Science.gov

Sample records for mitigation assessment results

  1. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  2. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, H.W.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Wright, T.

    1990-12-01

    During the reporting period, June, 1 1989, through May 30, 1990, radon detectors were sent to all Department of the Navy installations that contained housing areas, childcare centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. This action was part of the screening phase of the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. Because of detector losses, a few facilities will require rescreening. The length of time the detectors are exposed in the buildings is dependent on the time or year they were placed and the time when the doors and windows are normally closed. A 3-month exposure time is sufficient for facilities that placed detectors in building when they would be closed. Otherwise detectors will be exposed for about 1 year. To date, about 9,000 detectors (out of a total of 27,100 detectors sent to the field) have been returned for a determination of exposure levels. About 2,000 detectors have been analyzed and the information sent to the Navel Facilities Engineering Command Headquarters for forwarding to the installations. Except for the additional installations requiring rescreening, the screening effort results should be available this calendar year. The rescreening results should be available by mid-1991. Assessment will start this calendar year based on the results from screening. Initial emphasis will be on housing, child-care centers, schools, and hospitals. 6 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  4. Aquarius Radiometer RFI Detection, Mitigation, and Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher; Chen, David; Le Vine, David; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite was launched on 10 June 2011 into a sun-synchronous polar orbit and the Aquarius microwave radiometers [1] became operational on 25 August 2011. Since that time, it has been measuring brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz with vertical, horizontal and 3rd Stokes polarizations . Beginning well before the launch, there has been the concern that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) could have an appreciable presence. This concern was initiated by, among other things, its prevalence in both early [2] and more recent [3,4] aircraft field experiments using 1.4 GHz radiometers, as well as by the strong RFI environment encountered during the recent ESA SMOS mission, also at 1.4 GHz [5]. As a result, a number of methods for RFI detection and mitigation have been developed and tested. One in particular, "glitch detection" and "pulse blanking" mitigation has been adapted for use by Aquarius [6, 7]. The early on-orbit performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is presented here, together with an assessment of the global RFI environment at 1.4 GHz which can be derived from the Aquarius results.

  5. An Assessment Framework for Making Compensatory Mitigation Determinations in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient gathering and use of assessment information will improve the ecological effectiveness of compensatory mitigation. It also will make for more efficient regulatory decision-making. Recognizing these facts, the California Water Board worked in collaboration with the USEPA...

  6. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Andrew Waugh, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation restrictions

  7. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  8. The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Krey, Volker; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Jiang, Kejun; Kainuma, M.; Kriegler, Elmar; Luderer, Gunnar; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, Asia accounted for 60% of global population, 39% of Gross World Product, 44% of global energy consumption and nearly half of the world’s energy system CO2 emissions. Thus, Asia is an important region to consider in any discussion of climate change or climate change mitigation. This paper explores the role of Asia in mitigating climate change, by comparing the results of 23 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. We focus our analysis on seven key areas: base year data, future energy use and emissions absent climate policy, the effect of urban and rural development on future energy use and emissions, the role of technology in emissions mitigation, regional emissions mitigation, and national climate policies

  9. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  10. The economics of mitigation and remediation measures - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Vörsmann, Peter; Gelhaus, Johannes; Moeckel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Kebschull, Christopher; Metz, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    Today there exists a high spatial density of orbital debris objects at about 800 km altitude. The control of the debris population in this region is important for the long-term evolution of the debris environment. The future debris population is investigated by simulations using the software tool LUCA (Long-Term Orbit Utilization Collision Analysis). It is likely that in the future there will occur more catastrophic collisions. Debris objects generated during such events may again trigger further catastrophic collisions. Current simulations have revealed that the number of debris objects will increase in the future. In a long-term perspective, catastrophic collisions may become the dominating mechanism in generating orbital debris. In this study it is investigated, when the situation will become unstable. To prevent this instability it is necessary to implement mitigation and maybe even remediation measures. It is investigated how these measures affect the future debris environment. It is simulated if the growth of the number of debris objects can be interrupted and how much this may cost. Different mitigation scenarios are considered. Furthermore also one remediation measure, the active removal of high-risk objects, is simulated. Cost drivers for the different measures are identified. It is investigated how selected measures are associated with costs. The goal is to find out which economic benefits may result from mitigation or remediation. First results of a cost benefit analyses are presented.

  11. Assessing Compliance with United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no exceptions or special considerations for CubeSats in the United States Government (USG) Orbital Debris (OD) Mitigation Guidelines. For all objects launched into space the 2010 United States Space Policy requires that any failure to comply with the USG OD Mitigation Guidelines requires approval by the head of the launching agency. In addition it requires that the US Secretary of State be notified of any non-compliance. For these reasons it is important that missions consider these policies during their design phase. This paper will discuss methods to assess compliance with USG OD mitigation guidelines as they apply to CubeSat missions using tools such as the NASA Debris Assessment Software (DAS).

  12. Assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This was an invited 45 minute oral presentation concerning assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from feedlots. The audience at the summit (about 60 people) included university professors, environmental regulators, and producers. The presentation included a brief review of environm...

  13. Long-term assessment of residential radon-mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, I.A.; Clarkin, M.E. ); Rizzuto, J.E. ); Brennan, T. ); Osborne, M. )

    1988-01-01

    In New York State a survey in 1982-83 discovered fourteen houses with moderately high natural radon levels, and in early 1984 low-cost radon mitigation systems were installed in these houses. The radon reduction techniques included sealing cracks, sealing and sub-slab depressurization, isolating and venting unpaved crawl-spaces, and installing heat-recovery ventilators. These mitigation systems represent some of the earliest systems installed in the United States using low-cost common residential construction materials and methods. In this report, the authors discuss how they returned to these installations, inspected the longevity of the various components of the systems and assessed their long-term effectiveness.

  14. Strategic Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the Canadian Agricultural Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Bram F.; Christmas, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodological framework for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) application. The overall objective is to demonstrate SEA as a systematic and structured policy, plan, and program (PPP) decision support tool. In order to accomplish this objective, a stakeholder-based SEA application to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy options in Canadian agriculture is presented. Using a mail-out impact assessment exercise, agricultural producers and nonproducers from across the Canadian prairie region were asked to evaluate five competing GHG mitigation options against 13 valued environmental components (VECs). Data were analyzed using multi-criteria and exploratory analytical techniques. The results suggest considerable variation in perceived impacts and GHG mitigation policy preferences, suggesting that a blanket policy approach to GHG mitigation will create gainers and losers based on soil type and associate cropping and on-farm management practices. It is possible to identify a series of regional greenhouse gas mitigation programs that are robust, socially meaningful, and operationally relevant to both agricultural producers and policy decision makers. The assessment demonstrates the ability of SEA to address, in an operational sense, environmental problems that are characterized by conflicting interests and competing objectives and alternatives. A structured and systematic SEA methodology provides the necessary decision support framework for the consideration of impacts, and allows for PPPs to be assessed based on a much broader set of properties, objectives, criteria, and constraints whereas maintaining rigor and accountability in the assessment process.

  15. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-02-08

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values.

  16. 76 FR 23613 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Hazard Mitigation Safe Room Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Hazard Mitigation Safe Room Construction AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) may provide funding...

  17. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to initiate constructive dialogue and information-sharing among regulators, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, health care organizations, health......

  18. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  19. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  20. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  1. Global change and the coastline: assessment and mitigation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopley, David

    Only a small proportion of funding for global change research programs has been directed at planning for sea level rise through mitigation projects. Although recent estimates of the rise by 2050 (25-50 cm) are reduced compared to previous predictions and are now within the ranges achieved in the geological past, considerable changes will still take place in the coastal zone, especially when greater and more storm surge incidence and rainfall intensity factors are considered. Adjustments available include: no action; coastal defence based on present rates of sea level rise; retreat with planning and social engineering; protection; and abatement of global change processes. Actual decisions for specific reactions will vary according to risk and impact assessment. Production of Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVI) using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is advocated at several scales for the identification of regional response planning strategies.

  2. Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Robert E.; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    To limit mean global warming to 2 °C, a goal supported by more than 100 countries, it will likely be necessary to reduce emissions not only of greenhouse gases but also of air pollutants with high radiative forcing (RF), particularly black carbon (BC). Although several recent research papers have attempted to quantify the effects of BC on climate, not all these analyses have incorporated all the mechanisms that contribute to its RF (including the effects of BC on cloud albedo, cloud coverage, and snow and ice albedo, and the optical consequences of aerosol mixing) and have reported their results in different units and with different ranges of uncertainty. Here we attempt to reconcile their results and present them in uniform units that include the same forcing factors. We use the best estimate of effective RF obtained from these results to analyze the benefits of mitigating BC emissions for achieving a specific equilibrium temperature target. For a 500 ppm CO2e (3.1 W m-2) effective RF target in 2100, which would offer about a 50% chance of limiting equilibrium warming to 2.5 °C above preindustrial temperatures, we estimate that failing to reduce carbonaceous aerosol emissions from contained combustion would require CO2 emission cuts about 8 years (range of 1–15 years) earlier than would be necessary with full mitigation of these emissions. PMID:20566891

  3. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    PubMed

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. PMID:26189184

  4. Debris flow hazards mitigation--Mechanics, prediction, and assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment held in Chengdu, China, September 10-13, 2007. The papers cover a wide range of topics on debris-flow science and engineering, including the factors triggering debris flows, geomorphic effects, mechanics of debris flows (e.g., rheology, fluvial mechanisms, erosion and deposition processes), numerical modeling, various debris-flow experiments, landslide-induced debris flows, assessment of debris-flow hazards and risk, field observations and measurements, monitoring and alert systems, structural and non-structural countermeasures against debris-flow hazards and case studies. The papers reflect the latest devel-opments and advances in debris-flow research. Several studies discuss the development and appli-cation of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies in debris-flow hazard/risk assessment. Timely topics presented in a few papers also include the development of new or innovative techniques for debris-flow monitoring and alert systems, especially an infra-sound acoustic sensor for detecting debris flows. Many case studies illustrate a wide variety of debris-flow hazards and related phenomena as well as their hazardous effects on human activities and settlements.

  5. Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2013-07-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake ( M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

  6. 33 CFR 401.202 - Statute providing for assessment, mitigation or remission of civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Statute providing for assessment, mitigation or remission of civil penalties. 401.202 Section 401.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Assessment, Mitigation or Remission...

  7. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  8. Northeast Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-08-01

    Development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin has had far-reaching effects on many species of wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the Federal portion of this system, as allocated to the purpose of power production. BPA needs to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat in the Snake River Subbasin.

  9. Assessment and mitigation of DNA loss utilizing centrifugal filtration devices.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ashley E; Foran, David R

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing DNA recovery during its isolation can be vital in forensic casework, particularly when DNA yields are expected to be low, such as from touch samples. Many forensic laboratories utilize centrifugal filtration devices to purify and concentrate the DNA; however, DNA loss has been reported when using them. In this study, all centrifugal filtration devices tested caused substantial DNA loss, affecting low molecular weight DNA (PCR product) somewhat more than high molecular weight DNA. Strategies for mitigating DNA loss were then examined, including pre-treatment with glucose, glycogen, silicone (RainX(®)), bovine serum albumin, yeast RNA, or high molecular weight DNA. The length of pre-treatment and UV irradiation of pre-treatment reagents were also investigated. Pre-treatments with glucose and glycogen resulted in little or no improvement in DNA recovery, and most or all DNA was lost after silicone pre-treatment. Devices pre-treated with BSA produced irregular and uninterpretable quantitative PCR amplification curves for the DNA and internal PCR control. On the other hand, nucleic acid pre-treatments greatly improved recovery of all DNAs. Pre-treatment time and its UV irradiation did not influence DNA recovery. Overall, the results show that centrifugal filtration devices trap DNA, yet their proper pre-treatment can circumvent that loss, which is critical in the case of low copy forensic DNA samples. PMID:25173492

  10. Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, mitigation and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. AA is produced as by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (>120 °C). This review includes the investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine. For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation in vulnerable foods since AA is considered a health risk at the concentrations found in foods. PMID:23939985

  11. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  12. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Krupnick, Alan J; Morgenstern, Richard D; Thurston, George D

    2008-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. Methods We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1) changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2) avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3) economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. Results We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis). While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Conclusion Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits. PMID:18671873

  13. Meteorological Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation in Rwanda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nduwayezu, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Bugnon, Pierre-Charles; Nsengiyumva, Jean-Baptiste; Horton, Pascal; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2015-04-01

    Between 10 and 13 April 2012, heavy rains hit sectors adjacent to the Vulcanoes National Park (Musanze District in the Northern Province and Nyabihu and Rubavu Districts in the Western Province of RWANDA), causing floods that affected about 11,000 persons. Flooding caused deaths and injuries among the affected population, and extensive damage to houses and properties. 348 houses were destroyed and 446 were partially damaged or have been underwater for several days. Families were forced to leave their flooded homes and seek temporal accommodation with their neighbors, often in overcrowded places. Along the West-northern border of RWANDA, Virunga mountain range consists of 6 major volcanoes. Mount Karisimbi is the highest volcano at 4507m. The oldest mountain is mount Sabyinyo which rises 3634m. The hydraulic network in Musanze District is formed by temporary torrents and permanent watercourses. Torrents surge during strong storms, and are provoked by water coming downhill from the volcanoes, some 20 km away. This area is periodically affected by flooding and landslides because of heavy rain (Rwanda has 2 rainy seasons from February to April and from September to November each year in general and 2 dry seasons) striking the Volcano National Park. Rain water creates big water channels (in already known torrents or new ones) that impact communities, agricultural soils and crop yields. This project aims at identifying hazardous and risky areas by producing susceptibility maps for floods, debris flow and landslides over this sector. Susceptibility maps are being drawn using field observations, during and after the 2012 events, and an empirical model of propagation for regional susceptibility assessments of debris flows (Flow-R). Input data are 10m and 30m resolution DEMs, satellite images, hydrographic network, and some information on geological substratum and soil occupation. Combining susceptibility maps with infrastructures, houses and population density maps will be

  14. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  15. Improved representation of investment decisions in assessments of CO2 mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Flannery, Brian P.; Hultman, Nathan E.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Victor, David G.

    2015-05-01

    Assessments of emissions mitigation patterns have largely ignored the huge variation in real-world factors--in particular, institutions--that affect where, how and at what costs firms deploy capital. We investigate one such factor--how national institutions affect investment risks and thus the cost of financing. We use an integrated assessment model (IAM; ref. ) to represent the variation in investment risks across technologies and regions in the electricity generation sector--a pivotally important sector in most assessments of climate change mitigation--and compute the impact on the magnitude and distribution of mitigation costs. This modified representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, achieving an emissions mitigation goal is more expensive than it would be in a world with uniform investment risks. Second, industrialized countries mitigate more, and developing countries mitigate less. Here, we introduce a new front in the research on how real-world factors influence climate mitigation. We also suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment risks could be an important element of cost-effective climate mitigation strategies.

  16. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location.

  17. NPH Risk Assessment and Mitigation of a SRS Facility for the Safe Storage of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Griffin, M.J.; Bjorkman, G.S.

    1995-10-18

    Because of the reduction in the nation`s stockpile of weapon systems a large amount of tritium is being returned to the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Due to the increased quantity of tritium returning to SRS, the SRS Tritium Facility was tasked to determine the most cost effective means to safely store the tritium gas in a short period of time. This paper presents results of the risk assessment developed to evaluate the safe storage of tritium at SRS, and highlights the structural design of the HIVES used as the cost-effective short term NPH mitigation solution.

  18. Assessment of management to mitigate anthropogenic effects on large whales.

    PubMed

    Van der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy V N; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-02-01

    United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can provide

  19. Regional climate change mitigation with crops: context and assessment.

    PubMed

    Singarayer, J S; Davies-Barnard, T

    2012-09-13

    The intention of this review is to place crop albedo biogeoengineering in the wider picture of climate manipulation. Crop biogeoengineering is considered within the context of the long-term modification of the land surface for agriculture over several thousand years. Biogeoengineering is also critiqued in relation to other geoengineering schemes in terms of mitigation power and adherence to social principles for geoengineering. Although its impact is small and regional, crop biogeoengineering could be a useful and inexpensive component of an ensemble of geoengineering schemes to provide temperature mitigation. The method should not detrimentally affect food security and there may even be positive impacts on crop productivity, although more laboratory and field research is required in this area to understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22869800

  20. Comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) - Description and instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy; Sathaye, Jayant

    2001-11-09

    In order to prepare policies and plans to reduce GHG emissions, national policy-makers need information on the costs and benefits of different mitigation options in addition to their carbon implications. Policy-makers must weigh the costs, benefits, and impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation options, in the face of competition for limited resources. The policy goal for mitigation options in the land use sector is to identify which mix of options is likely to best achieve the desired forestry service and production objectives at the least cost, while attempting to maximize economic and social benefits, and minimize negative environmental and social impacts. Improved national-level cost estimates of response options in the land use sector can be generated by estimating the costs and benefits of different forest management practices appropriate for specific country conditions which can be undertaken within the constraint of land availability and its opportunity cost. These co st and land use estimates can be combined to develop cost curves, which would assist policy-makers in constructing policies and programs to implement forest responses.

  1. Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out

  2. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  3. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  4. Evaluation of impacts and mitigation assessments for the UMTRA Project: Gunnison and Durango pilot studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.J.

    1994-08-24

    This report evaluates the impacts assessment and proposed mitigations provided in environmental documents concerning the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The projected impacts and proposed mitigations identified in UMTRA Project environmental documents were evaluated for two UMTRA Project sites. These sites are Gunnison and Durango, which are representative of currently active and inactive UMTRA Project sites, respectively. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation was prepared for the remedial action at Durango and Gunnison as well as for the provision of an alternate water supply system at Gunnison. Additionally, environmental analysis was completed for mill site demolition Gunnison, and for a new road related to the Durango remedial action. The results in this report pertain only to the impact assessments prepared by the Regulatory Compliance staff as a part of the NEPA compliance requirements. Similarly, the mitigative measures documented are those that were identified during the NEPA process.

  5. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  6. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Using a Systems Analysis Approach to Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Eguchi, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The earthquake hazard mitigation goal is to reduce losses due to severe natural events. The first step is to conduct a Seismic Risk Assessment consisting of 1) hazard estimation, 2) vulnerability analysis, 3) exposure compilation. Seismic hazards include ground deformation, shaking, and inundation. The hazard estimation may be probabilistic or deterministic. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is generally applied to site-specific Risk assessments, but may involve large areas as in a National Seismic Hazard Mapping program. Deterministic hazard assessments are needed for geographically distributed exposure such as lifelines (infrastructure), but may be important for large communities. Vulnerability evaluation includes quantification of fragility for construction or components including personnel. Exposure represents the existing or planned construction, facilities, infrastructure, and population in the affected area. Risk (expected loss) is the product of the quantified hazard, vulnerability (damage algorithm), and exposure which may be used to prepare emergency response plans, retrofit existing construction, or use community planning to avoid hazards. The risk estimate provides data needed to acquire earthquake insurance to assist with effective recovery following a severe event. Earthquake Scenarios used in Deterministic Risk Assessments provide detailed information on where hazards may be most severe, what system components are most susceptible to failure, and to evaluate the combined effects of a severe earthquake to the whole system or community. Casualties (injuries and death) have been the primary factor in defining building codes for seismic-resistant construction. Economic losses may be equally significant factors that can influence proactive hazard mitigation. Large urban earthquakes may produce catastrophic losses due to a cascading of effects often missed in PSHA. Economic collapse may ensue if damaged workplaces, disruption of utilities, and

  7. Aquarius RFI Detection and Mitigation Algorithm: Assessment and Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, P.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Chen, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer system designed to map sea surface salinity from space. This is a sensitive measurement, and protection from radio frequency interference (RFI) is important for success. An initial look at the performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is reported together with examples of the global distribution of RFI at the L-band. To protect against RFI, Aquarius employs rapid sampling (10 ms) and a "glitch" detection algorithm that looks for outliers among the samples. Samples identified as RFI are removed, and the remainder is averaged to produce an RFI-free signal for the salinity retrieval algorithm. The RFI detection algorithm appears to work well over the ocean with modest rates for false alarms (5%) and missed detection. The global distribution of RFI coincides well with population centers and is consistent with observations reported by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission.

  8. Assessment of Management to Mitigate Anthropogenic Effects on Large Whales

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy VN; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can

  9. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline underlying socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy while increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food, energy, and land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  10. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  11. Agrochemical spray drift; assessment and mitigation--a review.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Unsworth, John B; Linders, Jan B H J; Roberts, Graham; Rautman, Dirk; Harris, Caroline; Carazo, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    During application of agrochemicals spray droplets can drift beyond the intended target to non-target receptors, including water, plants and animals. Factors affecting this spray drift include mode of application, droplet size, which can be modified by the nozzle types, formulation adjuvants, wind direction, wind speed, air stability, relative humidity, temperature and height of released spray relative to the crop canopy. The rate of fall of spray droplets depends upon the size of the droplets but is modified by entrainment in a mobile air mass and is also influenced by the rate of evaporation of the liquid constituting the aerosol. The longer the aerosol remains in the air before falling to the ground (or alternatively striking an object above ground) the greater the opportunity for it to be carried away from its intended target. In general, all size classes of droplets are capable of movement off target, but the smallest are likely to move the farthest before depositing on the ground or a non-target receptor. It is not possible to avoid spray drift completely but it can be minimized by using best-management practices. These include using appropriate nozzle types, shields, spray pressure, volumes per area sprayed, tractor speed and only spraying when climatic conditions are suitable. Field layout can also influence spray drift, whilst crop-free and spray-free buffer zones and windbreak crops can also have a mitigating effect. Various models are available to estimate the environmental exposure from spray drift at the time of application. PMID:20981606

  12. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    PubMed

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation. PMID:26306792

  13. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  14. Accuracy Assessment Study of UNB3m Neutral Atmosphere Model for Global Tropospheric Delay Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Ashraf

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric delay is the second major source of error after the ionospheric delay for satellite navigation systems. The transmitted signal could face a delay caused by the troposphere of over 2m at zenith and 20m at lower satellite elevation angles of 10 degrees and below. Positioning errors of 10m or greater can result from the inaccurate mitigation of the tropospheric delay. Many techniques are available for tropospheric delay mitigation consisting of surface meteorological models and global empirical models. Surface meteorological models need surface meteorological data to give high accuracy mitigation while the global empirical models need not. Several hybrid neutral atmosphere delay models have been developed by (University of New Brunswick, Canada) UNB researchers over the past decade or so. The most widely applicable current version is UNB3m, which uses the Saastamoinen zenith delays, Niell mapping functions, and a look-up table with annual mean and amplitude for temperature, pressure, and water vapour pressure varying with respect to latitude and height. This paper presents an assessment study of the behaviour of the UNB3m model compared with highly accurate IGS-tropospheric estimation for three different (latitude/height) IGS stations. The study was performed over four nonconsecutive weeks on different seasons over one year (October 2014 to July 2015). It can be concluded that using UNB3m model gives tropospheric delay correction accuracy of 0.050m in average for low latitude regions in all seasons. The model's accuracy is about 0.075m for medium latitude regions, while its highest accuracy is about 0.014m for high latitude regions.

  15. Temporal Wind Pairs for Space Launch Vehicle Capability Assessment and Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind assessments to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments make use of wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the winds over the time period between the assessment and launch introduces uncertainty in assessment of vehicle controllability and structural integrity that must be accounted for to ensure launch safety. Temporal wind pairs are used in engineering development of allowances to mitigate uncertainty. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (0.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the United States Air Force Eastern Range and Western Range, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Wallops Flight Facility are developed for use in upper-level wind assessments on vehicle performance. Historical databases are compiled from balloon-based and vertically pointing Doppler radar wind profiler systems. Various automated and manual quality control procedures are used to remove unacceptable profiles. Statistical analyses on the resultant wind pairs from each site are performed to determine if the observed extreme wind changes in the sample pairs are representative of extreme temporal wind change. Wind change samples in the Eastern Range and Western Range databases characterize extreme wind change. However, the small sample sizes in the Wallops Flight Facility databases yield low confidence that the sample population characterizes extreme wind change that could occur.

  16. Temporal Wind Pairs for Space Launch Vehicle Capability Assessment and Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind assessments to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments make use of wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the winds over the time period between the assessment and launch introduces uncertainty in assessment of vehicle controllability and structural integrity that must be accounted for to ensure launch safety. Temporal wind pairs are used in engineering development of allowances to mitigate uncertainty. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (0.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the United States Air Force Eastern Range and Western Range, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Wallops Flight Facility are developed for use in upper-level wind assessments on vehicle performance. Historical databases are compiled from balloon-based and vertically pointing Doppler radar wind profiler systems. Various automated and manual quality control procedures are used to remove unacceptable profiles. Statistical analyses on the resultant wind pairs from each site are performed to determine if the observed extreme wind changes in the sample pairs are representative of extreme temporal wind change. Wind change samples in the Eastern Range and Western Range databases characterize extreme wind change. However, the small sample sizes in the Wallops Flight Facility databases yield low confidence that the sample population characterizes extreme wind change that could occur.

  17. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  18. Tsunami prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    Risk and vulnerability assessment is an important component of an effective End-to-End Tsunami Early Warning System and therefore contributes significantly to disaster risk reduction. Risk assessment is a key strategy to implement and design adequate disaster prevention and mitigation measures. The knowledge about expected tsunami hazard impacts, exposed elements, their susceptibility, coping and adaptation mechanisms is a precondition for the development of people-centred warning structures, local specific response and recovery policy planning. The developed risk assessment and its components reflect the disaster management cycle (disaster time line) and cover the early warning as well as the emergency response phase. Consequently the components hazard assessment, exposure (e.g. how many people/ critical facilities are affected?), susceptibility (e.g. are the people able to receive a tsunami warning?), coping capacity (are the people able to evacuate in time?) and recovery (are the people able to restore their livelihoods?) are addressed and quantified. Thereby the risk assessment encompasses three steps: (i) identifying the nature, location, intensity and probability of potential tsunami threats (hazard assessment); (ii) determining the existence and degree of exposure and susceptibility to those threats; and (iii) identifying the coping capacities and resources available to address or manage these threats. The paper presents results of the research work, which is conducted in the framework of the GITEWS project and the Joint Indonesian-German Working Group on Risk Modelling and Vulnerability Assessment. The assessment methodology applied follows a people-centred approach to deliver relevant risk and vulnerability information for the purposes of early warning and disaster management. The analyses are considering the entire coastal areas of Sumatra, Java and Bali facing the Sunda trench. Selected results and products like risk maps, guidelines, decision support

  19. Dissemination of well water arsenic results to homeowners in Central Maine: influences on mitigation behavior and continued risks for exposure.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Johnston, Robert A; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Private wells in the United States are unregulated for drinking water standards and are the homeowner's responsibility to test and treat. Testing for water quality parameters such as arsenic (As) is a crucial first step for homeowners to take protective actions. This study seeks to identify key behavioral factors influencing homeowners' decisions to take action after receiving well As test results. A January 2013 survey of central Maine households (n=386, 73% response) who were notified 3-7 years earlier that their well water contained As above 10 μg/L found that 43% of households report installing As treatment systems. Another 30% report taking other mitigation actions such as drinking bottled water because of the As, but the remaining 27% of households did not act. Well water As level appears to be a motivation for mitigation: 31% of households with well water level between 10 and 50 μg/L did not act, compared to 11% of households with well water >50 μg/L. The belief that the untreated water is not safe to drink (risk) and that reducing drinking water As would increase home value (instrumental attitude) were identified as significant predictors of mitigating As. Mitigating As exposure is associated with less worry about the As level (affective attitude), possibly because those acting to reduce exposure feel less worried about As. Use of a treatment system specifically was significantly predicted by confidence that one can maintain a treatment system, even if there are additional costs (self-efficacy). An assessment of As treatment systems used by 68 of these households with well water As >10 μg/L followed up within August-November 2013 found that 15% of treatment units failed to produce water below As 10 μg/L, suggesting that there are continued risks for exposure even after the decision is made to treat. PMID:24726512

  20. Dissemination of well water arsenic results to homeowners in Central Maine: Influences on mitigation behavior and continued risks for exposure

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Sara V.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Johnston, Robert A.; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Private wells in the United States are unregulated for drinking water standards and are the homeowner’s responsibility to test and treat. Testing for water quality parameters such as arsenic (As) is a crucial first step for homeowners to take protective actions. This study seeks to identify key behavioral factors influencing homeowners’ decisions to take action after receiving well As test results. A January 2013 survey of central Maine households (n=386, 73% response) who were notified 3–7 years earlier that their well water contained As above 10 μg/L found that 43% of households report installing As treatment systems. Another 30% report taking other mitigation actions such as drinking bottled water because of the As, but the remaining 27% of households did not act. Well water As level appears to be a motivation for mitigation: 31% of households with well water level between 10 and 50 μg/L did not act, compared to 13% of households with well water > 50 μg/L. Belief that the untreated water is not safe to drink (risk) and that reducing drinking water As would increase home value (instrumental attitude) were identified as significant predictors of mitigating As. Mitigating As exposure is associated with less worry about the As level (affective attitude), possibly because those acting to reduce exposure feel less worried about As. Use of a treatment system specifically was significantly predicted by confidence that one can maintain a treatment system, even if there are additional costs (self-efficacy). An assessment of As treatment systems used by 68 of these households with well water As >10 μg/L followed up with in August-November 2013 found that 15% of treatment units failed to produce water below As 10 μg/L, suggesting there are continued risks for exposure even after the decision is made to treat. PMID:24726512

  1. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  2. Geoethical issues in long-term assessment of geohazards and related mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-term assessment of large-impact and relatively (or very) infrequent geohazards like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions is nowadays a common practice for geoscientists and many groups have been and are involved in producing global and regional hazard maps in response of an increasing demand of the society. Though the societal needs are the basic motivations for such studies, often this aspect is not pondered enough and a lack of communication between geoscientists and the society might be a serious limit to the effective exploitation of the hazard assessment products and to the development of adequate mitigation policies. This paper is an analysis of the role of geoscientists in the process of the production of long-term assessments of dangerous natural phenomena (such as mapping of seismic, tsunami and volcanic hazards), with special emphasis given to the role of communicators and disseminators (with respect to the general public, to authorities, to restricted specialized audiences…), but also of providers of active support to the planners who should be given key elements for making decision. Geoethics imposes geoscientists to take clear and full responsibilities on the products resulting from their assessments, but also to be aware that these products are valuable insofar they are scientifically sound, known, understandable, and utilizable by a wide universe of users.

  3. Identifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Risk of Single-Point Inspections on the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.

    2004-01-01

    In the production of each Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), over 100,000 inspections are performed. ATK Thiokol Inc. reviewed these inspections to ensure a robust inspection system is maintained. The principal effort within this endeavor was the systematic identification and evaluation of inspections considered to be single-point. Single-point inspections are those accomplished on components, materials, and tooling by only one person, involving no other check. The purpose was to more accurately characterize risk and ultimately address and/or mitigate risk associated with single-point inspections. After the initial review of all inspections and identification/assessment of single-point inspections, review teams applied risk prioritization methodology similar to that used in a Process Failure Modes Effects Analysis to derive a Risk Prioritization Number for each single-point inspection. After the prioritization of risk, all single-point inspection points determined to have significant risk were provided either with risk-mitigating actions or rationale for acceptance. This effort gave confidence to the RSRM program that the correct inspections are being accomplished, that there is appropriate justification for those that remain as single-point inspections, and that risk mitigation was applied to further reduce risk of higher risk single-point inspections. This paper examines the process, results, and lessons learned in identifying, assessing, and mitigating risk associated with single-point inspections accomplished in the production of the Space Shuttle RSRM.

  4. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-02-04

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  5. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  6. The Definition, Assessment, and Mitigation of State Boredom within Educational Settings: A Comprehensive Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Fiorella, Logan; Carper, Teresa; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating the situational factors that give rise to state boredom is a consistent challenge facing educators. Despite the growing amount of literature devoted to the construct, the field has yet to arrive at a consensus regarding a clear theoretical or operational definition. Subsequently, inconsistencies exist in the assessment methodologies,…

  7. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  8. HySEA model verification for Tohoku 2011 Tsunami. Application for mitigation tsunami assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Jorge; González-Vida, José Manuel; García, Javier; Castro, Manuel; Ortega, Sergio; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    In many aspects Tohoku-Oki 2011 mega tsunami has changed our perception of tsunami risk. The tsunami-HySEA model is used to numerically simulate this event and observed data will we used to verify the model results. Three nested meshes of enhanced resolution (4 arc-min, 32 arc-sec and 2 arc-sec) will be used by the numerical model. The propagation mesh covers all Pacific Ocean with more of 7 million cells. An intermediate mesh with 5 millions cells contains the Japanese archipelago and, finally, two finer meshes, with nearly 8 and 6 millions cells, cover Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures at Tohoku region, the most devastated areas hit by the tsunami. The presentation will focus on the impact of the tsunami wave in these two areas and comparisons with observed data will be performed. DART buoys time series, inundation area and observed runup is used to assess model performance. The arrival time of the leading flooding wave at the vicinity of the Senday airport, as recorded by video cameras, is also used as verification data for the model. After this tsunami, control forests as well as breakwaters has been discussed as suitable mitigation infrastructures. As particular case, we will analyse the evolution of the tsunami in the area around the Sendai airport (Miyagi Prefecture) and its impact on the airport. A second simulation has been performed, assuming the existence of a coastal barrier protecting the area. The role of this barrier in modifying tsunami wave evolution and mitigating flooding effects on the airport area are discussed. The protection effect of the breakwaters near Kamaishi (Iwate Prefecture) is also assessed. The numerical model shows how these structures, although did not provide a full protection to tsunami waves, they helped to largely mitigate its effects in the area. Acknowledgements. This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069), the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012

  9. An Assessment of Molecular Dynamic Force Fields for Silica for Use in Simulating Laser Damage Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T F; Gilmer, G H; Matthews, M J; Stolken, J S; Feit, M D

    2010-10-21

    We compare force fields (FF's) that have been used in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of silica in order to assess their applicability for use in simulating IR-laser damage mitigation. Although pairwise FF?s obtained by fitting quantum mechanical calculations such as the BKS and CHIK potentials have been shown to reproduce many of the properties of silica including the stability of silica polymorphs and the densification of the liquid, we show that melting temperatures and fictive temperatures are much too high. Softer empirical force fields give liquid and glass properties at experimental temperatures but may not predict all properties important to laser mitigation experiments.

  10. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Calvin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community-integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model - namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) - is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5° × 0.5° resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  11. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  12. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  13. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  14. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  15. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients.

    PubMed

    Collins, Scott F; Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Wipfli, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited. PMID:25968140

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forest sector of Russia: National and project level assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.; Andrasko, K.A.

    1996-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options in the Russian forest sector include: afforestation and reforestation of unforested/degraded land area; enhanced forest productivity; incorporation of nondestructive methods of wood harvesting in the forest industry; establishment of land protective forest stands; increase in stand age of final harvest in the European part of Russia; increased fire control; increased disease and pest control; and preservation of old growth forests in the Russian Far-East, which are presently threatened. Considering the implementation of all of the options presented, the GHG mitigation potential within the forest and agroforestry sectors of Russia is approximately 0.6-0.7 Pg C/yr or one half of the industrial carbon emissions of the United States. The difference between the GHG mitigation potential and the actual level of GHGs mitigated in the Russian forest sector will depend to a great degree on external financing that may be available. One possibility for external financing is through joint implementation (JI). However, under the JI process, each project will be evaluated by considering a number of criteria including also the difference between the carbon emissions or sequestration for the baseline (or reference) and the project case, the permanence of the project, and leakage. Consequently, a project level assessment must appreciate the near-term constraints that will face practitioners who attempt to realize the GHG mitigation potential in the forest and agroforestry sectors of their countries. 25 refs.

  17. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  18. Faecal indicator pollution from a dairy farm in Ayrshire, Scotland: source apportionment, risk assessment and potential of mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Vinten, A J A; Sym, G; Avdic, K; Crawford, Colin; Duncan, A; Merrilees, D W

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to apportion sources of faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) loads from a dairy farm to a stream in the Irvine catchment; (ii) to assess efficacy of pollution mitigation measures installed on this farm; (iii) to assess frequency with which observed FC loads contribute to high risk of failure of coastal bathing water to meet microbial standards. FC and FS loads in a primary stream running through the farm were estimated at up to four stations (above the farm, above the steading, below the farm and below a pre-existing 0.6 ha area of open water/wetland), in summer 2004 and 2005. During this period, steading and field mitigation measures were being installed. We estimated that farm FC loads likely to cause bathing water failure were 8.9 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) ha(-1)d(-1) (guideline standards) and 1.7 x 10(10)cfu ha(-1)d(-1) (mandatory standards). In 2005, the guideline exceedance risk (42%) was associated about equally with field and steading sources, whereas the mandatory exceedance risk (11%) was mainly due to steading sources. The pond/wetland below the farm reduced these exceedance risks to 20% and <1%, respectively, but was a source of FS at high discharge. The exceedence curves below the farm were similar in 2004 and 2005, despite lower flows and installation of pollution mitigation measures. The results suggest that further mitigation efforts on this farm should be focused on improving management of the steading FC sources and that wetlands to receive steading runoff can be cost:effective mitigation tools for faecal indicator pollution. PMID:18001813

  19. Assessment of rainfall-runoff modelling for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, Hesbon; Han, Dawei; Woods, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management requires reliable methods for quantification of hydrological variables. This is a big challenge in developing countries, due to the problem of inadequate data as a result of sparse gauge networks. Successive occurrence of both abundance and shortage of water can arise in a catchment within the same year, with deficit situations becoming an increasingly occurring phenomenon in Kenya. This work compares the performance of two models in the Tana River catchment in Kenya, in generation of synthetic flow data. One of the models is the simpler USGS Thornthwaite monthly water balance model that uses a monthly time step and has three parameters. In order to explore alternative modelling schemes, the more complex Pitman model with 19 parameters was also applied in the catchment. It is uncertain whether the complex model (Pitman) will do better than the simple model, because a model with a large number of parameters may do well in the current system but poorly in future. To check this we have used old data (1970-1985) to calibrate the models and to validate with recent data (after 1985) to see which model is robust over time. This study is relevant and useful to water resources managers in scenario analysis for water resources management, planning and development in African countries with similar climates and catchment conditions.

  20. Poroelastic modeling to assess the effect of water injection for land subsidence mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of water injection to mitigate land subsidence was studied through numerical simulations based on the theory of poroelasticity. The Kujukuri Plain, Japan, was chosen as a study area. The effect of past injection was evaluated by comparing a model with injection and the one without injection. The calculated results suggested that the past injection played a significant role to reduce land subsidence. For achieving more effective mitigation practices in the future, we proposed to install injection wells in shallower formations. The effect of proposed injection method to mitigate land subsidence from 2014 to 2030 was also investigated. The calculated results show that the proposed method can work similarly by lesser water injection than the past method. The results also indicate that the upper limit of injection rate should be carefully determined to control the pore pressure build-up in the formation to be small enough to avoid formation failure.

  1. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

  2. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  3. Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. Charles; Parsons, Brian; Acker, Thomas; Milligan, Michael; Zavidil, Robert; Schuerger, Matthew; DeMeo, Edgar

    2010-01-22

    This paper will summarize results from a number of utility wind integration case studies conducted recently in the US, and outline a number of mitigation measures based on insights from those studies.

  4. Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, Alison Marie; Francfort, James Edward

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

  5. Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A M; Francfort, J E

    1999-07-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

  6. Assessing Risk and Driving Risk Mitigation for First-of-a-Kind Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Collins

    2011-09-01

    Planning and decision making amidst programmatic and technological risks represent significant challenges for projects. This presentation addresses the four step risk-assessment process needed to determine clear path forward to mature needed technology and design, license, and construct advanced nuclear power plants, which have never been built before, including Small Modular Reactors. This four step process has been carefully applied to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. STEP 1 - Risk Identification Risks are identified, collected, and categorized as technical risks, programmatic risks, and project risks, each of which result in cost and schedule impacts if realized. These include risks arising from the use of technologies not previously demonstrated in a relevant application. These risks include normal and accident scenarios which the SMR could experience including events that cause the disablement of engineered safety features (typically documented in Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) as produced with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and design needs which must be addressed to further detail the design. Product - Project Risk Register contained in a database with sorting, presentation, rollup, risk work off functionality similar to the NGNP Risk Management System . STEP 2 - Risk Quantification The risks contained in the risk register are then scored for probability of occurrence and severity of consequence, if realized. Here the scoring methodology is established and the basis for the scoring is well documented. Product - Quantified project risk register with documented basis for scoring. STEP 3 - Risk Handling Strategy Risks are mitigated by applying a systematic approach to maturing the technology through Research and Development, modeling, test, and design. A Technology Readiness Assessment is performed to determine baseline Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). Tasks needed to mature the technology are developed and documented in a roadmap

  7. [Assessment of bariatric surgery results].

    PubMed

    Barros, Lívia Moreira; Frota, Natasha Marques; Moreira, Rosa Aparecida Nogueira; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Caetano, Joselany Áfio

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the results of bariatric surgery in patients in the late postoperative period using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS). This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2012 at a hospital in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Data were collected from 92 patients using the BAROS protocol, which analyzes weight loss, improved comorbidities, complications, reoperations and Quality of Life (QoL). Data were analysed using the chi-squared test, Fischer's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. There was a reduction in the Body Mass Index (47.2±6.8 kg/m2 in the pre-operatory and 31.3±5.0 kg/m2 after surgery, p<0.001). The comorbidity with the highest resolution was arterial hypertension (p<0.001), and QV improved in 94.6% of patients. The main complications were hair loss, incisional hernia and cholelithiasis. The surgery provided satisfactory weight loss and improvements in the comorbidities associated to a better QL. Use of the BAROS protocol allows nurses to plan interventions and maintain the good results. PMID:26098798

  8. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project : Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, A; Williams, I D; Pant, D C; Kishore, V V N

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages - first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated - mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH3, CH4 and N2O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. PMID:25690986

  10. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: An Interagency Risk Assessment-Risk Mitigations.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hoelzer, Karin; Tang, Jia; Dennis, Sherri B; Kause, Janell R

    2016-07-01

    Cross-contamination, improper holding temperatures, and insufficient sanitary practices are known retail practices that may lead to product contamination and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. However, the relative importance of control options to mitigate the risk of invasive listeriosis from ready-to-eat (RTE) products sliced or prepared at retail is not well understood. This study illustrates the utility of a quantitative risk assessment model described in a first article of this series (Pouillot, R., D. Gallagher, J. Tang, K. Hoelzer, J. Kause, and S. B. Dennis, J. Food Prot. 78:134-145, 2015) to evaluate the public health impact associated with changes in retail deli practices and interventions. Twenty-two mitigation scenarios were modeled and evaluated under six different baseline conditions. These scenarios were related to sanitation, worker behavior, use of growth inhibitors, cross-contamination, storage temperature control, and reduction of the level of L. monocytogenes on incoming RTE food products. The mean risk per serving of RTE products obtained under these scenarios was then compared with the risk estimated in the baseline condition. Some risk mitigations had a consistent impact on the predicted listeriosis risk in all baseline conditions (e.g. presence or absence of growth inhibitor), whereas others were greatly dependent on the initial baseline conditions or practices in the deli (e.g. preslicing of products). Overall, the control of the bacterial growth and the control of contamination at its source were major factors of listeriosis risk in these settings. Although control of cross-contamination and continued sanitation were also important, the decrease in the predicted risk was not amenable to a simple solution. Findings from these predictive scenario analyses are intended to encourage improvements to retail food safety practices and mitigation strategies to control L. monocytogenes in RTE foods more effectively and to demonstrate the utility of

  11. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  12. Using Remote Sensing Data and Research Results for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maury; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides information on the characteristics of the urban heat island, research designed to provide the data needed to develop effective urban heat island reduction strategies, and the development of local working groups to develop implementation plans. As background, an overview of research results on the urban heat island phenomenon and the resultant effect on energy usage and air quality will be explored. The use of more reflective roofing materials, paving materials, tree planting, and other initiatives will be explored as a basis for strategies to mitigate urban heat islands and improve the urban environment. Current efforts to use aircraft remote sensing data in Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City and our work with non-profit organizations designated to lead public education and strategic development efforts will be presented. Efforts to organize working groups comprised of key stakeholders, the process followed in communicating research results, and methodology for soliciting feedback and incorporating ideas into local plans, policies and decision-making will be discussed. Challenges in developing and transferring data products and research results to stakeholders will be presented. It is our ultimate goal that such efforts be integrated into plans and/or decision models that encourage sustainable development.

  13. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Valley, NW-Italy), for preventing and recovering measures; 3) geological and geomorphological controlling factors of seismicity, to provide microzonation maps and scenarios for co-seismic response of instable zones (Dronero, NW- Italian Alps); 4) earthquake effects on ground and infrastructures, in order to register early assessment for awareness situations and for compile damage inventories (Asti-Alessandria seismic events, 2000, 2001, 2003). The research results has been able to substantiate early warning models by structuring geodatabases on natural disasters, and to support humanitarian relief and disaster management activities by creating and testing SRG2, a mobile-GIS application for field-data collection on natural hazards and risks.

  14. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    1999-12-07

    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed.

  15. Results of applying a non-evaporative mitigation technique to laser-initiated surface damage on fused-silica

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Bolourchi, M; Bude, J D; Guss, G M; Matthews, M J; Nostrand, M C

    2010-10-26

    We present results from a study to determine an acceptable CO{sub 2} laser-based non-evaporative mitigation protocol for use on surface damage sites in fused-silica optics. A promising protocol is identified and evaluated on a set of surface damage sites created under ICF-type laser conditions. Mitigation protocol acceptability criteria for damage re-initiation and growth, downstream intensification, and residual stress are discussed. In previous work, we found that a power ramp at the end of the protocol effectively minimizes the residual stress (<25 MPa) left in the substrate. However, the biggest difficulty in determining an acceptable protocol was balancing between low re-initiation and problematic downstream intensification. Typical growing surface damage sites mitigated with a candidate CO{sub 2} laser-based mitigation protocol all survived 351 nm, 5 ns damage testing to fluences >12.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The downstream intensification arising from the mitigated sites is evaluated, and all but one of the sites has 100% passing downstream damage expectation values. We demonstrate, for the first time, a successful non-evaporative 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser mitigation protocol applicable to fused-silica optics used on fusion-class lasers like the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  16. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  17. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  18. How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkins, S. B.; Mindock, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP’s goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

  19. How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkins, Sarah; Mindock, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP's goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

  20. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K; McBain, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  1. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K.; McBain, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  2. Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.

    PubMed

    Remo, John L

    2004-05-01

    Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of

  3. First results on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yaowei; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Hak-Kun; Kim, Hong-Tack; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Son, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Eun-Nam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yoon, Si-Woo; Zhuang Huidong; Chen Zhongyong

    2012-12-15

    Massive gas injection (MGI) system was developed on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) in 2011 campaign for disruption studies. The MGI valve has a volume of 80 ml and maximum injection pressure of 50 bar, the diameter of valve orifice to vacuum vessel is 18.4 mm, the distance between MGI valve and plasma edge is {approx}3.4 m. The MGI power supply employs a large capacitor of 1 mF with the maximum voltage of 3 kV, the valve can be opened in less than 0.1 ms, and the amount of MGI can be controlled by the imposed voltage. During KSTAR 2011 campaign, MGI disruptions are carried out by triggering MGI during the flat top of circular and limiter discharges with plasma current 400 kA and magnetic field 2-3.5 T, deuterium injection pressure 39.7 bar, and imposed voltage 1.1-1.4 kV. The results show that MGI could mitigate the heat load and prevent runaway electrons with proper MGI amount, and MGI penetration is deeper under higher amount of MGI or lower magnetic field. However, plasma start-up is difficult after some of D{sub 2} MGI disruptions due to the high deuterium retention and consequently strong outgassing of deuterium in next shot, special effort should be made to get successful plasma start-up after deuterium MGI under the graphite first wall.

  4. Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission: science investigation of a binary system and mitigation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Cheng, A. F.; Küppers, M.

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to investigate a binary near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor. AIDA is a joint ESA-NASA cooperative project, which includes the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous spacecraft and the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to investigate the binary NEA (65803) Didymos, (ii) to test our ability to impact its moon by an hypervelocity projectile in 2022 and (iii) to measure and characterize the impact deflection both from space with AIM and from ground based observatories.

  5. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  6. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  7. A methodology for the sustainability assessment of arsenic mitigation technology for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Etmannski, T R; Darton, R C

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we show how the process analysis method (PAM) can be applied to assess the sustainability of options to mitigate arsenic in drinking water in rural India. Stakeholder perspectives, gathered from a fieldwork survey of 933 households in West Bengal in 2012 played a significant role in this assessment. This research found that the 'most important' issues as specified by the technology users are cost, trust, distance from their home to the clean water source (an indicator of convenience), and understanding the health effects of arsenic. We show that utilisation of a technology is related to levels of trust and confidence in a community, making use of a composite trust-confidence indicator. Measures to improve trust between community and organisers of mitigation projects, and to raise confidence in technology and also in fair costing, would help to promote successful deployment of appropriate technology. Attitudes to cost revealed in the surveys are related to the low value placed on arsenic-free water, as also found by other investigators, consistent with a lack of public awareness about the arsenic problem. It is suggested that increased awareness might change attitudes to arsenic-rich waste and its disposal protocols. This waste is often currently discarded in an uncontrolled manner in the local environment, giving rise to the possibility of point-source recontamination. PMID:24284264

  8. The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Wood, N.J.; Dinitz, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler (LUPM) integrates earth science and socioeconomic information to predict the economic impacts of loss-reduction strategies. However, the potential use of such systems in decision making may be limited when multiple but conflicting interpretations of the hazard are available. To explore this problem, we conduct a policy comparison using the LUPM to test the sensitivity of three available assessments of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility in a coastal California community. We find that the uncertainty regarding the interpretation of the science inputs can influence the development and implementation of natural hazard management policies. Copyright ?? 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  9. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Norm

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which

  10. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  11. Managing Space Radiation Risks on Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  12. Managing Space Radiation Risks On Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  13. Managing Space Radiation Risks on Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.; Ponomarev, A.; Ren, L.; Shavers, M. R.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  14. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  15. First experimental results of motion mitigation by continuous line scanning of protons.

    PubMed

    Schätti, A; Meer, D; Lomax, A J

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of organ motion in active, scanning proton therapy is a challenge. One of the easiest methods to implement is re-scanning, where a treatment plan is applied several times with accordingly smaller weights. As a consequence, motion effects are averaged out. For discrete spot scanning, a major drawback of this method is the treatment time, which increases linearly with the number of re-scans. Continuous line scanning, on the other hand, eliminates the dead time between the positioning of each beam, and in this work, continuous line scanning has been investigated experimentally from the point of view of dose, penumbral width and its effectiveness for re-scanning. As shown by measurements in a homogeneous phantom, dose distributions delivered by continuous line scanning were comparable with those of discrete spot scanning for both geometric and realistic targets, with only a modest degradation of lateral penumbra in the direction of scanning. In addition, delivered dose levels have also been found to agree well between discrete and line scanning. With continuous line scanning, however, more re-scans could be applied without the artefacts seen in discrete spot scanning, with motions of up to 1 cm peak-to-peak amplitude being mitigated by 10 re-scans. For larger motion, in the interest of reducing the volume of irradiated normal tissue re-scanning should be combined with other motion mitigation techniques such as gating or breath-hold. PMID:25197938

  16. First experimental results of motion mitigation by continuous line scanning of protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schätti, A.; Meer, D.; Lomax, A. J.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of organ motion in active, scanning proton therapy is a challenge. One of the easiest methods to implement is re-scanning, where a treatment plan is applied several times with accordingly smaller weights. As a consequence, motion effects are averaged out. For discrete spot scanning, a major drawback of this method is the treatment time, which increases linearly with the number of re-scans. Continuous line scanning, on the other hand, eliminates the dead time between the positioning of each beam, and in this work, continuous line scanning has been investigated experimentally from the point of view of dose, penumbral width and its effectiveness for re-scanning. As shown by measurements in a homogeneous phantom, dose distributions delivered by continuous line scanning were comparable with those of discrete spot scanning for both geometric and realistic targets, with only a modest degradation of lateral penumbra in the direction of scanning. In addition, delivered dose levels have also been found to agree well between discrete and line scanning. With continuous line scanning, however, more re-scans could be applied without the artefacts seen in discrete spot scanning, with motions of up to 1 cm peak-to-peak amplitude being mitigated by 10 re-scans. For larger motion, in the interest of reducing the volume of irradiated normal tissue re-scanning should be combined with other motion mitigation techniques such as gating or breath-hold.

  17. D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management: Core Results of Ditac Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptan, K.; Kavlak, U.; Yilmaz, O.; Celik, O. T.; Manesh, A. K.; Fischer, P.; Lupescu, O.; Ingrassia, P. L.; Ammann, W. J.; Ashkenazi, M.; Arculeo, C.; Komadina, R.; Lechner, K.; Arnim, G. v.; Hreckovski, B.

    2013-08-01

    According to statistical data, natural disasters as well as the number of people affected by them are occurring with increasing frequency compared to the past. This situation is also seen in Europe Union; So, Strengthening the EU capacity to respond to Disasters is very important. This paper represents the baseline results of the FP-7 founded DITAC project, which aims to develop a holistic and highly structured curriculum for responders and strategic crisis managers. Up-to-date geospatial information is required in order to create an effective disaster response plan. Common sources for geospatial information such as Google Earth, GIS databases, and aerial surveys are frequently outdated, or insufficient. This limits the effectiveness of disaster planning. Disaster Management has become an issue of growing importance. Planning for and managing large scale emergencies is complex. The number of both victims and relief workers is large and the time pressure is extreme. Emergency response and triage systems with 2D user interfaces are currently under development and evaluation. Disasters present a number of spatially related problems and an overwhelming quantity of information. 3D user interfaces are well suited for intuitively solving basic emergency response tasks. Such tasks include commanding rescue agents and prioritizing the disaster victims according to the severity of their medical condition. Further, 3D UIs hold significant potential for improving the coordination of rescuers as well as their awareness of relief workers from other organizations. This paper describes the outline of a module in a Disaster Management Course related to 3D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management. By doing this, the paper describes the gaps in existing systems and solutions. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of Turkey are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods used to enhance satellite data and to produce

  18. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  19. First-phase study design for the US Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program (NAVRAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Matthews, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, the Navy initiated a multi-year program for the assessment and mitigation of radon inside buildings at its worldwide distribution of bases. During the first two years of the program, a survey is being made of indoor radon levels in residences occupied by Navy personnel and their dependents. In addition, a small random sample of other structures is being monitored for elevated radon. Passive alpha-track detectors, numbering about 25,000, are being used as monitoring devices. A substantial fraction of the monitors (20%) are being used for quality assurance. Data management programs have been developed to record the chain of custody of the monitors and handle the associated questionnaire data. Program objectives and implementation emphasize quality assurance, records maintenance and monitor placement and retrieval. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Education Assessment: Results a Step Toward Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    Outlines the methods used per the National Assessment of Education. Comments on the preliminary results of the science and citizenship tests. Reports some criticisms of the techniques used. Discusses the use of similar techniques for evaluating local school systems. (EB)

  1. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    PubMed

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    . Existing studies on mitigation potentials and costs for the waste sector tend to focus on landfill CH4 as the baseline. The commercial recovery of landfill CH4 as a source of renewable energy has been practised at full scale since 1975 and currently exceeds 105 Mt CO2-eq year(-1). Although landfill CH4 emissions from developed countries have been largely stabilized, emissions from developing countries are increasing as more controlled (anaerobic) landfilling practices are implemented; these emissions could be reduced by accelerating the introduction of engineered gas recovery, increasing rates of waste minimization and recycling, and implementing alternative waste management strategies provided they are affordable, effective, and sustainable. Aided by Kyoto mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI), the total global economic mitigation potential for reducing waste sector emissions in 2030 is estimated to be > 1000 Mt CO2-eq (or 70% of estimated emissions) at costs below 100 US$ t(-1) CO2-eq year(-1). An estimated 20-30% of projected emissions for 2030 can be reduced at negative cost and 30-50% at costs < 20 US$ t(-) CO2-eq year(-1). As landfills produce CH4 for several decades, incineration and composting are complementary mitigation measures to landfill gas recovery in the short- to medium-term--at the present time, there are > 130 Mt waste year(-1) incinerated at more than 600 plants. Current uncertainties with respect to emissions and mitigation potentials could be reduced by more consistent national definitions, coordinated international data collection, standardized data analysis, field validation of models, and consistent application of life-cycle assessment tools inclusive of fossil fuel offsets. PMID:18338699

  2. An assessment of the dilution required to mitigate Hanford tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Stewart, C.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Trent, D.S.; Barney, G.S.; Herting, D.L.; Larrick, A.P.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A group of experts from PNL and WHC convened November 2 and 3, 1994, to screen the current state of knowledge about dilution and reach a consensus on the minimum dilution ratio that will achieve passive mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 wastes and the dilution ratio that would satisfy the given cross-site transfer criteria with reasonable assurance. The panel evaluated the effects of dilution on the parameters important in gas generation, retention, and release and reached the following conclusions, which are deduced from the existing body of data, experience, and analyses: (1) Dissolution of solids is the single most important aspect of mitigation by dilution. We are confident that diluting until nitrates, nitrites, and aluminum salts are dissolved will mitigate Hanford flammable gas tanks; (2) Sufficient solids dissolution can be achieved in Tank 241-SY-101 at a dilution ratio of 1:1, which will result in a average specific gravity of approximately 1.35. It is likely that a 0.5:1 dilution will also mitigate 241-SY-101, but the current uncertainty is too high to recommend this dilution ratio; (3) The recommended dilution requires a diluent with at least 2 molar free hydroxide, because aluminum probably precipitates at lower hydroxide concentrations. The transfer criteria for Tank 241-SY-101 waste were also evaluated. These criteria have been specified as solids content {<=}30% (volume), viscosity {<=}30% cP and density <1.5 g/mL. (1) Solids content is the limiting criterion if it is defined as volume fraction of settled solids. A 1:1 dilution will satisfy this criterion at nominal premixing conditions in Tank 241-SY-101; however, analysis of Window E core samples suggests that up to 1.5:1 might be required. If the solids content is interpreted simply as solids volume fraction no further dilution is necessary, because Tank 241-SY-101 waste (excluding the crust) is already below 30%; (2) Bulk density is the next limiting criterion and is met at 0.4:1 dilution.

  3. Results of the UCAR 2008 Forum on Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, J.; Barron, E.

    2008-12-01

    Mayors, governors, and local decision makers are developing climate change action plans. They are not waiting for the federal carbon emission reduction debates to conclude (e.g., cap and trade or carbon tax legislation). Many of them are struggling with what should be in these plans, what they should be assuming about future weather and climate trends, and what the impact might be on their community and its infrastructure. In October 2008, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research held a forum at its 2008 Members' Meeting that focused on the UCAR community's role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Many of UCAR's 71 university members are involved in projects with local and regional decision makers struggling with planning for the future in the face of climate change. The forum focused on the following questions: 1. How are these projects working and what lessons have we learned? 2. What can our community can do to assist these partnerships (e.g., models and other tools, better information, training opportunities, outreach, sharing ideas, etc.)? 3. Can we help our nation deal more effectively with climate mitigation and adaptation by being more strategic with these partnerships (e.g., more coordination, creating packages of tools and information, creating common approaches to climate action plans, developing better communication tools, community strategic planning effort, etc.)? This presentation will provide a summary of the forum outcomes.

  4. An intergenerational women's empowerment intervention to mitigate domestic violence: results of a pilot study in Bengaluru, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Subbiah, Kalyani; Khanum, Sajida; Chandra, Prabha S; Padian, Nancy S

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the global prevalence of domestic violence against women of reproductive age as well as the association between violence and an array of adverse reproductive, psychosocial, and child health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research on domestic violence prevention interventions in the peer-reviewed literature to guide program planning and policy-making efforts. In this article, the authors describe the development and assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an intergenerational women's empowerment-based intervention to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes in low-income urban communities in Southern India. PMID:22531083

  5. Assessing the bio-mitigation effect of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture on marine environment by a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junbo; Kitazawa, Daisuke

    2016-09-15

    With increasing concern over the aquatic environment in marine culture, the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has received extensive attention in recent years. A three-dimensional numerical ocean model is developed to explore the negative impacts of aquaculture wastes and assess the bio-mitigation effect of IMTA systems on marine environments. Numerical results showed that the concentration of surface phytoplankton could be controlled by planting seaweed (a maximum reduction of 30%), and the percentage change in the improvement of bottom dissolved oxygen concentration increased to 35% at maximum due to the ingestion of organic wastes by sea cucumbers. Numerical simulations indicate that seaweeds need to be harvested in a timely manner for maximal absorption of nutrients, and the initial stocking density of sea cucumbers >3.9 individuals m(-2) is preferred to further eliminate the organic wastes sinking down to the sea bottom. PMID:27368928

  6. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  7. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures.

    PubMed

    Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis Α; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

    2013-01-15

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose-response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several "what if" scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1·10(-5) compared to 23.4·10(-5) for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10-20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support. PMID:23220388

  8. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  9. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. PMID:27061779

  10. Policy learning for flood mitigation: a longitudinal assessment of the community rating system in Florida.

    PubMed

    Brody, Samuel D; Zahran, Sammy; Highfield, Wesley E; Bernhardt, Sarah P; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2009-06-01

    Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially repetitive over time, local decisionmakers often have an opportunity to learn from previous events and make proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse effects of a subsequent storm. Despite the importance of understanding the degree to which local jurisdictions learn from flood risks and under what circumstances, little if any empirical, longitudinal research has been conducted along these lines. This article addresses the research gap by examining the change in local flood mitigation policies in Florida from 1999 to 2005. We track 18 different mitigation activities organized into four series of activities under the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS) for every local jurisdiction in Florida participating in the FEMA program on a yearly time step. We then identify the major factors contributing to policy changes based on CRS scores over the seven-year study period. Using multivariate statistical models to analyze both natural and social science data, we isolate the effects of several variables categorized into the following groups: hydrologic conditions, flood disaster history, socioeconomic and human capital controls. Results indicate that local jurisdictions do in fact learn from histories of flood risk and this process is expedited under specific conditions. PMID:19302277

  11. Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  12. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  13. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  14. Assessment of the water supply:demand ratios in a Mediterranean basin under different global change scenarios and mitigation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Acuña, Vicenç; Vergoñós, Laura; Ziv, Guy; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-02-01

    Spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services such as water provisioning often imply that the demand for ecosystem services cannot be fulfilled at the local scale, but it can be fulfilled at larger scales (regional, continental). Differences in the supply:demand (S:D) ratio for a given service result in different values, and these differences might be assessed with monetary or non-monetary metrics. Water scarcity occurs where and when water resources are not enough to meet all the demands, and this affects equally the service of water provisioning and the ecosystem needs. In this study we assess the value of water in a Mediterranean basin under different global change (i.e. both climate and anthropogenic changes) and mitigation scenarios, with a non-monetary metric: the S:D ratio. We computed water balances across the Ebro basin (North-East Spain) with the spatially explicit InVEST model. We highlight the spatial and temporal mismatches existing across a single hydrological basin regarding water provisioning and its consumption, considering or not, the environmental demand (environmental flow). The study shows that water scarcity is commonly a local issue (sub-basin to region), but that all demands are met at the largest considered spatial scale (basin). This was not the case in the worst-case scenario (increasing demands and decreasing supply), as the S:D ratio at the basin scale was near 1, indicating that serious problems of water scarcity might occur in the near future even at the basin scale. The analysis of possible mitigation scenarios reveals that the impact of global change may be counteracted by the decrease of irrigated areas. Furthermore, the comparison between a non-monetary (S:D ratio) and a monetary (water price) valuation metrics reveals that the S:D ratio provides similar values and might be therefore used as a spatially explicit metric to valuate the ecosystem service water provisioning. PMID:24176705

  15. Results of the Primary Assessment Program 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Zheng Sen

    This report presents the results and sample items of a reading test and a mathematics test administered to Year 5 and Year 7 primary level students in 1989 in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Primary Assessment Program (PAP) monitors achievement in English and Mathematics in urban schools. All students in Years 5 and 7 are tested in…

  16. Interventions to Mitigate Emergency Department and Hospital Crowding During an Infectious Respiratory Disease Outbreak: Results from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Morton, Melinda; Beard, Raphaelle; Pines, Jesse M.; Bayram, Jamil D.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Kelen, Gabor; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Jeng, Kevin; Cole, Gai; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify and prioritize potential Emergency Department (ED) and hospital-based interventions which could mitigate the impact of crowding during patient surge from a widespread infectious respiratory disease outbreak and determine potential data sources that may be useful for triggering decisions to implement these high priority interventions. Design: Expert panel utilizing Nominal Group Technique to identify and prioritize interventions, and in addition, determine appropriate “triggers” for implementation of the high priority interventions in the context of four different infectious respiratory disease scenarios that vary by patient volumes (high versus low) and illness severity (high versus low). Setting: One day in-person conference held November, 2011. Participants: Regional and national experts representing the fields of public health, disease surveillance, clinical medicine, ED operations, and hospital operations. Main Outcome Measure: Prioritized list of potential interventions to reduce ED and hospital crowding, respectively. In addition, we created a prioritized list of potential data sources which could be useful to trigger interventions. Results: High priority interventions to mitigate ED surge included standardizing admission and discharge criteria and instituting infection control measures. To mitigate hospital crowding, panelists prioritized mandatory vaccination and an algorithm for antiviral use. Data sources identified for triggering implementation of these interventions were most commonly ED and hospital utilization metrics. Conclusions: We developed a prioritized list of potentially useful interventions to mitigate ED and hospital crowding in various outbreak scenarios. The data sources identified to “trigger” the implementation of these high priority interventions consist mainly of sources available at the local, institutional level. PMID:23856917

  17. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  18. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  19. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  20. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  1. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. PMID:26590874

  2. Measurement-based auralization methodology for the assessment of noise mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Pieter; Wei, Weigang; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2016-09-01

    The effect of noise mitigation measures is generally expressed by noise levels only, neglecting the listener's perception. In this study, an auralization methodology is proposed that enables an auditive preview of noise abatement measures for road traffic noise, based on the direction dependent attenuation of a priori recordings made with a dedicated 32-channel spherical microphone array. This measurement-based auralization has the advantage that all non-road traffic sounds that create the listening context are present. The potential of this auralization methodology is evaluated through the assessment of the effect of an L-shaped mound. The angular insertion loss of the mound is estimated by using the ISO 9613-2 propagation model, the Pierce barrier diffraction model and the Harmonoise point-to-point model. The realism of the auralization technique is evaluated by listening tests, indicating that listeners had great difficulty in differentiating between a posteriori recordings and auralized samples, which shows the validity of the followed approaches.

  3. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  4. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chris A.

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.

  5. Assessment of Weld Overlays for Mitigating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking at Nickel Alloy Butt Welds in Piping Systems Approved for Leak-Before-Break

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Edward J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-08-01

    This TLR provides an assessment of weld overlays as a mitigation strategy for PWSCC, and includes an assessment of the WOL-related inspection requirements of Code Case N-770-1, as conditioned in §50.55a.

  6. Climate model emulation in an integrated assessment framework: a case study for mitigation policies in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, A. M.; Holden, P. B.; Edwards, N. R.; Mercure, J.-F.; Salas, P.; Pollitt, H.; Chewpreecha, U.

    2016-02-01

    We present a carbon-cycle-climate modelling framework using model emulation, designed for integrated assessment modelling, which introduces a new emulator of the carbon cycle (GENIEem). We demonstrate that GENIEem successfully reproduces the CO2 concentrations of the Representative Concentration Pathways when forced with the corresponding CO2 emissions and non-CO2 forcing. To demonstrate its application as part of the integrated assessment framework, we use GENIEem along with an emulator of the climate (PLASIM-ENTSem) to evaluate global CO2 concentration levels and spatial temperature and precipitation response patterns resulting from CO2 emission scenarios. These scenarios are modelled using a macroeconometric model (E3MG) coupled to a model of technology substitution dynamics (FTT), and represent different emissions reduction policies applied solely in the electricity sector, without mitigation in the rest of the economy. The effect of cascading uncertainty is apparent, but despite uncertainties, it is clear that in all scenarios, global mean temperatures in excess of 2 °C above pre-industrial levels are projected by the end of the century. Our approach also highlights the regional temperature and precipitation patterns associated with the global mean temperature change occurring in these scenarios, enabling more robust impacts modelling and emphasizing the necessity of focusing on spatial patterns in addition to global mean temperature change.

  7. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies. PMID:21142063

  8. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  10. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R.; Stooksbury, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Integrated Tsunami Data Supports Forecast, Warning, Research, Hazard Assessment, and Mitigation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    With nearly 230,000 fatalities, the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the deadliest tsunami in history, illustrating the importance of developing basinwide warning systems. Key to creating these systems is easy access to quality-controlled, verified data on past tsunamis. It is essential that warning centers, emergency managers, and modelers can determine if and when similar events have occurred. Following the 2004 tsunami, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) began examining all aspects of the tsunami data archive to help answer questions regarding the frequency and severity of past tsunamis. Historical databases span insufficient time to reveal a region’s full tsunami hazard, so a global database of citations to articles on tsunami deposits was added to the archive. NGDC further expanded the archive to include high-resolution tide gauge data, deep-ocean sensor data, and digital elevation models used for propagation and inundation modeling. NGDC continuously reviews the data for accuracy, making modifications as new information is obtained. These added databases allow NGDC to provide the tsunami data necessary for warning guidance, hazard assessments, and mitigation efforts. NGDC is also at the forefront of standards-based Web delivery of integrated science data through a variety of tools, from Web-form interfaces to interactive maps. The majority of the data in the tsunami archive are discoverable online. Scientists, journalists, educators, planners, and emergency managers are among the many users of these public domain data, which may be used without restriction provided that users cite data sources.

  12. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  13. Using Robust Decision Making to Assess and Mitigate the Risks of Natural Hazards in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, N.; Lempert, R. J.; Peyraud, S.

    2012-12-01

    Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) ranks fourth globally among coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change and already experiences extensive routine flooding. In the coming decades, increased precipitation, rising sea levels, and land subsidence could permanently inundate a large portion of the city's population, place the poor at particular risk, and threaten new economic development in low-lying areas. HCMC is not alone in facing the impacts of natural hazards exacerbated by uncertain future climate change, development, and other deep uncertainties. Assessing and managing these risks is a tremendous challenge, particularly in developing countries which face pervasive shortages of the data and models generally used to plan for such changes. Using HCMC as a case study, this talk will demonstrate how a scenario-based approach that uses robustness as a decision and planning element can help developing countries assess future climate risk and manage the risk of natural disasters. In contrast to traditional approaches which treat uncertainty with a small number of handcrafted scenarios, this talk will emphasize how robust decision making, which uses modeling to explore over thousands of scenarios, can identify potential vulnerabilities to HCMC's emerging flood risk management strategy and suggest potential responses. The talk will highlight several novel features of the collaboration with the HCMC Steering Committee for Flood Control. First, it examines several types of risk -- risk to the poor, risk to the non-poor, and risk to the economy -- and illustrates how management policies have different implications for these sectors. Second, it demonstrates how diverse and sometimes incomplete climate, hydrologic, socioeconomic, GIS, and other data and models can be integrated into a modeling framework to develop and evaluate many scenarios of flood risk. Third, it illustrates the importance of non-structural policies such as land use management and building design to manage

  14. Assessing alternatives for mitigating net greenhouse gas emissions and increasing yields from rice production in China over the next twenty years.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Salas, William; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Assessments of the efficacy of mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice systems have typically been analyzed based on field studies. Extrapolation of the mitigation potential of alternative management practices from field studies to a national scale may be enhanced by spatially explicit process models, like the DeNitrification and DeComposition (DNDC) model. Our objective was to analyze the impacts of mitigation alternatives, management of water, fertilizer, and rice straw, on net GHG emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes), yields, and water use. After constructing a GIS database of soil, climate, rice cropping area and systems, and management practices, we ran DNDC with 21-yr alternative management schemes for each of the approximately 2500 counties in China. Results indicate that, despite large-scale adoption of midseason drainage, there is still large potential for additional methane reductions from Chinese rice paddies of 20 to 60% over 2000-2020. However, changes in management for reducing CH4 emissions simultaneously affect soil carbon dynamics as well as N2O emissions and can thereby reorder the ranking of technical mitigation effectiveness. The order of net GHG emissions reduction effectiveness found here is upland rice > shallow flooding > ammonium sulfate > midseason drainage > off-season straw > slow-release fertilizer > continuous flooding. Most of the management alternatives produced yields comparable to the baseline; however, continuous flooding and upland rice significantly reduced yields. Water management strategies appear to be the most technically promising GHG mitigation alternatives, with shallow flooding providing additional benefits of both water conservation and increased yields. PMID:16825476

  15. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  16. Fish and wildlife mitigation options for port development in Tampa Bay: results of a workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    This report records the results of a workshop held September 25-27, 1983, in Tampa, Florida. The organization of the report closely follows the organization of the workshop itself. The workshop began with a definition of objectives and several presentations providing general background. The context and objectives of the workshop are covered in the INTRODUCTION. A summary of the results of two group discussions is presented in the WORKSHOP RESULTS section. One group identified ways to conduct or locate port development activities in Tampa Bay so as to lessen their adverse impacts; the other group identified ways to compensate for unavoidable impacts by creating or improving important fish and wildlife habitats. Finally, the DISCUSSION section contains the authors' synthesis of more general comments made throughout the workshop, especially during the closing session.

  17. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. PMID:23588136

  18. Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation

  19. Combining Turbine Blade-Strike and Life Cycle Models to Assess Mitigation Strategies for Fish Passing Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, John W.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Leonardsson, Kjell; Zabel, Richard W.; Lundqvist, Hans

    2008-08-01

    Combining the two models produced a rapid, cost effective tool for assessing dam passage impacts to fish populations and prioritizing among mitigation strategies for conserving fish stocks in regulated rivers. Estimated mortality of juvenile and adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta) passing turbines at two dams in northern Sweden was significantly higher for Kaplan turbines compared to Francis turbines, and for adult fish compared to juveniles based on blade strike models. Mean probability of mortality ranged from 6.7% for salmon smolts passing Francis turbines to >100% for adult salmon passing Kaplan turbines. Life cycle modeling allowed benefits to be assessed for three alternatives that mitigated this mortality. Salmon population responses varied considerably among alternatives and rivers: growth rates improved as much as 17.9%, female escapements increased up to 669%, and more than 1,300 additional female salmon were produced in one case. Protecting both smolts and adults provided benefits, and in one river, mitigating turbine mortality alone was estimated to have met the production capacity of the available habitat.

  20. SNS Emittance Scanner, Increasing Sensitivity and Performance through Noise Mitigation ,Design, Implementation and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pogge, J.

    2006-11-20

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The SNS MEBT Emittance Harp consists of 16 X and 16 Y wires, located in close proximity to the RFQ, Source, and MEBT Choppers. Beam Studies for source and LINAC commissioning required an overall increase in sensitivity for halo monitoring and measurement, and at the same time several severe noise sources had to be effectively removed from the harp signals. This paper is an overview of the design approach and techniques used in increasing gain and sensitivity while maintaining a large signal to noise ratio for the emittance scanner device. A brief discussion of the identification of the noise sources, the mechanism for transmission and pick up, how the signals were improved and a summary of results.

  1. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measured using stakeholders' workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakew, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    There has been little effort to systematically document the experiences and perceptions of farmers on soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC) even though a wealth of SWC knowledge and information exists, and there is a great demand to access it. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices than being adopted on basis of scientific evidence. This research aimed to document the experiences of farmers on soil erosion and conservation, and to increase awareness and participation of the local community in SWC. Participatory stakeholders' workshops were undertaken at local level focused on experiences and perceptions of farmers. The workshops included group discussion and field monitoring of sheet erosion indicators, profiles of rills and gullies and impacts of SWC strategies. Systematic descriptions of the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield were used to assess the performances of SWC strategies. Results show that farmers were aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and impacts of mitigation strategies on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most damaging form of erosion while rill damage was critical on cereal cultivated farms on steep slopes. Farmers perceived that the desired impacts of SWC practices were attained in general: runoff and soil loss rates decreased, while soil fertility and production increased. The performance of SWC measures were found to be highly affected by the design quality and management strategies on the farm. Comparatively graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were liked by farmers whereas all level bunds caused water logging and traditional ditches begun incising and affected production of cereals. Bund maintenance practices were low and also distracted the stability of bunds. This calls for further improvement of design of SWC technologies and their maintenance. Further research should integrate the local knowledge for

  2. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  3. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Coutant, Charles C

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used

  4. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A; Anthony, R; Bergamasco, L; Coetzee, J F; Dzikamunhenga, R S; Johnson, A K; Karriker, L A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Martineau, G P; Millman, S T; Pajor, E A; Rutherford, K; Sprague, M; Sutherland, M A; von Borell, E; Webb, S R

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources. PMID:26556522

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) assessment for thermal mitigation alternatives for C and K reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Davis, C.E.; Price, L.M.; Fay, W.; Ezra, C.E.

    1987-10-01

    The potential effects on wildlife of the implementation of thermal mitigation alternatives for C and K reactors were evaluated using Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and modified by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) environment. These procedures allow for the relative ranking of project alternatives and/or mitigation with respect to representative wildlife species over the life of the project or for selected time periods in the future. The Department of Energy-Savannah River was requested by the FWS to provide a HEP analysis for the cooling water alternatives for C and K reactors during the comment period on the Draft Thermal Mitigation Environment Impact Statement, Alternative Cooling Water Systems (DOE, 1986). For C and K reactors the potential wildlife impacts and/or benefits of once-through and recirculating cooling towers were evaluated for both near-term (30-year) and long-term (100-year) time periods.

  6. Human Amplified Natural Change: An approach for vulnerability assessment and mitigation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, P.; Belmont, P.; Gran, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    Addressing the environmental impacts of agricultural development is made difficult by the scale and complexity of the natural system, the pervasive human alteration of that system, the contingent and nonlinear nature of system response, and the web of natural-human interactions driving social, economic, and regulatory decisions over periods of decades to centuries. One of the most difficult challenges is determining those locations within the landscape that are most sensitive to change. One approach is the concept of human-amplified natural change (HANC), a hypothesis that states that areas of the landscape that are most susceptible to human, climatic, and other external changes are those that are undergoing the highest rates of natural change. High variability in system response implies that there are locations and moments that are especially vulnerable to changes in climate and human actions. These 'critical areas' are not only essential to understand for mitigation purposes, but also serve as targeted locations in which to monitor change in an accelerated environment. Under the HANC hypothesis, it is these locations that should be the focus for both research and management. We explore the HANC hypothesis using the case of sediment delivery to the Upper Mississippi River. Work on Lake Pepin, a natural lake on the Mississippi River, has shown that sediment supply has increased ten-fold over the past 150 years. This period corresponds with widespread implementation of drainage and row cropping in the Minnesota River Basin, the primary contributor of sediment to the Upper Mississippi. Although this development is clearly important, the watershed was geologically primed to produce large amounts of sediment as it incises through soft glacial sediments in response to a base level fall associated with the carving of the Minnesota River valley over 13,000 years before present. The nearly complete transformation of the land surface, vegetation, and hydrology over the past

  7. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and

  8. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  9. Communicating Conservation Effects Assessment Project Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a unique effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at watershed scales and nationally. Such a large-scale project cannot be accomplished without the cooperation and communication of a wide range of experts and stakeh...

  10. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  11. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  12. Assessing the costs of hazard mitigation through landscape interventions in the urban structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Aldea Mendes, Diana; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we look at an issue rarely approached, the economic efficiency of natural hazard risk mitigation. The urban scale at which a natural hazard can impact leads to the importance of urban planning strategy in risk management. However, usually natural, engineering, and social sciences deal with it, and the role of architecture and urban planning is neglected. Climate change can lead to risks related to increased floods, desertification, sea level rise among others. Reducing the sealed surfaces in cities through green spaces in the crowded centres can mitigate them, and can be foreseen in restructuration plans in presence or absence of disasters. For this purpose we reviewed the role of green spaces and community centres such as churches in games, which can build the core for restructuration efforts, as also field and archive studies show. We look at the way ICT can contribute to organize the information from the building survey to economic computations in direct modeling or through games. The roles of game theory, agent based modeling and networks and urban public policies in designing decision systems for risk management are discussed. Games rules are at the same time supported by our field and archive studies, as well as research by design. Also we take into consideration at a rare element, which is the role of landscape planning, through the inclusion of green elements in reconstruction after the natural and man-made disasters, or in restructuration efforts to mitigate climate change. Apart of existing old city tissue also landscape can be endangered by speculation and therefore it is vital to highlight its high economic value, also in this particular case. As ICOMOS highlights for the 2014 congress, heritage and landscape are two sides of the same coin. Landscape can become or be connected to a community centre, the first being necessary for building a settlement, the second raising its value, or can build connections between landmarks in urban routes

  13. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  14. Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand

  15. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Claeys, W; Baert, K; Mestdagh, F; Vercammen, J; Daenens, P; De Meulenaer, B; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Huyghebaert, A

    2010-09-01

    The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 microg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) (P97.5 = 1.6 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), the main contributors to the average intake being chips (23%), coffee (19%), biscuits (13%), and bread (12%). Additionally, the impact of a number of AA mitigation scenarios was evaluated (German minimization concept, scenarios for mitigation from the literature, signal values), which is an important issue for public health as well as for policy-makers. Specific actions in cooperation with the food industry to reduce the AA content of foods seems to be a more efficient strategy than mere implementation of signal values. Considering that an important share of the AA intake is due to prepared meals, the catering industry as well as consumers need to be better informed on the various possibilities for keeping the AA content of meals as low as possible. PMID:20589545

  16. An Assessment of Slacker Astronomy Outreach Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Gay, P. L.; Searle, T.; Brissenden, G.

    2005-12-01

    Slacker Astronomy is a weekly podcast covering recent astronomical news in a humorous, irreverent manner while respecting the intelligence of the audience. This is a new approach to astronomical outreach both technically and stylistically. Using the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) and the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) needs analysis survey system, we have have conducted an in-depth project to determine whether this new style is effective and what audience needs are outstanding. Slacker Astronomy currently has around 11,000 weekly listeners and was founded in February, 2005. Recordings and scripts are available to the public under the Creative Commons license at www.slackerastronomy.org.

  17. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guda, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Kristallin-I performance assessment: First results

    SciTech Connect

    Zuidema, P.; McKinley, I.G.; Smith, P.A.; Curti, E.; Klos, R.; Hugi, M.; Niemeyer, M.

    1993-12-31

    The Kristallin-I performance assessment indicates that the Swiss concept for disposal of vitrified HLW deep in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland will offer sufficient safety. This conclusion is based on a scenario analysis and an associated consequence analysis using an extensive model chain. The planned system of engineered barriers is shown to be particularly robust and ensures that most of the radionuclide inventory decays to insignificance in the near-field--both in the base case and in most altered evolution scenarios. The geosphere barrier can also be very effective, but conclusive demonstration of this places strong requirements on characterization of the geosphere. The radiological impact on hypothetical individuals inhabiting the groundwater discharge area is estimated by calculating doses via a variety of exposure pathways, following dilution, transport and accumulation in the biosphere. Detailed evaluation of perturbations of the base case scenario and of altered evolution scenarios is currently ongoing.

  19. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Changbo; Bressers, Hans T. A.; (Bob Su, Z.; Jia, Yangwen; Wang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  20. Assessment and Mitigation of Diagnostic-Generated Electromagnetic Interference at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C G; Ayers, M J; Felker, B; Ferguson, W; Holder, J P; Nagel, S R; Piston, K W; Simanovskaia, N; Throop, A L; Chung, M; Hilsabeck, T

    2012-04-20

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an ever-present challenge at laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The major source of EMI at such facilities is laser-target interaction that can generate intense electromagnetic fields within, and outside of, the laser target chamber. In addition, the diagnostics themselves can be a source of EMI, even interfering with themselves. In this paper we describe EMI generated by ARIANE and DIXI, present measurements, and discuss effects of the diagnostic-generated EMI on ARIANE's CCD and on a PMT nearby DIXI. Finally we present some of the efforts we have made to mitigate the effects of diagnostic-generated EMI on NIF diagnostics.

  1. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K.

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  2. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III ); Buczek, J.A. ); Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.

  3. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Buczek, J.A.; Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.

  4. Assessment Program Results 1996-1997. Focus on Assessing Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeter, Thomas; Prine, Don

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools continually evaluate the process of teaching for learning in order to provide quality programming for its diverse student body. Different methods of student outcome assessment are used to identify areas for study and analysis. This report provides information about the achievement of district students on: (1)…

  5. Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Establishing Perchlorate and Goitrogen Risk Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    This paper applies probabilistic risk assessment in quantifying risks from cumulative and aggregate risk pathways for selected goitrogens in water and food. Results show that the percentages of individuals with a Hazard Index (HI) value above 1 ranges between 30% and 50% both with and without serum half-life correction when a traditional regulatory assessment approach based on establishment of a No Observed Effects Level (NOEL) is used. When an exposure-response curve is instead used and a threshold of 50% inhibition is assumed, 1.1% or less of the population exceeds an HI value of 1 with no serum half-life correction, rising to as high as 11% when serum half-life correction is applied. If 0% to 5% threshold for iodide uptake inhibition is assumed for production of adverse effects, the percentage of the population with an HI above 1 is 46.2% or less with no serum half-life correction, and 47.2% or less when serum half-life correction is applied. The probabilistic analysis shows that while there are exposed groups for whom perchlorate exposures are the primary cause of individuals having HI values above 1, these constitute significantly less than 1% of the population. Instead, the potential risk from exposure to goitrogens is dominated by nitrates without serum half-life correction and thiocyanates with serum half-life correction, suggesting public health protection is better accomplished by a focus on these and other goitrogens expect in highly limited cases where waterborne perchlorate is at unusually high concentrations. PMID:26322488

  6. Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Establishing Perchlorate and Goitrogen Risk Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies probabilistic risk assessment in quantifying risks from cumulative and aggregate risk pathways for selected goitrogens in water and food. Results show that the percentages of individuals with a Hazard Index (HI) value above 1 ranges between 30% and 50% both with and without serum half-life correction when a traditional regulatory assessment approach based on establishment of a No Observed Effects Level (NOEL) is used. When an exposure-response curve is instead used and a threshold of 50% inhibition is assumed, 1.1% or less of the population exceeds an HI value of 1 with no serum half-life correction, rising to as high as 11% when serum half-life correction is applied. If 0% to 5% threshold for iodide uptake inhibition is assumed for production of adverse effects, the percentage of the population with an HI above 1 is 46.2% or less with no serum half-life correction, and 47.2% or less when serum half-life correction is applied. The probabilistic analysis shows that while there are exposed groups for whom perchlorate exposures are the primary cause of individuals having HI values above 1, these constitute significantly less than 1% of the population. Instead, the potential risk from exposure to goitrogens is dominated by nitrates without serum half-life correction and thiocyanates with serum half-life correction, suggesting public health protection is better accomplished by a focus on these and other goitrogens expect in highly limited cases where waterborne perchlorate is at unusually high concentrations. PMID:26322488

  7. Including Alternate Assessment Results in Accountability Decisions. NCEO Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thurlow, Martha

    Alternate assessments provide a mechanism for students with complex disabilities to be included in assessment systems. An integral part of maximizing the benefits of assessing students is to include the results of alternate assessments in school accountability systems. This report addresses policy options for including the results of alternate…

  8. Assessment of best management practice effects on metolachlor mitigation in an agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...

  9. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  10. Assessment of diagnostic measurements for selection for residential radon mitigation. Rept. for Oct 87-Jan 88

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.G.; Sanchex, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses and critiques EPA's experience in conducting house evaluation visits in Florida and Ohio. Suggestions are offered as to the utility and priority to be given to selected diagnostic procedures and measurements. EPA has an experimental program to develop and demonstrate cost effective radon mitigation techniques. Most of the work is carried out in occupied houses with elevated radon concentrations. The study house selection process starts with monitoring surveys that establish an area as one with elevated radon concentrations in houses. Radon detectors are usually distributed with a questionnaire, which requests information on location (at least the ZIP Code level) and some indication of building style in addition to radon concentration. The survey identifies problem areas and housing types of the greatest experimental interest. If the pool of candidate houses is larger than the number that can be worked on, as is usually the case, then house evaluation visits to the candidate houses are conducted in order to provide the information needed to make a selection of study houses from among the candidates.

  11. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  12. Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Latham, John; Sahraei, Jalil; Salter, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    cooling sufficient to compensate, globally, for the warming resulting from a doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Our calculations provide quantitative support for the physical viability of the mitigation scheme and offer new insights into its technological requirements.

  13. Northwest regional climate hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This assessment draws from a large bank of information developed by scientists and extension specialists in the Northwest to describe where we need to focus when dealing with climate risks to working landscapes. The changing climate has many secondary effects, such as irrigation water loss, increase...

  14. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric emissions made by mining and metallurgy industry account for 54 % of total air pollutions of the Dnipropetrovsk Region. As it has been shown previously, the range of pollutants depends on the number and types of the industrial enterprises located within the each urban area. In Dnipropetrovsk and surrounding cities the dominant emissions come from the waste of metallurgical and chemical industries, which is heavily developed in this area. The multipollution exposure assessment was made for the several cities in Dnipropetrovsk industrial region in the south of Ukraine. In this connection the monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in the environment of the Dnepropetrovsk megalopolis area was carried out in several industrial cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhynsk, Kryvyy Ryg and Pavlograd with use of the network of stationary monitoring stations at the Dnepropetrovsk Regional Center of Hydrometeorology. The initial evaluation of technogenic atmospheric pollution with toxic substances was performed with due to the limit values of so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for harmful emissions in the atmosphere as set out in the Ukrainian Air Quality Standards. The main sources of air pollution in industrial cities are stationary. Meantime increasing road transport is a growing source of pollution. The maximum excess of MPC content of NO2 in the atmosphere of the cities has reached twice. Over the last 5 years in the atmosphere of industrial cities in the region there was an increased level of nitrogen dioxide (excess of MPC in 1, 5-2, 5 times). Number of inorganic aerosols (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other) has an effect of summation. In the presence of diffuse sources are superimposed individual emissions and formed the total torch actually located over the whole of the industrial agglomeration. Spatial structure of such a torch is very complicated, instant concentrations of impurities at various points in the city are substantially

  15. Assessment of stone columns as a mitigation technique of liquefaction-induced effects during Italian earthquakes (May 2012).

    PubMed

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading. PMID:24592148

  16. Assessment and Mitigation of Radiation, EMP, Debris & Shrapnel Impacts at Megajoule-Class Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D C; Anderson, R W; Bailey, D S; Bell, P; Benson, D J; Bertozzi, A L; Bittle, W; Bradley, D; Brown, C G; Clancy, T J; Chen, H; Chevalier, J M; Combis, P; Dauffy, L; Debonnel, C S; Eckart, M J; Fisher, A C; Geille, A; Glebov, V Y; Holder, J; Jadaud, J P; Jones, O; Kaiser, T B; Kalantar, D; Khater, H; Kimbrough, J; Koniges, A E; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Masters, N D; MacPhee, A; Maddox, B R; Meyers, M; Osher, S; Prasad, R; Raffestin, D; Raimbourg, J; Rekow, V; Sangster, C; Song, P; Stoeckl, C; Stowell, M L; Teran, J M; Throop, A; Tommasini, R; Vierne, J; White, D; Whitman, P

    2009-10-05

    The generation of neutron/gamma radiation, electromagnetic pulses (EMP), debris and shrapnel at mega-Joule class laser facilities (NIF and LMJ) impacts experiments conducted at these facilities. The complex 3D numerical codes used to assess these impacts range from an established code that required minor modifications (MCNP - calculates neutron and gamma radiation levels in complex geometries), through a code that required significant modifications to treat new phenomena (EMSolve - calculates EMP from electrons escaping from laser targets), to a new code, ALE-AMR, that is being developed through a joint collaboration between LLNL, CEA, and UC (UCSD, UCLA, and LBL) for debris and shrapnel modelling.

  17. Water-related problems of central Asia: some results of the (GIWA) International Water Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Severskiy, Igor Vasilievich

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents results of the research under the program Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Aral Sea basin (Subregion 24 of the GIWA program). These results show that the detemining factor for the region is freshwater shortage and the main issue is modification of stream flow. According to GIWA assessment estimations, freshwater shortage is responsible for about 70% of the developmental problems in the region. The current economy is developing under conditions of increasing water deficiency. In spite of increasing efforts by the governments of the countries in the region, and by the international community, the situation in regard to water supply and economic objectives in the countries of central Asia remains tense and shows clear tendencies towards aggravation and conflict. The main causes for this sharpening of ecological and socioeconomic conditions in the region are analyzed, and measures to mitigate stress in transboundary water-resources use are presented. PMID:15083650

  18. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  19. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  20. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  1. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  2. Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, R. P.; Korycansky, D. G.; Huebner, W. F.

    2010-10-01

    The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.’ There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with certainty that an explosive yield Y at height of burst h will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), we need to quantify how and where energy is deposited into the rubble pile or conglomerate that may make up the PHO. We then need to understand how shock waves propagate through the system, what causes them to disrupt, and how long gravitationally bound fragments take to recombine. Here we present numerical models of energy deposition from an energy source into various materials that are known PHO constituents, and rigid body dynamics models of the recombination of disrupted objects. In the energy deposition models, we explore the effects of porosity and standoff distance as well as that of composition. In the dynamical models, we explore the effects of fragment size and velocity distributions on the time it takes for gravitationally bound fragments to recombine. Initial models indicate that this recombination time is relatively short, as little as 24 hours for a 1 km sized PHO composed of 1000 meter-scale self-gravitating fragments with an initial velocity field of v/r = 0.001 1/s.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  4. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. PMID:24157409

  5. Degrees of connectivity: Systems model for upstream risk assessment and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Gambatese, John; AlOmari, Kasim

    2016-08-01

    There is growing recognition that in order to further improve safety performance, attention needs to be given beyond the immediate working conditions and worker actions. A systems approach to construction safety enables considering: multiple project elements simultaneously; connections between different elements; and all system elements affected by safety risk. This paper describes recent and current research to conceptualize a typical building project in terms of connections between workers, activities, and design elements, and to verify and analyze impacts of the design and worker interactions on worker safety. Prior research provides the basis for a network tying the design elements, construction activities, and work crews on a typical building project together along with the extent of interaction between each of the system elements in terms of safety. In conjunction with this systems approach, the researchers propose a concept for viewing and managing construction safety through four different types of connections, or "degrees of connectivity," between the different workers, activities, and design elements in the system. The degrees of connectivity are defined as: interacting with the design element during its construction (DoC #1); interacting with the design element in its final form to attach another component to it (DoC #2) or by working in the vicinity of it (DoC #3); and indirectly interacting with the design element through another worker (DoC #4). To support and verify the presence of the concept in practice, the researchers conducted a survey of construction personnel. The survey results confirm that the four different degrees of connectivity are present and felt during construction operations, and indicate that attention should be given to all design elements, activities, and workers to which a worker is "connected". According to the survey respondents, DoC's #1 and #2 are recognized as the most widely present on construction sites. Eighty percent of

  6. A probabilistic framework for hazard assessment and mitigation of induced seismicity related to deep geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, S.; Bachmann, C. E.; Allmann, B.; Giardini, D.; Woessner, J.; Catalli, F.; Mena Carbrera, B.

    2011-12-01

    Slip on tectonic faults take place over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales as earthquakes, continuous aseismic creep, or transient creep events. Shallow creep events on continental strike-slip faults can occur spontaneously, or are coupled with earthquake afterslip, or are triggered by nearby earthquakes. Despite more than five decades of observations, the mechanism of shallow creep events and their implications for seismic hazard are still not fully understood. To understand the mechanism of creep events, we developed a physics-based numerical model to simulate shallow creep events on a strike-slip fault with rate-and-state frictional properties (Wei et al., 2013). We show that the widely used synoptic model (Scholz, 1998) cannot reproduce both rapid afterslip and frequent creep events as observed on the Superstition Hills fault in the Salton Trough after the 1987 Mw 6.6 earthquake. Rather, an unstable layer embedded in the shallow stable zone is required to match the geodetic observations of the creep behavior. Using the strike-slip fault model, we studied the triggering process of creep events, by either static or dynamic, or combined stress perturbations induced on the fault by nearby earthquakes. Preliminary results show that static stress perturbations in the effective normal stress on a system with spontaneous creep events can advance or delay creep events. The magnitude and timing of perturbations determines the clock change of creep events. The magnitude and interval of creep events changes permanently after static stress perturbation. Dynamic stress perturbations in effective normal stress can advance the timings of creep events when the perturbation temporally decreases the effective normal stress. A threshold exists for instantaneous triggering. The size of triggered slip increases as the dynamic perturbation increases in the direction of less normal stress. The system returns to pre-perturbation state after a long period of no slip. The length

  7. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  8. School Nurse Cultural Competence Needs Assessment: Results and Response.

    PubMed

    Matza, Maria; Maughan, Erin; Barrows, Beth M

    2015-11-01

    NASN conducted a needs assessment to learn about the cultural competence skills needed by school nurses. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of the needs assessment and describe actions taken to address cultural competency needs for the U.S. school nurse workforce. PMID:26515572

  9. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: Results of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2014-01-01

    Best practices of academic advising assessment involve identification of student learning outcomes, the development and use of multiple measures of student learning, and sound professional judgment to understand the information gathered and to improve student learning. However, the assessment results often come from minimal, narrow, and…

  10. Using WEPP Technology to Assess the Distribution of Erosion Risk, Mitigation Benefit, and Peak Flow Following Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, I.; Elliot, W.; Glaza, B.; Robichaud, P.

    2006-12-01

    A number of interfaces have been developed for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. These include a GIS interface (GeoWEPP), a Windows interface, and an online interface to assist in analyzing erosion risks, variability, and mitigation effectiveness on forest and rangeland hillslopes that have been burned (the Erosion Risk Management Tool ERMiT). This presentation describes how each of these tools was used to assist in analyzing the erosion and peak runoff risk, and mitigation benefits following a large wildfire. In August, 2005, a wildfire burned 20,000 ha of forest south of Pomeroy, WA. Ten watersheds of greatest interest were identified for analysis and were modeled with GeoWEPP. The watersheds covered 7650 ha, or about 38 percent of the total burned area. Hillslopes were specified high, moderate or low burn severity by examining the BAER fire severity map. The results of this analysis highlighted areas of greatest erosion risk. Most of these areas were on steep south or west facing slopes. Following the GeoWEPP analysis identifying hillslopes of greatest erosion risk, the ERMiT interface was run to evaluate potential erosion risks on these hillslopes, and benefits from seeding or mulching during the first two years following the wildfire. An average of about 12 randomly selected hillslopes, or 5 percent of the hillslopes on larger watersheds, were run with ERMiT for each watershed. The results showed that untreated, there was a ten percent chance that erosion would exceed 13 to 29 t/ha, averaging about 25 t/ha in the first year. Seeding had no affect on first year erosion rates, but reduced erosion on the average about 40 percent in the second year. Mulching at 2 t/ha reduced erosion about 86 percent the year following the fire and 60 percent the second year. For the third analysis, the WEPP windows interface was run for each watershed to estimate return periods for peak runoff rates. From the peak runoff estimates for watersheds of varying area

  11. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  12. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    SciTech Connect

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kornov, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in a

  13. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This

  14. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (p<0.01). Experimental results evidenced that low molecular weight (50-190 kDa) chitosan can be used to mitigate the formation of acrylamide. PMID:26776011

  15. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10 μg/L to 640 μg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40 μg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure

  16. Assessment and mitigation of errors associated with a large-scale field investigation of methane emissions from the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulton, D.; Golston, L.; Li, Q.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Pan, D.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Fitts, J. P.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work suggests the distribution of methane emissions from fracking operations is a skewed distributed with a small percentage of emitters contributing a large proportion of the total emissions. In order to provide a statistically robust distributions of emitters and determine the presence of super-emitters, errors in current techniques need to be constrained and mitigated. The Marcellus shale, the most productive natural gas shale field in the United States, has received less intense focus for well-level emissions and is here investigated to provide the distribution of methane emissions. In July of 2015 approximately 250 unique well pads were sampled using the Princeton Atmospheric Chemistry Mobile Acquisition Node (PAC-MAN). This mobile lab includes a Garmin GPS unit, Vaisala weather station (WTX520), LICOR 7700 CH4 open path sensor and LICOR 7500 CO2/H2O open path sensor. Sampling sites were preselected based on wind direction, sampling distance and elevation grade. All sites were sampled during low boundary layer conditions (600-1000 and 1800-2200 local time). The majority of sites were sampled 1-3 times while selected test sites were sampled multiple times or resampled several times during the day. For selected sites a sampling tower was constructed consisting of a Metek uSonic-3 Class A sonic anemometer, and an additional LICOR 7700 and 7500. Data were recorded for at least one hour at these sites. A robust study and inter-comparison of different methodologies will be presented. The Gaussian plume model will be used to calculate fluxes for all sites and compare results from test sites with multiple passes. Tower data is used to provide constraints on the Gaussian plume model. Additionally, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling will be used to calculate emissions from the tower sites. Alternative techniques will also be discussed. Results from these techniques will be compared to identify best practices and provide robust error estimates.

  17. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This

  18. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  19. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were

  20. Public Institutions, Public Challenges: On the Transparency of Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jo; Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how revealing assessment results could be a public relations headache for public colleges and universities, or, instead, that requirements for public disclosure could offer opportunities for institutions to explain their goals and then act visibly to address any shortcomings. (EV)

  1. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  2. Results of the 1992 Primary Assessment Program in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Territory Dept. of Education, Darwin (Australia).

    This report describes the aggregated reading and mathematics performances of students in years 5 and 7 in urban Northern Territory (Australia) schools on the Primary Assessment Program (PAP) tests. The aggregated results are encouraging, with apparent gains in some reading tests over the preceding year, and no evidence of decline in the others.…

  3. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  4. Latest Results from the PICO-2L Dark Matter Detector, and the identification and mitigation of particulate-induced backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Daniel; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration has taken a key step toward a background-free bubble chamber for WIMP dark matter detection. An unexpected background of unknown origin limited WIMP searches in the PICO-2L and PICO-60 detectors at SNOLAB in 2013 and 2014. Recent efforts targeting particulate contamination in the active volume of PICO-2L have reduced this background by at least one order of magnitude, to a rate below the known neutron background in the detector. The resulting data set the most stringent limit to date from a direct detection experiment on spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions. I will present a comparison of the background-limited Run-1 of PICO-2L with the new results from Run-2, identifying particulate as the primary source of the previously unexplained background. I will describe the engineering and operational controls now being implemented to eliminate this background in the PICO-60 detector, with the goal of a background-free run using our large detector within the next year. Supported in part by Department of Energy award #DE-SC0012161.

  5. Application of a system dynamics approach for assessment and mitigation of CO2 emissions from the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shalini; Vrat, Prem; Dahiya, R P

    2006-06-01

    A system dynamics model based on the dynamic interactions among a number of system components is developed to estimate CO(2) emissions from the cement industry in India. The CO(2) emissions are projected to reach 396.89 million tonnes by the year 2020 if the existing cement making technological options are followed. Policy options of population growth stabilisation, energy conservation and structural management in cement manufacturing processes are incorporated for developing the CO(2) mitigation scenarios. A 42% reduction in the CO(2) emissions can be achieved in the year 2020 based on an integrated mitigation scenario. Indirect CO(2) emissions from the transport of raw materials to the cement plants and finished product to market are also estimated. PMID:16307842

  6. Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

    2012-12-01

    The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the

  7. A European effort towards the development of tools for tsunami hazard and risk assessment and mitigation, and tsunami early warning: the EC-funded TRANSFER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

    2007-12-01

    TRANSFER (acronym for "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region") is a European Community funded project being coordinated by the University of Bologna (Italy) and involving 29 partners in Europe, Turkey and Israel. The main objectives of the project can be summarised as: 1) improving our understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, 2) contributing to the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, 3) identifying the best strategies for reduction of tsunami risk, 4) focussing on the gaps and needs for the implementation of an efficient tsunami early warning system (TEWS) in the Euro-Mediterranean area, which is a high-priority task in consideration that no tsunami early warning system is today in place in the Euro- Mediterranean countries. This paper briefly outlines the results that were obtained in the first year of life of the project and the activities that are currently carried out and planned for the future. In particular, we will emphasize the efforts made so far in the following directions. 1) The improvement of existing numerical models for tsunami generation, propagation and impact, and the possible development of new ones. Existing numerical models have been already applied to selected benchmark problems. At the same time, the project is making an important effort in the development of standards for inundation maps in Europe. 2) The project Consortium has selected seven test areas in different countries facing the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, where innovative probabilistic and statistical approaches for tsunami hazard assessment, up-to-date and new methods to compute inundation maps are being and will be applied. For the same test areas, tsunami scenario approaches are being developed, vulnerability and risk assessed, prevention and mitigation measures defined also by the advice of end users that are organised in an End User Group. 3) A final key aspect is represented by the dissemination of

  8. Assessing Stewardship Maturity: Use Case Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Peng, G.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the current stewardship maturity state of datasets is an important part of ensuring and improving the way datasets are documented, preserved, stewarded, and disseminated to users. It is a critical step towards meeting U.S. federal regulations, organizational requirements, and user needs, especially in the area of data quality. Stewardship maturity assessment models provide a uniform framework for a consistent assessment within the context of data management in organizations and portfolios, and stewardship of individual datasets, respectively. A key component of dataset and stewardship models maturity is data quality and documentation of the quality. The Data Stewardship Maturity Matrix(DSMM) developed in partnership with NOAA's National Centers of Environmental Information (NCEI) and the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites-North Carolina (CICS-NC) has been used to assess stewardship maturity of highly-utilized datasets within NCEI. Consistent application of the model across heterogenous data types (satellite, in situ, regional, global, etc.) and across multiple levels of stewardship support has proven beneficial but challenging.This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the DSMM through results from use case studies and its application for documenting data quality, indicate the challenges of consistent implementation and provide recommendations on improved application.

  9. From impact assessment to recommendation: How are the impact assessment results presented and used?

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, T.

    1995-07-01

    Most work on impact assessment (IA) deals with data, technique, and procedures for making the assessment. While these things can influence the final choice of planning alternative, it is equally important how the assessment results are used in the political decision process. The case material concerns integrated transportation and land use plans for the 10 largest urban regions in Norway. It is demonstrated that application of the impact assessment results varies widely among the cities. The information potential of the impact calculations is considerably underexploited in many cases, and assessment results seem too easily ignored in the process of reaching a recommendation on planning strategy. Some factors are identified and discussed in an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon.

  10. Results from the Sixth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Patricia Ann, Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) provides data about what children know and can do with the goal of using this information to improve education. This book contains interpretive reports based on results from the mathematics assessments conducted by the NAEP regarding: (1) the cognitive performance of students at grades 4, 8,…

  11. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  12. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  13. Assessment of the Mitigative Capacity of Dietary Zinc on PCB126 Hepatotoxicity and the Contribution of Zinc to Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Klaren, William D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; McCormick, Michael L; Spitz, Douglas R; Robertson, Larry W

    2016-05-16

    Hepatic levels of the essential micronutrient, zinc, are diminished by several hepatotoxicants, and the dietary supplementation of zinc has proven protective in those cases. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a liver toxicant, alters hepatic nutrient homeostasis and lowers hepatic zinc levels. The current study was designed to determine the mitigative potential of dietary zinc in the toxicity associated with PCB126 and the role of zinc in that toxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary groups and fed diets deficient in zinc (7 ppm Zn), adequate in zinc (30 ppm Zn), and supplemented in zinc (300 ppm). The animals were maintained for 3 weeks on these diets, then given a single IP injection of vehicle or 1 or 5 μmol/kg PCB126. After 2 weeks, the animals were euthanized. Dietary zinc increased the level of ROS, the activity of CuZnSOD, and the expression of metallothionein but decreased the levels of hepatic manganese. PCB126 exposed rats exhibited classic signs of exposure, including hepatomegaly, increased hepatic lipids, increased ROS and CYP induction. Liver histology suggests some mild ameliorative properties of both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation. Other metrics of toxicity (relative liver and thymus weights, hepatic lipids, and hepatic ROS) did not support this trend. Interestingly, the zinc supplemented high dose PCB126 group had mildly improved histology and less efficacious induction of investigated genes than did the low dose PCB126 group. Overall, decreases in zinc caused by PCB126 likely contribute little to the ongoing toxicity, and the mitigative/preventive capacity of zinc against PCB126 exposure seems limited. PMID:26967026

  14. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. PMID:25163601

  15. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Results and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1. 6 10{sup {minus}6} yr{sup {minus}1}, even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The probability of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquake) is 3.6 10{sup {minus}6} yr{sup {minus}1}. overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double, vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  16. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Results and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1. 6 10[sup [minus]6] yr[sup [minus]1], even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The probability of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquake) is 3.6 10[sup [minus]6] yr[sup [minus]1]. overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double, vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  17. Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

  18. Plethyzmography in assessment of hemodynamic results of pacemaker functions programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Dariusz; Sionek, Piotr; Peczalski, Kazimierz; Janusek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents potential role of plethyzmography in optimization of heart hemodynamic function during pacemaker programming. The assessment of optimal stroke volume in patients, with implanted dual chamber pacemaker (DDD), by plethyzmography was a goal of the study. The data were collected during pacing rhythm. 20 patients (8 female and 12 male, average 77.4+/-4.6 years) with dual chamber pacemaker (DDD) and with pacing rhythm during routine pacemaker control and study tests were incorporated in the study group. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed during modification of atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) for pacing rhythm of 70 bpm and 90 bpm. The time of atrioventricular was programmed with 20 ms steps within range 100-200 ms and data were recorded with two minutes delay between two consecutive measurements. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were calculated from plethyzmographic signal by using Beatscope software (TNO Holand). Highest SV calculated for given pacing rhythm was named optimal stroke volume (OSV) and consequently highest cardiac output was named maximal cardiac output (MCO). The time of atrio-ventricular delay for OSV was named optimal atrioventricular delay (OAVD). The results have showed: mean values of OAVD for 70 bpm - 152+/-33 ms and for 90 bpm -149+/-35 ms, shortening of the mean OAVD time caused by increase of pacing rate from 70 bpm to 90 bpm what resulted in statistically significant decrease of OSV with not statistically significant increase of MCO. The analysis of consecutive patients revealed three types of response to increase of pacing rhythm: 1. typical-shortening of OAVD, 2. neutral-no change of OAVD and 3.atypical-lengthening of OAVD.

  19. Developments and Changes Resulting from Writing and Thinking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flateby, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article chronicles the evolution of a large research extensive institution's General Education writing assessment efforts from an initial summative focus to a formative, improvement focus. The methods of assessment, which changed as the assessment purpose evolved, are described. As more data were collected, the measurement tool was…

  20. Accuracy assessment of contextual classification results for vegetation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoonen, Guy; Hufkens, Koen; Borre, Jeroen Vanden; Spanhove, Toon; Scheunders, Paul

    2012-04-01

    A new procedure for quantitatively assessing the geometric accuracy of thematic maps, obtained from classifying hyperspectral remote sensing data, is presented. More specifically, the methodology is aimed at the comparison between results from any of the currently popular contextual classification strategies. The proposed procedure characterises the shapes of all objects in a classified image by defining an appropriate reference and a new quality measure. The results from the proposed procedure are represented in an intuitive way, by means of an error matrix, analogous to the confusion matrix used in traditional thematic accuracy representation. A suitable application for the methodology is vegetation mapping, where lots of closely related and spatially connected land cover types are to be distinguished. Consequently, the procedure is tested on a heathland vegetation mapping problem, related to Natura 2000 habitat monitoring. Object-based mapping and Markov Random Field classification results are compared, showing that the selected Markov Random Fields approach is more suitable for the fine-scale problem at hand, which is confirmed by the proposed procedure.

  1. Assessing hydrologic prediction uncertainty resulting from soft land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosvelt, Lien; De Baets, Bernard; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2014-09-01

    For predictions in ungauged basins (PUB), environmental data is generally not available and needs to be inferred by indirect means. Existing technologies such as remote sensing are valuable tools for estimating the lacking data, as these technologies become more widely available and have a high areal coverage. However, indirect estimates of the environmental characteristics are prone to uncertainty. Hence, an improved understanding of the quality of the estimates and the development of methods for dealing with their associated uncertainty are essential to evolve towards accurate PUB. In this study, the impact of the uncertainty associated with the classification of land cover based on multi-temporal SPOT imagery, resulting from the use of the Random Forests classifier, on the predictions of the hydrologic model TOPLATS is investigated through a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the predictions of evapotranspiration, runoff and baseflow are hardly affected by the classification uncertainty when area-averaged predictions are intended, implying that uncertainty propagation is only advisable in case a spatial distribution of the predictions is relevant for decision making or is coupled to other spatially distributed models. Based on the resulting uncertainty map, guidelines for additional data collection are formulated in order to reduce the uncertainty for future model applications. Because a Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis is computationally very demanding, especially when complex models are involved, we developed a fast indicative uncertainty assessment method that allows for generating proxies of the Monte Carlo-based result in terms of the mean prediction and its associated uncertainty based on a single model evaluation. These proxies are shown to perform well and provide a good indication of the impact of classification uncertainty on the prediction result.

  2. Assessment of the Seismic Risk in the City of Yerevan and its Mitigation by Application of Innovative Seismic Isolation Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkumyan, Mikayel G.

    2011-03-01

    It is obvious that the problem of precise assessment and/or analysis of seismic hazard (SHA) is quite a serious issue, and seismic risk reduction considerably depends on it. It is well known that there are two approaches in seismic hazard analysis, namely, deterministic (DSHA) and probabilistic (PSHA). The latter utilizes statistical estimates of earthquake parameters. However, they may not exist in a specific region, and using PSHA it is difficult to take into account local aspects, such as specific regional geology and site effects, with sufficient precision. For this reason, DSHA is preferable in many cases. After the destructive 1988 Spitak earthquake, the SHA of the territory of Armenia has been revised and increased. The distribution pattern for seismic risk in Armenia is given. Maximum seismic risk is concentrated in the region of the capital, the city of Yerevan, where 40% of the republic's population resides. We describe the method used for conducting seismic resistance assessment of the existing reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings. Using this assessment, as well as GIS technology, the coefficients characterizing the seismic risk of destruction were calculated for almost all buildings of Yerevan City. The results of the assessment are presented. It is concluded that, presently, there is a particularly pressing need for strengthening existing buildings. We then describe non-conventional approaches to upgrading the earthquake resistance of existing multistory R/C frame buildings by means of Additional Isolated Upper Floor (AIUF) and of existing stone and frame buildings by means of base isolation. In addition, innovative seismic isolation technologies were developed and implemented in Armenia for construction of new multistory multifunctional buildings. The advantages of these technologies are listed in the paper. It is worth noting that the aforementioned technologies were successfully applied for retrofitting an existing 100-year-old bank building in

  3. Assessment of Emerging Regional Air Quality (AQ) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impacts and Potential Mitigation Strategies in U.S. Energy Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnon, Michael Mac

    The current domestic reliance on high-emitting fossil fuels for energy needs is the key driver of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions driving both climate change and regional air quality (AQ) concerns. Moving forward, emission sources in U.S. energy sectors will be subjected to changes driven by numerous phenomena, including technology evolution, environmental impacts, sustainability goals, and socioeconomic factors. This evolution will directly affect emissions source-related impacts on regional AQ that effective emissions control strategies must account for, including relative source contributions. Though previous studies have evaluated the emissions and AQ impacts of different sectors, technologies and fuels, most previous studies have assessed emissions impacts only without using advanced atmospheric models to accurately account for both spatial and temporal emissions perturbations and atmospheric chemistry and transport. In addition, few previous studies have considered the integration of multiple technologies and fuels in different U.S. regions.. Finally, most studies do not project emissions several decades into the future to assess what sources should be targeted with priority over time. These aspects are critical for understanding how both emissions sources and potential mitigation strategies impact the formation and fate of primary and secondary pollutants, including ground-level ozone and particulate matter concentrations. Therefore, this work utilizes a set of modeling tools to project and then to spatially and temporally resolve emissions as input into a 3-D Eulerian AQ model to assess how sources of emissions contribute to future atmospheric pollutant burdens. Further, analyses of the potential impacts of alternative energy strategies contained in potential mitigation strategies are conducted for priority targets to develop an understanding of how to maximize AQ benefits and avoid unforeseen deleterious tradeoffs between GHG reduction

  4. Rapid Assessment and Mitigation of Cascadia Earthquakes Using the Combined PANGA and PBO Real-time GPS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabak, I.; Melbourne, T. I.; Santillan, M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Kinkaid, K.; Stahl, R.

    2010-12-01

    Nearly 400 GPS receivers of the combined PANGA and PBO networks currently operate along the Cascadia subduction zone, all of which are high-rate and either currently or soon to be telemetered in real-time. These receivers span the M9 megathrust, M7 crustal faults beneath population centers, several active Cascades volcanoes, and a host of other hazard sources. Together these receivers enable a host of new approaches towards hazards mitigation. Data from the majority of the stations are received in real time at CWU and processed into one-second position estimates using: 1) relative positioning within several reference frames 2) absolute point positioning using streamed satellite orbit and clock corrections. While the former produces lower-noise time series, for earthquakes greater than ~M7 and ground displacements exceeding ~20 cm, point positioning provides rapid and robust estimates of the location and amplitude of both dynamic strong ground motion and permanent deformation. Estimated position streams are fed into routines that derive products relevant to rapid hazards response and mitigation: sidereal position differences and triggering detectors; “ShakeMap” and “ShiftMap” of maximum dynamic and permanent ground displacement, respectively; source magnitude and distribution of fault slip on known faults (entire megathrust; Seattle, Whidbey Island, Bainbridge, and Portland West Hills); earthquake magnitude derived from an empirical relationship between the shaking and deformation amplitude and affected regional area size; and formal surface-wave inversion estimation. For the megathrust slip estimation, we also predict sea-floor uplift along the near-coastal Cascadia region. Finally, a set of Java routines have been developed to allow any individual or agency to stream any or all of these data products onto local computers for customized analyses and triggers. The 2010 Chile and Sierra El Mayor earthquakes provided an opportunity to retroactively test some

  5. Global scale flood exposure assessment - Methodologies and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongman, B.; Ward, P. J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2012-04-01

    Flood damage modelling has traditionally been limited to the local, regional or national scale. Recent flood events, population growth and climate change concerns have increased the need for global methods with both spatial and temporal dynamics. In this study we present a first estimate of economic exposure to both river and coastal flooding on a global scale from 1970 - 2050, using two different methods for economic exposure calculation. One methodology is based on population densities and GDP, while the other method uses land-use and maximum damage figures to calculate economic exposure. Both methods show very similar upward trends in economic exposure over the period 1970-2050. However, the absolute exposure values resulting from the two methods show different magnitudes, reflecting variation in urbanisation and income. Furthermore we found that growth of population and economic assets in flood prone areas is higher than average national growth, especially in developing countries. As a next step, we propose a methodology for assessing total flood vulnerability that goes beyond economic impact, using a welfare-based approach based on a broad range of development indicators. The results are interesting for academics and practitioners working on international environmental, economic and development issues at the regional and global scales.

  6. Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on turbulence detection and mitigation technologies in weather accident prevention. The topics include: 1) Organization; 2) Scope of Turbulence Effort; 3) Background; 4) Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Program Metrics; 5) Approach; 6) Turbulence Team Relationships; 7) WBS Structure; 8) Deliverables; 9) TDAM Changes; 10) FY-01 Results/Accomplishments; 11) Out-year Plans; and 12) Element Status.

  7. Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate assessment of droughts is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources, environment, and ecosystems. The combined influence of increasing water demands and the anticipated impacts of global climate change has already raised serious concerns about worsening drought conditions in the future and their social, economic, and environmental impacts. As a result, studies on droughts are currently a major focal point for a broad range of research communities, including civil engineers, hydrologists, environmentalists, ecologists, meteorologists, geologists, agricultural scientists, economists, policy makers, and water managers. There is, therefore, an urgent need for enhancing our understanding of droughts (e.g. occurrence, modeling), making more reliable assessments of their impacts on various sectors of our society (e.g. domestic, agricultural, industrial), and undertaking appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures, especially in the face of global climate change.

  8. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  9. Life-cycle assessment of a reed canary grass plantation in an abandoned peat extraction area to mitigate GHG emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Abandoned peat extraction areas are continuous emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); hence, abandonment of peat extraction areas should immediately be followed by conversion to an appropriate after-use. Our primary aim was to clarify the atmospheric impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) cultivation on an abandoned peat extraction area and to compare it to other after-treatment alternatives. In addition to measurement of GHGs using the closed chamber and gas-chromatograph method, measuring C and N balance in study plots and aboveground and belowground biomass of RCG for the period April 2009-September 2011, we performed a life-cycle assessment for five different after-use options for a drained organic soil withdrawn from peat extraction: (I) bare peat soil (no management), (II) non-fertilised Phalaris cultivation, (III) fertilized Phalaris cultivation, (IV) afforestation, and (V) rewetting. Our results showed that on average the non-fertilised and fertilised Phalaris alternatives had a cooling effect on the atmosphere, whereas afforestation, rewetting, and no management alternatives contributed to global warming. The main components influencing the global warming potential of different after-use alternatives were site GHG emissions, carbon assimilation by plants, and emissions from combustion, while management-related emissions played a relatively minor role. The results of this study indicate that, from the perspective of atmospheric impact during following 10 years, the most suitable after-use option for an abandoned peat extraction area is cultivation of RCG. For the long term effect, dynamics of Phalaris production and carbon sequestration in soil must be taken into the consideration.

  10. Assessing the Reliability of Geoelectric Imaging Results for Permafrost Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescot, L.; Loke, M.; Abbet, D.; Delaloye, R.; Hauck, C.; Hilbich, C.; Lambiel, C.; Reynard, E.

    2007-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on mountain permafrost are of increasing concern; warming thaws permafrost, thereby increasing the risk of slope instabilities. Consequently, knowledge of the extent and location of permafrost are important for construction and other geotechnical and land-management activities in mountainous areas. Geoelectric imaging is a useful tool for mapping and characterizing permafrost occurrences. To overcome the generally poor electrical contacts in the active layer, geoelectric surveys usually involve coupling the electrodes to the ground via sponges soaked in salt water. The data are processed and inverted in terms of resistivity models of the subsurface. To monitor the evolution of mountain permafrost, time-lapse geoelectric imaging may be employed. A challenging aspect in geoelectric imaging of permafrost is the very large resistivity contrast between frozen and unfrozen material. Such a contrast makes inversion and interpretation difficult. To assess whether features at depth are required by the data or are artifacts of the inversion process, the reliability of models needs to be evaluated. We use two different approaches to assess the reliability of resistivity images in permafrost investigations: (i) depth of investigation (DOI) and (ii) resolution matrix maps. To compute the DOI, two inversions of the same data set using quite different reference resistivity models are carried out. At locations where the resistivity is well constrained by the data, the inversions yield the same results. At other locations, the inversions yield different values that are controlled by the reference models. The resolution matrix, which is based on the sensitivity matrix calculated during the inversion, quantifies the degree to which each resistivity cell in the model can be resolved by the data. Application of these two approaches to field data acquired in the Swiss Alps and Jura Mountains suggests that it is very difficult to obtain dependable

  11. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes - a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Dragosits, U.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    reducing N emissions from livestock farms. Based on the large differences between the average and the most modern and N-efficient farms, it was concluded that N-surplus reductions of 25-50 % as compared to the present level were realistic in all landscapes. The implemented N-surplus method was thus effective at comparing and synthesizing results on farm N emissions and the potentials of mitigation options, and is recommended for use in combination with other methods for the assessment of landscape N emissions and farm N efficiency, including more detailed N sink and N source hotspot mapping, measurements and modelling.

  12. Organizing and Evaluating Results from Multiple Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of understanding how reading abilities vary within the classroom can be daunting. This article offers techniques to organize a variety of assessment data to give teachers a clear picture of individual achievement, how students compare with one another, and how reliably various assessment instruments yield an accurate picture of…

  13. Is Teacher Professional Development an Effective Way to Mitigate Teachers' Gender Differences in Technology? Result from a Statewide Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a statewide professional development (PD) program to investigate whether gender difference towards technology usage was mitigated after participation in the program. Teachers responded to pre- and post-questionnaires regarding their perceptions and use of technology before and after participating in PD courses.…

  14. Implementing REDD+ at the local level: Assessing the key enablers for credible mitigation and sustainable livelihood outcomes.

    PubMed

    Atela, Joanes O; Minang, Peter A; Quinn, Claire H; Duguma, Lalisa A

    2015-07-01

    Achieving cost-effective mitigation and sustainable livelihoods through reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) depends heavily on the local context within which REDD+ projects are implemented. Studies have focused on how REDD+ can benefit or harm local people, with little attention paid to how people, their assets and institutions can promote or impede REDD+. This paper examines the key local assets necessary for REDD+ to protect forests and support local livelihoods based on evidence from a globally-linked REDD+ project in Kenya. Household interviews (n = 100), focus group discussions (n = 6) and in-depth interviews with government (n = 8) and project stakeholders (n = 14) were undertaken to rank and explain how local assets interact with the project's efforts to protect forests, and the role of State institutions in shaping project-asset interactions. Locally, pro-poor assets such as land tenure and water access had most influence on the project's ability to protect forests. Inclusion of communal forests as part of the REDD+ project entitled local poor peasant farmers to participate in and benefit from the project and so dissuaded them from using protected forests for charcoal production. Water access determined agricultural productivity and intensity of forest use for livelihoods and coping. Even though carbon revenues were distributed equally between social groups and support directed to pro-poor livelihood initiatives, efforts were impeded by State decisions on land that interfered with communal approaches to forest conservation, by strict carbon standards that limited trade-offs between livelihoods and forest protection and by fluctuating carbon prices and buyers that limited funds needed for project operations and local livelihoods. Equitable and pro-poor benefit sharing are necessary but not sufficient for effective REDD+ implementation unless national institutions are reformed and global carbon pricing harmonized

  15. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  16. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS OF AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UNEP/ILO/WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration of assessment approaches to ...

  18. 24 CFR 50.33 - Action resulting from the assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable and insignificant levels; and (2) An Environmental Management and Monitoring Program is developed... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments... without modifications if the EA indicates that the proposal will not significantly (see 40 CFR...

  19. 24 CFR 50.33 - Action resulting from the assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acceptable and insignificant levels; and (2) An Environmental Management and Monitoring Program is developed... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments... without modifications if the EA indicates that the proposal will not significantly (see 40 CFR...

  20. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  1. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  2. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissenet, C.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gomez, F.; Haberle, R.; Hamilton, V.; Jones, J.; Kah, L.; Leshin, L.; Mahaffy, M.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Treiman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  3. Collecting, analyzing and assessing big land use data: Results from the cropland capture game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salk, C.; Sturn, T.; Fritz, S.; See, L. M.; McCallum, I.; Fuss, S.; Perger, C.; Duerauer, M.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has developed a number of tools for assessing the socioeconomic benefit of Earth Observation such as quantifying the monetary benefit of improved land cover information for mitigation policies. Recently, IIASA has been assessing the benefit of an improved global carbon observation system in the GEOCARBON Project. Because traditional ground-based land cover validation is expensive, IIASA has developed crowdsourcing projects such as Geo-Wiki which to contribute to land-cover validation. A recent activity is the 'Cropland Capture' game which can be played in a browser or mobile device. It can be downloaded or played online at http://www.geo-wiki.org/games/croplandcapture/. In the game, players see an image (from a satellite or ground-based camera) and are asked if they see any cropland in it. They can answer "yes", "no" or "maybe" if they are unsure. The game had over 3,000 players who made about 4,500,000 classifications on 190,000 unique images. The benefits delivered by crowdsourcing relative to conventional data acquisition depends critically on the quality of the data received. Players' rating quality was compared by assessing their agreement with the crowd, consistency on images rated more than once, and agreement with expert validators. These metrics were compared with one another and with potential predictors of user quality: the total number of images rated by a player, and their professional background in land-cover science. Individual users' agreement with the crowd and self-agreement were highly positively correlated. The frequency of admitting uncertainty about an image was a good measure of user caution, showing a negative relationship with self-contradiction rate. Many users were more reliable in either identifying cropland or non-cropland, and these two skills were uncorrelated. Overall, user reliability increased with number of images rated, although among the top decile of users, this

  4. Assessment Results Following Inquiry and Traditional Physics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers in a conceptual physics course were given multiple resources to use during several inquiry activities in order to investigate how materials were chosen, used, and valued. These students performed significantly better on assessment items related to the inquiry physics activities than on items related to traditional…

  5. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed…

  6. Assessing Diversity among Latinos: Results from the NLAAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Alegria, Margarita; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a profile of a range of important variables for assessing diversity among different Latino groups from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is a nationally representative study of the mental health needs and mental health services use of the Latino population of the United States. The NLAAS employs…

  7. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification...) Probability distributions for uncertain disposal system parameter values used in compliance assessments shall... random samples from across the entire range of values of each probability distribution developed...

  8. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  9. Arriving at Results Efficiently: Using the Enhanced Evaluability Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Losby, Jan L; Vaughan, Marla; Davis, Rachel; Tucker-Brown, Aisha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence, particularly practice-based evidence, is needed to guide public health practice. With the goal of contributing to practice-based evidence, the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention combined and streamlined aspects of an evaluability assessment and an effectiveness evaluation to create the Enhanced Evaluability Assessment (EEA). This approach offers a viable and less costly alternative to evaluators and practitioners by quickly identifying and evaluating models with evidence of effectiveness that can be replicated and expanded. The EEA can be applied to a range of public health topics, not just cardiovascular health. This article provides a step-by-step description of the EEA. PMID:26704442

  10. Arriving at Results Efficiently: Using the Enhanced Evaluability Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Marla; Davis, Rachel; Tucker-Brown, Aisha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence, particularly practice-based evidence, is needed to guide public health practice. With the goal of contributing to practice-based evidence, the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention combined and streamlined aspects of an evaluability assessment and an effectiveness evaluation to create the Enhanced Evaluability Assessment (EEA). This approach offers a viable and less costly alternative to evaluators and practitioners by quickly identifying and evaluating models with evidence of effectiveness that can be replicated and expanded. The EEA can be applied to a range of public health topics, not just cardiovascular health. This article provides a step-by-step description of the EEA. PMID:26704442

  11. CAISI Operational Assessment (OA) data collection results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    One of the lessons learned from Operation Desert Shield/Storm was the inability of deployed Combat Service Support (CSS) computers to exchange data effectively in a battlefield environment. The work-around solution to this previously identified problem has been to physically carry floppy disks between computers. A General Officer Steering Committee, directed by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, determined that immediate corrective action was necessary to ensure viability of the CSS Battlefield Mission Area. The study recommended that a three-phased system development plan address short-, mid- and long-term CSS automation communication interface requirements. In response to this study, Program Executive Office (PEO) Standard Army Management Information System (STAMIS) authorized the development of the CSS Automated Information System Interface (CAISI). Phase I (Near-Term) equipped the {open_quotes}first to fight{close_quotes} Contingency Corps units. Phase II (Mid-Term) is being fielded to the remainder of Force Package One units in the active force. Phase III (Long-Term) will equip the remaining units. CAISI is now in the early stages of Phase II fielding. Prior to full Phase II fielding, CAISI must be approved for production by a Milestone III decision authority. Part of the data that will be used in the Milestone III decision is a demonstration of the CAISI`s operational suitability, as assessed by the US Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command (OPTEC). This assessment will be performed through an Operational Assessment (OA) using data provided from previous technical testing, such as the CAISI Customer User Test (CUT), and a field training exercise conducted by units of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The field training exercise data collection took place during two events.

  12. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  13. A quantitative assessment of results with the Angelchik prosthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, J. H.; Edwards, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Angelchik antireflux prosthesis was assessed in 15 unpromising patients, 12 of whom had peptic strictures of the oesophagus. Radiological techniques were used to show the effect of the device on gastro-oesophageal reflux, and on the bore and length of strictures. Twelve months later (range 6-24) most patients were well satisfied with the operation, and all considered it had been worthwhile; there was radiological evidence of reduction in reflux and remission of strictures. The device never surrounded the oesophageal sphincter; in all but 1 case it encircled a tube of stomach. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4037629

  14. Abstraction of mechanistic sorption model results for performance assessment calculations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.R.; Pabalan, R.T. )

    1999-01-01

    Sorption onto minerals in the geologic setting may help to mitigate potential radionuclide transport from the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. An approach is developed for including aspects of more mechanistic sorption models into current probabilistic performance assessment (PA) calculations. Data on water chemistry from the vicinity of YM are screened and used to calculate the ranges in parameters that could exert control on radionuclide corruption behavior. Using a diffuse-layer surface complexation model, sorption parameters for Np(V) and U(VI) are calculated based on the chemistry of each water sample. Model results suggest that log normal probability distribution functions (PDFs) of sorption parameters are appropriate for most of the samples, but the calculated range is almost five orders of magnitude for Np(V) sorption and nine orders of magnitude for U(VI) sorption. Calculated sorption parameters may also vary at a single sample location by almost a factor of 10 over time periods of the order of days to years due to changes in chemistry, although sampling and analytical methodologies may introduce artifacts that add uncertainty to the evaluation of these fluctuations. Finally, correlation coefficients between the calculated Np(V) and U(VI) sorption parameters can be included as input into PA sampling routines, so that the value selected for one radionuclide sorption parameter is conditioned by its statistical relationship to the others. The approaches outlined here can be adapted readily to current PA efforts, using site-specific information to provide geochemical constraints on PDFs for radionuclide transport parameters.

  15. Abstraction of mechanistic sorption model results for performance assessment calculations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.R.; Pabalan, R.T.

    1999-11-01

    Sorption onto minerals in the geologic setting may help to mitigate potential radionuclide transport from the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. An approach is developed for including aspects of more mechanistic sorption models into current probabilistic performance assessment (PA) calculations. Data on water chemistry from the vicinity of YM are screened and used to calculate the ranges in parameters that could exert control on radionuclide corruption behavior. Using a diffuse-layer surface complexation model, sorption parameters for Np(V) and U(VI) are calculated based on the chemistry of each water sample. Model results suggest that log normal probability distribution functions (PDFs) of sorption parameters are appropriate for most of the samples, but the calculated range is almost five orders of magnitude for Np(V) sorption and nine orders of magnitude for U(VI) sorption. Calculated sorption parameters may also vary at a single sample location by almost a factor of 10 over time periods of the order of days to years due to changes in chemistry, although sampling and analytical methodologies may introduce artifacts that add uncertainty to the evaluation of these fluctuations. Finally, correlation coefficients between the calculated Np(V) and U(VI) sorption parameters can be included as input into PA sampling routines, so that the value selected for one radionuclide sorption parameter is conditioned by its statistical relationship to the others. The approaches outlined here can be adapted readily to current PA efforts, using site-specific information to provide geochemical constraints on PDFs for radionuclide transport parameters.

  16. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  17. Students' Assessment Preferences, Perceptions of Assessment and Their Relationships to Study Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Watering, Gerard; Gijbels, David; Dochy, Filip; van der Rijt, Janine

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to gain more insight into students' actual preferences and perceptions of assessment, into the effects of these on their performances when different assessment formats are used, and into the different cognitive process levels assessed. Data were obtained from two sources. The first was the scores on the assessment of…

  18. Turbulence degradation and mitigation performance for handheld weapon ID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Aghera, Sameer; Thompson, Roger; Miller, Jason

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric turbulence can severely limit the range performance of state-of-the-art large aperture imaging sensor systems, specifically those intended for long range ground to ground target identification. Simple and cost-effective mitigation solutions which operate in real-time are desired. Software-based post-processing techniques are attractive as they lend themselves to easy implementation and integration into the back-end of existing sensor systems. Recently, various post-processing algorithms to mitigate turbulence have been developed and implemented in real-time hardware. To determine their utility in Army-relevant tactical scenarios, an assessment of the impact of the post processing on observer performance is required. In this paper, we test a set of representative turbulence mitigation algorithms on field collected data of human targets carrying various handheld objects in varying turbulence conditions. We use a controlled human perception test to assess handheld weapon identification performance before and after turbulence mitigation post-processing. In addition, novel image analysis tools are implemented to estimate turbulence strength from the scene. Results of this assessment will lead to recommendations on cost-effective turbulence mitigation strategies suitable for future sensor systems.

  19. Assessing Diversity among Latinos: Results from the NLAAS

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Alegria, Margarita; Shrout, Patrick; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a profile of a range of important variables for assessing diversity among different Latino groups from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is a nationally representative study of the mental health needs and mental health services use of the Latino population of the United States. The NLAAS employs a stratified area probability sampling design. There are 2,554 respondents in the Latino portion of the NLAAS. The paper demonstrates through a detailed presentation of a wide range of variables the diverse experiences of Latino groups in their encounters with U.S. culture. Language use and migration experiences show considerable variability both within and across Latino groups and are promising areas for analysis of their mental health consequences. PMID:19672330

  20. Mitigation of Hexavalent Chromium in Storm Water Resulting from Demolition of Large Concrete Structure at the East Tennessee Technology Park - 12286

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ronnie; Brown, Bridget; Hale, Timothy B.; Hensley, Janice L.; Johnson, Robert T.; Patel, Madhu; Emery, Jerry A.; Gaston, Clyde; Queen, David C.

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding was provided to supplement the environmental management program at several DOE sites, including the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Demolition of the ETTP K-33 Building, the largest building to be demolished to date in Oak Ridge, was awarded to LSRS in FY-2010 under the ARRA program. The K-33 building was an 82 foot tall 2-story structure covering approximately 32 acres. Once this massive building was brought down to the ground, the debris was segregated and consolidated into piles of concrete rubble and steel across the remaining pad. The process of demolishing the building, tracking across concrete debris with heavy equipment, and stockpiling the concrete rubble caused it to become pulverized. During and after storm events, hexavalent chromium leached from the residual cement present in the large quantities of concrete. Storm water control measures were present to preclude migration of contaminants off-site, but these control measures were not designed to control hexavalent chromium dissolved in storm water from reaching nearby receiving water. The following was implemented to mitigate hexavalent chromium in storm water: - Steel wool was distributed around K-33 site catch basins and in water pools as an initial step in addressing hexavalent chromium. - Since the piles of concrete were too massive and unsafe to tarp, they were placed into windrows in an effort to reduce total surface area. - A Hach colorimetric field meter was acquired by the K-33 project to provide realtime results of hexavalent chromium in site surface water. - Three hexavalent chromium treatment systems were installed at three separate catch basins that receive integrated storm water flow from the K-33 site. Sodium bisulfite is being used as a reducing agent for the immobilization of hexavalent chromium while also assisting in lowering pH. Concentrations initially were 310 - 474 ppb of hexavalent chromium in

  1. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  2. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results, and interpretation are essential components of the scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. Several reporting guidelines are now publicly available for animal researchers including the...

  3. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    2001-04-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

  4. Designing and assessing weather-based financial hedging contracts to mitigate water conflicts at the river basin scale. A case study in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellagamba, Laura; Denaro, Simona; Kern, Jordan; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Characklis, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Growing water demands and more frequent and severe droughts are increasingly challenging water management in many regions worldwide, exacerbating water disputes and reducing the space for negotiated agreements at the catchment scale. In the lack of a centralized controller, the design and deployment of coordination and/or regulatory mechanisms is a way to improve system-wide efficiency while preserving the distributed nature of the decision making setting, and facilitating cooperation among institutionally independent decision-makers. Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in index-based insurance contracts as mechanisms for sharing hydro-meteorological risk in complex and heterogeneous decision making context (e.g. multiple stakeholders and institutionally independent decision makers). In this study, we explore the potential for index-based insurance contracts to mitigate the conflict in a water system characterized by (political) power asymmetry between hydropower companies upstream and farmers downstream. The Lake Como basin in the Italian Alps is considered as a case study. We generated alternative regulatory mechanisms in the form of minimum release constraints to the hydropower facilities, and designed an insurance contract for hedging against hydropower relative revenue losses. The fundamental step in designing this type of insurance contracts is the identification of a suitable index, which triggers the payouts as well as the payout function, defined by strike level and slope (e.g., euros/index unit). A portfolio of index-based contracts was designed for the case study and evaluated in terms of revenue floor, basis risk and revenue fluctuation around the mean, both with and without insurance. Over the long term, the insurance proved to be capable to keep the minimum revenue above a specified level while providing a greater certainty on the revenue trend. This result shows the possibility to augment farmer's supply with little loss for hydropower

  5. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  6. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  7. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  8. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  9. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  10. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-03-31

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  11. Could Do Better? Media Depictions of UK Educational Assessment Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul; Murphy, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The publication of A-level examination results in England, Wales and Northern Ireland has become one of the major diary items in the news media's calendar. This paper is based, in part, upon the findings of an inter-disciplinary study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). It explores two key questions about the relationship…

  12. Rainfall-Runoff Simulations to Assess the Potential of SuDS for Mitigating Flooding in Highly Urbanized Catchments.

    PubMed

    Jato-Espino, Daniel; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Bayon, Joseba R; Warwick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) constitute an alternative to conventional drainage when managing stormwater in cities, reducing the impact of urbanization by decreasing the amount of runoff generated by a rainfall event. This paper shows the potential benefits of installing different types of SuDS in preventing flooding in comparison with the common urban drainage strategies consisting of sewer networks of manholes and pipes. The impact of these systems on urban water was studied using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are useful tools when both delineating catchments and parameterizing the elements that define a stormwater drainage system. Taking these GIS-based data as inputs, a series of rainfall-runoff simulations were run in a real catchment located in the city of Donostia (Northern Spain) using stormwater computer models, in order to compare the flow rates and depths produced by a design storm before and after installing SuDS. The proposed methodology overcomes the lack of precision found in former GIS-based stormwater approaches when dealing with the modeling of highly urbanized catchments, while the results demonstrated the usefulness of these systems in reducing the volume of water generated after a rainfall event and their ability to prevent localized flooding and surcharges along the sewer network. PMID:26805864

  13. Rainfall–Runoff Simulations to Assess the Potential of SuDS for Mitigating Flooding in Highly Urbanized Catchments

    PubMed Central

    Jato-Espino, Daniel; Charlesworth, Susanne M.; Bayon, Joseba R.; Warwick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) constitute an alternative to conventional drainage when managing stormwater in cities, reducing the impact of urbanization by decreasing the amount of runoff generated by a rainfall event. This paper shows the potential benefits of installing different types of SuDS in preventing flooding in comparison with the common urban drainage strategies consisting of sewer networks of manholes and pipes. The impact of these systems on urban water was studied using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are useful tools when both delineating catchments and parameterizing the elements that define a stormwater drainage system. Taking these GIS-based data as inputs, a series of rainfall–runoff simulations were run in a real catchment located in the city of Donostia (Northern Spain) using stormwater computer models, in order to compare the flow rates and depths produced by a design storm before and after installing SuDS. The proposed methodology overcomes the lack of precision found in former GIS-based stormwater approaches when dealing with the modeling of highly urbanized catchments, while the results demonstrated the usefulness of these systems in reducing the volume of water generated after a rainfall event and their ability to prevent localized flooding and surcharges along the sewer network. PMID:26805864

  14. Robust dynamic mitigation of instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.

    2015-04-15

    A dynamic mitigation mechanism for instability growth was proposed and discussed in the paper [S. Kawata, Phys. Plasmas 19, 024503 (2012)]. In the present paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is discussed further. The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude, and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. Generally, instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally, the perturbation phase is unknown so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: If the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled, and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations.

  15. Assessing Equivalent Viscous Damping Using Piping System test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    The specification of damping for nuclear piping systems subject to seismic-induced motions has been the subject of many studies and much controversy. Damping estimation based on test data can be influenced by numerous factors, consequently leading to considerable scatter in damping estimates in the literature. At present, nuclear industry recommendations and nuclear regulatory guidance are not consistent on the treatment of damping for analysis of nuclear piping systems. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a more complete and consistent technical basis for specification of appropriate damping values for use in design and analysis. This paper summarizes the results of recent damping studies conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  16. Terrorist attacks: do we know how to assess the results?

    PubMed

    Manning, W J

    2001-10-24

    On September 11, 2001, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. Explosions and fires resulted in the complete collapse of the two WTC towers. The collapsing towers served as enormous point sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution, seen as huge plumes of smoke and dust. The smoke contained volatile organic compounds and fine particles and aerosols. The dust fraction contained parts of ceiling tiles, carpets, concrete, adhesives, asbestos, chromium, lead, titanium, and many other elements and materials. Whether there were unusually toxic ingredients in the plumes is largely unknown. PMID:12805853

  17. Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Sérgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jacob J.

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous

  18. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  19. Unsupervised text mining for assessing and augmenting GWAS results.

    PubMed

    Ailem, Melissa; Role, François; Nadif, Mohamed; Demenais, Florence

    2016-04-01

    Text mining can assist in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale biomedical data, helping biologists to quickly and cheaply gain confirmation of hypothesized relationships between biological entities. We set this question in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), an actively emerging field that contributed to identify many genes associated with multifactorial diseases. These studies allow to identify groups of genes associated with the same phenotype, but provide no information about the relationships between these genes. Therefore, our objective is to leverage unsupervised text mining techniques using text-based cosine similarity comparisons and clustering applied to candidate and random gene vectors, in order to augment the GWAS results. We propose a generic framework which we used to characterize the relationships between 10 genes reported associated with asthma by a previous GWAS. The results of this experiment showed that the similarities between these 10 genes were significantly stronger than would be expected by chance (one-sided p-value<0.01). The clustering of observed and randomly selected gene also allowed to generate hypotheses about potential functional relationships between these genes and thus contributed to the discovery of new candidate genes for asthma. PMID:26911523

  20. CO2CARE - Site Closure Assessment Research - Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipki, Mario; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; Lüth, Stefan; Durucan, Sevket; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre; Wollenweber, Jens; Chadwick, Andy; Böhm, Gualtiero

    2013-04-01

    The EU project CO2CARE, which started in January 2011, supports the large scale demonstration of CCS technology by addressing requirements of operators and regulators face in terms of CO2 storage site abandonment. The CO2CARE consortium, consisting of 24 project partners from universities, research institutes, and the industry, investigate technologies and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for the transfer of responsibility. Nine key injections sites in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia, each with a specific (hydro) geological and environmental character, were selected for investigations. These sites can be divided into the CO2 storage types on-shore, off-shore, natural CO2 reservoir, depleted gas reservoirs, and saline aquifers. The project mainly focuses on three key areas: - well abandonment and long-term integrity; - reservoir management and prediction from closure to the long-term; - risk management methodologies for long-term safety. These key areas are in turn closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modeled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. The identification of criteria and the development of site abandonment procedures and technologies, which guarantee the fulfillment of the high-level requirements, are the major objectives in CO2CARE. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. Finally, the essential results of the different working groups in CO2CARE will feed into overall guidelines for regulatory compliance and "Best Practice" for site abandonment. Dissemination of the results will show policy makers and the general public how site abandonment

  1. Assessing pretrial publicity effects: integrating content analytic results.

    PubMed

    Studebaker, C A; Robbennolt, J K; Pathak-Sharma, M K; Penrod, S D

    2000-06-01

    When a case has received pretrial publicity which has the capacity to bias potential jurors in the trial venue, a change of venue is one means of attempting to ensure that the defendant receives a fair trial. Content analysis of the pretrial publicity surrounding a case can provide the court with important information to consider when determining whether prejudice in the relevant community is too great for the defendant to receive a fair trial. This paper presents an approach to content analysis of pretrial publicity that draws upon both legal commentary and past empirical social science research. It is a systematic approach that could be employed by both the prosecution and defense when presenting arguments to the court about whether a change of venue should be granted. Information gleaned from content analysis of the publicity surrounding a specific case fills the gap between information provided by experimental research which has examined pretrial publicity effects and public opinion polls concerning the public's perception of the defendant in a particular case. Results from a content analysis can serve to validate public opinion survey data gathered from the same locales. To exemplify this content analytic approach, a content analysis conducted by the authors in preparation for the change of venue hearing in the case of Timothy McVeigh is presented. PMID:10846375

  2. Mathematical Knowledge and Skills: Selected Results from the Second Assessment of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Stuart

    This is one of a series of reports summarizing the results of the second mathematics assessment conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Nine, 13- and 17-year-olds were assessed during the 1977-78 school year. The assessment measured achievement in various content areas at four levels of cognitive processes (knowledge,…

  3. Field-based assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    The M7.8 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence caused thousands of fatalities, destroyed entire villages, and displaced millions of residents. The earthquake sequence also triggered thousands of landslides in the steep Himalayan topography of Nepal and China; these landslides were responsible for hundreds of fatalities and blocked vital roads, trails, and rivers. With the support of USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, the U.S. Geological Survey responded to this crisis by providing landslide-hazard expertise to Nepalese agencies and affected villages. Assessments of landslide hazards following earthquakes are essential to identify vulnerable populations and infrastructure, and inform government agencies working on rebuilding and mitigation efforts. However, assessing landslide hazards over an entire earthquake-affected region (in Nepal, estimated to be ~30,000 km2), and in exceedingly steep, inaccessible topography presents a number of logistical challenges. We focused the scope of our assessment by conducting helicopter- and ground-based landslide assessments in 12 priority areas in central Nepal identified a priori from satellite photo interpretation performed in conjunction with an international consortium of remote sensing experts. Our reconnaissance covered 3,200 km of helicopter flight path, extending over an approximate area of 8,000 km2. During our field work, we made 17 site-specific assessments and provided landslide hazard information to both villages and in-country agencies. Upon returning from the field, we compiled our observations and further identified and assessed 74 river-blocking landslide dams, 12% of which formed impoundments larger than 1,000 m2 in surface area. These assessments, along with more than 11 hours of helicopter-based video, and an overview of hazards expected during the 2015 summer monsoon have been publically released (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142) for use by in-country and international agencies.

  4. Integrating uncertainties for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-04-01

    The target of keeping global average temperature increase to below 2°C has emerged in the international climate debate more than a decade ago. In response, the scientific community has tried to estimate the costs of reaching such a target through modelling and scenario analysis. Producing such estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well-known, but ill-quantified uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on one side, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other side, has worked on achieving an increasingly better understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty for the cost of mitigation scenarios but has only been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in a rudimentary manner, i.e., for equilibrium conditions. To bridge this gap between the two research communities, we generate distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific temperature limits, taking into account uncertainties in multiple dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. In other words, uncertainties resulting from our incomplete knowledge about how the climate system precisely reacts to GHG emissions (geophysical uncertainties), about how society will develop (social uncertainties and choices), which technologies will be available (technological uncertainty and choices), when we choose to start acting globally on climate change (political choices), and how much money we are or are not willing to spend to achieve climate change mitigation. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by

  5. Save the forests to mitigate climate, twice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation impacts climate in two major ways: affecting the atmospheric CO2 concentration and modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water vapor. While the mitigation effects of forest biogeochemistry have been largely investigated and are accounted for in climate protocols, the biophysical impacts of forest cover are still debated in the scientific community and are ignored in climate treaties. On the other hand, currently available model predictions of land biophysical effects are rather uncertain thus additional robust experimental evidence at the global scale is required to inform climate policy. In this work we report an observation-driven analysis of the biophysical impacts of forest losses and gains on the local climate, based on a combination of Earth observations of forest cover, surface radiometric temperatures, and in-situ air temperatures. Results show that deforestation causes significant local changes in mean air temperature. In addition, forest losses produce a substantial increase in both the diurnal and annual temperature variation at all latitudes, by increasing daytime and reducing nighttime temperatures (except in the case of snow cover when both days and nights are cooled). These experimental observations provide a global and robust quantification of the local climate sensitivities to deforestation and a novel assessment of the mitigation potentials of forests on the diurnal and seasonal temperature variations. Ultimately, these findings may support the development of land-based mitigation strategies that build on the integration of biogeochemical and biophysical effects of afforestation and deforestation.

  6. ACT's NAEP Redesign Project: Assessment Design Is the Key to Useful and Stable Assessment Results. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Luz; Chen, Lee; Hanson, Bradley A.; Happel, Jay; Kolen, Michael J.; Miller, Timothy; Pommerich, Mary; Sconing, James; Wang, Tianyou; Welch, Catherine

    This report presents an investigation by the American College Testing Program (ACT) of an alternative design for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The proposed design greatly simplifies the data collection and analysis procedures needed to produce assessment results and has the potential to produce results that are more…

  7. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

  8. Underwater Blast Experiments and Modeling for Shock Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; McMichael, L; Vandersall, K; Margraf, J

    2010-03-07

    A simple but novel mitigation concept to enforce standoff distance and reduce shock loading on a vertical, partially-submerged structure is evaluated using scaled aquarium experiments and numerical modeling. Scaled, water tamped explosive experiments were performed using three gallon aquariums. The effectiveness of different mitigation configurations, including air-filled media and an air gap, is assessed relative to an unmitigated detonation using the same charge weight and standoff distance. Experiments using an air-filled media mitigation concept were found to effectively dampen the explosive response of the aluminum plate and reduce the final displacement at plate center by approximately half. The finite element model used for the initial experimental design compares very well to the experimental DIC results both spatially and temporally. Details of the experiment and finite element aquarium models are described including the boundary conditions, Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques, detonation models, experimental design and test diagnostics.

  9. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  10. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Palisades Project: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-11-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho and Wyoming to mitigate the losses of wildlife habitat and annual production due to the development and operation of the Palisades Project. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the preferred mitigation plan to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost with inundation of the reservoir area as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering needs of wildlife in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. A total of 37,068 HU's were estimated to be lost as a result of the inundation of the Palisades Reservoir area. Through a series of protection/enhancement projects, the preferred mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 37,066 HU's. Target species to be benefited by this mitigation plan include bald eagle, mule deer, elk, mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, and peregrine falcon.

  11. Climate adaptation as mitigation: the case of agricultural investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, David B.; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    with respect to land rents, and the elasticity of substitution between land and non-land inputs. For assessing the mitigation costs, the elasticity of productivity with respect to investments in research and development is also very important. Overall, this study finds that broad-based efforts to adapt agriculture to climate change have mitigation co-benefits that, even when forced to shoulder the entire expense of adaptation, are inexpensive relative to many activities whose main purpose is mitigation. These results therefore challenge the current approach of most climate financing portfolios, which support adaptation from funds completely separate from—and often much smaller than—mitigation ones.

  12. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  13. Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chini, Louise P.; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Land-use change to meet 21st-century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will depend on many interactive factors, including global policies limiting anthropogenic climate change and realized improvements in agricultural productivity. Climate-change mitigation policies will alter the decision-making environment for land management, and changes in agricultural productivity will influence cultivated land expansion. We explore to what extent future increases in agricultural productivity might offset conversion of tropical forest lands to crop lands under a climate mitigation policy and a contrasting no-policy scenario in a global integrated assessment model. The Global Change Assessment Model is applied here to simulate a mitigation policy that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m−2 (approximately 526 ppm CO2) in the year 2100 by introducing a price for all greenhouse gas emissions, including those from land use. These scenarios are simulated with several cases of future agricultural productivity growth rates and the results downscaled to produce gridded maps of potential land-use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved near their present-day extent, and bioenergy crops emerge as an effective mitigation option, only in cases in which a climate mitigation policy that includes an economic price for land-use emissions is in place, and in which agricultural productivity growth continues throughout the century. We find that idealized land-use emissions price assumptions are most effective at limiting deforestation, even when cropland area must increase to meet future food demand. These findings emphasize the importance of accounting for feedbacks from land-use change emissions in global climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:20921413

  14. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  15. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  16. Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options are reviewed including reductions in tillage intensity, diversifying crop rotation, and N fertilizer management. The review indicates that, while reducing tillage can be a cost effective GHG mitigation practice, results vary by region and ...

  17. EMP (electromagnetic pulse) mitigation program approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-09-01

    The function of the EMP Mitigation Program is to assess, and where possible, lessen the potential adverse effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the nation's telecommunications infrastructure. The Office of the Manager, National Communications System (OMNCS) focuses its efforts on the Public Switched Network (PSN) because the majority of critical government users rely on the PSN to conduct their National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communication requirements. This document presents an overall plan for the EMP Mitigation Program. To date, the OMNCS has a series of tools for quantifying EMP effects on the PSN. These tools include models for predicting the effect of EMP on network equipment and estimating the EMP stress levels that equipment are exposed to. Also available is a data base for describing the topology of a major portion of the post-divestiture PSN. Results of these activities are then synthesized into a network level model, whose function is to evaluate the performance capabilities of the MEP exposed network. In addition the network level model has the ability to perform sensitivity studies. Sensitivity studies can assess the importance of different equipment types, and they are therefore useful for identifying which equipment types are require EMP testing. Present plans call for testing of the Northern Telecom DMS-100 and AT and T 4ESS switches.

  18. Assessment of the GHG budget mitigation potential of intercrops: analysis on several trials and intercrops species in the Southwest of France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlicoq, M.; Ceschia, E.; Brut, A.; VandeWalle, A.

    2012-04-01

    by a very dry summer in 2009. FO ranged between 9.9 and 12.7 for the different trials. Compared to the other terms, they have a relative low impact on the GHG budget. They represented at most 13g eq-C during the IC period, 60% of those emissions are caused by the use of machinery. GHG budgets over the IC period are largely positive (source effect), due to low biomass production, mainly because of poor emergence and/or development. Still carbon fixation in the biomass mitigated the emissions. To balance the GHG budget, biomass production should be doubled for mustard (1.5 ton biomass ha-1) which is realistic and increased by a factor 4 for oat/phacelia and oat/vetch associations. In general, we can conclude that except for the black oat (biomass production is too low), these intercrops improve the GHG budget. Nevertheless, to get real advantages from these intercrops, they need to produce more than 0.26 t/ ha to compensate technical operations and additional CO2 emissions associated to IC decomposition will have to be assessed.

  19. Preface Results of the open session on "Documentation and monitoring of landslides and debris flows" for mathematical modelling and design of mitigation measures, held at the EGU General Assembly 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzi, L.; Giordan, D.; Arattano, M.; Allasia, P.; Arai, M.

    2011-05-01

    The papers that are here presented and summarised represent the recent scientific contributions of some authors coming from different countries and working in the fields of monitoring, modelling, mapping and design of mitigation measures against mass movements. The authors had the opportunity to present their recent advancements, discuss each other needs and set forth future research requirements during the 2009 EGU General Assembly, so that their scientific contributions can be considered the result of the debates and exchanges that were set among scientists and researchers, either personally or during the review phase since that date. In this resume, the scientific papers of the special issue are divided according to different thematic areas and summarised. The most innovative scientific approaches proposed in the special issue, regarding the monitoring methodologies, simulation techniques and laboratory equipment are described and summarised. The obtained results are very promising to keep on future research at a very satisfactory level.

  20. Compliance through pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Edwards AFB -- Development, results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Beutelman, H.P.; Lawrence, A.

    1999-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), located in the Mojave Desert of southern California, is required to comply with environmental requirements for air pollution emissions, hazardous waste disposal, and clean water. The resources required to meet these many compliance requirements represents an ever increasing financial burden to the base, and to the Department of Defense. A recognized superior approach to environmental management is to achieve compliance through a proactive pollution prevention (P2) program which mitigates, and when possible, eliminates compliance requirements and costs, while at the same time reducing pollution released to the environment. At Edwards AFB, the Environmental Management Office P2 Branch developed and implemented a strategy that addresses this concept, better known as Compliance Through Pollution Prevention (CTP2). At the 91st AWMA Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Edwards AFB presented a paper on its strategy and implementation of its CTP2 concept. Part of that strategy and implementation included accomplishment of process specific focused P2 opportunity assessments (OAs). Starting in 1998, Edwards AFB initiated a CTP2 OA project where OAs were targeted on those operational processes, identified as compliance sites, that contributed most to the compliance requirements and costs at Edwards AFB. The targeting of these compliance sites was accomplished by developing a compliance matrix that prioritized processes in accordance with an operational risk management approach. The Edwards AFB CTP2 PPOA project is the first of its kind within the Air Force Material Command, and is serving as a benchmark for establishment of the CTP2 OA process.

  1. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  2. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  3. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  4. District Results for the 2013 Mathematics and Reading Assessments. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) results in mathematics and reading are based on representative samples of 1,100 to 2,300 public school students at grade 4 and 900 to 2,100 public school students at grade 8 in each participating urban district in 2013. Twenty-one urban districts participated in the 2013 assessments. The assessments…

  5. A Drug Education Needs Assessment in a Rural Elementary School System: Results and Curriculum Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a needs assessment study on comprehensive drug education conducted for a small rural K-8 school. A brief review examines the literature on drug and alcohol abuse among rural youth. Parents, teachers, and students were surveyed to assess their needs, interests, and knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse. Twenty…

  6. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  7. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  8. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  9. Teenage Consumers: A Profile. Results of the 1978 National Assessment of Consumer Skills and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This document reports some of the findings of a national assessment of seventeen-year-olds on consumer knowledge, skills, and attitudes. An introduction describes the development of the survey, the probability sample, the administration of the assessment, and the format for reporting the results. Chapter 1 of five chapters summarizes the responses…

  10. Using Literacy Assessment Results to Improve Teaching for English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helman, Lori A.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on how data from early literacy assessments can help teachers to better instruct English-language learning students. Data from 52 high-risk schools are used to compare the progress of English learners and English-only students on a variety of literacy assessments. Results reveal that a much higher percentage of…

  11. Comparing Functional Analysis and Paired-choice Assessment Results in Classroom Settings

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Cigrand, Karla; Merkle, Steve; Wade, Jeanie; Henry, Kim; Wang, Yu-Chia

    2007-01-01

    The results of a functional analysis of problem behavior and a paired-choice assessment were compared to determine whether the same social reinforcers were identified for problem behavior and an appropriate response (time allocation). The two assessments were conducted in classroom settings with 4 adolescents with mental retardation who engaged in severe problem behavior. Each student's classroom teacher served as the therapist for all phases of assessment. The two assessment procedures identified the same social reinforcers for problem and appropriate behavior for 3 of 4 participants. PMID:17970268

  12. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  13. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  14. A mitigation scheme for underwater blast: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, Lee G.; Margraf, Jon; McMichael, Larry; Vandersall, Kevin S.

    2012-03-01

    A novel but relatively easy-to-implement mitigation concept to enforce standoff distance and reduce shock loading on a vertical, partially-submerged structure is evaluated experimentally using scaled aquarium experiments and numerically using a high-fidelity finite element code. Scaled, watertamped explosive experiments were performed using aquariums of different sizes. The effectiveness of different mitigation configurations, including air-filled media and an air gap, is assessed relative to an unmitigated detonation using the same charge weight and standoff distance. Experiments using an airfilled media mitigation concept effectively dampen the explosive response of an aluminum plate and reduce the final displacement at plate center by approximately half. Experiments using an air-gap resulted in a focused water slug hitting the plate, an effect we hypothesize to be due to water encasement of the charge. Finite element simulations used for the initial experimental design compare very well to experiments both spatially and temporally for the unmitigated case and for the air-filled media mitigation; simulations accounting for water encasement bound air gap experiments. Details of numerical and experimental approach are provided as well as a discussion of results.

  15. Ocean-Based Alkalinity Enhancement: Mitigation Potential, Side Effects and the Fate of Added Alkalinity Assessed in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, M. F.; Ilyina, T.

    2014-12-01

    Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) has been proposed as a mean to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of this geo-engineering technology may sound promising, it poses environmental risks. Within the Priority Program "Climate Engineering" of the German Science Foundation (DFG), we investigate the mitigation potential of AOA to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification. We are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the ocean surface because it must stay in the upper ocean in order to increase the oceanic CO2 uptake. The mitigation potential, risks and the unintended consequences of this geo-engineering method are also exhaustively studied. These questions are tackled through the analysis of different alkalinity enhancement scenarios in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-ESM) in a configuration based on the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Model scenarios are designed so that AOA is performed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentrations similar to values of the stabilization scenario RCP4.5, while fossil fuel CO2 emissions follow the pathway of the high-CO2 scenario RCP8.5. Alkalinity is added globally into the upper 12 meters of the ocean in different seasons and years. We found that on the time scale of relevance (i.e. from years to decades), season and location are key aspects to take into account in the implementation of AOA. This is because of inhomogeneous vertical mixing of added alkalinity due to the mixed layer depth which is established by the season. We also show that the rate of addition greatly determines impact and outcome of this geo-engineering method. Changes driven by the implementation of this method in the ocean biogeochemistry are also discussed. For instance, the associated changes in the carbon cycle, marine oxygen levels, saturation state of

  16. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns. PMID:25054549

  17. Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    SciTech Connect

    Tallis, Heather; Kennedy, Christina M.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Goldstein, Joshua; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2015-11-15

    Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing. - Highlights: • This is the first framework for biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. • Functional, landscape scale assessments are ideal for avoidance and offsets. • Servicesheds define the appropriate spatial extent for ecosystem service mitigation. • Mitigation ratios should be calculated consistently and based on standard factors. • Our framework meets the needs of integrated mitigation assessment requirements.

  18. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  19. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  1. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous studies experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  2. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, D.E. . Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  3. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  4. Orbital Debris Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

    2014-01-01

    Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic and human spacecraft in near- Earth orbit. For this reason, it is important to consider orbital debris mitigation during the design of all space vehicles. Documenting compliance with the debris mitigation guidelines occurs after the vehicle has already been designed and fabricated for many CubeSats, whereas larger satellites are evaluated throughout the design process. This paper will provide a brief explanation of the US Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, a discussion of international guidelines, as well as NASA's process for compliance evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the educational value of considering orbital debris mitigation requirements as a part of student built satellite design.

  5. Policy thresholds in mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, Katharine L.; Moreno-Cruz, Juan B.; Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Some climate change impacts rise fast with little warming, and then taper off. To avoid diminishing incentives to reduce emissions and inadvertently slipping into a lower-welfare world, mitigation policy needs to be ambitious early on.

  6. Mitigation win-win

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  7. NAEP Quality Assurance Checks of the 2002 Reading Assessment Results for Delaware. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Gene; Becker, D. E. (Sunny); Wise, Lauress L.

    In March 2003, the National Center for Education Statistics asked the Human Resources Research Organization to participate in a special study of 2002 reading assessment results for Delaware. This working paper summarizes the findings of that study. (AMT)

  8. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  9. The pyPHaz software, an interactive tool to analyze and visualize results from probabilistic hazard assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Roberto; Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Hazard Assessment (PHA) is becoming an essential tool for risk mitigation policies, since it allows to quantify the hazard due to hazardous phenomena and, differently from the deterministic approach, it accounts for both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. On the other hand, one of the main disadvantages of PHA methods is that their results are not easy to understand and interpret by people who are not specialist in probabilistic tools. For scientists, this leads to the issue of providing tools that can be easily used and understood by decision makers (i.e., risk managers or local authorities). The work here presented fits into the problem of simplifying the transfer between scientific knowledge and land protection policies, by providing an interface between scientists, who produce PHA's results, and decision makers, who use PHA's results for risk analyses. In this framework we present pyPHaz, an open tool developed and designed to visualize and analyze PHA results due to one or more phenomena affecting a specific area of interest. The software implementation has been fully developed with the free and open-source Python programming language and some featured Python-based libraries and modules. The pyPHaz tool allows to visualize the Hazard Curves (HC) calculated in a selected target area together with different levels of uncertainty (mean and percentiles) on maps that can be interactively created and modified by the user, thanks to a dedicated Graphical User Interface (GUI). Moreover, the tool can be used to compare the results of different PHA models and to merge them, by creating ensemble models. The pyPHaz software has been designed with the features of storing and accessing all the data through a MySQL database and of being able to read as input the XML-based standard file formats defined in the frame of GEM (Global Earthquake Model). This format model is easy to extend also to any other kind of hazard, as it will be shown in the applications

  10. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  11. Post mitigation impact risk analysis for asteroid deflection demonstration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Bancelin, David; Cano, Juan L.; Cichocki, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Even though mankind believes to have the capabilities to avert potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can validate this claim. Such a deflection demonstration attempt has to be cost effective, easy to validate, and safe in the sense that harmless asteroids must not be turned into potentially hazardous objects. Uncertainties in an asteroid's orbital and physical parameters as well as those additionally introduced during a mitigation attempt necessitate an in depth analysis of deflection mission designs in order to dispel planetary safety concerns. We present a post mitigation impact risk analysis of a list of potential kinetic impactor based deflection demonstration missions proposed in the framework of the NEOShield project. Our results confirm that mitigation induced uncertainties have a significant influence on the deflection outcome. Those cannot be neglected in post deflection impact risk studies. We show, furthermore, that deflection missions have to be assessed on an individual basis in order to ensure that asteroids are not inadvertently transported closer to the Earth at a later date. Finally, we present viable targets and mission designs for a kinetic impactor test to be launched between the years 2025 and 2032.

  12. Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chini, Louise Parsons; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2010-11-16

    Land use change to meet 21st Century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will occur in the context of both a changing climate as well as societal efforts to mitigate climate change. This changing natural and human environment will have large consequences for forest resources, terrestrial carbon storage and emissions, and food and energy crop production over the next century. Any climate change mitigation policies enacted will change the environment under which land-use decisions are made and alter global land use change patterns. Here we use the GCAM integrated assessment model to explore how climate mitigation policies that achieve a climate stabilization at 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing in 2100 and value carbon in terrestrial ecosystems interact with future agricultural productivity and food and energy demands to influence land use in the tropics. The regional land use results are downscaled from GCAM regions to produce gridded maps of tropical land use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved only in cases where a climate mitigation policy that values terrestrial carbon is in place, and crop productivity growth continues throughout the century. Crop productivity growth is also necessary to avoid large scale deforestation globally and enable the production of bioenergy crops. The terrestrial carbon pricing assumptions in GCAM are effective at avoiding deforestation even when cropland must expand to meet future food demand.

  13. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  14. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  15. Tethers and debris mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heide, Erik Jan; Kruijff, Michiel

    2001-03-01

    In recent years, the use of tethers has been proposed for reduction of space debris either through momentum transfer or use of electrodynamic effects. Tethers have been shown to at least theoretically allow for quick, elegant and cost-effective deorbit of defunct satellites or spent stages. On the other hand, the large risk that tethers themselves may pose to other satellites in orbit has been recognized as well. The large collision area of tethers, combined with operational hazards and meteoroid risk may result in a large orbital exposure. For example, in 1997, the ESA/Dutch 35-km tether deployment of YES from TEAMSAT was inhibited after an analysis of the collision risk for the case the tether operation would fail. The question rises how these two points of view compare to eachother. This paper intends to highlight a representative selection of the proposed tether applications while taking into account the added risks caused by the tethers themselves. Typical applications from recent literature will be briefly described, such as an Ariane 502 spent stage re-entry from GTO and the concept of deboost of defunct satellites by interaction of a conductive tether with the Earth magnetic field. Mass savings of the tethered sytems versus conventional equivalents will be evaluated. Based on a crude risk analysis, involving elements such as mission complexity, dynamic stability, meteoroid risk and orbital life time, a general outline of limiting factors can be given for the various applications. Special attention is reserved for implementation of mechanisms that help reduce this tether risk, such as the DUtether (Tether Degradable by Ultraviolet), utilization of airdrag and solar pressure, the effect of residual current in bare tethers, tether retrieval etc. It is proposed how a net tether-induced mitigation can be compared to that of conventional alternatives, i.e. deboost by rocket engine or a completely passive approach. This comparison is put in the perspective of an

  16. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, D P; Meinshausen, M; Plattner, G-K; Joos, F; Strassmann, K M; Smith, S J; Wigley, T M L; Raper, S C B; Riahi, K; de la Chesnaye, F; den Elzen, M G J; Fujino, J; Jiang, K; Nakicenovic, N; Paltsev, S; Reilly, J M

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of 21st Century global-mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multigas mitigation scenarios, based on a wide range of modeling approaches and socioeconomic assumptions, now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. This article assesses the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature increase for these new scenarios using two reduced-complexity climate models. These scenarios result in temperature increase of 0.5-4.4 degrees C over 1990 levels or 0.3-3.4 degrees C less than the no-policy cases. The range results from differences in the assumed stringency of climate policy and uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system. Notably, an average minimum warming of approximately 1.4 degrees C (with a full range of 0.5-2.8 degrees C) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here. This value is substantially above previously estimated committed warming based on climate system inertia alone. The results show that, although ambitious mitigation efforts can significantly reduce global warming, adaptation measures will be needed in addition to mitigation to reduce the impact of the residual warming. PMID:18838680

  17. Landslide hazard mitigation in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Leahy, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Active landslides throughout the states and territories of the United States result in extensive property loss and 25-50 deaths per year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of detailed examination of landslides since the work of Howe (1909) in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. In the last four decades, landslide inventory maps and landslide hazard maps have depicted landslides of different ages, identified fresh landslide scarps, and indicated the direction of landslide movement for different regions of the states of Colorado, California, and Pennsylvania. Probability-based methods improve landslide hazards assessments. Rainstorms, earthquakes, wildfires, and volcanic eruptions can trigger landslides. Improvements in remote sensing of rainfall make it possible to issue landslide advisories and warnings for vulnerable areas. From 1986 to 1995, the USGS issued hazard warnings based on rainfall in the San Francisco Bay area. USGS workers also identified rainfall thresholds triggering landslides in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Washington, and the Blue Ridge Mountains of central Virginia. Detailed onsite monitoring of landslides near highways in California and Colorado aided transportation officials. The USGS developed a comprehensive, multi-sector, and multi-agency strategy to mitigate landslide hazards nationwide. This study formed the foundation of the National Landslide Hazards Mitigation Strategy. The USGS, in partnership with the U.S. National Weather Service and the State of California, began to develop a real-time warning system for landslides from wildfires in Southern California as a pilot study in 2005.

  18. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  19. Iterative performance assessment for the greater confinement disposal facilities: Preliminary results of round two

    SciTech Connect

    Olague, N.E.; Conrad, S.H.; Baer, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office has disposed of a small quantity of transuranic waste at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. The Environmental Protection Agency standards for disposal of transuranic waste (40 CFR 191) require that a performance assessment be conducted and an iterative approach has been adopted. This approach consists of using performance assessment results to guide the collection of site characterization data, and in turn, new site characterization data is incorporated into each successive iteration of the performance assessment. The results of the first iteration indicated that the GCD site should be able to comply with 40 CFR 191. This paper presents results of the second iteration based on results from site-specific environmental tracer studies. These studies indicate significantly lower recharge values then those used in the first performance assessment iteration. For performance assessment these results imply that the downward ground-water advection pathway may be negligible, and therefore, the upward liquid diffusion pathway becomes more significant. The models and the model parameters that were used to simulate this upward pathway have been refined. The preliminary results from these models still indicate that the GCD facility should be able to comply with the Containment Requirements in 40 CFR 191.

  20. A more productive, but different, ocean after mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Jasmin G.; Stock, Charles A.; Dunne, John P.

    2015-11-01

    Reversibility studies suggest a lagged recovery of global mean sea surface temperatures after mitigation, raising the question of whether a similar lag is likely for marine net primary production (NPP). Here we assess NPP reversibility with a mitigation scenario in which projected Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 forcings are applied out to 2100 and then reversed over the course of the following century in a fully coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model. In contrast to the temperature lag, we find a rapid increase in global mean NPP, including an overshoot to values above contemporary means. The enhanced NPP arises from a transient imbalance between the cooling surface ocean and continued warming in subsurface waters, which weakens upper ocean density gradients, resulting in deeper mixing and enhanced surface nitrate. We also find a marine ecosystem regime shift as persistent silicate depletion results in increased prevalence of large, non-diatom phytoplankton.

  1. The Value of the Clinical Interview in Interpreting Elementary Mathematics Assessment Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehet, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    With the national trend to link student achievement results with teacher evaluation ratings, it is critical for teachers to examine and interpret children's assessment results collaboratively. This study explored how the clinical interview process can be integrated into a professional learning experience to support teachers in identifying…

  2. Reporting the Results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. NAEP Validity Study. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Richard M.

    This paper explores the ways results of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data might be communicated to a variety of audiences, each with differing needs for information, interest in its findings, and sophistication in interpreting the results. The paper describes market-basket reporting as a feasible alternative to traditional…

  3. Nonzero-Sum Relationships in Mitigating Urban Carbon Emissions: A Dynamic Network Simulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Su, Meirong

    2015-10-01

    The "stove-pipe" way of thinking has been mostly used in mitigating carbon emissions and managing socioeconomics because of its convenience of implementation. However, systems-oriented approaches become imperative in pursuit of an efficient regulation of carbon emissions from systems as complicated as urban systems. The aim of this paper is to establish a dynamic network approach that is capable of assessing the effectiveness of carbon emissions mitigation in a more holistic way. A carbon metabolic network is constructed by modeling the carbon flows between economic sectors and environment. With the network shocked by interventions to the sectoral carbon flows, indirect emissions from the city are accounted for under certain carbon mitigation strategies. The nonzero-sum relationships between sectors and environmental components are identified based on utility analysis, which synthesize the nature of direct and indirect network interactions. The results of the case study of Beijing suggest that the stove-pipe mitigation strategies targeted the economic sectors might be not as efficient as they were expected. A direct cutting in material or energy import to the sectors may result in a rebound in indirect emissions and thus fails to achieve the carbon mitigation goal of the city as a whole. A promising way of foreseeing the dynamic mechanism of emissions is to analyze the nonzero-sum relationships between important urban components. Thinking cities as systems of interactions, the network approach is potentially a strong tool for appraising and filtering mitigation strategies of carbon emissions. PMID:26340508

  4. The National Single Assessment Tool (SAT) a pilot study in older persons care-survey results.

    PubMed

    McDermott-Scales, L; Beaton, D; McMahon, F; Vereker, N; McCormack, B; Coen, R F; O'Keefe, S T

    2013-01-01

    Following a consultation and review process, the interRAI suite of assessment tools was chosen as the most suitable instrument for assessment of the care needs of older people in Ireland. We used previously validated questionnaires to examine the usability, practicality and acceptability of these tools to professionals, carers and clients in rural and urban acute, long-term care and community settings. Of the 45 professionals, 42-44 (93-98%) agreed or strongly agreed with 14 of 15 positive statements regarding the acceptability, clinical value and ease of use of the interRAl tools; 39 (87%) felt the terminology was consistent and familiar, although 35 (78%) felt some areas would require further explanation. Responses from carers (n = 15) and clients (n = 68) were similarly overwhelmingly positive regarding the experience of being assessed using these tools. These results support the clinical utility and practicality of using this approach to assess older people in Irish clinical practice. PMID:24218751

  5. RELAP5/MOD2 Overview and Developmental. Assessment Results from TMl-1 Plant Transient Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J. C.; Tsai, C. C.; Ransom, V. H.; Johnsen, G. W.

    2013-02-01

    RELAP5/MOD2 is a new version of the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic computer code containing improved modeling features that provide a generic capability for pressurized water reactor transient simulation. The objective of this paper is to provide code users with an overview of the code and to report developmental assessment results obtained from a Three Mile Island Unit One plant transient analysis. The assessment shows that the injection of highly sub-cooled water into a high-pressure primary coolant system does not cause unphysical results or pose a problem for RELAP5/MOD2. (author)

  6. Results of the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Oil Leak Risk Assessment Study

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Linn, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated multiple, long-term environmental oil-contamination risk scenarios that could result from the potential leakage of UP to 1.5 million barrels of crude oil entombed in the Weeks Island SPR mine following site decommissioning and abandonment, and up to 100 years thereafter. This risk assessment also provides continuity with similar risk evaluations performed earlier and documented in the 1995 DOE Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility (EA). This current study was requested by the DOE to help them determine if their previous Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), in the EA, is still valid or needs to be rescinded. Based on the calculated environmental risk results (in terms of clean-up and remediation expenses) presented in this risk assessment, including the calculated average likelihoods of oil release and potential oil-leakage volumes, none of the evaluated risk events would appear to satisfy the definition of significant environmental impact in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) terminology. The DOE may combine these current results with their earlier evaluations and interpretations in the 1995 EA in order to assess whether the existing FONSI is still accurate, acceptable, and valid. However, from a risk evaluation standpoint, the assessment of impacts appears to be the same whether only 10,000 to 30,000 barrels of crude oil (as considered in the 1995 EA), or up to 1.5 million barrels of oil (as considered herein) are abandoned in the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  7. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  8. Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.

    2007-07-01

    This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

  9. Financing recreational mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-07-01

    Recreational resource area mitigation remains an important operational requirement for hydropower project owners, especially in the western United States. Increasingly, producers of electric capacity must accommodate a rapidly growing demand for public recreation, providing opportunities in accordance with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing requirements.

  10. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  11. INTERPRETATION OF SPLP RESULTS FOR ASSESSING RISK TO GROUNDWATER FROM LAND-APPLIED GRANULAR WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists and engineers often rely on results from the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) to assess the risk of groundwater contamination posed by the land application of granular solid wastes. The concentrations of pollutants in SPLP leachate can be measured and ...

  12. INVITED SESSION: THE 2011 NATIONAL WETLAND CONDITION ASSESSMENT: TECHNICAL UNDERPINNINGS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first-ever National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and its federal and state partners, using a survey design allowing extrapolation of results to national and regional scales. At each of 1138 locatio...

  13. Results of the Colorado Student Assessment Program, Fall 1988 and Fall 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Colorado conducts an assessment program to provide a statewide profile of student achievement. Results for fall 1988 and fall 1991 are presented in a series of tables. A standardized, nationally norm-referenced achievement test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, was administered in 1988 to students in grades 4, 7, and 10, and again to the same…

  14. Measuring Classroom Management Expertise (CME) of Teachers: A Video-Based Assessment Approach and Statistical Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    König, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at developing and exploring a novel video-based assessment that captures classroom management expertise (CME) of teachers and for which statistical results are provided. CME measurement is conceptualized by using four video clips that refer to typical classroom management situations in which teachers are heavily challenged…

  15. Basic Cross-Validation: Using the "Holdout" Method To Assess the Generalizability of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Raquel M.; Daniel, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a heuristic example, data from K. Holzinger and F. Swineford (1939) to illustrate the "holdout" method to assess the generalizability of results in multiple regression. Regression weighted from one data subset are used to compare estimated dependent variable scores from the opposite subset. (SLD)

  16. Lessons from a Large-Scale Assessment: Results from Conceptual Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Beth; Dulli, Hani; Pattillo, Dave; West, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We report conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied the introduction of materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER) (physics education research-informed materials) into a department where most instruction has previously been traditional and a significant…

  17. Applying Physics Concepts--Uncovering the Gender Differences in Assessment of Performance Unit Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bransky, Judith; Qualter, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Describes the findings of secondary analysis of data from the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) Science. The most striking feature of the study is the extremely low level of scores obtained for questions which invite a written response. The results also clearly show the consistent negative reaction of girls to the technical context of…

  18. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  19. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  20. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers increase crop yields but cause the biggest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and strongly contribute to surface water eutrophication (e.g. nitrate leaching). The necessity to identify affordable strategies that improve crop production while improving ecosystem services are in continuous debate between policy decision makers and farmers. In this line, a lack commitment from farmers to enforce laws might result in the reduction of benefits. For this reason, farmers should aim to increase crop production and to reduce environmental harm by the adoption of precision climate smart agriculture tools applied to management practices for instance. In this study we present optimized strategies for 8 sites (agricultural and grassland ecosystems) with long term field observation across Europe to show the mitigation potential to reduce reactive nitrogen losses under the constrain of keeping yields at observed levels. LandscapeDNDC simulations of crop yields and associated nitrogen losses (N2O emissions and NO3 leaching) were evaluated against long term field measurements. The sites presented different management regimes including the main commodity crops (maize, wheat, barley, rape seeds, etc) and fertilization amendments (synthetic and organic fertilizers) in Europe. The simulations reproduced the observed yields, captured N2O emissions and NO3 leaching losses with high statistical presicion (r2), acurrency (ME) and agreement (RMSPEn). The mitigation potentials to reduce N losses while keeping yields at observed levels for all 8 sites were assesed by Monte Carlo optimizations of the individual underlying multi year agricultural management options (timings of planting and harvest, fertilization & manure applications and rates, residues management). In this study we present for all 8 agricultural observations sites their individual mitigation potentials to reduce N losses for multi year rotations. The conclusions

  1. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the effects of, and studying and evaluating ways to control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline...

  2. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the effects of, and studying and evaluating ways to control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline...

  3. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the effects of, and studying and evaluating ways to control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline...

  4. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the effects of, and studying and evaluating ways to control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline...

  5. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the effects of, and studying and evaluating ways to control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline...

  6. Evaluating the role of coastal habitats and sea-level rise in hurricane risk mitigation: An ecological economic assessment method and application to a business decision.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Guannel, Gregory; Griffin, Robert; Faries, Joe; Boucher, Timothy; Thompson, Michael; Brenner, Jorge; Bernhardt, Joey; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Silver, Jessica A; Toft, Jodie; Rogers, Anthony; Maas, Alexander; Guerry, Anne; Molnar, Jennifer; DiMuro, Johnathan L

    2016-04-01

    Businesses may be missing opportunities to account for ecosystem services in their decisions, because they do not have methods to quantify and value ecosystem services. We developed a method to quantify and value coastal protection and other ecosystem services in the context of a cost-benefit analysis of hurricane risk mitigation options for a business. We first analyze linked biophysical and economic models to examine the potential protection provided by marshes. We then applied this method to The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, Texas facility to evaluate natural (marshes), built (levee), and hybrid (marshes and a levee designed for marshes) defenses against a 100-y hurricane. Model analysis shows that future sea-level rise decreases marsh area, increases flood heights, and increases the required levee height (12%) and cost (8%). In this context, marshes do not provide sufficient protection to the facility, located 12 km inland, to warrant a change in levee design for a 100-y hurricane. Marshes do provide some protection near shore and under smaller storm conditions, which may help maintain the coastline and levee performance in the face of sea-level rise. In sum, the net present value to the business of built defenses ($217 million [2010 US$]) is greater than natural defenses ($15 million [2010 US$]) and similar to the hybrid defense scenario ($229 million [2010 US$]). Examination of a sample of public benefits from the marshes shows they provide at least $117 million (2010 US$) in coastal protection, recreational value, and C sequestration to the public, while supporting 12 fisheries and more than 300 wildlife species. This study provides information on where natural defenses may be effective and a replicable approach that businesses can use to incorporate private, as well as public, ecosystem service values into hurricane risk management at other sites. PMID:26123999

  7. Restoration as mitigation: analysis of stream mitigation for coal mining impacts in southern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Margaret A; Hondula, Kelly L

    2014-09-16

    Compensatory mitigation is commonly used to replace aquatic natural resources being lost or degraded but little is known about the success of stream mitigation. This article presents a synthesis of information about 434 stream mitigation projects from 117 permits for surface mining in Appalachia. Data from annual monitoring reports indicate that the ratio of lengths of stream impacted to lengths of stream mitigation projects were <1 for many projects, and most mitigation was implemented on perennial streams while most impacts were to ephemeral and intermittent streams. Regulatory requirements for assessing project outcome were minimal; visual assessments were the most common and 97% of the projects reported suboptimal or marginal habitat even after 5 years of monitoring. Less than a third of the projects provided biotic or chemical data; most of these were impaired with biotic indices below state standards and stream conductivity exceeding federal water quality criteria. Levels of selenium known to impair aquatic life were reported in 7 of the 11 projects that provided Se data. Overall, the data show that mitigation efforts being implemented in southern Appalachia for coal mining are not meeting the objectives of the Clean Water Act to replace lost or degraded streams ecosystems and their functions. PMID:25133756

  8. Online system for knowledge assessment enhances students' results on school knowledge test.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Benjamin; Glazar, Sasa Aleksej

    2013-01-01

    Variety of online tools were built to help assessing students' performance in school. Many teachers changed their methods of assessment from paper-and-pencil (P&P) to online systems. In this study we analyse the influence that using an online system for knowledge assessment has on students' knowledge. Based on both a literature study and our own research we designed and built an online system for knowledge assessment. The system is evaluated using two groups of primary school teachers and students (N = 686) in Slovenia: an experimental and a control group. Students solved P&P exams on several occasions. The experimental group was allowed to access the system either at school or at home for a limited period during the presentation of a selected school topic. Students in the experimental group were able to solve tasks and compare their own achievements with those of their coevals. A comparison of the P&P school exams results achieved by both groups revealed a positive effect on subject topic comprehension for those with access to the online self-assessment system. PMID:23878951

  9. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.; Vogel, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energy-efficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  10. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  11. The Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) River Basin Component Methods and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Glennie, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) was initiated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to create the first baseline assessment of all of the planet's transboundary water resources. The TWAP River Basin component consists of a baseline comparative assessment of 270 transboundary river basins, including all but the smallest basins, to enable the identification of priority issues and hotspots at risk from a variety of stressors. The assessment is indicator based and it is intended to provide a relative analysis of basins based on risks to societies and ecosystems. Models and observational data have been used to create 14 indicators covering environmental, human and agricultural water stress; nutrient and wastewater pollution; extinction risk; governance and institutions; economic dependence on water resources; societal wellbeing at sub-basin scales; and societal risks from climate extremes. The methodology is not limited to transboundary basins, but can be applied to all river basins. This presentation will provide a summary of the methods and results of the TWAP River Basin component. It will also briefly discuss preliminary results of the TWAP lakes and aquifer components.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: an Interagency Risk Assessment-model and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Gallagher, Daniel; Tang, Jia; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell; Dennis, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    The Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in Retail Delicatessens provides a scientific assessment of the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods commonly prepared and sold in the delicatessen (deli) of a retail food store. The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model simulates the behavior of retail employees in a deli department and tracks the Lm potentially present in this environment and in the food. Bacterial growth, bacterial inactivation (following washing and sanitizing actions), and cross-contamination (from object to object, from food to object, or from object to food) are evaluated through a discrete event modeling approach. The QRA evaluates the risk per serving of deli-prepared RTE food for the susceptible and general population, using a dose-response model from the literature. This QRA considers six separate retail baseline conditions and provides information on the predicted risk of listeriosis for each. Among the baseline conditions considered, the model predicts that (i) retail delis without an environmental source of Lm (such as niches), retail delis without niches that do apply temperature control, and retail delis with niches that do apply temperature control lead to lower predicted risk of listeriosis relative to retail delis with niches and (ii) retail delis with incoming RTE foods that are contaminated with Lm lead to higher predicted risk of listeriosis, directly or through cross-contamination, whether the contaminated incoming product supports growth or not. The risk assessment predicts that listeriosis cases associated with retail delicatessens result from a sequence of key events: (i) the contaminated RTE food supports Lm growth; (ii) improper retail and/or consumer storage temperature or handling results in the growth of Lm on the RTE food; and (iii) the consumer of this RTE food is susceptible to listeriosis. The risk assessment model, therefore, predicts that cross

  13. Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

  14. Results of an internal dose assessment intercomparison exercise after a EURADOS/IAEA training course.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C-M; Lopez, M A; Luciani, A; Marsh, J W; Vrba, T; Cruz-Suarez, R

    2011-03-01

    A training course named 'European Radiation Dosimetry Group/International Atomic Energy Agency Advanced Training Course on Internal Dose Assessment' was held in Czech Technical University in Prague from 2 to 6 February 2009. The course, jointly organised by the two organisations, had the aim of providing guidance on the application of IDEAS guidelines and of disseminating the results of EC CONRAD Project in relation to internal dosimetry (Work Package 5). At the end of the course a dose assessment exercise was proposed to participants. Four artificial cases, named exercises left to participants, were used to check the capabilities of application of the IDEAS guidelines, gained by participants during the event. The participants had to use both hand calculations and dedicated software, in limited time (7 h). Forty per cent of participants had solved all four cases in the allotted time. The results of the dose assessment were analysed to gain experience in types of errors assessors may make during the evaluations. The result of this intercomparison exercise was promising: half of the results in each case were equal to the 'reference evaluation estimate', which was obtained by applying the guidelines correctly. PMID:21051435

  15. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, Brenden; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Bouwman, Arno; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Ligtvoet, Willem; Winsemius, Hessel C.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global flood risk maps, based on numerous flood return-periods. Validation results indicate that the model simulates interannual fluctuations in flood impacts well. The cascade involves: hydrological and hydraulic modelling; extreme value statistics; inundation modelling; flood impact modelling; and estimating annual expected impacts. The initial results estimate global impacts for several indicators, for example annual expected exposed population (169 million); and annual expected exposed GDP (1383 billion). These results are relatively insensitive to the extreme value distribution employed to estimate low frequency flood volumes. However, they are extremely sensitive to the assumed flood protection standard; developing a database of such standards should be a research priority. Also, results are sensitive to the use of two different climate forcing datasets. The impact model can easily accommodate new, user-defined, impact indicators. We envisage several applications, for example: identifying risk hotspots; calculating macro-scale risk for the insurance industry and large companies; and assessing potential benefits (and costs) of adaptation measures.

  16. Space options for tropical cyclone hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, Isabelle; Nakamura, Ryoko; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Okada, Kazuyuki; Itahashi, Takamasa; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates potential space options for mitigating the impact of tropical cyclones on cities and civilians. Ground-based techniques combined with space-based remote sensing instrumentation are presented together with space-borne concepts employing space solar power technology. Two space-borne mitigation options are considered: atmospheric warming based on microwave irradiation and laser-induced cloud seeding based on laser power transfer. Finally technology roadmaps dedicated to the space-borne options are presented, including a detailed discussion on the technological viability and technology readiness level of our proposed systems. Based on these assessments, the space-borne cyclone mitigation options presented in this paper may be established in a quarter of a century.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Changes in Extreme Precipitation Events on Landslide Occurrence and Resultant Human Cost (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Slesnick, C.; Bellugi, D. G.; Leidy, E.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Perron, J.; Regan, J.; Schlosser, C. A.; West, J.

    2013-12-01

    supervised machine learning methods, we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide incidence, and have developed statistically predictive models for individual storms in both the Seattle and Himalayan regions. Based on these results, we find a much stronger dependence on antecedent moisture conditions for landslides in Seattle than in the Himalayans. We are extending the newly developed data-driven models to assess which slides will have the most severe impacts on humans using both dollar estimates of damage and a newly developed landslide intensity scale. The models identify the factors that go into creating a landslide of specific damage intensity using historical landslide records in Oregon and their respective damage reports. Results from these efforts will be used to identify areas that are particularly prone to high value losses.

  18. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  19. A critical assessment of wind tunnel results for the NACA 0012 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    A large body of experimental results, obtained in more than 40 wind tunnels on a single, well-known two-dimensional configuration, has been critically examined and correlated. An assessment of some of the possible sources of error has been made for each facility, and data which are suspect have been identified. It was found that no single experiment provided a complete set of reliable data, although one investigation stands out as superior in many respects. However, from the aggregate of data the representative properties of the NACA 0012 airfoil can be identified with reasonable confidence over wide ranges of Mach number, Reynolds number, and angles of attack. This synthesized information can now be used to assess and validate existing and future wind tunnel results and to evaluate advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics codes.

  20. Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Olive, N.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes results from a comprehensive assessment of resource conditions on a large (24%) sample of the trail system within Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area (BSF). Components include research to develop state-of-knowledge trail impact assessment and monitoring methods, application of survey methods to BSF trails, analysis and summary of results, and recommendations for trail management decision making and future monitoring. Findings reveal a trail system with some substantial degradation, particularly soil erosion, which additionally threatens water quality in areas adjacent to streams and rivers. Factors that contribute to or influence these problems are analyzed and described. Principal among these are trail design factors (trail topographic position, soil texture, grade and slope alignment angle), use-related factors (type and amount of use), and maintenance factors (water drainage). Recommendations are offered to assist managers in improving the sustainability of the trails system to accommodate visitation while enhancing natural resource protection.

  1. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  2. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Meinshausen, Malte; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Joos, Fortunat; Strassmann, Kuno M.; Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, T. M.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; De La Chesnaye, Francisco; Den Elzen, Michel; Fujino, Junicho; Kejun, Jiang; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J. M.

    2008-10-06

    Estimates on 21st century global mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multi-gas mitigation scenarios now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. By combing emission pathway results from multiple energy-economic models, we show that these mitigation scenarios result in a range of 21st century temperature increase of 0.5 to 4.2°C over 1990 levels as compared to 1.3-7.3 °C for the no-policy cases. About half the range is due to differences in the assumed stringency of the global climate policy and half is due to uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system, specifically, the carbon cycle and climate sensitivity. A minimum warming of about 0.5-2.7°C (avg. 1.3oC) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here - highlighting the need for both emission mitigation and adaptation policies.

  3. A Mitigation Scheme for Underwater Blast: Experiments and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, Lee; McMichael, Larry; Vandersall, Kevin; Margraf, Jon

    2011-06-01

    A novel but relatively easy-to-implement mitigation concept to enforce standoff distance and reduce shock loading on a vertical, partially-submerged structure is evaluated experimentally using scaled aquarium experiments and numerically using a high-fidelity finite element code. Scaled, water-tamped explosive experiments were performed using aquariums of two different sizes. The effectiveness of different mitigation configurations, including air-filled media and an air gap, is assessed relative to an unmitigated detonation using the same charge weight and standoff distance. Experiments using an air-filled media mitigation concept were found to effectively dampen the explosive response of an aluminum plate and reduce the final displacement at plate center by approximately half; an experiment using an air-gap alone resulted in a focused water jet. The finite element model used for the initial experimental design compares very well to the experimental DIC results both spatially and temporally. Details of the experiment and the finite element models of the aquarium, as well as a larger hypothetical structure, are described including the boundary conditions, numerical techniques, detonation models, experimental design and test diagnostics. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We would like to thank DHS S & T Directorate for support and assistance.

  4. North Carolina Writing Assessment Results, 2000-2001. Measuring Up. E&R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC. Dept. of Evaluation and Research.

    The Writing Assessment, part of the North Carolina End-of-Grade testing program, is required by the State for students in grades 4 and 7. The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) also tested students in grades 5 and 8 who did not receive a score of 2.5 or higher the previous year, but results for those students are not included in this report.…

  5. Nutrient pollution mitigation measures across Europe are resilient under future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew; Skeffington, Richard; Couture, Raoul; Erlandsson, Martin; Groot, Simon; Halliday, Sarah; Harezlak, Valesca; Hejzlar, Joseph; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Lepistö, Ahti; Papastergiadou, Eva; Psaltopoulos, Demetrios; Riera, Joan; Rankinen, Katri; Skuras, Dimitris; Trolle, Dennis; Whitehead, Paul; Dunn, Sarah; Bucak, Tuba

    2016-04-01

    The key results from the application of catchment-scale biophysical models to assess the likely effectiveness of nutrient pollution mitigation measures set in the context of projected land management and climate change are presented. The assessment is based on the synthesis of modelled outputs of daily river flow, river and lake nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and lake chlorophyll-a, for baseline (1981-2010) and scenario (2031-2060) periods for nine study sites across Europe. Together the nine sites represent a sample of key climate and land management types. The robustness and uncertainty in the daily, seasonal and long-term modelled outputs was assessed prior to the scenario runs. Credible scenarios of land-management changes were provided by social scientists and economists familiar with each study site, whilst likely mitigation measures were derived from local stakeholder consultations and cost-effectiveness assessments. Modelled mitigation options were able to reduce nutrient concentrations, and there was no evidence here that they were less effective under future climate. With less certainty, mitigation options could affect the ecological status of waters at these sites in a positive manner, leading to improvement in Water Framework Directive status at some sites. However, modelled outcomes for sites in southern Europe highlighted that increased evaporation and decreased precipitation will cause much lower flows leading to adverse impacts of river and lake ecology. Uncertainties in the climate models, as represented by three GCM-RCM combinations, did not affect this overall picture much.

  6. Comparison of ASSESS neutralization module results with actual small force engagement outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, B.H.; Snell, M.K.; Paulus, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The ASSESS Neutralization module (Neutralization) is part of the Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security (ASSESS), a vulnerability assessment tool. Neutralization models a fire fight between security inspectors (SIs) and adversaries. This paper reports that a comparison has been made between actual outcomes of police and small military engagements and the results predicted by the Neutralization module for similar scenarios. The results of this comparison show a surprising correlation between predicted outcomes (based on numbers of combatants, weapon types, and exposures, etc.) and the actual outcomes of the engagements analyzed. The importance of this analysis is that given the defenders have intelligence on actual adversary characteristics or are protecting against a design basis threat, defense capabilities can be evaluated before an engagement. Results could then be used to develop a favorable probability of a desired outcome. For example, law enforcement agencies are frequently able to compile the number of criminals, types of weaponry, willingness to use force, etc., from analysis of crime scenes.

  7. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  8. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  9. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  10. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dekant, Wolfgang Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 {mu}g/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 {mu}g per person (< 0.1 {mu}g/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

  11. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  12. Evolution in performance assessment modeling as a result of regulatory review

    SciTech Connect

    Rowat, J.H.; Dolinar, G.M.; Stephens, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    AECL is planning to build the IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) facility for near-surface disposal of LLRW. The PSAR (preliminary safety assessment report) was subject to an initial regulatory review during mid-1992. The regulatory authority provided comments on many aspects of the safety assessment documentation including a number of questions on specific PA (Performance Assessment) modelling assumptions. As a result of these comments as well as a separate detailed review of the IRUS disposal concept, changes were made to the conceptual and mathematical models. The original disposal concept included a non-sorbing vault backfill, with a strong reliance on the wasteform as a barrier. This concept was altered to decrease reliance on the wasteform by replacing the original backfill with a sand/clinoptilolite mix, which is a better sorber of metal cations. This change lead to changes in the PA models which in turn altered the safety case for the facility. This, and other changes that impacted performance assessment modelling are the subject of this paper.

  13. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmental indicators intended to classify the spatial and temporal hotspots of road traffic insecurity. The results are a useful guide for planners and decision makers in developing effective road safety strategies and measures.

  15. Cost assessment and ecological effectiveness of nutrient reduction options for mitigating Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern North Sea: an integrated modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Polard, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Hecq, Walter; Gypens, Nathalie

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient reduction measures have been already taken by wealthier countries to decrease nutrient loads to coastal waters, in most cases however, prior to having properly assessed their ecological effectiveness and their economic costs. In this paper we describe an original integrated impact assessment methodology to estimate the direct cost and the ecological performance of realistic nutrient reduction options to be applied in the Southern North Sea watershed to decrease eutrophication, visible as Phaeocystis blooms and foam deposits on the beaches. The mathematical tool couples the idealized biogeochemical GIS-based model of the river system (SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER) implemented in the Eastern Channel/Southern North Sea watershed to the biogeochemical MIRO model describing Phaeocystis blooms in the marine domain. Model simulations explore how nutrient reduction options regarding diffuse and/or point sources in the watershed would affect the Phaeocystis colony spreading in the coastal area. The reference and prospective simulations are performed for the year 2000 characterized by mean meteorological conditions, and nutrient reduction scenarios include and compare upgrading of wastewater treatment plants and changes in agricultural practices including an idealized shift towards organic farming. A direct cost assessment is performed for each realistic nutrient reduction scenario. Further the reduction obtained for Phaeocystis blooms is assessed by comparison with ecological indicators (bloom magnitude and duration) and the cost for reducing foam events on the beaches is estimated. Uncertainty brought by the added effect of meteorological conditions (rainfall) on coastal eutrophication is discussed. It is concluded that the reduction obtained by implementing realistic environmental measures on the short-term is costly and insufficient to restore well-balanced nutrient conditions in the coastal area while the replacement of conventional agriculture by organic farming

  16. Physical, social and institutional vulnerability assessment in small Alpine communities. Results of the SAMCO-ANR project in the Upper Guil Valley (French Southern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Benoit; Dujarric, Constance; Frison-Bruno, Nikita; Puissant, Anne; Lissak, Candide; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Bétard, François; Fort, Monique; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    mental maps (80 collected) dealing with risk perception, risk memory, mitigation measures and degree of confidence in the actors of risk management. Our database provides via statistical analysis (i) a typology of endangered people (for instance, new and alone incomers without high education diploma), and (ii) a spatialization of the most vulnerable areas considering the inhabitant knowledge (hazard location, memory of past events, related destructions) and existing mitigation measures (engineering structure, evacuation plan). The most endangered areas are both located on alluvial fan and flood plain or in new housing estate (Garcine, Château Renard). These results contribute to a better assessment of the global vulnerability of the upper Queyras Region to hydrogeomorphic hazards. They could be used to help local authorities to improve and update their Emergency Action plan or their prevention plan.

  17. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  18. Assessment of TDEM data sensitivity to changes in geoelectric structure as a result of saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenna, V.; Knight, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Pressure from increasing population as well as agricultural and industrial use of freshwater coastal aquifers makes these groundwater resources increasingly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion. Effective management strategies are required to protect these aquifers from overuse and salination. However, development and implementation of these strategies is often complicated by limited information about the complex hydrogeologic structures, properties and processes that govern groundwater flow and saltwater intrusion. To justify the cost of acquiring additional information, water managers need to demonstrate that the value of the acquired information, in terms of the ability to make a decision, exceeds the cost. Traditional hydrologic measurements from wells can give accurate information on hydrogeologic properties, but they are costly and spatially limited. In this study, we propose the use of time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) methods as a non-invasive alternative to traditional hydrologic measurements for characterizing saltwater intrusion in an unconfined aquifer in Northern California. The aquifer system in this region consists of the unconfined aquifer and an underlying confined freshwater aquifer, which are separated by a clay layer. At our research site, the water in the unconfined aquifer is saline in places, but the underlying, confined aquifer shows no evidence of saltwater intrusion. Water managers require information about the hydraulic connectivity of these two aquifers, as well as the extent of saltwater intrusion in the unconfined aquifer to mitigate the potential for saltwater intrusion into the confined freshwater aquifer. Prior to October 2007, four monitoring wells were drilled approximately 100 m inland from the coast and spanning roughly 300 m from south to north. Wells were drilled to depths between 280 m and 460 m. During construction, lithology information and drilling samples were collected on 1.5 m intervals. Induction logs were also collected

  19. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent themore » characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.« less

  20. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent the characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.

  1. Implementing a clinical ethics needs assessment survey: results of a pilot study (part 2 of 2).

    PubMed

    Frolic, Andrea; Andreychuk, Sandra; Seidlitz, Wendy; Djuric-Paulin, Angela; Flaherty, Barb; Jennings, Barb; Peace, Donna

    2013-03-01

    This paper details the implementation of the Clinical Ethics Needs Assessment Survey (CENAS) through a pilot study in five units within Hamilton Health Sciences. We describe how these pilot sites were selected, how we implemented the survey, the significant results and our interpretation of the findings. The primary goal of this paper is to share our experiences using this tool, specifically the challenges we encountered conducting a staff ethics needs assessment across different units in a large teaching hospital, and the facilitators to our success. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations of this study, our plans for using the results to develop a proactive ethics education strategy, and suggestions for other organizations wishing to adapt the CENAS to assess their staff ethics needs. Our secondary goal is to advance the "quality agenda" for ethics programs by demonstrating how a tool like the CENAS can be used to design more effective educational interventions, and to support strategic planning and proactive priority-setting for ethics programs. PMID:23212651

  2. Managing U.S. climate risk through mitigation: Insights from the American Climate Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Houser, T.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, D. M., Jr.; Jina, A.; Rising, J.; Delgado, M.; Mohan, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the technical analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the economic risks posed to the United States by six categories of climate change impacts: crop yield, energy demand, coastal storm damage, criminal activity, labor productivity, and mortality [1]. At a national level, measured by impact on gross domestic product, increased mortality and decreased labor productivity pose the large risks, followed by increased energy demand and coastal damages. Changes in crop yield and crime have smaller impacts. The ACP was not intended to conduct a benefit-cost analysis of climate change mitigation. It assessed the economic consequences of future impacts on an economy with a structure equivalent to that of the current economy, not accounting for socio-economic development and adaptation, and did not assess the cost of mitigation. One of its primary goals was to inform adaptation decisions that are conventionally considered 'endogenous' in economic analyses of climate change. Nonetheless, its results provide insight into the potential of mitigation to manage climate risk. Differences between RCP 8.5 (moderately-high business-as-usual emissions), RCP 4.5 (moderate mitigation) and RCP 2.6 (extremely strong mitigation) are not apparent until mid-century and become significant only late in the century. For all impacts except coastal damages, mitigation significantly reduces uncertainty in late-century impact estimates. Nationally, mitigation significantly and monotonically reduces median projected labor productivity losses and violent crime. Switching from RCP 8.5 to RCP 4.5 also significantly reduces median projections of mortality and energy demand, but the domestic value to the U.S. of further mitigation to RCP 2.6 is less clear. The marginal benefits decline in part because some regions of the country (especially the Northwest) may experience increased crop yields, reduced mortality, and reduced energy

  3. Does risk assessment make a difference? Results of implementing the SAVRY in juvenile probation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Gina M; Guy, Laura S; Gershenson, Bernice G; McCabe, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An effective approach to reducing recidivism is, first, to identify a youth's risk of reoffending and then to match the intensity of interventions to that risk level. This pre-post quasi-experimental, prospective study compared 247 (pre) with 217 (post) adjudicated youths to examine the implementation of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and its effects on case management practices in Louisiana's Caddo parish probation office. The results indicated that placement rates dropped by 50%, use of maximum levels of supervision dropped by almost 30%, and use of community services decreased except for high-risk youths, but only after the SAVRY was properly implemented. This shift towards more appropriate allocation of resources that are matched to risk level occurred without a significant increase in reoffending. The implications for implementation and for use of risk/needs assessment in juvenile probation are discussed. PMID:22745028

  4. Summary results of an assessment of research projects in the National Photovoltaics Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Energy Research (OER) undertook an assessment of 115 research projects (listed in Appendix A) sponsored by the National Photovoltaics Program. The Program is located within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). This report summarizes the results of that review. The Office of Solar Energy Conversion is responsible for the management of the National Photovoltaics Program. This program focuses on assisting US industry in development of fundamental technology to bring advanced photovoltaic energy systems to commercial use. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the following: (1) the quality of research of individual projects; (2) the impact of these individual projects on the mission of the program; and (3) the priority of future research opportunities.

  5. Analysis of landslide mitigation effects using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Aleksandar; Govedarica, Miro; Vrtunski, Milan; Petrovacki, Dusan

    2013-04-01

    Area of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology applications becomes wider nowadays. It includes utility mapping as important part of civil engineering applications, geological structure and soil analyses, applications in agriculture, etc. Characteristics of the technology make it suitable for structure analysis of shallow landslides, whose number and impact on environment is dominant in the region. Especially when shallow landslide endangers some man-made structures such as buildings, roads or bridges, analysis of GPR data can yield very useful results. The results of GPR data analysis of the shallow landslide are represented here. It is situated on the mountain Fruska Gora in Serbia. Despite its dimensions (50x20m) this landslide was interesting for analysis for two reasons: - The landslide occurred at the part of the single road between the cement factory and the marl mine. The cement factory "Lafarge" in Beocin (Fruska Gora) is the largest cement manufacturer in the country. One of major priorities of the factory management is to keep the function of this road. The road is heavily exploited and over the years it led to landslide movements and damaging of the road itself. - The landslide dates back to earlier period and the mitigation measures were performed twice. Laying the foundation of the retaining wall was not performed during the first mitigation measures. The second mitigation measures were performed in 2010 and included detailed geotechnical analysis of the location with the appropriate foundation laying. Since the GPR technology can produce high resolution images of subsurface it provides clear insight into the current state of surveyed location. That kind of analysis is necessary to maintain permanent functionality of the road and to check the status of mitigation measures. Furthermore, the location characteristics do not allow easy access so the possibilities of other analysis technologies application are limited. In order to assess the effects of

  6. A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

  7. Thioredoxin-linked mitigation of allergic responses to wheat

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, B. B.; Adamidi, C.; Lozano, R. M.; Yee, B. C.; Momma, M.; Kobrehel, K.; Ermel, R.; Frick, O. L.

    1997-01-01

    Thioredoxin, a ubiquitous 12-kDa regulatory disulfide protein, was found to reduce disulfide bonds of allergens (convert S—S to 2 SH) and thereby mitigate the allergenicity of commercial wheat preparations. Allergenic strength was determined by skin tests with a canine model for food allergy. Statistically significant mitigation was observed with 15 of 16 wheat-sensitive animals. The allergenicity of the protein fractions extracted from wheat flour with the indicated solvent was also assessed: the gliadins (ethanol) were the strongest allergens, followed by glutenins (acetic acid), albumins (water), and globulins (salt water). Of the gliadins, the α and β fractions were most potent, followed by the γ and ω types. Thioredoxin mitigated the allergenicity associated with the major protein fractions—i.e, the gliadins (including the α, β, and γ types) and the glutenins—but gave less consistent results with the minor fractions, the albumins and globulins. In all cases, mitigation was specific to thioredoxin that had been reduced either enzymically by NADPH and NADP–thioredoxin reductase or chemically by dithiothreitol; reduced glutathione was without significant effect. As in previous studies, thioredoxin was particularly effective in the reduction of intramolecular (intrachain) disulfide bonds. The present results demonstrate that the reduction of these disulfide bonds is accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in allergenicity of the active proteins. This decrease occurs alongside the changes identified previously—i.e., increased susceptibility to proteolysis and heat, and altered biochemical activity. The findings open the door to the testing of the thioredoxin system in the production of hypoallergenic, more-digestible foods. PMID:9144244

  8. Texas Student Assessment Program Student Performance Results, 1998-1999: Statewide and Regional Results. TAAS and End-of-Course Examinations and Other Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.

    This report outlines statewide results on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) for the 1998-1999 academic year. Also included are statewide data from the administration of the Spanish TAAS and the Algebra I, Biology, English II, and U.S. History end-of-course examinations. To allow a broader view of the assessment program's history,…

  9. Probabilistic cost estimates for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David L; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade, the target of keeping global warming below 2 °C has been a key focus of the international climate debate. In response, the scientific community has published a number of scenario studies that estimate the costs of achieving such a target. Producing these estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well known, but poorly quantified, uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on the one hand, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other hand, has spent years improving its understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases. This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty in the cost of mitigation scenarios but has been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in only a rudimentary manner, that is, for equilibrium conditions. Here we bridge this gap between the two research communities by generating distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific values, taking into account uncertainties in four factors: geophysical, technological, social and political. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by geophysical uncertainties, social factors influencing future energy demand and, lastly, technological uncertainties surrounding the availability of greenhouse gas mitigation options. Our information on temperature risk and mitigation costs provides crucial information for policy-making, because it clarifies the relative importance of mitigation costs, energy demand and the timing of global action in reducing the risk of exceeding a global temperature increase of 2 °C, or other limits such as 3 °C or 1.5

  10. Assessment of the Impact of Spatial Data on the Results of Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleniacz, Robert; Rzeszutek, Mateusz

    2014-12-01

    Advanced dispersion models, taking into account information on the relief and land cover, as well as temporal and spatial variability of meteorological conditions, are beginning to play an increasingly important role in the assessment of the impact on the air quality. There are numerous spatial databases which can be used in this type of a calculation process, however, there is no answer to the question of how the use of appropriate data set of terrain characteristics affects the results of the distribution of air pollutant concentrations at the surface of the ground. This paper presents two different sets of spatial data of the relief and land cover. Then, their impact on the results of modeling the propagation of pollutants in the ambient air was characterized, using the meteorological processor CALMET and the dispersion model CALPUFF. The obtained results of concentrations in the adopted calculation area were compared on the basis of statistical indicators used to assess pollution dispersion models contained in the statistical package BOOT Statistical Model Evaluation Software Package Version 2.0. The obtained results of calculations of the maximum 1-hour concentrations, the maximum 24-hour mean concentrations and annual mean concentrations for the prepared computational grids with a resolution of 1×1 km were analyzed.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR TRAUMATIC ANTERIOR SHOULDER DISLOCATION: FIRST EPISODE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Botelho, Vinicius; Duarte, Clodoaldo; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical results obtained of patients who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment following a first episode of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Methods: Between August 2000 and October 2008, 14 shoulders of 14 patients were treated by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of Santa Casa Hospital, São Paulo. Thirteen patients (93%) were male and one (7%) was female; their ages ranged from 17 to 41 years, with a mean of 28 years. All of the patients evaluated were regularly practicing a sports activity (which required physical vigor of the upper limbs). The time that had elapsed between the trauma and the surgical treatment ranged from seven to 60 days, with a mean of 20 days. The surgical procedure was performed with arthroscopic viewing, with the patient positioned in lateral decubitus. Fixation of the labral-ligamentous complex was achieved using bioabsorbable anchors. The postoperative clinical assessment was made using Rowe and UCLA criteria. Joint mobility was measured according to the guidance from ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons). The length of postoperative follow-up ranged from 24 to 120 months, with a mean of 45 months. Results: All the patients achieved satisfactory results, (85% excellent and 15% good), as shown by UCLA, while 100% of the results were excellent according Rowe. The “grip test” was negative for all the patients. Conclusion: Surgical treatment after a first episode of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation seems to be a good therapeutic option for young active patients who practice sports activities. PMID:27042625

  12. Long-term Results of an Analytical Assessment of Student Compounded Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Roark, Angie M.; Anksorus, Heidi N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the long-term (ie, 6-year) impact of a required remake vs an optional remake on student performance in a compounding laboratory course in which students’ compounded preparations were analyzed. Methods. The analysis data for several preparations made by students were compared for differences in the analyzed content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the number of students who successfully compounded the preparation on the first attempt. Results. There was a consistent statistical difference in the API amount or concentration in 4 of the preparations (diphenhydramine, ketoprofen, metoprolol, and progesterone) in each optional remake year compared to the required remake year. As the analysis requirement was continued, the outcome for each preparation approached and/or attained the expected API result. Two preparations required more than 1 year to demonstrate a statistical difference. Conclusion. The analytical assessment resulted in a consistent, long-term improvement in student performance during the 5-year period after the optional remake policy was instituted. Our assumption is that investment in such an assessment would result in a similar benefits at other colleges and schools of pharmacy. PMID:26056402

  13. ISU Team Project: An Integral View on Space Debris Mitigation and Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Philipp; Ricote Navarro, Carmon; Jehn, Rudiger; Gini, Andrea; Faure, Pauline; Adriaensen, Maarten; Datta, Iman; Hilbich, Daniel; Jacimovic, Aleksandar; Jacques, Lionel; Penent, Guilhem; Sinn, Thomas; Shioi, Hiroaki

    2013-08-01

    The issue of space debris poses challenges not only in technical, but also legal, political and economic dimensions. A sustainable solution needs to take into account all of them. This paper investigates such a potential solution in a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, it addresses the effectiveness of the existing debris mitigation guidelines, and identifies technical improvements for mitigation. It continues examining technical concepts for debris removal and performing proper cost-benefit trade-offs. The results of new simulations to assess the damage cost caused by space debris are presented. Based on these findings, an organizational framework and political recommendations are developed which will enable a sustainable use of space starting in 2020. The findings are compiled into a roadmap, which outlines 1) a path to the full adherence to debris mitigation guidelines and 2) the removal of ten large pieces of debris per year by a dedicated international organization, including expected expenditures necessary for its implementation.

  14. The NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program: An assessment of phase 1 test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the results of Phase 1 screening testing of current and advanced combustion system concepts using several broadened-properties fuels. The severity of each of several fuels-properties effects on combustor performance or liner life is discussed, as well as design techniques with the potential to offset these adverse effects. The selection of concepts to be pursued in Phase 2 refinement testing is described. This selection takes into account the relative costs and complexities of the concepts, the current outlook on pollutant emissions control, and practical operational problems.

  15. Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for Teen Drivers: Results from a Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Kandadai, Venk; Loeb, Helen; Seacrist, Thomas S.; Lee, Yi-Ching; Winston, Zachary; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Driver error and inadequate skill are common critical reasons for novice teen driver crashes, yet few validated, standardized assessments of teen driving skills exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of a newly developed Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for novice teen drivers. Methods The SDA's 35-minute simulated drive incorporates 22 variations of the most common teen driver crash configurations. Driving performance was compared for 21 inexperienced teens (age 16–17 years, provisional license ≤90 days) and 17 experienced adults (age 25–50 years, license ≥5 years, drove ≥100 miles per week, no collisions or moving violations ≤3 years). SDA driving performance (Error Score) was based on driving safety measures derived from simulator and eye-tracking data. Negative driving outcomes included simulated collisions or run-off-the-road incidents. A professional driving evaluator/instructor reviewed videos of SDA performance (DEI Score). Results The SDA demonstrated construct validity: 1.) Teens had a higher Error Score than adults (30 vs. 13, p=0.02); 2.) For each additional error committed, the relative risk of a participant's propensity for a simulated negative driving outcome increased by 8% (95% CI: 1.05–1.10, p<0.01). The SDA demonstrated criterion validity: Error Score was correlated with DEI Score (r=−0.66, p<0.001). Conclusions This study supports the concept of validated simulated driving tests like the SDA to assess novice driver skill in complex and hazardous driving scenarios. The SDA, as a standard protocol to evaluate teen driver performance, has the potential to facilitate screening and assessment of teen driving readiness and could be used to guide targeted skill training. PMID:25740939

  16. Management Challenges in Developing Performance Assessments and Effectively Communicating Their Results - 13612

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steve; Mahoney, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the cleaned waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making, performance assessments have been developed for the low-level waste disposal facility and for the SRS Tank Farms. Although these performance assessments share many similar features, the nature of the hazards and associated containments differ. As a management team, we are challenged to effectively communicate both the similarities and differences of these performance assessments, how they should be used to support sound decision making for treatment, disposal and waste tank cleaning decisions, and in defending their respective assumptions to the regulatory community and the public but, equally important, to our own corporate decision makers and operations personnel. Effective development and defense of these performance assessments, and effective interpretation and communication of the results are key to making cost-effective, pragmatic decisions for the safe disposal of the low-level waste and stabilization and operational closure of the cleaned tanks and associated structures. This paper will focus on the importance and challenges in communicating key attributes, conclusions and operational implications within a company. (authors)

  17. Results and Interpretations of the 1990 through 2000 Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloosterman, Peter, Ed.; Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Often referred to as "The Nation's Report Card," the mathematics assessments of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) have come to be regarded by many policymakers as the primary yardstick by which to judge our schools' success in meeting national expectations. This monograph reports and interprets trends in NAEP mathematics data…

  18. Combining Self-Assessments and Achievement Tests in Information Literacy Assessment: Empirical Results and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the significance of information literacy self-assessments in higher education with a special focus on situational conditions increasing their explanatory power. First, it was hypothesised that self-assessments of information literacy correlate higher with factual information literacy if measured after the administration of…

  19. A Markov Chain Model for Changes in Users’ Assessment of Search Results

    PubMed Central

    Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Maayan; Bar-Ilan, Judit; Levene, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that users tend to change their assessment of search results over time. This is a first study that investigates the factors and reasons for these changes, and describes a stochastic model of user behaviour that may explain these changes. In particular, we hypothesise that most of the changes are local, i.e. between results with similar or close relevance to the query, and thus belong to the same”coarse” relevance category. According to the theory of coarse beliefs and categorical thinking, humans tend to divide the range of values under consideration into coarse categories, and are thus able to distinguish only between cross-category values but not within them. To test this hypothesis we conducted five experiments with about 120 subjects divided into 3 groups. Each student in every group was asked to rank and assign relevance scores to the same set of search results over two or three rounds, with a period of three to nine weeks between each round. The subjects of the last three-round experiment were then exposed to the differences in their judgements and were asked to explain them. We make use of a Markov chain model to measure change in users’ judgments between the different rounds. The Markov chain demonstrates that the changes converge, and that a majority of the changes are local to a neighbouring relevance category. We found that most of the subjects were satisfied with their changes, and did not perceive them as mistakes but rather as a legitimate phenomenon, since they believe that time has influenced their relevance assessment. Both our quantitative analysis and user comments support the hypothesis of the existence of coarse relevance categories resulting from categorical thinking in the context of user evaluation of search results. PMID:27171426

  20. A Markov Chain Model for Changes in Users' Assessment of Search Results.

    PubMed

    Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Maayan; Bar-Ilan, Judit; Levene, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that users tend to change their assessment of search results over time. This is a first study that investigates the factors and reasons for these changes, and describes a stochastic model of user behaviour that may explain these changes. In particular, we hypothesise that most of the changes are local, i.e. between results with similar or close relevance to the query, and thus belong to the same"coarse" relevance category. According to the theory of coarse beliefs and categorical thinking, humans tend to divide the range of values under consideration into coarse categories, and are thus able to distinguish only between cross-category values but not within them. To test this hypothesis we conducted five experiments with about 120 subjects divided into 3 groups. Each student in every group was asked to rank and assign relevance scores to the same set of search results over two or three rounds, with a period of three to nine weeks between each round. The subjects of the last three-round experiment were then exposed to the differences in their judgements and were asked to explain them. We make use of a Markov chain model to measure change in users' judgments between the different rounds. The Markov chain demonstrates that the changes converge, and that a majority of the changes are local to a neighbouring relevance category. We found that most of the subjects were satisfied with their changes, and did not perceive them as mistakes but rather as a legitimate phenomenon, since they believe that time has influenced their relevance assessment. Both our quantitative analysis and user comments support the hypothesis of the existence of coarse relevance categories resulting from categorical thinking in the context of user evaluation of search results. PMID:27171426

  1. Intra- and Inter-Patient Symptom Variability in Fibromyalgia: Results of a 90-Day Assessment.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Vincent, Ann; McAllister, Samantha J; Whipple, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM)--chronic widespread pain, fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, dyscognition etcetera--present with varying degrees of severity in different individuals; however, studies reporting daily estimates of variability of symptoms are sparse. Given the limited literature on the stability and variability of FM symptoms, the purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of daily visual analogue, self-report measures to assess daily variability and time trends in core FM symptoms. Ten female patients completed daily assessments of common FM symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, stress, cognitive dysfunction, unrefreshing sleep and lightheadedness) for approximately 90 days. The completion rate was excellent (89.6%). The results demonstrated that average symptom intensity differs markedly across the different symptoms that were measured. Unrefreshing sleep, fatigue and pain are clearly higher in intensity than other symptoms and are followed by memory problems, stress, anxiety and depression. There is also notable average intra-individual change across time (10-15 points on a 100-point scale). Average symptom intensity does not appear to be related to the amount of symptom change within individuals. The results of the present study confirm that intensive longitudinal study, using comprehensive symptom assessment in patients with FM, is both possible and informative, in the sense that a rich description of the daily experience of living with FM can be obtained. Future work, utilizing larger samples, will offer the opportunity to investigate better the causes, consequences and correlates of the daily ups and downs of key symptoms that compromise quality of life in patients with FM. PMID:25408116

  2. Zebra mussel mitigation; overview

    SciTech Connect

    Claudi, R.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

  3. Outcomes Assessment for Beginning and Intermediate Spanish: One Program's Process and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Outcomes assessment is a process by which an academic unit defines and articulates its program goals and assesses its attainment of those goals. This article chronicles one language division's efforts at outcomes assessment for beginning and intermediate Spanish. The evidence used for program assessment consisted of WebCAPE placement scores,…

  4. Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Huebner, Claudia S.; Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects of low- and medium turbulence conditions. Both methods are capable of processing static and dynamic scenes. The first method consists of local registration, frame selection, blur estimation and deconvolution. The second method consists of local motion compensation, fore- /background segmentation and weighted iterative blind deconvolution. A comparative evaluation using quantitative measures is done on some representative sequences captured during a NATO SET 165 trial in Dayton. The amount of blurring and tilt in the imagery seem to be relevant measures for such an evaluation. It is shown that both methods improve the imagery by reducing the blurring and tilt and therefore enlarge the recognition range. Furthermore, results of a recognition experiment using simulated data are presented that show that turbulence mitigation using the first method improves the recognition range up to 25% for an operational optical system.

  5. Student Performance Results, 1997-1998. Texas Student Assessment Program. TAAS and End-of-Course Examinations. Statewide and Regional Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report outlines student performance results from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) for the 1997-1998 school year as well as results from the Spanish TAAS tests and the Biology I and Algebra I end-of-course examinations. Data represent test results for students not in special education. The chapters are: (1) "Executive Summary";…

  6. Some results from the second iteration of total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    The second preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential radioactive-waste-repository site at Yucca Mountain has recently been completed. This paper summarizes results for nominal aqueous and gaseous releases using the composite-porosity flow model. The results are found to be sensitive to the type of unsaturated-zone flow, to percolation flux and climate change, to saturated-zone dilution, to container-wetting processes and container-corrosion processes, to fuel-matrix alteration rate and radionuclide solubilities (especially for {sup 237}Np), and to bulk permeability and retardation of gaseous {sup 14}C. These are areas that should be given priority in the site-characterization program. Specific recommendations are given in the full report of the study.

  7. Results from utility wind resource assessment programs in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drapeau, C.L.

    1997-12-31

    Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.

  8. Quantitative assessment of port-wine stains using chromametry: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacco, Claire; Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Rotteleur, Guy; Steen, D. A.; Brunet, F.

    1996-12-01

    Objective assessment of the efficacy of different lasers for the treatment of port wine stains remains difficult. Chromametry gives reproducible information on the color of PWS, but its data are useless for a medical doctor. Thus a specific software was developed to allow graphic representation of PWS characteristics. Before the first laser treatment and after every treatment, tests were done using a chromameter on a marked zone of the PWS and on the control-lateral normal zone which represents the reference. The software calculates and represents graphically the difference of color between PWS and normal skin using data provided by the chromameter. Three parameters are calculated: (Delta) H is the difference of hue, (Delta) L is the difference of lightness and (Delta) E is the total difference of color. Each measured zone is represented by its coordinates. Calculated initial values were compared with the subjective initial color assessed by the dermatologist. The variation of the color difference was calculated using the successive values of (Delta) E after n treatments and was compared with the subjective classification of fading. Since January 1995, forty three locations have been measured before laser treatment. Purple PWS tended to differentiate from others but red and dark pink PWS could not be differentiated. The evolution of the color after treatment was calculated in 29 PWS treated 3 or 4 times. Poor result corresponded to an increase of (Delta) E. Fair and good results were associated to a decrease of (Delta) E. We did not observe excellent results during this study. These promising preliminary results need to be confirmed in a larger group of patients.

  9. Hospitals Safety from Disasters in I.R.Iran: The Results from Assessment of 224 Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Kandi, Maryam; Talebian, Mohammad Taghi; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Reza; Maleknia, Samaneh; Miadfar, Jafar; Mobini, Atieh; Mehranamin, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Iran’s hospitals have been considerably affected by disasters during last decade. To address this, health system of I.R.Iran has taken an initiative to assess disaster safety of the hospitals using an adopted version of Hospital Safety Index (HSI). This article presents the results of disaster safety assessment in 224 Iran’s hospitals. Methods: A self-assessment approach was applied to assess the disaster safety in 145 items categorized in 3 components including structural, non-structural and functional capacity. For each item, safety level was categorized to 3 levels: not safe (0), average safe (1) and high safe (2). A raw score was tallied for each safety component and its elements by a simple sum of all the corresponding scores. All scores were normalized on a 100 point scale. Hospitals were classified to three safety classes according to their normalized total score: low (≤34.0), average (34.01-66.0) and high (>66.0). Results: The average score of all safety components were 32.4 out of 100 (± 12.7 SD). 122 hospitals (54.5%) were classified as low safe and 102 hospitals (45.5%) were classified as average safe. No hospital was placed in the high safe category. Average safety scores out of 100 were 27.3 (±14.2 SD) for functional capacity, 36.0 (±13.9 SD) for non-structural component and 36.0 (±19.0 SD) for structural component. Neither the safety classes nor the scores of safety components were significantly associated with types of hospitals in terms of affiliation, function and size (P>0.05). Conclusions: To enhance the hospitals safety for disaster in Iran, we recommend: 1) establishment of a national committee for hospital safety in disasters; 2) supervision on implementation of the safety standards in construction of new hospitals; 3) enhancement of functional readiness and safety of non-structural components while structural retrofitting of the existing hospitals is being taken into consideration, whenever is cost

  10. Albeni Falls Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Final Report 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.

    1988-08-01

    A wildlife impact assessment and mitigation plan has been developed for the US Army Corps of Engineers Albeni Falls Project in northern Idaho. The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions at the Albeni Falls Project. There were 6617 acres of wetlands converted to open water due to development and operation of the project. Eight evaluation species were selected with impacts expressed in numbers of Habitat Units (HU's). For a given species, one HU is equivalent to one acre of prime habitat. The Albeni Falls Project resulted in estimated losses of 5985 mallard HU's, 4699 Canada goose HU's, 3379 redhead HU's, 4508 breeding bald eagle HU's, 4365 wintering bald eagle HU's, 2286 black-capped chickadee HU's, 1680 white-tailed deer HU's, and 1756 muskrat HU's. The yellow warbler gained 71 HU's. Therefore, total target species estimated impacts were 28,587 HU's. Impacts on peregrine falcons were not quantified in terms of HU's. Projects have been proposed by an interagency team of biologists to mitigate the impacts of Albeni Falls on wildlife. The HEP was used to estimate benefits of proposed mitigation projects to target species. Through a series of proposed protection and enhancement actions, the mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 28,590 target species HU's to mitigate Albeni Falls wildlife habitat values lost. 52 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Comparison between NAEP and State Mathematics Assessment Results: 2003. Volume 2. Research and Development Report. NCES 2008-475

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Don; Bandeira de Mello, Victor; Blankenship, Charles; Chaney, Kassandra; Esra, Phil; Hikawa, Hiro; Rojas, Daniela; William, Paul; Wolman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In late January through early March of 2003, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 4 and 8 reading and mathematics assessments were administered to representative samples of students in approximately 100 public schools in each state. The results of these assessments were announced in November 2003. Each state also carried…

  12. Assessing atrophy measurement techniques in dementia: Results from the MIRIAD atrophy challenge.

    PubMed

    Cash, David M; Frost, Chris; Iheme, Leonardo O; Ünay, Devrim; Kandemir, Melek; Fripp, Jurgen; Salvado, Olivier; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Reuter, Martin; Fischl, Bruce; Lorenzi, Marco; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Pennec, Xavier; Pierson, Ronald K; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Jack, Clifford R; Guizard, Nicolas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Leung, Kelvin K; Wang, Hongzhi; Das, Sandhitsu R; Yushkevich, Paul A; Malone, Ian B; Fox, Nick C; Schott, Jonathan M; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-12-01

    Structural MRI is widely used for investigating brain atrophy in many neurodegenerative disorders, with several research groups developing and publishing techniques to provide quantitative assessments of this longitudinal change. Often techniques are compared through computation of required sample size estimates for future clinical trials. However interpretation of such comparisons is rendered complex because, despite using the same publicly available cohorts, the various techniques have been assessed with different data exclusions and different statistical analysis models. We created the MIRIAD atrophy challenge in order to test various capabilities of atrophy measurement techniques. The data consisted of 69 subjects (46 Alzheimer's disease, 23 control) who were scanned multiple (up to twelve) times at nine visits over a follow-up period of one to two years, resulting in 708 total image sets. Nine participating groups from 6 countries completed the challenge by providing volumetric measurements of key structures (whole brain, lateral ventricle, left and right hippocampi) for each dataset and atrophy measurements of these structures for each time point pair (both forward and backward) of a given subject. From these results, we formally compared techniques using exactly the same dataset. First, we assessed the repeatability of each technique using rates obtained from short intervals where no measurable atrophy is expected. For those measures that provided direct measures of atrophy between pairs of images, we also assessed symmetry and transitivity. Then, we performed a statistical analysis in a consistent manner using linear mixed effect models. The models, one for repeated measures of volume made at multiple time-points and a second for repeated "direct" measures of change in brain volume, appropriately allowed for the correlation between measures made on the same subject and were shown to fit the data well. From these models, we obtained estimates of the

  13. Assessing atrophy measurement techniques in dementia: Results from the MIRIAD atrophy challenge

    PubMed Central

    Cash, David M.; Frost, Chris; Iheme, Leonardo O.; Ünay, Devrim; Kandemir, Melek; Fripp, Jurgen; Salvado, Olivier; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Reuter, Martin; Fischl, Bruce; Lorenzi, Marco; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Pennec, Xavier; Pierson, Ronald K.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Guizard, Nicolas; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Collins, D. Louis; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Leung, Kelvin K.; Wang, Hongzhi; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Malone, Ian B.; Fox, Nick C.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Structural MRI is widely used for investigating brain atrophy in many neurodegenerative disorders, with several research groups developing and publishing techniques to provide quantitative assessments of this longitudinal change. Often techniques are compared through computation of required sample size estimates for future clinical trials. However interpretation of such comparisons is rendered complex because, despite using the same publicly available cohorts, the various techniques have been assessed with different data exclusions and different statistical analysis models. We created the MIRIAD atrophy challenge in order to test various capabilities of atrophy measurement techniques. The data consisted of 69 subjects (46 Alzheimer's disease, 23 control) who were scanned multiple (up to twelve) times at nine visits over a follow-up period of one to two years, resulting in 708 total image sets. Nine participating groups from 6 countries completed the challenge by providing volumetric measurements of key structures (whole brain, lateral ventricle, left and right hippocampi) for each dataset and atrophy measurements of these structures for each time point pair (both forward and backward) of a given subject. From these results, we formally compared techniques using exactly the same dataset. First, we assessed the repeatability of each technique using rates obtained from short intervals where no measurable atrophy is expected. For those measures that provided direct measures of atrophy between pairs of images, we also assessed symmetry and transitivity. Then, we performed a statistical analysis in a consistent manner using linear mixed effect models. The models, one for repeated measures of volume made at multiple time-points and a second for repeated “direct” measures of change in brain volume, appropriately allowed for the correlation between measures made on the same subject and were shown to fit the data well. From these models, we obtained estimates of the

  14. Flicker Detection, Measurement and Means of Mitigation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virulkar, V. B.; Aware, M. V.

    2014-04-01

    The voltage fluctuations caused by rapid industrial load change have been a major concern for supply utilities, regulatory agencies and customers. This paper gives a general review about how to examine/assess voltage flicker and methods followed in measuring the flickers due to rapid changing loads and means for its mitigation. It discusses the effects on utilities conditions, compensators response time and compensator capacity of flicker mitigation. A comparison between conventional mitigation techniques and the state-of-art mitigation techniques are carried out. It is shown in many cases that the state-of-art solution provides higher performance compared with conventional mitigation techniques. However, the choice of most suitable solution depends on characteristics of the supply at the point of connection, the requirement of the load and economics.

  15. Platelet Composite Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-11-01

    Reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  16. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results formore » several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.« less

  17. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  18. [Focus on risk assessment in health environments: results and perspectives of a multicenter working group].

    PubMed

    Polato, R; Bacis, M; Belotti, L; Biggi, N; Campagna, M; Carrer, P; Cologni, L; Gattini, V; Lodi, V; Magnavita, N; Micheloni, G; Negro, C; Placidi, D; Puro, V; Tonelli, F; Porru, S

    2010-01-01

    The hospital risk assessment (VdR) is certainly a relevant issue concerning the activities of prevention for the health of healthcare workers in relation to biological risk. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-date of the issue, based on the suggestions of recent literature about the rules ratified by the new legislative decree and data supplied by the Group of 10 Hospitals participated in this multicenter study. From the analysis of data on healthcare settings (HCS) participating in the project the following considerations can be formulated: i) All HCS considered VdR from biological agents. The method recommended in the Guidelines SIMLII 2005 is the most followed ii) To grading the risk, the use of invasive procedures for carrying out the analysis results is a necessary element iii) the operators classified as exposed to biological risk, and therefore subject to health surveillance, represent almost all of workforce in 7 out of 10 HCS. The subgroup believes that VdR must be conducted in close collaboration with the occupational physician and should represent a worthwhile investment with spin-off character on prevention, decision making, empowering. The presence of environmental requirements and organizational procedures should be considered, so that HCS is enabled for an effective risk management, without which risk assessments cannot be performed. The method of VdR mentioned in the guidelines MLIS 2005, besides being the most widely used by the company participating in the study, still has practical reasons and opportunities to justify its use. The HCS group felt the need to propose an implementation of the definition of invasive procedures and EPP, together with individual assessment. Flexibility was suggested in identifying different levels of risk with the involvement of occupational physicians, especially in the presence of EPP, also in order to plan content and frequency of health surveillance. PMID:21061702

  19. FOLLOW-UP DURABILITY MEASUREMENTS AND MITIGATION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TESTS IN 38 EASTERN PENNSYL- VANIA HOUSES HAVING INDOOR REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult- to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. bjectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing insta...

  20. FOLLOW-UP DURABILITY MEASUREMENTS AND MITIGATION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TESTS IN 38 EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA HOUSES HAVING INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult- to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. bjectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing insta...

  1. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment program at the 216-U-12 crib

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.; Chou, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    The 216-U-12 crib has been in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) interim-status groundwater quality assessment program since the first quarter of 1993. Specific conductance measured in downgradient wells 299-W22-41 and 299-W22-42 exceeds its critical mean. This report presents the results and findings of Phases I and II of the assessment monitoring program, as required by 40 CFR 265.93. The elevated levels of specific conductance in the downgradient {open_quotes}triggering{close_quotes} wells are attributed to nitrate, the mobile anion released when nitric acid is diluted in water, and calcium which is released from the sediments as acid is neutralized. Technetium-99 levels have been elevated in these same downgradient wells since 1991. The source of these constituents is the 216-U-12 crib. Downward migration of nitrate and technetium-99 from the vadose zone (and continued elevated specific conductance in the two downgradient wells) is still occurring because the driving force is still present.

  2. REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes: Results and Data Legacy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J.; Ciais, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Carbon Project with the involvement of over 150 contributing scientists has finalized the largest and most comprehensive assessment of regional carbon budgets, land and oceans, ever undertaken: the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP; http:// www.globalcarbonproject.org/reccap). The objective of RECCAP was to establish the mean carbon balance of 10 land regions (Africa, the Arctic tundra, Australia, Europe, Russia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and North America) and 4 major ocean basins (Atlantic and Arctic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern oceans) for the period 1990-2009. The fundamental tenet of RECCAP was to establish carbon budgets in each region by comparing and reconciling multiple bottom-up flux estimates with top-down estimates. Bottom-up flux approaches include estimates from ensembles of process-based land and ocean models, surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), forest inventories, eddy covariance measurements, fire modeling, riverine export, and wood harvest among others, while top-down estimates relied on model ensembles of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 inversions. In this talk we'll present an overview of results of the various regions, compare with the independently developed global carbon budget, and emphasize major regional differences and data gaps. An important legacy of RECCAP are a number of updated and new databases including an ensemble of 9 Global Dynamic Vegetation Models (TRENDY), 4 Ocean biogeochemical models, and 10 atmospheric CO2 inversions for the period 1990-2009.

  3. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  4. Embodied carbon mitigation and reduction in the built environment - What does the evidence say?

    PubMed

    Pomponi, Francesco; Moncaster, Alice

    2016-10-01

    Of all industrial sectors, the built environment puts the most pressure on the natural environment, and in spite of significant efforts the International Energy Agency suggests that buildings-related emissions are on track to double by 2050. Whilst operational energy efficiency continues to receive significant attention by researchers, a less well-researched area is the assessment of embodied carbon in the built environment in order to understand where the greatest opportunities for its mitigation and reduction lie. This article approaches the body of academic knowledge on strategies to tackle embodied carbon (EC) and uses a systematic review of the available evidence to answer the following research question: how should we mitigate and reduce EC in the built environment? 102 journal articles have been reviewed systematically in the fields of embodied carbon mitigation and reduction, and life cycle assessment. In total, 17 mitigation strategies have been identified from within the existing literature which have been discussed through a meta-analysis on available data. Results reveal that no single mitigation strategy alone seems able to tackle the problem; rather, a pluralistic approach is necessary. The use of materials with lower EC, better design, an increased reuse of EC-intensive materials, and stronger policy drivers all emerged as key elements for a quicker transition to a low carbon built environment. The meta-analysis on 77 LCAs also shows an extremely incomplete and short-sighted approach to life cycle studies. Most studies only assess the manufacturing stages, often completely overlooking impacts occurring during the occupancy stage and at the end of life of the building. The LCA research community have the responsibility to address such shortcomings and work towards more complete and meaningful assessments. PMID:27558830

  5. Social Approval of the Community Assessment Model for Odor Dispersal: Results from a Citizen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, John C.; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Harmon, Jay D.; Hoff, Steve J.

    2012-08-01

    Odors emitted from US Midwest hog production facilities present farmers, residents, and state regulatory agencies with a set of complex challenges. To predict odor exposure from multiple swine production sources simultaneously, and to determine siting recommendations for proposed new or enlarged hog facilities, researchers at Iowa State University designed the community assessment model for odor dispersion (CAM). A three-county citizen survey conducted in Iowa examined the level of hypothetical social acceptance of the modeling process, and level of trust in CAM results. While 69 % of respondents approved of modeling as a way to determine the most socially appropriate location for production sites, only 35 % would trust the results if potential odor exposure from a new facility were proposed to be built near their home. We analyzed approval of the CAM model, and level of trust, across a number of demographic, attitudinal, and belief factors regarding environmental quality and the hog industry. Overall, trust in CAM was uneven and varied across respondents. Those residents who would not trust CAM tended to be more concerned with environmental quality and less inclined to believe that the hog industry is critically important economically. Those who would not trust CAM results also had significantly more direct experience with odors. Findings point to predominantly positive, yet equivocal acceptance of CAM results among the citizenry, which is not unexpected given conflict typical of siting decisions in industry and waste disposal arenas. Recommendations are offered regarding the interaction of trust, beliefs and attitudes and the utility of CAM.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

  7. Climate change and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Planet Earth has experienced repeated changes of its climate throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental changes, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session "Climate Change and Mitigation" the speakers offered four different views on coal and CO2: the basis for life, but also a major hazard with impact on Earth's climate. A common denominator in the presentations was that more than ever science and technology is required. We need not only understand the mechanisms for climate change and climate variability, we also need to identify means to remedy the anthropogenic influence on Earth's climate. PMID:20873680

  8. RFI Mitigation for FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Nan, Rendong; Gan, Hengqian; Yue, Youling; Wu, Mingchang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Chengjin; Peng, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. The construction was officially commenced in March 2011. The first light of FAST is expected in 2016. Due to the high sensitivity of FAST, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation for the telescope is required to assure the realization of the scientific goals. In order to protect the radio environment of FAST site, the local government has established a radio quiet zone with 30 km radius. Moreover, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) designs and measurements for FAST have also been carried out, and some examples, such as EMC designs for actuator and focus cabin, have been introduced briefly.

  9. Environmental mitigation and the Upper Yazoo Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardeau, E. A.; Fischenich, J. C.

    1995-02-01

    The US Army Engineer District, Vicksburg (CELMK), evaluated an array of flood control alternatives, which included up to 167 water control structures, 52 confined disposal facilities, and 47 borrow pits as part of a major flood control effort known as the Upper Yazoo Projects (UYP). Many of these project features are capable of ponding water and thus can be managed to mitigate for aquatic, terrestrial, waterfowl, and wetland resource losses expected to occur as a result of the UYP. The benefits to be derived will depend upon the land uses and management of the ponded areas. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station developed procedures to quantify the cost and habitat benefits of the many management options for these sites. The mitigation strategy was derived by optimizing various combinations of land acquisition, reforestation, land-use change, and site hydrology so that the least-cost mitigation plan could be selected.

  10. Disruption mitigation studies in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the discharge behavior, thermal loads, halo currents, and runaway electrons have been obtained in disruptions on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments have also evaluated techniques to mitigate the disruptions while minimizing runaway electron production. Experiments injecting cryogenic impurity killer pellets of neon and argon and massive amounts of helium gas have successfully reduced these disruption effects. The halo current generation, scaling, and mitigation are understood and are in good agreement with predictions of a semianalytic model. Results from killer pellet injection have been used to benchmark theoretical models of the pellet ablation and energy loss. Runaway electrons are often generated by the pellets and new runaway generation mechanisms, modifications of the standard Dreicer process, have been found to explain the runaways. Experiments with the massive helium gas puff have also effectively mitigated disruptions without the formation of runaway electrons that can occur with killer pellets.

  11. New Methods of Energy Efficient Radon Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Wooley, J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Riley, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    Two new radon mitigation techniques are introduced and their evaluation in a field study complemented by numerical model predictions is described. Based on numerical predictions, installation of a sub gravel membrane at the study site resulted in a factor of two reduction in indoor radon concentrations. Experimental data indicated that installation of 'short-circuit' pipes extending between the subslab gravel and outdoors, caused an additional factor of two decrease in the radon concentration. Consequently, the combination of these two passive radon mitigation features, called the membrane and short-circuit (MASC) technique, was associated with a factor of four reduction in indoor radon concentration. The energy-efficient active radon mitigation method, called efficient active subslab pressurization (EASP), required only 20% of the fan energy of conventional active subslab depressurization and reduced the indoor radon concentration by approximately a factor of 15, including the numerically-predicted impact of the sub-gravel membrane.

  12. Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial Impacts of Road Construction Projects for Advanced Regional Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  13. High frequency ultrasonic mitigation of microbial corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahamedh, Hussain H.; Meegan, G. Douglas; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.; Spear, John R.

    2012-05-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in oil industry facilities, and considerable effort has been spent to mitigate this costly issue. More environmentally benign methods are under consideration as alternatives to biocides, among which are ultrasonic techniques. In this study, a high frequency ultrasonic technique (HFUT) was used as a mitigation method for MIC. The killing percentages of the HFUT were higher than 99.8 percent and their corrosivity on steel was reduced by more than 50 percent. The practice and result will be discussed.

  14. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tencer, John

    2016-06-14

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  15. AGARD WG13 aerodynamics of high speed air intakes: Assessment of CFD results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissinger, N. C.; Benson, T. J.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review of the work accomplished by the numerical subgroup of AGARD Working Group 13 on the aerodynamics of high speed air intakes is presented. This work comprised the selection of test cases for which experimental data were available. The test cases were chosen to range in complexity from normal-shock/boundary-layer interaction to full forebody-inlet combinations. Computations for these test cases were solicited from a large number of organizations and individual researchers within the NATO countries. The computation methods reached from Euler solvers (with and without boundary layer corrections) to full Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes. The group compared these results with the test data available for each test case. A short overview of the CFD methods employed, a description of the test cases selected, and some of the comparisons between CFD solutions and test data are presented. The conclusions and recommendations drawn from this assessment are given.

  16. Preliminary Results on the Feasibility of Using ARFI/SWEI to Assess Cutaneous Sclerotic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yun; Cardones, Adela R; Doherty, Joshua; Nightingale, Kathryn; Palmeri, Mark

    2015-11-01

    In this study, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) were applied to the skin to investigate the feasibility of their use in assessing sclerotic skin diseases. Our motivation was to develop a non-invasive imaging technology with real-time feedback of sclerotic skin disease diagnosis. This paper shows representative results from an ongoing study, recruiting patients with and without sclerosis. The stiffness of the imaged site was evaluated using two metrics: mean ARFI displacement magnitude and bulk shear wave speed inside the region of interest (ROI). In a subject with localized graft versus host disease (GVHD), the mean ARFI displacement inside sclerotic skin was 61% lower (p < 0.01) and shear wave speed 128% higher (p < 0.005) compared to those in normal skin-indicating stiffer mechanical properties in the sclerotic skin. This trend persisted through disease types. We conclude ARFI and SWEI can successfully differentiate sclerotic lesions from normal dermis. PMID:26259888

  17. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources; results, methodology, and supporting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, G.L.; Takahashi, K.I.; Varnes, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the Minerals Management Service. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  18. 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Varnes, Katharine L.

    1996-01-01

    This revised CD-ROM summarizes the results, released in 1995, of the 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. Minor errors in the original DDS-30 (listed in DDS-35 and DDS-36) are corrected in this revised version and in the data files now released in DDS-35 and DDS-36. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  19. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  20. Utilizing Internal Standard Responses to Assess Risk on Reporting Bioanalytical Results from Hemolyzed Samples.

    PubMed

    Fung, Eliza N; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Allentoff, Alban; Ji, Qin C

    2015-09-01

    Bioanalytical analysis of toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic samples is an integral part of small molecule drugs development and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been the technique of choice. One important consideration is the matrix effect, in which ionization of the analytes of interest is affected by the presence of co-eluting interfering components present in the sample matrix. Hemolysis, which results in additional endogenous components being released from the lysed red blood cells, may cause additional matrix interferences. The effects of the degree of hemolysis on the accuracy and precision of the method and the reported sample concentrations from hemolyzed study samples have drawn increasing attention in recent years, especially in cases where the sample concentrations are critical for pharmacokinetic calculation. Currently, there is no established procedure to objectively assess the risk of reporting potentially inaccurate bioanalytical results from hemolyzed study samples. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different degrees of hemolysis on the internal standard peak area, accuracy, and precision of the analyses of BMS-906024 and its metabolite, BMS-911557, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. In addition, we proposed the strategy of using the peak area of the stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) from the LC-MS/MS measurement as the surrogate marker for risk assessment. Samples with peak areas outside of the pre-defined acceptance criteria, e.g., less than 50% or more than 150% of the average IS response in study samples, plasma standards, and QC samples when SIL-IS is used, are flagged out for further investigation. PMID:25975617

  1. Clinical Usefulness of Watch-PAT for Assessing the Surgical Results of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn device that is based on peripheral arterial tonometry (watch-PAT) to evaluate the surgical results of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome subjects. Study Design and Method: Thirty-five subjects who were diagnosed with OSA and underwent sleep surgeries such as septoplasty, tonsillectomy, or uvuloplasty to correct their airway collapse, participated in this study; the watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured after the sleep surgery. Results: The present study showed that RDI (32.8 ± 10.7 vs 14.8 ± 7.5), AHI (30.3 ± 8.6 vs 13.4 ± 8.2 events/h), lowest oxygen saturation (78.2% ± 8.4% vs 90.5% ± 7.1%), and valid sleep time (329.1 ± 47.2 min and a postoperative value of 389.1 ± 50.1 min) recovered to within a normal range after surgery in 28 subjects. In addition, good agreement was found between watch-PAT-derived factors and visual analogue scales for changes in subjective symptoms, such as snoring, apnea, and daytime somnolence. Seven of the 35 subjects showed no improvement for their subjective symptoms and complained of snoring and apnea after surgery. We found that the RDI and AHI of those 7 subjects were not reduced, and the changes between pre- and postoperative values which were measured with watch-PAT were minimal. Their postoperative lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time were not elevated per the watch-PAT. The results support a strong correlation between the findings from watch-PAT and improved symptoms after surgical correction of an airway collapse. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the factors measured by the watch-PAT might be reliable indicators of symptomatic changes in OSA subjects after sleep surgery and also shows that the watch-PAT is a highly sensitive portable device for estimating treatment results in OSA. Citation: Park CY

  2. Texas Student Assessment Program. Student Performance Results, 1996-1997. TAAS and End-of-Course Examinations and Other Studies. Statewide and Regional Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report presents results from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) tests administered in the spring of 1997 and results from end of course tests in Algebra and Biology. Only a slight decrease in the percentage passing the eighth-grade social studies test marred the otherwise across-the-board rise in percentages meeting minimum…

  3. Texas Assessment of Academic Skills and TEAMS Exit Level. Student Performance Results, 1991-1992. Volume 1. Statewide and Regional Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report presents the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) performance results to state officials and the public as required by state law. Compiled in two volumes, TAAS results are aggregated and reported for the state as a whole, for education service centers and individual districts, and in district demographic groupings. Section 1…

  4. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  5. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First

  6. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  7. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  8. Geometrical Scaling of the Magnitude Frequency Statistics of Fluid Injection Induced Earthquakes and Implications for Assessment and Mitigation of Seismic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinske, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    To study the influence of size and geometry of hydraulically perturbed rock volumes on the magnitude statistics of induced events, we compare b value and seismogenic index estimates derived from different algorithms. First, we use standard Gutenberg-Richter approaches like least square fit and maximum likelihood technique. Second, we apply the lower bound probability fit (Shapiro et al., 2013, JGR, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50264) which takes the finiteness of the perturbed volume into account. The different estimates systematically deviate from each other and the deviations are larger for smaller perturbed rock volumes. It means that the frequency-magnitude distribution is most affected for small injection volume and short injection time resulting in a high apparent b value. In contrast, the specific magnitude value, the quotient of seismogenic index and b value (Shapiro et al., 2013, JGR, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50264), appears to be a unique seismotectonic parameter of a reservoir location. Our results confirm that it is independent of the size of perturbed rock volume. The specific magnitude is hence an indicator of the magnitudes that one can expect for a given injection. Several performance tests to forecast the magnitude frequencies of induced events show that the seismogenic index model provides reliable predictions which confirm its applicability as a forecast tool, particularly, if applied in real-time monitoring. The specific magnitude model can be used to predict an asymptotical upper limit of probable frequency-magnitude distributions of induced events. We also conclude from our analysis that the physical process of pore pressure diffusion for the event triggering and the scaling of their frequency-magnitude distribution by the size of perturbed rock volume well depicts the presented relation between upper bound of maximum seismic moment and injected fluid volume (McGarr, 2014, JGR, doi:10.1002/2013JB010597), particularly, if nonlinear effects in the diffusion process

  9. Mapping soil texture classes and optimization of the result by accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Pásztor, László

    2014-05-01

    There are increasing demands nowadays on spatial soil information in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. The GlobalSoilMap.net (GSM) project aims to make a new digital soil map of the world using state-of-the-art and emerging technologies for soil mapping and predicting soil properties at fine resolution. Sand, silt and clay are among the mandatory GSM soil properties. Furthermore, soil texture class information is input data of significant agro-meteorological and hydrological models. Our present work aims to compare and evaluate different digital soil mapping methods and variables for producing the most accurate spatial prediction of texture classes in Hungary. In addition to the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System as our basic data, digital elevation model and its derived components, geological database, and physical property maps of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System have been applied as auxiliary elements. Two approaches have been applied for the mapping process. At first the sand, silt and clay rasters have been computed independently using regression kriging (RK). From these rasters, according to the USDA categories, we have compiled the texture class map. Different combinations of reference and training soil data and auxiliary covariables have resulted several different maps. However, these results consequentially include the uncertainty factor of the three kriged rasters. Therefore we have suited data mining methods as the other approach of digital soil mapping. By working out of classification trees and random forests we have got directly the texture class maps. In this way the various results can be compared to the RK maps. The performance of the different methods and data has been examined by testing the accuracy of the geostatistically computed and the directly classified results. We have used the GSM methodology to assess the most predictive and accurate way for getting the best among the

  10. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  11. DURABILITY OF SUBSLAB DEPRESSURIZATION RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMPERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance ofsub-slab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eighthouses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in whichthe NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements haveindicated operation a...

  12. REENTRY OF RADON FROM MITIGATION SYSTEM OUTLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the measurement of reentry rates for radon released at roof level and at ground level near a house, to determine whether or not exhaust is necessary above the roof. (NOTE: Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under...

  13. Child Health Assessment. Part 2: Results of the First Twelve Months of Life. Final Report. Nursing Child Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Kathryn E.; Gortner, Susan R.

    To help predict physical, mental, and social behavior problems in school age children, this longitudinal study intended to identify the origins of dysfunction and the characteristics which put infants at high risk for future problems. The study provided background data for the development of an operational screening and assessment method. The…

  14. Toward Guidelines for Population-level Ecological Risk Assessment: Results of a U.S. EPA Risk Assessment Forum Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The choice of levels of biological organization reflected in ecological risk assessment (ERA) is receiving increasing attention. Most ERAs conducted for chemicals by the U.S. EPA, and indeed by most organizations worldwide, focus on organism-level attributes (e.g., survival, gro...

  15. National Assessment of Educational Progress, Report 1--Science: National Results. Observations and Commentary of a Panel of Reviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Presented are five reviews of the National Assessment of Educational Progress results in science. Dr. Mildred Ballou discusses the objectives of the assessment by age level with concern over explanations for responses, social implications, and validity of testing exercises. Wilmer Cooksey comments on the results as viewed by the classroom teacher…

  16. Texas Assessment of Academic Skills and TEAMS Exit Level. Student Performance Results, October 1990. Volume 2. Performance by School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) Student Performance Results lists performance results on the TAAS and the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS), an exit examination, alphabetically by school district for each grade level tested (grades 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 for the TAAS and grades 11 and 12 for the initial…

  17. Simple optical method of qualitative assessment of sperm motility: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozanska, Agnieszka; Kolwas, Krystyna; Galas, Jacek; Blocki, Narcyz; Czyzewski, Adam

    2005-09-01

    The examination of quality of the sperm ejaculate is one of the most important steps in artificial fertilization procedure. The main aim of semen storage centres is to characterise the best semen quality for fertilization. Reliable information about sperm motility is also one the most important parameters for in vitro laboratory procedures. There exist very expensive automated methods for semen analysis but they are unachievable for most of laboratories and semen storage centres. Motivation for this study is to elaborate a simple, cheap, objective and repeatable method for semen motility assessment. The method enables to detect even small changes in motility introduced by medical, physical or chemical factors. To test the reliability of the method we used cryopreserved bull semen from Lowicz Semen Storage Centre. The examined sperm specimen was warmed in water bath and then centrifuged. The best semen was collected by the swim-up technique and diluted to a proper concentration. Several semen concentrations and dilutions were tested in order to find the best probe parameters giving repeatable results. For semen visualization we used the phase-contrast microscope with a CCD camera. A PC computer was used to acquire and to analyse the data. The microscope table equipped with a microscope glass pool 0.7mm deep instead of some conventional plane microscope slides was stabilised at the temperature of 37°C. The main idea of our method is based on a numerical processing of the optical contrast of the sperm images which illustrates the dynamics of the sperm cells movement and on appropriate analysis of a grey scale level of the superimposed images. An elaborated numerical algorithm allows us to find the relative amount of motile sperm cells. The proposed method of sperm motility assessment seems to be objective and repeatable.

  18. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  19. MITIGATION IMPACT SCREENING TOOL (MIST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MIST is intended to provide a back of the envelope, qualitative indication of the likely impacts of heat island mitigation strategies averaged at the city-scale. To run MIST, users follow three basic steps: 1. Select the city to model (240 available) 2. Define the mitigation ...

  20. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.