diagnosis of tropical rat mite dermatitis was made by the identification of the arthropod Ornithonyssus bacoti or so-called tropical rat mite. The patients were treated with topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. After elimination of the rats and disinfection of the rooms by a professional exterminator no new cases of rat mite dermatitis occurred. The tropical rat mite is an external parasite occurring on rats, mice, gerbils, hamsters and various other small mammals. When the principal animal host is not available, human beings can become the victim of mite infestation. PMID:17587843

  16. [Biological observations of allergenic mites Suidasia nesbitti (Acarida, Saproglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, W

    1991-01-01

    Suidasia nesbitti specimens for laboratory cultures and for biological studies were isolated from infested fish meal. Rearing conditions: temperature +25 degrees C, relative humidity 85%, food - dried baker's yeast. One day old females and males were paired and placed into separate rearing cages and observations of longevity and oviposition of mites were conducted. Fresh laid eggs were observed and mite development cycle was examined. Mean longevity of male (preimaginal + imaginal periods) amount 84.4 days, female in average 67.0 days. Average egg production of female per its whole life was 172.9. Life history took in average 14.4 days and natural mortality of various instars was 25%. Frequency of females was slightly higher than frequency of males. PMID:1823475

  17. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  18. Catalogue of snout mites (Acariformes: Bdellidae) of the world.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio A; Skvarla, Michael J; Fisher, J Ray; Dowling, Ashley P G; Ochoa, Ronald; Ueckermann, Edward A; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Bdellidae (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are moderate to large sized predatory mites that inhabit soil, leaves, leaf litter, and intertidal rocks. They are readily recognized by an elongated, snout-like gnathosoma and by elbowed pedipalps bearing two (one in Monotrichobdella Baker & Balock) long terminal setae. Despite being among the first mites ever described, with species described by Carl Linnaeus, the knowledge about bdellids has never been compiled into a taxonomic catalogue. Here we present a catalogue listing 278 valid species; for each species we include distribution information, taxonomic literature, and type depository institutions. The genus Rigibdella Tseng, 1978 is considered a junior synonym of Cyta von Heyden, 1826, and Bdellodes Oudemans, 1937 is considered a junior synonym of Odontoscirus Tohr, 1913. Illustrated keys to subfamilies and genera are presented, as well as keys to species of each genus. PMID:27615820

  19. First report of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Navia, D; Marsaro, A L; da Silva, F R; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, is reported for the first time in Brazil. This invasive mite was found in July 2009 infesting coconut palms and bananas in urban areas of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in northern Brazil. Comments on the possible pathways of R. indica into the country, present and potential impact of its introduction and mitigating measures to prevent or to delay the mite spread in Brazil are presented. PMID:21710040

  20. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  1. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Laura M; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C; McCoy, Karen D; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  2. [Mites as a cause of zoonoses in human beings].

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Different mite species occurring in animals may infest humans temporarily. Such agents should be considered a possible cause of erythemateous and sometimes pruritic skin reactions of unclear origin. Pseudoscabies is a common problem in occupationally exposed humans, e.g. farmers, veterinarians or pet owners. Those selflimiting dermatoses may often be misdiagnosed. Several species including Sarcoptes scabiei, Notoedres cati, Cheyletiella spp., Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Ophionyssus natricis and Neotrombicula autumnalis may infest human skin, causing symptoms. PMID:17131237

  3. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  4. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  5. House dust mite control measures in the treatment of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Gillian; McSharry, Charles; Wood, Stuart; Thomson, Neil C

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization to the house dust mite (Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus) (HDM) is the most common risk factor associated with the development of asthma in adults and children. The effectiveness of HDM control measures in the treatment of asthma is not yet proven. The strategies for control for avoidance depend on our understanding of the biology of the HDM. The evidence suggests a favorable effect of transferring allergic asthmatic children to naturally low dust mite environments, such as at altitude or in hospital, but little to suggest that this can be replicated in general practice by simple practical measures such as mattress covers. However, a recent multi-allergen reduction approach has suggested benefits may be achievable. HDM densities tend to be high in warm, humid conditions in the home, which may be modified by external factors, such as ventilation. However, ventilation control to reduce indoor humidity has had inconsistent effects on dust mite levels and asthma. The challenge is to further refine the interventions in large placebo-controlled trials such that clinical outcomes may be more easily demonstrated. PMID:18360647

  6. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

  7. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided. PMID:26624715

  8. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before. PMID:25895655

  9. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  10. Colonization of vineyards by phytoseiid mites: their dispersal patterns in the plot and their fate.

    PubMed

    Tixier, M S; Kreiter, S; Auger, P

    2000-03-01

    The effect of wind and woody margins on the dispersal and population dynamics of phytoseiid mites was studied in a vine plot for a period of two years. Mites were sampled in the plot and in the surrounding vegetation (crops and natural vegetation) in order to determine phytoseiid mite abundance. The surrounding vegetation was considered to be a reservoir of phytoseiids from where the vine plot could be invaded. Directional and non-directional soil and aerial traps were placed in the plot to determine predatory mite exchange between the two areas. Colonization of the plot occurred in two stages: first, mite migration into the plot, followed by their establishment. The two-year study partially clarified the first of these two stages. Kampimodromus aberrans was the main species caught in the aerial traps. Phytoseiid mite dispersal within the vine plot seemed to be affected by both wind (direction, intensity and regularity) and phytoseiid mite density in the woody margin. However, the woody margin had a large effect only over a short distance. Some observations pointed towards an effect of other reservoir areas but it was not possible to characterize these. The population density of the phytoseiid mites in the plot increased from 1996 to 1998, but these increases are much smaller than one would expect on the basis of the number of mites migrating by air in the plot. Moreover, blocks where most mites were trapped were not the blocks where densities of phytoseiid mites on vine leaves were the largest. It therefore seems likely that not all migrants were able to develop. Their settlement pattern was not determined and this could constitute a potential research focus for the future. PMID:11108386

  11. Sarcoptes scabiei mites in humans are distributed into three genetically distinct clades.

    PubMed

    Andriantsoanirina, V; Ariey, F; Izri, A; Bernigaud, C; Fang, F; Charrel, R; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Guillot, J; Chosidow, O; Durand, R

    2015-12-01

    Scabies is an ectoparasitic infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Currently, S. scabiei is taxonomically divided into different varieties on the basis of host origin. Genetics-based research on scabies has been conducted, but the data on genetic diversity of populations of this mite in humans in Europe are lacking. We evaluated the genetic diversity of populations of S. scabiei. A large series of mites obtained from humans in France and the data of mites from various hosts and geographical areas retrieved from GenBank were included to investigate whether mites are divided into distinct populations. The study of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene polymorphisms were found to be best suited for phylogenetic analysis. S. scabiei mites were distributed into three genetically distinct clades, with most mites clustering in clades B and C. The Fst value and the Nm value calculated for mites included in clades B and C indicated a strong population structure and a very low gene flow between mites of those clades. The results of the present study not only support the rejection of the hypothesis of panmixia for S. scabiei in humans but also suggest that mites belonging to different clades are genetically isolated. Moreover, the results suggest that the subdivision of S. scabies in varieties according to animal or human hosts is not warranted. In conclusion, S. scabiei mites in humans do not constitute a homogeneous population. Further investigations are now required to assess whether different clinical forms of scabies are associated with particular haplotypes or clades. PMID:26278670

  12. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg−1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg−1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

  13. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit. PMID:25528451

  14. 75 FR 70236 - Hop Beta Acids; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... treat up to 181,000 honey bee colonies in the Pacific North West (PNW) to control varroa mites. The... exemption regional request for use of hop beta acids in honey bee hives to control varroa mites. Information... effect on honey bee populations. The parasitic mite is considered the primary pest of honeybees and...

  15. NEGLECTED COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY: SOIL ORIBATID MITES, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND SOIL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oribatid mites are an abundant and diverse component of soils in regional pine forests, and are valuable in characterizing the biodiversity of these forested lands. We sampled oribatid mites using soil cores and leaf litterbags, in young aggrading forest stands. Comparing these...

  16. Potential Sources of Resistance to Broad Mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) in Watermelon Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred and nineteen United States plant introductions (PI) belonging to the watermelon core collection were evaluated for broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) infestation and injury that occurred naturally in a field planting. Of the 219 PI, nine (4%) had no visible broad mite injury ...

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  18. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  19. Flat Mites of the World interactive identification key for economically important species in the family Tenuipalpidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several flat mite species associated with fruit and crop trees, and ornamentals are commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry. These species complex are also the most complicated and part of the most diverse group in the flat mite family. Three of the most economically important species in the fa...

  20. Diagnostic genetic test for the honey bee tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, has become a worldwide pest of honey bees. Identification and description of A. woodi is hampered by the minute size of these mites, their cryptic lifestyle, and a general lack of strong morphological differences with relatives. Here we describe a diagnostic gene...

  1. Tracking predation of subterranean pests: digestion of corn rootworm DNA by a generalist mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    qPCR is a useful tool for understanding predator-prey relationships. We investigated rootworm DNA digestion by male and female predatory mites. Males and females initially consumed comparable amounts of DNA, which was digested at similar rates. Field-collected mites need to be preserved quickly for ...

  2. Incidence of the endosymbionts Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma in phytoseiid mites and associated prey.

    PubMed

    Enigl, Monika; Schausberger, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria that potentially influence reproduction and other fitness-related traits of their hosts are widespread in insects and mites and their appeal to researchers' interest is still increasing. We screened 20 strains of 12 agriculturally relevant herbivorous and predatory mite species for infection with Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma by the use of PCR. The majority of specimens originated from Austria and were field collected or mass-reared. Eight out of 20 strains (40%) tested, representing seven of 12 mite species (58%), carried at least one of the three bacteria. We found Wolbachia in the herbivorous spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Bryobia rubrioculus, with the former also carrying Spiroplasma and the latter also carrying Cardinium. Cardinium was furthermore found in two populations of the predatory mite Euseius finlandicus and the spider mite Eotetranychus uncatus. Spiroplasma was detected in the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus. All bacteria positive PCR products were sequenced, submitted to GenBank and analyzed in BLAST queries. We found high similarities to complete identity with bacteria found in the same and different mite species but also with bacteria found in insect species like ladybirds, butterflies and minute pirate bugs, Orius. We discuss the significance of potential (multiple) infections with the investigated bacteria for biological control. PMID:17554631

  3. [Experimental study of the inoculative transmission of Rickettsia typhi by gamasid mites (Gamasidae) Ornithonyssus bacoti].

    PubMed

    Grabarev, P A; Suroviatkin, A V; Tikhonova, Iu Iu; Mishchenko, O A; Potapenko, O V

    2009-01-01

    The authors' studies have established that the concentration of Rickettsia typhi may increase about 100-fold in the infected Ornithonyssus bacoti mites. At the time, when on feeding 20 to 200 adult mites on guinea-pigs and albino rats 4 to 36 days after inoculation, they did not transmit Rickettsia typhi on blood sucking. PMID:19566066

  4. Molecular genetic analysis of tracheal mite resistance of colonies and individual honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee resistance to the potentially damaging parasitic tracheal mite is known to be mediated by autogrooming. During autogrooming bees use their midlegs to remove migrating foundress mites, thereby reducing infestation rates in their trachea. We investigated the relationship between markers iden...

  5. The cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix, cannot be used for biological control of quackgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quackgrass, Elymus repens, is a perennial grass spreading by vigorous underground rhizomes. Because of its capacity for rapid spread and persistence it is considered as a common weed in many settings worldwide. The cereal rust mite (CRM) Abacarus hystrix is a polyphagous, phytophagous mite attacking...

  6. Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

  7. Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: New functional implications for MITEs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the br...

  8. Mitochondrial COI sequences in mites: evidence for variations in base composition.

    PubMed

    Navajas, M; Fournier, D; Lagnel, J; Gutierrez, J; Boursot, P

    1996-11-01

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA sequences in a variety of animals have shown important differences between phyla, including differences in the genetic codes used, and varying constraints on base composition. In that respect, little is known of mites, an important and diversified group. We sequenced a portion (340 nt) of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) encoding gene in twenty species of phytophagous mites belonging to nine genera of the two families Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae. The mitochondrial genetic code used in mites appeared to be the same as in insects. As is generally also the case in insects, the mite sequences were very rich in A + T (75% on average), especially at the third codon position (94%). However, important variations of base composition were observed among mite species, one of them showing as little as 69% A + T. Variations of base composition occur mostly through synonymous transitions, and do not have detectable effects on polypeptide evolution in this group. PMID:8933179

  9. Occurrence of a house-infesting Tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) on murides and human beings.

    PubMed

    Beck, W

    2008-07-01

    In Germany there is little information available about the distribution of the Tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in rodents. A few case reports show that this haematophagous mite species may also cause dermatitis in man. All developmental stages are exclusively bloodfeeder. Three children (4, 11 and 15 years old) of a family and a 23-year-old medical student were attacked by the Tropical rat mite. Prior to the consultation of our institution, the patients' conditions had been diagnosed as allergic dermatitis of unclear origin and treated by several antiphlogistic agents, however without success. The conclusive diagnosis, Tropical rat mite dermatitis, was based on the identification of the arthropod Ornithonyssus bacoti in the flats of the patients (husbandry of gerbils, etc.). The diagnosis of a Rat mite dermatitis requires the detection of the parasite, which is more likely to be found in the environment of its host than on the hosts' skin itself. PMID:18571117

  10. Artificial feeding of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), through membranes.

    PubMed

    Crystal, M M

    1986-08-01

    A new device and technique are described for the in vitro feeding of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). The device consisted of a glass cylinder 25 mm in length and in outside diameter, capped with a chick skin membrane at one end and a snap-cap with a wire cloth window at the other end. Maximum feeding by northern fowl mites on warmed heparinized chicken blood occurred after 60 min and at a blood temperature range of 36-42 C. Skin membranes prepared from 1-wk-old chicks gave significantly higher feeding rates than those from 4-wk-old chicks, but unfrozen skins and skins frozen up to 4 wk were equally effective. Also, mites fed equally well through white leghorn and broiler chick skin membranes. About 80% of northern fowl mites fed. The in vitro technique described simplifies the approach to studies of northern fowl mite biology and physiology. PMID:3783349

  11. Susceptibility of laboratory-reared northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Crystal, M M; DeMilo, A B

    1988-07-01

    Toxicity was determined for 15 acaricides against a laboratory strain of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). Adult females were exposed to residues on filter paper for 24 h. Three organophosphorous compounds (monocrotophos, cythioate, and famphur) were more toxic to the northern fowl mite than was carbaryl, the most commonly used pesticide in the poultry industry. The other tested compounds were less toxic to the mite than was carbaryl. Four of these, not used previously for northern fowl mite control, had low LC50's for northern fowl mites:aldicarb (0.46); pirimiphos-methyl (0.73); exo, exo-2,8-dichloro-4-thiatricyclo[3.2.1.0.]octane-4-oxide (AI3-63182) (0.87); and diazinon (2.48). PMID:3168660

  12. Development of precipitating antibody in chickens experimentally infested with northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    Murano, T; Namiki, K; Uchino, T; Shimizu, S; Fujisaki, K

    1989-06-01

    In order to examine the immune response of chickens to different population levels of mites, a microscopic slide modification of the Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion technique was adopted for examination of circulating antibody against the extract of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum. Precipitating antibodies were detected in all the chickens infested with the mite. One to three clearly defined precipitation lines appeared in almost all the serum samples of infested birds. Titers of antibody correlated with population levels of the mite on chickens, and no differences in antibody development of hens and roosters were distinguished. These results suggest that the titration of precipitating antibodies appears to be useful for the assessment of mite population levels on chickens. PMID:2505245

  13. Cloning and characterization of tropomyosin from the mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus.

    PubMed

    López-Matas, M Angeles; Iraola, Victor; Moya, Raquel; Vailes, Lisa D; Pomés, Anna; Boquete, Manuel; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Arlian, L G; Chapman, Martin; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2015-12-01

    Tropomyosin is a pan-allergen that shares a high homology among species. It is involved in cross-reactivity among mites, crustaceans, mollusks and insects. The objectives were to express and purify recombinant tropomyosin from the storage mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and to investigate the homology and cross-reactivity with tropomyosin from other invertebrates. Recombinant C. arcuatus tropomyosin (r-Cho a 10) was selected from a library by screening with a pool of patient sera. r-Cho a 10 (UniProt: H2DFL1) was sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Polyclonal anti-tropomyosin antibodies were produced in mice. IgE recognition of r-Cho a 10 was checked by immunoblot. Immunoblot inhibition assays were used to identify the native tropomyosin in the complete extract from C. arcuatus and study cross-reactivity between r-Cho a 10 and Der p 10. Identification of tropomyosin in other allergenic sources was performed by immunoblot. r-Cho a 10 showed a high homology (54-96%) with other tropomyosins from different allergenic sources. IgE recognition was observed using a pool of sera from sensitized individuals. Tropomyosins from different extracts were identified not only in the whole C. arcuatus extract but also in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, shrimp, mussel, cockroach and Anisakis extracts with polyclonal α-Cho a 10. r-Cho a 10 completely inhibited the recognition of Der p 10. Recombinant C. arcuatus tropomyosin maintained its capacity to recognize IgE. r-Cho a 10 was used to prove cross-reactivity among tropomyosins from other invertebrate species, including mites. This is the first C. arcuatus allergen included in the WHO/IUIS (World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies) Allergen Nomenclature database. PMID:26522591

  14. A mite species that consists entirely of haploid females.

    PubMed

    Weeks, A R; Marec, F; Breeuwer, J A

    2001-06-29

    The dominance of the diploid state in higher organisms, with haploidy generally confined to the gametic phase, has led to the perception that diploidy is favored by selection. This view is highlighted by the fact that no known female organism within the Metazoa exists exclusively (or even for a prolonged period) in a haploid state. We used fluorescence microscopy and variation at nine microsatellite loci to show that the false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, consists of haploid female parthenogens. We show that this reproductive anomaly is caused by infection by an undescribed endosymbiotic bacterium, which results in feminization of haploid genetic males. PMID:11431565

  15. Distribution patterns and environmental correlates of water mites (Hydrachnidia, Acari) in peatland microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Mariusz; Martin, Peter; Gąbka, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    In Europe peatlands are wetlands of postglacial origin. Because of climatic changes and agricultural activities (i.e. drainage and peat extraction), they are one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide. Water mites are well known as indicators of changing environments in other ecosystems such as springs and lakes. For our study we selected seven peatlands located in North-Western Poland and focused on water mite distribution and associated habitat and water quality variables. We described water mite fauna in various microhabitats (aquatic and semiaquatic) along the mineral-richness gradient to test whether this gradient is reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We selected conductivity, pH and vegetation as variables reflecting the poor-rich gradient. Additionally, we measured water depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen, which are often important parameters for water mites. We also noted presence of prey and host taxa of particular water mite species. Based on physicochemical parameters we identified three types of habitats harbouring three distinctive species groups of water mites. We were able to distinguish species that appear to be typical of spring fens (e.g. Hygrobates norvegicus, Lebertia separata), connected with acidic, nutrient poor pools (e.g. Arrenurus neumani, A. pustulator) and species seemingly typical of temporary habitats dominated by Sphagnum mosses (e.g. Piersigia intermedia, Zschokkea oblonga, A. stecki). The poor-rich gradient is strongly reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We also found strong correlations between the water mite fauna and both conductivity and pH gradient. Our results show that water conductivity is the most important of the examined factors, driving mite-species distribution in peatlands. PMID:23564226

  16. CLIMATE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE WITHIN-PLANT SPREAD OF BROAD MITES ON AZALEA.

    PubMed

    Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled. PMID

  17. Effects of combination between web density and size of spider mite on predation by a generalist and a specialist phytoseiid mite.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takuya; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Complicated three-dimensional webs of silk threads produced by Tetranychus spider mites provide protection from predation by many generalist phytoseiid mite species. Accessibility to prey may be the most significant criterion for successful predation in complicated webs. To assess the protective effects of combination between web size and density, we compared predation on eggs of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, by a generalist (Euseius sojaensis) and a specialist (Neoseiulus womersleyi) phytoseiid mite in the laboratory under manipulated web size and density. Web sizes negatively affected to the predation. Significant interactions were found between phytoseiid mite species and prey distribution; egg consumption by E. sojaensis was more in uniform distribution, but that by N. womersleyi, in contrast, was larger in contagious distribution. However, the egg consumption by E. sojaensis and N. womersleyi were both mitigated in larger webs. This area size depending mitigation was more effective to the predation by E. sojaensis. Although the mechanism of web size depending mitigation is unknown, web sizes might affect prey searching efficiency of this phytoseiid mite. Consequently, combination between web density and size are likely to affect not only a generalist E. sojaensis but also a specialist N. wormersleyi. PMID:25860857

  18. Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: New functional implications for MITEs

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hanhui; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Li, Feng; Kamei, Ayako; Bhaskar, Pudota B.; Ouyang, Shu; Jiang, Jiming; Buell, C. Robin; Baker, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the broader functional impact of these short TE insertions in genes is largely unknown. We identified 22 families of MITEs in the Solanaceae (MiS1–MiS22) and found abundant MiS insertions in Solanaceae genomic DNA and expressed sequence tags (EST). Several Solanaceae MITEs generate genome changes that potentially affect gene function and regulation, most notably, a MiS insertion that provides a functionally indispensable alternative exon in the tobacco mosaic virus N resistance gene. We show that MITEs generate small RNAs that are primarily 24 nt in length, as detected by Northern blot hybridization and by sequencing small RNAs of Solanum demissum, Nicotiana glutinosa, and Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, we show that stable RNAi lines silencing DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3) in tobacco and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) in potato cause a reduction in 24-nt MITE siRNAs, suggesting that, as in Arabidopsis, TE-derived siRNA biogenesis is DCL3 and RDR2 dependent. We provide evidence that DICER-LIKE4 (DCL4) may also play a role in MITE siRNA generation in the Solanaceae. PMID:19037014

  19. Analysis of ectoparasites (chigger mites, gamasid mites, fleas and sucking lice) of the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) sampled throughout its range in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, P-Y; Guo, X-G; Song, W-Y; Hou, P; Zou, Y-J; Fan, R; He, X-S

    2015-12-01

    The Yunnan red-backed vole Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an endemic rodent species and reservoir host of zoonoses in southwest China. Based on a large host sample (2463 voles collected from 39 localities between 2001 and 2013), a general analysis of four categories of ectoparasite (fleas, sucking lice, chigger mites and gamasid mites) on E. miletus across its entire range of distribution was made. This analysis identified a total of 71 895 ectoparasites belonging to 320 species (30 species of flea, 9 of sucking louse, 106 of gamasid mite and 175 of chigger mite) with a high prevalence (87%), mean abundance (29.19) and mean intensity (33.69). Of the 18 vector species of zoonoses found on E. miletus, the flea Ctenophthalmus quadratus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and chigger mite Leptotrombidium scutellare (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) were the dominant species; these are the main vectors of zoonoses in China. All of the dominant parasite species showed an aggregated distribution pattern. Male voles harboured more species of parasite than females. Chigger mites represented the most abundant species group on voles and their prevalence was positively correlated with mean abundance (r = 0.73; P < 0.05). As a single rodent species, E. miletus has a high potential to harbour abundant ectoparasites with high species diversity and high rates of infestation. The sex of the vole affects ectoparasite infestation. PMID:26345365

  20. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope

  1. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  2. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to

  3. Personality and ectoparasitic mites (Hemipteroseius adleri) in firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus).

    PubMed

    Gyuris, Enikő; Hankó, Júlia Fruzsina; Feró, Orsolya; Barta, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Individuals of the same species often consistently differ in their behaviour across time and context. These stable differences are usually termed 'animal personality'. Parasitism is known to significantly influence the evolution of animal personality at least in part because more explorative individuals may meet parasites more frequently than less explorative ones. Previously, we have demonstrated that consistent individual differences (i.e. boldness, activity, exploration) can be measured in firebugs. As continuation, we examined here the relationship between firebug personality traits and their ectoparasitic mite loads in a wild population. We showed that bugs that behaved in a more explorative way have more mites and we also found a marginally significant interaction between sex, boldness and activity: bolder and more active female firebugs were more infected. In addition, we experimentally tested whether an artificial infection causes any alteration in the bug's behaviour and whether there is any relationship between firebug personality and immune response. This treatment did not induce any alteration in bugs' personality. We found that bugs become more explorative but less active when repeating the experiment, but at the same time all personality traits (boldness, activity and exploration) were repeatable. Furthermore, firebugs with a stronger immune response behaved more boldly but also less actively. PMID:26569455

  4. Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

  5. First observations in Turkish Thrace on water mite larvae parasitism of Ranatra linearis by Hydrachna gallica (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

    PubMed

    Zawal, Andrzej; Çamur-Elipek, Belgin; Fent, Meral; Kirgiz, Timur; Dzierzgowska, Kinga

    2013-03-01

    Many aquatic insect species, including aquatic Hemiptera, are parasitized by water mite larvae. Although this situation may cause damaging impacts to the hosts, the mites can disperse and colonize new localities in this way. Little is known about the frequency of water mite ectoparasitism amongst the aquatic Hemiptera in Turkey. In this study, larval water mite parasitism on aquatic Hemiptera, which have been collected from different localities in Turkish Thrace, was evaluated. It was found that only nine individuals, belonging two different species in a total of 367 hemipteran specimens, were parasitized by larval water mites. Furthermore, variations in sizes and shapes of the mites on the waterscorpion Ranatra linearis Linne, 1758 and Nepa cinerea Linne, 1758 were determined. These are the first records for larval mite parasitism on R. linearis and N. cinerea in Turkish Thrace. PMID:23377913

  6. Basidiobolus haptosporus is frequently associated with the gamasid mite Leptogamasus obesus.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sebastian; Peršoh, Derek; Rambold, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Two species of mites inhabiting a pine forest soil were screened for associated fungi. The fungal community composition was assessed in 49 mite and 19 soil samples by environmental PCR with a focus on fungi of the genus Basidiobolus. PCR products of the fungal ITS rRNA gene were analyzed by sub-cloning, RFLP-analysis, and sequencing. Thereby Basidiobolus haptosporus was found for the first time to be frequently associated with the gamasid mite species Leptogamasus obesus, while being absent from the oribatid mite Oppiella subpectinata, and from the surrounding soil. The fungus was isolated in pure culture for a detailed morphological characterization and experimental approaches concerning the nature of this fungus-mite association. The experiments and a supporting microscopic screening of freshly captured gamasid mites revealed no indications for the fungus being localized in the mites' gut or haemocoel, but a single spore was found attached to an individual of L. obesus. However, an exclusive phoretic association does not satisfactorily explain the frequent detection of B. haptosporus DNA on or in L. obesus, and the absence of the fungus from soil samples seems not to be in line with its assumed ecology as a widespread saprobic soil fungus. Therefore, a second host species in the life cycle of B. haptosporus is discussed as a working hypothesis. PMID:22208604

  7. Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source. PMID:24744058

  8. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food. PMID:25420687

  9. Infestation of research zebra finch colony with 2 novel mite species.

    PubMed

    Siddalls, Monica; Currier, Timothy A; Pang, Jassia; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Patterson, Mary M

    2015-02-01

    A zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) housed in a neuroscience laboratory was observed to have numerous feather mites. Subsequently, similar mites were found on other birds in the animal facility and research space. The most abundant mite was a novel, undescribed species in the genus Neocheyletiella. Whereas known Neocheyletiella mites have previously been characterized as skin parasites of various birds worldwide, the species on the zebra finches is unique because it lives and builds nests in the feathers. Infrequent specimens of a 'true' feather mite, a new species of Megninialges, were present also. Although multiple treatments using a pyrethrin spray were effective in eradicating the mites, topical ivermectin later was found to be more efficacious, better tolerated by the birds, and less labor intensive. This case highlights the general dearth of information regarding ectoparasites in zebra finches, even though these are the most frequently used songbirds in biomedical research. The mite epizootic also underscores the diverse pathogens possible in zebra finches that arrive from outside sources and why ongoing health monitoring of finch colonies is warranted. PMID:25730757

  10. Mange Caused by a Novel Micnemidocoptes Mite in a Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ).

    PubMed

    Sadar, Miranda J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Mete, Asli; Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta H; Grosset, Claire; Smallwood, K Shawn; Shipman, Jessica; Wells, Amy; White, Stephen D; Bell, Douglas A; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-09-01

    A second-year, female golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was live trapped in northern California because of severe feather loss and crusting of the skin on the head and legs. On physical examination, the bird was lethargic, dehydrated, and thin, with severe feather loss and diffuse hyperemia and crusting on the head, ventral wings, ventrum, dorsum, and pelvic limbs. Mites morphologically similar to Micnemidocoptes derooi were identified with scanning electron microscopy. The eagle was treated with ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) once weekly for 7 weeks, as well as pyrethrin, meloxicam, ceftiofur crystalline free acid, and voriconazole. Although the eagle's condition improved, and live mites or eggs were not evident on skin scrapings at the time of completion of ivermectin treatment, evidence of dead mites and mite feces were present after the last dose of ivermectin. Two additional doses of ivermectin and 2 doses of topical selamectin (23 mg/kg) were administered 2 and 4 weeks apart, respectively. No mite eggs, feces, or adults were evident after treatment was completed. A second golden eagle found in the same region was also affected with this mite but died soon after presentation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of successful treatment, as well as treatment with selamectin, of mites consistent with Micnemidocoptes species in any raptorial species. PMID:26378670

  11. Mites are the most common vectors of the fungus Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea infructescences.

    PubMed

    Roets, Francois; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D; Dreyer, Leanne L

    2011-01-01

    Entomochoric spore dispersal is well-documented for most ophiostomatoid fungal genera, most of which are associated with bark or ambrosia beetles. Gondwanamyces spp. are unusual members of this group that were first discovered in the flower heads of the primitive angiosperm genus Protea, that is mostly restricted to the Cape Floristic region of Africa. In this study, we present the discovery of the vectors of Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea repens infructescences, which were identified using PCR, direct isolation, and light microscopy. Gondwanamyces proteae DNA and ascospores were identified on diverse lineages of arthropods including beetles (Euderes lineicolis and Genuchus hottentottus), bugs (Oxycarenus maculates), a psocopteran species and five mite (Acari) species. Based on isolation frequency, however, a mite species in the genus Trichouropoda appears to be the most common vector of G. proteae. Gondwanamyces spores were frequently observed within pit mycangia at the base of the legs of these mites. Manipulative experiments demonstrated the ability of mites to carry viable G. proteae spores whilst in transit on the beetle G. hottentottus and that these mites are able to transfer G. proteae spores to uncolonised substrates in vitro. Interestingly, this same mite species has also been implicated as vector of Ophiostoma spores on P. repens and belongs to the same genus of mites that vector Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine-infesting bark beetles in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:21530916

  12. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  13. In vivo and in vitro sensitization to domestic mites in German urban and rural allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Müsken, Horst; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Marañón, Francisco; Franz, Jörg-Thomas; Masuch, Georg; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2002-01-01

    Sensitization to domestic mites is common in Germany. The main objectives of this study were (1) to establish the rate of skin test sensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae in 512 consecutive patients evaluated for upper and/or lower respiratory complaints; (2) to verify how many of the patients with a positive skin test to at least one of the three storage mites were also skin test positive to D. pteronyssinus; and (3) to verify how many of the patients with at least one positive skin test to one of the storage mites previously mentioned were also sensitized, in vitro, to other mite species. A total of 512 consecutive patients with rhinitis and/or asthma, living in urban or rural areas of central Germany were skin tested with extracts of D. pteronyssinus, A. siro, L. destructor, and T. putrescentiae. In addition, specific IgE determinations to Euroglyphus maynei, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia tjibodas, Blomia kulagini, and Gohieria fusca were conducted in those individuals with a positive skin test to at least one of the storage mites used in skin testing. Of the 512 patients, 103 (20.1%; 77 urban dwellers and 26 farmers) reacted to at least one of the storage mites. From this latter group, 88 individuals (85.4%) also skin tested positive to D. pteronyssinus. In vitro specific IgE determinations revealed a high rate of sensitization to the other mite species studied. We conclude that sensitization to storage mites in Germany is frequently associated with sensitivity to D. pteronyssinus. Overall, skin test sensitivity to storage mites was greater in rural than in city dwellers. In vitro sensitization to B. tjibodas was also significantly greater in rural than in city dwellers. PMID:12530116

  14. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other. PMID:24233102

  15. A Carboniferous Mite on an Insect Reveals the Antiquity of an Inconspicuous Interaction.

    PubMed

    Robin, Ninon; Béthoux, Olivier; Sidorchuk, Ekaterina; Cui, Yingying; Li, Yingnan; Germain, Damien; King, Andrew; Berenguer, Felisa; Ren, Dong

    2016-05-23

    Symbiosis [1], understood as prolonged interspecific association, is as ancient as the eukaryotic cell [2, 3]. A variety of such associations have been reported in the continental fossil record, albeit sporadically. As for mites, which as a group have been present since the Devonian (ca. 390 mya) [4, 5] and are involved in a tremendous variety of modern-day symbioses, reported associations are limited to a few amber-preserved cases [6-11], with the earliest instance in the Cretaceous (ca. 85 mya) [11]. As a consequence, the antiquity and origin of associations involving small-sized mites and larger animals are poorly understood. Here we report, recovered from the Carboniferous Xiaheyan locality (ca. 320 mya), an oribatid mite located on the thorax of an extinct relative of grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids [12]. The mite was investigated using several methods, including phase-contrast tomography. The detailed morphological data allowed the placement of the mite in a new family within Mixonomata, whose fossil record is thus extended by ca. 250 Ma. Specimen and abundance distribution data derived from the fossil insect sample indicate that specimens from the corresponding excavation site were buried rapidly and were sub-autochthonous, indicating a syn vivo association. Moreover, the mite is located in a sequestered position on the insect. The observed interaction best fits the definition for phoresy, in which the benefit is transport and protection for the mite. This discovery demonstrates that this association, a trait shared by representatives of the most speciose mite taxa, arose very early during mite evolution. PMID:27161503

  16. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Tatiane M M G; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2007-01-01

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of São Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. PMID:18060305

  17. Evaluation of a brushing machine for estimating density of spider mites on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Craig D; Costello, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Direct visual inspection and enumeration for estimating field population density of economically important arthropods, such as spider mites, provide more information than alternative methods, such as binomial sampling, but is laborious and time consuming. A brushing machine can reduce sampling time and perhaps improve accuracy. Although brushing technology has been investigated and recommended as a useful tool for researchers and integrated pest management practitioners, little work to demonstrate the validity of this technique has been performed since the 1950's. We investigated the brushing machine manufactured by Leedom Enterprises (Mi-Wuk Village, CA, USA) for studies on spider mites. We evaluated (1) the mite recovery efficiency relative to the number of passes of a leaf through the brushes, (2) mite counts as generated by the machine compared to visual counts under a microscope, (3) the lateral distribution of mites on the collection plate and (4) the accuracy and precision of a 10% sub-sample using a double-transect counting grid. We found that about 95% of mites on a leaf were recovered after five passes, and 99% after nine passes, and mite counts from brushing were consistently higher than those from visual inspection. Lateral distribution of mites was not uniform, being highest in concentration at the center and lowest at the periphery. The 10% double-transect pattern did not result in a significant correlation with the total plate count at low mite density, but accuracy and precision improved at medium and high density. We suggest that a more accurate and precise sample may be achieved using a modified pattern which concentrates on the center plus some of the adjacent area. PMID:26459377

  18. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae).

    PubMed

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Proctor, Heather; Dabert, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    With nearly 6000 named species, water mites (Hydrachnidiae) represent the largest group of arachnids to have invaded and extensively diversified in freshwater habitats. Water mites together with three other lineages (the terrestrial Erythraiae and Trombidiae, and aquatic Stygothrombiae), make up the hyporder Parasitengonina, which is characterized by having parasitic larvae and predatory nymphs and adults. Relationships between the Hydrachnidiae and other members of the Parasitengonina are unclear, as are relationships among the major lineages of water mites. Monophyly of water mites has been asserted, with the possible exception of the morphologically distinctive Hydrovolzioidea. Here we infer the phylogeny of water mites using multiple molecular markers and including representatives of all superfamilies of Hydrachnidiae and of almost all other Parasitengonina. Our results support a monophyletic Parasitengonina including Trombidiae, Stygothrombiae, and Hydrachnidiae. A monophyletic Hydrachnidiae, including Hydrovolzioidea, is strongly supported. Terrestrial Parasitengonina do not form a monophyletic sister group to water mites. Stygothrombiae is close to water mites but is not nested within this clade. Water mites appear to be derived from ancestors close to Stygothrombiae or the erythraoid group Calyptostomatoidea; however, this relationship is not clear because of extremely short branches in this part of the parasitengonine tree. We recovered with strong support all commonly accepted water mite superfamilies except for Hydryphantoidea, which is clearly paraphyletic. Our data support the previously proposed clades Protohydrachnidia (Hydrovolzioidea and Eylaoidea), Euhydrachnidia (all remaining superfamilies), and the euhydrachnid subclade Neohydrachnidia (Lebertioidea, Hydrachnoidea, Hygrobatoidea, and Arrenuroidea). We found that larval leg structure and locomotory behavior are strongly congruent with the molecular phylogeny. Other morphological and behavioral

  19. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to

  20. The Effect of Insecticide Synergists on the Response of Scabies Mites to Pyrethroid Acaricides

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

    2009-01-01

    Background Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001). Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%); inhibition of GST activity (73%) with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81%) with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites. PMID

  1. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  2. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  3. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus-predator interactions. PMID:27041703

  4. Ornithonyssus (Acari: Macronyssidae) mite dermatitis in poultry field-workers in Almarg, Qalyobiya governorate.

    PubMed

    Mazyad, Said A; Abel El-Kadi, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of bird and rat mite infestation in man are not easily recognized by physicians or patients. Clinical signs and symptoms are developed secondary to bites of mites that have infested rats, domestic poultry or birds nesting in or near human habitation and comes into contact with man. This study details 4 cases of pruritic dermatitis developed in four field workers in poultry farms in Al-Marg district, Qalyobia governorate, Egypt. The zoonotic species of Ornithoyssus sp., (Family Macronyssidae) was isolated from all samples collected from patients' habitat and the role played by Ornithonyssus mites in causing dermatitis in man was discussed. PMID:15881008

  5. [Mites associated with two species of the genus Odontotaenius (Coleoptera: Passalidae) in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrios-Torres, Pilar Liliana; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A

    2015-09-01

    Mites can establish association with different arthropods as coleopterans tamites scaraoaeicae ana Passalidae. Passalids are distributed in tropical and templates zones, and until now, more than 200 species of mites have been associated to them. One of the relationships between passalids and mites is the phoresy where one small animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to another animal (the host) for transportation. Herein, we studied the mites associated to O. zodiacus and O. striatopunctatus; for this, 80 Odontotaenius with mites were reviewed; passalids were collected in and under decaying logs from six states of Mexico, and were individually kept in vials with 80% ethanol. The specimens were carried to the laboratory and mites removed with fine-pointed forceps under stereo microscope. The mites were stored with 80 % alcohol until some were cleared with lacto-phenol and mounted in Hoyer's solution. We found 1,945 mites belonging to 13 families (Acaridae, Ascidae, Diarthrophallidae, Digamasellidae, Diplogyniidae, Euzerconidae, Heterocheylidae, Histiostomatidae, Klinckowstroemiidae, Laelapidae, Megisthanidae, Trematuridae, and Uropodidae) and 42 species, being the most abundant species Anoelus sp. For O. striatopunctatus (16 specimens) we found 562 mites (95 female female, 34 male male, 197 hypopus, 234 deutonymph, 2 tritonymph) of 11 families and 22 species; the most abundant were Uropodidae (42 %) and Histiostomatidae (26 %). While for 0. zodiacus (64 specimens) were found 1,383 mites (300 female female, 204 male male, 608 hypopus, 139 deutonymphs, 133 tritonymphs) of 10 families and 30 species; the most abundant were: Diartrophallidae, Acaridae, and Histiostomatidae (23 % for the two first and 21 % for third). The high abundance and richness was in O. zodiacus, likewise Margalef (S') and Shanon-Winner (H') indexes were higher in this species (O. zodiacus S' = 4.05, H' = 2.2; O. striatopunctatus S' = 3.34, H' = 1.94), while Equity (EH) was similar to both

  6. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  7. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus–predator interactions. PMID:27041703

  8. Conjunctivitis induced by a red bodied mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis

    PubMed Central

    Parcell, Benjamin J.; Sharpe, Graeme; Jones, Brian; Alexander, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of an unusual case of conjunctivitis caused by a trombiculid red mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis. The patient’s condition improved only after its removal and with application of carbomer gel eye drops. There have been reports of increasing numbers of severe cases of trombiculosis over the last 15 years particularly in Germany and a number of cases have also been reported in the United Kingdom. Cases where trombiculid larvae feed on any region of the head or face of humans are unknown. In addition it is most likely the patient acquired the infection from her pet cat and this is the first description of acquisition from this animal. PMID:23823162

  9. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed. PMID:26250248

  10. Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

    2011-01-01

    Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicarissp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicagersp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

  11. Modeling responses to respiratory house dust mite exposure.

    PubMed

    Cates, Elizabeth C; Fattouh, Ramzi; Johnson, Jill R; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Jordana, Manel

    2007-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is the most pervasive indoor aeroallergen source worldwide. Allergens derived from HDM are associated with sensitization and allergic asthma. Allergic asthma is an immunologically driven disease characterized by a Th2-polarized immune response, eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, and remodeling. Animal models of asthma utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) exposure have afforded us considerable insight with respect to the mediators and cell types involved in allergic airway inflammation. However, OVA preparations and HDM are two vastly different materials. This chapter is specifically concerned with modeling responses to HDM exposure in mice. These studies have furnished new information and unlocked new lines of inquiry regarding biological responses to common aeroallergens. The complexity of HDM as an allergen source, with its plethora of protein and nonprotein immunogenic components, may influence the mechanisms underlying sensitization, inflammation and remodeling. Here, we will discuss this issue, along with giving critical thought to the use of experimental models. PMID:17684332

  12. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  13. Parasitic scabies mites and associated bacteria joining forces against host complement defence.

    PubMed

    Swe, P M; Reynolds, S L; Fischer, K

    2014-11-01

    Scabies is a ubiquitous and contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei Epidemiological studies have identified scabies as a causative agent for secondary skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. This is an important notion, as such bacterial infections can lead to serious downstream life-threatening complications. As the complement system is the first line of host defence that confronts invading pathogens, both the mite and bacteria produce a large array of molecules that inhibit the complement cascades. It is hypothesised that scabies mite complement inhibitors may play an important role in providing a favourable micro-environment for the establishment of secondary bacterial infections. This review aims to bring together the current literature on complement inhibition by scabies mites and bacteria associated with scabies and to discuss the proposed molecular link between scabies and bacterial co-infections. PMID:25081184

  14. Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

  15. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  16. Generalist-feeding subterranean mites as potential biological control agents of immature corn rootworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory mites are important components of subterranean food webs and may help regulate densities of agricultural pests, including western corn rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). Implementing conservation and/or classical biocontrol tactics could enhance densities of special...

  17. Comprehensive Study of Mediterranean (Croatian) Propolis Peculiarity: Headspace, Volatiles, Anti-Varroa-Treatment Residue, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr M; Tuberoso, Carlo I G

    2016-02-01

    Eight propolis samples from Croatia were analyzed in detail, to study the headspace, volatiles, anti-Varroa-treatment residue, phenolics, and antioxidant properties. The samples exhibited high qualitative/quantitative variability of the chemical profiles, total phenolic content (1,589.3-14,398.3 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/l EtOH extract), and antioxidant activity (11.1-133.5 mmol Fe(2+) /l extract and 6.2-65.3 mmol TEAC (Trolox® equivalent antioxidant capacity)/l extract). The main phenolics quantified by HPLC-DAD at 280 and 360 nm were vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, chrysin, galangin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The major compounds identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and subsequent GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were α-eudesmol (up to 19.9%), β-eudesmol (up to 12.6%), γ-eudesmol (up to 10.5%), benzyl benzoate (up to 28.5%), and 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (up to 18.1%). Vanillin was determined as minor constituent by SDE/GC-FID/MS and HPLC-DAD. The identified acaricide residue thymol was ca. three times more abundant by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS than by SDE/GC-FID/MS and was not detected by HPLC-DAD. PMID:26880433

  18. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. PMID:25527405

  19. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. PMID:20482766

  20. A new species of eriophyoid mite (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Rosa sp. from Israel.

    PubMed

    Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    A new species of eriophyoid mite from a hybrid of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) found in Israel is described and illustrated. Eriophyes eremus n. sp. is a refuge-seeking type mite, inhabiting flower buds and petiole bases, causing no apparent damage to the host plant. Eighteen eriophyoid species are known to inhabit Rosa sp. and those are listed here along with type localities, damage they cause and host plant details. PMID:27395555

  1. The Formation of Collective Silk Balls in the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  2. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent. PMID:23435864

  3. Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Marinosci, Cassandra; Magalhães, Sara; Macke, Emilie; Navajas, Maria; Carbonell, David; Devaux, Céline; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Studying antagonistic coevolution between host plants and herbivores is particularly relevant for polyphagous species that can experience a great diversity of host plants with a large range of defenses. Here, we performed experimental evolution with the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae to detect how mites can exploit host plants. We thus compared on a same host the performance of replicated populations from an ancestral one reared for hundreds of generations on cucumber plants that were shifted to either tomato or cucumber plants. We controlled for maternal effects by rearing females from all replicated populations on either tomato or cucumber leaves, crossing this factor with the host plant in a factorial design. About 24 generations after the host shift and for all individual mites, we measured the following fitness components on tomato leaf fragments: survival at all stages, acceptance of the host plant by juvenile and adult mites, longevity, and female fecundity. The host plant on which mite populations had evolved did not affect the performance of the mites, but only affected their sex ratio. Females that lived on tomato plants for circa 24 generations produced a higher proportion of daughters than did females that lived on cucumber plants. In contrast, maternal effects influenced juvenile survival, acceptance of the host plant by adult mites and female fecundity. Independently of the host plant species on which their population had evolved, females reared on the tomato maternal environment produced offspring that survived better on tomato as juveniles, but accepted less this host plant as adults and had a lower fecundity than did females reared on the cucumber maternal environment. We also found that temporal blocks affected mite dispersal and both female longevity and fecundity. Taken together, our results show that the host plant species can affect critical parameters of population dynamics, and most importantly that maternal and environmental

  4. Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Marinosci, Cassandra; Magalhães, Sara; Macke, Emilie; Navajas, Maria; Carbonell, David; Devaux, Céline; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Studying antagonistic coevolution between host plants and herbivores is particularly relevant for polyphagous species that can experience a great diversity of host plants with a large range of defenses. Here, we performed experimental evolution with the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae to detect how mites can exploit host plants. We thus compared on a same host the performance of replicated populations from an ancestral one reared for hundreds of generations on cucumber plants that were shifted to either tomato or cucumber plants. We controlled for maternal effects by rearing females from all replicated populations on either tomato or cucumber leaves, crossing this factor with the host plant in a factorial design. About 24 generations after the host shift and for all individual mites, we measured the following fitness components on tomato leaf fragments: survival at all stages, acceptance of the host plant by juvenile and adult mites, longevity, and female fecundity. The host plant on which mite populations had evolved did not affect the performance of the mites, but only affected their sex ratio. Females that lived on tomato plants for circa 24 generations produced a higher proportion of daughters than did females that lived on cucumber plants. In contrast, maternal effects influenced juvenile survival, acceptance of the host plant by adult mites and female fecundity. Independently of the host plant species on which their population had evolved, females reared on the tomato maternal environment produced offspring that survived better on tomato as juveniles, but accepted less this host plant as adults and had a lower fecundity than did females reared on the cucumber maternal environment. We also found that temporal blocks affected mite dispersal and both female longevity and fecundity. Taken together, our results show that the host plant species can affect critical parameters of population dynamics, and most importantly that maternal and environmental

  5. Acariform mites (Acariformes) - permanent symbionts of Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia, Muridae) in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bochkov, Andre V.; Abramov, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of parasitic acariform mites (Acariformes) are described from the Delacour’s marmoset rat Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae) in Vietnam: Afrolistrophorus (Afrolistrophorus) hapalomys sp. n. (Listrophoridae) and Radfordia (Radfordia) mirabilis sp. n. (Myobiidae). Based on morphological evidences, we show that species of both mite genera associated with Hapalomys Blyth do not demonstrate clear phylogenetic links with respective congeners from rodents of the closest genus Chiropodomys Peters (Rodentia: Muridae). PMID:25561857

  6. Gene Pyramiding of Peptidase Inhibitors Enhances Plant Resistance to the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Inés; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed. PMID:22900081

  7. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  8. Immune response to flour and dust mites in a United Kingdom bakery.

    PubMed Central

    Tee, R D; Gordon, D J; Gordon, S; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Taylor, A J

    1992-01-01

    In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent of both groups were atopic (had a positive skin prick response greater than negative controls to D pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur by 2 mm or more) and 33% had an immediate skin prick test response to at least one of four storage mites (L destructor, G domesticus, T putrescentiae, A Siro). A higher percentage of the salt packing workers than the bakery workers had a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (greater than or equal to 0.35 PRU) to D pteronyssinus and to the four storage mites. Logistic regression analysis identified atopy as the most significant variable for a positive skin test and RAST response to storage mites in both groups of workers. RAST inhibition was used to analyse extracted area and personal air samples. Analysis of static area samples for aeroallergen showed immunological identity with flour but L destructor was found in only one of seven exposed filters. The concentration of airborne flour was related to exposure rank of perceived dustiness and gravimetric measurement of total dust. Nineteen out of 32 filters from workers in jobs with higher dust exposure (rank >/=6) had a level of > 10 microgram/m(3) flour whereas this concentrations was exceeded in only one of 23 filters from workers in low dust exposure (< rank 6). It is concluded that storage mites are not of special significance in allergic responses in bakery workers. The development of immunological (and airway) responsiveness to inhaled flour dust is increased in those exposed to higher concentrations of airborne allergen, which appears to be predominantly flour and not storage mites. PMID:1515350

  9. Acaricide-impaired functional predation response of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Lima, D B; Melo, J W S; Gondim, M G C; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, J E M; Pallini, A

    2015-07-01

    Acaricides may interfere with a myriad of interactions among arthropods, particularly predator-prey interactions. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), provide an opportunity to explore such interference because the former is a key coconut pest species that requires both predation and acaricide application for its management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the acaricides abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the functional response of N. baraki to A. guerreronis densities. The following prey densities were tested: 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 preys. The type of functional response and prey handling time (Th) were not altered by the acaricides. However, the attack rate (a') was modified by abamectin and fenpyroximate, and the consumption peak was reduced by abamectin. All of the acaricides allowed for the maintenance of the predator in the field, but exposure to abamectin and fenpyroximate compromised prey consumption. PMID:25847106

  10. Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites. PMID:20003349

  11. PCR Testing of a Ventilated Caging System to Detect Murine Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  12. Crossreacting IgG antibodies against fox mite antigens in human scabies.

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Wagemann, B; Hermes, B; Henz, B M; Heile, C; Schein, E

    2005-01-01

    Scabies continues to be an important parasitic disease of mammals. There remain, however, major gaps in the understanding of the human host immune response, and a simple diagnostic test is lacking. In contrast to human mites, red fox mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpis) can be collected easily and have been used, due to crossreactivity, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies in dogs and pigs. We wanted to investigate the possibility that crossreactivity might also exist for the human mite, and determined titers against fox mite antigens by ELISA in 41 patients with scabies. Specific IgG was significantly higher in patients with scabies than in healthy controls (P=0.01). The sensitivity was, however, only 48%, although it increased slightly during treatment (P=0.86). A positive correlation was also noted between disease duration and severity of infestation (r=0.5), with specific IgG titers increasing in parallel with severity of symptoms (P=0.01). Patients with symptomatic scabies for more than 4 weeks had furthermore significantly higher IgG titers than patients with a shorter duration of disease (P=0.007). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate IgG antibodies in human scabies that crossreact with fox mite antigens, thus encouraging the search for improved ELISAs with more specific mite antigens to produce a more sensitive detection system for scabies in humans. PMID:15650895

  13. DIVERSITY OF FEATHER MITES (ACARI: ASTIGMATA) ON DARWIN’S FINCHES

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Scott M.; Le Bohec, Céline; Koop, Jennifer A. H.; Proctor, Heather C.; Clayton, Dale H.

    2014-01-01

    Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin’s finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53–55%), followed by Trouessartia (40–45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26–33%), Xolalgoides (21–27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0–6%), and Dermoglyphus (2–4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass. PMID:23691947

  14. Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of dangerous and harmless predators.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators. PMID:27067101

  15. Macrodinychus mites as parasitoids of invasive ants: an overlooked parasitic association.

    PubMed

    Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Klompen, Hans; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Mites are frequent ant symbionts, yet the exact nature of their interactions with their hosts is poorly known. Generally, myrmecophilous mites show adaptations for dispersal through phoresis, but species that lack such an adaptation may have evolved unusual specialized relationships with their hosts. The immature stages of Macrodinychus multispinosus develop as ectoparasitoids of pupae of the invasive ant Paratrechina longicornis. Feeding stages show regressed locomotor appendages. These mites complete their development on a single host, sucking all of its body content and therefore killing it. Locally high proportions of parasitized host pupae suggest that M. multispinosus could serve as a biological control agent. This is the ninth species of Macrodinychus reported as ant parasite, and the third known as parasitoid of invasive ants, confirming a unique habit in the evolution of mite feeding strategies and suggesting that the entire genus might be parasitic on ants. Several mites' characteristics, such as their protective morphology, possible viviparity, lack of a specialized stage for phoretic dispersal, and low host specificity, combined with both the general low aggressiveness of invasive P. longicornis towards other ants and its possible susceptibility to generalist ectoparasites would account for the host shift in native macrodinychid mites. PMID:27444515

  16. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  17. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  18. DNA barcoding and minibarcoding as a powerful tool for feather mite studies.

    PubMed

    Doña, Jorge; Diaz-Real, Javier; Mironov, Sergey; Bazaga, Pilar; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) are among the most abundant and commonly occurring bird ectosymbionts. Basic questions on the ecology and evolution of feather mites remain unanswered because feather mite species identification is often only possible for adult males, and it is laborious even for specialized taxonomists, thus precluding large-scale identifications. Here, we tested DNA barcoding as a useful molecular tool to identify feather mites from passerine birds. Three hundred and sixty-one specimens of 72 species of feather mites from 68 species of European passerine birds from Russia and Spain were barcoded. The accuracy of barcoding and minibarcoding was tested. Moreover, threshold choice (a controversial issue in barcoding studies) was also explored in a new way, by calculating through simulations the effect of sampling effort (in species number and species composition) on threshold calculations. We found one 200-bp minibarcode region that showed the same accuracy as the full-length barcode (602 bp) and was surrounded by conserved regions potentially useful for group-specific degenerate primers. Species identification accuracy was perfect (100%) but decreased when singletons or species of the Proctophyllodes pinnatus group were included. In fact, barcoding confirmed previous taxonomic issues within the P. pinnatus group. Following an integrative taxonomy approach, we compared our barcode study with previous taxonomic knowledge on feather mites, discovering three new putative cryptic species and validating three previous morphologically different (but still undescribed) new species. PMID:25655349

  19. Role of supplemental foods and habitat structural complexity in persistence and coexistence of generalist predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Loeb, Gregory M.; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits can influence the interactions between herbivore arthropods and their natural enemies. In these interactions generalist predators are often present, preying on herbivores and also on other arthropods in the same trophic guild. Variation in the strength of intraguild predation (IGP) may be related to habitat structural complexity and to additional resources outside the narrow predator-prey relationship. In this paper we study the food web interactions on grape, which involves two generalist predatory mites. We evaluated the effects of grape powdery mildew (GPM) as supplemental food, and habitat structural complexity provided by domatia. The inoculation of GPM resulted in higher predatory mite densities and reduced the negative impact of unfavorable leaf structure for one species. Access to domatia was the main factor in promoting population abundance and persistence of predatory mites. Access to domatia and GPM availability favored the coexistence of predatory mites at a low density of the intraguild prey. Our findings suggest that structural and nutritional diversity/complexity promote predatory mite abundance and can help to maintain the beneficial mites - plants association. The effect of these factors on coexistence between predators is influenced by the supplemental food quality and relative differences in body size of interacting species. PMID:26450810

  20. Oribatid mite communities along an elevational gradient in Sairme gorge (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Mumladze, Levan; Murvanidze, Maka; Maraun, Mark; Salakaia, Meri

    2015-05-01

    Many aboveground animals and plant communities have been studied along elevational gradients whereas studies on soil animals are scarce. Here, we studied oribatid mite community distribution along an elevational gradient from 600 to 2200 m in forest ecosystems of the Western Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Georgia. Overall, 86 oribatid mite species were found at the study sites. Oribatid mite densities were generally low (~9800 ind./m(2)), and 74% of all species reproduced sexually indicating that resource conditions at the study sites are generally poor. Oribatids mainly comprised Brachypylina (76%), Mixonomata (13%), Desmonomata (6%) and Enarthronota (5%). Oribatid mite community structure changed along the elevational gradient and the changes correlated with temperature, pH, litter thickness and density of the herb layer. The dominance of sexually reproducing taxa and low overall abundance indicate that the studied elevational gradient is characterized by poor resource conditions for soil microarthropods. Oribatid mite species richness and density declined with elevation suggesting that decreasing temperature in concert with resource limitation is a main driver of oribatid mite communities whereas stochastic factors (such as mid-domain effects) are of minor importance. PMID:25761919