Science.gov

Sample records for mitochondrial membrane potential

  1. Wafer-scale Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tae-Sun; Davila, Antonio; Zand, Katayoun; Douglas, Wallace C.; Burke, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that mitochondrial metabolic and biophysical parameters are associated with degenerative diseases and the aging process. To evaluate these biochemical parameters, current technology requires several hundred milligrams of isolated mitochondria for functional assays. Here, we demonstrate manufacturable wafer-scale mitochondrial functional assay lab-on-a-chip devices, which require mitochondrial protein quantities three orders of magnitude less than current assays, integrated onto 4” standard silicon wafer with new fabrication processes and materials. Membrane potential changes of isolated mitochondria from various well-established cell lines such as human HeLa cell line (Heb7A), human osteosarcoma cell line (143b) and mouse skeletal muscle tissue were investigated and compared. This second generation integrated lab-on-a-chip system developed here shows enhanced structural durability and reproducibility while increasing the sensitivity to changes in mitochondrial membrane potential by an order of magnitude as compared to first generation technologies. We envision this system to be a great candidate to substitute current mitochondrial assay systems. PMID:22627274

  2. Mitochondrial membrane potential is regulated by vimentin intermediate filaments

    PubMed Central

    Chernoivanenko, Ivan S.; Matveeva, Elena A.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Goldman, Robert D.; Minin, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the association of mitochondria with vimentin intermediate filaments (VIFs) measurably increases their membrane potential. This increase is detected by quantitatively comparing the fluorescence intensity of mitochondria stained with the membrane potential-sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine-ethyl ester (TMRE) in murine vimentin-null fibroblasts with that in the same cells expressing human vimentin (∼35% rise). When vimentin expression is silenced by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to reduce vimentin by 90%, the fluorescence intensity of mitochondria decreases by 20%. The increase in membrane potential is caused by specific interactions between a subdomain of the non-α-helical N terminus (residues 40 to 93) of vimentin and mitochondria. In rho 0 cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and consequently missing several key proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (ρ0 cells), the membrane potential generated by an alternative anaerobic process is insensitive to the interactions between mitochondria and VIF. The results of our studies show that the close association between mitochondria and VIF is important both for determining their position in cells and their physiologic activity.—Chernoivanenko, I. S., Matveeva, E. A., Gelfand, V. I., Goldman, R. D., Minin, A. A. Mitochondrial membrane potential is regulated by vimentin intermediate filaments. PMID:25404709

  3. Proteasome Impairment Induces Recovery of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and an Alternative Pathway of Mitochondrial Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shirozu, Ryohei; Yashiroda, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are vital and highly dynamic organelles that continuously fuse and divide to maintain mitochondrial quality. Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs cellular integrity and is known to be associated with various human diseases. However, the mechanism by which the quality of mitochondria is maintained remains largely unexplored. Here we show that impaired proteasome function recovers the growth of yeast cells lacking Fzo1, a pivotal protein for mitochondrial fusion. Decreased proteasome activity increased the mitochondrial oxidoreductase protein Mia40 and the ratio of the short isoform of mitochondrial intermembrane protein Mgm1 (s-Mgm1) to the long isoform (l-Mgm1). The increase in Mia40 restored mitochondrial membrane potential, while the increase in the s-Mgm1/l-Mgm1 ratio promoted mitochondrial fusion in an Fzo1-independent manner. Our findings demonstrate a new pathway for mitochondrial quality control that is induced by proteasome impairment. PMID:26552703

  4. Tau accumulation impairs mitophagy via increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing mitochondrial Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-hao; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Xiangnan; Liu, Xiu-Ping; Feng, Qiong; Wang, Qun; Yue, Zhenyu; Chen, Zhong; Ye, Keqiang; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of wild type tau is a hallmark of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tau toxicity is not fully understood. Here, we detected mitophagy deficits evidenced by the increased levels of mitophagy markers, including COX IV, TOMM20, and the ratio of mtDNA to genomic DNA indexed as mt-Atp6/Rpl13, in the AD brains and in the human wild type full-length tau (htau) transgenic mice. More interestingly, the mitophagy deficit was only shown in the AD patients who had an increased total tau level. Further studies demonstrated that overexpression of htau induced mitophagy deficits in HEK293 cells, the primary hippocampal neurons and in the brains of C57 mice. Upon overexpression of htau, the mitochondrial membrane potential was increased and the levels of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin decreased in the mitochondrial fraction, while upregulation of Parkin attenuated the htau-induced mitophagy deficits. Finally, we detected a dose-dependent allocation of tau proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane fraction along with its cytoplasmic accumulation. These data suggest that intracellular accumulation of htau induces mitophagy deficits by direct inserting into the mitochondrial membrane and thus increasing the membrane potential, which impairs the mitochondrial residence of PINK1/Parkin. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying the htau-induced neuronal toxicities in AD and other tauopathies. PMID:26943044

  5. TCA Cycle and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Are Necessary for Diverse Biological Functions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Diebold, Lauren P; Kong, Hyewon; Schieber, Michael; Huang, He; Hensley, Christopher T; Mehta, Manan M; Wang, Tianyuan; Santos, Janine H; Woychik, Richard; Dufour, Eric; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Weinberg, Samuel E; Zhao, Yingming; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2016-01-21

    Mitochondrial metabolism is necessary for the maintenance of oxidative TCA cycle function and mitochondrial membrane potential. Previous attempts to decipher whether mitochondria are necessary for biological outcomes have been hampered by genetic and pharmacologic methods that simultaneously disrupt multiple functions linked to mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we report that inducible depletion of mitochondrial DNA (ρ(ο) cells) diminished respiration, oxidative TCA cycle function, and the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in diminished cell proliferation, hypoxic activation of HIF-1, and specific histone acetylation marks. Genetic reconstitution only of the oxidative TCA cycle function specifically in these inducible ρ(ο) cells restored metabolites, resulting in re-establishment of histone acetylation. In contrast, genetic reconstitution of the mitochondrial membrane potential restored ROS, which were necessary for hypoxic activation of HIF-1 and cell proliferation. These results indicate that distinct mitochondrial functions associated with respiration are necessary for cell proliferation, epigenetics, and HIF-1 activation. PMID:26725009

  6. Development of a no-wash assay for mitochondrial membrane potential using the styryl dye DASPEI.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian H R; Rekling, Jens C

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of several diseases and may also result from drugs with unwanted side effects on mitochondrial biochemistry. The mitochondrial membrane potential is a good indicator of mitochondrial function. Here, the authors have developed a no-wash mitochondrial membrane potential assay using 2-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-ethylpyridinium iodide (DASPEI), a rarely used mitochondrial potentiometric probe, in a 96-well format using a fluorescent plate reader. The assay was validated using 2 protonophores (CCCP, DNP), which are known uncouplers, and the neuroleptic thioridazine, which is a suspected mitochondrial toxicant. CCCP and DNP have short-term depolarizing effects, and thioridazine has long-term hyperpolarizing effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The assay also detected changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential in CHO cells exposed to cobalt (mimicking hypoxia) and in PC12 cells exposed to amyloid β, demonstrating that the assay can be used in cellular models of hypoxia and Alzheimer's disease. The assay needs no washing steps, has a Z' value >0.5, can be used on standard fluorometers, has good post liquid-handling stability, and thus is suitable for large-scale screening efforts. In summary, the DASPEI assay is simple and rapid and may be of use in toxicological testing, drug target discovery, and mechanistic models of diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:20713988

  7. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seok Min; Lazarou, Michael; Wang, Chunxin; Kane, Lesley A; Narendra, Derek P; Youle, Richard J

    2010-11-29

    PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson's disease. It has been found to work in the same pathway as the E3 ligase Parkin in the maintenance of flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and to recruit cytosolic Parkin to mitochondria to mediate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. In the absence of PARL, the constitutive degradation of PINK1 is inhibited, stabilizing a 60-kD form inside mitochondria. When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. PMID:21115803

  8. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seok Min; Lazarou, Michael; Wang, Chunxin; Kane, Lesley A.; Narendra, Derek P.

    2010-01-01

    PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson’s disease. It has been found to work in the same pathway as the E3 ligase Parkin in the maintenance of flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and to recruit cytosolic Parkin to mitochondria to mediate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. In the absence of PARL, the constitutive degradation of PINK1 is inhibited, stabilizing a 60-kD form inside mitochondria. When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. PMID:21115803

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential in bovine spermatozoa by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Chihiro; Kang, Sung-Sik; Kitade, Yasuyuki; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop an objective evaluation procedure to estimate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bull spermatozoa simultaneously by flow cytometry. Firstly, we used frozen-thawed semen mixed with 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% dead spermatozoa. Semen was stained using three staining solutions: SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), and phycoerythrin-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PE-PNA), for the evaluation of plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Then, characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were compared. Characteristics of spermatozoa (viability and acrosomal integrity) evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were found to be similar. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and also mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa by flow cytometry using conventional staining with three dyes (SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA) combined with MitoTracker Deep Red (MTDR) staining (quadruple staining). The spermatozoon characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry using quadruple staining were then compared with those of staining using SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA and staining using SYBR-14 and MTDR. There were no significant differences in all characteristics (viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential) evaluated by quadruple staining and the other procedures. In conclusion, quadruple staining using SYBR-14, PI, PE-PNA, and MTDR for flow cytometry can be used to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bovine spermatozoa simultaneously. PMID:26369275

  10. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 muM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt{sub max} of 105 +- 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 +- 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 +- 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 +- 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 +- 1 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 +- 3 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  11. Biophysical significance of the inner mitochondrial membrane structure on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong Hoon; Park, Jonghyun; Maurer, Laura L; Lu, Wei; Philbert, Martin A; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2013-12-01

    The available literature supports the hypothesis that the morphology of the inner mitochondrial membrane is regulated by different energy states, that the three-dimensional morphology of cristae is dynamic, and that both are related to biochemical function. Examination of the correlation between the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) structure and mitochondrial energetic function is critical to an understanding of the links between mesoscale morphology and function in progressive mitochondrial dysfunction such as aging, neurodegeneration, and disease. To investigate this relationship, we develop a model to examine the effects of three-dimensional IMM morphology on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria. The two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method is used to simulate mitochondrial electric potential and proton concentration distribution. This simulation model demonstrates that the proton motive force (Δp) produced on the membranes of cristae can be higher than that on the inner boundary membrane. The model also shows that high proton concentration in cristae can be induced by the morphology-dependent electric potential gradient along the outer side of the IMM. Furthermore, simulation results show that a high Δp is induced by the large surface-to-volume ratio of an individual crista, whereas a high capacity for ATP synthesis can primarily be achieved by increasing the surface area of an individual crista. The mathematical model presented here provides compelling support for the idea that morphology at the mesoscale is a significant driver of mitochondrial function. PMID:24483502

  12. Biophysical significance of the inner mitochondrial membrane structure on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong Hoon; Park, Jonghyun; Maurer, Laura L.; Lu, Wei; Philbert, Martin A.; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    The available literature supports the hypothesis that the morphology of the inner mitochondrial membrane is regulated by different energy states, that the three-dimensional morphology of cristae is dynamic and that both are related to biochemical function. Examination of the correlation between the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) structure and mitochondrial energetic function is critical to an understanding of the links between meso-scale morphology and function in progressive mitochondrial dysfunction such as aging, neurodegeneration, and disease. To investigate this relationship, we develop a model to examine the effects of three-dimensional IMM morphology on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria. The 2D axisymmetric finite element method is used to simulate mitochondrial electric potential and proton concentration distribution. This simulation model demonstrates that the proton motive force (PMF) produced on the membranes of cristae can be higher than that on the inner boundary membrane. The model also shows that high proton concentration in cristae can be induced by the morphology-dependent electric potential gradient along the outer side of the IMM. Furthermore, simulation results show that a high PMF is induced by the large surface-to-volume ratio of an individual crista, whereas a high capacity for ATP synthesis can primarily be achieved by increasing the surface area of an individual crista. The mathematical model presented here provides compelling support for the idea that morphology at the meso-scale is a significant driver of mitochondrial function. PMID:24483502

  13. Biophysical significance of the inner mitochondrial membrane structure on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong Hoon; Park, Jonghyun; Maurer, Laura L.; Lu, Wei; Philbert, Martin A.; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2013-12-01

    The available literature supports the hypothesis that the morphology of the inner mitochondrial membrane is regulated by different energy states, that the three-dimensional morphology of cristae is dynamic, and that both are related to biochemical function. Examination of the correlation between the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) structure and mitochondrial energetic function is critical to an understanding of the links between mesoscale morphology and function in progressive mitochondrial dysfunction such as aging, neurodegeneration, and disease. To investigate this relationship, we develop a model to examine the effects of three-dimensional IMM morphology on the electrochemical potential of mitochondria. The two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method is used to simulate mitochondrial electric potential and proton concentration distribution. This simulation model demonstrates that the proton motive force (Δp) produced on the membranes of cristae can be higher than that on the inner boundary membrane. The model also shows that high proton concentration in cristae can be induced by the morphology-dependent electric potential gradient along the outer side of the IMM. Furthermore, simulation results show that a high Δp is induced by the large surface-to-volume ratio of an individual crista, whereas a high capacity for ATP synthesis can primarily be achieved by increasing the surface area of an individual crista. The mathematical model presented here provides compelling support for the idea that morphology at the mesoscale is a significant driver of mitochondrial function.

  14. [HOMOCYSTEINE-INDUCED MEMBRANE CURRENTS, CALCIUM RESPONSES AND CHANGES OF MITOCHONDRIAL POTENTIAL IN RAT CORTICAL NEURONS].

    PubMed

    Abushik, P A; Karelina, T V; Sibarov, D A; Stepanenko, J D; Giniatullin, R; Antonov, S M

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, exhibits neurotoxic effects and is involved in the pathogenesis of several major neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to well studied excitoxicity of glutamate, the mechanism of homocysteine neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. By using whole-cell patch-clamp, calcium imaging (fluo-3) and measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (rhodamine 123) we studied transmembrane currents, calcium signals and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential induced by homocysteine versus responses induced by NMDA and glutamate in cultured rat cortical neurons. L-homocysteine (50 µM) induced inward currents that could be completely blocked by the selective antagonist of NMDA receptors - AP-5. In contrast to NMDA-induced currents, homocysteine-induced currents had a smaller steady-state amplitude. Comparison of calcium responses to homocysteine, NMDA or glutamate demonstrated that in all cortical neurons homocysteine elicited short, oscillatory-type calcium responses, whereas NMDA or glutamate induced sustained increase of intracellular calcium. Analysis of mitochondrial changes demonstrated that in contrast to NMDA homocysteine did not cause a drop of mitochondrial membrane potential at the early stages of action. However, after its long-term action, as in the case of NMDA and glutamate, the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were comparable with the full drop of respiratory chain induced by protonophore FCCP. Our data suggest that in cultured rat cortical neuron homocysteine at the first stages of action induces neurotoxic effects through activation of NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors with strong calcium influx through the channels of these receptors. The long-term action of homocysteine may lead to mitochondrial disfuction and appears as a drop of mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:26547950

  15. Expression of a mitochondrial progesterone receptor in human spermatozoa correlates with a progestin-dependent increase in mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Tantibhedhyangkul, J; Hawkins, K C; Dai, Q; Mu, K; Dunn, C N; Miller, S E; Price, T M

    2014-11-01

    The hyperactivation of human spermatozoa necessary for fertilization requires a substantial increase in cellular energy production. The factors responsible for increasing cellular energy remain poorly defined. This article proposes a role for a novel mitochondrial progesterone receptor (PR-M) in modulation of mitochondrial activity. Basic science studies demonstrate a 38 kDa protein with western blot analysis, consistent with PR-M; whereas imaging studies with confocal and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrate a PR on the mitochondria. Treatment with a PR-specific progestin shows increased mitochondrial membrane potential, not related to induction of an acrosome reaction. The increase in mitochondrial membrane potential was inhibited by a specific PR antagonist, but not affected by an inhibitor to the progesterone-dependent Catsper voltage-activated channel. In conclusion, these studies suggest expression of a novel mitochondrial PR in human spermatozoa with a progestin-dependent increase in mitochondrial activity. This mechanism may serve to enhance cellular energy production as the spermatozoa traverse the female genital tract being exposed to increasing concentrations of progesterone. PMID:25187426

  16. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite on mitochondrial membrane potential in permeabilized rat heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, N.; Kako, K.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The chemiosmotic theory states that the proton electrochemical potential gradient across the membrane drives mitochondrial energy transduction. Mitochondria can take up Ca accumulated in the cytosol. Therefore, oxidant-induced ATP depletion and Ca overload in the cell may be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, the authors measured membrane potential of mitochondria in situ in isolated rat heart myocytes with {sup 3}H-triphenylmethylphosphonium. This was followed by permeabilization using digitonin and rapid centrifugation using density gradient of bromododecane. They found that the membrane potentials, 118 mV with isolated and 161 mV with in situ mitochondria, were relatively well maintained under oxidant stress. High concentrations of oxidants reduced also the cellular ATP level, whereas the matrix volume was not significantly changed. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential was more pronounced when the extra-mitochondrial free Ca concentration was increased in permeabilized myocytes. These results support the view that heart mitochondria are equipped with well developed defense mechanisms against oxidants and thus the electrochemical gradient of inner membrane is affected only by a relatively large concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HOCl.

  17. Cytochrome c release precedes mitochondrial membrane potential loss in cerebellar granule neuron apoptosis: lack of mitochondrial swelling.

    PubMed

    Wigdal, Susan S; Kirkland, Rebecca A; Franklin, James L; Haak-Frendscho, Mary

    2002-09-01

    It has been suggested that release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria during apoptotic death is through opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore followed by swelling-induced rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, this remains controversial and may vary with cell type and model system. We determined that in mouse cerebellar granule neurons, Cyt c redistribution preceded the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential during the apoptotic process, suggesting that the pore did not open prior to release. Furthermore, when mitochondria were morphologically assessed by electron microscopy, they were not obviously swollen during the period of Cyt c release. This indicates that the pore mechanism of action, if any, is not through mitochondrial outer membrane rupture. While bongkrekic acid, an inhibitor of pore opening, modestly delayed apoptotic death, it also caused a significant (p < 0.05) suppression of protein synthesis. An equivalent suppression of protein synthesis by cycloheximide had a similar delaying effect, suggesting that bongkrekic acid was acting non-specifically. These findings suggest that mitochondrial permeability transition pore is not involved in Cyt c release from mitochondria during the apoptotic death of cerebellar granule neurons. PMID:12358750

  18. Assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential using an on-chip microelectrode in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, Antonio; Wallace, Douglas C.; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial membrane potential is used to generate and regulate energy in living systems, driving the conversion of ADP to ATP, regulating ion homeostasis, and controlling apoptosis, all central to human health and disease. Therefore, there is a need for tools to study its regulation in a controlled environment for potential clinical and scientific applications. For this aim, an on-chip tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) selective microelectrode sensor was constructed in a microfluidic environment. The concentration of isolated mitochondria (Heb7A) used in a membrane potential measurement was 0.3 ng μL−1, four orders of magnitude smaller than the concentration used in conventional assays (3 μg μL−1). In addition, the volume of the chamber (85 μL) is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than traditional experiments. As a demonstration, changes in the membrane potential are clearly measured in response to a barrage of well-known substrates and inhibitors of the electron transport chain. This general approach, which to date has not been demonstrated for study of mitochondrial function and bio-energetics in generally, can be instrumental in advancing the field of mitochondrial research and clinical applications by allowing high throughput studies of the regulation, dynamics, and statistical properties of the mitochondrial membrane potential in response to inhibitors and inducers of apoptosis in a controlled (microfluidic) chemical environment. PMID:20383402

  19. A biphenyl type two-photon fluorescence probe for monitoring the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Yamada, Kengo; Kojima, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Tani, Seiji; Kinoshita, Hazuki; Sasaki, Akira; Mikuni, Shintaro; Kinjo, Masataka; Kawamata, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the design and synthesis of a bifunctional two-photon fluorescence probe, N,N'-‍dimethyl-4,4'-(biphenyl-2,1-ethenediyl)dipyridinium hexafluorophosphate (BP6). HeLa, Hek293, and Paramecium caudatum cells were stained with BP6. BP6 accumulated on the mitochondria of all three cell types when the mitochondrial membrane potential was high. As the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased following the addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine, BP6 moved from the mitochondria to the nucleus in a reversible manner, depending on the mitochondrial membrane potential status. The maximum value of the two-photon absorption cross-section of BP6 is 250 GM (1 GM=1×10(-50) cm(4) s molecules(-1) photon(-1)). This value is 3 and 30 times larger, respectively, than that of the conventional mitochondria selective probes, rhodamine 123 and green fluorescence protein. These results suggest that BP6 should be useful for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential by two-photon excitation. PMID:25319070

  20. Death-associated protein kinase as a sensor of mitochondrial membrane potential: role of lysosome in mitochondrial toxin-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Shang, Tiesong; Joseph, Joy; Hillard, Cecilia J; Kalyanaraman, B

    2005-10-14

    We have investigated here the mechanism of dephosphorylation and activation of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and the role of lysosome in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) treated with mitochondrial toxins, such as MPP(+) and rotenone. Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors and uncouplers decreased mitochondrial membrane potential leading to DAPK dephosphorylation and activation. The class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors attenuated DAPK dephosphorylation induced by mitochondrial toxins. Complex I inhibition by mitochondrial toxins (e.g. MPP(+)) resulted in mitochondrial swelling and lysosome reduction. Inhibition of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase attenuated MPP(+)-induced lysosome reduction and cell death. The role of DAPK as a sensor of mitochondrial membrane potential in mitochondrial diseases was addressed. PMID:16085644

  1. Toxicity and Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Induced by Alkyl Gallates in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Andréo, Rogério; Regasini, Luís Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Tansini, Aline; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Cicarelli, Regina Maria Barretto

    2015-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is a debilitating disease representing an important social problem that affects, approximately, 10 million people in the world. The main aggravating factor of this situation is the lack of an effective drug to treat the different stages of this disease. In this context, the search for trypanocidal substances isolated from plants, synthetic or semi synthetic molecules, is an important strategy. Here, the trypanocidal potential of gallates was assayed in epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi and also, the interference of these substances on the mitochondrial membrane potential of the parasites was assessed, allowing the study of the mechanism of action of the gallates in the T. cruzi organisms. Regarding the preliminary structure-activity relationships, the side chain length of gallates plays crucial role for activity. Nonyl, decyl, undecyl, and dodecyl gallates showed potent antitrypanosomal effect (IC50 from 1.46 to 2.90 μM) in contrast with benznidazole (IC50 = 34.0 μM). Heptyl gallate showed a strong synergistic activity with benznidazole, reducing by 105-fold the IC50 of benznidazole. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by these esters was revealed. Tetradecyl gallate induced a loss of 53% of the mitochondrial membrane potential, at IC50 value.

  2. Bacterial porin disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and sensitizes host cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Dian-Lothrop, Elke A; Meinecke, Michael; Kepp, Oliver; Ross, Katharina; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Harsman, Anke; Hauf, Eva; Brinkmann, Volker; Günther, Dirk; Herrmann, Ines; Hurwitz, Robert; Rassow, Joachim; Wagner, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The bacterial PorB porin, an ATP-binding beta-barrel protein of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, triggers host cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. PorB is targeted to and imported by host cell mitochondria, causing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Here, we show that PorB induces the condensation of the mitochondrial matrix and the loss of cristae structures, sensitizing cells to the induction of apoptosis via signaling pathways activated by BH3-only proteins. PorB is imported into mitochondria through the general translocase TOM but, unexpectedly, is not recognized by the SAM sorting machinery, usually required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PorB integrates into the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to the breakdown of DeltaPsi(m). The PorB channel is regulated by nucleotides and an isogenic PorB mutant defective in ATP-binding failed to induce DeltaPsi(m) loss and apoptosis, demonstrating that dissipation of DeltaPsi(m) is a requirement for cell death caused by neisserial infection. PMID:19851451

  3. Ischemic Preconditioning Preserves Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Limits Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, Ricardo; Lee, Daniel S.; Steinbaugh, Gregory; Cramer, Brandon; Erdahl, Warren; Pfeiffer, Douglas R.; Zweier, Jay L.; Crestanello, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial superoxide radical (O2•−) production increases after cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) preserves mitochondrial function and attenuates O2•− production, but the mechanism is unknown. Mitochondrial membrane potential (mΔΨ) is known to affect O2•− production; mitochondrial depolarization decreases O2•− formation. We examined the relationship between O2•− production and mΔΨ during IR and IPC. Materials/Methods Rat hearts were subjected to Control or IPC. Mitochondria were isolated at end-equilibration (End EQ), end-ischemia (End I) and end-reperfusion (End RP). mΔΨ was measured using a tetraphenylphosphonium electrode. Mitochondrial O2•− production was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using DMPO spin trap. Cytochrome c levels were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results IPC preserved mΔΨ at End I (−156±5 vs. −131±6 mV, p<0.001) and End RP (−168±2 vs. −155±2 mV, p<0.05). At End RP, IPC attenuated O2•− production (2527±221 vs. 3523±250 AU/mg protein, p<0.05). IPC preserved cytochrome c levels (351±14 vs. 269±16 picomoles/mg protein, p<0.05) at End RP, and decreased mitochondrial cristae disruption (10±4 vs. 33±7%, p<0.05) and amorphous density formation (18±4 vs. 28±1%, p<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that IPC preserves mΔΨ, possibly by limiting disruption of mitochondrial inner membrane. IPC also decreases mitochondrial O2•− production and preserves mitochondrial ultrastructure after IR. While it was previously held that slight decreases in mΔΨ decrease O2•− production, our results indicate that preservation of mΔΨ is associated with decreased O2•− and preservation of cardiac function in IPC. These findings indicate that the mechanism of IPC may not involve mΔΨ depolarization, but rather preservation of mitochondrial electrochemical potential. PMID:22763215

  4. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in primary disorders of ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Vojtísková, Alena; Jesina, Pavel; Kalous, Martin; Kaplanová, Vilma; Houstek, Josef; Tesarová, Markéta; Fornůsková, Daniela; Zeman, Jirí; Dubot, Audrey; Godinot, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Studies of fibroblasts with primary defects in mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) due to heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations in the ATP6 gene, affecting protonophoric function or synthesis of subunit a, show that at high mutation loads, mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsi(m) at state 4 is normal, but ADP-induced discharge of DeltaPsi(m) is impaired and ATP synthesis at state 3-ADP is decreased. Increased DeltaPsi(m) and low ATP synthesis is also found when the ATPase content is diminished by altered biogenesis of the enzyme complex. Irrespective of the different pathogenic mechanisms, elevated DeltaPsi(m) in primary ATPase disorders could increase mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and decrease energy provision. PMID:20021115

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF THE INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE AND Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS OF MYOMETRIUM CELLS.

    PubMed

    Danylovych, Yu V; Karakhim, S A; Danylovych, H V; Kolomiets, O V; Kosterin, S O

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent probe, mitochondria binding dyes, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, that elimination of electrochemical potential of uterus myocytes' inner mitochondrial membrane by aprotonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (10 μM), and by a respiratory chain complex IV inhibitor sodium azide (1 mM) is associated with substantial increase of Ca2+ concentration in myoplasm in the case of the protonophore effect only, but not in the case of the azide effect. In particular, with the use of nonyl acridine orange, a mitochondria-specific dye, and 9-aminoacridine, an agent that binds to membrane compartments in the presence of proton gradient, we showed that both the protonophore and the respiratory chain inhibitor cause the proton gradient on mitochondrial inner membrane to dissipate when introduced into incubation medium. We also proved with the help of 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine, a potential-sensitive carbocyanine-derived fluorescent probe, that the application of these substances results in dissipation of the membrane's electrical potential. The elimination of mitochondrial electrochemical potential by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone causes substantial increase in fluorescence of Ca(2+)-sensitive Fluo-4 AM dye in myoplasm of smooth muscle cells. The results obtained were qualitatively confirmed with flow cytometry of mitochondria isolated through differential centrifugation and loaded with Fluo-4 AM. Particularly, Ca2+ matrix influx induced by addition of the exogenous cation is totally inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Therefore, using two independent fluorometric methods, namely confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, with Ca(2+)-sensitive Fluo-4 AM fluorescent probe, we proved on the models of freshly isolated myocytes and uterus smooth muscle mitochondria isolated by differential centrifugation sedimentation that the electrochemical gradient of inner membrane

  6. Simultaneous monitoring of ionophore- and inhibitor-mediated plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential changes in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2006-05-26

    Although natural and synthetic ionophores are widely exploited in cell studies, for example, to influence cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations and to depolarize in situ mitochondria, their inherent lack of membrane selectivity means that they affect the ion permeability of both plasma and mitochondrial membranes. A similar ambiguity affects the interpretation of signals from fluorescent membrane-permeant cations (usually termed "mitochondrial membrane potential indicators"), because the accumulation of these probes is influenced by both plasma and mitochondrial membrane potentials. To resolve some of these problems a technique is developed to allow simultaneous monitoring of plasma and mitochondrial membrane potentials at single-cell resolution using a cationic and anionic fluorescent probe. A computer program is described that transforms the fluorescence changes into dynamic estimates of changes in plasma and mitochondrial potentials. Exploiting this technique, primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons display a concentration-dependent response to ionomycin: low concentrations mimic nigericin by hyperpolarizing the mitochondria while slowly depolarizing the plasma membrane and maintaining a stable elevated cytoplasmic calcium. Higher ionomycin concentrations induce a stochastic failure of calcium homeostasis that precedes both mitochondrial depolarization and an enhanced rate of plasma membrane depolarization. In addition, the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone only selectively depolarizes mitochondria at submicromolar concentrations. ATP synthase reversal following respiratory chain inhibition depolarizes the mitochondria by 26 mV. PMID:16551630

  7. Mitochondrial uncouplers act synergistically with the fumigant phosphine to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential and cause cell death.

    PubMed

    Valmas, Nicholas; Zuryn, Steven; Ebert, Paul R

    2008-10-30

    Phosphine is the most widely used fumigant for the protection of stored commodities against insect pests, especially food products such as grain. However, pest insects are developing resistance to phosphine and thereby threatening its future use. As phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and reduces the strength of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), we reasoned that mitochondrial uncouplers should act synergistically with phosphine. The mitochondrial uncouplers FCCP and PCP caused complete mortality in populations of both wild-type and phosphine-resistant lines of Caenorhabditis elegans simultaneously exposed to uncoupler and phosphine at concentrations that were individually nonlethal. Strong synergism was also observed with a third uncoupler DNP. We have also tested an alternative complex IV inhibitor, azide, with FCCP and found that this also caused a synergistic enhancement of toxicity in C. elegans. To investigate potential causes of the synergism, we measured DeltaPsi(m), ATP content, and oxidative damage (lipid hydroperoxides) in nematodes subjected to phosphine-FCCP treatment and found that neither an observed 50% depletion in ATP nor oxidative stress accounted for the synergistic effect. Instead, a synergistic reduction in DeltaPsi(m) was observed upon phosphine-FCCP co-treatment suggesting that this is directly responsible for the subsequent mortality. These results support the hypothesis that phosphine-induced mortality results from the in vivo disruption of normal mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, we have identified a novel pathway that can be targeted to overcome genetic resistance to phosphine. PMID:18755236

  8. VDAC electronics: 1. VDAC-hexo(gluco)kinase generator of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V

    2014-05-01

    The simplest mechanism of the generation of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential (OMP) by the VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel)-hexokinase complex (VHC), suggested earlier, and by the VDAC-glucokinase complex (VGC), was computationally analyzed. Even at less than 4% of VDACs bound to hexokinase, the calculated OMP is high enough to trigger the electrical closure of VDACs beyond the complexes at threshold concentrations of glucose. These results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the Warburg effect is caused by the electrical closure of VDACs, leading to global restriction of the outer membrane permeability coupled to aerobic glycolysis. The model showed that the inhibition of the conductance and/or an increase in the voltage sensitivity of a relatively small fraction of VDACs by factors like tubulin potentiate the electrical closure of the remaining free VDACs. The extrusion of calcium ions from the mitochondrial intermembrane space by the generated OMP, positive inside, might increase cancer cell resistance to death. Within the VGC model, the known effect of induction of ATP release from mitochondria by accumulated glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic beta cells might result not only of the known effect of GK dissociation from the VDAC-GK complex, but also of a decrease in the free energy of glucokinase reaction, leading to the OMP decrease and VDAC opening. We suggest that the VDAC-mediated electrical control of the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, dependent on metabolic conditions, is a fundamental physiological mechanism of global regulation of mitochondrial functions and of cell death. PMID:24412217

  9. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ≤ 3; p < 0.05]. More than 11% of the structural clusters that constitute the Tox21 library (76 of 651 clusters) were significantly enriched for compounds that decreased the MMP. Conclusions: Our multiplexed qHTS approach allowed us to generate a robust and reliable data set to evaluate the ability of thousands of drugs and environmental compounds to decrease MMP. The use of structure-based clustering analysis allowed us to identify molecular features that are likely responsible for the observed activity. Citation: Attene-Ramos MS, Huang R, Michael S, Witt KL, Richard A, Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox

  10. Peroxynitrite-mediated nitrosative stress decreases motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Uribe, P; Boguen, R; Treulen, F; Sánchez, R; Villegas, J V

    2015-03-01

    Nitrosative stress is produced by high levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The RNS include peroxynitrite, a highly reactive free radical produced from a diffusion-controlled reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite causes nitration and oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, and is thus considered an important pathogenic mechanism in various diseases. Although high levels of peroxynitrite are associated with astenozoospermia, few reports exist regarding the in vitro effect of high levels of this RNS on human sperm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of nitrosative stress caused by peroxynitrite on the viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of human spermatozoa. To do this, human spermatozoa from healthy donors were exposed in vitro to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a molecule that generates peroxynitrite. Incubations were done at 37°C for up to 4 h with SIN-1 concentrations between 0.2 and 1.0 mmol/l. Generation of peroxynitrite was confirmed using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) by spectrophotometry and flow cytometry. Sperm viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining; sperm motility was analyzed by CASA, and the state of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by JC-1 staining. Viability and ΔΨm were measured by flow cytometry. The results showed an increase in DHR oxidation, demonstrating the generation of peroxynitrite through SIN-1. Peroxynitrite decreased progressive and total motility, as well as some sperm kinetic parameters. Mitochondrial membrane potential also decreased. These alterations occurred with no decrease in sperm viability. In conclusion, peroxynitrite-induced nitrosative stress impairs vital functions in the male gamete, possibly contributing to male infertility. PMID:25425609

  11. The force exerted by the membrane potential during protein import into the mitochondrial matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated on the basis of continuum electrostatics. The force is found to vary from 3.0 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 6.5 to 12 A, its measured range. In the present model, the decrease in force with increasing pore width arises from the shielding effect of water. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a purely membranous pore without water gives a force of 3.2 pN per unit charge, which should represent an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein barnase, these results imply that forces between 11 +/- 2 pN and 13.5 +/- 2.5 pN catalyze the unfolding of barnase in those experiments. A comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy is made.

  12. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and low mitochondrial membrane potential are specific for Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karkucinska-Wieckowska, Agnieszka; Trubicka, Joanna; Werner, Bozena; Kokoszynska, Katarzyna; Pajdowska, Magdalena; Pronicki, Maciej; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Ziolkowska, Lidia; Jaron, Weronika; Dobrzanska, Anna; Ciara, Elzbieta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pronicka, Ewa

    2013-11-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked mitochondrial defect characterised by dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropaenia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGCA). We report on two affected brothers with c.646G > A (p.G216R) TAZ gene mutations. The pathogenicity of the mutation, as indicated by the structure-based functional analyses, was further confirmed by abnormal monolysocardiolipin/cardiolipin ratio in dry blood spots of the patients as well as the occurrence of this mutation in another reported BTHS proband. In both brothers, 2D-echocardiography revealed some features of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) despite marked differences in the course of the disease; the eldest child presented with isolated cardiomyopathy from late infancy, whereas the youngest showed severe lactic acidosis without 3-MGCA during the neonatal period. An examination of the patients' fibroblast cultures revealed that extremely low mitochondrial membrane potentials (mtΔΨ about 50 % of the control value) dominated other unspecific mitochondrial changes detected (respiratory chain dysfunction, abnormal ROS production and depressed antioxidant defense). 1) Our studies confirm generalised mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle and the fibroblasts of BTHS patients, especially a severe impairment in the mtΔΨ and the inhibition of complex V activity. It can be hypothesised that impaired mtΔΨ and mitochondrial ATP synthase activity may contribute to episodes of cardiac arrhythmia that occurred unexpectedly in BTHS patients. 2) Severe lactic acidosis without 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in male neonates as well as an asymptomatic mild left ventricular noncompaction may characterise the ranges of natural history of Barth syndrome. PMID:23361305

  13. The Force Exerted by the Membrane Potential During Protein Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The electrostatic force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated and found to vary from 1.4 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 12 to 6.5 Angstroms, its measured range. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a nonaqueous pore gives a force of 3.1 pN per unit charge, which represents an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein harness, these results imply that a force of 11 plus or minus 4 pN is sufficient to catalyze the unfolding of harness during import. Comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy suggests that the two are not inconsistent.

  14. Dietary Tocotrienol/γ-Cyclodextrin Complex Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Concentrations in the Brains of Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Dose, Janina; Ikuta, Naoko; Okamoto, Hinako; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial function. In vitro studies suggest that tocotrienols, including γ- and δ-tocotrienol (T3), may exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the effect of dietary T3 on mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD) on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. Mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched with T3CD providing 100 mg T3 per kg diet for 6 months. Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Furthermore, dietary T3CD slightly increased the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase, and heme oxygenase 1 in the brain. Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice. PMID:26301044

  15. MitoLoc: A method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial network morphology and membrane potential in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Hartl, Johannes; Butler, Richard; Ralser, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria assemble into flexible networks. Here we present a simple method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential and network morphology that is based on computational co-localisation analysis of differentially imported fluorescent marker proteins. Established in, but not restricted to, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MitoLoc reproducibly measures changes in membrane potential induced by the uncoupling agent CCCP, by oxidative stress, in respiratory deficient cells, and in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants that possess fission and fusion defects. In combination with super-resolution images, MitoLoc uses 3D reconstruction to calculate six geometrical classifiers which differentiate network morphologies in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants, under oxidative stress and in cells lacking mtDNA, even when the network is fragmented to a similar extent. We find that mitochondrial fission and a decline in membrane potential do regularly, but not necessarily, co-occur. MitoLoc hence simplifies the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. Marker plasmid open-source software as well as the mathematical procedures are made openly available. PMID:26184437

  16. MitoLoc: A method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial network morphology and membrane potential in single cells.

    PubMed

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Hartl, Johannes; Butler, Richard; Ralser, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondria assemble into flexible networks. Here we present a simple method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential and network morphology that is based on computational co-localisation analysis of differentially imported fluorescent marker proteins. Established in, but not restricted to, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MitoLoc reproducibly measures changes in membrane potential induced by the uncoupling agent CCCP, by oxidative stress, in respiratory deficient cells, and in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants that possess fission and fusion defects. In combination with super-resolution images, MitoLoc uses 3D reconstruction to calculate six geometrical classifiers which differentiate network morphologies in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants, under oxidative stress and in cells lacking mtDNA, even when the network is fragmented to a similar extent. We find that mitochondrial fission and a decline in membrane potential do regularly, but not necessarily, co-occur. MitoLoc hence simplifies the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. Marker plasmid open-source software as well as the mathematical procedures are made openly available. PMID:26184437

  17. A method of determining electrical potential gradient across mitochondrial membrane in perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Wan, B; Doumen, C; Duszynski, J; Salama, G; LaNoue, K F

    1993-08-01

    The electrical potential gradient across the mitochondrial membrane (delta psi m) in perfused rat hearts was estimated by calculating the equilibrium distribution of the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+), using measured kinetic constants of uptake and release of TPP+. First-order rate constants of TPP+ uptake were measured during 30-min perfusions of intact rat hearts with tracer amounts (5.0 nM) of tritium-labeled TPP+ ([3H]TPP+) in the perfusate. This was followed by a 30-min washout, during which the first-order rate constant of efflux was estimated. Values of [3H]TPP+ outside the heart and total [3H]TPP+ inside the heart at equilibrium were calculated. From this information and separately estimated time-averaged plasma membrane potentials (delta psi c) it was possible to calculate free cytosolic [3H]TPP+ at equilibrium. It was also possible to calculate free intramitochondrial [3H]TPP+ at equilibrium as the difference between total tissue [3H]TPP+ minus free cytosolic TPP+ and the sum of all the bound [3H]TPP+. Bound [3H]TPP+ was determined from [3H]TPP+ binding constants measured in separate experiments, using both isolated mitochondria and isolated cardiac myocytes under conditions where both delta psi m and delta psi c were zero. Delta psi m was calculated from the intramitochondrial and cytosolic free TPP+ concentrations using the Nernst equation. Values of delta psi m were 144.9 +/- 2.0 mV in hearts perfused with 5 mM pyruvate and 118.2 +/- 1.4 mV in hearts perfused with 11 mM glucose, in good agreement with delta psi m obtained from isolated rat heart mitochondria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8368347

  18. Mitochondrial membrane potential in single living adult rat cardiac myocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lisa, F; Blank, P S; Colonna, R; Gambassi, G; Silverman, H S; Stern, M D; Hansford, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. The relation between mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) and cell function was investigated in single adult rat cardiac myocytes during anoxia and reoxygenation. delta psi m was studied by loading myocytes with JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetra-ethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide), a fluorescent probe characterized by two emission peaks (539 and 597 nm with excitation at 490 nm) corresponding to monomer and aggregate forms of the dye. 2. De-energizing conditions applied to mitochondria, cell suspensions or single cells decreased the aggregate emission and increased the monomer emission. This latter result cannot be explained by changes of JC-1 concentration in the aqueous mitochondrial matrix phase indicating that hydrophobic interaction of the probe with membranes has to be taken into account to explain JC-1 fluorescence properties in isolated mitochondria or intact cells. 3. A different sensitivity of the two JC-1 forms to delta psi m changes was shown in isolated mitochondria by the effects of ADP and FCCP and the calibration with K+ diffusion potentials. The monomer emission was responsive to values of delta psi m below 140 mV, which hardly modified the aggregate emission. Thus JC-1 represents a unique double sensor which can provide semi-quantitative information in both low and high potential ranges. 4. At the onset of glucose-free anoxia the epifluorescence of individual myocytes studied in the single excitation (490 nm)-double emission (530 and 590 nm) mode showed a gradual decline of the aggregate emission, which reached a plateau while electrically stimulated (0.2 Hz) contraction was still retained. The subsequent failure of contraction was followed by the rise of the emission at 530 nm, corresponding to the monomer form of the dye, concomitantly with the development of rigor contracture. 5. The onset of the rigor was preceded by the increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) monitored by mag-indo-1 epifluorescence

  19. Protective effect of silymarin on viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm treated with sodium arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Farzaneh; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium arsenite can impair male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress. Silymarin is known as a potent antioxidant. Objective: This study was performed to investigate if silymarin can prevent the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on ram sperm viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential. Materials and Methods: Epidydimal spermatozoa obtained from ram were divided into five groups: 1) Spermatozoa at 0 hr, 2) spermatozoa at 180 min (control), 3) spermatozoa treated with sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min, 4) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) + sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min and 5) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) for 180 min. MTT assay and Rhodamine 123 staining were used to assess sperm viability and mitochondrial membrane potential respectively. Sperm motility was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results: Viability (p<0.01), nonprogressive motility (p<0.001) and intact mitochondrial membrane potential (p<0.001) of the spermatozoa were significantly decreased in sodium arsenite treated group compared to control group. In silymarin + sodium arsenite group, silymarin could significantly reverse the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on these sperm parameters compared to sodium arsenite group (p<0.001). In addition, the application of silymarin alone for 180 minutes could significantly increase progressively motile sperm (p<0.001) and decrease non motile sperm (p<0.01) compared to the control. Conclusion: Silymarin could compensate the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on viability, nonprogressive motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm. PMID:27525323

  20. Fibrates inhibit the apoptosis of Batten disease lymphoblast cells via autophagy recovery and regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minho; Song, Ki Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Yi, SunShin; Lee, Yong Seok; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Jun, Hyun Sik; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-03-01

    Batten disease (BD; also known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) is a genetic disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is characterized by blindness, seizures, cognitive decline, and early death resulting from the inherited mutation of the CLN3 gene. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, disrupted autophagy, and enhanced apoptosis have been suggested to play a role in BD pathogenesis. Fibrates, a class of lipid-lowering drugs that induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation, are the most commonly used PPAR agonists. Assuming that fibrates have a neuroprotective effect, we studied the effects of fibrates, fenofibrate, bezafibrate, and gemfibrozil on apoptosis, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, and defective autophagy in BD lymphoblast cells. The viability of fibrate-treated BD lymphoblast cells increased to levels of normal lymphoblast cells. In addition, treatment with fibrates inhibited depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in BD lymphoblast cells. Defective autophagy in BD lymphoblast cells was normalized when treated with fibrates as indicated by increased acridine orange staining. The recovery of autophagy in BD lymphoblast cells is most likely attributed to the upregulation of autophagy proteins, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and LC3 I/II, after treatment with fibrates. This study therefore suggests that fibrates may have a therapeutic potential against BD. PMID:26659390

  1. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function: I. Compounds that Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding how different environmental chemicals and drug-like molecules impact mitochondrial function rep...

  2. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R.; Shaffer, Karl J.; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J.; Robb, Ellen L.; Prime, Tracy A.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M.; Porteous, Carolyn M.; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by “click” chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. PMID:26712463

  3. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R; Shaffer, Karl J; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J; Robb, Ellen L; Prime, Tracy A; Chouchani, Edward T; Cochemé, Helena M; Fearnley, Ian M; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M; Porteous, Carolyn M; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by "click" chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. PMID:26712463

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C.; Fernyhough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30–35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances. PMID:26647379

  5. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C; Fernyhough, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30-35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances. PMID:26647379

  6. Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in a Small Subset of Artemisinin-Induced Dormant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Peatey, Christopher L; Chavchich, Marina; Chen, Nanhua; Gresty, Karryn J; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gatton, Michelle L; Waters, Norman C; Cheng, Qin

    2015-08-01

    Artemisinin-induced dormancy is a proposed mechanism for failures of monotherapy and is linked with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The biological characterization and dynamics of dormant parasites are not well understood. Here we report that after dihydroartemisinin treatment in vitro, a small subset of morphologically dormant parasites was stained with rhodamine 123 (RH), a mitochondrial membrane potential marker, and persisted to recovery. RH-positive parasites sorted with fluorescence-activated cell sorting resumed growth at 10,000/well whereas RH-negative parasites failed to recover at 5 million/well. Furthermore, transcriptional activity for mitochondrial enzymes was detected only in RH-positive dormant parasites. Importantly, after treatment of dormant parasites with different concentrations of atovaquone, a mitochondrial inhibitor, the recovery of dormant parasites was delayed or stopped. This demonstrates that mitochondrial activity is critical for survival and regrowth of dormant parasites and that RH staining provides a means of identifying these parasites. These findings provide novel paths for studying and eradicating this dormant stage. PMID:25635122

  7. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species

  8. Relation between cell death progression, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential in fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under heat-shock conditions.

    PubMed

    Pyatrikas, Darya V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Varakina, Nina N; Rusaleva, Tatyana M; Stepanov, Alexei V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Borovskii, Gennadii B; Rikhvanov, Eugene G

    2015-06-01

    Moderate heat shock increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that led to cell death in glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Conditions that disturb mitochondrial functions such as treatment by uncouplers and petite mutation were shown to inhibit ROS production and protects cell from thermal death. Hence, mitochondria are responsible for ROS production and play an active role in cell death. An increase in ROS production was accompanied by hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane. All agents suppressing hyperpolarization also suppressed heat-induced ROS production. It was supposed that generation of ROS under moderate heat shock in glucose-grown S. cerevisiae cells is driven by the mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:25991811

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Morphology and Membrane Potential in Living Cells Using High-Content Imaging, Machine Learning, and Morphological Binning

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Anthony P.; Cameron, Robert B.; Speiser, Jaime L.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Peterson, Yuri K.; Schnellmann, Rick G.; Beeson, Craig C.; Rohrer, Baerbel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological

  10. Silencing of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene results in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased ROS production in human lens cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Maria A.; Lee, Wanda; Cowell, Tracy L.; Wells, Tracy M.; Weissbach, Herbert; Kantorow, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) is a significant feature of human cataract and previous studies have shown that methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which acts to repair Met(O), can defend human lens cells against oxidative stress induced cell death. A key feature of oxidative stress is increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in association with loss of mitochondrial function. Here, we sought to establish a potential role for MsrA in the accumulation of ROS in lens cells and the corresponding mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells. Targeted gene silencing was used to establish populations of lens cells expressing different levels of MsrA, and the mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS levels of these cell populations were monitored. Decreased MsrA levels were found to be associated with loss of cell viability, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased ROS levels in the absence of oxidative stress. These effects were augmented upon oxidative stress treatment. These results provide evidence that MsrA is a major determinant for accumulation of ROS in lens cells and that increased ROS levels in lens cells are associated with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential that is likely related to the requirement for MsrA in lens cell viability. PMID:16934804

  11. Lipid metabolism in mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membranes have a unique lipid composition necessary for proper shape and function of the organelle. Mitochondrial lipid metabolism involves biosynthesis of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol, the latter is a precursor of the late endosomal lipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. It also includes mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis necessary for the formation of the lipid cofactor lipoic acid. Furthermore the synthesis of coenzyme Q takes place in mitochondria as well as essential parts of the steroid and vitamin D metabolism. Lipid transport and remodelling, which are necessary for tailoring and maintaining specific membrane properties, are just partially unravelled. Mitochondrial lipids are involved in organelle maintenance, fission and fusion, mitophagy and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis. Mutations in TAZ, SERAC1 and AGK affect mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism and cause Barth syndrome, MEGDEL and Sengers syndrome, respectively. In these disorders an abnormal mitochondrial energy metabolism was found, which seems to be due to disturbed protein-lipid interactions, affecting especially enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation. Since a growing number of enzymes and transport processes are recognised as parts of the mitochondrial lipid metabolism, a further increase of lipid-related disorders can be expected. PMID:25082432

  12. SB203580 enhances the RV-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-yang; Zhuang, Cai-ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Resveratrol (RV), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, is known to possess a wide spectrum of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in various stages of human tumors. p38, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, is always activated by some extracellular stimulus to regulate many cellular signal transduction pathways, such as apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammation and so on. In this report, we assessed the effect of SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling pathway, on the RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. CCK-8 assay showed that pretreatment with SB203580 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of RV, which was further verified by analyzing the phosphatidylserine externalization using flow cytometry. In order to further confirm whether SB203580 accelerated apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, we analyzed the dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) of cells stained with rhodamine 123 by using flow cytometry after treatment with RV in the absence and presence of SB203580. Our data for the first time reported that p38 inhibitor SB203580 enhanced the RV-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway.

  13. Mitochondrial fusion through membrane automata.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Konstantinos; Andronikos, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that malfunctions in mitochondrial processes can be blamed for diseases. However, the mechanism behind these operations is yet not sufficiently clear. In this work we present a novel approach to describe a biomolecular model for mitochondrial fusion using notions from the membrane computing. We use a case study defined in BioAmbient calculus and we show how to translate it in terms of a P automata variant. We combine brane calculi with (mem)brane automata to produce a new scheme capable of describing simple, realistic models. We propose the further use of similar methods and the test of other biomolecular models with the same behaviour. PMID:25417022

  14. Quantitative measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured cells: calcium-induced de- and hyperpolarization of neuronal mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, Akos A; Chinopoulos, Christos; Birket, Matthew J; Jastroch, Martin; Vitelli, Cathy; Nicholls, David G; Brand, Martin D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) is a central intermediate in oxidative energy metabolism. Although ΔΨM is routinely measured qualitatively or semi-quantitatively using fluorescent probes, its quantitative assay in intact cells has been limited mostly to slow, bulk-scale radioisotope distribution methods. Here we derive and verify a biophysical model of fluorescent potentiometric probe compartmentation and dynamics using a bis-oxonol-type indicator of plasma membrane potential (ΔΨP) and the ΔΨM probe tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) using fluorescence imaging and voltage clamp. Using this model we introduce a purely fluorescence-based quantitative assay to measure absolute values of ΔΨM in millivolts as they vary in time in individual cells in monolayer culture. The ΔΨP-dependent distribution of the probes is modelled by Eyring rate theory. Solutions of the model are used to deconvolute ΔΨP and ΔΨM in time from the probe fluorescence intensities, taking into account their slow, ΔΨP-dependent redistribution and Nernstian behaviour. The calibration accounts for matrix:cell volume ratio, high- and low-affinity binding, activity coefficients, background fluorescence and optical dilution, allowing comparisons of potentials in cells or cell types differing in these properties. In cultured rat cortical neurons, ΔΨM is −139 mV at rest, and is regulated between −108 mV and −158 mV by concerted increases in ATP demand and Ca2+-dependent metabolic activation. Sensitivity analysis showed that the standard error of the mean in the absolute calibrated values of resting ΔΨM including all biological and systematic measurement errors introduced by the calibration parameters is less than 11 mV. Between samples treated in different ways, the typical equivalent error is ∼5 mV. PMID:22495585

  15. Ram spermatozoa migrating through artificial mucus in vitro have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential but retain their viability.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; López-Urueña, Elena; Gomes-Alves, Susana; Anel-López, Luis; Chamorro, Cesar A; Anel, Luis; de Paz, Paulino

    2015-06-01

    Sperm motility in vitro is one of the most common predictors of fertility in male screening. We propose that a mucus-penetration assay can isolate a cellular subpopulation critical to reproductive success. To this end, a device was designed with three modules (sample, test and collection) and its conditions of use evaluated (length of mucus, incubation time, mucus medium, sperm concentration and position in relation to the horizontal). The number of spermatozoa migrating and the viability and acrosomal status of the spermatozoa not migrating were calculated. The second objective was to evaluate the qualitative parameters of the spermatozoa migrating in 1.6% polyacrylamide for 30min. The number of spermatozoa migrating and the sperm motility, viability and the acrosomal and mitochondrial status of three sperm populations (fresh, not migrating and migrating) were determined. A higher number of migrating spermatozoa were observed after 60min of incubation, but this situation adversely affected sperm quality. The methylcellulose-based test showed a significantly lower number of migrating spermatozoa than the polyacrylamide test. The position at an angle of 45° resulted in a higher number of migrating spermatozoa in the polyacrylamide-based test. The sperm counts for three consecutive assays indicated an acceptable repeatability of the method. The viability and acrosomal status of the migrating spermatozoa showed no significant changes with regard to the control when the device was placed at 45°, whereas these parameters showed lower values at 0°. The percentage of high mitochondrial membrane potential spermatozoa was significantly reduced in the population of migrating spermatozoa. PMID:25413445

  16. Formation and Regulation of Mitochondrial Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Schenkel, Laila Cigana

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane phospholipids are essential for the mitochondrial architecture, the activity of respiratory proteins, and the transport of proteins into the mitochondria. The accumulation of phospholipids within mitochondria depends on a coordinate synthesis, degradation, and trafficking of phospholipids between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria as well as intramitochondrial lipid trafficking. Several studies highlight the contribution of dietary fatty acids to the remodeling of phospholipids and mitochondrial membrane homeostasis. Understanding the role of phospholipids in the mitochondrial membrane and their metabolism will shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:24578708

  17. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced reactive oxidative species protects human hepatic stellate cells from apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Li, Shu-Jie; Xin, Yong-Ning; Ji, Shu-Sheng; Xie, Rui-Jin; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS)-induced apoptosis of human hepatic stellate (HSC) is one of the treatments for liver fibrosis. However, how ROS (reactive oxygen species) affect HSC apoptosis and liver fibrosis is still unknown. In our study, ROS in human HSC cell line LX-2 was induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) and assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level. We found that in LX2 cells Fe-NTA induced notable ROS, which played a protective role in HSCs cells apoptosis by inhibiting Caspase-3 activation. Fe-NTA-induced ROS increased mRNA and protein level of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 and decreased mRNA protein level of pro-apoptosis gene Bax, As a result, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential of HSCs. Fe-NTA-induced ROS play a protective role in human HSCs by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:26770403

  18. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  19. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, Akos A.; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  20. Effects of mitochondrial uncouplers on intracellular calcium, pH and membrane potential in rat carotid body type I cells

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, K J; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncouplers are potent stimulants of the carotid body. We have therefore investigated their effects upon isolated type I cells. Both 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was largely inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or Na+, or by the addition of 2 mm Ni2+. Methoxyverapamil (D600) also partially inhibited the [Ca2+]i response. In perforated-patch recordings, the rise in [Ca2+]i coincided with membrane depolarization and was greatly reduced by voltage clamping the cell to −70 mV. Uncouplers also inhibited a background K+ current and induced a small inward current. Uncouplers reduced pHi by 0.1 unit. Alkaline media diminished this acidification but had no effect on the [Ca2+]i response. FCCP and DNP also depolarized type I cell mitochondria. The onset of mitochondrial depolarization preceded changes in cell membrane conductance by 3–4 s. We conclude that uncouplers excite the carotid body by inhibiting a background K+ conductance and inducing a small inward current, both of which lead to membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. These effects are unlikely to be caused by cell acidification. The inhibition of background K+ current may be related to the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:9824720

  1. Effects of mitochondrial uncouplers on intracellular calcium, pH and membrane potential in rat carotid body type I cells.

    PubMed

    Buckler, K J; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1998-12-15

    1. Mitochondrial uncouplers are potent stimulants of the carotid body. We have therefore investigated their effects upon isolated type I cells. Both 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was largely inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or Na+, or by the addition of 2 mM Ni2+. Methoxyverapamil (D600) also partially inhibited the [Ca2+]i response. 2. In perforated-patch recordings, the rise in [Ca2+]i coincided with membrane depolarization and was greatly reduced by voltage clamping the cell to -70 mV. Uncouplers also inhibited a background K+ current and induced a small inward current. 3. Uncouplers reduced pHi by 0.1 unit. Alkaline media diminished this acidification but had no effect on the [Ca2+]i response. 4. FCCP and DNP also depolarized type I cell mitochondria. The onset of mitochondrial depolarization preceded changes in cell membrane conductance by 3-4 s. 5. We conclude that uncouplers excite the carotid body by inhibiting a background K+ conductance and inducing a small inward current, both of which lead to membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. These effects are unlikely to be caused by cell acidification. The inhibition of background K+ current may be related to the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:9824720

  2. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  3. Levetiracetam Differentially Alters CD95 Expression of Neuronal Cells and the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential of Immune and Neuronal Cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Susannah K; Shapiro, Lee A; Tobin, Richard P; Tow, Benjamin; Zuzek, Aleksej; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Newell-Rogers, M Karen

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological seizure disorder that affects over 100 million people worldwide. Levetiracetam, either alone, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment, is widely used to control certain types of seizures. Despite its increasing popularity as a relatively safe and effective anti-convulsive treatment option, its mechanism(s) of action are poorly understood. Studies have suggested neuronal, glial, and immune mechanisms of action. Understanding the precise mechanisms of action of levetiracetam would be extremely beneficial in helping to understand the processes involved in seizure generation and epilepsy. Moreover, a full understanding of these mechanisms would help to create more efficacious treatments while minimizing side-effects. The current study examined the effects of levetiracetam on the mitochondrial membrane potential of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, in vitro, in order to determine if levetiracetam influences metabolic processes in these cell types. In addition, this study sought to address possible immune-mediated mechanisms by determining if levetiracetam alters the expression of immune receptor-ligand pairs. The results show that levetiracetam induces expression of CD95 and CD178 on NGF-treated C17.2 neuronal cells. The results also show that levetiracetam increases mitochondrial membrane potential on C17.2 neuronal cells in the presence of nerve growth factor. In contrast, levetiracetam decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential of splenocytes and this effect was dependent on intact invariant chain, thus implicating immune cell interactions. These results suggest that both neuronal and non-neuronal anti-epileptic activities of levetiracetam involve control over energy metabolism, more specifically, mΔΨ. Future studies are needed to further investigate this potential mechanism of action. PMID:24600432

  4. The principal PINK1 and Parkin cellular events triggered in response to dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occur in primary neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koyano, Fumika; Okatsu, Kei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fujioka, Yusuke; Kimura, Mayumi; Sobue, Gen; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for hereditary Parkinsonism. Recent studies have shown that PINK1 and Parkin play a pivotal role in the quality control of mitochondria, and dysfunction of either protein likely results in the accumulation of low-quality mitochondria that triggers early-onset familial Parkinsonism. As neurons are destined to degenerate in PINK1/Parkin-associated Parkinsonism, it is imperative to investigate the function of PINK1 and Parkin in neurons. However, most studies investigating PINK1/Parkin have used non-neuronal cell lines. Here we show that the principal PINK1 and Parkin cellular events that have been documented in non-neuronal lines in response to mitochondrial damage also occur in primary neurons. We found that dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential triggers phosphorylation of both PINK1 and Parkin and that, in response, Parkin translocates to depolarized mitochondria. Furthermore, Parkin's E3 activity is re-established concomitant with ubiquitin–ester formation at Cys431 of Parkin. As a result, mitochondrial substrates in neurons become ubiquitylated. These results underscore the relevance of the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control pathway in primary neurons and shed further light on the underlying mechanisms of the PINK1 and Parkin pathogenic mutations that predispose Parkinsonism in vivo. PMID:23751051

  5. Dysfunction of Rice Mitochondrial Membrane Induced by Yb3+.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-Ling; Wu, Man; Liu, Wen; Feng, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Ytterbium (Yb), a widely used rare earth element, is treated as highly toxic to human being and adverseness to plant. Mitochondria play a significant role in plant growth and development, and are proposed as a potential target for ytterbium toxicity. In this paper, the biological effect of Yb(3+) on isolated rice mitochondria was investigated. We found that Yb(3+) with high concentrations (200 ~ 600 μM) not only induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (mtMPT), but also disturbed the mitochondrial ultrastructure. Moreover, Yb(3+) caused the respiratory chain damage, ROS formation, membrane potential decrease, and mitochondrial complex II activity reverse. The results above suggested that Yb(3+) with high concentrations could induce mitochondrial membrane dysfunction. These findings will support some valuable information to the safe application of Yb-based agents. PMID:26305923

  6. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) by using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H David; Welch, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), >80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear stain propidium iodine (PI). This flow cytometric method is described in detail here. When in contact with membranes possessing a high Deltapsi(m), JC-1 forms aggregates (J(agg)) that are fluorescent at 590 nm in response to 488 nm excitation. We found that the reactive oxygen species generator, menadione reduced sperm motility and reduced Deltapsi(m) in a dose responsive fashion that was closely correlated with the loss of motility. PMID:19082941

  7. Phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species-dependent disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Lew, Karen L; Zeng, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Marynowski, Stanley W; Dhir, Rajiv; Singh, Shivendra V

    2006-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), which is a cancer chemopreventive constituent of cruciferous vegetables, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model. The PEITC-induced cell death in PC-3 cells was associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic molecules (cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO) from mitochondria to the cytosol and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were blocked in the presence of a combined mimetic of superoxide dismutase and catalase (Euk134). Ectopic expression of Bcl-xL, whose protein level is reduced markedly on treatment of PC-3 cells with PEITC, conferred partial protection against PEITC-induced apoptosis only at higher drug concentrations (>10 microM). Administration of 12 micromol PEITC/day (Monday through Friday) by oral gavage significantly retarded growth of PC-3 xenografts in athymic mice. For instance, 31 days after the initiation of PEITC administration, the average tumor volume in control mice (721 +/- 153 mm3) was approximately 2-fold higher compared with mice receiving 12 micromol PEITC/day. The PEITC-mediated inhibition of PC-3 xenograft growth was associated with induction of Bax and Bid proteins. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the PEITC-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells is mediated by ROS-dependent disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and regulated by Bax and Bid. PMID:16774948

  8. Two Trichothecene Mycotoxins from Myrothecium roridum Induce Apoptosis of HepG-2 Cells via Caspase Activation and Disruption of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Chen, Yuchan; Li, Haohua; Zhang, Weimin; Liu, Hongxin; Sun, Zhanghua; Liu, Taomei; Li, Saini

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are a type of sesquiterpenoid produced by various kinds of plantpathogenic fungi. In this study, two trichothecene toxins, namely, a novel cytotoxic epiroridin acid and a known trichothecene, mytoxin B, were isolated from the endophytic fungus Myrothecium roridum derived from the medicinal plant Pogostemon cablin. The two trichothecene mytoxins were confirmed to induce the apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by cytomorphology inspection, DNA fragmentation detection, and flow cytometry assay. The cytotoxic mechanisms of the two mycotoxins were investigated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and detection of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that the two trichothecene mycotoxins induced the apoptosis of cancer cell HepG-2 via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, up-regulation of bax gene expression, down-regulation of bcl-2 gene expression, and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential of the HepG-2 cell. This study is the first to report on the cytotoxic mechanism of trichothecene mycotoxins from M. roridum. This study provides new clues for the development of attenuated trichothecene toxins in future treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27322225

  9. Effect of surface-potential modulators on the opening of lipid pores in liposomal and mitochondrial inner membranes induced by palmitate and calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Belosludtsev, Konstantin N; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Agafonov, Alexey V; Penkov, Nikita V; Samartsev, Victor N; Lemasters, John J; Mironova, Galina D

    2015-10-01

    The effect of surface-potential modulators on palmitate/Ca2+-induced formation of lipid pores was studied in liposomal and inner mitochondrial membranes. Pore formation was monitored by sulforhodamine B release from liposomes and swelling of mitochondria. ζ-potential in liposomes was determined from electrophoretic mobility. Replacement of sucrose as the osmotic agent with KCl decreased negative ζ-potential in liposomes and increased resistance of both mitochondria and liposomes to the pore inducers, palmitic acid, and Ca2+. Micromolar Mg2+ also inhibited palmitate/Ca2+-induced permeabilization of liposomes. The rate of palmitate/Ca2+-induced, cyclosporin A-insensitive swelling of mitochondria increased 22% upon increasing pH from 7.0 to 7.8. At below the critical micelle concentration, the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (10 μM) and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (10-50 μM) made the ζ-potential less and more negative, respectively, and inhibited and stimulated opening of mitochondrial palmitate/Ca2+-induced lipid pores. Taken together, the findings indicate that surface potential regulates palmitate/Ca2+-induced lipid pore opening. PMID:26014488

  10. Effect of surface-potential modulators on the opening of lipid pores in liposomal and mitochondrial inner membranes induced by palmitate and calcium ions

    PubMed Central

    Belosludtsev, Konstantin N.; Belosludtseva, Natalia V.; Agafonov, Alexey V.; Penkov, Nikita V.; Samartsev, Victor N.; Lemasters, John J.; Mironova, Galina D.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface-potential modulators on palmitate/Ca2+-induced formation of lipid pores was studied in liposomal and inner mitochondrial membranes. Pore formation was monitored by sulforhodamine B release from liposomes and swelling of mitochondria. ζ-potential in liposomes was determined from electrophoretic mobility. Replacement of sucrose as the osmotic agent with KCl decreased negative ζ-potential in liposomes and increased resistance of both mitochondria and liposomes to the pore inducers, palmitic acid, and Ca2+. Micromolar Mg2+ also inhibited palmitate/Ca2+-induced permeabilization of liposomes. The rate of palmitate/Ca2+-induced, cyclosporin A-insensitive swelling of mitochondria increased 22% upon increasing pH from 7.0 to 7.8. At below the critical micelle concentration, the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (10 μM) and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (10–50 μM) made the ζ-potential less and more negative, respectively, and inhibited and stimulated opening of mitochondrial palmitate/Ca2+-induced lipid pores. Taken together, the findings indicate that surface potential regulates palmitate/Ca2+-induced lipid pore opening. PMID:26014488

  11. Use of safranin for the assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential by high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Krumschnabel, Gerhard; Eigentler, Andrea; Fasching, Mario; Gnaiger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψmt or mtMP) is directly influenced by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The exact nature of the interactions between respiration (flux) and mtMP (force) under various physiological and pathological conditions remains unclear, partially due to methodological limitations. Here, we describe a combination of high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry based on the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k and the widely applied mtMP indicator safranin. The analysis of OXPHOS in mouse brain homogenates revealed that, at commonly applied concentrations, safranin inhibits Complex I-driven OXPHOS capacity, primarily targeting the phosphorylation system, but has no effects on LEAK respiration. Conversely, Complex II-driven OXPHOS capacity was inhibited by <20% by safranin concentrations normally used for mtMP monitoring. The mtMP was higher in the LEAK state without adenylates than at identical LEAK respiration after ADP stimulation and Complex V inhibition with oligomycin. The maximal electron transfer system (ETS) capacity was reached in uncoupler titrations before the mtMP fully collapsed, whereas respiration was inhibited at increasing uncoupler concentrations, resulting in the progressive reduction of mtMP. In a pharmacologically induced state of Complex II dysfunction, mtMP was rather insensitive to the inhibition of OXPHOS to 50% of its normal capacity, but robustly responded to inhibitors when respiration was limited by substrate depletion. The optimal concentration of uncoupler supporting maximal ETS capacity varied as a function of pharmacological intervention. Taken together, the combined measurement of respiration and mtMP greatly enhances the informative potential of OXPHOS studies. The respirometric validation of inhibitory and uncoupling effects is mandatory for any fluorophore employed to assess mtMP in any respiratory state, tissue type, and pathophysiological condition. The methodological issues analyzed herein are relevant for

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential collapse as primary evidence of the mode of action of naphthoquinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Naphthoquinones (NQs) are privileged structures in medicinal chemistry due to the biological effects associated with the induction of oxidative stress. The present study evaluated the activities of sixteen NQs derivatives on Trypanosoma cruzi. Results Fourteen NQs displayed higher activity against bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. cruzi than benznidazole. Further assays with NQ1, NQ8, NQ9 and NQ12 showed inhibition of the proliferation of axenic epimastigotes and intracelulluar amastigotes interiorized in macrophages and in heart muscle cells. NQ8 was the most active NQ against both proliferative forms of T. cruzi. In epimastigotes the four NQs induced mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization, and flagellar blebbing. The treatment with NQs also induced the appearance of large endoplasmic reticulum profiles surrounding different cellular structures and of myelin-like membranous contours, morphological characteristics of an autophagic process. At IC50 concentration, NQ8 totally disrupted the ΔΨm of about 20% of the parasites, suggesting the induction of a sub-population with metabolically inactive mitochondria. On the other hand, NQ1, NQ9 or NQ12 led only to a discrete decrease of TMRE + labeling at IC50 values. NQ8 led also to an increase in the percentage of parasites labeled with DHE, indicative of ROS production, possibly the cause of the observed mitochondrial swelling. The other three NQs behaved similarly to untreated controls. Conclusions NQ1, NQ8, NQ9 and NQ12 induce an autophagic phenotype in T. cruzi epimastigoted, as already observed with others NQs. The absence of oxidative stress in NQ1-, NQ9- and NQ12-treated parasites could be due to the existence of more than one mechanism of action involved in their trypanocidal activity, leaving ROS generation suppressed by the detoxification system of the parasite. The strong redox effect of NQ8 could be associated to the presence of the acetyl group in its structure facilitating quinone reduction, as

  13. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Yong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Wu, Yin-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose‑dependent, as well as time‑dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub‑G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose‑dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose‑dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose‑dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:26151733

  14. Dimer ribbons of ATP synthase shape the inner mitochondrial membrane

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Mike; Hofhaus, Götz; Schröder, Rasmus R; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2008-01-01

    ATP synthase converts the electrochemical potential at the inner mitochondrial membrane into chemical energy, producing the ATP that powers the cell. Using electron cryo-tomography we show that the ATP synthase of mammalian mitochondria is arranged in long ∼1-μm rows of dimeric supercomplexes, located at the apex of cristae membranes. The dimer ribbons enforce a strong local curvature on the membrane with a 17-nm outer radius. Calculations of the electrostatic field strength indicate a significant increase in charge density, and thus in the local pH gradient of ∼0.5 units in regions of high membrane curvature. We conclude that the mitochondrial cristae act as proton traps, and that the proton sink of the ATP synthase at the apex of the compartment favours effective ATP synthesis under proton-limited conditions. We propose that the mitochondrial ATP synthase organises itself into dimer ribbons to optimise its own performance. PMID:18323778

  15. In boar sperm capacitation L-lactate and succinate, but not pyruvate and citrate, contribute to the mitochondrial membrane potential increase as monitored via safranine O fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Paventi, Gianluca; Lessard, Christian; Bailey, Janice L; Passarella, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Having ascertained using JC-1 as a probe that, in distinction with the controls, during capacitation boar sperm maintains high mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), to gain some insight into the role of mitochondria in capacitation, we monitored ΔΨ generation due to externally added metabolites either in hypotonically-treated spermatozoa (HTS) or in intact cells by using safranine O as a probe. During capacitation, the addition to HTS of L-lactate and succinate but not those of pyruvate, citrate and ascorbate + TMPD resulted in increase of ΔΨ generation. Accordingly, the addition of L-lactate and succinate, but not that of citrate, to intact sperm resulted in ΔΨ generation increased in capacitation. PMID:25956060

  16. Radiosensitization by fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene on human malignant melanoma through lipid peroxidation and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinya; Kimura, Masatsugu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    We examined fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene (C60/Sqe) for the ability to potentiate the radiosensitization under X-ray irradiation on human malignant melanoma HMV-II cells, which were treated with C60/Sqe and thereafter irradiated with X-ray. The cell proliferation for C60/Sqe was inhibited more markedly than for Sqe alone. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was almost unaltered for C60/squalane (Sqa) or Sqa, a hydrogenated form of Sqe, as compared to no-additive control. Thus radiosensitization of C60/Sqe is attributed to peroxidation of unsaturated bonds of squalene by X-ray-excited C60 in contrast to squalane. The fluorescence images of HMV-II cells stained with Rhodamine123, an indicator for mitochondrial membrane potential, were monitored for 6 h after X-ray irradiation. C60/Sqe obviously exhibited more augmented fluorescence intensity on perinuclear region of HMV-II cells than Sqe alone. TBARS assay showed that the lipid peroxidation level as malondialdehyde-equivalent increased by combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray dose-dependently on X-ray doses. C60/Sqe exhibited lipid peroxidation more markedly by 1.2-fold than Sqe alone. Thus the level of lipid peroxidation of squalene was sufficiently higher in C60/Sqe than in Sqe in the absence of C60 under X-ray irradiation, suggesting the combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray irradiation induced radiosensitization on HMV-II cells by peroxidation of absorbed Sqe in mitochondrial membrane via oxidative stress mediated by fullerene-C60.

  17. Quality control of mitochondrial protein synthesis is required for membrane integrity and cell fitness

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Uwe; Lahtinen, Taina; Marttinen, Paula; Suomi, Fumi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize a subset of hydrophobic proteins required for assembly of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. This process requires temporal and spatial coordination and regulation, so quality control of mitochondrial protein synthesis is paramount to maintain proteostasis. We show how impaired turnover of de novo mitochondrial proteins leads to aberrant protein accumulation in the mitochondrial inner membrane. This creates a stress in the inner membrane that progressively dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential, which in turn stalls mitochondrial protein synthesis and fragments the mitochondrial network. The mitochondrial m-AAA protease subunit AFG3L2 is critical to this surveillance mechanism that we propose acts as a sensor to couple the synthesis of mitochondrial proteins with organelle fitness, thus ensuring coordinated assembly of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes from two sets of ribosomes. PMID:26504172

  18. Paraquat Induces Cell Death Through Impairing Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuen-Lin; Chao, Chih-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Yang, Ying-Chen; Wang, Vin-Chi; Chang, Wen-Chang; Huang, Nai-Kuei

    2016-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) as a Parkinsonian mimetic has been demonstrated to impair dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and is highly correlated with the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) where the death of DAergic neurons has been mainly attributed to impaired mitochondrial functioning. In this study, PQ-induced cytotoxicity focusing on mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), which has been implicated to play a part in neurodegeneration, was investigated. Primarily, PQ-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were inhibited by an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX), indicating the toxic effect of PQ redox cycling. Further, dibucaine and cyclosporin A which respectively inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channels (MAC) and mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP) were used and found to prevent PQ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, such as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased MMP, mitochondrial ROS, and pro-apoptotic factor release. Knockdown of bax and/or bak blocked PQ-induced mitochondrial clusterization of Bax and/or Bak and cytotoxicity, demonstrating the significance of MAC which is composed of Bax and/or Bak. This clusterization coincided with the release of mitochondrial apoptotic factors before there was an increase in inner MMP, indicating that MAC may precede mPTP formation. Besides, NOX inhibitor but not dibucaine attenuated the earlier PQ-induced cytosolic ROS formation or Bax and/or Bak clusterization indicating PQ redox cycling may account for MAC formation. In this model, we have resolved for the first that PQ cytotoxicity through redox cycling may sequentially result in increased outer (MAC) and inner (mPTP) MMP and suggested MMP could be implicated as a therapeutic target in treating neurodegenerative diseases like PD. PMID:25947082

  19. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) using flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (''m), > 80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear ...

  20. Reduced Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Is a Late Adaptation of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to Isometamidium Preceded by Mutations in the γ Subunit of the F1Fo-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Jane C.; Tagoe, Daniel N. A.; Stelmanis, Valters; Schnaufer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Background Isometamidium is the main prophylactic drug used to prevent the infection of livestock with trypanosomes that cause Animal African Trypanosomiasis. As well as the animal infective trypanosome species, livestock can also harbor the closely related human infective subspecies T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. Resistance to isometamidium is a growing concern, as is cross-resistance to the diamidine drugs diminazene and pentamidine. Methodology/Principal Findings Two isometamidium resistant Trypanosoma brucei clones were generated (ISMR1 and ISMR15), being 7270- and 16,000-fold resistant to isometamidium, respectively, which retained their ability to grow in vitro and establish an infection in mice. Considerable cross-resistance was shown to ethidium bromide and diminazene, with minor cross-resistance to pentamidine. The mitochondrial membrane potentials of both resistant cell lines were significantly reduced compared to the wild type. The net uptake rate of isometamidium was reduced 2-3-fold but isometamidium efflux was similar in wild-type and resistant lines. Fluorescence microscopy and PCR analysis revealed that ISMR1 and ISMR15 had completely lost their kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and both lines carried a mutation in the nuclearly encoded γ subunit gene of F1 ATPase, truncating the protein by 22 amino acids. The mutation compensated for the loss of the kinetoplast in bloodstream forms, allowing near-normal growth, and conferred considerable resistance to isometamidium and ethidium as well as significant resistance to diminazene and pentamidine, when expressed in wild type trypanosomes. Subsequent exposure to either isometamidium or ethidium led to rapid loss of kDNA and a further increase in isometamidium resistance. Conclusions/Significance Sub-lethal exposure to isometamidium gives rise to viable but highly resistant trypanosomes that, depending on sub-species, are infective to humans and cross-resistant to at least some diamidine drugs. The crucial

  1. Topological Transitions in Mitochondrial Membranes controlled by Apoptotic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Sanders, Lori K.; Mishra, Abhijit; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Ivashyna, Olena; Schlesinger, Paul H.

    2010-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family comprises pro-apoptotic proteins, capable of permeabilizing the mitochondrial membrane, and anti-apoptotic members interacting in an antagonistic fashion to regulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). They offer potential therapeutic targets to re-engage cellular suicide in tumor cells but the extensive network of implicated protein-protein interactions has impeded full understanding of the decision pathway. We show, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, that pro-apoptotic proteins interact with mitochondrial-like model membranes to generate saddle-splay (negative Gaussian) curvature topologically required for pore formation, while anti-apoptotic proteins can deactivate curvature generation by molecules drastically different from Bcl-2 family members and offer evidence for membrane-curvature mediated interactions general enough to affect very disparate systems.

  2. Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Samhani; Haris, Khalilah; Abdul Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Aloe emodin, one of the active compounds found in Aloe vera leaves, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and death. It has been reported to promote the anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inducing apoptosis by this agent is poorly understood in glioma cells. This research is to investigate the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest inducing by aloe emodin on U87 human malignant glioma cells. Aloe emodin showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of U87 cells proliferation and decreased the percentage of viable U87 cells via the induction of apoptosis. Characteristic morphological changes, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, were observed with confocal microscope by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, supporting our viability study and flow cytometry analysis results. Our data also demonstrated that aloe emodin arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells that indicated the early event of the mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway. PMID:23869465

  3. Selenium (sodium selenite) causes cytotoxicity and apoptotic mediated cell death in PLHC-1 fish cell line through DNA and mitochondrial membrane potential damage.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Tomblin, Justin; Yeager Armistead, Mindy; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Elevated concentration of selenium poses a toxic threat to organisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems influenced by excessive inputs from anthropogenic sources. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient in living things, particularly in fish, and provides antioxidant properties to tissues. Whole fish and hepatocytes in primary culture show selenite toxicity above threshold levels. The present study was designed to investigate the process by which selenite exposure causes cellular toxicity and apoptotic and necrotic cell death in fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various selenite concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 μM) for 10, 20 and 40 h intervals. The 24h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC₅₀) of selenite in PLHC-1 cell line was found to be 237 μM. Flow cytometery data showed that selenite exposed cells promote apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death when selenite concentrations were ≥10 μM compared to control. Selenite exposure was associated with a significant increase of caspase-3 activities suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Selenite exposure at high levels (≥10 μM) and longer exposure times (≥20 h) induces mitochondrial membrane potential damage (ΔΨ(m)), DNA damage and elevated production of ROS which could be associated with cell death. PMID:23158585

  4. Cytotoxic effects induced by interferon-ω gene lipofection through ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in feline mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Marcela Solange; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Miranda, María Victoria; Finocchiaro, Liliana María Elena; Glikin, Gerardo Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Progress in comparative oncology promises advances in clinical cancer treatments for both companion animals and humans. In this context, feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) cells have been proposed as a suitable model to study human breast cancer. Based on our previous data about the advantages of using type I interferon gene therapy over the respective recombinant DNA derived protein, the present work explored the effects of feline interferon-ω gene (fIFNω) transfer on FMC cells. Three different cell variants derived from a single spontaneous highly aggressive FMC tumor were successfully established and characterized. Lipofection of the fIFNω gene displayed a significant cytotoxic effect on the three cell variants. The extent of the response was proportional to ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and calcium uptake. Moreover, a lower sensitivity to the treatment correlated with a higher malignant phenotype. Our results suggest that fIFNω lipofection could offer an alternative approach in veterinary oncology with equal or superior outcome and with less adverse effects than recombinant fIFNω therapy. PMID:27236354

  5. A Metabotropic-Like Flux-Independent NMDA Receptor Regulates Ca2+ Exit from Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca Balderas, Pavel; Aguilera, Penélope

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes were long thought to be only structural cells in the CNS; however, their functional properties support their role in information processing and cognition. The ionotropic glutamate N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) is critical for CNS functions, but its expression and function in astrocytes is still a matter of research and debate. Here, we report immunofluorescence (IF) labeling in rat cultured cortical astrocytes (rCCA) of all NMDAR subunits, with phenotypes suggesting their intracellular transport, and their mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR. IF and Western Blot revealed GluN1 full-length synthesis, subunit critical for NMDAR assembly and transport, and its plasma membrane localization. Functionally, we found an iCa2+ rise after NMDA treatment in Fluo-4-AM labeled rCCA, an effect blocked by the NMDAR competitive inhibitors D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) and Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and dependent upon GluN1 expression as evidenced by siRNA knock down. Surprisingly, the iCa2+ rise was not blocked by MK-801, an NMDAR channel blocker, or by extracellular Ca2+ depletion, indicating flux-independent NMDAR function. In contrast, the IP3 receptor (IP3R) inhibitor XestosponginC did block this response, whereas a Ryanodine Receptor inhibitor did so only partially. Furthermore, tyrosine kinase inhibition with genistein enhanced the NMDA elicited iCa2+ rise to levels comparable to those reached by the gliotransmitter ATP, but with different population dynamics. Finally, NMDA depleted the rCCA mitochondrial membrane potential (mΔψ) measured with JC-1. Our results demonstrate that rCCA express NMDAR subunits which assemble into functional receptors that mediate a metabotropic-like, non-canonical, flux-independent iCa2+ increase. PMID:25954808

  6. Inhibition of N-Methyl-D-aspartate-induced Retinal Neuronal Death by Polyarginine Peptides Is Linked to the Attenuation of Stress-induced Hyperpolarization of the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John; Wong, Kwoon Y; Rupasinghe, Chamila N; Tiwari, Rakesh; Zhao, Xiwu; Berberoglu, Eren D; Sinkler, Christopher; Liu, Jenney; Lee, Icksoo; Parang, Keykavous; Spaller, Mark R; Hüttemann, Maik; Goebel, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    It is widely accepted that overactivation of NMDA receptors, resulting in calcium overload and consequent mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal ganglion neurons, plays a significant role in promoting neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma. Calcium has been shown to initiate a transient hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential triggering a burst of reactive oxygen species leading to apoptosis. Strategies that enhance cell survival signaling pathways aimed at preventing this adverse hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential may provide a novel therapeutic intervention in retinal disease. In the retina, brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to be neuroprotective, and our group previously reported a PSD-95/PDZ-binding cyclic peptide (CN2097) that augments brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced pro-survival signaling. Here, we examined the neuroprotective properties of CN2097 using an established retinal in vivo NMDA toxicity model. CN2097 completely attenuated NMDA-induced caspase 3-dependent and -independent cell death and PARP-1 activation pathways, blocked necrosis, and fully prevented the loss of long term ganglion cell viability. Although neuroprotection was partially dependent upon CN2097 binding to the PDZ domain of PSD-95, our results show that the polyarginine-rich transport moiety C-R(7), linked to the PDZ-PSD-95-binding cyclic peptide, was sufficient to mediate short and long term protection via a mitochondrial targeting mechanism. C-R(7) localized to mitochondria and was found to reduce mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, and the generation of reactive oxygen species, promoting survival of retinal neurons. PMID:26100636

  7. NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Superoxide Production by Intermediary Bacterial Metabolites of Dibenzofuran: A Potential Cause for Trans-Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (ΔΨm) Collapse in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Jyotsana; Shahni, Shweta; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-09-01

    Dibenzofuran is a direct precursor of extremely toxic compounds such as dioxins. It is widely distributed persistent organic pollutant in environment that potentiate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis through bioactivation in HepG2 cells. An alkalotolerent Pseudomonas strain ISTDF1 can metabolize dibenzofuran as a sole source of carbon and energy through diverse dioxygenation. However, there is a paucity of information about the potential toxic effects of the intermediary metabolites that are formed during treatment with dibenzofuran. We have assessed and discovered the potential mechanism of toxicity induced by metabolites of dibenzofuran that were formed at 18 and 36 h. Cell viability, CYP1A2 induction, ROS activity, Superoxide production, mitochondrial NADPH oxidase activity, and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential were studied using different assays such as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry. Analysis revealed formation of 2-(1-carbonyl methylidine)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuranlidene after 18 h of bacterial treatment due to oxygenation at carbon (C3-C4). This compound induces higher mitochondrial NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production that makes it more toxic than the parent compound. It was evident that after 36 h of bacterial treatment, toxicity induced by dibenzofuran and its metabolites was completely removed. This study highlights the fact that despite of efficient biodegradation of toxicants, bioactive toxic intermediates can be formed. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the toxicity of each intermediary for complete mitigation of associated risk. PMID:26032510

  8. Removal of spermatozoa with externalized phosphatidylserine from sperm preparation in human assisted medical procreation: effects on viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    de Vantéry Arrighi, Corinne; Lucas, Hervé; Chardonnens, Didier; de Agostini, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    Background Externalization of phosphatidylserine (EPS) occurs in apoptotic-like spermatozoa and could be used to remove them from sperm preparations to enhance sperm quality for assisted medical procreation. We first characterized EPS in sperms from infertile patients in terms of frequency of EPS spermatozoa as well as localization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on spermatozoa. Subsequently, we determined the impact of depleting EPS spermatozoa on sperm quality. Methods EPS were visualized by fluorescently-labeled annexin V binding assay. Double staining with annexin V and Hoechst differentiates apoptotic from necrotic spermatozoa. We used magnetic-activated cell sorting using annexin V-conjugated microbeads (MACS-ANMB) technique to remove EPS spermatozoa from sperm prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC). The impact of this technique on sperm quality was evaluated by measuring progressive motility, viability, and the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by Rhodamine 123. Results Mean percentages of EPS spermatozoa were 14% in DGC sperm. Four subpopulations of spermatozoa were identified: 70% alive, 3% early apoptotic, 16% necrotic and 11% late apoptotic or necrotic. PS were localized on head and/or midpiece or on the whole spermatozoa. MACS efficiently eliminates EPS spermatozoa. MACS combined with DGC allows a mean reduction of 70% in EPS and of 60% in MMP-disrupted spermatozoa with a mean increase of 50% in sperm survival at 24 h. Conclusion Human ejaculates contain EPS spermatozoa which can mostly be eliminated by DGC plus MACS resulting in improved sperm long term viability, motility and MMP integrity. EPS may be used as an indicator of sperm quality and removal of EPS spermatozoa may enhance fertility potential in assisted medical procreation. PMID:19133142

  9. Uncoupling protein-2 accumulates rapidly in the inner mitochondrial membrane during mitochondrial reactive oxygen stress in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Giardina, Tindaro M; Steer, James H; Lo, Susan Z Y; Joyce, David A

    2008-02-01

    Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) is a member of the inner mitochondrial membrane anion-carrier superfamily. Although mRNA for UCP2 is widely expressed, protein expression is detected in only a few cell types, including macrophages. UCP2 functions by an incompletely defined mechanism, to reduce reactive oxygen species production during mitochondrial electron transport. We observed that the abundance of UCP2 in macrophages increased rapidly in response to treatments (rotenone, antimycin A and diethyldithiocarbamate) that increased mitochondrial superoxide production, but not in response to superoxide produced outside the mitochondria or in response to H2O2. Increased UCP2 protein was not accompanied by increases in ucp2 gene expression or mRNA abundance, but was due to enhanced translational efficiency and possibly stabilization of UCP2 protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This was not dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings extend our understanding of the homeostatic function of UCP2 in regulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen production by identifying a feedback loop that senses mitochondrial reactive oxygen production and increases inner mitochondrial membrane UCP2 abundance and activity. Reactive oxygen species-induction of UCP2 may facilitate survival of macrophages and retention of function in widely variable tissue environments. PMID:18082129

  10. Bax inserts into the mitochondrial outer membrane by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cartron, Pierre-François; Bellot, Grégory; Oliver, Lisa; Grandier-Vazeille, Xavier; Manon, Stephen; Vallette, François M

    2008-09-01

    Bax insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane is essential for the implementation of apoptosis. However, little is known about the first stage of Bax integration into the mitochondrial outer membrane. We have recently shown that TOM22, a mitochondrial outer membrane receptor, is important for insertion, although other reports have suggested that only mitochondrial lipids are involved in this process. Here, we show that monomers, but not dimers, of Bax require the presence of TOM22 and TOM40 to integrate into mitochondria. In addition we show that once inserted into the membrane, Bax can act as a receptor for cytosolic Bax. PMID:18687331

  11. Bcl-2 apoptosis proteins, mitochondrial membrane curvature, and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Schmidt, Nathan; Sanders, Lori; Mishra, Abhijit; Wong, Gerard; Ivashyna, Olena; Christenson, Eric; Schlesinger, Paul; Akabori, Kiyotaka; Santangelo, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Critical interactions between Bcl-2 family proteins permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane, a common decision point early in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway that irreversibly commits the cell to death. However, a unified picture integrating the essential non-passive role of lipid membranes with the contested dynamics of Bcl-2 regulation remains unresolved. Correlating results between synchrotron x-ray diffraction and microscopy in cell-free assays, we report activation of pro-apoptotic Bax induces strong pure negative Gaussian membrane curvature topologically necessary for pore formation and membrane remodeling events. Strikingly, Bcl-xL suppresses not only Bax-induced pore formation, but also membrane remodeling by disparate systems including cell penetrating, antimicrobial or viral fusion peptides, and bacterial toxin, none of which have BH3 allosteric domains to mediate direct binding. We propose a parallel mode of Bcl-2 pore regulation in which Bax and Bcl-xL induce antagonistic and mutually interacting Gaussian membrane curvatures. The universal nature of curvature-mediated interactions allows synergy with direct binding mechanisms, and potentially accounts for the Bcl-2 family modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics.

  12. Pyr3, a TRPC3 channel blocker, potentiates dexamethasone sensitivity and apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by disturbing Ca(2+) signaling, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Buquet, Catherine; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Dubus, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) is used as a chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) because of its capacity to induce apoptosis. However, some ALL patients acquire resistance to glucocorticoids (GC). Thus, it is important to explore new agents to overcome GC resistance. The aim of the present work was to assess the ability of Pyr3, a selective inhibitor of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3), to sensitize human ALL cells to Dex. We show here, for the first time, that Pyr3 enhances Dex sensitivity through the distraction of Dex-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in ALL cells (in vitro) and primary blasts (ex vivo) associated with mitochondrial-mediated reactive oxygen species production in ALL cells. Pyr3 alone induced Ca(2+) signaling via only endoplasmic reticulum-released Ca(2+) and exerted inhibitory effect on store-operated Ca(2+) entry in dose-dependent manner in ALL cell lines. Pre-incubation of cells with Pyr3 significantly curtailed the thapsigargin- and Dex-evoked Ca(2+) signaling in ALL cell lines. Pyr3 synergistically potentiated Dex lethality, as shown by the induction of cell mortality, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ALL cell lines. Moreover, Pyr3 disrupted Dex-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and increased the sensitivity of Dex-induced cell death in primary blasts from ALL patients. Additional analysis showed that co-treatment with Dex and Pyr3 results in mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and reactive oxygen species production in ALL cells. Together, Pyr3 exhibited potential therapeutic benefit in combination with Dex to inverse glucocorticoid resistance in human ALL and probably in other lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27179991

  13. Role of mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system in protein biogenesis of the mitochondrial outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Maria; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Zerbes, Ralf M.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Stroud, David A.; von der Malsburg, Karina; Müller, Judith M.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Perschil, Inge; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Daum, Günther; Wiedemann, Nils; Becker, Thomas; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria contain two membranes, the outer membrane and the inner membrane with folded cristae. The mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS) is a large protein complex required for maintaining inner membrane architecture. MINOS interacts with both preprotein transport machineries of the outer membrane, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). It is unknown, however, whether MINOS plays a role in the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins. We have dissected the interaction of MINOS with TOM and SAM and report that MINOS binds to both translocases independently. MINOS binds to the SAM complex via the conserved polypeptide transport–associated domain of Sam50. Mitochondria lacking mitofilin, the large core subunit of MINOS, are impaired in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins of the outer membrane, whereas mutant mitochondria lacking any of the other five MINOS subunits import β-barrel proteins in a manner similar to wild-type mitochondria. We show that mitofilin is required at an early stage of β-barrel biogenesis that includes the initial translocation through the TOM complex. We conclude that MINOS interacts with TOM and SAM independently and that the core subunit mitofilin is involved in biogenesis of outer membrane β-barrel proteins. PMID:22918945

  14. Sanguinarine inhibits angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac cells via restoring reactive oxygen species-mediated decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN; JIAO, RONG; MA, ZHEN-GUO; LIU, WEI; WU, QING-QING; YANG, ZHENG; LI, FANG-FANG; YUAN, YUAN; BIAN, ZHOU-YAN; TANG, QI-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Cell apoptosis induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) has a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sanguinarine (SAN), a drug which was proved to have anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and immune enhancing effects, can abolish cell apoptosis induced by Ang II. In the present study, H9c2 cardiac cells were stimulated with 10 µM Ang II with or without SAN. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed using JC-1 staining. Furthermore, mRNA expression of NOX2 was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) as well as cleaved (c)-caspase 3 and -9 were detected by western blot analysis, and the activity of caspase 3 and -9 was detected using an ELISA. The results of the present study showed that NOX2 expression and ROS generation induced by Ang II were inhibited by SAN, and the Ang 2-induced MMP loss was also ameliorated. Furthermore, Ang II-induced H9c2 cardiac cell apoptosis as well as c-caspase 3 and -9 levels were significantly reduced by SAN. Investigation of the possible pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of SAN showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased, while that of Bax was increased following stimulation with Ang II, which was reversed following treatment with SAN. In addition, Ang II enhanced the activity of caspase 9 and cleaved downstream caspases such as caspase-3, initiating the caspase cascade, while pre-treatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with SAN blocked these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that SAN inhibits the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac cells induced by Ang II, most likely via restoring

  15. Clueless is a conserved ribonucleoprotein that binds the ribosome at the mitochondrial outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aditya; Cox, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial function is tied to the nucleus, in that hundreds of proteins encoded by nuclear genes must be imported into mitochondria. While post-translational import is fairly well understood, emerging evidence supports that mitochondrial site-specific import, or co-translational import, also occurs. However, the mechanism and the extent to which it is used are not fully understood. We have previously shown Clueless (Clu), a conserved multi-domain protein, associates with mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, including Translocase of outer membrane 20, and genetically and physically interacts with the PINK1–Parkin pathway. The human ortholog of Clu, Cluh, was shown to bind nuclear-encoded mitochondrially destined mRNAs. Here we identify the conserved tetratricopeptide domain of Clu as predominantly responsible for binding mRNA. In addition, we show Clu interacts with the ribosome at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Taken together, these data support a model whereby Clu binds to and mitochondrially targets mRNAs to facilitate mRNA localization to the outer mitochondrial membrane, potentially for site-specific or co-translational import. This role may link the presence of efficient mitochondrial protein import to mitochondrial quality control through the PINK1–Parkin pathway. PMID:26834020

  16. Appoptosin interacts with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Shi, Zhun; Zhang, Lingzhi; Zhou, Zehua; Zheng, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Guiying; Bu, Guojun; Fraser, Paul E; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Yun-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by fusion and fission machinery. Impaired mitochondria dynamics cause various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Appoptosin (encoded by SLC25A38) is a mitochondrial carrier protein that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Appoptosin overexpression causes overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas appoptosin downregulation abolishes β-amyloid-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal death during Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we found that overexpression of appoptosin resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation in a manner independent of its carrier function, ROS production or caspase activation. Although appoptosin did not affect levels of mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion (MFN1 and MFN2), inner-membrane fusion (OPA1) and fission [DRP1 (also known as DNM1L) and FIS1] proteins, appoptosin interacted with MFN1 and MFN2, as well as with the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL (also known as MARCH5) but not OPA1, FIS1 or DRP1. Appoptosin overexpression impaired the interaction between MFN1 and MFN2, and mitochondrial fusion. By contrast, co-expression of MFN1, MITOL and a dominant-negative form of DRP1, DRP1(K38A), partially rescued appoptosin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, whereas co-expression of FIS1 aggravated appoptosin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results demonstrate that appoptosin can interact with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology. PMID:26813789

  17. Mitochondrial shape and function in trypanosomes requires the outer membrane protein, TbLOK1

    PubMed Central

    Povelones, Megan L.; Tiengwe, Calvin; Gluenz, Eva; Gull, Keith; Englund, Paul T.; Jensen, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In an RNAi library screen for loss of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), we identified an uncharacterized Trypanosoma brucei protein, named TbLOK1, required for maintenance of mitochondrial shape and function. We found the TbLOK1 protein located in discrete patches in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Knockdown of TbLOK1 in procyclic trypanosomes caused the highly interconnected mitochondrial structure to collapse, forming an unbranched tubule remarkably similar to the streamlined organelle seen in the bloodstream form. Following RNAi, defects in mitochondrial respiration, inner membrane potential, and mitochondrial transcription were observed. At later times following TbLOK1 depletion, kDNA was lost and a more drastic alteration in mitochondrial structure was found. Our results demonstrate the close relationship between organelle structure and function in trypanosomes. PMID:23336702

  18. Deficiency in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp21) gene increases ischemic brain damage and impairs mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Mehta, Suresh L.; Lu, Baisong; Andy Li, P.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in mediating ischemic brain damage. Immp2l is an inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase that processes mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c1 (Cyc1). Homozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2lTg(Tyr)979Ove or Immp2l−/−) elevates mitochondrial membrane potential, increases superoxide (•O2−) production in the brain and impairs fertility. The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of heterozygous mutation of lmmp2l (Immp2l+/−) on ischemic outcome and to determine the influence of Immp2l deficiency on brain mitochondria after stroke. Male Immp2l+/− and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 1-h focal cerebral ischemia. Their brains were harvested after 5 and 24-h of reperfusion. The results showed that infarct volume and DNA oxidative damage significantly increased in the Immp2l+/− mice. There were no obvious cerebral vasculature abnormalities between the two types of mice viewed by Indian ink perfusion. The increased damage in Immp2l+/− mice was associated with early increase in •O2− production. Mitochondrial respiratory rate, total mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities were decreased at 5-h of recirculation in Immp2l+/− mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that lmmp2l deficiency increases ischemic brain damage by enhancing •O2− production and damaging mitochondrial functional performance. PMID:21824519

  19. Bidirectional fluxes of spermine across the mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Grancara, Silvia; Martinis, Pamela; Manente, Sabrina; García-Argáez, Aida Nelly; Tempera, Giampiero; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Dalla Via, Lisa; Agostinelli, Enzo; Toninello, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The polyamine spermine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by an electrophoretic mechanism having as driving force the negative electrical membrane potential (ΔΨ). The presence of phosphate increases spermine uptake by reducing ΔpH and enhancing ΔΨ. The transport system is a specific uniporter constituted by a protein channel exhibiting two asymmetric energy barriers with the spermine binding site located in the energy well between the two barriers. Although spermine transport is electrophoretic in origin, its accumulation does not follow the Nernst equation for the presence of an efflux pathway. Spermine efflux may be induced by different agents, such as FCCP, antimycin A and mersalyl, able to completely or partially reduce the ΔΨ value and, consequently, suppress or weaken the force necessary to maintain spermine in the matrix. However this efflux may also take place in normal conditions when the electrophoretic accumulation of the polycationic polyamine induces a sufficient drop in ΔΨ able to trigger the efflux pathway. The release of the polyamine is most probably electroneutral in origin and can take place in exchange with protons or in symport with phosphate anion. The activity of both the uptake and efflux pathways induces a continuous cycling of spermine across the mitochondrial membrane, the rate of which may be prominent in imposing the concentrations of spermine in the inner and outer compartment. Thus, this event has a significant role on mitochondrial permeability transition modulation and consequently on the triggering of intrinsic apoptosis. PMID:24043461

  20. The tRNA(Gly) T10003C mutation in mitochondrial haplogroup M11b in a Chinese family with diabetes decreases the steady-state level of tRNA(Gly), increases aberrant reactive oxygen species production, and reduces mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wen, Chaowei; Li, Weixing; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wanlin; Ye, Wei; Lu, Jianxin

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial diabetes originates mainly from mutations located in maternally transmitted, mitochondrial tRNA-coding genes. In a genetic screening program of type 2 diabetes conducted with a Chinese Han population, we found one family with suggestive maternally transmitted diabetes. The proband's mitochondrial genome was analyzed using DNA sequencing. Total 42 known nucleoside changes and 1 novel variant were identified, and the entire mitochondrial DNA sequence was assigned to haplogroup M11b. Phylogenetic analysis showed that a homoplasmic mutation, 10003T>C transition, occurred at the highly conserved site in the gene encoding tRNA(Gly). Using a transmitochondrial cybrid cell line harboring this mutation, we observed that the steady-state level of tRNA(Gly) significantly affected and the amount of tRNA(Gly) decreased by 97%, production of reactive oxygen species was enhanced, and mitochondrial membrane potential, mtDNA copy number and cellular oxygen consumption rate were remarkably decreased compared with wild-type cybrid cells. The homoplasmic 10003T>C mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Gly) gene suggested to be as a pathogenesis-related mutation which might contribute to the maternal inherited diabetes in the Han Chinese family. PMID:26134044

  1. Mitochondrial Membrane Studies Using Impedance Spectroscopy with Parallel pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Padmaraj, Divya; Pande, Rohit; Miller, John H.; Wosik, Jarek; Zagozdzon-Wosik, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    A biological microelectromechanical system (BioMEMS) device was designed to study complementary mitochondrial parameters important in mitochondrial dysfunction studies. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to many diseases, including diabetes, obesity, heart failure and aging, as these organelles play a critical role in energy generation, cell signaling and apoptosis. The synthesis of ATP is driven by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. We have developed a tool to study the ionic activity of the mitochondria in parallel with dielectric measurements (impedance spectroscopy) to gain a better understanding of the properties of the mitochondrial membrane. This BioMEMS chip includes: 1) electrodes for impedance studies of mitochondria designed as two- and four-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range and 2) ion-sensitive field effect transistors for proton studies of the electron transport chain and for possible monitoring other ions such as sodium, potassium and calcium. We have used uncouplers to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane and disrupt the ionic balance. Dielectric spectroscopy responded with a corresponding increase in impedance values pointing at changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. An electrical model was used to describe mitochondrial sample’s complex impedance frequency dependencies and the contribution of the membrane to overall impedance changes. The results prove that dielectric spectroscopy can be used as a tool for membrane potential studies. It can be concluded that studies of the electrochemical parameters associated with mitochondrial bioenergetics may render significant information on various abnormalities attributable to these organelles. PMID:25010497

  2. Bcl-2 maintains the mitochondrial membrane potential, but fails to affect production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in sodium palmitate-induced β-cell death

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodium palmitate causes apoptosis of β-cells, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 has been shown to counteract this event. However, the exact mechanisms that underlie palmitate-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and through which pathway Bcl-2 executes the protective effect are still unclear. Methods A stable Bcl-2-overexpressing RINm5F cell clone (BMG) and its negative control (B45) were exposed to palmitate for up to 8 h, and cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and NF-κB activation were studied in time course experiments. Results Palmitate exposure for 8 h resulted in increased cell death rates, and this event was partially counteracted by Bcl-2. Bcl-2 overexpression promoted in parallel also a delayed induction of GADD153/CHOP and a weaker phosphorylation of BimEL in palmitate-exposed cells. At earlier time points (2–4 h) palmitate exposure resulted in increased generation of ROS, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and a modest increase in the phosphorylation of eIF2α and IRE1α. BMG cells produced similar amounts of ROS and displayed the same eIF2α and IRE1α phosphorylation rates as B45 cells. However, the palmitate-induced dissipation of Δψm was partially counteracted by Bcl-2. In addition, basal NF-κB activity was increased in BMG cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that Bcl-2 counteracts palmitate-induced β-cell death by maintaining mitochondrial membrane integrity and augmenting NF-κB activity, but not by affecting ROS production and ER stress. PMID:25266628

  3. Determination of intracellular reactive oxygen species and high mitochondrial membrane potential in Percoll-treated viable boar sperm using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R

    2006-08-01

    The use of frozen semen in the swine industry is limited by problems with viability and fertility compared with liquid semen. Part of the reduction in sperm motility and fertility associated with cryopreservation may be due to oxidative damage from excessive or inappropriate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chemiluminescence measurements of ROS are not possible in live cells and are problematic because of poor specificity. An alternative approach, flow cytometry, was developed to identify viable boar sperm containing ROS utilizing the dyes hydroethidine and 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate as oxidizable substrates and impermeant DNA dyes to exclude dead sperm. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined by flow cytometry using the mitochondrial probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide with propidium iodide staining to exclude nonviable cells. Sperm were incubated with and without ROS generators and free radical scavengers. Basal ROS formation was low (less than 4%) and did not differ (P = 0.26) between viable fresh and frozen-thawed boar sperm. In addition, fresh and frozen-thawed viable sperm were equally susceptible (P = 0.20) to intracellular formation of ROS produced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase (94.4 and 87.9% of sperm, respectively). Menadione increased (P < 0.05) ROS formation, decreased (P < 0.05) JC-1-aggregate fluorescence intensity, and decreased (P < 0.05) motion variables by 25 to 60%. The mechanism of inhibition of motility by ROS formation may be related to a decrease in mitochondrial charge potential below a critical threshold. Catalase and superoxide dismutase treatment in the presence of xanthine/xanthine oxidase indicated that hydrogen peroxide was the primary intracellular ROS measured. Further, catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, was capable of attenuating ROS-induced inhibition of motility. Whereas basal intracellular hydrogen

  4. The mitochondrial inner membrane GTPase, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1), restores mitochondrial morphology and promotes neuronal survival following excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Pilon-Larose, Karine; Xu, William; MacLaurin, Jason G; Park, David S; McBride, Heidi M; Slack, Ruth S

    2011-02-11

    Mitochondrial dynamics have been extensively studied in the context of classical cell death models involving Bax-mediated cytochrome c release. Excitotoxic neuronal loss is a non-classical death signaling pathway that occurs following overactivation of glutamate receptors independent of Bax activation. Presently, the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of excitotoxicity remains largely unknown. Here, we report that NMDA-induced excitotoxicity results in defects in mitochondrial morphology as evident by the presence of excessive fragmented mitochondria, cessation of mitochondrial fusion, and cristae dilation. Up-regulation of the mitochondrial inner membrane GTPase, Opa1, is able to restore mitochondrial morphology and protect neurons against excitotoxic injury. Opa1 functions downstream of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain. Inhibition of calpain activity by calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, significantly rescued mitochondrial defects and maintained neuronal survival. Opa1 was required for calpastatin-mediated neuroprotection because the enhanced survival found following NMDA-induced toxicity was significantly reduced upon loss of Opa1. Our results define a mechanism whereby breakdown of the mitochondrial network mediated through loss of Opa1 function contributes to neuronal death following excitotoxic neuronal injury. These studies suggest Opa1 as a potential therapeutic target to promote neuronal survival following acute brain damage and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21041314

  5. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein hFis1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and fission through self-interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serasinghe, Madhavika N.; Yoon, Yisang

    2008-11-15

    Mitochondrial fission in mammals is mediated by at least two proteins, DLP1/Drp1 and hFis1. DLP1 mediates the scission of mitochondrial membranes through GTP hydrolysis, and hFis1 is a putative DLP1 receptor anchored at the mitochondrial outer membrane by a C-terminal single transmembrane domain. The cytosolic domain of hFis1 contains six {alpha}-helices ({alpha}1-{alpha}6) out of which {alpha}2-{alpha}5 form two tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) folds. In this study, by using chimeric constructs, we demonstrated that the cytosolic domain contains the necessary information for hFis1 function during mitochondrial fission. By using transient expression of different mutant forms of the hFis1 protein, we found that hFis1 self-interaction plays an important role in mitochondrial fission. Our results show that deletion of the {alpha}1 helix greatly increased the formation of dimeric and oligomeric forms of hFis1, indicating that {alpha}1 helix functions as a negative regulator of the hFis1 self-interaction. Further mutational approaches revealed that a tyrosine residue in the {alpha}5 helix and the linker between {alpha}3 and {alpha}4 helices participate in hFis1 oligomerization. Mutations causing oligomerization defect greatly reduced the ability to induce not only mitochondrial fragmentation by full-length hFis1 but also the formation of swollen ball-shaped mitochondria caused by {alpha}1-deleted hFis1. Our data suggest that oligomerization of hFis1 in the mitochondrial outer membrane plays a role in mitochondrial fission, potentially through participating in fission factor recruitment.

  6. Mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization and remodelling in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Alexis; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Many human pathologies are associated with defects in mitochondria such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases or cancer. This tiny organelle is involved in a plethora of processes in mammalian cells, including energy production, lipid metabolism and cell death. In the so-called intrinsic apoptotic pathway, the outer mitochondrial membrane (MOM) is premeabilized by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 members Bax and Bak, allowing the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c from the inter-membrane space into the cytosol. At the same time, mitochondria fragment in response to Drp-1 activation suggesting that mitochondrial fission could play a role in mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP). In this review, we will discuss the link that could exist between mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery, Bcl-2 family members and MOMP. PMID:19439192

  7. Omega-3 supplementation alters mitochondrial membrane composition and respiration kinetics in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Herbst, E A F; Paglialunga, S; Gerling, C; Whitfield, J; Mukai, K; Chabowski, A; Heigenhauser, G J F; Spriet, L L; Holloway, G P

    2014-03-15

    Studies have shown increased incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into whole skeletal muscle following supplementation, although little has been done to investigate the potential impact on the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes and the functional consequences on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Therefore, we supplemented young healthy male subjects (n = 18) with fish oils [2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g docosahexanoic acid (DHA) per day] for 12 weeks and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken prior to (Pre) and following (Post) supplementation for the analysis of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and various assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Total EPA and DHA content in mitochondrial membranes increased (P < 0.05) ∼450 and ∼320%, respectively, and displaced some omega-6 species in several phospholipid populations. Mitochondrial respiration, determined in permeabilized muscle fibres, demonstrated no change in maximal substrate-supported respiration, or in the sensitivity (apparent Km) and maximal capacity for pyruvate-supported respiration. In contrast, mitochondrial responses during ADP titrations demonstrated an enhanced ADP sensitivity (decreased apparent Km) that was independent of the creatine kinase shuttle. As the content of ANT1, ANT2, and subunits of the electron transport chain were unaltered by supplementation, these data suggest that prolonged omega-3 intake improves ADP kinetics in human skeletal muscle mitochondria through alterations in membrane structure and/or post-translational modification of ATP synthase and ANT isoforms. Omega-3 supplementation also increased the capacity for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission without altering the content of oxidative products, suggesting the absence of oxidative damage. The current data strongly emphasize a role for omega-3s in reorganizing the composition of mitochondrial membranes while promoting improvements in ADP sensitivity. PMID:24396061

  8. Omega-3 supplementation alters mitochondrial membrane composition and respiration kinetics in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, E A F; Paglialunga, S; Gerling, C; Whitfield, J; Mukai, K; Chabowski, A; Heigenhauser, G J F; Spriet, L L; Holloway, G P

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown increased incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into whole skeletal muscle following supplementation, although little has been done to investigate the potential impact on the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes and the functional consequences on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Therefore, we supplemented young healthy male subjects (n = 18) with fish oils [2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g docosahexanoic acid (DHA) per day] for 12 weeks and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken prior to (Pre) and following (Post) supplementation for the analysis of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and various assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Total EPA and DHA content in mitochondrial membranes increased (P < 0.05) ∼450 and ∼320%, respectively, and displaced some omega-6 species in several phospholipid populations. Mitochondrial respiration, determined in permeabilized muscle fibres, demonstrated no change in maximal substrate-supported respiration, or in the sensitivity (apparent Km) and maximal capacity for pyruvate-supported respiration. In contrast, mitochondrial responses during ADP titrations demonstrated an enhanced ADP sensitivity (decreased apparent Km) that was independent of the creatine kinase shuttle. As the content of ANT1, ANT2, and subunits of the electron transport chain were unaltered by supplementation, these data suggest that prolonged omega-3 intake improves ADP kinetics in human skeletal muscle mitochondria through alterations in membrane structure and/or post-translational modification of ATP synthase and ANT isoforms. Omega-3 supplementation also increased the capacity for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission without altering the content of oxidative products, suggesting the absence of oxidative damage. The current data strongly emphasize a role for omega-3s in reorganizing the composition of mitochondrial membranes while promoting improvements in ADP sensitivity. PMID:24396061

  9. The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Tudella, Valeria G; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Rodrigues, Fernando P; Pestana, Cezar R; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Alberici, Luciane C; Curti, Carlos

    2011-06-15

    Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 μM) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca²⁺ efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP+ transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. PMID:21549140

  10. The fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane protein Ugo1

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael; Taskin, Asli A.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Guan, Xue Li; Prinz, Claudia; Opalińska, Magdalena; Zorzin, Carina; van der Laan, Martin; Wenk, Markus R.; Schubert, Rolf; Wiedemann, Nils; Holzer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Import and assembly of mitochondrial proteins depend on a complex interplay of proteinaceous translocation machineries. The role of lipids in this process has been studied only marginally and so far no direct role for a specific lipid in mitochondrial protein biogenesis has been shown. Here we analyzed a potential role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo remodeling of the mitochondrial lipid composition by lithocholic acid treatment or by ablation of the lipid transport protein Ups1, both leading to an increase of mitochondrial PA levels, specifically stimulated the biogenesis of the outer membrane protein Ugo1, a component of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. We reconstituted the import and assembly pathway of Ugo1 in protein-free liposomes, mimicking the outer membrane phospholipid composition, and found a direct dependency of Ugo1 biogenesis on PA. Thus, PA represents the first lipid that is directly involved in the biogenesis pathway of a mitochondrial membrane protein. PMID:26347140

  11. The development of mitochondrial membrane affinity chromatography columns for the study of mitochondrial transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Habicht, K-L; Singh, N S; Indig, F E; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R; Shimmo, R

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial membrane fragments from U-87 MG (U87MG) and HEK-293 cells were successfully immobilized onto immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatographic support and surface of activated open tubular (OT) silica capillary, resulting in mitochondrial membrane affinity chromatography (MMAC) columns. Translocator protein (TSPO), located in mitochondrial outer membrane as well as sulfonylurea and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) receptors, localized to the inner membrane, were characterized. Frontal displacement experiments with multiple concentrations of dipyridamole (DIPY) and PK-11195 were run on MMAC (U87MG) column, and the binding affinities (Kd) determined were 1.08±0.49 and 0.0086±0.0006μM, respectively, consistent with previously reported values. Furthermore, binding affinities (Ki) for DIPY binding site were determined for TSPO ligands, PK-11195, mesoporphyrin IX, protoporphyrin IX, and rotenone. In addition, the relative ranking of these TSPO ligands based on single displacement studies using DIPY as marker on MMAC (U87MG) was consistent with the obtained Ki values. The immobilization of mitochondrial membrane fragments was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. PMID:26049098

  12. The development of mitochondrial membrane affinity chromatography columns for the study of mitochondrial transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Habicht, K-L.; Singh, N.S.; Indig, F.E.; Wainer, I.W.; Moaddel, R.; Shimmo, R.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane fragments from U-87 MG (U87MG) and HEK-293 cells were successfully immobilized on to Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) chromatographic support and surface of activated open tubular (OT) silica capillary resulting in mitochondrial membrane affinity chromatography (MMAC) columns. Translocator protein (TSPO), located in mitochondrial outer membrane as well as sulfonylurea and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) receptors, localized to the inner membrane, were characterized. Frontal displacement experiments with multiple concentrations of dipyridamole (DIPY) and PK-11195 were run on MMAC-(U87MG) column and the binding affinities (Kd) determined were 1.08 ± 1.49 and 0.0086 ± 0.0006 μM respectively, which was consistent with previously reported values. Further, binding affinities (Ki) for DIPY binding site were determined for TSPO ligands, PK-11195, mesoporphyrin IX, protoporphyrin IX and rotenone. Additionally, the relative ranking of these TSPO ligands based on single displacement studies using DIPY as marker on MMAC-(U87MG) was consistent with the obtained Ki values. The immobilization of mitochondrial membrane fragments was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. PMID:26049098

  13. The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: Ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L.; Tudella, Valeria G.

    2011-06-15

    Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 {mu}M) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca{sup 2+} efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP{sup +} transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. - Graphical abstract: Guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane and induces cancer cell death Display Omitted Highlights: > We addressed the involvement of mitochondria in guttiferone (GA) toxicity toward cancer cells. > GA promoted membrane permeabilization, membrane potential dissipation, NAD(P)H depletion, ROS accumulation and ATP depletion. > These actions

  14. Sensitization of U937 leukemia cells to doxorubicin by the MG132 proteasome inhibitor induces an increase in apoptosis by suppressing NF-kappa B and mitochondrial membrane potential loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The resistance of cancerous cells to chemotherapy remains the main limitation for cancer treatment at present. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent antitumor drug that activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but unfortunately it also activates the Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) pathway leading to the promotion of tumor cell survival. MG132 is a drug that inhibits I kappa B degradation by the proteasome-avoiding activation of NF-кB. In this work, we studied the sensitizing effect of the MG132 proteasome inhibitor on the antitumor activity of DOX. Methods U937 human leukemia cells were treated with MG132, DOX, or both drugs. We evaluated proliferation, viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, -8, and −9 activity and cleavage, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential, the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL antiapoptotic proteins, senescence, p65 phosphorylation, and pro- and antiapoptotic genes. Results The greatest apoptosis percentage in U937 cells was obtained with a combination of MG132 + DOX. Likewise, employing both drugs, we observed a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and important caspase-3 activation, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Therefore, MG132 decreases senescence, p65 phosphorylation, and the DOX-induced Bcl-2 antiapoptotic protein. The MG132 + DOX treatment induced upregulation of proapoptotic genes BAX, DIABLO, NOXA, DR4, and FAS. It also induced downregulation of the antiapoptotic genes BCL-XL and SURVIVIN. Conclusion MG132 sensitizes U937 leukemia cells to DOX-induced apoptosis, increasing its anti-leukemic effectiveness. PMID:24495648

  15. Plant mitochondrial dynamics and the role of membrane lipids

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ronghui; Hu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that are continuously shaped by the antagonistic fission and fusion processes. The major machineries of mitochondrial fission and fusion, as well as mechanisms that regulate the function of key players in these processes have been analyzed in different experimental systems. In plants however, the mitochondrial fusion machinery is still largely unknown, and the regulatory mechanisms of the fission machinery are just beginning to be elucidated. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying plant mitochondrial dynamics and regulation of some of the key factors, especially the roles of membrane lipids such as cardiolipin. PMID:26317892

  16. Mitofusins and the mitochondrial permeability transition: the potential downside of mitochondrial fusion

    PubMed Central

    Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; Phillippo, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitofusins (Mfn-1 and Mfn-2) are transmembrane proteins that bind and hydrolyze guanosine 5′-triphosphate to bring about the merging of adjacent mitochondrial membranes. This event is necessary for mitochondrial fusion, a biological process that is critical for organelle function. The broad effects of mitochondrial fusion on cell bioenergetics have been extensively studied, whereas the local effects of mitofusin activity on the structure and integrity of the fusing mitochondrial membranes have received relatively little attention. From the study of fusogenic proteins, theoretical models, and simulations, it has been noted that the fusion of biological membranes is associated with local perturbations on the integrity of the membrane that present in the form of lipidic holes which open on the opposing bilayers. These lipidic holes represent obligate intermediates that make the fusion process thermodynamically more favorable and at the same time induce leakage to the fusing membranes. In this perspectives article we present the relevant evidence selected from a spectrum of membrane fusion/leakage models and attempt to couple this information with observations conducted with cardiac myocytes or mitochondria deficient in Mfn-1 and Mfn-2. More specifically, we argue in favor of a situation whereby mitochondrial fusion in cardiac myocytes is coupled with outer mitochondrial membrane destabilization that is opportunistically employed during the process of mitochondrial permeability transition. We hope that these insights will initiate research on this new hypothesis of mitochondrial permeability transition regulation, a poorly understood mitochondrial function with significant consequences on myocyte survival. PMID:22636681

  17. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteome of Trypanosoma brucei Reveals Novel Factors Required to Maintain Mitochondrial Morphology*

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Moritz; Wiese, Sebastian; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Jackson, Christopher; Meisinger, Chris; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes devastating diseases in humans and animals. It diverged from most other eukaryotes very early in evolution and, as a consequence, has an unusual mitochondrial biology. Moreover, mitochondrial functions and morphology are highly regulated throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The outer mitochondrial membrane defines the boundary of the organelle. Its properties are therefore key for understanding how the cytosol and mitochondria communicate and how the organelle is integrated into the metabolism of the whole cell. We have purified the mitochondrial outer membrane of T. brucei and characterized its proteome using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for protein abundance profiling in combination with statistical analysis. Our results show that the trypanosomal outer membrane proteome consists of 82 proteins, two-thirds of which have never been associated with mitochondria before. 40 proteins share homology with proteins of known functions. The function of 42 proteins, 33 of which are specific to trypanosomatids, remains unknown. 11 proteins are essential for the disease-causing bloodstream form of T. brucei and therefore may be exploited as novel drug targets. A comparison with the outer membrane proteome of yeast defines a set of 17 common proteins that are likely present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of all eukaryotes. Known factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology are virtually absent in T. brucei. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of three outer membrane proteins of unknown function resulted in a collapse of the network-like mitochondrion of procyclic cells and for the first time identified factors that control mitochondrial shape in T. brucei. PMID:23221899

  18. Investigation of the effects of 2.1 GHz microwave radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), apoptotic activity and cell viability in human breast fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Seyhan, Nesrin; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Kurşun, Ayşe Canseven; Yağcı, Münci

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of 2.1 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated Microwave (MW) Radiation on cell survival and apoptotic activity of human breast fibroblast cells. The cell cultures were exposed to W-CDMA modulated MW at 2.1 GHz at a SAR level of 0.607 W/kg for 4 and 24 h. The cell viability was assessed by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The percentage of apoptotic cells was analyzed by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. 5,5',6,6'-Tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) was used to measure Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (ΔΨm). sFasL and Fas/APO-1 protein levels were determined by ELISA method. 2.1 GHz MW radiation was shown to be able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human breast fibroblast cells. The cell viability of MW-exposed cells was decreased significantly. The percentages of Annexin V-FITC positive cells were higher in MW groups. ΔΨm was decreased significantly due to MW radiation exposure. However, neither sFas nor FasL level was significantly changed in MW-exposed fibroblast cells. The results of this study showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation-induced apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23723005

  19. Interchangeable adaptors regulate mitochondrial dynamin assembly for membrane scission

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Sajjan; Guo, Qian; Kalia, Raghav; Bui, Huyen T.; Eckert, Debra M.; Frost, Adam; Shaw, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission is mediated by the dynamin-related GTPases Dnm1/Drp1 (yeast/mammals), which form spirals around constricted sites on mitochondria. Additional membrane-associated adaptor proteins (Fis1, Mdv1, Mff, and MiDs) are required to recruit these GTPases from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface. Whether these adaptors participate in both GTPase recruitment and membrane scission is not known. Here we use a yeast strain lacking all fission proteins to identify the minimal combinations of GTPases and adaptors sufficient for mitochondrial fission. Although Fis1 is dispensable for fission, membrane-anchored Mdv1, Mff, or MiDs paired individually with their respective GTPases are sufficient to divide mitochondria. In addition to their role in Drp1 membrane recruitment, MiDs coassemble with Drp1 in vitro. The resulting heteropolymer adopts a dramatically different structure with a narrower diameter than Drp1 homopolymers assembled in isolation. This result demonstrates that an adaptor protein alters the architecture of a mitochondrial dynamin GTPase polymer in a manner that could facilitate membrane constriction and severing activity. PMID:23530241

  20. Bax assembles into large ring-like structures remodeling the mitochondrial outer membrane in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Große, Lena; Wurm, Christian A; Brüser, Christian; Neumann, Daniel; Jans, Daniel C; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-02-15

    The Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are essential for the execution of many apoptotic programs. During apoptosis, Bax translocates to the mitochondria and mediates the permeabilization of the outer membrane, thereby facilitating the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. Yet the mechanistic details of the Bax-induced membrane permeabilization have so far remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that activated Bax molecules, besides forming large and compact clusters, also assemble, potentially with other proteins including Bak, into ring-like structures in the mitochondrial outer membrane. STED nanoscopy indicates that the area enclosed by a Bax ring is devoid of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins such as Tom20, Tom22, and Sam50. This strongly supports the view that the Bax rings surround an opening required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Even though these Bax assemblies may be necessary for MOMP, we demonstrate that at least in Drp1 knockdown cells, these assemblies are not sufficient for full cytochrome c release. Together, our super-resolution data provide direct evidence in support of large Bax-delineated pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane as being crucial for Bax-mediated MOMP in cells. PMID:26783364

  1. Ubiquilins Chaperone and Triage Mitochondrial Membrane Proteins for Degradation.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Eisuke; Zavodszky, Eszter; Shao, Sichen; Wohlever, Matthew L; Keenan, Robert J; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how mitochondrial membrane proteins remain soluble in the cytosol until their delivery to mitochondria or degradation at the proteasome. We show that Ubiquilin family proteins bind transmembrane domains in the cytosol to prevent aggregation and temporarily allow opportunities for membrane targeting. Over time, Ubiquilins recruit an E3 ligase to ubiquitinate bound clients. The attached ubiquitin engages Ubiquilin's UBA domain, normally bound to an intramolecular UBL domain, and stabilizes the Ubiquilin-client complex. This conformational change precludes additional chances at membrane targeting for the client, while simultaneously freeing Ubiquilin's UBL domain for targeting to the proteasome. Loss of Ubiquilins by genetic ablation or sequestration in polyglutamine aggregates leads to accumulation of non-inserted mitochondrial membrane protein precursors. These findings define Ubiquilins as a family of chaperones for cytosolically exposed transmembrane domains and explain how they use ubiquitin to triage clients for degradation via coordinated intra- and intermolecular interactions. PMID:27345149

  2. Membrane-lipid unsaturation and mitochondrial function in Saacharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K; Houghton, R L; Bertoli, E; Griffiths, D E

    1975-01-01

    The lipid composition of yeast cells was manipulated by the use of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a 2-3-fold decrease in the concentration of cytochromes a+a3 when the unsaturated fatty acid content of the cells was decreased from 60-70% of the total fatty acid to 20-30%. The amounts of cytochromes b and c were also decreased under these conditions, but to a lesser extent. Further lipid depletion, to proportions of less than 20% unsaturated fatty acid, led to a dramatic decrease in the content of all cytochromes, particularly cytochromes a+a3. The ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase), succinate oxidase and NADH oxidase activities of the isolated mitochondria also varied with the degree of unsaturation of the membrane lipids. The lower the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid, the lower was the enzymic activity. Inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase by oligomycin, on the other hand, was not markedly influenced by the membrane-lipid unsaturation. Npn-linear Arrenius plots of mitochondrial membrane-bound enzymes showed transition temperatures that were dependent on the degree of membrane-lipid unsaturation. The greater the degree of lipid unsaturation, the lower was the transition temperature. It was concluded that the degree of unsaturation of the membrane lipids plays an important role in determining the properties of mitochondrial membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:125585

  3. Proteome analysis of mitochondrial outer membrane from Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Simone; Prokisch, Holger; Schlunk, Tilman; Camp, David G.; Ahting, Uwe; Waizenegger, Thomas; Scharfe, Curt M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Imhof, Axel; Neupert, Walter; Oefner, Peter J.; Rapaport, Doron

    2006-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane mediates numerous interactions between the metabolic and genetic systems of mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. We performed a proteomic study to discover novel functions of components of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Proteins of highly pure outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from Neurospora crassa were identified by a combination of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptide digests and gel electrophoresis of solubilized OMV proteins, followed by their identification using MALDI-MS peptide fingerprinting. Among the 30 proteins found in at least three of four separate analyses were 23 proteins with known functions in the outer membrane. These included components of the import machinery (the TOM and TOB complexes), a pore-forming component (Porin), and proteins that control fusion and fission of the organelle. In addition, proteins playing a role in various biosynthetic pathways, whose intracellular location had not been established previously, could be localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Thus, the proteome of the outer membrane can help in identifying new mitochondria-related functions.

  4. Functions of outer membrane receptors in mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiya; Kohda, Daisuke

    2002-09-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins and are imported into mitochondria. The targeting signals for mitochondria are encoded in the presequences or in the mature parts of the precursor proteins, and are decoded by the receptor sites in the translocator complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The recently determined NMR structure of the general import receptor Tom20 in a complex with a presequence peptide reveals that, although the amphiphilicity and positive charges of the presequence is essential for the import ability of the presequence, Tom20 recognizes only the amphiphilicity, but not the positive charges. This leads to a new model that different features associated with the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the precursor protein can be recognized by the mitochondrial protein import system in different steps during the import. PMID:12191763

  5. Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase 1 (Psd1) Promotes Mitochondrial Fusion by Regulating the Biophysical Properties of the Mitochondrial Membrane and Alternative Topogenesis of Mitochondrial Genome Maintenance Protein 1 (Mgm1)*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eliana Y. L.; McQuibban, G. Angus

    2012-01-01

    Non–bilayer-forming lipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are proposed to generate negative membrane curvature, promoting membrane fusion. However, the mechanism by which lipids regulate mitochondrial fusion remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitochondrial-localized Psd1, the key yeast enzyme that synthesizes PE, is required for proper mitochondrial morphology and fusion. Yeast cells lacking Psd1 exhibit fragmented and aggregated mitochondria with impaired mitochondrial fusion during mating. More importantly, we demonstrate that a reduction in PE reduces the rate of lipid mixing during fusion of liposomes with lipid compositions reflecting the mitochondrial membrane. This suggests that the mitochondrial fusion defect in the Δpsd1 strain could be due to the altered biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in reduced fusion kinetics. The Δpsd1 strain also has impaired mitochondrial activity such as oxidative phosphorylation and reduced mitochondrial ATP levels which are due to a reduction in mitochondrial PE. The loss of Psd1 also impairs the biogenesis of s-Mgm1, a protein essential for mitochondrial fusion, further exacerbating the mitochondrial fusion defect of the Δpsd1 strain. Increasing s-Mgm1 levels in Δpsd1 cells markedly reduced mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial PE regulates mitochondrial fusion by regulating the biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane and by enhancing the biogenesis of s-Mgm1. While several proteins are required to orchestrate the intricate process of membrane fusion, we propose that specific phospholipids of the mitochondrial membrane promote fusion by enhancing lipid mixing kinetics and by regulating the action of profusion proteins. PMID:23045528

  6. Bergamottin isolated from Citrus bergamia exerts in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity in lung adenocarcinoma through the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential loss and inhibition of cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Juan; Wu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Qiu; Chen, Li-Juan; Zou, Hong-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin, against human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) A549 cells. We also studied its effect on cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell invasion, cell migration as well as cell apoptosis. Antiproliferative activity of bergamottin was estimated by the MTT assay. Phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC assay were used to study induction of apoptosis by bergamottin in these cells. The effects of bergamottin on cell cycle phase distribution as well as on mitochondrial membrane potential were also demonstrated using flow cytometry. In vitro wound healing assay was used to study the effect of bergamottin on cell migration. The effects of bergamottin on tumor progression were also observed using a nude mouse model. The mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with bergamottin injected intraperitoneally. Bergamottin induced dose-dependent as well as time-dependent cytotoxic effects as well as inhibition of colony formation in the A549 cancer cells. Bergamottin also suppressed cancer cell invasion as well as cancer cell migration. Phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that bergamottin induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and the cells became rounded and detached from each other. Bergamottin also induced a potent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Experiments in mice showed that 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg bergamottin injection reduced the tumor weight from 1.61 g in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated group (control) to 1.21, 0.42 and 0.15 g in the bergamottin-treated groups, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that bergamottin was able to inhibit lung cancer cell growth both in a cell model and a xenograft mouse model by inducing apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, G2/M cell cycle

  7. Torilis japonica extract-generated intracellular ROS induces apoptosis by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential via regulation of the AMPK-p38 MAPK signaling pathway in HCT116 colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guen Tae; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Young Min

    2016-09-01

    Torilis japonica extract (TJE) has been reported to possess diverse medicinal properties including anti‑inflammatory and antibacterial activities. However, the precise mechanism of its anticancer effect is not understood. Thus, we evaluated the apoptotic effects of TJE and examined its underlying molecular mechanisms in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. Our results show that TJE induces apoptosis through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that it regulates the mitochondrial outer membrane potential via the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Importantly, ~50% of cancer cells have p53 mutations. Thus, the ability to induce apoptosis in a p53-independent manner would be of great value in cancer treatment. Our results show that not only does TJE regulate the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway, but it induces apoptosis in cells in which p53 has been knocked down using siRNA. Moreover, as in in vitro studies, TJE induced apoptosis and regulated apoptosis related-proteins in an HCT 116 xenograft model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TJE, a natural compound that may provide a substitute for chemotherapeutic drugs, has potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:27314881

  8. Selective sorting and destruction of mitochondrial membrane proteins in aged yeast.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Adam L; Hughes, Casey E; Henderson, Kiersten A; Yazvenko, Nina; Gottschling, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, and underlies the development of many diseases. Cells maintain mitochondrial homeostasis through a number of pathways that remodel the mitochondrial proteome or alter mitochondrial content during times of stress or metabolic adaptation. Here, using yeast as a model system, we identify a new mitochondrial degradation system that remodels the mitochondrial proteome of aged cells. Unlike many common mitochondrial degradation pathways, this system selectively removes a subset of membrane proteins from the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes, while leaving the remainder of the organelle intact. Selective removal of preexisting proteins is achieved by sorting into a mitochondrial-derived compartment, or MDC, followed by release through mitochondrial fission and elimination by autophagy. Formation of MDCs requires the import receptors Tom70/71, and failure to form these structures exacerbates preexisting mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the MDC pathway provides protection to mitochondria in times of stress. PMID:27097106

  9. Equilibrium Potentials of Membrane Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jui H.; Copeland, Eva

    1973-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic theory of the equilibrium potentials of membrane electrodes is formulated and applied to the glass electrode for measurement of pH. The new formulation assumes the selective adsorption or binding of specific ions on the surface of the membrane which may or may not be permeable to the ion, and includes the conventional derivation based on reversible ion transport across membranes as a special case. To test the theory, a platinum wire was coated with a mixture of stearic acid and methyl-tri-n-octyl-ammonium stearate. When this coated electrode was immersed in aqueous phosphate solution, its potential was found to be a linear function of pH from pH 2 to 12 with a slope equal to the theoretical value of 59.0 mV per pH unit at 24°. PMID:4516194

  10. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-02-15

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1.

  11. Incorporation in lipid bilayers of a large conductance cationic channel from mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Thieffry, M; Chich, J F; Goldschmidt, D; Henry, J P

    1988-01-01

    Membranes from subcellular fractions of adrenal medulla were incorporated in phospholipid bilayers formed at the tip of microelectrodes. Current fluctuations recorded in the presence of a transmembrane potential revealed the existence of a voltage-dependent channel of large conductance. This channel is characterized by fast kinetics and four conductance levels separated by jumps of 100, 220 and 220 pS in 150 mM NaCl. It is permeant to Na+,K+, tetraethylammonium, Cl- and acetate and has some cation selectivity. Exposure to trypsin or pronase abolished the voltage-dependence. Upon subcellular fractionation, the activity was found to be associated with mitochondria. A similar activity was observed in mitochondrial fractions from other organs. By its kinetics, its selectivity and its potential-dependence, this channel differs from the voltage-dependent anion channel of outer mitochondrial membranes. Images PMID:2457497

  12. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with GSPs inhibited cellular proliferation (13-89%) and induced cell death (1-48%) in a dose (5-100 mug/ml)- and time (24, 48 and 72 h)-dependent manner. GSP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest at 24 h, which was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and simultaneous increase in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki), Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. The treatment of A431 cells with GSPs (20-80 mug/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death (26-58%), which was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the GSP-induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggesting that GSP-induced apoptosis is associated primarily with the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers. PMID:17437483

  13. Calcium Flux across Plant Mitochondrial Membranes: Possible Molecular Players

    PubMed Central

    Carraretto, Luca; Checchetto, Vanessa; De Bortoli, Sara; Formentin, Elide; Costa, Alex; Szabó, Ildikó; Teardo, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, have evolved the ability to integrate external stimuli into metabolic and developmental signals. A wide variety of signals, including abiotic, biotic, and developmental stimuli, were observed to evoke specific spatio-temporal Ca2+ transients which are further transduced by Ca2+ sensor proteins into a transcriptional and metabolic response. Most of the research on Ca2+ signaling in plants has been focused on the transport mechanisms for Ca2+ across the plasma- and the vacuolar membranes as well as on the components involved in decoding of cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals, but how intracellular organelles such as mitochondria are involved in the process of Ca2+ signaling is just emerging. The combination of the molecular players and the elicitors of Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria together with newly generated detection systems for measuring organellar Ca2+ concentrations in plants has started to provide fruitful grounds for further discoveries. In the present review we give an updated overview of the currently identified/hypothesized pathways, such as voltage-dependent anion channels, homologs of the mammalian mitochondrial uniporter (MCU), LETM1, a plant glutamate receptor family member, adenine nucleotide/phosphate carriers and the permeability transition pore (PTP), that may contribute to the transport of Ca2+ across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes in plants. We briefly discuss the relevance of the mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis for ensuring optimal bioenergetic performance of this organelle. PMID:27065186

  14. Calcium Flux across Plant Mitochondrial Membranes: Possible Molecular Players.

    PubMed

    Carraretto, Luca; Checchetto, Vanessa; De Bortoli, Sara; Formentin, Elide; Costa, Alex; Szabó, Ildikó; Teardo, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, have evolved the ability to integrate external stimuli into metabolic and developmental signals. A wide variety of signals, including abiotic, biotic, and developmental stimuli, were observed to evoke specific spatio-temporal Ca(2+) transients which are further transduced by Ca(2+) sensor proteins into a transcriptional and metabolic response. Most of the research on Ca(2+) signaling in plants has been focused on the transport mechanisms for Ca(2+) across the plasma- and the vacuolar membranes as well as on the components involved in decoding of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals, but how intracellular organelles such as mitochondria are involved in the process of Ca(2+) signaling is just emerging. The combination of the molecular players and the elicitors of Ca(2+) signaling in mitochondria together with newly generated detection systems for measuring organellar Ca(2+) concentrations in plants has started to provide fruitful grounds for further discoveries. In the present review we give an updated overview of the currently identified/hypothesized pathways, such as voltage-dependent anion channels, homologs of the mammalian mitochondrial uniporter (MCU), LETM1, a plant glutamate receptor family member, adenine nucleotide/phosphate carriers and the permeability transition pore (PTP), that may contribute to the transport of Ca(2+) across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes in plants. We briefly discuss the relevance of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis for ensuring optimal bioenergetic performance of this organelle. PMID:27065186

  15. Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) induces apoptosis and necrosis mediated cell death through mitochondrial membrane potential damage and elevated production of reactive oxygen species in PLHC-1 fish cell line.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Armistead, Mindy Yeager; Cohenford, Menashi; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Several environmental pollutants, including metals can induce toxicological effect on aquatic animal species. Most studies to understand the toxicity of arsenic compounds were performed in mammalian cells; however, the study of the arsenic toxicity to the aquatic animals' species, including fish, is limited. So the objective of this study was first to investigate the effects of As(2)O(3) induced toxicity particularly on apoptosis and necrosis mediated cell death in fish cell PLHC-1 as compared to the mechanism of toxicity from known mammalian cell lines, secondly to relate in vitro effects in fish to those demonstrated by in vivo systems. To conduct this study, PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various concentrations of As(2)O(3) (0-100 μM) for 10, 20 and 40 h. The results indicate that As(2)O(3) exposure promoted apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death in a concentration and time dependent manner. Cell death (apoptotic and necrotic) induced by As(2)O(3) was further confirmed by changes in various phases of cell cycle, DNA fragmentation (necro- comet and apo-comet) in the comet assay, alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apoptotic mediated cell death was confirmed further by observing the increased caspase-3 activity and elevated expression of p53, cytochrome c and Bax proteins levels in the same experimental conditions. PLHC-1 cells were shown to be a good model for evaluating biochemical/cytotoxic effects following exposure to various reference chemicals and environmental contaminants. In vitro data obtained from this study provides a comprehensive approach for the elucidating the actual molecular mechanism for As(2)O(3) induced toxicity particularly apoptosis and necrosis mediated cell death in PLHC-1 cell line. PMID:23121984

  16. Neuroprotective and neurorestorative potential of propargylamine derivatives in ageing: focus on mitochondrial targets.

    PubMed

    Bar-Am, Orit; Amit, Tamar; Youdim, Moussa B; Weinreb, Orly

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial theory of ageing proposes that accumulation of damage to mitochondrial function and DNA mutation lead to ageing of humans and animals. It has been suggested that mitochondria play dynamic roles in regulating synaptogenesis and morphological/functional responses of synaptic activity, and thus, deteriorating of mitochondrial function (e.g., deficits of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, reduced calcium influx, increased accumulation of mitochondrial DNA defects/apoptotic proteins and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential) can lead to severe neuronal energy deficit, and in the long run, to modifications in neuronal synapses and neurodegeneration in the ageing brain. Hence, considering the mechanisms by which mitochondrial impairment can lead to neuronal death, the development of neuroprotective molecules that target various mitochondrial pathogenic processes can be effective in the treatment of ageing and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This review addresses several aspects of the neuroprotective effects of propargylamine derivatives (e.g., the monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors, selegiline and rasagiline and the multifunctional drugs, ladostigil, M30 and VAR10303) in ageing with a special focus on mitochondrial molecular protective mechanisms. PMID:25859841

  17. Role of the Transmembrane Potential in the Membrane Proton Leak

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Anne; Sokolenko, Elena A.; Beck, Valeri; Ninnemann, Olaf; Jaburek, Martin; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Klishin, Sergey S.; Jezek, Petr; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Pohl, Elena E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane proton conductance (G) is not clearly understood. This study investigates the role of the transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) using planar membranes, reconstituted with purified uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP2) and/or unsaturated FA. We show that high ΔΨm (similar to ΔΨm in mitochondrial State IV) significantly activates the protonophoric function of UCPs in the presence of FA. The proton conductance increases nonlinearly with ΔΨm. The application of ΔΨm up to 220 mV leads to the overriding of the protein inhibition at a constant ATP concentration. Both, the exposure of FA-containing bilayers to high ΔΨm and the increase of FA membrane concentration bring about the significant exponential Gm increase, implying the contribution of FA in proton leak. Quantitative analysis of the energy barrier for the transport of FA anions in the presence and absence of protein suggests that FA− remain exposed to membrane lipids while crossing the UCP-containing membrane. We believe this study shows that UCPs and FA decrease ΔΨm more effectively if it is sufficiently high. Thus, the tight regulation of proton conductance and/or FA concentration by ΔΨm may be key in mitochondrial respiration and metabolism. PMID:20409469

  18. Membrane potential generated by ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Morita, Sachi

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation fully explains membrane potential behavior. The fundamental facet of the GHK equation lies in its consideration of permeability of membrane to ions, when the membrane serves as a separator for separating two electrolytic solutions. The GHK equation describes that: variation of membrane permeability to ion in accordance with ion species results in the variation of the membrane potential. However, nonzero potential was observed even across the impermeable membrane (or separator) separating two electrolytic solutions. It gave rise to a question concerning the validity of the GHK equation for explaining the membrane potential generation. In this work, an alternative theory was proposed. It is the adsorption theory. The adsorption theory attributes the membrane potential generation to the ion adsorption onto the membrane (or separator) surface not to the ion passage through the membrane (or separator). The computationally obtained potential behavior based on the adsorption theory was in good agreement with the experimentally observed potential whether the membrane (or separator) was permeable to ions or not. It was strongly speculated that the membrane potential origin could lie primarily in the ion adsorption on the membrane (or separator) rather than the membrane permeability to ions. It might be necessary to reconsider the origin of membrane potential which has been so far believed explicable by the GHK equation. PMID:24957176

  19. Membrane Potential Generated by Ion Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Morita, Sachi

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation fully explains membrane potential behavior. The fundamental facet of the GHK equation lies in its consideration of permeability of membrane to ions, when the membrane serves as a separator for separating two electrolytic solutions. The GHK equation describes that: variation of membrane permeability to ion in accordance with ion species results in the variation of the membrane potential. However, nonzero potential was observed even across the impermeable membrane (or separator) separating two electrolytic solutions. It gave rise to a question concerning the validity of the GHK equation for explaining the membrane potential generation. In this work, an alternative theory was proposed. It is the adsorption theory. The adsorption theory attributes the membrane potential generation to the ion adsorption onto the membrane (or separator) surface not to the ion passage through the membrane (or separator). The computationally obtained potential behavior based on the adsorption theory was in good agreement with the experimentally observed potential whether the membrane (or separator) was permeable to ions or not. It was strongly speculated that the membrane potential origin could lie primarily in the ion adsorption on the membrane (or separator) rather than the membrane permeability to ions. It might be necessary to reconsider the origin of membrane potential which has been so far believed explicable by the GHK equation. PMID:24957176

  20. Topology of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, F; Corstorphine, C G; Zammit, V A

    1997-01-01

    The topology of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in the outer membrane of rat liver mitochondria was studied using several approaches. 1. The accessibility of the active site and malonyl-CoA-binding site of the enzyme from the cytosolic aspect of the membrane was investigated using preparations of octanoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA immobilized on to agarose beads to render them impermeant through the outer membrane. Both immobilized ligands were fully able to interact effectively with CPT I. 2. The effects of proteinase K and trypsin on the activity and malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I were studied using preparations of mitochondria that were either intact or had their outer membranes ruptured by hypo-osmotic swelling (OMRM). Proteinase K had a marked but similar effect on CPT I activity irrespective of whether only the cytosolic or both sides of the membrane were exposed to it. However, it affected sensitivity more rapidly in OMRM. By contrast, trypsin only reduced CPT I activity when incubated with OMRM. The sensitivity of the residual CPT I activity was unaffected by trypsin. 3. The proteolytic fragments generated by these treatments were studied by Western blotting using three anti-peptide antibodies raised against linear epitopes of CPT I. These showed that a proteinase K-sensitive site close to the N-terminus was accessible from the cytosolic side of the membrane. No trypsin-sensitive sites were accessible in intact mitochondria. In OMRM, both proteinase K and trypsin acted from the inter-membrane space side of the membrane. 4. The ability of intact mitochondria and OMRM to bind to each of the three anti-peptide antibodies was used to study the accessibility of the respective epitopes on the cytosolic and inter-membrane space sides of the membrane. 5. The results of all these approaches indicate that CPT I adopts a bitopic topology within the mitochondrial outer membrane; it has two transmembrane domains, and both the N- and C-termini are exposed on the

  1. Effects of thyroid hormones on inner mitochondrial membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, R; Covello, C; De Cicco, T; Bruno, R; Martino, G

    2001-01-01

    Authors studied the effects of thyroid hormones and their diasteroisomers and 3,5-diiodothyronine (LT2) on the fluidity properties of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) by specifical fluorescent probe for the internal zone of biological membranes, the 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The studied parameters are Arrhenius and Perrin plots. The DPH shows a decreased fluorescence quenching in the presence of both T3 and T4. The maximum effect is observed with 2 nM LT2. LT2 is more effective than LT3 in the central zone. The data confirm the selective action of LT3 and LT4 on IMM fluidity. PMID:11822198

  2. Bacterial Origin of a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase

    PubMed Central

    Harsman, Anke; Niemann, Moritz; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Burmann, Björn M.; Hiller, Sebastian; Meisinger, Chris; Schneider, André; Wagner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are of bacterial ancestry and have to import most of their proteins from the cytosol. This process is mediated by Tom40, an essential protein that forms the protein-translocating pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Tom40 is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes, but its evolutionary origin is unclear because bacterial orthologues have not been identified so far. Recently, it was shown that the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei lacks a conventional Tom40 and instead employs the archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM), a protein that shows similarities to both eukaryotic Tom40 and bacterial protein translocases of the Omp85 family. Here we present electrophysiological single channel data showing that ATOM forms a hydrophilic pore of large conductance and high open probability. Moreover, ATOM channels exhibit a preference for the passage of cationic molecules consistent with the idea that it may translocate unfolded proteins targeted by positively charged N-terminal presequences. This is further supported by the fact that the addition of a presequence peptide induces transient pore closure. An in-depth comparison of these single channel properties with those of other protein translocases reveals that ATOM closely resembles bacterial-type protein export channels rather than eukaryotic Tom40. Our results support the idea that ATOM represents an evolutionary intermediate between a bacterial Omp85-like protein export machinery and the conventional Tom40 that is found in mitochondria of other eukaryotes. PMID:22778261

  3. Polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibits anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines, and induces cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, QUAN; HUO, XUE-CHEN; SUN, FU-DONG; DONG, RUI-QIAN

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive types of human malignancy, which has an overall 5-year survival rate of <2%. PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in the western world. At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from Salvia chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of five cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) were evaluated in MiapaCa-2 human PC cells. The effects of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution and ΛΨm were assessed by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and rhodamine-123 DNA-binding fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy, using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as a staining agent, was performed in order to detect the morphological changes of the MiapaCa-2 cancer cells and the presence of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract. The results of the present study demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich extract from S. chinensis induced potent cytotoxicity in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT-116 and COLO 205 human colon cancer cells, and MiapaCa-2 human PC cells. The COLO 205 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, which exhibited increased rate of growth inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and detected the appearance of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract in the PC cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and

  4. Interaction of fullerene nanoparticles with biomembranes: from the partition in lipid membranes to effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sandra M; Dinis, Augusto M; Peixoto, Francisco; Ferreira, Lino; Jurado, Amália S; Videira, Romeu A

    2014-03-01

    Partition and localization of C60 and its derivative C60(OH)18-22 in lipid membranes and their impact on mitochondrial activity were studied, attempting to correlate those events with fullerene characteristics (size, surface chemistry, and surface charge). Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that C60(OH)18-22 preferentially populated the outer regions of the bilayer, whereas C60 preferred to localize in deeper regions of the bilayer. Partition coefficient values indicated that C60 exhibited higher affinity for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and mitochondrial membranes than C60(OH)18-22. Both fullerenes affected the mitochondrial function, but the inhibitory effects promoted by C60 were more pronounced than those induced by C60(OH)18-22 (up to 20 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein). State 3 and p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-uncoupled respirations are inhibited by both fullerenes when glutamate/malate or succinate was used as substrate. Phosphorylation system and electron transport chain of mitochondria are affected by both fullerenes, but only C60 increased the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability to protons, suggesting perturbations in the structure and dynamics of that membrane. At concentrations of C60(OH)18-22 above 20 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein, the activity of FoF1-ATP synthase was also decreased. The evaluation of transmembrane potential showed that the mitochondria phosphorylation cycle decreased upon adenosine diphosphate addition with increasing fullerenes concentration and the time of the repolarization phase increased as a function of C60(OH)18-22 concentration. Our results suggest that the balance between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity resulting from the surface chemistry of fullerene nanoparticles, rather than the cluster size or the surface charge acquired by fullerenes in water, influences their membrane interactions and consequently their effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:24361870

  5. Membrane potential and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Brackenbury, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane potential (Vm), the voltage across the plasma membrane, arises because of the presence of different ion channels/transporters with specific ion selectivity and permeability. Vm is a key biophysical signal in non-excitable cells, modulating important cellular activities, such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the multiplicities of various ion channels/transporters expressed on different cells are finely tuned in order to regulate the Vm. It is well-established that cancer cells possess distinct bioelectrical properties. Notably, electrophysiological analyses in many cancer cell types have revealed a depolarized Vm that favors cell proliferation. Ion channels/transporters control cell volume and migration, and emerging data also suggest that the level of Vm has functional roles in cancer cell migration. In addition, hyperpolarization is necessary for stem cell differentiation. For example, both osteogenesis and adipogenesis are hindered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under depolarizing conditions. Therefore, in the context of cancer, membrane depolarization might be important for the emergence and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), giving rise to sustained tumor growth. This review aims to provide a broad understanding of the Vm as a bioelectrical signal in cancer cells by examining several key types of ion channels that contribute to its regulation. The mechanisms by which Vm regulates cancer cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation will be discussed. In the long term, Vm might be a valuable clinical marker for tumor detection with prognostic value, and could even be artificially modified in order to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:23882223

  6. Effect of sphingosine on Ca2+ entry and mitochondrial potential of Jurkat T cells--interaction with Bcl2.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Georg Richard; Lang, Florian; Lepple-Wienhues, Albrecht

    2005-01-01

    Triggers of Jurkat T cell apoptosis include sphingosine and ceramide. Sphingosine and ceramide further inhibit capacitative Ca2+ entry (ICRAC), an effect leading to inactivation but not death of Jurkat T cells. Mitochondria are key organelles in the machinery leading to apoptosis and on the other hand have been shown to participate in the regulation of Ca2+ entry. The present experiments were performed to explore whether treatment of Jurkat T cells with sphingosine leads to apoptosis and reduced Ca2+ entry and whether those effects are sensitive to expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2, localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Exposure of Jurkat T cells to 10 microM spingosine was according to DiOC6 fluorescence followed by mitochondrial depolarization and according to Fura-red/Fluo-3 fluorescence followed by decreased capacitative Ca2+ entry. Mitochondrial depolarization was significantly delayed in cells overexpressing wild type Bcl2 or Bcl2 targeted to the mitochondrial membrane, whereas no significant influence on mitochondrial depolarization was observed in cells expressing Bcl2 lacking the membrane targeting motif or Bcl2 targeted to the endoplasmatic reticulum. In contrast to mitochondrial potential, the blunting of capacitative Ca2+ entry following sphingosine treatment was not sensitive to mitochondrial Bcl2 expression. In conclusion sphingosine exposure leads to both, mitochondrial depolarization and inhibition of capacitative Ca2+ entry. Mitochondrial Bcl2 reverses the effect on mitochondria but not on Ca2+ entry and thus leads to dissociation of those two sequelae of sphingosine treatment. PMID:16121028

  7. Liquid membrane potential in nonisothermal systems.

    PubMed Central

    Scibona, G; Fabiani, C; Scuppa, B; Danesi, P R

    1976-01-01

    Electrical membrane potential equations for liquid ion exchange membranes, characterized by the presence of uncharged associated species and by exclusion of co-ions (no electrolyte uptake) have been derived. The irreversible thermodynamic theories already developed for solid membranes with fixed charged site density have been extended to include the different physicochemical aspects of the liquid membranes. To this purpose the dissipation function has been written with reference to the fluxes of all the species present in the membrane. It has been found that the mobile charged site, the counterions, and the uncharged associated species contribute to the electrical membrane potential through their phenomenological coefficients. The electrical membrane potential equations have been integrated in isothermal and nonisothermal conditions for monoionic and biionic systems. The theoretical predictions have been experimentally tested by studying the electrical potential of liquid membranes formed with solutions of tetraheptylammonium salts in omicron-dichlorobenzene. PMID:1276391

  8. Regulation of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion: divergent evolution with similar solutions?

    PubMed

    Wagener, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Continuous mitochondrial fusion and fission define the dynamic shape of mitochondria. One essential player of mitochondrial fusion is the conserved inner membrane dynamin-like GTPase Mgm1/OPA1. Limited proteolysis of this protein has been proposed as a mechanism to separate and subsequently eliminate dysfunctional parts from the mitochondrial network. Here, I briefly summarize our current knowledge about the underlying proteolytic processing steps in mammals, baker's yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Aspergillus fumigatus. The apparent great diversity in Mgm1/OPA1 processing among the analyzed species indicates a surprising mechanistic heterogeneity in the regulation of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion. PMID:26613727

  9. Melatonin: A Potential Anti-Oxidant Therapeutic Agent for Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Tanveer Ali; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Dar, Khalid B; Anees, Suhail; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Masood, Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in cellular physiology. Besides their classic function of energy metabolism, mitochondria are involved in multiple cell functions, including energy distribution through the cell, energy/heat modulation, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium homeostasis, and control of apoptosis. Simultaneously, mitochondria are the main producer and target of ROS with the result that multiple mitochondrial diseases are related to ROS-induced mitochondrial injuries. Increased free radical generation, enhanced mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production, decreased respiratory complex activity, impaired electron transport system, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores have all been suggested as factors responsible for impaired mitochondrial function. Because of these, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and aging, are caused by ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, also acts as an anti-oxidant and as a regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin is selectively taken up by mitochondrial membranes, a function not shared by other anti-oxidants, and thus has emerged as a major potential therapeutic tool for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Multiple in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown the protective role of melatonin for preventing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction seen in experimental models of PD, AD, and HD. With these functions in mind, this article reviews the protective role of melatonin with mechanistic insights against mitochondrial diseases and suggests new avenues for safe and effective treatment modalities against these devastating neurodegenerative diseases. Future insights are also discussed. PMID:26087000

  10. Mitochondrial membrane lipids in life and death and their molecular modulation by diet: tuning the furnace.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, João P; Morais, Catarina M; Oliveira, Paulo J; Jurado, Amália S

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of mitochondria as cell powerhouses is a matter of common knowledge, but the overall view of these extraordinary organelles has been revolutionized in the last years. In fact, a large number of important and diverse processes take place at the mitochondrial level, which clearly surpass the energy production scope, intruding the critical fragile balance between cell life and death. The entangled biochemistry of mitochondrial membranes has been found to be dependent on specific lipid requirements, with cardiolipin holding a great part of the raised functional interest. Mitochondria contain a complex membrane system, based on a variety of lipids and exquisite asymmetries. Mitochondria lipid membrane composition depends on a tight interplay with the endoplasmic reticulum, from which some of the lipids present in the mitochondrial membranes have to be imported, at least in the form of precursors. Here, we review some external interventions resulting in alterations of mitochondrial lipid content, namely dietary interventions and genetic manipulation. Such manipulations of mitochondrial membrane lipid composition should result in physiological impact, given the importance of lipid-protein interactions within the mitochondrial membrane boundaries. We provide arguments for future experiments using the most modern chemical and biophysical approaches as well as computer simulation studies applied to appropriate biological membrane model systems, in order to identify the effects exerted by diet-induced lipid changes on membrane physical properties. PMID:24953065

  11. Human Mitochondrial DNA-Protein Complexes Attach to a Cholesterol-Rich Membrane Structure

    PubMed Central

    Gerhold, Joachim M.; Cansiz-Arda, Şirin; Lõhmus, Madis; Engberg, Oskar; Reyes, Aurelio; van Rennes, Helga; Sanz, Alberto; Holt, Ian J.; Cooper, Helen M.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    The helicase Twinkle is indispensable for mtDNA replication in nucleoids. Previously, we showed that Twinkle is tightly membrane-associated even in the absence of mtDNA, which suggests that Twinkle is part of a membrane-attached replication platform. Here we show that this platform is a cholesterol-rich membrane structure. We fractionated mitochondrial membrane preparations on flotation gradients and show that membrane-associated nucleoids accumulate at the top of the gradient. This fraction was shown to be highly enriched in cholesterol, a lipid that is otherwise low abundant in mitochondria. In contrast, more common mitochondrial lipids, and abundant inner-membrane associated proteins concentrated in the bottom-half of these gradients. Gene silencing of ATAD3, a protein with proposed functions related to nucleoid and mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis, modified the distribution of cholesterol and nucleoids in the gradient in an identical fashion. Both cholesterol and ATAD3 were previously shown to be enriched in ER-mitochondrial junctions, and we detect nucleoid components in biochemical isolates of these structures. Our data suggest an uncommon membrane composition that accommodates platforms for replicating mtDNA, and reconcile apparently disparate functions of ATAD3. We suggest that mtDNA replication platforms are organized in connection with ER-mitochondrial junctions, facilitated by a specialized membrane architecture involving mitochondrial cholesterol. PMID:26478270

  12. Dietary lipid quality and mitochondrial membrane composition in trout: responses of membrane enzymes and oxidative capacities.

    PubMed

    Martin, N; Bureau, D P; Marty, Y; Kraffe, E; Guderley, H

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether membrane fatty acid (FA) composition has a greater impact upon specific components of oxidative phosphorylation or on overall properties of muscle mitochondria, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed two diets differing only in FA composition. Diet 1 was enriched in 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 while Diet 2 was enriched in 22:6n-3. The FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids was strongly affected by diet. 22:6n-3 levels were twice as high (49%) in mitochondrial phospholipids of fish fed Diet 2 than in those fed Diet 1. 18:2n-6 content of the phospholipids also followed the diets, whereas 18:1n-9 changed little. All n-6 FA, most notably 22:5n-6, were significantly higher in fish fed Diet 1. Nonetheless, total saturated FA, total monounsaturated FA and total polyunsaturated FA in mitochondrial phospholipids varied little. Despite a marked impact of diet on specific FA levels in mitochondrial phospholipids, only non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates were higher in fish fed Diet 2. Phosphorylating rates (state 3), oxygen consumption due to flux through the electron transport chain complexes as well as the corresponding spectrophotometric activities did not differ with diet. Body mass affected state 4 rates and cytochrome c oxidase and F 0 F 1 ATPase activities while complex I showed a diet-specific effect of body mass. Only the minor FA that were affected by body mass were correlated with functional properties. The regulated incorporation of dietary FA into phospholipids seems to allow fish to maintain critical membrane functions even when the lipid quality of their diets varies considerably, as is likely in their natural environment. PMID:23052948

  13. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    PubMed

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, <0.9). For the first time, we have demonstrated that mitochondrial MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β. PMID:26722004

  14. Selective sorting and destruction of mitochondrial membrane proteins in aged yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Adam L; Hughes, Casey E; Henderson, Kiersten A; Yazvenko, Nina; Gottschling, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, and underlies the development of many diseases. Cells maintain mitochondrial homeostasis through a number of pathways that remodel the mitochondrial proteome or alter mitochondrial content during times of stress or metabolic adaptation. Here, using yeast as a model system, we identify a new mitochondrial degradation system that remodels the mitochondrial proteome of aged cells. Unlike many common mitochondrial degradation pathways, this system selectively removes a subset of membrane proteins from the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes, while leaving the remainder of the organelle intact. Selective removal of preexisting proteins is achieved by sorting into a mitochondrial-derived compartment, or MDC, followed by release through mitochondrial fission and elimination by autophagy. Formation of MDCs requires the import receptors Tom70/71, and failure to form these structures exacerbates preexisting mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the MDC pathway provides protection to mitochondria in times of stress. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13943.001 PMID:27097106

  15. Interaction of MDM33 with mitochondrial inner membrane homeostasis pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Klecker, Till; Wemmer, Megan; Haag, Mathias; Weig, Alfons; Böckler, Stefan; Langer, Thomas; Nunnari, Jodi; Westermann, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Membrane homeostasis affects mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and function. Here we report genetic and proteomic data that reveal multiple interactions of Mdm33, a protein essential for normal mitochondrial structure, with components of phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial inner membrane homeostasis. We screened for suppressors of MDM33 overexpression-induced growth arrest and isolated binding partners by immunoprecipitation of cross-linked cell extracts. These approaches revealed genetic and proteomic interactions of Mdm33 with prohibitins, Phb1 and Phb2, which are key components of mitochondrial inner membrane homeostasis. Lipid profiling by mass spectrometry of mitochondria isolated from Mdm33-overexpressing cells revealed that high levels of Mdm33 affect the levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin, the two key inner membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, we show that cells lacking Mdm33 show strongly decreased mitochondrial fission activity indicating that Mdm33 is critical for mitochondrial membrane dynamics. Our data suggest that MDM33 functionally interacts with components important for inner membrane homeostasis and thereby supports mitochondrial division. PMID:26669658

  16. Mitochondrial matrix delivery using MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier that specifies fusion with mitochondrial membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondria are the principal producers of energy in cells of higher organisms. It was recently reported that mutations and defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with various mitochondrial diseases including a variety of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Therefore, an effective mitochondrial gene therapy and diagnosis would be expected to have great medical benefits. To achieve this, therapeutic agents need to be delivered into the innermost mitochondrial space (mitochondrial matrix), which contains the mtDNA pool. We previously reported on the development of MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier that introduces macromolecular cargos into mitochondria via membrane fusion. In this study, we provide a demonstration of mitochondrial matrix delivery and the visualization of mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) in living cells using the MITO-Porter. We first prepared MITO-Porter containing encapsulated propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent dye used to stain nucleic acids to detect mtDNA. We then confirmed the emission of red-fluorescence from PI by conjugation with mtDNA, when the carriers were incubated in the presence of isolated rat liver mitochondria. Finally, intracellular observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy clearly verified that the MITO-Porter delivered PI to the mitochondrial matrix.

  17. Label-Free Imaging of Membrane Potential Using Membrane Electromotility

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seungeun; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid; Fu, Dan; Park, YongKeun; Dassari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical activity may cause observable changes in a cell's structure in the absence of exogenous reporter molecules. In this work, we report a low-coherence interferometric microscopy technique that can detect an optical signal correlated with the membrane potential changes in individual mammalian cells without exogenous labels. By measuring milliradian-scale phase shifts in the transmitted light, we can detect changes in the cells' membrane potential. We find that the observed optical signals are due to membrane electromotility, which causes the cells to deform in response to the membrane potential changes. We demonstrate wide-field imaging of the propagation of electrical stimuli in gap-junction-coupled cell networks. Membrane electromotility-induced cell deformation may be useful as a reporter of electrical activity. PMID:22828327

  18. The Taz1p transacylase is imported and sorted into the outer mitochondrial membrane via a membrane anchor domain.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Jenny D; Claypool, Steven M; Koehler, Carla M

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial transacylase tafazzin, Taz1p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause Barth syndrome, a disease of defective cardiolipin remodeling. Taz1p is an interfacial membrane protein that localizes to both the outer and inner membranes, lining the intermembrane space. Pathogenic point mutations in Taz1p that alter import and membrane insertion result in accumulation of monolysocardiolipin. In this study, we used yeast as a model to investigate the biogenesis of Taz1p. We show that to achieve this unique topology in mitochondria, Taz1p follows a novel import pathway in which it crosses the outer membrane via the translocase of the outer membrane and then uses the Tim9p-Tim10p complex of the intermembrane space to insert into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Taz1p is then transported to membranes of an intermediate density to reach a location in the inner membrane. Moreover, a pathogenic mutation within the membrane anchor (V224R) alters Taz1p import so that it bypasses the Tim9p-Tim10p complex and interacts with the translocase of the inner membrane, TIM23, to reach the matrix. Critical targeting information for Taz1p resides in the membrane anchor and flanking sequences, which are often mutated in Barth syndrome patients. These studies suggest that altering the mitochondrial import pathway of Taz1p may be important in understanding the molecular basis of Barth syndrome. PMID:24078306

  19. The Liver Connexin32 Interactome Is a Novel Plasma Membrane-Mitochondrial Signaling Nexus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Connexins are the structural subunits of gap junctions and act as protein platforms for signaling complexes. Little is known about tissue-specific connexin signaling nexuses, given significant challenges associated with affinity-purifying endogenous channel complexes to the level required for interaction analyses. Here, we used multiple subcellular fractionation techniques to isolate connexin32-enriched membrane microdomains from murine liver. We show, for the first time, that connexin32 localizes to both the plasma membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane of hepatocytes. Using a combination of immunoprecipitation-high throughput mass spectrometry, reciprocal co-IP, and subcellular fractionation methodologies, we report a novel interactome validated using null mutant controls. Eighteen connexin32 interacting proteins were identified. The majority represent resident mitochondrial proteins, a minority represent plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, or cytoplasmic partners. In particular, connexin32 interacts with connexin26 and the mitochondrial protein, sideroflexin-1, at the plasma membrane. Connexin32 interaction enhances connexin26 stability. Converging bioinformatic, biochemical, and confocal analyses support a role for connexin32 in transiently tethering mitochondria to connexin32-enriched plasma membrane microdomains through interaction with proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane, including sideroflexin-1. Complex formation increases the pool of sideroflexin-1 that is present at the plasma membrane. Together, these data identify a novel plasma membrane/mitochondrial signaling nexus in the connexin32 interactome. PMID:23590695

  20. Authentic In Vitro Replication of Two Tombusviruses in Isolated Mitochondrial and Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Tyng-Shyan

    2012-01-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses takes place on membranous structures derived from various organelles in infected cells. Previous works with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) revealed the recruitment of either peroxisomal or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes for replication. In case of Carnation Italian ringspot tombusvirus (CIRV), the mitochondrial membranes supported CIRV replication. In this study, we developed ER and mitochondrion-based in vitro tombusvirus replication assays. Using purified recombinant TBSV and CIRV replication proteins, we showed that TBSV could use the purified yeast ER and mitochondrial preparations for complete viral RNA replication, while CIRV preferentially replicated in the mitochondrial membranes. The viral RNA became partly RNase resistant after ∼40 to 60 min of incubation in the purified ER and mitochondrial preparations, suggesting that assembly of TBSV and CIRV replicases could take place in the purified ER and mitochondrial membranes in vitro. Using chimeric and heterologous combinations of replication proteins, we showed that multiple domains within the replication proteins are involved in determining the efficiency of tombusvirus replication in the two subcellular membranes. Altogether, we demonstrated that TBSV is less limited while CIRV is more restricted in utilizing various intracellular membranes for replication. Overall, the current work provides evidence that tombusvirus replication could occur in vitro in isolated subcellular membranes, suggesting that tombusviruses have the ability to utilize alternative organellar membranes during infection that could increase the chance of mixed virus replication and rapid evolution during coinfection. PMID:22973028

  1. VDAC electronics: 2. A new, anaerobic mechanism of generation of the membrane potentials in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial hexokinase (HK) and creatine kinase (CK) known to form complexes with a voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) have been reported to increase cell death resistance under hypoxia/anoxia. In this work we propose a new, non-Mitchell mechanism of generation of the inner and outer membrane potentials at anaerobic conditions. The driving force is provided by the Gibbs free energy of the HK and CK reactions associated with the VDAC-HK and the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator)-CK-VDAC complexes, respectively, both functioning as voltage generators. In the absence of oxygen, the cytosolic creatine phosphate can be directly used by the ANT-CK-VDAC contact sites to produce ATP from ADP in the mitochondrial matrix. After that, ATP released through the fraction of unbound ANTs in exchange for ADP is used in the mitochondrial intermembrane space by the outer membrane VDAC-HK electrogenic complexes to convert cytosolic glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. A simple computational model based on the application of Ohm's law to an equivalent electrical circuit showed a possibility of generation of the inner membrane potential up to -160mV, under certain conditions, and of relatively high outer membrane potential without wasting of ATP that normally leads to cell death. The calculated membrane potentials depended on the restriction of ATP/ADP diffusion in narrow cristae and through the cristae junctions. We suggest that high inner membrane potential and calcium extrusion from the mitochondrial intermembrane space by generated positive outer membrane potential prevent mitochondrial permeability transition, thus allowing the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and cell survival in the absence of oxygen. PMID:24565793

  2. Inhibition of mitochondrial membrane permeability as a putative pharmacological target for cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Didier; Assaly, Rana; Paradis, Stéphanie; Berdeaux, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. To date, the only treatment of complete ischemia is to restore blood flow; thus the search for new cardioprotective approaches is absolutely necessary to reduce the mortality associated with myocardial ischemia. Ischemia has long been considered to result in necrotic tissue damage but the reduction in oxygen supply can also lead to apoptosis. Therefore, in the last few years, mitochondria have become the subject of growing interest in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion since they are strongly involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Indeed, during ischemia-reperfusion, pathological signals converge in the mitochondria to induce permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Two classes of mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, emerged to explain mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. The first occurs via a non-specific channel known as the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the inner and the outer membranes causing disruption of the impermeability of the inner membrane, and ultimately complete inhibition of mitochondrial function. The second mechanism, involving only the outer membrane, induces the release of cell death effectors. Thus, drugs able to block or to limit mitochondrial membrane permeabilization may be cytoprotective during ischemia-reperfusion. The objective of this review is to examine the pharmacological strategies capable of inhibiting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:19835566

  3. Reconstitution of the native mitochondrial outer membrane in planar bilayers. Comparison with the outer membrane in a patch pipette and effect of aluminum compounds.

    PubMed

    Mirzabekov, T; Ballarin, C; Nicolini, M; Zatta, P; Sorgato, M C

    1993-04-01

    Detergent-free rat brain outer mitochondrial membranes were incorporated in planar lipid bilayers in the presence of an osmotic gradient, and studied at high (1 M KCl) and low (150 mM KCl) ionic strength solutions. By comparison, the main outer mitochondrial membrane protein, VDAC, extracted from rat liver with Triton X-100, was also studied in 150 mM KCl. In 1 M KCl, brain outer membranes gave rise to electrical patterns which resembled very closely those widely described for detergent-extracted VDAC, with transitions to several subconducting states upon increase of the potential difference, and sensitivity to polyanion. The potential dependence of the conductance of the outer membrane, however, was steeper and the extent of closure higher than that observed previously for rat brain VDAC. In 150 mM KCl, bilayers containing only one channel had a conductance of 700 +/- 23 pS for rat brain outer membranes, and 890 +/- 29 pS for rat liver VDAC. Use of a fast time resolution setup allowed demonstration of open-close transitions in the millisecond range, which were independent of the salt concentration and of the protein origin. We also found that a potential difference higher than approx. +/- 60 mV induced an almost irreversible decrease of the single channel conductance to few percentages of the full open state and a change in the ionic selectivity. These results show that the behavior of the outer mitochondrial membrane in planar bilayers is close to that detected with the patch clamp (Moran et al., 1992, Eur. Biophys. J. 20:311-319). The neurotoxicological action of aluminum was studied in single outer membrane channels from rat brain mitochondria. We found that microM concentrations of Al Cl3 and aluminum lactate decreased the conductance by about 50%, when the applied potential difference was positive relative to the side of the metal addition. PMID:7685821

  4. HIV-1 Tat protein directly induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and inactivates cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Lecoeur, H; Borgne-Sanchez, A; Chaloin, O; El-Khoury, R; Brabant, M; Langonné, A; Porceddu, M; Brière, J-J; Buron, N; Rebouillat, D; Péchoux, C; Deniaud, A; Brenner, C; Briand, J-P; Muller, S; Rustin, P; Jacotot, E

    2012-01-01

    The Trans-activator protein (Tat) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a pleiotropic protein involved in different aspects of AIDS pathogenesis. As a number of viral proteins Tat is suspected to disturb mitochondrial function. We prepared pure synthetic full-length Tat by native chemical ligation (NCL), and Tat peptides, to evaluate their direct effects on isolated mitochondria. Submicromolar doses of synthetic Tat cause a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) as well as cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, heart, and brain. Accordingly, Tat decreases substrate oxidation by mitochondria isolated from these tissues, with oxygen uptake being initially restored by adding cytochrome c. The anion-channel inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) protects isolated mitochondria against Tat-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), whereas ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor blocker, does not. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the permeability transition pore, Bax/Bak inhibitors, and recombinant Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins do not reduce Tat-induced MMP. We finally observed that Tat inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in disrupted mitochondria isolated from liver, heart, and brain of both mouse and human samples, making it the first described viral protein to be a potential COX inhibitor. PMID:22419111

  5. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  6. Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis by depolarizing mitochondrial membranes in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae In; Lim, Soon Sung; Choi, Hyun Ju; Cho, Han Jin; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Eun Ji; Chung, Won-Yoon; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2006-10-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a simple chalcone derivative, 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone, found in licorice, shallot and bean sprouts, has been reported to have chemoprotective effects. To examine the effects of ISL on the growth of prostate cancer cells, we cultured MAT-LyLu (MLL) rat and DU145 human prostate cancer cells with various concentrations (0-20 micromol/L) of ISL. Treatment of the cells with increasing concentrations of ISL led to dose-dependent decreases in the viable cell numbers in both DU145 and MLL cells (P<.05). Hoechst 33258 dye staining of condensed nuclei and annexin V binding to surface phosphatidylserine revealed increased numbers of apoptotic cells after ISL treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that ISL increased the levels of membrane-bound Fas ligand (FasL), Fas, cleaved casapse-8, truncated Bid (tBid), Bax and Bad in DU145 cells (P<.05). Isoliquiritigenin increased the percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondrial membranes, in a concentration-dependent manner (P<.05). Isoliquiritigenin induced the release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm (P<.05). Isoliquiritigenin dose-dependently increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (P<.05). The present results indicate that ISL inhibits prostate cancer cell growth by the induction of apoptosis, which is mediated through mitochondrial events, which are associated with an evident disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo, and the activation of caspase-9. PMID:16517140

  7. Identification of a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Kenwood, Brandon M; Weaver, Janelle L; Bajwa, Amandeep; Poon, Ivan K; Byrne, Frances L; Murrow, Beverley A; Calderone, Joseph A; Huang, Liping; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Tomsig, Jose L; Okabe, Kohki; Lo, Ryan H; Cameron Coleman, G; Columbus, Linda; Yan, Zhen; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Smith, Jeffrey S; Holmes, Jeffrey W; Lynch, Kevin R; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Santos, Webster L; Rogers, George W; Okusa, Mark D; Bayliss, Douglas A; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2014-04-01

    Dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation is associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and some of the most prevalent human diseases including obesity, cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and heart disease. Chemical 'mitochondrial uncouplers' are lipophilic weak acids that transport protons into the mitochondrial matrix via a pathway that is independent of ATP synthase, thereby uncoupling nutrient oxidation from ATP production. Mitochondrial uncouplers also lessen the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane and thereby increase the rate of mitochondrial respiration while decreasing production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, mitochondrial uncouplers are valuable chemical tools that enable the measurement of maximal mitochondrial respiration and they have been used therapeutically to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. However, the most widely used protonophore uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have off-target activity at other membranes that lead to a range of undesired effects including plasma membrane depolarization, mitochondrial inhibition, and cytotoxicity. These unwanted properties interfere with the measurement of mitochondrial function and result in a narrow therapeutic index that limits their usefulness in the clinic. To identify new mitochondrial uncouplers that lack off-target activity at the plasma membrane we screened a small molecule chemical library. Herein we report the identification and validation of a novel mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler (2-fluorophenyl){6-[(2-fluorophenyl)amino](1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-5-yl)}amine, named BAM15, that does not depolarize the plasma membrane. Compared to FCCP, an uncoupler of equal potency, BAM15 treatment of cultured cells stimulates a higher maximum rate of mitochondrial respiration and is less cytotoxic. Furthermore, BAM15 is bioactive in vivo and dose

  8. Effects of high ambient temperature on fish sperm plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity - A flow cytometric study.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Szabolcs Tamás; Kakasi, Balázs; Pál, László; Havasi, Máté; Bercsényi, Miklós; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    Local extreme climatic conditions occurring as a result of global climate change may interfere with the reproduction of animals. In the present study fish spermatozoa were incubated at different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 40 °C) for 10 and 30 minutes, respectively and plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential changes were evaluated with flow cytometry using SYBR-14/PI and Mitotracker Deep Red FM fluorescent dyes. No significant differences were found in plasma membrane integrity at either incubation temperatures or time points. Mitotracker Deep Red FM histogram profiles indicating mitochondrial activity showed significant (p < 0.001) alterations in all cases of higher (25, 30 and 40 °C) temperature treatments as compared to the samples incubated at 20 °C. Our results indicate that fish spermatozoa exposed to high temperatures suffer sublethal damage that cannot be detected with conventional, vital staining techniques. PMID:27165524

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase in Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suman; Mishra, Rajnikant

    2016-05-01

    The two predominant forms of arginase, cytosolic Arginase-I and mitochondrial Arginase-II, catalyze hydrolysis of arginine into ornithine and urea. Based on presence of arginase activity in extracts using potassium chloride (KCl), mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been suggested. However, the activity of arginase in fractions obtained after KCl-treatment may be either due to leakage of mitochondrial arginase or release of adhered cytosolic arginase to cell organelles having altered net charge. Therefore, it has been intended to analyse impact of KCl on ultra-structural properties of mitochondria, and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial membrane-bound proteins and arginase of Heteropneustes fossilis. Liver of H. fossilis was used for isolating mitochondria for analysis of ultrastructural properties, preparing cytosolic, mitochondrial, and mitochondrial-membrane bound extracts after treatment of KCl. Extracts were analysed for arginase activity assay, protein profiling through SDS-PAGE and MALDI MS/MS. The KCl-mediated modulation in polypeptides and arginase were also evaluated by PANTHER, MitoProt and IPSORT servers. The effects of KCl on ultra-structural integrity of mitochondria, activity of arginase, modulation on mitochondrial proteins and enzymes including arginase were observed. The 48 kDa polypeptide of mitochondrial fraction, that showed KCl-dependent alteration matched with Myb binding protein and 30 kDa bands resembles to arginase after MALDI MS/MS analysis. Results indicate KCl-dependent ultrastructural changes in mitochondria and release of mitochondrial arginase. The proposed membrane bound mitochondrial arginase could be mitochondrial arginase-II or altered form of cytosolic arginase-I contributing to KCl-induced arginase activity in H. fossilis. PMID:26922180

  10. Membrane potential and surface potential in mitochondria: uptake and binding of lipophilic cations.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, H

    1984-01-01

    The uptake and binding of the lipophilic cations ethidium+, tetraphenylphosphonium+ (TPP+), triphenylmethylphosphonium+ (TPMP+), and tetraphenylarsonium+ (TPA+) in rat liver mitochondria and submitochondrial particles were investigated. The effects of membrane potential, surface potentials and cation concentration on the uptake and binding were elucidated. The accumulation of these cations by mitochondria is described by an uptake and binding to the matrix face of the inner membrane in addition to the binding to the cytosolic face of the inner membrane. The apparent partition coefficients between the external medium and the cytosolic surface of the inner membrane (K'o) and the internal matrix volume and matrix face of the inner membrane (K'i) were determined and were utilized to estimate the membrane potential delta psi from the cation accumulation factor Rc according to the relation delta psi = RT/ZF ln [(RcVo - K'o)/(Vi + K'i)] where Vo and Vi are the volume of the external medium and the mitochondrial matrix, respectively, and Rc is the ratio of the cation content of the mitochondria and the medium. The values of delta psi estimated from this equation are in remarkably good agreement with those estimated from the distribution of 86Rb in the presence of valinomycin. The results are discussed in relation to studies in which the membrane potential in mitochondria and bacterial cells was estimated from the distribution of lipophilic cations. PMID:6492133

  11. Membrane translocation of mitochondrially coded Cox2p: distinct requirements for export of N and C termini and dependence on the conserved protein Oxa1p.

    PubMed Central

    He, S; Fox, T D

    1997-01-01

    To study in vivo the export of mitochondrially synthesized protein from the matrix to the intermembrane space, we have fused a synthetic mitochondrial gene, ARG8m, to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae COX2 gene in mitochondrial DNA. The Arg8mp moiety was translocated through the inner membrane when fused to the Cox2p C terminus by a mechanism dependent on topogenic information at least partially contained within the exported Cox2p C-terminal tail. The pre-Cox2p leader peptide did not signal translocation. Export of the Cox2p C-terminal tail, but not the N-terminal tail, was dependent on the inner membrane potential. The mitochondrial export system does not closely resemble the bacterial Sec translocase. However, normal translocation of both exported domains of Cox2p was defective in cells lacking the widely conserved inner membrane protein Oxa1p. Images PMID:9285818

  12. How does the TOM complex mediate insertion of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane?

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron

    2005-01-01

    A multisubunit translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) mediates both the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins into the internal compartments of the organelle and the insertion of proteins residing in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The proposed β-barrel structure of Tom40, the pore-forming component of the translocase, raises the question of how the apparent uninterrupted β-barrel topology can be compatible with a role of Tom40 in releasing membrane proteins into the lipid core of the bilayer. In this review, I discuss insertion mechanisms of proteins into the outer membrane and present alternative models based on the opening of a multisubunit β-barrel TOM structure or on the interaction of outer membrane precursors with the outer face of the Tom40 β-barrel structure. PMID:16260501

  13. Toxoplasma gondii ROP18: potential to manipulate host cell mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Yunhui; Liu, Yuan; Su, Danhua; Fu, Tao; Guo, Fei; Gu, Liangping; Jiang, Xugan; Chen, Shengxia; Cao, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that may manipulate host cell mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. In our experiment, 293T cells were transfected with the p3×FLAG-CMV-Myc-ROP18 vector and expressed the ROP18-Myc fusion protein. Cell apoptosis was induced by 0.5 μg/mL actinomycin D (ActD) and was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. The cell mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by JC-1. Cytochrome c (Cyto-c) from mitochondria and the cytoplasm was measured by Western blot. The Bcl-2 and Bax coding gene expression levels were detected by real-time PCR. We found, in vitro, that T. gondii ROP18 significantly suppressed 293T cell apoptosis induced by ActD and maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and integrity, thereby preventing the release of Cyto-c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in ROP18-overexpressing cells was significantly higher than that of the negative control. Therefore, we speculate that ROP18 could suppress host cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in vitro. PMID:27021182

  14. Mitochondrial AAA proteases--towards a molecular understanding of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Florian; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial AAA proteases play an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. They regulate and promote biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins by acting as processing enzymes and ensuring the selective turnover of misfolded proteins. Impairment of AAA proteases causes pleiotropic defects in various organisms including neurodegeneration in humans. AAA proteases comprise ring-like hexameric complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are functionally conserved from yeast to man, but variations are evident in the subunit composition of orthologous enzymes. Recent structural and biochemical studies revealed how AAA proteases degrade their substrates in an ATP dependent manner. Intersubunit coordination of the ATP hydrolysis leads to an ordered ATP hydrolysis within the AAA ring, which ensures efficient substrate dislocation from the membrane and translocation to the proteolytic chamber. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the versatile functions of mitochondrial AAA proteases and their relevance to those of the other AAA+ machines. PMID:22001671

  15. Calpeptin, not calpain, directly inhibits an ion channel of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Derksen, Maria; Vorwerk, Christian; Siemen, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The permeability transition pore (PTP) of inner mitochondrial membranes is a large conductance pathway for ions up to 1500 Da which opening is responsible for ion equilibration and loss of membrane potential in apoptosis and thus in several neurodegenerative diseases. The PTP can be regulated by the Ca(2+)-activated mitochondrial K channel (BK). Calpains are Ca(2+)-activated cystein proteases; calpeptin is an inhibitor of calpains. We wondered whether calpain or calpeptin can modulate activity of PTP or BK. Patch clamp experiments were performed on mitoplasts of rat liver (PTP) and of an astrocytoma cell line (BK). Channel-independent open probability (P o) was determined (PTP) and, taking into account the number of open levels, NPo by single channel analysis (BK). We find that PTP in the presence of Ca(2+) (200 μM) is uninfluenced by calpain (13 nM) and shows insignificant decrease by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (1 μM). The NPo of the BK is insensitive to calpain (54 nM), too. However, it is significantly and reversibly inhibited by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (IC50 = 42 μM). The results agree with calpeptin-induced activation of the PTP via inhibition of the BK. Screening experiments with respirometry show calpeptin effects, fitting to inhibition of the BK by calpeptin, and strong inhibition of state 3 respiration. PMID:26108743

  16. Effect of the triaminopyridine flupirtine on calcium uptake, membrane potential and ATP synthesis in rat heart mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Guido; Balakirev, Maxim; Zwicker, Klaus; Hofmann, Michael; Woodcock, Barry G; Pergande, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    Flupirtine is an analgesic agent which exhibits neuronal cytoprotective activity and may have value in the treatment of conditions involving cell injury and apoptosis. Since flupirtine has no action on known receptor sites we have investigated the effect of this drug on mitochondrial membrane potential, and the changes in intramitochondrial calcium concentration in particular.The findings show that flupirtine increases Ca2+ uptake in mitochondria in vitro. At clinically relevant flupirtine concentrations, corresponding to flupirtine levels in vitro of 0.2 to 10 nmol mg−1 mitochondrial protein, there was a 2 to 3 fold increase in mitochondrial calcium levels (P<0.01). At supra-physiological flupirtine concentrations of 20 nmol mg−1 mitochondrial protein and above, the mitochondrial calcium concentrations were indistinguishable from those in untreated mitochondria.Mitochondrial membrane potential closely paralleled the changes in mitochondrial calcium levels showing a 20% (P<0.01) increase when the flupirtine concentration was raised from 0.2 nmol to 10 nmol mg−1 mitochondrial protein and a return to control values at 20 nmol mg−1 protein.The increase in mitochondrial calcium uptake and membrane potential were accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial ATP synthesis (30%; P<0.05) and a similar percentage reduction in mitochondrial volume.Calcium at 80 and 160 nmol mg−1 mitochondrial protein decreased ATP synthesis by 20–25% (P<0.001). This decrease was prevented or diminished if flupirtine at 10 nmol mg−1 protein was added before the addition of calcium.Since intracellular levels of flupirtine in intact cells never exceeded 10 nmol mg−1 mitochondrial protein, these findings are supportive evidence for an in vivo cytoprotective action of flupirtine at the mitochondrial level. PMID:9559899

  17. Preliminary crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein Tim44p

    SciTech Connect

    Josyula, Ratnakar; Jin, Zhongmin; McCombs, Deborah; DeLucas, Lawrence; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-02-01

    Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the yeast Tim44p has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein and a major component of the TIM23 translocon. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the yeast Tim44p was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.25, c = 77.83 Å. There is one Tim44p molecule in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 43%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  18. Interaction of the Intermembrane Space Domain of Tim23 Protein with Mitochondrial Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Rakhi; Munari, Francesca; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Tim23 mediates protein translocation into mitochondria. Although inserted into the inner membrane, the dynamic association of its intermembrane space (IMS) domain with the outer membrane promotes protein import. However, little is known about the molecular basis of this interaction. Here, we demonstrate that the IMS domain of Tim23 tightly associates with both inner and outer mitochondrial membrane-like membranes through a hydrophobic anchor at its N terminus. The structure of membrane-bound Tim23IMS is highly dynamic, allowing recognition of both the incoming presequence and other translocase components at the translocation contact. Cardiolipin enhances Tim23 membrane attachment, suggesting that cardiolipin can influence preprotein import. PMID:25349212

  19. Protein complexes in bacterial and yeast mitochondrial membranes differ in their sensitivity towards dissociation by SDS.

    PubMed

    Gubbens, Jacob; Slijper, Monique; de Kruijff, Ben; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2008-12-01

    Previously, a 2D gel electrophoresis approach was developed for the Escherichia coli inner membrane, which detects membrane protein complexes that are stable in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at room temperature, and dissociate under the influence of trifluoroethanol [R. E. Spelbrink et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005), 28742-8]. Here, the method was applied to the evolutionarily related mitochondrial inner membrane that was isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, only very few proteins were found to be dissociated by trifluoroethanol of which Lpd1p, a component of multiple protein complexes localized in the mitochondrial matrix, is the most prominent. Usage of either milder or more stringent conditions did not yield any additional proteins that were released by fluorinated alcohols. This strongly suggests that membrane protein complexes in yeast are less stable in SDS solution than their E. coli counterparts, which might be due to the overall reduced hydrophobicity of mitochondrial transmembrane proteins. PMID:18817900

  20. Cellular membrane potentials induced by alternating fields

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Constantino; Schwan, Herman P.

    1992-01-01

    Membrane potentials induced by external alternating fields are usually derived assuming that the membrane is insulating, that the cell has no surface conductance, and that the potentials are everywhere solutions of the Laplace equation. This traditional approach is reexamined taking into account membrane conductance, surface admittance, and space charge effects. We find that whenever the conductivity of the medium outside the cell is low, large corrections are needed. Thus, in most of the cases where cells are manipulated by external fields (pore formation, cell fusion, cell rotation, dielectrophoresis) the field applied to the cell membrane is significantly reduced, sometimes practically abolished. This could have a strong bearing on present theories of pore formation, and of the influence of weak electric fields on membranes. PMID:19431866

  1. Membrane potential changes during chemokinesis in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, J

    1979-06-01

    Intracellular recordings show that (i) paramecia hyperpolarize slightly in attractants and depolarize in repellents that depend on the avoiding reaction (an abrupt change of swimming direction), and (ii) paramecia more strongly hyperpolarize in repellents and more strongly depolarize in attractants that depend on changes of swimming velocity. These membrane potential changes are in agreement with a hypothesis of membrane potential control of chemokinesis in Paramecium. PMID:572085

  2. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. PMID:27053724

  3. RNS60, a charge-stabilized nanostructure saline alters Xenopus Laevis oocyte biophysical membrane properties by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Duk-Soo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined the effects of RNS60, a 0.9% saline containing charge-stabilized oxygen nanobubble-based structures. RNS60 is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor–Couette–Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. This study, implemented in Xenopus laevis oocytes, addresses both the electrophysiological membrane properties and parallel biological processes in the cytoplasm. Intracellular recordings from defolliculated X. laevis oocytes were implemented in: (1) air oxygenated standard Ringer's solution, (2) RNS60-based Ringer's solution, (3) RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen)-based Ringer's, and (4) ONS60 (saline containing high pressure oxygen without TCP modification)-based Ringer's. RNS60-based Ringer's solution induced membrane hyperpolarization from the resting membrane potential. This effect was prevented by: (1) ouabain (a blocker of the sodium/potassium ATPase), (2) rotenone (a mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibitor preventing usable ATP synthesis), and (3) oligomycin A (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) indicating that RNS60 effects intracellular ATP levels. Increased intracellular ATP levels following RNS60 treatment were directly demonstrated using luciferin/luciferase photon emission. These results indicate that RNS60 alters intrinsic the electrophysiological properties of the X. laevis oocyte membrane by increasing mitochondrial-based ATP synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocyte cytoplasm demonstrated increased mitochondrial length in the presence of RNS60-based Ringer's solution. It is concluded that the biological properties of RNS60 relate to its ability to optimize ATP synthesis. PMID:25742953

  4. RNS60, a charge-stabilized nanostructure saline alters Xenopus Laevis oocyte biophysical membrane properties by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Duk-Soo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-03-01

    We have examined the effects of RNS60, a 0.9% saline containing charge-stabilized oxygen nanobubble-based structures. RNS60 is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. This study, implemented in Xenopus laevis oocytes, addresses both the electrophysiological membrane properties and parallel biological processes in the cytoplasm. Intracellular recordings from defolliculated X. laevis oocytes were implemented in: (1) air oxygenated standard Ringer's solution, (2) RNS60-based Ringer's solution, (3) RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen)-based Ringer's, and (4) ONS60 (saline containing high pressure oxygen without TCP modification)-based Ringer's. RNS60-based Ringer's solution induced membrane hyperpolarization from the resting membrane potential. This effect was prevented by: (1) ouabain (a blocker of the sodium/potassium ATPase), (2) rotenone (a mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibitor preventing usable ATP synthesis), and (3) oligomycin A (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) indicating that RNS60 effects intracellular ATP levels. Increased intracellular ATP levels following RNS60 treatment were directly demonstrated using luciferin/luciferase photon emission. These results indicate that RNS60 alters intrinsic the electrophysiological properties of the X. laevis oocyte membrane by increasing mitochondrial-based ATP synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocyte cytoplasm demonstrated increased mitochondrial length in the presence of RNS60-based Ringer's solution. It is concluded that the biological properties of RNS60 relate to its ability to optimize ATP synthesis. PMID:25742953

  5. Loss of Prohibitin Membrane Scaffolds Impairs Mitochondrial Architecture and Leads to Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Merkwirth, Carsten; Morbin, Michela; Brönneke, Hella S.; Jordan, Sabine D.; Rugarli, Elena I.; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Fusion and fission of mitochondria maintain the functional integrity of mitochondria and protect against neurodegeneration, but how mitochondrial dysfunctions trigger neuronal loss remains ill-defined. Prohibitins form large ring complexes in the inner membrane that are composed of PHB1 and PHB2 subunits and are thought to function as membrane scaffolds. In Caenorhabditis elegans, prohibitin genes affect aging by moderating fat metabolism and energy production. Knockdown experiments in mammalian cells link the function of prohibitins to membrane fusion, as they were found to stabilize the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1 (optic atrophy 1), which mediates mitochondrial inner membrane fusion and cristae morphogenesis. Mutations in OPA1 are associated with dominant optic atrophy characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, highlighting the importance of OPA1 function in neurons. Here, we show that neuron-specific inactivation of Phb2 in the mouse forebrain causes extensive neurodegeneration associated with behavioral impairments and cognitive deficiencies. We observe early onset tau hyperphosphorylation and filament formation in the hippocampus, demonstrating a direct link between mitochondrial defects and tau pathology. Loss of PHB2 impairs the stability of OPA1, affects mitochondrial ultrastructure, and induces the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in hippocampal neurons. A destabilization of the mitochondrial genome and respiratory deficiencies manifest in aged neurons only, while the appearance of mitochondrial morphology defects correlates with tau hyperphosphorylation in the absence of PHB2. These results establish an essential role of prohibitin complexes for neuronal survival in vivo and demonstrate that OPA1 stability, mitochondrial fusion, and the maintenance of the mitochondrial genome in neurons depend on these scaffolding proteins. Moreover, our findings establish prohibitin-deficient mice as a novel genetic model for tau pathologies

  6. Bcl-xL Blocks a Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Channel and Prevents Ca2+ Overload-Mediated Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, Daniel; Posadas, Inmaculada; Ceña, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active process that plays a key role in many physiological and pathological conditions. One of the most important organelles involved in apoptosis regulation is the mitochondrion. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is a general mechanism of toxicity in neurons which occurs in response to different noxious stimuli like excitotoxicity and ischemia producing apoptotic and necrotic cell death through mitochondria-dependent mechanisms. The Bcl-2 family of proteins modulate the release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during cell death induction by different stimuli. In this work, we have studied, using single-cell imaging and patch-clamp single channel recording, the mitochondrial mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of Bcl-xL on Ca2+ overload-mediated cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We have found that Bcl-xL neuroprotective actions take place at mitochondria where this antiapoptotic protein delays both mitochondrial potential collapse and opening of the permeability transition pore by preventing Ca2+-mediated mitochondrial multiple conductance channel opening. Bcl-xL neuroprotective actions were antagonized by the Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737 and potentiated by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. As a consequence, this would prevent free radical production, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, release from mitochondria of pro-apoptotic molecules, caspase activation and cellular death. PMID:21674052

  7. Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2013-01-15

    Dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology through membrane dynamics are linked to changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. Although mitochondrial membrane fusion/fission events are frequent in cell culture models, whether mitochondrial membranes dynamically interact in postmitotic muscle fibers in vivo remains unclear. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial morphology in intact muscle is lacking. Here, using electron microscopy (EM), we provide evidence of interacting membranes from adjacent mitochondria in intact mouse skeletal muscle. Electron-dense mitochondrial contact sites consistent with events of outer mitochondrial membrane tethering are also described. These data suggest that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo among mitochondria, possibly to induce morphology transitions, for kiss-and-run behavior, or other processes involving contact between mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, a combination of freeze-fracture scanning EM and transmission EM in orthogonal planes was used to characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphology. Two subpopulations of mitochondria were studied: subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF), which exhibited significant differences in morphological descriptors, including form factor (means ± SD for SS: 1.41 ± 0.45 vs. IMF: 2.89 ± 1.76, P < 0.01) and aspect ratio (1.97 ± 0.83 vs. 3.63 ± 2.13, P < 0.01) and circularity (0.75 ± 0.16 vs. 0.45 ± 0.22, P < 0.01) but not size (0.28 ± 0.31 vs. 0.27 ± 0.20 μm(2)). Frequency distributions for mitochondrial size and morphological parameters were highly skewed, suggesting the presence of mechanisms to influence mitochondrial size and shape. In addition, physical continuities between SS and IMF mitochondria indicated mixing of both subpopulations. These data provide evidence that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle and that factors may be involved in regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial morphology. PMID

  8. Nitric oxide partitioning into mitochondrial membranes and the control of respiration at cytochrome c oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sruti; Brookes, Paul S.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Anderson, Peter G.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2001-06-01

    An emerging and important site of action for nitric oxide (NO) within cells is the mitochondrial inner membrane, where NO binds to and inhibits members of the electron transport chain, complex III and cytochrome c oxidase. Although it is known that inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is competitive with O2, the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear, and the impact of both NO and O2 partitioning into biological membranes has not been considered. These properties are particularly interesting because physiological O2 tensions can vary widely, with NO having a greater inhibitory effect at low O2 tensions (<20 μM). In this study, we present evidence for a consumption of NO in mitochondrial membranes in the absence of substrate, in a nonsaturable process that is O2 dependent. This consumption modulates inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO and is enhanced by the addition of exogenous membranes. From these data, it is evident that the partition of NO into mitochondrial membranes has a major impact on the ability of NO to control mitochondrial respiration. The implications of this conclusion are discussed in the context of mitochondrial lipid:protein ratios and the importance of NO as a regulator of respiration in pathophysiology.

  9. A novel import route for an N-anchor mitochondrial outer membrane protein aided by the TIM23 complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiyao; Tamura, Yasushi; Yoshihisa, Tohru; Endo, Toshiya

    2014-06-01

    The membrane topology of Om45 in the yeast mitochondrial outer membrane (OM) is under debate. Here, we confirm that Om45 is anchored to the OM from the intermembrane space (IMS) by its N-terminal hydrophobic segment. We show that import of Om45 requires the presequence receptors, Tom20 and Tom22, and the import channel of Tom40. Unlike any of the known OM proteins, Om45 import requires the TIM23 complex in the inner membrane, a translocator for presequence-containing proteins, and the membrane potential (ΔΨ). Therefore, Om45 is anchored to the OM via the IMS by a novel import pathway involving the TIM23 complex. PMID:24781694

  10. Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics.

    PubMed Central

    Bouevitch, O; Lewis, A; Pinevsky, I; Wuskell, J P; Loew, L M

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear optical phenomenon of second harmonic generation is shown to have intrinsic sensitivity to the voltage across a biological membrane. Our results demonstrate that this second order nonlinear optical process can be used to monitor membrane voltage with excellent signal to noise and other crucial advantages. These advantages suggest extensive use of this novel approach as an important new tool in elucidating membrane potential changes in biological systems. For this first demonstration of the effect we use a chiral styryl dye which exhibits gigantic second harmonic signals. Possible mechanisms of the voltage dependence of the second harmonic signal are discussed. PMID:8218895

  11. Does membrane fatty acid composition modulate mitochondrial functions and their thermal sensitivities?

    PubMed

    Lemieux, H; Blier, P U; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modifying fatty acid modification of heart mitochondrial membranes by dietary intervention on the functions and thermal sensitivity of electron transport system complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Four groups of rats were fed diets differing in their fat (coconut, olive or fish oil) and antioxidant (fish oil with or without probucol) contents. After 16 weeks of feeding, the coconut and olive oil groups had lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents and a lower unsaturation index compared to both fish oil groups. These differences in fatty acid composition were not related to any differences in the mitochondrial respiration rate induced at Complexes I, II or IV, or to differences in their thermal sensitivity. The coconut oil group showed a lower mitochondrial affinity for pyruvate at 5 degrees C (k(mapp)=6.4+/-1.8) compared to any other groups (k(mapp)=3.8+/-0.5; 4.7+/-0.8; 3.6+/-1.1, for olive, fish oil and fish oil and probucol groups, respectively). At least in rat heart, our results do not support a major impact of the fatty acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane on the function of mitochondrial enzymatic complexes or on their temperature sensitivity. PMID:17993286

  12. Glucocorticoid-induced alterations in mitochondrial membrane properties and respiration in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Karin; Rainer, Johannes; Bindreither, Daniel; Ritter, Ireen; Gnaiger, Erich; Kofler, Reinhard; Oefner, Peter J; Renner, Kathrin

    2011-06-01

    Mitochondria are signal-integrating organelles involved in cell death induction. Mitochondrial alterations and reduction in energy metabolism have been previously reported in the context of glucocorticoid (GC)-triggered apoptosis, although the mechanism is not yet clarified. We analyzed mitochondrial function in a GC-sensitive precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) model as well as in GC-sensitive and GC-resistant T-ALL model systems. Respiratory activity was preserved in intact GC-sensitive cells up to 24h under treatment with 100 nM dexamethasone before depression of mitochondrial respiration occurred. Severe repression of mitochondrial respiratory function was observed after permeabilization of the cell membrane and provision of exogenous substrates. Several mitochondrial metabolite and protein transporters and two subunits of the ATP synthase were downregulated in the T-ALL and in the precursor B-ALL model at the gene expression level under dexamethasone treatment. These data could partly be confirmed in ALL lymphoblasts from patients, dependent on the molecular abnormality in the ALL cells. GC-resistant cell lines did not show any of these defects after dexamethasone treatment. In conclusion, in GC-sensitive ALL cells, dexamethasone induces changes in membrane properties that together with the reduced expression of mitochondrial transporters of substrates and proteins may lead to repressed mitochondrial respiratory activity and lower ATP levels that contribute to GC-induced apoptosis. PMID:21237131

  13. Formation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Derived Protrusions and Vesicles in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Yamaoka, Shohei; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have inner and outer membranes. In plants, the inner membrane has been well studied but relatively little is known about the outer membrane. Here we report that Arabidopsis cells have mitochondrial outer membrane-derived structures, some of which protrude from the main body of mitochondria (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs), while others form vesicle-like structures without a matrix marker. The latter vesicle-like structures are similar to some mammalian MDVs (mitochondrial-derived vesicles). Live imaging demonstrated that a plant MDV budded off from the tip of a MOP. MDVs were also observed in the drp3a drp3b double mutant, indicating that they could be formed without the mitochondrial fission factors DRP3A and DRP3B. Double staining studies showed that the MDVs were not peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN). The numbers of MDVs and MOPs increased in senescent leaves and after dark treatment. Together, these results suggest that MDVs and MOPs are related to leaf senescence. PMID:26752045

  14. Formation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Derived Protrusions and Vesicles in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Yamaoka, Shohei; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have inner and outer membranes. In plants, the inner membrane has been well studied but relatively little is known about the outer membrane. Here we report that Arabidopsis cells have mitochondrial outer membrane-derived structures, some of which protrude from the main body of mitochondria (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs), while others form vesicle-like structures without a matrix marker. The latter vesicle-like structures are similar to some mammalian MDVs (mitochondrial-derived vesicles). Live imaging demonstrated that a plant MDV budded off from the tip of a MOP. MDVs were also observed in the drp3a drp3b double mutant, indicating that they could be formed without the mitochondrial fission factors DRP3A and DRP3B. Double staining studies showed that the MDVs were not peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN). The numbers of MDVs and MOPs increased in senescent leaves and after dark treatment. Together, these results suggest that MDVs and MOPs are related to leaf senescence. PMID:26752045

  15. Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin III is a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Sung; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu; Jeong, Seung-Hun; Lee, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Nari; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyung Soo; Han, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved either directly or indirectly in oncogenesis and the alteration of metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells contain large numbers of abnormal mitochondria and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the antioxidant capacity of the cell. Several cancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation, disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and release cytochrome c, leading to apoptosome formation, which activates the intrinsic pathway. This is modulated by the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) system is a cellular defense system against oxidative stress, and mitochondria in cancer cells are known to contain high levels of Prx III. Here, we review accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in cancer, and discuss the role of the mitochondrial Prx III antioxidant system as a potential target for cancer therapy. We hope that this review will provide the basis for new strategic approaches in the development of effective cancer treatments. PMID:22072940

  16. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II.

    PubMed

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  17. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  18. Induction of rat hepatic mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore opening by leaf extract of Olax subscorpioidea

    PubMed Central

    Adegbite, Oluwatobi Samuel; Akinsanya, Yetunde Ifeoma; Kukoyi, Ayobami Jahdahunsi; Iyanda-Joel, Wisdom O.; Daniel, Oluwatoyin O.; Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: The induction of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) pore has been implicated in the cascade of events involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death). Olax subscorpioidea is traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases and infection. However, its role on MMPT is not yet established. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of varying concentrations of the methanol leaf extract of O. subscorpioidea (MEOS) on MMPT pore opening, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Opening of the pore was spectrophotometrically assayed under succinate-energized conditions. Results: In the absence of triggering agent (calcium), MEOS induced MMPT pore opening by 350, 612, 827, 845% at 36, 60, 86 and 112 μg/ml, respectively. MEOS further induced MMPT pore opening in the presence of a triggering agent by 866, 905, 831, 840, 949% at 12, 36, 60, 86 and 112 μg/ml, respectively. The extract significantly induced mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation in all the concentration used. MEOS also significantly increased mitochondrial ATP hydrolysis by mitochondrial ATPase in all concentration of the extract used. Conclusion: It may be deduced from this results, that MEOS contains certain bioactive components that may find use in pathological conditions that require an enhanced rate of apoptosis. PMID:26109790

  19. Yeast Mitochondrial Interactosome Model: Metabolon Membrane Proteins Complex Involved in the Channeling of ADP/ATP

    PubMed Central

    Clémençon, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a mitochondrial interactosome (MI) has been currently well established in mammalian cells but the exact composition of this super-complex is not precisely known, and its organization seems to be different from that in yeast. One major difference is the absence of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) in yeast, unlike that described in the organization model of MI, especially in cardiac, skeletal muscle and brain cells. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed description of different partner proteins involved in the synergistic ADP/ATP transport across the mitochondrial membranes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to propose a new mitochondrial interactosome model. The ADP/ATP (Aacp) and inorganic phosphate (PiC) carriers as well as the VDAC (or mitochondrial porin) catalyze the import and export of ADP, ATP and Pi across the mitochondrial membranes. Aacp and PiC, which appear to be associated with the ATP synthase, consist of two nanomotors (F0, F1) under specific conditions and form ATP synthasome. Identification and characterization of such a complex were described for the first time by Pedersen and co-workers in 2003. PMID:22408429

  20. Heinrich Wieland--prize lecture. Transport of proteins across mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Neupert, W

    1994-03-01

    The vast majority of proteins comprising the mitochondrion are encoded by nuclear genes, synthesized on ribosomes in the cytosol, and translocated into the various mitochondrial subcompartments. During this process proteins must cross the lipid membranes of the mitochondrion without interfering with the integrity or functions of the organelle. In recent years an approach combining biochemical, molecular, genetic, and morphological methodology has provided insights into various aspects of this complex process of intracellular protein sorting. In particular, a greater understanding of the molecular specificity and mechanism of targeting of mitochondrial preproteins has been reached, as a protein complex of the outer membrane which facilitates recognition and initial membrane insertion has been identified and characterized. Furthermore, pathways and components involved in the translocation of pre-proteins across the two mitochondrial membranes are being dissected and defined. The energetics of translocation and the processes of unfolding and folding of proteins during transmembrane transfer are closely linked to the function of a host of proteins known as heat-shock proteins or molecular chaperones, present both outside and inside the mitochondrion. In addition, the analysis of the process of folding of polypeptides in the mitochondrial matrix has allowed novel and unexpected insights into general pathways of protein folding assisted by folding factors. Pathways of sorting of proteins to the four different mitochondrial subcompartments--the outer membrane (OM), intermembrane space, inner membrane (IM) and matrix--are only partly understood and reveal an amazing complexity and variation. Many additional protein factors are involved in these latter processes, a few of which have been analyzed, such as cytochrome c heme lyase and cytochrome c1 heme lyase, enzymes that catalyze the covalent addition of the heme group to cytochrome c and c1 preproteins, and the

  1. Quantitative mitochondrial redox imaging of breast cancer metastatic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Nioka, Shoko; Glickson, Jerry D.; Chance, Britton; Li, Lin Z.

    2010-05-01

    Predicting tumor metastatic potential remains a challenge in cancer research and clinical practice. Our goal was to identify novel biomarkers for differentiating human breast tumors with different metastatic potentials by imaging the in vivo mitochondrial redox states of tumor tissues. The more metastatic (aggressive) MDA-MB-231 and less metastatic (indolent) MCF-7 human breast cancer mouse xenografts were imaged with the low-temperature redox scanner to obtain multi-slice fluorescence images of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp). The nominal concentrations of NADH and Fp in tissue were measured using reference standards and used to calculate the Fp redox ratio, Fp/(NADH+Fp). We observed significant core-rim differences, with the core being more oxidized than the rim in all aggressive tumors but not in the indolent tumors. These results are consistent with our previous observations on human melanoma mouse xenografts, indicating that mitochondrial redox imaging potentially provides sensitive markers for distinguishing aggressive from indolent breast tumor xenografts. Mitochondrial redox imaging can be clinically implemented utilizing cryogenic biopsy specimens and is useful for drug development and for clinical diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. Coupling of lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in trypanolysis by APOL1

    PubMed Central

    Vanwalleghem, Gilles; Fontaine, Frédéric; Lecordier, Laurence; Tebabi, Patricia; Klewe, Kristoffer; Nolan, Derek P.; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille; Kremer, Anneke; Burkard, Gabriela Schumann; Rassow, Joachim; Roditi, Isabel; Pérez-Morga, David; Pays, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Humans resist infection by the African parasite Trypanosoma brucei owing to the trypanolytic activity of the serum apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). Following uptake by endocytosis in the parasite, APOL1 forms pores in endolysosomal membranes and triggers lysosome swelling. Here we show that APOL1 induces both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (LMP and MMP). Trypanolysis coincides with MMP and consecutive release of the mitochondrial TbEndoG endonuclease to the nucleus. APOL1 is associated with the kinesin TbKIFC1, of which both the motor and vesicular trafficking VHS domains are required for MMP, but not for LMP. The presence of APOL1 in the mitochondrion is accompanied by mitochondrial membrane fenestration, which can be mimicked by knockdown of a mitochondrial mitofusin-like protein (TbMFNL). The BH3-like peptide of APOL1 is required for LMP, MMP and trypanolysis. Thus, trypanolysis by APOL1 is linked to apoptosis-like MMP occurring together with TbKIFC1-mediated transport of APOL1 from endolysosomal membranes to the mitochondrion. PMID:26307671

  3. Coupling of lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in trypanolysis by APOL1.

    PubMed

    Vanwalleghem, Gilles; Fontaine, Frédéric; Lecordier, Laurence; Tebabi, Patricia; Klewe, Kristoffer; Nolan, Derek P; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille; Kremer, Anneke; Burkard, Gabriela Schumann; Rassow, Joachim; Roditi, Isabel; Pérez-Morga, David; Pays, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Humans resist infection by the African parasite Trypanosoma brucei owing to the trypanolytic activity of the serum apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). Following uptake by endocytosis in the parasite, APOL1 forms pores in endolysosomal membranes and triggers lysosome swelling. Here we show that APOL1 induces both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (LMP and MMP). Trypanolysis coincides with MMP and consecutive release of the mitochondrial TbEndoG endonuclease to the nucleus. APOL1 is associated with the kinesin TbKIFC1, of which both the motor and vesicular trafficking VHS domains are required for MMP, but not for LMP. The presence of APOL1 in the mitochondrion is accompanied by mitochondrial membrane fenestration, which can be mimicked by knockdown of a mitochondrial mitofusin-like protein (TbMFNL). The BH3-like peptide of APOL1 is required for LMP, MMP and trypanolysis. Thus, trypanolysis by APOL1 is linked to apoptosis-like MMP occurring together with TbKIFC1-mediated transport of APOL1 from endolysosomal membranes to the mitochondrion. PMID:26307671

  4. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  5. Mitochondrial outer membrane forms bridge between two mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are double-membrane organelles that move around and change their shapes dynamically. In plants, the dynamics of the outer membrane is not well understood. We recently demonstrated that mitochondria had tubular protrusions of the outer membrane with little or no matrix, called MOPs (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs). Here we show that a MOP can form a bridge between two mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana. The bridge does not appear to involve the inner membranes. Live imaging revealed stretching of the MOP bridge, demonstrating the flexibility of the outer membrane. Mitochondria frequently undergo fission and fusion. These observations raise the possibility that MOPs bridges have a role in these processes. PMID:27031262

  6. Bcl-2 and porin follow different pathways of TOM-dependent insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Motz, Christian; Martin, Heiko; Krimmer, Thomas; Rassow, Joachim

    2002-11-01

    The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26kDa protein which functions as a central regulator of apoptosis. Here we investigated the pathway of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We found that interactions of Bcl-2alpha with the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 are dependent on two positively charged lysine residues in the immediate vicinity of the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor. The targeting function of these residues is independent of Tom22. Subsequent insertion of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane does not require Tom5 or Tom40, indicating that Bcl-2alpha bypasses the general import pore (GIP). Bcl-2alpha shows a unique pattern of interactions with the components of the mitochondrial TOM complex, demonstrating that at least two different pathways lead from the import receptor Tom20 into the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:12419260

  7. A novel insertion pathway of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane segments

    PubMed Central

    Otera, Hidenori; Taira, Yohsuke; Horie, Chika; Suzuki, Yurina; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Kato, Hiroki; Oka, Toshihiko; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The central channel Tom40 of the preprotein translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex is thought to be responsible for the import of virtually all preproteins synthesized outside the mitochondria. In this study, we analyze the topogenesis of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), which integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (TMSs) and functions in cholesterol import into the inner membrane. Analyses of in vitro and in vivo import into TOM component–depleted mitochondria reveal that PBR import (1) depends on the import receptor Tom70 but requires neither the Tom20 and Tom22 import receptors nor the import channel Tom40, (2) shares the post-Tom70 pathway with the C-tail–anchored proteins, and (3) requires factors of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Furthermore, membrane integration of mitofusins and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, the MOM proteins with two and four TMSs, respectively, proceeds through the same initial pathway. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pathway of the membrane integration of MOM proteins with multiple TMSs. PMID:18158327

  8. A novel insertion pathway of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane segments.

    PubMed

    Otera, Hidenori; Taira, Yohsuke; Horie, Chika; Suzuki, Yurina; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Kato, Hiroki; Oka, Toshihiko; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2007-12-31

    The central channel Tom40 of the preprotein translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex is thought to be responsible for the import of virtually all preproteins synthesized outside the mitochondria. In this study, we analyze the topogenesis of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), which integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (TMSs) and functions in cholesterol import into the inner membrane. Analyses of in vitro and in vivo import into TOM component-depleted mitochondria reveal that PBR import (1) depends on the import receptor Tom70 but requires neither the Tom20 and Tom22 import receptors nor the import channel Tom40, (2) shares the post-Tom70 pathway with the C-tail-anchored proteins, and (3) requires factors of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Furthermore, membrane integration of mitofusins and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, the MOM proteins with two and four TMSs, respectively, proceeds through the same initial pathway. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pathway of the membrane integration of MOM proteins with multiple TMSs. PMID:18158327

  9. Large conductance channel in plasma membranes of astrocytic cells is functionally related to mitochondrial VDAC-channels.

    PubMed

    Guibert, B; Dermietzel, R; Siemen, D

    1998-03-01

    Large conductance anion channels with similar electrophysiological characteristics were found in plasma membranes and in outer mitochondrial membranes of various cell types. Although their large conductance and their peculiar voltage dependence point to a close relation, it was questioned whether they belong to the same family. We therefore compared some biochemical features of a plasmalemmal channel with those known from the mitochondrial channel. Current events were recorded from excised patches of plasma membranes of a rat astrocytic cell line (RGCN). The underlying channels exhibited a conductance of 401 +/- 50 pS. Open probability was highest between +/- 10 mV and gradually approached zero beyond +/- 25 mV. Activity as induced by voltage ramps between +/- 40 mV appeared after a delay of up to several min. The delay could be reduced by bathing either side of the patch in an acidic Ringer solution (pH 6.2). 1 mM Al3+ increased the open time at potentials more positive than 20 mV. 10 mM dextran sulfate (MW 8000) caused reversible flickering, increasing the closed probability. 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DIDS) also caused a reversible flickering into the closed state, reducing the apparent single channel amplitude by up to 70% at 0.5 mM DIDS. Application of 5 mM ATP resulted in reversible blockade; ATP was more effective from the outside than from the inside (blocking activity 65% vs. 16% of the patches). We conclude that the large conductance anion channel from astrocytic cells displays electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics that resemble those of VDAC (Voltage Dependent Anion Channel) from the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:9611779

  10. Control of the ornithine cycle in Neurospora crassa by the mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R H; Ristow, J L

    1983-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa, the mitochondrial membrane separates ornithine used in arginine biosynthesis from ornithine used in the arginine degradative pathway in the cytosol. Ornithine easily exchanges across the mitochondrial membrane under conditions appropriate for synthesis of the immediate biosynthetic product, citrulline. Neither of the two mitochondrial enzymes required for the ornithine-to-citrulline conversion is feedback inhibitable in vitro. Nevertheless, when arginine is added to cells and cytosolic ornithine increases as arginine degradation begins, the rate of citrulline synthesis drops immediately to about 20% of normal (B. J. Bowman and R. H. Davis, Bacteriol. 130:285-291, 1977). We have studied this phenomenon in citrulline-accumulating strains carrying the arg-1 mutation. Citrulline accumulation is blocked when arginine is added to an arg-1 strain but not to an arg-1 strain carrying a mutation conferring insensitivity of intramitochondrial ornithine synthesis to arginine. Thus, ornithine is evidently unable to enter mitochondria in normal (feedback-sensitive) cells. Other experiments show that cytosolic ornithine enters mitochondria readily except when arginine or other basic amino acids are present at high levels in the cells. We conclude that in N. crassa, the mitochondrial membrane has evolved as a secondary site of feedback inhibition in arginine synthesis and that this prevents a wasteful cycling of catabolic ornithine back through the anabolic pathway. This is compared to the quite different mechanism by which the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents a futile ornithine cycle. PMID:6222031

  11. Making heads or tails of mitochondrial membranes in longevity and aging: a role for comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria play vital roles in metabolic energy transduction, intermediate molecule metabolism, metal ion homeostasis, programmed cell death and regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species. As a result of their broad range of functions, mitochondria have been strongly implicated in aging and longevity. Numerous studies show that aging and decreased lifespan are also associated with high reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria, increased mitochondrial DNA and protein damage, and with changes in the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes. It is possible that the extent of fatty acid unsaturation of the mitochondrial membrane determines susceptibility to lipid oxidative damage and downstream protein and genome toxicity, thereby acting as a determinant of aging and lifespan. Reviewing the vast number of comparative studies on mitochondrial membrane composition, metabolism and lifespan reveals some evidence that lipid unsaturation ratios may correlate with lifespan. However, we caution against simply relating these two traits. They may be correlative but have no functional relation. We discuss an important methodology for body mass and phylogenetic correction in comparative studies. PMID:24588808

  12. Loss of Drp1 function alters OPA1 processing and changes mitochondrial membrane organization

    SciTech Connect

    Moepert, Kristin; Hajek, Petr; Frank, Stephan; Chen, Christiane; Kaufmann, Joerg; Santel, Ansgar

    2009-08-01

    RNAi mediated loss of Drp1 function changes mitochondrial morphology in cultured HeLa and HUVEC cells by shifting the balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion towards unopposed fusion. Over time, inhibition of Drp1 expression results in the formation of a highly branched mitochondrial network along with 'bulge'-like structures. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are accompanied by a reduction in levels of Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and 2 (Mfn2) and a modified proteolytic processing of OPA1 isoforms, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, our data imply that bulge formation is driven by Mfn1 action along with particular proteolytic short-OPA1 (s-OPA1) variants: Loss of Mfn2 in the absence of Drp1 results in an increase of Mfn1 levels along with processed s-OPA1-isoforms, thereby enhancing continuous 'fusion' and bulge formation. Moreover, bulge formation might reflect s-OPA1 mitochondrial membrane remodeling activity, resulting in the compartmentalization of cytochrome c deposits. The proteins Yme1L and PHB2 appeared not associated with the observed enhanced OPA1 proteolysis upon RNAi of Drp1, suggesting the existence of other OPA1 processing controlling proteins. Taken together, Drp1 appears to affect the activity of the mitochondrial fusion machinery by unbalancing the protein levels of mitofusins and OPA1.

  13. Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 form a complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Console, Lara; Giangregorio, Nicola; Indiveri, Cesare; Tonazzi, Annamaria

    2014-09-01

    Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 are members of the carnitine system, which are responsible of the regulation of the mitochondrial CoA/acyl-CoA ratio and of supplying substrates for the ß-oxidation to mitochondria. This study, using cross-Linking reagent, Blue native electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation followed by detection with immunoblotting, shows conclusive evidence about the interaction between carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 and carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase supporting the channeling of acylcarnitines and carnitine at level of the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:24898781

  14. Membrane potential of mitochondria in intact lymphocytes during early mitogenic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, M D; Felber, S M

    1984-01-01

    The mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) in intact lymphocytes was calculated by measuring the distribution of radiolabelled methyltriphenylphosphonium cation. The value obtained was 120 mV. The pH gradient across the mitochondrial membrane in situ (delta pH m) was estimated to be 73 mV (1.2 pH units). Thus the electrochemical gradient of protons was about 190 mV. Addition of the mitogen concanavalin A did not alter delta psi m, showing that, if movement of Ca2+ across the inner membrane of lymphocyte mitochondria occurs when concanavalin A is added, it is accompanied by charge-compensating ion movements. PMID:6696741

  15. Demonstration of an intramitochondrial invertase activity and the corresponding sugar transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Szarka, András; Horemans, Nele; Passarella, Salvatore; Tarcsay, Akos; Orsi, Ferenc; Salgó, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2008-10-01

    Genetic evidences indicate that alkaline/neutral invertases are present in plant cell organelles, and they might have a novel physiological function in mitochondria. The present study demonstrates an invertase activity in the mitochondrial matrix of Helianthus tuberosus tubers. The pH optimum, the kinetic parameters and the inhibitor profile of the invertase activity indicated that it belongs to the neutral invertases. In accordance with this topology, transport activities responsible for the mediation of influx/efflux of substrate/products were studied in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The transport of sucrose, glucose and fructose was shown to be bidirectional, saturable and independent of the mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential. Sucrose transport was insensitive to the inhibitors of the proton-sucrose symporters. The different kinetic parameters and inhibitors as well as the absence of cross-inhibition suggest that sucrose, glucose and fructose transport are mediated by separate transporters in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial invertase system composed by an enzyme activity in the matrix and the corresponding sugar transporters might have a role in both osmoregulation and intermediary metabolism. PMID:18600345

  16. Top Down Proteomics of Human Membrane Proteins from Enriched Mitochondrial Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Catherman, Adam D.; Li, Mingxi; Tran, John C.; Durbin, Kenneth R.; Compton, Philip D.; Early, Bryan P.; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    The interrogation of intact integral membrane proteins has long been a challenge for biological mass spectrometry. Here, we demonstrate the application of Top Down mass spectrometry to whole membrane proteins below 60 kDa with up to 8 transmembrane helices. Analysis of enriched mitochondrial membrane preparations from human cells yielded identification of 83 integral membrane proteins, along with 163 membrane-associated or soluble proteins, with a median q value of 3 × 10−10. An analysis of matching fragment ions demonstrated that significantly more fragment ions were found within transmembrane domains than would be expected based upon the observed protein sequence. Forty-six proteins from the complexes of oxidative phosphorylation were identified which exemplifies the increasing ability of Top Down Proteomics to provide extensive coverage in a biological network. PMID:23305238

  17. The mitochondrial morphology protein Mdm10 functions in assembly of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Chris; Rissler, Michael; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Szklarz, Luiza K Sanjuán; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Kozjak, Vera; Schönfisch, Birgit; Lohaus, Christiane; Meyer, Helmut E; Yaffe, Michael P; Guiard, Bernard; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2004-07-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins involves the general translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). The two known subunits of the SAM complex, Mas37 and Sam50, are required for assembly of the abundant outer membrane proteins porin and Tom40. We have identified an unexpected subunit of the SAM complex, Mdm10, which is involved in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondria lacking Mdm10 are selectively impaired in the final steps of the assembly pathway of Tom40, including the association of Tom40 with the receptor Tom22 and small Tom proteins, while the biogenesis of porin is not affected. Yeast mutants of TOM40, MAS37, and SAM50 also show aberrant mitochondrial morphology. We conclude that Mdm10 plays a specific role in the biogenesis of the TOM complex, indicating a connection between the mitochondrial protein assembly apparatus and the machinery for maintenance of mitochondrial morphology. PMID:15239954

  18. Ergosterol content specifies targeting of tail-anchored proteins to mitochondrial outer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Krumpe, Katrin; Frumkin, Idan; Herzig, Yonatan; Rimon, Nitzan; Özbalci, Cagakan; Brügger, Britta; Rapaport, Doron; Schuldiner, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins have a single C-terminal transmembrane domain, making their biogenesis dependent on posttranslational translocation. Despite their importance, no dedicated insertion machinery has been uncovered for mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) TA proteins. To decipher the molecular mechanisms guiding MOM TA protein insertion, we performed two independent systematic microscopic screens in which we visualized the localization of model MOM TA proteins on the background of mutants in all yeast genes. We could find no mutant in which insertion was completely blocked. However, both screens demonstrated that MOM TA proteins were partially localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in ∆spf1 cells. Spf1, an ER ATPase with unknown function, is the first protein shown to affect MOM TA protein insertion. We found that ER membranes in ∆spf1 cells become similar in their ergosterol content to mitochondrial membranes. Indeed, when we visualized MOM TA protein distribution in yeast strains with reduced ergosterol content, they phenocopied the loss of Spf1. We therefore suggest that the inherent differences in membrane composition between organelle membranes are sufficient to determine membrane integration specificity in a eukaryotic cell. PMID:22918956

  19. Polyhydroxybutyrate Targets Mammalian Mitochondria and Increases Permeability of Plasmalemmal and Mitochondrial Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Elustondo, Pia A.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Kawalec, Michał; Michalak, Michał; Kurcok, Piotr; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny V.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (HB) that is ubiquitously present in all organisms. In higher eukaryotes PHB is found in the length of 10 to 100 HB units and can be present in free form as well as in association with proteins and inorganic polyphosphate. It has been proposed that PHB can mediate ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes. We investigated the ability of PHB to interact with living cells and isolated mitochondria and the effects of these interactions on membrane ion transport. We performed experiments using a fluorescein derivative of PHB (fluo-PHB). We found that fluo-PHB preferentially accumulated inside the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Accumulation of fluo-PHB induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This membrane depolarization was significantly delayed by the inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore - Cyclosporin A. Further experiments using intact cells as well as isolated mitochondria confirmed that the effects of PHB directly linked to its ability to facilitate ion transport, including calcium, across the membranes. We conclude that PHB demonstrates ionophoretic properties in biological membranes and this effect is most profound in mitochondria due to the selective accumulation of the polymer in this organelle. PMID:24086638

  20. Polyhydroxybutyrate targets mammalian mitochondria and increases permeability of plasmalemmal and mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Elustondo, Pia A; Angelova, Plamena R; Kawalec, Michał; Michalak, Michał; Kurcok, Piotr; Abramov, Andrey Y; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (HB) that is ubiquitously present in all organisms. In higher eukaryotes PHB is found in the length of 10 to 100 HB units and can be present in free form as well as in association with proteins and inorganic polyphosphate. It has been proposed that PHB can mediate ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes. We investigated the ability of PHB to interact with living cells and isolated mitochondria and the effects of these interactions on membrane ion transport. We performed experiments using a fluorescein derivative of PHB (fluo-PHB). We found that fluo-PHB preferentially accumulated inside the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Accumulation of fluo-PHB induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This membrane depolarization was significantly delayed by the inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore - Cyclosporin A. Further experiments using intact cells as well as isolated mitochondria confirmed that the effects of PHB directly linked to its ability to facilitate ion transport, including calcium, across the membranes. We conclude that PHB demonstrates ionophoretic properties in biological membranes and this effect is most profound in mitochondria due to the selective accumulation of the polymer in this organelle. PMID:24086638

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of creatine kinase and adenine nucleotide translocase in mitochondrial membrane patch.

    PubMed

    Karo, Jaanus; Peterson, Pearu; Vendelin, Marko

    2012-03-01

    Interaction between mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) can play an important role in determining energy transfer pathways in the cell. Although the functional coupling between MtCK and ANT has been demonstrated, the precise mechanism of the coupling is not clear. To study the details of the coupling, we turned to molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce a new coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of a patch of the mitochondrial inner membrane containing a transmembrane ANT and an MtCK above the membrane. The membrane model consists of three major types of lipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin) in a roughly 2:1:1 molar ratio. A thermodynamics-based coarse-grained force field, termed MARTINI, has been used together with the GROMACS molecular dynamics package for all simulated systems in this work. Several physical properties of the system are reproduced by the model and are in agreement with known data. This includes membrane thickness, dimension of the proteins, and diffusion constants. We have studied the binding of MtCK to the membrane and demonstrated the effect of cardiolipin on the stabilization of the binding. In addition, our simulations predict which part of the MtCK protein sequence interacts with the membrane. Taken together, the model has been verified by dynamical and structural data and can be used as the basis for further studies. PMID:22241474

  2. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of membrane lipid peroxidation, impairs glutamate transport and mitochondrial function in synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Keller, J N; Mark, R J; Bruce, A J; Blanc, E; Rothstein, J D; Uchida, K; Waeg, G; Mattson, M P

    1997-10-01

    Removal of extracellular glutamate at synapses, by specific high-affinity glutamate transporters, is critical to prevent excitotoxic injury to neurons. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of an array of prominent neurodegenerative conditions that involve degeneration of synapses and neurons in glutamatergic pathways including stroke, and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Although cell culture data indicate that oxidative insults can impair key membrane regulatory systems including ion-motive ATPases and amino acid transport systems, the effects of oxidative stress on synapses, and the mechanisms that mediate such effects, are largely unknown. This study provides evidence that 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, mediates oxidation-induced impairment of glutamate transport and mitochondrial function in synapses. Exposure of rat cortical synaptosomes to 4-hydroxynonenal resulted in concentration- and time-dependent decreases in [3H]glutamate uptake, and mitochondrial function [assessed with the dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. Other related aldehydes including malondialdehyde and hexanal had little or no effect on glutamate uptake or mitochondrial function. Exposure of synaptosomes to insults known to induce lipid peroxidation (FeSO4 and amyloid beta-peptide) also impaired glutamate uptake and mitochondrial function. The antioxidants propyl gallate and glutathione prevented impairment of glutamate uptake and MTT reduction induced by FeSO4 and amyloid beta-peptide, but not that induced by 4-hydroxynonenal. Western blot analyses using an antibody to 4-hydroxynonenal-conjugated proteins showed that 4-hydroxynonenal bound to multiple cell proteins including GLT-1, a glial glutamate transporter present at high levels in synaptosomes. 4-Hydroxynonenal itself induced lipid peroxidation suggesting that, in addition to binding directly to membrane regulatory proteins, 4

  3. Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathways Inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae Potentiates Activity of Posaconazole and Itraconazole via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  4. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  5. Mature DIABLO/Smac Is Produced by the IMP Protease Complex on the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Strahm, Yvan; Hawkins, Christine J.; Gentle, Ian E.; Puryer, Michelle A.; Verhagen, Anne; Callus, Bernard; Vaux, David; Lithgow, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    DIABLO/Smac is a mitochondrial protein that can promote apoptosis by promoting the release and activation of caspases. To do so, DIABLO/Smac must first be processed by a mitochondrial protease and then released into the cytosol, and we show this in an intact cellular system. We propose that the precursor form of DIABLO/Smac enters the mitochondria through a stop-transfer pathway and is processed to its active form by the inner membrane peptidase (IMP) complex. Catalytic subunits of the mammalian IMP complex were identified based on sequence conservation and functional complementation, and the novel sequence motif RX5P in Imp1 and NX5S in Imp2 distinguish the two catalytic subunits. DIABLO/Smac is one of only a few specific proteins identified as substrates for the IMP complex in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. PMID:15814844

  6. σ-1 Receptor at the Mitochondrial-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Karla-Sue C.; Prasad, Manoj; Thapliyal, Veena

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM) is a small section of the outer mitochondrial membrane tethered to the ER by lipid and protein filaments. One such MAM protein is the σ-1 receptor, which contributes to multiple signaling pathways. We found that short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of σ-1 reduced pregnenolone synthesis by 95% without affecting expression of the inner mitochondrial membrane resident enzyme, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2. To explore the underlying mechanism of this effect, we generated a series of σ-receptor ligands: 5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide (KSCM-1), 3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide (KSCM-5), and 6-methoxy-3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl) propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide (KSCM-11) specifically bound to σ-1 in the nanomolar range, whereas KSCM-5 and KSCM-11 also bound to σ-2. Treatment of cells with the KSCM ligands led to decreased cell viability, with KSCM-5 having the most potent effect followed by KSCM-11. KSCM-1 increased σ-1 expression by 4-fold and progesterone synthesis, whereas the other compounds decreased progesterone synthesis. These differences probably are caused by ligand molecular structure. For example, KSCM-1 has two methoxy substituents at C-5 and C-6 of the benzofuran ring, whereas KSCM-11 has one at C-6. KSCM ligands or σ-1 knockdown did not alter the expression of ER resident enzymes that synthesize steroids. However, coimmunoprecipitation of the σ-1 receptor pulled down voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2), whose expression was enhanced by KSCM-1. VDAC2 plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria, suggesting that the σ-1 receptor at the MAM coordinates with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein for cholesterol trafficking into the mitochondria for metabolic regulation. PMID:22923735

  7. Outer mitochondrial membrane localization of apoptosis-inducing factor: mechanistic implications for release

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Yingfei; Frydenlund, Didrik S; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos) plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders. PMID:19863494

  8. Stability of membrane potential in heart mitochondria: Single mitochondrion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Yukiko; Yoshioka, Hisashi; Morikawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Yoshihiro . E-mail: ohta@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2006-06-16

    Mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi} {sub m}) plays an important role in cellular activity. Although {delta}{psi} {sub m} of intracellular mitochondria are relatively stable, the recent experiments with isolated mitochondria demonstrate that individual mitochondria show frequent fluctuations of {delta}{psi} {sub m}. The current study is performed to investigate the factors that stabilize {delta}{psi} {sub m} in cells by observing {delta}{psi} {sub m} of individual isolated mitochondria with fluorescence microscopy. Here, we report that (1) the transient depolarizations are also induced for mitochondria in plasma membrane permeabilized cells, (2) almost all mitochondria isolated from porcine hearts show the transient depolarizations that is enhanced with the net efflux of protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space, and (3) ATP and ADP significantly inhibit the transient depolarizations by plural mechanisms. These results suggest that the suppression of acute alkalinization of the matrix together with the presence of ATP and ADP contributes to the stabilization of {delta}{psi} {sub m} in cells.

  9. Mitochondrial OXA Translocase Plays a Major Role in Biogenesis of Inner-Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Sebastian B; Höpker, Jan; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schütze, Conny; Schrempp, Sandra G; Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Horvath, Susanne E; Frazier, Ann E; Gebert, Natalia; van der Laan, Martin; Bohnert, Maria; Warscheid, Bettina; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils

    2016-05-10

    The mitochondrial inner membrane harbors three protein translocases. Presequence translocase and carrier translocase are essential for importing nuclear-encoded proteins. The oxidase assembly (OXA) translocase is required for exporting mitochondrial-encoded proteins; however, different views exist about its relevance for nuclear-encoded proteins. We report that OXA plays a dual role in the biogenesis of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins. First, a systematic analysis of OXA-deficient mitochondria led to an unexpected expansion of the spectrum of OXA substrates imported via the presequence pathway. Second, biogenesis of numerous metabolite carriers depends on OXA, although they are not imported by the presequence pathway. We show that OXA is crucial for the biogenesis of the Tim18-Sdh3 module of the carrier translocase. The export translocase OXA is thus required for the import of metabolite carriers by promoting assembly of the carrier translocase. We conclude that OXA is of central importance for the biogenesis of the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:27166948

  10. Bongkrekic acid and atractyloside inhibits chloride channels from mitochondrial membranes of rat heart.

    PubMed

    Malekova, Lubica; Kominkova, Viera; Ferko, Miroslav; Stefanik, Peter; Krizanova, Olga; Ziegelhöffer, Attila; Szewczyk, Adam; Ondrias, Karol

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of bongkrekic acid (BKA), atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CAT) on single channel properties of chloride channels from mitochondria. Mitochondrial membranes isolated from a rat heart muscle were incorporated into a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) and single chloride channel currents were measured in 250/50 mM KCl cis/trans solutions. BKA (1-100 microM), ATR and CAT (5-100 microM) inhibited the chloride channels in dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of the BKA, ATR and CAT was pronounced from the trans side of a BLM and it increased with time and at negative voltages (trans-cis). These compounds did not influence the single channel amplitude, but decreased open dwell time of channels. The inhibitory effect of BKA, ATR and CAT on the mitochondrial chloride channel may help to explain some of their cellular and/or subcellular effects. PMID:17123460

  11. A Novel DNA-Binding Protein Bound to the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Restores the Null Mutation of Mitochondrial Histone Abf2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hyoung; Ha, Sang Jin; Kao, Ling Rong; Megraw, Timothy L.; Chae, Chi-Bom

    1998-01-01

    The yeast mitochondrial HMG-box protein, Abf2p, is essential for maintenance of the mitochondrial genome. To better understand the role of Abf2p in the maintenance of the mitochondrial chromosome, we have isolated a multicopy suppressor (YHM2) of the temperature-sensitive defect associated with an abf2 null mutation. The function of Yhm2p was characterized at the molecular level. Yhm2p has 314 amino acid residues, and the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to that of a family of mitochondrial carrier proteins. Yhm2p is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is also associated with mitochondrial DNA in vivo. Yhm2p exhibits general DNA-binding activity in vitro. Thus, Yhm2p appears to be novel in that it is a membrane-bound DNA-binding protein. A sequence that is similar to the HMG DNA-binding domain is important for the DNA-binding activity of Yhm2p, and a mutation in this region abolishes the ability of YHM2 to suppress the temperature-sensitive defect of respiration of the abf2 null mutant. Disruption of YHM2 causes a significant growth defect in the presence of nonfermentable carbon sources such as glycerol and ethanol, and the cells have defects in respiration as determined by 2,3,5,-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Yhm2p may function as a member of the protein machinery for the mitochondrial inner membrane attachment site of mitochondrial DNA during replication and segregation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:9742088

  12. Fluctuations of the proton-electromotive force across the inner mitochondrial membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, Joaquim; Fornés, José A.

    1997-05-01

    The intermembrane mitochondrial space (IMMS) is delimited by the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes and defines a region of molecular dimension where fluctuations of the number of free protons and of transmembrane voltage can give rise to fluctuations in the proton-electromotive force EPMF across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). We have applied the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistor Rm in parallel with a capacitor Cm representing the passive electrical properties of the IMM, in series with another capacitor Cb representing the proton-buffering power of the IMMS fluid. An access resistance Ra was defined as a link between the capacitor Cb and the membrane. Average EPMF fluctuations across the IMM were calculated for different assumptions concerning the intermembrane space dimensions. The calculated average EPMF fluctuations were in the vicinity of 100 mV for relaxation times in the few-microseconds range. The corresponding fluctuational protonic free energy is about 10 kJ/mole, which is comparable to the binding energy for protons in different transporters. This suggests that fluctuations in EPMF can be of relevance in the universe of forces influencing the molecular machinery embedded in the IMM.

  13. Covalent binding and anchoring of cytochrome c to mitochondrial mimetic membranes promoted by cholesterol carboxyaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C; Appolinário, Patricia P; Mugnol, Katia C U; Bloch, Carlos; Nantes, Iseli L; Di Mascio, Paolo; Miyamoto, Sayuri

    2013-10-21

    Mitochondrial cholesterol has been reported to be increased under specific pathological conditions associated with enhanced oxidative stress parameters. In this scenario, cholesterol oxidation would be increased, leading to the production of reactive aldehydes, including cholesterol carboxyaldehyde (ChAld). By using SDS micelles as a mitochondrial mimetic model, we have demonstrated that ChAld covalently modifies cytochrome c (cytc), a protein known to participate in electron transport and apoptosis signaling. This mimetic model induces changes in cytc structure in the same way as mitochondrial membranes do. Tryptic digestion of the cytc-ChAld adduct followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses revealed that modifications occur at Lys residues (K22) localized at cytc site L, a site involved in protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. Interestingly, ChAld ligation prevented cytc detachment from liposomes even under high ionic strength conditions. Overall, it can be concluded that ChAld ligation to Lys residues at site L creates a hydrophobic tail at cytc, which promotes cytc anchoring to the membrane. Although not investigated in detail in this study, cytc adduction to cholesterol derived aldehydes could have implications in cytc release from mitochondria under apoptotic stimuli. PMID:24059586

  14. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins Assist Bid in Bax-mediated Lipidic Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Blanca; Quispe, Joel; Choudhary, Vineet; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Ajero, Teddy G.; Du, Han; Schneiter, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a critical step in apoptosis and is regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins. In vitro systems using cardiolipin-containing liposomes have demonstrated the key features of MOMP induced by Bax and cleaved Bid; however, the nature of the “pores” and how they are formed remain obscure. We found that mitochondrial outer membranes contained very little cardiolipin, far less than that required for liposome permeabilization, despite their responsiveness to Bcl-2 family proteins. Strikingly, the incorporation of isolated mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins into liposomes lacking cardiolipin conferred responsiveness to cleaved Bid and Bax. Cardiolipin dependence was observed only when permeabilization was induced with cleaved Bid but not with Bid or Bim BH3 peptide or oligomerized Bax. Therefore, we conclude that MOM proteins specifically assist cleaved Bid in Bax-mediated permeabilization. Cryoelectron microscopy of cardiolipin-liposomes revealed that cleaved Bid and Bax produced large round holes with diameters of 25–100 nm, suggestive of lipidic pores. In sum, we propose that activated Bax induces lipidic pore formation and that MOM proteins assist cleaved Bid in this process in the absence of cardiolipin. PMID:19244344

  15. ANT2-defective fibroblasts exhibit normal mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Dolly; Goldstein, Amy C.; El-Khoury, Riyad; Rak, Malgorzata; Edmunds, Lia; Rustin, Pierre; Vockley, Jerry; Schiff, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) transports glycolytic ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Patients with ANT2 deletion were recently reported. We aimed at characterizing mitochondrial functions in ANT2-defective fibroblasts. In spite of ANT2 expression in fibroblasts, we observed no difference between ANT2-defective and control fibroblasts for mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP levels. This indicates that ANT2 insufficiency does not alter fibroblast basal mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:26000237

  16. High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and mitochondrial-membrane protein signatures precede the development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, M.; Schäfer, A.; Seelig, A.; Schultheiß, J.; Wu, M.; Aichler, M.; Leonhardt, J.; Rathkolb, B.; Rozman, J.; Sarioglu, H.; Hauck, S.M.; Ueffing, M.; Wolf, E.; Kastenmueller, G.; Adamski, J.; Walch, A.; Hrabé de Angelis, M.; Neschen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. Methods We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Results Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. Conclusions We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid

  17. Mitochondrial-dependent Autoimmunity in Membranous Nephropathy of IgG4-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buelli, Simona; Perico, Luca; Galbusera, Miriam; Abbate, Mauro; Morigi, Marina; Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Tentori, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Sabadini, Ettore; Saito, Takao; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of glomerular lesions of membranous nephropathy (MN), including seldom-reported IgG4-related disease, is still elusive. Unlike in idiopathic MN where IgG4 prevails, in this patient IgG3 was predominant in glomerular deposits in the absence of circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies, suggesting a distinct pathologic process. Here we documented that IgG4 retrieved from the serum of our propositus reacted against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) at the podocyte surface. In patient's biopsy, glomerular CAII staining increased and co-localized with subepithelial IgG4 deposits along the capillary walls. Patient's IgG4 caused a drop in cell pH followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS production and cytoskeletal reorganization in cultured podocytes. These events promoted mitochondrial superoxide-dismutase-2 (SOD2) externalization on the plasma membrane, becoming recognizable by complement-binding IgG3 anti-SOD2. Among patients with IgG4-related disease only sera of those with IgG4 anti-CAII antibodies caused low intracellular pH and mitochondrial alterations underlying SOD2 externalization. Circulating IgG4 anti-CAII can cause podocyte injury through processes of intracellular acidification, mitochondrial oxidative stress and neoantigen induction in patients with IgG4 related disease. The onset of MN in a subset of patients could be due to IgG4 antibodies recognizing CAII with consequent exposure of mitochondrial neoantigen in the context of multifactorial pathogenesis of disease. PMID:26137589

  18. The Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carrier Associates with the Inner Membrane Presequence Translocase in a Stoichiometric Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Mehnert, Carola S.; Rampelt, Heike; Gebert, Michael; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schrempp, Sandra G.; Kochbeck, Lioba; Guiard, Bernard; Warscheid, Bettina; van der Laan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are synthesized with amino-terminal signal sequences. The presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex) mediates the import of these preproteins. The essential TIM23 core complex closely cooperates with partner protein complexes like the presequence translocase-associated import motor and the respiratory chain. The inner mitochondrial membrane also contains a large number of metabolite carriers, but their association with preprotein translocases has been controversial. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the TIM23 interactome based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture. Subsequent biochemical studies on identified partner proteins showed that the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier associates with the membrane-embedded core of the TIM23 complex in a stoichiometric manner, revealing an unexpected connection of mitochondrial protein biogenesis to metabolite transport. Our data indicate that direct TIM23-AAC coupling may support preprotein import into mitochondria when respiratory activity is low. PMID:25124039

  19. The Self-Interaction of a Nodavirus Replicase Is Enhanced by Mitochondrial Membrane Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, Zhaowei; Liu, Yongxiang; Han, Yajuan; Miao, Meng; Qi, Nan; Yang, Jie; Xia, Hongjie; Li, Xiaofeng; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-01-01

    RNA replication of positive-strand (+)RNA viruses requires the protein-protein interactions among viral replicases and the association of viral replicases with intracellular membranes. Protein A from Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV), which closely associate with mitochondrial membranes, is the sole replicase required for viral RNA replication. Here, we studied the direct effects of mitochondrial membrane lipids (MMLs) on WhNV protein A activity in vitro. Our investigations revealed the self-interaction of WhNV protein A is accomplished via two different patterns (i.e., homotypic and heterotypic self-interactions via different interfaces). MMLs stimulated the protein A self-interaction, and this stimulation exhibited selectivity for specific phospholipids. Moreover, we found that specific phospholipids differently favor the two self-interaction patterns. Furthermore, manipulating specific phospholipid metabolism affected protein A self-interaction and the activity of protein A to replicate RNA in cells. Taken together, our findings reveal the direct effects of membrane lipids on a nodaviral RNA replicase. PMID:24586921

  20. Aspirin, acetaminophen and proton transport through phospholipid bilayers and mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, J

    1992-09-01

    Mechanisms of proton transport were investigated in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes exposed to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), acetaminophen (4-acetamidophenol), benzoic acid and three aspirin metabolites (salicylic acid, gentisic acid and salicyluric acid). The objectives were to characterize the conductances and permeabilities of these weak acids in lipid bilayer membranes and then predict their effects on mitochondrial membranes. Of the compounds tested only aspirin, benzoate and salicylate caused significant increases in membrane conductance. The conductance was due mainly to proton current at low pH and to weak acid anion current at neutral pH. Analysis of the concentration and pH dependence suggests that these weak acids act as HA-2-type proton carriers when pH approximately pK and as lipid soluble anions at neutral pH. Salicylate is much more potent than aspirin and benzoate because salicylate contains an internal hydrogen bond which delocalizes the negative charge and increases the permeability of the anion. Model calculations for mitochondria suggest that salicylate causes net H+ uptake by a cyclic process of HA influx and A- efflux. This model can explain the salicylate-induced uncoupling and swelling observed in isolated mitochondria. Since ingested aspirin breaks down rapidly to form salicylate, these results may clarify the mechanisms of aspirin toxicity in humans. The results may also help to explain why the ingestion of aspirin but not acetaminophen is associated with Reye's syndrome, a disease characterized by impaired energy metabolism and mitochondrial swelling. PMID:1334228

  1. The transport machinery for the import of preproteins across the outer mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; Wagner, R; Pfanner, N

    2000-01-01

    In order for proteins to be imported into subcellular compartments, they must first traverse the organellar membranes. In mitochondria, hydrophilic protein channels in both the outer and inner membranes serve such a purpose. Recently, the channel protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane was identified to be Tom40. Tom40 is found in a high molecular weight complex termed the general import pore (GIP) complex where it is tightly associated with the receptor protein Tom22 along with Tom7, Tom6 and Tom5. Tom7 and Tom6 seem to modulate the dynamics of the GIP complex while Tom5 is involved in preprotein transfer from receptors to Tom40. The receptor proteins Tom70 and Tom20 associate with this complex in a weaker manner where they are involved in the initial recognition of preproteins. This review focuses on the identification and characterisation of the transport machinery of the outer mitochondrial membrane and how they are involved in the co-ordination and regulation of events required for the translocation of preproteins into mitochondria. PMID:10661891

  2. A mitochondrial-focused genetic interaction map reveals a scaffold-like complex required for inner membrane organization in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Hoppins, Suzanne; Collins, Sean R.; Cassidy-Stone, Ann; Hummel, Eric; DeVay, Rachel M.; Lackner, Laura L.; Westermann, Benedikt; Schuldiner, Maya

    2011-01-01

    To broadly explore mitochondrial structure and function as well as the communication of mitochondria with other cellular pathways, we constructed a quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map (the MITO-MAP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MITO-MAP provides a comprehensive view of mitochondrial function including insights into the activity of uncharacterized mitochondrial proteins and the functional connection between mitochondria and the ER. The MITO-MAP also reveals a large inner membrane–associated complex, which we term MitOS for mitochondrial organizing structure, comprised of Fcj1/Mitofilin, a conserved inner membrane protein, and five additional components. MitOS physically and functionally interacts with both outer and inner membrane components and localizes to extended structures that wrap around the inner membrane. We show that MitOS acts in concert with ATP synthase dimers to organize the inner membrane and promote normal mitochondrial morphology. We propose that MitOS acts as a conserved mitochondrial skeletal structure that differentiates regions of the inner membrane to establish the normal internal architecture of mitochondria. PMID:21987634

  3. A multisubunit complex of outer and inner mitochondrial membrane protein translocases stabilized in vivo by translocation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Schülke, N; Sepuri, N B; Gordon, D M; Saxena, S; Dancis, A; Pain, D

    1999-08-01

    Translocation of nuclear encoded preproteins into the mitochondrial matrix requires the coordinated action of two translocases: one (Tom) located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the other (Tim) located in the inner membrane. These translocases reversibly cooperate during protein import. We have previously constructed a chimeric precursor (pPGPrA) consisting of an authentic mitochondrial precursor at the N terminus (Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, pPut) linked, through glutathione S-transferase, to protein A. When pPGPrA is expressed in yeast, it becomes irreversibly arrested during translocation across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Consequently, the two membranes of mitochondria become progressively "zippered" together, forming long stretches in which they are in close contact (Schülke, N., Sepuri, N. B. V., and Pain, D. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 7314-7319). We now demonstrate that trapped PGPrA intermediates hold the import channels stably together and inhibit mitochondrial protein import and cell growth. Using IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography of solubilized zippered membranes, we have isolated a multisubunit complex that contains all Tom and Tim components known to be essential for import of matrix-targeted proteins, namely Tom40, Tom22, Tim17, Tim23, Tim44, and matrix-localized Hsp70. Further characterization of this complex may shed light on structural features of the complete mitochondrial import machinery. PMID:10428870

  4. Importing Mitochondrial Proteins: Machineries and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Koehler, Carla M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Lithgow, Trevor; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:19703392

  5. Novel ligands that target the mitochondrial membrane protein mitoNEET

    PubMed Central

    Bieganski, Robert M.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Ligands of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of compounds, pioglitazone (Actos™) and rosiglitazone (Avandia™) are currently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are known to bind to the PPAR-γ nuclear receptor subtype. Recent evidence suggesting PPAR-γ independent action of the TZDs led to the discovery of a novel integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein, mitoNEET. In spite of the several reported X-ray crystal structures of the unbound form of mitoNEET, the location and nature of the mitoNEET ligand binding sites (LBS) remain unknown. In this study, a molecular blind docking (BD) method was used to discover potential mitoNEET LBS and novel ligands, utilizing the program AutoDock Vina (v 1.0.2). Validation of BD was performed on the PPAR-γ receptor (PDB ID: 1ZGY) with the test compound rosiglitazone, demonstrating that the binding conformation of rosiglitazone determined by AutoDock Vina matches well with that of the cocrystallized ligand (root mean square deviation of the heavy atoms 1.45 Å). The locations and a general ligand binding interaction model for the LBS were determined, leading to the discovery of novel mitoNEET ligands. An in vitro fluorescence binding assay utilizing purified recombinant mitoNEET protein was used to determine the binding affinity of a predicted mitoNEET ligand, and the data obtained is in good agreement with AutoDock Vina results. The discovery of potential mitoNEET ligand binding sites and novel ligands, opens up the possibility for detailed structural studies of mitoNEET–ligand complexes, as well as rational design of novel ligands specifically targeted for mitoNEET. PMID:21531159

  6. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.

    2004-12-17

    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  7. The oxidized phospholipid PazePC promotes permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes by Bax.

    PubMed

    Lidman, Martin; Pokorná, Šárka; Dingeldein, Artur P G; Sparrman, Tobias; Wallgren, Marcus; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in programmed cell death via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is tightly regulated by the B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein family. Intracellular oxidative stress causes the translocation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic family member, to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it induces membrane permeabilization. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPls) generated in the MOM during oxidative stress directly affect the onset and progression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Here we use MOM-mimicking lipid vesicles doped with varying concentrations of 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), an OxPl species known to significantly enhance Bax-membrane association, to investigate three key aspects of Bax's action at the MOM: 1) induction of Bax pores in membranes without additional mediator proteins, 2) existence of a threshold OxPl concentration required for Bax-membrane action and 3) mechanism by which PazePC disturbs membrane organization to facilitate Bax penetration. Fluorescence leakage studies revealed that Bax-induced leakage, especially its rate, increased with the vesicles' PazePC content without any detectable threshold neither for OxPl nor Bax. Moreover, the leakage rate correlated with the Bax to lipid ratio and the PazePC content. Solid state NMR studies and calorimetric experiments on the lipid vesicles confirmed that OxPl incorporation disrupted the membrane's organization, enabling Bax to penetrate into the membrane. In addition, 15N cross polarization (CP) and insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) MAS NMR experiments using uniformly (15)N-labeled Bax revealed dynamically restricted helical segments of Bax embedded in the membrane, while highly flexible protein segments were located outside or at the membrane surface. PMID:26947183

  8. Cell-penetrating peptides do not cross mitochondrial membranes even when conjugated to a lipophilic cation: evidence against direct passage through phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides) facilitate the cellular uptake of covalently attached oligonucleotides, proteins and other macromolecules, but the mechanism of their uptake is disputed. Two models are proposed: direct movement through the phospholipid bilayer and endocytic uptake. Mitochondria are a good model system to distinguish between these possibilities, since they have no vesicular transport systems. Furthermore, CPP-mediated delivery of macromolecules to the mitochondrial matrix would be a significant breakthrough in the study of mitochondrial function and dysfunction, and could also lead to new therapies for diseases caused by mitochondrial damage. Therefore we investigated whether two CPPs, penetratin and Tat, could act as mitochondrial delivery vectors. We also determined whether conjugation of the lipophilic cation TPP (triphenylphosphonium) to penetratin or Tat facilitated their uptake into mitochondria, since TPP leads to uptake of attached molecules into mitochondria driven by the membrane potential. Neither penetratin nor Tat, nor their TPP conjugates, are internalized by isolated mitochondria, indicating that these CPPs cannot cross mitochondrial phospholipid bilayers. Tat and TPP–Tat are taken up by cells, but they accumulate in endosomes and do not reach mitochondria. We conclude that CPPs cannot cross mitochondrial phospholipid bilayers, and therefore cannot deliver macromolecules directly to mitochondria. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of uptake of CPPs by cells. The lack of direct movement of CPPs through mitochondrial phospholipid bilayers, along with the observed endosomal accumulation of Tat and TPP–Tat in cells, makes it unlikely that CPPs enter cells by direct membrane passage, and instead favours cellular uptake via an endocytic pathway. PMID:15270716

  9. Plasma membrane oxidoreductase activity in cultured cells in relation to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Deleonardi, Giulia; Biondi, Annalisa; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Pich, Milena Merlo; Stankov, Karmen; Falasca, Anna; Formiggini, Gabriella; Bovina, Carla; Romeo, Giovanni; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) reduction by intracellualr pyridine nucleotides was investigated in two different lines of cultured cells characterized by enhanced production of reacive oxygen species (ROS) with respect to suitable controls. The first line denominated XTC-UC1 was derived from a metastasis of an oxyphilic thyroid tumor characterized by mitochondrial hyperplasia and compared with a line (B-CPAP) derived from a papillary thyroid carcinoma with normal mitochondrial mass. The second line (170 MN) was a cybrid line derived from rho0 cells from an osteosarcoma line (143B) fused with platelets from a patient with a nucleotide 9957 mutation in mitochondrial DNA (encoding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III) in comparison with the parent 143B line. The experimental lines had no major decreases of electron transfer activities with respect to the controls; both of them, however, exhibited an increased peroxide production. The XTC-UC1 cell line exhibited enhanced activity with respect to control of dicoumarol-sensitive DCIP reduction, identified with membrane bound DT-diaphorase, whereas dicoumarol insensitive DCIP reduction was not significantly changed. On the other hand the mtDNA mutated cybrids exhibited a strong increase of both dicoumarol sensitive and insensitive DCIP reduction. The results suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and not deficient respiratory activity per se is the stimulus triggering over-expression of plasma membrane oxidative enzymes. PMID:15706061

  10. TSPO, a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein, Controls Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ran; Rittenhouse, Danielle; Sweeney, Katelyn; Potluri, Prasanth; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs) which impact patients, their families, and societies. Yet the genetic and physiological factors that predispose humans to AUDs remain unclear. One hypothesis is that alterations in mitochondrial function modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol exposure. Using Drosophila genetics we report that inactivation of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, affects ethanol sedation and tolerance in male flies. Knockdown of dTSPO in adult male neurons results in increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation, and this effect requires the dTSPO depletion-mediated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of caspase activity in fly heads. Systemic loss of dTSPO in male flies blocks the development of tolerance to repeated ethanol exposures, an effect that is not seen when dTSPO is only inactivated in neurons. Female flies are naturally more sensitive to ethanol than males, and female fly heads have strikingly lower levels of dTSPO mRNA than males. Hence, mitochondrial TSPO function plays an important role in ethanol sensitivity and tolerance. Since a large array of benzodiazepine analogues have been developed that interact with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, the mitochondrial TSPO might provide an important new target for treating AUDs. PMID:26241038