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Sample records for mitral regurgitation methods

  1. 3D reconstruction and quantitative assessment method of mitral eccentric regurgitation from color Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ge, Yi Nan; Wang, Tian Fu; Zheng, Chang Qiong; Zheng, Yi

    2005-10-01

    Based on the two-dimensional color Doppler image in this article, multilane transesophageal rotational scanning method is used to acquire original Doppler echocardiography while echocardiogram is recorded synchronously. After filtering and interpolation, the surface rendering and volume rendering methods are performed. Through analyzing the color-bar information and the color Doppler flow image's superposition principle, the grayscale mitral anatomical structure and color-coded regurgitation velocity parameter were separated from color Doppler flow images, three-dimensional reconstruction of mitral structure and regurgitation velocity distribution was implemented separately, fusion visualization of the reconstructed regurgitation velocity distribution parameter with its corresponding 3D mitral anatomical structures was realized, which can be used in observing the position, phase, direction and measuring the jet length, area, volume, space distribution and severity level of the mitral regurgitation. In addition, in patients with eccentric mitral regurgitation, this new modality overcomes the inherent limitations of two-dimensional color Doppler flow image by depicting the full extent of the jet trajectory, the area of eccentric regurgitation on three-dimensional image was much larger than that on two-dimensional image, the area variation tendency and volume variation tendency of regurgitation have been shown in figure at different angle and different systolic phase. The study shows that three-dimensional color Doppler provides quantitative measurements of eccentric mitral regurgitation that are more accurate and reproducible than conventional color Doppler.

  2. [Acute Mitral Regurgitation in Infant].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasutaka

    2015-07-01

    The acute mitral regurgitation of the infants are believed to be very rare until recently. However, there have been increasing number of reports of acute massive mitral regurgitation attributable to rupture of the chordae tendaniae escecially in Japan. If undiagnosed or the optimal treatment including surgery is delayed, it may cause cardiogenic shock and death in infants. Thus pediatricians, pediatric cardiologists and pediatric caridiac surgeons should consider this diagnosis when previously healthy infant suddenly develop cardiorespiratory collapse. It is very important to diagnose early and if there is over moderate mitral regurgitation, the 1st choice will be the mitral valve repair if possible. Pediatric cardiac suregon should be skilled at the mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement. There are several techniques which are different from the adult operation, so pediatric cardiac surgeon also has to be prepared for these techniques including supraannular mitral valve replacement. PMID:26197907

  3. Mitral Regurgitation (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time — People with mitral regurgitation (MR) should have periodic monitoring to determine if and when treatment is ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  4. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation remains controversial. In moderate mitral regurgitation (MR), controversy exists whether revascularization alone will be adequate to restore native valve geometry or whether intervention on the valve (repair) should be performed concomitantly. When MR is severe, the need for valve intervention is not disputed. Rather, the controversy is whether repair versus replacement should be undertaken. In contrast to degenerative or myxomatous disease that directly affects leaflet integrity and morphology, ischemic FMR results from a distortion and dilation of native ventricular geometry that normally supports normal leaflet coaptation. To address this, the first and most crucial step in successful valve repair is placement of an undersized, complete remodeling annuloplasty ring to restore the annulus to its native geometry. The following article outlines the steps for repair of ischemic mitral regurgitation. PMID:26309832

  5. Basic mechanisms of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Handschumacher, Mark D; Levine, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Any structural or functional impairment of the mitral valve (MV) apparatus that exhausts MV tissue redundancy available for leaflet coaptation will result in mitral regurgitation (MR). The mechanism responsible for MV malcoaptation and MR can be dysfunction or structural change of the left ventricle, the papillary muscles, the chordae tendineae, the mitral annulus, and the MV leaflets. The rationale for MV treatment depends on the MR mechanism and therefore it is essential to identify and understand normal and abnormal MV and MV apparatus function. PMID:25151282

  6. Basic Mechanisms of Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Beaudoin, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Any structural or functional impairment of the mitral valve (MV) apparatus that exhausts MV tissue redundancy available for leaflet coaptation will result in mitral regurgitation (MR). The mechanism responsible for MV malcoaptation and MR can be dysfunction or structural change of the left ventricle, the papillary muscles, the chordae tendineae, the mitral annulus and the MV leaflets. The rationale for MV treatment depends on the MR mechanism and therefore it is essential to identify and understand normal and abnormal MV and MV apparatus function. PMID:25151282

  7. Measurement of mitral regurgitation by Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Ihlen, H; Myhre, E; Levorstad, K; Nitter-Hauge, S

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a new approach to the non-invasive measurement of mitral regurgitation, Doppler echocardiography and left ventriculography were performed in 20 patients without valvar heart disease (group A) and in 30 patients with pure mitral regurgitation (group B). Volumetric flows through the aortic and the mitral orifices were determined by Doppler echocardiography. Aortic flow (AF) was calculated as the product of the aortic orifice area and the systolic velocity integral. The mitral flow (MF) was calculated as the product of the corrected mitral orifice area and the diastolic velocity integral. The mitral regurgitant fraction (RF) was calculated as RF = 1 - AF/MF. In group A aortic and mitral flow were very similar and the difference between the two did not differ significantly from zero. In group B the mitral flow was significantly larger than the aortic flow. There was a good correlation (r = 0.82) between the regurgitant fraction determined by Doppler echocardiography and the regurgitant grades determined by left ventriculography. The regurgitant fraction increased significantly with each grade of severity. These results show that Doppler echocardiography can be used to give a reliable measure of both aortic and mitral flow. This technique is a new and promising approach to the non-invasive measurement of mitral regurgitation. Images PMID:4052279

  8. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty for Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis with Mild to Severe Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, LinXiang; Hong, Lang; Fang, Jun; Chen, LiangLong

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to test whether percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) is effective for rheumatic mitral stenosis in Chinese patients with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Fifty-six patients with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis were divided into the mild, moderate, and severe regurgitation groups. Cardiac ultrasonography was measured before and 1 to 2 days after PBMV. Following PBMV, the mitral orifice was enlarged, and the left atrial diameter was reduced in the 3 patient groups. The enlargement of the mitral orifice in the mild regurgitation group was greater than that observed in the moderate and severe regurgitation groups. The size of the regurgitation area increased in the mild regurgitation group and decreased in the moderate and severe regurgitation groups, with the decrease in the severe regurgitation group being greater than that in the moderate regurgitation group. Therefore, PBMV is effective for treating rheumatic mitral stenosis in Chinese patients with mild to severe mitral regurgitation.

  9. Blood cyst of the anterior mitral leaflet causing severe mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Jayaprasad, N.; Sathish, Gargi; George, Raju

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of blood cyst of the anterior mitral leaflet leading to severe mitral regurgitation and heart failure in a 70-year-old woman with no other factors that could explain the severe mitral regurgitation. PMID:26130890

  10. A novel approach to ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR).

    PubMed

    Scoville, David H; Boyd, Jack B H

    2015-09-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a complicated medical condition with varying degrees of coronary artery disease and mitral regurgitation (MR). The traditional surgical treatment option for those with indications for intervention is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) plus or minus mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR). Percutaneous coronary intervention, hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR), and conventional CABG are three techniques available to address coronary artery disease (CAD). Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair, minimally invasive, and traditional sternotomy are accepted approaches for the treatment of MR. When taken in combination, there are nine methods available to revascularize the myocardium and restore competency to the mitral valve. While most of these treatment options have not been studied in detail, they may offer novel solutions to a widely variable and complex IMR patient population. Thus, a comparative analysis including an examination of potential benefits and risks will be helpful and potentially allow for more patient-specific treatment strategies. PMID:26539349

  11. Mitral Valve Clip for Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed T.; Ahmadzai, Nadera; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of the 500,000 North American patients with chronic mitral regurgitation may be poor candidates for mitral valve surgery. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of percutaneous mitral valve repair using mitral valve clips in candidates at prohibitive risk for surgery. Data Sources We searched articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library published from 1994 to February 2014 for evidence of effectiveness and harms; for economic literature we also searched NHS EED and Tufts CEA registry. Grey literature was also searched. Review Methods Primary studies were sought from existing systematic reviews that had employed reliable search and screening methods. Newer studies were sought by searching the period subsequent to the last search date of the review. Two reviewers screened records and assessed study validity. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized, generic assessment for non-randomized studies, and the Phillips checklist for economic studies. Results Ten studies including 1 randomized trial were included. The majority of the direct comparative evidence compared the mitral valve clip repair with surgery in patients not particularly at prohibitive surgical risk. Irrespective of degenerative or functional chronic mitral regurgitation etiology, evidence of effectiveness and harms is inconclusive and of very low quality. Very-low-quality evidence indicates that percutaneous mitral valve clip repair may provide a survival advantage, at least during the first 1 to 2 years, particularly in medically managed chronic functional mitral regurgitation. Because of limitations in the design of studies, the cost-effectiveness of mitral valve clips in patients at prohibitive risk for surgery also could not be established. Limitations Because of serious concerns of risk of bias, indirectness, and imprecision, evidence is of very low quality. Conclusions No meaningful conclusions can be drawn about the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of mitral valve clips in the population with chronic mitral regurgitation who are at prohibitive risk for surgery. PMID:26379810

  12. Role of Imaging Techniques in Percutaneous Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Hion; Arzamendi, Dabit; Carreras, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the United States and the second most prevalent in Europe. Patients with severe mitral regurgitation have a poor prognosis with medical therapy once they become symptomatic or develop signs of significant cardiac dysfunction. However, as many as half of these patients are inoperable because of advanced age, ventricular dysfunction, or other comorbidities. Studies have shown that surgery increases survival in patients with organic mitral regurgitation due to valve prolapse but has no clinical benefit in those with functional mitral regurgitation. In this scenario, percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation in native valves provides alternative management of valvular heart disease in patients at high surgical risk. Percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation is a growing field that relies heavily on imaging techniques to diagnose functional anatomy and guide repair procedures. PMID:26926991

  13. Is mitral valve repair superior to replacement for chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation with left ventricular dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to compare mitral valve repair and replacement as treatments for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). Specifically, we sought to determine whether the choice of mitral valve procedure affected survival, and discover which patients were predicted to benefit from mitral valve repair and which from replacement. Methods A total of 218 consecutive patients underwent either mitral valve repair (MVP, n = 112) or mitral valve replacement (MVR, n = 106). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical material, operation methods, echocardiography check during operation and follow-up. Patients details and follow-up outcomes were compared using multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results No statistical difference was found between the two groups in term of intraoperative data. Early mortality was 3.2% (MVP 2.7% and MVR 3.8%). At discharge, Left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were improved more in the MVP group than MVR group (P < 0.05), however, in follow-up no statistically significant difference was observed between the MVR and MVP group (P > 0.05). Follow-up mitral regurgitation grade was significantly improved in the MVR group compared with the MVP group (P < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates at 1, 3, and 5 years were simlar between MVP and MVR group. Logistic regression revealed poor survival was associated with old age(#75), preoperative renal insufficiency and low left ventricular ejection fraction (< 30%). Conclusion Mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice in the majority of patients having surgery for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation with left ventricular dysfunction. Early results of MVP treatment seem to be satisfactory, but several lines of data indicate that mitral valve repair provided less long-term benefit than mitral valve replacement in the LVD patients. PMID:21059216

  14. Surgical treatment of functional ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    In many ways we are at a crossroad in terms of what constitutes optimal FIMR treatment: is CABG combined with mitral valve ring annuloplasty better than CABG alone in moderate FIMR? Is mitral valve repair really better than replacement? And does adding a valvular repair or subvalvular reverse remodeling procedure shift that balance? In the present thesis I aim to shed further light on these questions by addressing the current status and future perspectives of the surgical treatment of FIMR. CURRENT SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR FIMR. CABG alone: The overall impression from the literature is that patients are left with a high grade of persistent/recurrent FIMR from isolated CABG. CABG is most effective to treat FIMR in patients with viable myocardium (at least five viable segments) and absence of dyssynchrony between papillary muscles (< 60 ms). Mitral valve ring annuloplasty. A vast number of different designs are available to perform mitral valve ring annuloplasty with variations over the theme of complete/partial and rigid/semi-rigid/flexible. Also, the three-dimensional shape of the rigid and semi-rigid rings is the subject of great variation. A rigid or semi-rigid down-sized mitral valve ring annuloplasty is the most advocated treatment in chronic FIMR grade 2+ or higher. Combined CABG and mitral valve ring annuloplasty: CABG combined with mitral valve ring annuloplasty leads to reverse LV remodeling and reduced volumes. Despite this, the recurrence rate after combined CABG and mitral valve ring annuloplasty is 20-30% at 2-4 years follow-up. This is also true for studies strictly using down-sized mitral valve ring annuloplasty by two sizes. A number of preoperative risk factors to develop recurrent FIMR were identified, e.g. LVEDD > 65-70 mm, coaptation depth > 10 mm, anterior leaflet angle > 27-39.5°, posterior leaflet angle > 45° and interpapillary muscle distance > 20 mm. CABG alone vs. combined CABG and mitral valve ring annuloplasty: The current available literature, including three randomized studies and a meta analysis, indicate that combined CABG and mitral valve ring annuloplasty has no late survival difference compared with CABG alone, and early mortality might even be higher. Meanwhile, adding a mitral valve ring annuloplasty results in a lower NYHA functional class, most likely as a consequence of a lower incidence of persistent or recurrent FIMR. More randomized studies are being conducted to further address this topic. Mitral valve ring annuloplasty vs. mitral valve replacement. The early survival may be higher after repair compared with replacement, meanwhile, the literature is more ambiguous in terms of late survival advantages, and recent reports find no late survival advantage from repair over replacement. The recurrence rates after ring annuloplasty addressed above were also present in this subset of patients, whereas the incidence of recurrent FIMR after valve replacement is scarcely reported. There was an overall tendency of slightly higher incidence of reoperations after ring annuloplasty. The mitral valve annulus: Innovations in mitral valve ring annuloplasty: The latest innovation in mitral valve ring annuloplasty design includes adjustable rings, allowing adjustment of septo-lateral dimensions intra- or postoperatively. Minimally invasive ring annuloplasty using indirect coronary sinus devices, has been introduced, but so far have produced suboptimal results in terms of safety and efficacy. Also, first in man testing of direct percutaneous catheter based mitral annuloplasty techniques have been conducted. Leaflets and chordae: Direct repair techniques: Surgical methods have been developed to directly address the mitral valve leaflets and chordae tendineae to correct leaflet tethering in FIMR. Both the Alfieri stich and the minimally invasive MitraClip attaches the anterior and posterior leaflets, typically the A2-P2 region, to correct incomplete leaflet coaptation. Patch augmentation of the posterior leaflet in the P2-P3 region increases coaptation in the area most prone to cause

  15. Mitral regurgitation after anthracycline treatment for childhood malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J; Thomson, J; Lewis, I; Gibbs, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the new onset of mitral regurgitation in patients with otherwise normal echocardiograms after anthracycline treatment and to assess its relation to other selected indicators of myocardial damage.?DESIGN—Prospective echocardiographic and electrocardiographic study.?SETTING—Tertiary paediatric cardiac referral centre.?PATIENTS—305 patients, aged 2-33 years (median 14 years), treated with cumulative anthracycline doses of between 150-450 mg/m2 (median 180 mg/m2) for childhood malignancy.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Colour flow Doppler detection of mitral regurgitation and its relation to changes in echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function (systolic and diastolic dimensions, fractional shortening) and to changes in the 12 lead ECG; and the prevalence of mitral regurgitation in the anthracycline treated patients in comparison with previously studied normal volunteers of similar age.?RESULTS—34 patients (11.6%) developed ultrasound detectable mitral regurgitation, which was not apparent clinically, during or after anthracycline treatment, compared with only 1.8% of a normal population of similar age (p < 0.0001). Nine of the 34 also developed non-specific T wave abnormalities. All 34 patients had normal systolic function at the time of initial detection of mitral regurgitation, but four later developed impaired left ventricular function (5, 11, 20, and 27 months after the first detection of mitral regurgitation).?CONCLUSIONS—Mitral regurgitation occurs much more often in patients treated with anthracyclines than in the normal population. Echocardiographic detection of new mitral regurgitation with or without ECG abnormalities may be an early predictor of anthracycline cardiomyopathy.???Keywords: anthracyclines; mitral regurgitation; cardiomyopathy PMID:11250971

  16. Durability of mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation due to degenerative mitral valve disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative diseases of the mitral valve (MV) are the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in the Western world and the most suitable pathology for MV repair. Several studies have shown excellent long-term durability of MV repair for degenerative diseases. The best follow-up results are obtained with isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet, however even with isolated prolapse of the anterior leaflet or prolapse of both leaflets the results are gratifying, particularly in young patients. The freedom from reoperation on the MV at 15 years exceeds 90% for isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet and it is around 70-85% for prolapse of the anterior leaflet or both leaflets. The degree of degenerative change in the MV also plays a role in durability of MV repair. Most studies have used freedom from reoperation to assess durability of the repair but some studies that examined valve function late after surgery suggest that recurrent mitral regurgitation is higher than estimated by freedom from reoperation. We can conclude that MV repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation is associated with low probability of reoperation for up to two decades after surgery. However, almost one-third of the patients develop recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation suggesting that surgery does not arrest the degenerative process. PMID:26539345

  17. [Backward flow signal in the left atrium studied by Doppler echocardiography. Differentiation from mitral regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, H; Miyairi, M; Asato, T; Naito, M; Honda, M

    1983-03-01

    A backward flow signal in the left atrium masquerading as mitral regurgitation was studied by a pulsed Doppler method. The subjects consisted of 20 normal volunteers, 12 cases with mitral valve prolapse syndrome, five cases with rheumatic mitral regurgitation, five cases with lone atrial fibrillation, four cases with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and three cases with the Björk-Shiley tilting disc valve in the mitral position. In two-dimensional echocardiography combined with pulsed Doppler method, a Doppler signal was recorded by locating a sample volume in the left atrium. In all of the cases with mitral valve prolapse syndrome and the cases with the prosthetic valve as well as in all of the normal subjects, the backward flow signal was observed in the left atrium. In three cases with mitral valve prolapse syndrome, it was differentiated from a transvalvular regurgitant flow signal. In all cases with rheumatic mitral regurgitation, the backward flow signal was masked by a turbulent flow signal representing regurgitation. In cases with mitral stenosis, the backward flow signal was scarcely recognized. The duration of the backward flow signal had no relationship with heart rate. The histogram of incidence on the scale of R-R interval revealed normal distribution with a mean value of 0.24 sec (+/- 0.09 sec). Therefore, in cases with tachycardia, the backward flow signal was seen throughout systole. The peak backward flow velocity of Doppler signals was correlated (r = 0.71, p less than 0.01) with the peak forward flow velocity in diastole. The faint backward flow signal seen in cases with mitral stenosis and post-extrasystolic potentiation of the backward flow signal were suggestive of the foregoing relationship. The mechanism producing the backward flow was postulated as a water hammer phenomenon caused by closure of the mitral valve. PMID:6644118

  18. Surgical Management of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Marfan Syndrome during Infancy and Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Re; Kim, Woong-Han; Choi, Eun Seok; Cho, Sungkyu; Jang, Woo Sung; Kim, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitral regurgitation is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome. The purpose of this study was to contribute to determining the appropriate surgical strategy for these patients. Methods From January 1992 to May 2013, six patients with Marfan syndrome underwent surgery for mitral regurgitation in infancy or early childhood. Results The median age at the time of surgery was 47 months (range, 3 to 140 months) and the median follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 1.3 to 15.5 years). Mitral valve repair was performed in two patients and four patients underwent mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. There was one reoperation requiring valve replacement for aggravated mitral regurgitation two months after repair. The four patients who underwent mitral valve replacement did not experience any complications related to the prosthetic valve. One late death occurred due to progressive emphysema and tricuspid regurgitation. Conclusion Although repair can be an option for some patients, it may not be durable in infantile-onset Marfan syndrome patients who require surgical management during infancy or childhood. Mitral valve replacement is a feasible treatment option for these patients. PMID:25705592

  19. Trans-catheter mitral valve implantation for mitral regurgitation: clinical case description and literature review.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Francesco; Cammalleri, Valeria; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Quadri, Arshad; De Vico, Pasquale; Muscoli, Saverio; Marchei, Massimo; Meloni, Sabrina; Conti, Fabio; Ussia, Gian Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Trans-catheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) is actually the most attractive technique for treating patients with severe mitral regurgitation, who are denied surgical therapy. Recently, trans-catheter implantation of aortic biological prosthesis in mitral position has been done in compassionate cases, and very few experiences of TMVI in native non-calcified valves have been recently reported in very-high-risk patients, mainly with functional mitral regurgitation.Here, we report our case of TMVI using the second-generation CardiAQ prostheisis (CardiAQ Valve Technologies, Irvine, California, USA), reviewing the current state of the art. PMID:26556446

  20. Targeting the Papillary Muscles in Mitral Valve Repair for Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Pineda, Andres M; Santana, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation due to left ventricular remodeling and leaflet tethering is associated with decreased survival, and the optimal management remains unknown. Restrictive mitral annuloplasty is the current treatment of choice, but it is associated with a 15% to 30% incidence of late recurrent mitral regurgitation, which confers a poor prognosis. A pathophysiology-guided approach to surgical repair is preferable, with a goal of alleviating leaflet tethering and restoring proper subvalvular mechanics. In patients with preoperative predictors of annuloplasty failure, combining a papillary muscle repositioning technique with conventional annuloplasty repair allows for complete geometric repair of the ventriculomitral unit. PMID:26451765

  1. Design, Rationale, and Initiation of the Surgical Interventions for Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Trial: A Report from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter K.; Michler, Robert E.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Alexander, John H.; Puskas, John D.; D’Alessandro, David A.; Hahn, Rebecca T.; Williams, Judson B.; Dent, John M.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Moquete, Ellen; Pagé, Pierre; Jeffries, Neal O.; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Ascheim, Deborah D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation have demonstrably poorer outcome compared to coronary artery disease patients without mitral regurgitation. The optimal treatment of this condition has become increasingly controversial and a randomized trial evaluating current practices is warranted. Methods and Results We describe the design and initial execution of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation trial. This is an ongoing prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial designed to test the safety and efficacy of mitral repair in addition to coronary artery bypass grafting in the treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation. Conclusion The results of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network ischemic mitral regurgitation trials will provide long-awaited information on controversial therapies for a morbid disease process. PMID:21788032

  2. Three-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry of maximal regurgitant orifice area in myxomatous mitral regurgitation: intraoperative comparison with proximal flow convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breburda, C. S.; Griffin, B. P.; Pu, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate direct planimetry of mitral regurgitant orifice area from three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstructions. BACKGROUND: Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) is an important measure of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) that up to now has been calculated from hemodynamic data rather than measured directly. We hypothesized that improved spatial resolution of the mitral valve (MV) with three-dimensional (3D) echo might allow accurate planimetry of ROA. METHODS: We reconstructed the MV using 3D echo with 3 degrees rotational acquisitions (TomTec) using a transesophageal (TEE) multiplane probe in 15 patients undergoing MV repair (age 59 +/- 11 years). One observer reconstructed the prolapsing mitral leaflet in a left atrial plane parallel to the ROA and planimetered the two-dimensional (2D) projection of the maximal ROA. A second observer, blinded to the results of the first, calculated maximal ROA using the proximal convergence method defined as maximal flow rate (2pi(r2)va, where r is the radius of a color alias contour with velocity va) divided by regurgitant peak velocity (obtained by continuous wave [CW] Doppler) and corrected as necessary for proximal flow constraint. RESULTS: Maximal ROA was 0.79 +/- 0.39 (mean +/- SD) cm2 by 3D and 0.86 +/- 0.42 cm2 by proximal convergence (p = NS). Maximal ROA by 3D echo (y) was highly correlated with the corresponding flow measurement (x) (y = 0.87x + 0.03, r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with close agreement seen (AROA (y - x) = 0.07 +/- 0.12 cm2). CONCLUSIONS: 3D echo imaging of the MV allows direct visualization and planimetry of the ROA in patients with severe MR with good agreement to flow-based proximal convergence measurements.

  3. Acute massive mitral regurgitation from prosthetic valve dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D K; Sturridge, M F

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of prosthetic valve dysfunction resulting in acute massive mitral regurgitation are reported; emergency operation was successful in both cases. Survival following complete dislodgement of the occluder of a disc valve, as occurred in one case, does not appear to have been reported before. The diffculty in diagnosis of sudden cardiac decompensation in patients with prosthetic valves is stressed, as is the need for urgent operation. Images PMID:973894

  4. Echocardiography in congenital mitral valve regurgitation–the liaison between cardiologist and surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vl?daia, A; Ghiorghiu, I; ?erban, M; Popescu, BA; Jurcu?, R

    2009-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases are broadly defined as those cardiac anomalies that are present at birth. By their very nature, such defects have their origin in embryonic development. Congenital mitral valve regurgitation is a rare disease occurring in infancy or childhood. In up to 60% of cases, congenital anomalies of the mitral valve occur in association with other cardiac lesions, and often more than one component of the mitral apparatus is involved. The true incidence of congenital mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) is difficult to determine accurately (0.21–0.42% from total mitral valve regurgitations); isolated congenital mitral regurgitation is uncommon. The Carpentier classification of congenital mitral valve disease is the most commonly used nomenclature based on a functional analysis of the mitral valve leaflet. The contemporary anatomic classification has the advantage of minimizing observer variability in the diagnosis and it offers a much better liaison between the cardiologist and surgeon. PMID:20108755

  5. A novel coaptation plate device for functional mitral regurgitation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    He, Zhaoming; Zhang, Kailiang; Gao, Bo

    2014-10-01

    A novel mitral valve repair device, coaptation plate (CP), was proposed to treat functional mitral regurgitation. The objective of this study was to test efficacy of the CP in an in vitro model of functional mitral regurgitation. Ten fresh porcine mitral valves were mounted in a left heart simulator, Mitral regurgitation was emulated by means of annular dilatation, and the asymmetrical or symmetrical papillary muscles (PM) displacement. A rigid and an elastic CPs were fabricated and mounted in the orifice of regurgitant mitral valves. Steady flow leakage in a hydrostatic condition and regurgitant volume in a pulsatile flow were measured before and after implantation of the CPs. The rigid and elastic CPs reduced mitral valve regurgitant volume fraction from 60.5 ± 11.4 to 35 ± 11.6 and 36.5 ± 9.9%, respectively, in the asymmetric PM displacement. Mitral regurgitation was much lower in the symmetric PM displacement than in the asymmetric PM displacement, and was not significantly reduced after implantation of either CP. In conclusion, both the rigid and elastic CPs are effective and have no difference in reduction of functional mitral regurgitation. The CP does not aggravate mitral valve coaptation and may be used as a preventive way. PMID:25015132

  6. Is an adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation effective in preventing recurrent regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Santana, Orlando

    2016-02-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: Is an adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation effective in preventing recurrent regurgitation? Altogether, 353 studies were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. The best evidence regarding adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation was from retrospective analyses. The studies reported outcomes of mitral valve repair (MVr) with annuloplasty alone (ring MVr) versus adjunctive papillary muscle approximation (PMA; n = 3), papillary muscle relocation (PMR; n = 3), secondary chordal cutting (n = 2) and PMA + PMR (n = 1). All but one study included concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, whereas additional ventriculoplasty was performed in three studies. Follow-up ranged from 1 month to 5 years. The performance of PMA was associated with a lower mitral regurgitation (MR) grade when combined with ventriculoplasty in one study, whereas a greater improvement in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up was observed with PMA alone in a separate study. Three studies of ring + PMR reported a reduction in ≥2+ recurrent MR, whereas two studies also observed a greater reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. The two studies on secondary chordal cutting reported a lower MR grade, lower recurrence of ≥2+ MR and a greater left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up. Combining PMA + PMR + ventriculoplasty significantly reduced left ventricular end-systolic volume index at short-term follow-up in one study. Finally, none of the studies reported a significant difference in operative mortality between ring MVr (0-13%) versus ring MVr + subvalvular repair (0-15%). We conclude that an adjunctive subvalvular repair performed at the time of mitral annuloplasty for secondary MR can be safely performed, improves the durability of valve repair and enhances left ventricular reverse remodelling. PMID:26612406

  7. Development of a Severe Mitral Valve Stenosis Secondary to the Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation with a Single MitraClip.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Anja; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Abu Saleh, Walid K; Barker, Colin; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Karmonik, Christof; Loebe, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We report a patient with class III heart failure symptoms due to mitral regurgitation (MR) subsequent to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The patient underwent percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve repair using a single MitraClip, which reduced the MR; however it created mild-to-moderate mitral stenosis, which progressed to severe mitral stenosis. Subsequently the patient underwent mitral valve replacement surgery. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12692 (J Card Surg 2016;31:153-155). PMID:26805917

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Mitral Regurgitation Secondary to Mitral Valve Prolapse by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Le Goffic, Caroline; Toledano, Manuel; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Binda, Camille; Castel, Anne-Laure; Delelis, François; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2015-11-01

    The present prospective study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitant fraction (MRF) by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in the modern era using as reference method the blinded multiparametric integrative assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) MRF by echocardiography (2D echo MRF and 3D echo MRF) were obtained by measuring the difference in left ventricular (LV) total stroke volume (obtained from either 2D or 3D acquisition) and aortic forward stroke volume normalized to LV total stroke volume. MRF was calculated by cMRI using either (1) (LV stroke volume - systolic aortic outflow volume by phase contrast)/LV stroke volume (cMRI MRF [volumetric]) or (2) (mitral inflow volume - systolic aortic outflow volume)/mitral inflow volume (cMRI MRF [phase contrast]). Six patients had 1 + MR, 6 patients had 2 + MR, 12 patients had 3 + MR, and 10 had 4 + MR. A significant correlation was observed between MR grading and 2D echo MRF (r = 0.60, p <0.0001) and 3D echo MRF (r = 0.79, p <0.0001), cMRI MRF (volumetric) (r = 0.87, p <0.0001), and cMRI MRF (phase contrast r = 0.72, p <0.001). The accuracy of MRF for the diagnosis of MR ?3+ or 4+ was the highest with cMRI MRF (volumetric) (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.98), followed by 3D echo MRF (AUC = 0.96), 2D echo MRF (AUC = 0.90), and cMRI MRF (phase contrast; AUC = 0.83). In conclusion, MRF by cMRI (volumetric method) and 3D echo MRF had the highest diagnostic value to detect significant MR, whereas the diagnostic value of 2D echo MRF and cMRI MRF (phase contrast) was lower. Hence, the present study suggests that both cMRI (volumetric method) and 3D echo represent best approaches for calculating MRF. PMID:26372213

  9. [Catheter based mitral valve repair for severe mitral regurgitation: patient selection].

    PubMed

    Naegeli, Barbara; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    The catheter-based mitral valve repair is a novel technology for the treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR). This technique is suitable for elderly patients with pronounced co-morbidities who are deemed to be high risk for conventional heart surgery. A meaningful reduction of mitral regurgitation leads to improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Studies also demonstrate reverse remodeling of the left ventricle. In heart failure patients with severe MR percutaneous repair reduces re-hospitalization rates>50% in comparison to optimal medical treatment. For degenerative MR conventional surgery is the gold standard, whereas for high surgical risk patients and for severe functional MR percutaneous repair is an alternative. PMID:26331203

  10. Clinically unrecognized mitral regurgitation is prevalent in lone atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Lardizabal, Joel; Monterroso, Mark; Bhambi, Neil; Sharma, Rohan; Sandhu, Rasham; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of clinically unrecognized mitral regurgitation (MR) in lone atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: We studied the prevalence and severity of MR by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with “lone” AF as compared to a matched cohort of patients in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) undergoing TEE for other indications besides recognized valvular heart disease. RESULTS: A total of 157 subjects (57 in the AF group and 100 in the NSR group) with structurally normal cardiac valves were included in the study. In the AF group, moderate MR or more was noted in 66% of the patients, mild MR in 18%, trace or no MR in 16%. In the control group, moderate MR was noted in 6% of patients, mild MR 31%, trace or no MR in 63 % of patients. Moderate MR or greater was significantly more prevalent in the AF group compared to the NSR group (66% vs 6%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Clinically unrecognized moderate MR is prevalent in “lone” AF -either as an etiologic factor leading to “lone” AF or developing after onset of AF. PMID:22655166

  11. Altered mitral inflow orifice in severe aortic regurgitation: real time three-dimensional echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Philippe B; Verhaert, David; Vandervoort, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young man with severe eccentric aortic regurgitation, obstructing mitral inflow and provoking an audible Austin Flint murmur at clinical examination. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography depicts the remarkable mechanical interaction between aortic regurgitant jet and anterior mitral leaflet opening. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography aids in understanding the geometric and hemodynamic consequences of the regurgitant jet and in the genesis of the Austin Flint murmur. This case accentuates the incremental value of three-dimensional echocardiography when evaluating valvular pathology, and offers more insight in the interaction between aortic regurgitant flow and mitral leaflet dynamics. PMID:23742271

  12. CoreValve prosthesis causes anterior mitral leaflet perforation resulting in severe mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Cozzarin, Alberto; Cianciulli, Tomás F; Guidoin, Robert; Zhang, Ze; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; García Escudero, Alejandro; Estrada, Jorge E

    2014-09-01

    Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an alternative to surgical therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high operative risk, but it is associated with specific complications. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who underwent the procedure without complications; however, 45 days after the procedure, he was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of heart failure secondary to severe mitral regurgitation. Necropsy findings showed prosthesis malposition and perforation of the anterior mitral leaflet caused by the contact of the stent of the CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN). We discuss TAVR complications, specifically regarding low positioning of the prosthetic valve. PMID:24999172

  13. Effects of pimobendan for mitral valve regurgitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nobuyuki; Kuse, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masaya; Hara, Akashi; Kano, Rui; Sasaki, Yoshihide

    2007-04-01

    Pimobendan has a dual mechanism of action: it increases myocardial contractility by increasing calcium sensitization to troponin C and it promotes vasodilation by inhibiting PDEIII. This study examined the effects of pimobendan on cardiac function, hemodynamics, and neurohormonal factors in dogs with mild mitral regurgitation (MR). The dogs were given 0.25 mg/kg of pimobendan orally every 12 hr for 4 weeks. With pimobendan, the heart rate and stroke volume did not change, but the systolic blood pressure gradually decreased and the degree of mitral valve regurgitation tended to decrease. Renal blood flow was significantly increased and the glomerular filtration rate was slightly increased at 2 and 4 weeks. Furthermore, over the 4-week period, the plasma norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly, the systolic index increased slightly, the left atrial diameter and the left ventricular diameters decreased significantly, and the heart size improved. Given these results, pimobendan appears to be useful for treating MR in dogs. However, further long-term studies of pimobendan involving a larger number of dogs with mild and moderate MR are needed to establish the safety of pimobendan and document improvements in quality of life. PMID:17485924

  14. Mitral Regurgitation after Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvotomy in Patients with Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Toufan, Mehrnoush; Salehi, Rezvaneyeh; Alizadehasl, Azin; Ghaffari, Samad; Sohrabi, Bahram; Separham, Ahmad; Manafi, Ataolaah; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Bagher; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) is the gold standard treatment for rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) in that it causes significant changes in mitral valve area (MVA) and improves leaflet mobility. Development of or increase in mitral regurgitation (MR) is common after BMV. This study evaluated MR severity and its changes after BMV in Iranian patients. Methods: We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients with severe rheumatic MS undergoing BMV using the Inoue balloon technique between February 2010 and January 2013 in Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and echocardiographic and catheterization data, including MVA, mitral valve mean and peak gradient (MVPG and MVMG), left atrial (LA) pressure, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAPs), and MR severity before and after BMV, were evaluated. Results: Totally, 105 patients (80% female) at a mean age of 45.81 ± 13.37 years were enrolled. NYHA class was significantly improved after BMV: 55.2% of the patients were in NYHA functional class III before BMV compared to 36.2% after the procedure (p value < 0.001). MVA significantly increased (mean area = 0.64 ± 0.29 cm2 before BMV vs. 1.90 ± 0.22 cm2 after BMV; p value < 0.001) and PAPs, LA pressure, MVPG, and MVMG significantly decreased. MR severity did not change in 82 (78.1%) patients, but it increased in 18 (17.1%) and decreased in 5 (4.8%) patients. Patients with increased MR had a significantly higher calcification score (2.03 ± 0.53 vs.1.50 ± 0.51; p value < 0.001) and lower MVA before BMV (0.81 ± 0.23 vs.0.94 ± 0.18; p value = 0.010). There were no major complications. Conclusion: In our study, BMV had excellent immediate hemodynamic and clinical results inasmuch as MR severity increased only in some patients and, interestingly, decreased in a few. Our results, underscore BMV efficacy in severe MS. The echocardiographic calcification score was useful for identifying patients likely to have MR development or MR increase after BMV. PMID:25870627

  15. Optimal Surgical Management of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: To Repair or to Replace?

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Louis P.; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Kron, Irving L.; Acker, Michael A.; Miller, Marissa A.; Horvath, Keith A.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Argenziano, Michael; D'Alessandro, David A.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Mathew, Joseph P.; Hung, Judy; Gardner, Timothy J.; Parides, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), a complication of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease more generally, is associated with a high mortality rate and estimated to affect 2.8 million Americans. With 1-year mortality rates as high as 40%, recent practice guidelines of professional societies recommend repair or replacement, but there remains a lack of conclusive evidence supporting either intervention. The choice between therapeutic options is characterized by the trade-off between reduced operative morbidity and mortality with repair versus a better long-term correction of mitral insufficiency with replacement. The long-term benefits of repair versus replacement remain unknown, which has led to significant variation in surgical practice. Methods and Results This paper describes the design of a prospective randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of mitral valve repair and replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. This trial is being conducted as part of the Cardiothoracic (CT) Surgical Trials Network. This paper addresses challenges in selecting a feasible primary endpoint, characterizing the target population (including the degree of MR), and analytical challenges in this high mortality disease. Conclusions The paper concludes by discussing the importance of information on functional status, survival, neurocognition, quality of life and cardiac physiology in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:22054660

  16. Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair in Mitral Regurgitation Reduces Cell-Free Hemoglobin and Improves Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Rammos, Christos; Zeus, Tobias; Balzer, Jan; Kubatz, Laura; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B.; Veulemans, Verena; Hellhammer, Katharina; Totzeck, Matthias; Luedike, Peter; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Endothelial dysfunction is predictive for cardiovascular events and may be caused by decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO is scavenged by cell-free hemoglobin with reduction of bioavailable NO up to 70% subsequently deteriorating vascular function. While patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) suffer from an impaired prognosis, mechanisms relating to coexistent vascular dysfunctions have not been described yet. Therapy of MR using a percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) approach has been shown to lead to significant clinical benefits. We here sought to investigate the role of endothelial function in MR and the potential impact of PMVR. Methods and Results Twenty-seven patients with moderate-to-severe MR treated with the MitraClip® device were enrolled in an open-label single-center observational study. Patients underwent clinical assessment, conventional echocardiography, and determination of endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with MR demonstrated decompartmentalized hemoglobin and reduced endothelial function (cell-free plasma hemoglobin in heme 28.9±3.8 μM, FMD 3.9±0.9%). Three months post-procedure, PMVR improved ejection fraction (from 41±3% to 46±3%, p = 0.03) and NYHA functional class (from 3.0±0.1 to 1.9±1.7, p<0.001). PMVR was associated with a decrease in cell free plasma hemoglobin (22.3±2.4 μM, p = 0.02) and improved endothelial functions (FMD 4.8±1.0%, p<0.0001). Conclusion We demonstrate here that plasma from patients with MR contains significant amounts of cell-free hemoglobin, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. PMVR therapy is associated with an improved hemoglobin decompartmentalization and vascular function. PMID:26986059

  17. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation: lessons from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% to 50% of patients will develop ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) after a myocardial infarction, which is a result of progressive left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction of the subvalvular apparatus, and portends a poor long-term prognosis. Surgical treatment is centered on mitral valve repair utilizing a restrictive annuloplasty, or valve replacement with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. In the recent Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CSTN) study, patients with severe ischemic MR were randomized to mitral valve repair with a restrictive annuloplasty versus chordal-sparing valve replacement, and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, if indicated. At 2-year follow-up, mitral valve repair was associated with a significantly higher incidence of moderate or greater recurrent MR and heart failure, with no difference in the indices of left ventricular reverse remodeling, as compared with valve replacement. The current appraisal aims to provide insight into the CSTN trial results, and discusses the evidence supporting a pathophysiologic-guided repair strategy incorporating combined annuloplasty and subvalvular repair techniques to optimize the outcomes of mitral valve repair in ischemic MR. PMID:26904260

  18. CTS Trials Network: A paradigm shift in the surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgery Trials Network has reported results of the one-year follow up of their randomized trial “Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation”. They studied 301 patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without mitral repair with the primary end-point of change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) at one year and multiple clinical and echocardiographic secondary endpoints. Although their results were against repairing the mitral valve, the debate on surgical management of moderate IMR remains unsettled. PMID:26779511

  19. Bacterial endocarditis, mitral regurgitation, and intra-atrial thrombosis following mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Harry M.; Fagan, Paul; Shanahan, Mark X.

    1968-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis with positive blood culture occurred on six occasions in a series of 140 mitral valve replacements. In three of these, extensive detachment of the prosthesis with severe mitral incompetence resulted. Re-operation was undertaken in two of these cases. Intra-atrial thrombosis occurred twice. In three other cases, in which intra-atrial thrombosis occurred, infection was strongly suspected to have been the responsible factor. Mitral regurgitation presented no difficulty in diagnosis, as all patients had severe congestive cardiac failure and typical physical signs. Confirmation was established by cinéangiography. Intra-atrial thrombosis presented difficulty in diagnosis. A persistently positive blood culture, continued pyrexia, and a history of sepsis were the most consistent and significant findings in the cases reported. The antibiotic regime described by Amoury and his colleagues has been used for the past year. There has not been a single case of bacterial endocarditis, intra-atrial thrombosis, or wound infection in 120 consecutive valve replacements on this regime. Because of the high mortality associated with intra-atrial thrombosis, and the close association between endocarditis and thrombosis, the presence of endocarditis with or without regurgitation might well be a compelling reason for re-operation. The mortality from these complications could, we believe, be reduced by the use of a more extensive antibiotic cover and a more vigorous attitude to surgical intervention. We have not had to consider re-operation since adopting the policy outlined, as these complications have not occurred. Images PMID:5637494

  20. Management of Organic Mitral Regurgitation: Guideline Recommendations and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Gurzun, Maria-Magdalena; Popescu, Andreea C.; Ginghina, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) represents the second most frequent valvular heart disease. The appropriate management of organic MR remains unclear in many aspects, especially in several specific clinical scenarios. This review aims to discuss the current guideline recommendations regarding the management of organic MR, while highlighting the controversial aspects encountered in daily clinical practice. The role of imaging is essential in establishing the most appropriate type of surgical treatment (repair or replace), which is based on morphological mitral valve (MV) characteristics (reparability of the valve) and local surgical expertise in valve repair. The potential advantages of 3-dimensional echocardiography in assessing the MV are discussed. Other modern imaging techniques (tissue Doppler and speckle tracking) may provide additional useful information in borderline cases. Exercise echocardiography (evaluating MR severity, pulmonary pressure, or right ventricular function) may have an important role in the management of difficult cases. Finally, the moment when surgery is no longer an option and alternative solutions should be sought is also discussed. Although in everyday clinical practice the timing of surgery is not always straightforward, some newer clinical and echocardiographic indicators can guide this decision and help improve the outcome of these patients. PMID:25810729

  1. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic analysis of mitral regurgitation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, F; Biasucci, L M; Pennestri, F; Laurenzi, F; Gimigliano, F; Vigna, C; Rossi, E; Favuzzi, A; Santarelli, P; Manzoli, U

    1986-10-01

    In 72 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI), mitral regurgitation (MR) was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and compared with physical and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings. MR was found by Doppler in 29 of 42 patients (62%) with anterior MI, 11 of 30 (37%) with inferior MI (p less than 0.01) and in none of 20 normal control subjects. MR was more frequent in patients who underwent Doppler study 3 months after MI than in those who underwent Doppler at discharge (anterior MI = 83% vs 50%, p less than 0.01; inferior MI = 47% vs 27%, p = not significant). Of 15 patients who underwent Doppler studies both times, 3 (all with anterior MI) had MR only on the second study. Of the patients with Doppler MR, 12 of 27 (44%) with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) greater than 30% and 1 of 13 (8%) with an EF of 30% or less (p less than 0.01) had an MR systolic murmur. Mitral prolapse or eversion and papillary muscle fibrosis were infrequent in MI patients, whether or not Doppler MR was present. The degree of Doppler MR correlated with EF (r = -0.61), LV systolic volume (r = 0.47), and systolic and diastolic mitral anulus circumference (r = 0.52 and 0.51, respectively). Doppler MR was present in 24 of 28 patients (86%) with an EF of 40% or less and in 16 of 44 (36%) with EF more than 40% (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3766410

  2. Development of mitral stenosis after single MitraClip insertion for severe mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, James; Fragkou, Paraskevi; Hildick-Smith, David

    2014-02-01

    We report the first case of mitral stenosis following Mitra-Clip insertion in a patient with symptomatic NYHA IV heart failure, secondary to severe mitral regurgitation (MR). A 79-year-old female with a history of prior aortic valve replacement underwent percutaneous mitral valve (MV) repair. A single clip was advanced coaxially down onto the MV under TOE guidance, with the anterior and posterior leaflets clipped together between A2 and P2. TOE confirmed a significant reduction in MR (grade 4 to grade 1). Despite initial symptomatic relief, she represented 3 months later with similar symptoms. Repeat TOE confirmed a well positioned Mitra-Clip with mild residual MR. However, the possibility of significant mitral stenosis was raised due to the presence of significant turbulence through the bi-orifice valve, with a peak gradient of 25 mm Hg. In addition there was evidence of severe functional tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation with elevated pulmonary artery pressures (PAP 90 mm Hg), confirmed on subsequent right heart catheterization. After repeated heart team discussions and a failure of optimal medical therapy, and despite a logistic EuroScore of 35.5, minimally invasive surgical replacement of the MV and simultaneous TV repair was undertaken via a right thoracotomy. Despite procedural success and initial good postoperative response, the patient died subsequently from a combination of hospital-acquired pneumonia and significant gastrointestinal bleeding (post operative day 35). Mitra-Clip is a promising novel approach to MV repair. The establishment of further clinical and echocardiographic based selection criteria will help identify the correct patients for this treatment. PMID:23703973

  3. Reversibility of mitral regurgitation following rheumatic fever: clinical profile and echocardiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, A S; el-Walili, T M; Zaher, S R; Ayman, M

    1995-01-01

    The clinical disappearance of the murmur of rheumatic mitral regurgitation after period of time has been documented by many researchers. However no studies have related the disappearance of the murmur with the functional or anatomical state of the mitral valve. This study was done to elucidate the mitral valve status using doppler and color coded echocardiography among those children who have lost their apical pansystolic murmur on auscultation following a documented attack of rheumatic fever. The study sample consisted of 51 patients including 31 patients in whom the murmur has disappeared (group I), and 20 patients with persistent isolated mitral regurgitation (group II). Patients of group I had significantly lower grades of murmur intensity, lower incidence of cardiomegaly, and had no heart failure in the initial attack. They were more compliant with prophylaxis and had less recurrences than patients of group II. The murmur disappeared in patients of group I from 1/2 to 14 years after the initial attack. Echocardiography revealed that such patients had a normal mitral valve apparatus, and a normal heart size and function. Only 5 patients of this group had a significant regurgitant jet demonstrated by colour doppler. We concluded that recovery of the mitral valve and return of cardiac functions to normal is possible in patients who had mitral regurgitation following rheumatic fever. Some of them may still have an inaudible mild regurgitation. Patients who have lost their murmur may be allowed to exercise freely, yet penicillin prophylaxis should not be discontinued. PMID:10829950

  4. Mechanical dyssynchrony and deformation imaging in patients with functional mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabella; Marini, Claudia; Stella, Stefano; Ancona, Francesco; Spartera, Marco; Margonato, Alberto; Agricola, Eustachio

    2016-01-01

    Chronic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a frequent finding of ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), associated with unfavourable prognosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in FMR, such as annular dilatation and dysfunction, left ventricle (LV) remodeling, dysfunction and dyssynchrony, papillary muscles displacement and dyssynchrony. The best therapeutic choice for FMR is still debated. When optimal medical treatment has already been set, a further option for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or surgical correction should be considered. CRT is able to contrast most of the pathophysiologic determinants of FMR by minimizing LV dyssynchrony through different mechanisms: Increasing closing forces, reducing tethering forces, reshaping annular geometry and function, correcting diastolic MR. Deformation imaging in terms of two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for LV dyssynchrony assessment. Radial speckle tracking and three-dimensional strain analysis appear to be the best methods to quantify intraventricular delay and to predict CRT-responders. Speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with mitral valve regurgitation has been usually proposed for the assessment of LV and left atrial function. However it has also revealed a fundamental role of intraventricular dyssynchrony in determining FMR especially in DCM, rather than in ischemic cardiomyopathy in which MR severity seems to be more related to mitral valve deformation indexes. Furthermore speckle tracking allows the assessment of papillary muscle dyssynchrony. Therefore this technique can help to identify optimal candidates to CRT that will probably demonstrate a reduction in FMR degree and thus will experience a better outcome. PMID:26981211

  5. Percutaneous and minimally invasive approaches to mitral valve repair for severe mitral regurgitation-new devices and emerging outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shamoun, Fadi E; Craner, Ryan C; Seggern, Rita Von; Makar, Gerges; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Mitral valve disease is common in the United States and around the world, and if left untreated, increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve repair is technically more demanding than mitral valve replacement. Mitral valve repair should be considered the first line of treatment for mitral regurgitation in younger patients, mitral valve prolapse, annular dilatation, and with structural damage to the valve. Several minimally invasive percutaneous treatment options for mitral valve repair are available that are not restricted to conventional surgical approaches, and may be better received by patients. A useful classification system of these approaches proposed by Chiam and Ruiz is based on anatomic targets and device action upon the leaflets, annulus, chordae, and left ventricle. Future directions of minimally invasive techniques will include improving the safety profile through patient selection and risk stratification, improvement of current imaging and techniques, and multidisciplinary education. PMID:26440239

  6. Chordal Rupture Following MitraClip Implantation Resulting in Massive Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Benito-González, Tomás; Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Gualis, Javier

    2015-10-01

    MitraClip (Abbott Vascular) therapy has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment for mitral regurgitation, even when the commissures are targeted. However, complications during the procedure may occur. We present a 44-year-old patient who underwent MitraClip implantation complicated by chordal rupture, resulting in emergent mitral valve replacement. PMID:26429855

  7. Critical evaluation of the MitraClip system in the management of mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Lubos, Edith; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schäfer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The MitraClip (MC) system is a device for percutaneous, transseptal edge-to-edge reconstruction of the mitral valve (MV) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) not eligible for surgery. Recently, a number of studies have underlined the therapeutic benefit of the MC system for patients with extreme and high risk for MV surgery suffering from either degenerative or functional MR. The MC procedure shows negligible intraprocedural mortality, low periprocedural complication rates, and a significant reduction in MR, as well as an improvement in functional capacity and most importantly quality of life. Presently, the MC system has become an additional interventional tool in the concert of surgical methods. It hereby enlarges the spectrum of MV repair for the Heart Team. Lately, many reviews focused on the MC system. The current review describes the developments in the treatment of MR with the MC system. PMID:26811687

  8. Critical evaluation of the MitraClip system in the management of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Lubos, Edith; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schäfer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The MitraClip (MC) system is a device for percutaneous, transseptal edge-to-edge reconstruction of the mitral valve (MV) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) not eligible for surgery. Recently, a number of studies have underlined the therapeutic benefit of the MC system for patients with extreme and high risk for MV surgery suffering from either degenerative or functional MR. The MC procedure shows negligible intraprocedural mortality, low periprocedural complication rates, and a significant reduction in MR, as well as an improvement in functional capacity and most importantly quality of life. Presently, the MC system has become an additional interventional tool in the concert of surgical methods. It hereby enlarges the spectrum of MV repair for the Heart Team. Lately, many reviews focused on the MC system. The current review describes the developments in the treatment of MR with the MC system. PMID:26811687

  9. Repair or replace for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation: prospective randomized multicenter data

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Acker, Michael A.; Gelijns, Annetine C.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a subset of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) that has the potential to impact an increasing number of patients in the future. This is in the context of a worldwide population, which continues to live longer with improved survival after myocardial infarction. Substantial data have accumulated over the past few decades demonstrating the negative effects of IMR. Further, significant research has been done to define the optimal surgical approach and several studies have compared mitral repair versus replacement for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (SMR). Studies supporting performance of mitral repair cite superior operative morbidity and mortality rates, while proponents of mitral replacement cite improved long-term durability and correction of MR. Lack of clinically robust Level I randomized controlled trial data have curtailed attempts to better define appropriate surgical treatment allocation over the past few decades. Recently, however, the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CTSN) conducted the first randomized controlled trial, funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Stroke and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, to compare the performance of mitral repair versus replacement for SMR. Herein, the present review describes the design, results and implications of the CTSN SMR trial and its efforts to identify the most efficacious surgical approach to SMR. This review also describes CTSN investigation to predict the recurrence of MR after mitral repair. PMID:26539344

  10. Quantification of mitral regurgitation by automated cardiac output measurement: experimental and clinical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Yang, X. S.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Zhou, J.; Vazquez, C. J.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an automated noninvasive method to quantify mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: Automated cardiac output measurement (ACM), which integrates digital color Doppler velocities in space and in time, has been validated for the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract but has not been tested for the LV inflow tract or to assess mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS: First, to validate ACM against a gold standard (ultrasonic flow meter), 8 dogs were studied at 40 different stages of cardiac output (CO). Second, to compare ACM to the LV outflow (ACMa) and inflow (ACMm) tracts, 50 normal volunteers without MR or aortic regurgitation (44+/-5 years, 31 male) were studied. Third, to compare ACM with the standard pulsed Doppler-two-dimensional echocardiographic (PD-2D) method for quantification of MR, 51 patients (61+/-14 years, 30 male) with MR were studied. RESULTS: In the canine studies, CO by ACM (1.32+/-0.3 liter/min, y) and flow meter (1.35+/-0.3 liter/min, x) showed good correlation (r=0.95, y=0.89x+0.11) and agreement (deltaCO(y-x)=0.03+/-0.08 [mean+/-SD] liter/min). In the normal subjects, CO measured by ACMm agreed with CO by ACMa (r=0.90, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.09+/-0.42 liter/min), PD (r=0.87, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=0.12+/-0.49 liter/min) and 2D (r=0.84, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.16+/-0.48 liter/min). In the patients, mitral regurgitant volume (MRV) by ACMm-ACMa agreed with PD-2D (r= 0.88, y=0.88x+6.6, p < 0.0001, deltaMRV=2.68+/-9.7 ml). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that ACM is a feasible new method for quantifying LV outflow and inflow volume to measure MRV and that ACM automatically performs calculations that are equivalent to more time-consuming Doppler and 2D measurements. Additionally, ACM should improve MR quantification in routine clinical practice.

  11. The use of exercise echocardiography in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Yared, Kibar; Lam, Kaitlyn My-Tu; Hung, Judy

    2009-11-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the second most common valvular disease in western countries after aortic stenosis. Optimal management of patients with MR depends on the etiology of the regurgitation and is based predominantly on left ventricular function and functional status. Recent outcome studies report high risk subsets of asymptomatic patients with MR, and practice guidelines underscore the importance of a well-established estimation of exercise tolerance and recommend exercise testing to objectively assess functional status and hemodynamic factors. PMID:21037848

  12. Systemic Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula Associated with Mitral Regurgitation: Successful Treatment with Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Iwazawa, Jin; Nakamura, Kenji; Hamuro, Masao; Nango, Mineyoshi; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nishida, Norifumi

    2008-07-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptomatic mitral regurgitation caused by a left-to-right shunt via anastomoses consisting of microfistulae, most likely of inflammatory origin, between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. The three arteries responsible for fistulous formation, including the internal mammary, thyrocervical, and lateral thoracic arteries, were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization using superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) particles combined with metallic coils. No complications have been identified following treatment with SAP-MS particles. This approach significantly reduced the patient's mitral regurgitation and she has remained asymptomatic for more than 4 years.

  13. [Left Ventricular Torsion in Papillary Muscle Relocation for Severe Functional Mitral Regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazunori; Hayashi, Chikako; Nakai, Hidekazu; Hyoudou, Eiichi; Tamita, Koichi; Yamamuro, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    A 42-year-old woman with a history of old myocardial infarction was admitted to our hospital with complaints of worsening orthopnea. Doppler echocardiography exhibited severe functional mitral valve regurgitation. Because of the tethered mitral valve, we performed mitral valve annuloplasty concomitantly with papillary muscle relocation procedure. The patient recovered well. Postoperative echocardiography had not exhibited recurrent mitral valve insufficiency. Moreover, postoperative left ventricular torsion using 2-dimentional speckle tracking imaging, improved at rest and at peak exercise, and this findings suggest that the reversal of left ventricular remodeling in relocation patients following preserved and connected mitral subvalvular apparatus may result from restoration of the global sequence of left ventricular twist mechanics. The analysis of left ventricular torsion may provide a more comprehensive evaluation of left ventricular mechanics and may help understand the effects of papillary muscle relocation with preserving mitral subvalvular apparatus. PMID:26759942

  14. How do we use imaging to aid considerations for intervention in patients with severe mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Increasing life expectancy and comorbid conditions, like obesity, especially in industrialized countries, have led to Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) becoming a major epidemic. Mitral valve disease currently accounts for nearly 10% of Valvular Heart Disease in industrialized countries worldwide. It is a known fact that, left untreated, degenerative mitral valve disease not only shortens an individual’s life, but is also associated with increased morbidity. Despite current guidelines, there is often marked delay in appropriately sending patients for consideration of surgical intervention—interventions that when performed well can dramatically restore patients to a more normal lifespan. The critical question is really not what the severity of the mitral regurgitation is, but what the effect of the mitral regurgitation is on the heart. Modern day echocardiography utilizing Transthoracic Echo, Stress Echo, and Transesophageal Echo, can provide the clinician and the surgeon with six key factors that when taken together provide clear direction as to the proper timing for consideration for mitral valve repair. Thinking of these in an integrative fashion, the clinician and the surgeon can more appropriately time proper surgical intervention in primary degenerative mitral regurgitation. PMID:24349982

  15. How do we use imaging to aid considerations for intervention in patients with severe mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Martin, Randolph P

    2013-11-01

    Increasing life expectancy and comorbid conditions, like obesity, especially in industrialized countries, have led to Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) becoming a major epidemic. Mitral valve disease currently accounts for nearly 10% of Valvular Heart Disease in industrialized countries worldwide. It is a known fact that, left untreated, degenerative mitral valve disease not only shortens an individual's life, but is also associated with increased morbidity. Despite current guidelines, there is often marked delay in appropriately sending patients for consideration of surgical intervention-interventions that when performed well can dramatically restore patients to a more normal lifespan. The critical question is really not what the severity of the mitral regurgitation is, but what the effect of the mitral regurgitation is on the heart. Modern day echocardiography utilizing Transthoracic Echo, Stress Echo, and Transesophageal Echo, can provide the clinician and the surgeon with six key factors that when taken together provide clear direction as to the proper timing for consideration for mitral valve repair. Thinking of these in an integrative fashion, the clinician and the surgeon can more appropriately time proper surgical intervention in primary degenerative mitral regurgitation. PMID:24349982

  16. Comparison of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Versus Conservative Treatment in Severe Functional Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Cristina; Fiorelli, Francesca; De Carlo, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Faggioni, Michela; Giordano, Paolo; Spontoni, Paolo; Pieroni, Andrea; Petronio, Anna Sonia

    2016-01-15

    Percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) using the MitraClip System is feasible and entails clinical improvement even in patients with high surgical risk and severe functional mitral regurgitation (MR). The aim of this study was to assess survival rates and clinical outcome of patients with severe, functional MR treated with optimal medical therapy (OMT) compared with those who received MitraClip device. Sixty patients treated with OMT were compared with a propensity-matched cohort of 60 patients who underwent PMVR. Baseline demographics and echocardiographic variables were similar between the 2 groups. The mean age of patients was 75 years, and 67% were men. The median logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II were 17% and 6%, respectively, because of the presence of several co-morbidities. The mechanism of MR was functional in all cases with an ischemic etiology in 52% of patients. Median left ventricle ejection fraction was 34%. All the patients were symptomatic for dyspnea with 63% and 12% in the New York Heart Association class III and IV, respectively. In PMVR group, the procedure was associated with safety and very low incidence of procedural complications with no occurrence of procedural and inhospital mortality. After a median follow-up of 515 days (248 to 828 days), patients treated with PMVR demonstrated overall survival, survival freedom from cardiac death and survival free of readmission due to cardiac disease curves higher than patients treated conservatively (log-rank test p = 0.007, p = 0.002, and p = 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, PMVR offers a valid option for selected patients with high surgical risk and severe, functional MR and entails better survival outcomes compared with OMT. PMID:26651454

  17. Single-Suture Neochorda-Folding Plasty for Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Myung; Je, Hyung Gon; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    The single-suture neochorda-folding plasty technique is a modification of existing mitral valve repair techniques. In the authors’ experience, its simplicity, reliability, and versatility make it a useful technique for mitral valve repair, especially when a minimally invasive approach is used. PMID:26889453

  18. Single-Suture Neochorda-Folding Plasty for Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Myung; Je, Hyung Gon; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2016-02-01

    The single-suture neochorda-folding plasty technique is a modification of existing mitral valve repair techniques. In the authors' experience, its simplicity, reliability, and versatility make it a useful technique for mitral valve repair, especially when a minimally invasive approach is used. PMID:26889453

  19. In vitro validation of real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area in mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J; Nosé, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A

    2007-05-15

    The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two different regurgitant flow conditions were tested using symmetric and asymmetric flow orifices. Three-dimensional-PISA was reconstructed from a hand-held real-time 3D-CD data set. Regurgitant volume was derived using both 2D-CD and 3D-CD PISA methods, and each was compared against a flow-meter standard. The circulatory loop achieved regurgitant volume within the clinical range of MR (11 to 84 ml). Three-dimensional-PISA geometry reflected the 2D geometry of the regurgitant orifice. Correlation between the 2D-PISA method regurgitant volume and actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.47, p <0.001). Mean 2D-PISA regurgitant volume underestimate was 19.1 +/- 25 ml (2 SDs). For the 3D-PISA method, correlation with actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.92, p <0.001), with a mean regurgitant volume underestimate of 2.7 +/- 10 ml (2 SDs). The 3D-PISA method showed less regurgitant volume underestimation for all orifice shapes and regurgitant volumes tested. In conclusion, in an in vitro model of MR, 3D-CD was used to directly measure PISA without geometric assumption. Compared with conventional 2D-PISA, regurgitant volume was more accurate when derived from 3D-PISA across symmetric and asymmetric orifices within a broad range of hemodynamic flow conditions. PMID:17493476

  20. Polymer Injection Therapy to Reverse Remodel the Papillary Muscles: Efficacy in Reducing Mitral Regurgitation in a Chronic Ischemic Model

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Levine, Robert A.; Johnson, Benjamin; Guerrero, J. Luis; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Suzanne, Suzanne; Lam, Kaitlyn; Berlin, Jason; Braithwaite, Gavin J.C.; Muratoglu, Orhun K.; Vlahakes, Gus J.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) results from displacement of the papillary muscles due to ischemic ventricular distortion. Recurrent IMR is frequent after annuloplasty, particularly when left ventricular remodeling continues to progress. Our hypothesis is that repositioning of the papillary muscles can be achieved by injection of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) hydrogel polymer into the myocardium in chronic MR despite advanced left ventricular remodeling. Methods Nine sheep underwent ligation of circumflex branches to produce chronic ischemic MR over eight weeks. Once MR developed, PVA was injected into the myocardium underlying the infarcted PM. 2D and 3D echocardiograms and hemodynamic data were obtained pre infarct (baseline), pre PVA (Chronic MR) and post PVA. Results One animal died early, one did not develop MR, and the remaining 7 developed moderate MR. PVA injection significantly decreased the MR from moderate to trace. This was associated with a decrease in infarcted papillary muscle-to-mitral annulus tethering distance (32.6 ± 4.4 to 27.6 ± 4.2 mm, P<0.05), tenting volume (2.1±0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.3 mm2 P<0.05) and leaflet closure area (9.3 ± 0.8 to 8.2 ± 0.7 mm2, P<0.04). PVA was not associated with significant decreases in LVEF (42 ± 3 % vs 40 ± 2 %, p=ns) or end-systolic elastance. Measures of left ventricular diastolic function, tau (99 ± 55 ms to 87 ± 36;) and left ventricular stiffness coefficient (0.04 ± 0.03 to 0.05 ± 0.03) did not increase post PVA. Conclusions PVA hydrogel injections improve coaptation and reduce remodeling in chronic MR without impairing LV systolic and diastolic function. This new approach offers a potential alternative for relieving ischemic mitral regurgitation by correcting papillary muscle position, thus relieving tethering that causes ischemic mitral regurgitation. PMID:20736444

  1. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  2. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair through right minithoracotomy in the setting of degenerative mitral regurgitation: early outcomes and long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Murzi, Michele; Canarutto, Daniele; Gilmanov, Danyiar; Ferrarini, Matteo; Farneti, Pier A.; Solinas, Marco; Glauber, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitral valve (MV) repair is the gold standard for the treatment of degenerative MV regurgitation. Recently, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) has shown excellent postoperative outcomes compared with conventional surgery. The aim of our study is to report early and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing MIMVS through right mini-thoracotomy (RT) over an eight year period. Methods From September 2003 to December 2011, a total of 1,604 consecutive patients underwent MIMVS through RT. Results The mean age was 62±13 years, 295 (42%) patients were female and 16 (2.3%) had previous cardiac operations. MV repair was successfully performed in 670 patients, with a rate of success of 95.3%. Repair techniques included annuloplasty (89%), leaflet resection (n=54.2%), neochordae implantation (12.1%), and sliding plasty (10.5%). Overall in-hospital mortality was 0.1%. Incidence of stroke was 1.3%. At eight-year follow-up, overall survival was 90.1%, freedom from reoperation 93%, and freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation was 90%. Conclusions MIMV repair through right minithoracotomy is a safe and reproducible procedure associated with high rate of MV repair, and excellent early postoperative and long-term results. PMID:26539346

  3. In vitro measurement of the coaptation force distribution in normal and functional regurgitant porcine mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Adams, John; O'Rourke, Malachy J

    2015-07-01

    Closure of the left atrioventricular orifice is achieved when the anterior and posterior leaflets of the mitral valve press together to form a coaptation zone along the free edge of the leaflets. This coaptation zone is critical to valve competency and is maintained by the support of the mitral annulus, chordae tendinae, and papillary muscles. Myocardial ischemia can lead to an altered performance of this mitral complex generating suboptimal mitral leaflet coaptation and a resultant regurgitant orifice. This paper reports on a two-part experiment undertaken to measure the dependence of coaptation force distribution on papillary muscle position in normal and functional regurgitant porcine mitral heart valves. Using a novel load sensor, the local coaptation force was measured in vitro at three locations (A1-P1, A2-P2, and A3-P3) along the coaptation zone. In part 1, the coaptation force was measured under static conditions in ten whole hearts. In part 2, the coaptation force was measured in four explanted mitral valves operating in a flow loop under physiological flow conditions. Here, two series of tests were undertaken corresponding to the normal and functional regurgitant state as determined by the position of the papillary muscles relative to the mitral valve annulus. The functional regurgitant state corresponded to grade 1. The static tests in part 1 revealed that the local force was directly proportional to the transmitral pressure and was nonuniformly distributed across the coaptation zone, been strongest at A1-P1. In part 2, tests of the valve in a normal state showed that the local force was again directly proportional to the transmitral pressure and was again nonuniform across the coaptation zone, been strongest at A1-P1 and weakest at A2-P2. Further tests performed on the same valves in a functional regurgitant state showed that the local force measured in the coaptation zone was directly proportional to the transmitral pressure. However, the force was now observed to be weakest at A1-P1 and strongest at A2-P2. Movement of the anterolateral papillary muscle (APM) away from both the annular and anterior-posterior (AP) planes was seen to contribute significantly to the altered force distribution in the coaptation zone. It was concluded that papillary muscle displacement typical of myocardial ischemia changes the coaptation force locally within the coaptation zone. PMID:25661678

  4. A Pig Model of Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Induced by Mitral Chordae Tendinae Rupture and Implantation of an Ameroid Constrictor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yi; Yuan, Wei-Min; Peng, Peng; Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Bao-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Ai-Li; Tang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A miniature pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) was developed by posterior mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. A 2.5-mm ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) of male Tibetan miniature pigs to induce ischemia, while the posterior mitral chordae tendinae was also ruptured. X-ray coronary angiography, ECG analysis, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate heart structure and function in pigs at baseline and one, two, four and eight weeks after the operation. Blood velocity of the mitral regurgitation was found to be between medium and high levels. Angiographic analyses revealed that the LCX closure was 10–20% at one week, 30–40% at two weeks and 90–100% at four weeks subsequent ameroid constrictor implantation. ECG analysis highlighted an increase in the diameter of the left atria (LA) at two weeks post-operation as well as ischemic changes in the left ventricle (LV) and LA wall at four weeks post-operation. Echocardiography and MRI further detected a gradual increase in LA and LV volumes from two weeks post-operation. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes as well as LA end diastolic and systolic volume were also significantly higher in pig hearts post-operation when compared to baseline. Pathological changes were observed in the heart, which included scar tissue in the ischemic central area of the LV. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the presence of contraction bands and edema surrounding the ischemia area, including inflammatory cell infiltration within the ischemic area. We have developed a pig model of IMR using the posterior mitral chordae tendineae rupture technique and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. The pathological features of this pig IMR model were found to mimic the natural history and progression of IMR in patients. PMID:25479001

  5. A pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation induced by mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong-Chun; Li, Kai; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Wei-Min; Peng, Peng; Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Bao-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Ai-Li; Tang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A miniature pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) was developed by posterior mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. A 2.5-mm ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) of male Tibetan miniature pigs to induce ischemia, while the posterior mitral chordae tendinae was also ruptured. X-ray coronary angiography, ECG analysis, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate heart structure and function in pigs at baseline and one, two, four and eight weeks after the operation. Blood velocity of the mitral regurgitation was found to be between medium and high levels. Angiographic analyses revealed that the LCX closure was 10-20% at one week, 30-40% at two weeks and 90-100% at four weeks subsequent ameroid constrictor implantation. ECG analysis highlighted an increase in the diameter of the left atria (LA) at two weeks post-operation as well as ischemic changes in the left ventricle (LV) and LA wall at four weeks post-operation. Echocardiography and MRI further detected a gradual increase in LA and LV volumes from two weeks post-operation. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes as well as LA end diastolic and systolic volume were also significantly higher in pig hearts post-operation when compared to baseline. Pathological changes were observed in the heart, which included scar tissue in the ischemic central area of the LV. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the presence of contraction bands and edema surrounding the ischemia area, including inflammatory cell infiltration within the ischemic area. We have developed a pig model of IMR using the posterior mitral chordae tendineae rupture technique and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. The pathological features of this pig IMR model were found to mimic the natural history and progression of IMR in patients. PMID:25479001

  6. Cor triatriatum in an adult with mitral regurgitation and massive left atrial enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, B.A.; Bogren, H.G.; DeMaria, A.N.

    1983-04-01

    An unusual case of cor triatriatum in a 52-year-old woman is described in which the preoperative diagnosis was obscured by the presence of mitral valvular regurgitation and massive left atrial enlargement; such massive left atrial enlargement has not been reported before in this entity. Only the right pulmonary veins drained into the accessory chamber. The abnormal septum dividing the left atrium was demonstrated by two-dimensional but not M-mode echocardiography.

  7. Increased mitral valve regurgitation and myocardial hypertrophy in two dogs with long-term pimobendan therapy.

    PubMed

    Tissier, R; Chetboul, V; Moraillon, R; Nicolle, A; Carlos, C; Enriquez, B; Pouchelon, J-L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe original adverse effects in two dogs chronically treated with the inodilator pimobendan. We report a German shepherd (i.e., dog 1) and a poodle (i.e., dog 2) that were referred to our cardiology unit after receiving pimobendan for 10 and 5 mo, respectively. In both dogs, conventional echo-Doppler examination demonstrated mitral valve regurgitation and myocardial hypertrophy. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) was performed in the first case and revealed an abnormal relaxation phase. After the first examination, pimobendan administration was stopped in both cases and dogs were re-examined 3 and 1 mo later, respectively. Mitral valve regurgitation assessed by echocardiography decreased in both dogs, and the systolic heart murmur disappeared in dog 1. Importantly, most echocardiographic and TDI parameters tended to normalize in dog 1, suggesting, at least partial reversal of both myocardial hypertrophy and relaxation abnormality produced during inodilator therapy. This is the first report to describe an increase in mitral regurgitation under clinical conditions in dogs treated with pimobendan. We also suggest that pimobendan may induce ventricular hypertrophy. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm this observation. PMID:15738584

  8. Left atrial distensibility and left ventricular filling pressure in acute versus chronic severe mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Hung; Huang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Ko-Long; Chiou, Kuan-Rau; Kuo, Feng-You; Lin, Shih-Kai; Cheng, Chin-Chang

    2010-03-01

    Echocardiograms and left ventricular (LV) filling pressure were obtained from 95 patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and 16 patients with acute severe MR. All patients underwent catheterization for preoperative examinations and LV filling pressure measurements. A total of 52 age-, gender- and co-morbidity-matched patients with negative coronary angiographic results served as the controls. Echocardiography, including assessment of left atrial (LA) distensibility, was performed simultaneously. LA distensibility correlated logarithmically with the LV filling pressure. However, the early-diastolic mitral inflow velocity divided by the early-diastolic mitral annular velocity (mitral E/E') correlated linearly with the LV filling pressure. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that LV filling pressure correlated positively with the maximum and minimum indexed LA volume, as well as the E/E', but the LV filling pressure correlated negatively with LA distensibility, LA ejection fraction, and LV ejection fraction. However, the MR regurgitation volume was associated only with the maximum and minimum indexed LA volume. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that LA distensibility was not inferior to E/E' for identifying a LV filling pressure >15 mm Hg. However, to identify acute severe MR, LA distensibility was superior to E/E'. In conclusion, LA distensibility, as is E/E', is a valuable diastolic parameter. In patients with severe MR, it offers adequate power to assess the LV filling pressure and to identify acute severe MR. PMID:20185021

  9. Chronic mitral regurgitation and Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temporelli, P. L.; Scapellato, F.; Corra, U.; Eleuteri, E.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Giannuzzi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies relating Doppler parameters and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) typically exclude patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of chronic MR on the Doppler estimation of PCWP. PCWP and mitral Doppler profiles were obtained in 88 patients (mean age 55 +/- 8 years) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 23% +/- 5%). Patients were classified by severity of MR. Patients with severe MR had greater left atrial areas, LV end-diastolic volumes, and mean PCWPs and lower ejection fractions (each P <.01). In patients with mild MR, multiple echocardiographic parameters correlated with PCWP; however, with worsening MR, only deceleration time strongly related to PCWP. From stepwise multivariate analysis, deceleration time was the best independent predictor of PCWP overall, and it was the only predictor in patients with moderate or severe MR. Doppler-derived early mitral deceleration time reliably predicts PCWP in patients with severe LV dysfunction irrespective of degree of MR.

  10. Transapical off-pump Neochord implantation on bileaflet prolapse to treat severe mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Colli, Andrea; Bellu, Roberto; Pittarello, Demetrio; Gerosa, Gino

    2015-10-01

    A 74-year old lady was admitted for the presence of a symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) due to bileaflet prolapse. The patient refused any surgical conventional procedure because of severe arthrosis and osteoporosis documented by previous fractures requiring knee and hip replacements, and was sent directly to us for transapical off-pump mitral valve repair with Neochord implantation (TOP-MINI procedure). The TOP-MINI procedure was performed under general anaesthesia and transoesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Four Neochordae were implanted on the posterior leaflet and two on the anterior leaflet in order to correct a residual anterior prolapse that was not seen at preoperative screening. After 11 months of follow-up, the patient presented with recurrence of symptomatic moderate MR due to rupture of one of two neochordae implanted on the anterior leaflet and new onset of atrial fibrillation. The patient underwent uneventful mitral valve replacement. PMID:26180097

  11. Combined computational and experimental approach to improve the assessment of mitral regurgitation by echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Simon J; Li, Wei; Becker, Michael; Kaestner, Wiebke; Büsen, Martin R; Marx, Nikolaus; Merhof, Dorit; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most frequent valvular heart diseases. To assess MR severity, color Doppler imaging (CDI) is the clinical standard. However, inadequate reliability, poor reproducibility and heavy user-dependence are known limitations. A novel approach combining computational and experimental methods is currently under development aiming to improve the quantification. A flow chamber for a circulatory flow loop was developed. Three different orifices were used to mimic variations of MR. The flow field was recorded simultaneously by a 2D Doppler ultrasound transducer and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted using the same geometry and boundary conditions. The resulting computed velocity field was used to simulate synthetic Doppler signals. Comparison between PIV and CFD shows a high level of agreement. The simulated CDI exhibits the same characteristics as the recorded color Doppler images. The feasibility of the proposed combination of experimental and computational methods for the investigation of MR is shown and the numerical methods are successfully validated against the experiments. Furthermore, it is discussed how the approach can be used in the long run as a platform to improve the assessment of MR quantification. PMID:24398572

  12. Mitral Perivalvular Leak after Blunt Chest Trauma: A Rare Cause of Severe Subacute Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Nicola; Facciorusso, Antonio; Vigna, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a very rare cause of valve disorder. Moreover, mitral valve involvement is less frequent than is aortic or tricuspid valve involvement, and the clinical course is usually acute. In the present report, we describe the case of a 49-year-old man with a perivalvular mitral injury that became clinically manifest one year after a violent, nonpenetrating chest injury. This case is atypical in regard to the valve involved (isolated mitral damage), the injury type (perivalvular leak in the absence of subvalvular abnormalities), and the clinical course (interval of one year between trauma and symptoms). PMID:26664317

  13. Mitral Perivalvular Leak after Blunt Chest Trauma: A Rare Cause of Severe Subacute Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Vigna, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a very rare cause of valve disorder. Moreover, mitral valve involvement is less frequent than is aortic or tricuspid valve involvement, and the clinical course is usually acute. In the present report, we describe the case of a 49-year-old man with a perivalvular mitral injury that became clinically manifest one year after a violent, nonpenetrating chest injury. This case is atypical in regard to the valve involved (isolated mitral damage), the injury type (perivalvular leak in the absence of subvalvular abnormalities), and the clinical course (interval of one year between trauma and symptoms). PMID:26664317

  14. Impact of Duration of Mitral Regurgitation on Outcomes in Asymptomatic Patients With Myxomatous Mitral Valve Undergoing Exercise Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Peyman; Asfahan, Fadi; Barr, Tyler; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo; Grimm, Richard A.; Agarwal, Shikhar; Thomas, James D.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Griffin, Brian P.; Desai, Milind Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) typically occurs as holosystolic (HS) or mid?late systolic (MLS), with differences in volumetric impact on the left ventricle (LV). We sought to assess outcomes of degenerative MR patients undergoing exercise echocardiography, separated based on MR duration (MLS versus HS). Methods and Results We included 609 consecutive patients with ?III+myxomatous MR undergoing exercise echocardiography: HS (n=487) and MLS (n=122). MLS MR was defined as delayed appearance of MR signal during mid?late systole on continuous?wave Doppler while HS MR occurred throughout systole. Composite events of death and congestive heart failure were recorded. Compared to MLS MR, HS MR patients were older (60±14 versus 53±14 years), more were males (72% versus 53%), and had greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation (16% versus 7%; all P<0.01). HS MR patients had higher right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) at rest (33±11 versus 27±9 mm Hg), more flail leaflets (36% versus 6%), and a lower number of metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved (9.5±3 versus 10.5±3), compared to the MLS MR group (all P<0.05). There were 54 events during 7.1±3 years of follow?up. On step?wise multivariable analysis, HS versus MLS MR (HR 4.99 [1.21 to 20.14]), higher LV ejection fraction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [0.89 to 0.98]), atrial fibrillation (HR, 2.59 [1.33 to 5.11]), higher RVSP (HR, 1.05 [1.03 to 1.09]), and higher percentage of age? and gender?predicted METs (HR, 0.98 [0.97 to 0.99]) were independently associated with adverse outcomes (all P<0.05). Conclusion In patients with ?III+myxomatous MR undergoing exercise echocardiography, holosystolic MR is associated with adverse outcomes, independent of other predictors. PMID:25672368

  15. Percutaenous mitral valve: A non-stented coronary sinus device for the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Sack, Stefan; Kahlert, Philipp; Erbel, Raimund

    2009-01-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation in heart failure limits survival in a severity-graded fashion. Even mild mitral regurgitation doubles mortality risk. We report the use of a non-stented coronary sinus device to reduce mitral annulus dimension in order to re-establish mitral valve competence. The device (PTMA, Viacor, Inc., Wilmington, MA, USA) consists of a multi-lumen PTFE (Teflon) PTMA catheter in which Nitinol (nickel-titanium alloy) treatment rods are advanced. For individual use up to three rods of different length and stiffness can be used. Therefore dimension reduction can be performed in an incremental fashion. Fluoroscopy and 3 D echocardiography are performed throughout the procedure to visiualize the positioning and confirm maximum treatment effect. The case describes the use and the effect of PTMA treatment. Safety and efficacy of the PTMA device will be investigated in the upcoming PTOLEMY 2 trial. PMID:19431068

  16. Tricuspid and mitral regurgitation detected by color flow Doppler in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, A.; Kamiya, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Sato, I.; Arakaki, Y.; Kohata, T.; Ono, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Valvular lesions in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease were studied in 19 children. The patients were intensively observed by color flow Doppler every day from the day of hospitalization up to 12 days after the onset of the disease and 2 or more times a week thereafter, for up to 28 days. Mitral regurgitation (MR) was found in 9 patients (47%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in 10 (53%). MRs were of transient type and confirmed from 7.5 +/- 1.6 (mean +/- standard deviation) to 13.1 +/- 6.5 days after the onset of the disease. Both types of valvular regurgitation were mild. The direction of regurgitation was from the center of valvular coaptation toward the posterior wall of the atrium. Neither valvular prolapse nor valvular deformity was noted. In patients with MR, left ventricular ejection fraction on M-mode echocardiography was significantly lower in the acute phase than in the convalescent phase of the disease (p less than 0.05). Using gallium-67 scintigram, the positive uptake of the isotope was noted in 7 (88%) of 8 patients with MR, but not found at all in 8 patients free of MR. These results suggest that MR and TR are often transient in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease and could be attributed to myocarditis.

  17. An Intriguing Case Report of Functional Mitral Regurgitation Treated With MitraClip

    PubMed Central

    Duino, Vincenzo; Fiocca, Luigi; Musumeci, Giuseppe; D’Elia, Emilia; Gori, Mauro; Cerchierini, Elisa; Valsecchi, Orazio; Senni, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is frequent in patients with heart failure (HF). It develops as a consequence of left ventricle (LV) geometry alterations, causing imbalance between increased tethering forces and decreased closing forces exerted on the mitral valve apparatus during systole. FMR is known to change at rest and during effort, due to preload–afterload changes, myocardial ischemia, and/or LV dysfunction. Despite optimized medical therapy, an FMR can be responsible of shortness of breath limiting quality of life and decompensation. In this report, we present a case of dynamic FMR treated with MitraClip. MitraClip implantation is a successful and innovative opportunity for HF patients with FMR. PMID:25997036

  18. [Incidentally detected bronchial artery aneurysm with combined operation for mitral regurgitation;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisashi; Oteki, Hitoshi; Naito, Kozo; Yunoki, Junji

    2015-02-01

    A 77-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for heart failure with orthopnea. Echocardiography revealed massive mitral regurgitation. During preoperative cardiac catheterization, an aneurysm was indentified incidentally just below the tracheal carina. Three dimensional computed tomography showed three bronchial artery aneurysms behind the pulmonary artery and the left atrium. The proximal aneurysm was the largest and was 22 mm in diameter. It was resected by retracting the ascending aorta to the left, the superior vana cava to the right and right pulmonary artery cranially under cardiopulmonary bypass, and mitral valve plasty was performed. We believed that resection of the proximal aneurysm would cause thrombotic occlusion of the other 2 aneurysms. Bronchial artery aneurysm is a rare entity that is observed in fewer than 1% of those who undergo selective bronchial arteriography. In addition, because bronchial artery aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening lesion, it should be treated promptly when diagnosed. PMID:25743361

  19. Importance of ischemic and viable myocardium for patients with chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pu, Min; Thomas, James D; Gillinov, Marc A; Griffin, Brian P; Brunken, Richard C

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the importance of ischemic viable myocardium for clinical outcomes in patients with severe chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation and severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing surgical correction of mitral regurgitation. The study included 54 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27 +/- 9%. Positron emission tomography was performed preoperatively for the identification of ischemic viable myocardium. The patients with a large amount of ischemic viable myocardium (> or =5 segments) had significantly lower 6-month mortality rates than those with less viable myocardium (0 to 4 segments) after the surgery. PMID:14516895

  20. [Valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation immediately following Kawasaki disease without abnormal coronary arteries lesion; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Makoto; Yashima, M; Takeuchi, T; Adachi, S; Goto, H; Kuwabara, N; Kuwahara, T

    2004-09-01

    It is not uncommon that valve disease is complicated with Kawasaki disease (KD). However, it is rare to show normal coronary arteries simultaneously. We experienced a case of valvuloplasty towards the mitral regurgitation (MR) followed immediately after KD showing normal coronary arteries. A 3 year-old-female, with a diagnosis of KD at 4 months after birth, was referred to our hospital 5 months after birth. The echocardiography detected a moderate MR. The preoperative catheterization at 2.5 years old showed grade III MR, enlargement of left atrium and left ventricle, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) = 12 mmHg, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) = 675, and normal coronary arteries. Pulmonary hypertention was not revealed. The operative findings showed mitral valve prolapse due to the elongation of the chordae of the anterior leaflet. She underwent artificial chordal reconstruction using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures and mitral annuloplasty by Kay-Reed method. The postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged on postoperative day 19. PMID:15462350

  1. Surgical Strategies for Management of Mitral Regurgitation: Recent Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Tolis, George; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by structural abnormality of the valve ("primary" MR), about which there is increasing consensus regarding treatment, there is increasing controversy around the management of functional or "secondary" MR, of which "ischemic mitral regurgitation" (IMR) is a common cause. While the trend in the management of primary MR is increasingly aggressive, with wide agreement on the preference for repair over replacement such that debate centers on earlier and earlier repair even among asymptomatic patients, the situation is reversed in the setting of secondary MR with uncertainly beyond the mode of management (repair or replacement) to the value of intervening at all. This is, in part, because the term IMR has been somewhat loosely applied by the medical and surgical communities to include regurgitation secondary to active myocardial ischemia, as well as that resulting from a completed myocardial infarct. As a result, there is considerable variability in reported outcomes of surgical interventions for IMR. In addition, the natural history of IMR is quite adverse-more so than that of many solid organ malignancies-and its surgical treatment has traditionally carried a higher operative mortality than many cardiac surgical procedures, including similar operations for primary MR and incidental coronary artery disease. Added to this, with recent advances in both the medical and surgical treatment of heart failure improving nonoperative outcomes and simultaneously reducing operative risk compared to reports from previous decades, the landscape has been quite dynamic. Here, we review the issues surrounding surgical treatment for IMR, along with available evidence supporting different approaches, to lend an informed perspective on the divergent opinions among experts in this field and guide the appropriate management of the individual patient. PMID:26486511

  2. Pulsed tissue Doppler imaging detects early myocardial dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with severe mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Agricola, E; Galderisi, M; Oppizzi, M; Schinkel, A F L; Maisano, F; De Bonis, M; Margonato, A; Maseri, A; Alfieri, O

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether tissue Doppler myocardial imaging (TDI) indices can predict postoperative left ventricular function in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) after surgical correction. Methods: 84 patients (mean (SD) age 54.3 (10.8) years) with asymptomatic severe MR, an end systolic diameter < 45 mm, and an ejection fraction (EF) > 60% were subdivided in two groups: 43 patients with a postoperative EF reduction < 10% (group 1) and 41 patients with a postoperative EF reduction ? 10% (group 2).TDI systolic indices of the lateral annulus were analysed preoperatively to assess myocardial systolic wave (Sm) velocity, myocardial precontraction time (PCTm), myocardial contraction time (CTm), and the PCTm:CTm ratio. Results: Postoperative EF decreased significantly (from 67 (5)% to 60 (5.5)%, p ?=? 0.0001). Group 2 had a higher PCTm, CTm, and PCTm:CTm ratio and a lower Sm velocity than group 1 (PCTm 100.4 (19) ms v 82 (21.8) ms, p ?=? 0.004; CTm 222 (3.1) ms v 215 (2.3) ms, p ?=? 0.01; PCTm:CTm 0.45 (0.08) v 0.38 (0.09), p ?=? 0.001; Sm velocity 10.4 (1.1) cm/s v 13 (1.3) cm/s, p ?=? 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the combination of PCTm:CTm ratio ? 40 ms and Sm velocity ? 10.5 cm/s was the main independent predictor of postoperative EF reduction ? 10% (sensitivity 78%, specificity 95%). Conclusions: TDI systolic indices can predict postoperative left ventricular function in patients with asymptomatic MR undergoing surgical correction. PMID:15020516

  3. The change in mitral regurgitation severity after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Almasood, Ali; Al Ahmari, Saeed; El-shurafa, Haytham; Alotaibi, Mohammed; al kasab, saad; AlAbdallah, Moheeb; Al-moghairi, abdulrahman; Al khushail, Abdullah; Al-Amri, Husain

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a frequent finding in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The objective of this study is to assess the change in MR severity following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods MR changes were assessed by comparing transthoracic echocardiography before and after the procedure. Results The prosthetic aortic valve was successfully implanted in 65 patients. The number of patients with pre-procedure MR was reduced from 58 (85.3%) to 43 (63.2%) (p < 0.001). Vena contracta width was decreased from 0.47 ± 0.28 to 0.25 ± 0.21, (p = 0.043). About 59.4% (19/32) of those who had moderate to severe MR and 85.7% (12/14) of those with severe MR experienced a significant improvement in MR after the procedure (p < 0.001). Improvement in MR was independent of prosthetic valve type with 54.2% in CoreValve and 43.9% in Edwards SAPIEN, p = 0.424; valve sizes were 25.8 ± 1.9 in those who improved vs. 25.0 ± 1.9 mm in those who did not improve, p = 0.105; femoral approach was 51.2% and apical approach was 41.7%, p = 0.457; MR etiology was 48.1% in organic and 48.6% in functional, p = 0.968; and operative risk was 50.0% in EuroScore >20 and 48.6% in EuroScore <20, p = 0.356. Conclusions TAVI is associated with a significant improvement in MR, especially in severe types. The lack of influence of MR improvement by the etiology of MR, the type of valve implanted, and the operative risk need to be confirmed in a larger multi-center study. PMID:25544817

  4. Quantitation of mitral regurgitation after percutaneous MitraClip repair: comparison of Doppler echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Strugnell, Wendy; Gaikwad, Niranjan; Ischenko, Matthew; Speranza, Vicki; Chan, Jonathan; Neill, Johanne; Platts, David; Scalia, Gregory M.; Burstow, Darryl J.; Walters, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous valve intervention for severe mitral regurgitation (MR) using the MitraClip is a novel technology. Quantitative assessment of residual MR by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is challenging, with multiple eccentric jets and artifact from the clips. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the reference standard for left and right ventricular volumetric assessment. CMR phase-contrast flow imaging has superior reproducibility for quantitation of MR compared to echocardiography. The objective of this study was to establish the feasibility and reproducibility of CMR in quantitating residual MR after MitraClip insertion in a prospective study. Methods Twenty-five patients underwent successful MitraClip insertion. Nine were excluded due to non-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible implants or arrhythmia, leaving 16 who underwent a comprehensive CMR examination at 1.5 T (Siemens Aera) with multiplanar steady state free precession (SSFP) cine imaging (cine CMR), and phase-contrast flow acquisitions (flow CMR) at the mitral annulus atrial to the MitraClip, and the proximal aorta. Same-day echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional (2D) visualization and Doppler. CMR and echocardiographic data were independently and blindly analyzed by expert readers. Inter-rater comparison was made by concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and Bland-Altman (BA) methods. Results Mean age was 79 years, and mean LVEF was 44%±11% by CMR and 54%±16% by echocardiography. Inter-observer reproducibility of echocardiographic visual categorical grading by expert readers was poor, with a CCC of 0.475 (?0.7, 0.74). Echocardiographic Doppler regurgitant fraction reproducibility was modest (CCC 0.59, 0.15-0.84; BA mean difference ?3.7%, ?38% to 31%). CMR regurgitant fraction reproducibility was excellent (CCC 0.95, 0.86-0.98; BA mean difference ?2.4%, ?11.9 to 7.0), with a lower mean difference and narrower limits of agreement compared to echocardiography. Categorical severity grading by CMR using published ranges had good inter-observer agreement (CCC 0.86, 0.62-0.95). Conclusions CMR performs very well in the quantitation of MR after MitraClip insertion, with excellent reproducibility compared to echocardiographic methods. CMR is a useful technique for the comprehensive evaluation of residual regurgitation in patients after MitraClip. Technical limitations exist for both techniques, and quantitation remains a challenge in some patients. PMID:26309843

  5. Efficacy of Artificial Chordal Reconstruction for Idiopathic Severe Mitral Regurgitation Due To Chordal Rupture in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Sai, Sadahiro; Konishi, Akinobu; Sato, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Satoshi; Nitta, Megumi

    2015-01-01

    Early surgical intervention is required for sudden onset, severe mitral regurgitation (MR) due to chordal rupture in infants with normal development younger than 1 year. The condition has been recognized as idiopathic. However, the surgical options in children are limited because of their size and somatic growth. We sought to examine the efficacy of mitral valve plasty by artificial chordal reconstruction for these infants in mid-to-long term. From August 2005 through June 2012, 8 consecutive patients aged 1-7 months underwent mitral valve plasty by chordal reconstruction using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures for MR, owing to leaflet prolapse. The geometric parameters of the diameter of the mitral annulus (D1), the long axis of the left ventricular (LV) chamber (D2), and the length of the papillary muscle including the reconstructed chordae (D3) were measured, as well as MR grade (0-4) and LV end-diastolic dimension, at each time point. The parameters were compared with those in the control group that included Kawasaki disease patients without cardiac lesions and healthy children (n = 51). Mean follow-up period was 5.8 (2.8-9.6) years. Freedom from reoperation was 100%. MR grades were 3.9 ± 0.4 preoperatively, 2.4 ± 0.9 at discharge, and 1.4 ± 0.6 at the latest. Postoperative MR was improved within 1 year in 5 of 6 patients who had grade 2 or higher regurgitation. LV end-diastolic dimensions were 109% (% of normal), 113%, and 107% at discharge, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Geometric configuration indicated by the D1/D2 ratio did not significantly change with time. The length of the papillary muscle including reconstructed chordae (D3) strongly correlated with body surface area (r(2) = 0.65), which seemed to be equivalent to that in the control group. In conclusion, postoperative mitral valve function and geometry was preserved. This procedure with a low morbidity should be an option for pediatric patients with acute severe MR. PMID:26708377

  6. Early surgical intervention or watchful waiting for the management of asymptomatic mitral regurgitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Andrew B.; Patrick, William L.; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Aribeana, Chiaka N.; Popat, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Background Discordance between studies drives continued debate regarding the best management of asymptomatic severe mitral regurgitation (MR). The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of management plans for asymptomatic severe MR, and compare the effectiveness of a strategy of early surgery to watchful waiting. Methods A systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were excluded if they: (I) lacked a watchful waiting cohort; (II) included symptomatic patients; or (III) included etiologies other than degenerative mitral valve disease. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause mortality at 10 years. Secondary outcomes included operative mortality, repair rate, repeat mitral valve surgery, and development of new atrial fibrillation. Results Five observational studies were eligible for review and three were included in the pooled analysis. In asymptomatic patients without class I triggers (symptoms or ventricular dysfunction), pooled analysis revealed a significant reduction in long-term mortality with an early surgery approach [hazard ratio (HR) =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.71]. This survival benefit persisted in a sub-group analysis limited to patients without class II triggers (atrial fibrillation or pulmonary hypertension) [relative risk (RR) =0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98]. Aggregate rates of operative mortality did not differ between treatment arms (0.7% vs. 0.7% for early surgery vs. watchful waiting). However, significantly higher repair rates were achieved in the early surgery cohorts (RR =1.10; 95% CI: 1.02-1.18). Conclusions Despite disagreement between individual studies, the present meta-analysis demonstrates that a strategy of early surgery may improve survival and increase the likelihood of mitral valve repair compared with watchful waiting. Early surgery may also benefit patients when instituted prior to the development of class II triggers. PMID:26309823

  7. Tissue Doppler-Derived Myocardial Acceleration during Isovolumetric Contraction Predicts Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure in Patients with Significant Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ahmed; Khorshid, Hazem; Helmy, Mostafa; Raslan, Hala; Rifaie, Osama

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether isovolumic contraction velocity (IVV) and acceleration (IVA) predict pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in mitral regurgitation. Forty-four patients with mitral regurgitation were studied. PCWP was invasively measured. IVV, IVA and the ratio IVRT/Te'-E (where IVRT = isovolumic relaxation time, and Te'-E = time difference between the onset of mitral annular e' and mitral flow E waves) were measured. Mean age was 59.2 ± 13.3 y. Twenty-six patients had an ejection fraction ?55%, and 18 patients had an ejection fraction <55%. IVRT/Te'-E was impossible in 11 patients because Te'-E = zero. PCWP correlated with IVV, IVA and IVRT/Te'-E; overall (r = -0.714, -0.892 and, -0.752, all p < 0.001), ejection fraction ?55 (r = -0.467, -0.749, -0.639, p = 0.016, <0.001, 0.003) and ejection fraction <55% (r = -0.761, -0.911 and -0.833, all p < 0.001). Similar correlations were found for sinus and atrial fibrillation. Our study suggests that IVV and IVA correlate with PCWP in patients with mitral regurgitation irrespective of systolic function or rhythms and, thus, can be alternatives to the tedious IVRT/Te'-E, especially when impossible because Te'-E = 0. PMID:25944284

  8. Comparative Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation Severity by Transthoracic Echocardiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Using an Integrative and Quantitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Mattei, Juan C; Ibrahim, Homam; Shaikh, Kamran A; Little, Stephen H; Shah, Dipan J; Maragiannis, Dimitrios; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-01-15

    Although transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are validated in quantitation of mitral regurgitation (MR), discrepancies may occur. This study assesses the agreement between TTE and CMR in MR and evaluates characteristics and clinical outcome of patients with discrepancy. From our institutional database, 70 subjects with MR underwent both TTE and CMR within 30 days (median 3 days). MR was evaluated semiquantitatively (n = 70) using a 4-grade scale and quantitatively (n = 60) with calculation of regurgitant volume (RVol) and regurgitant fraction (RF). Of the 70 subjects, qualitative assessment by TTE yielded 30 subjects with mild MR, 17 moderate, and 23 moderately severe or severe MR. Exact concordance in MR grade was seen in 50% and increased to 91% when considering concordance within one grade of severity (? = 0.44). A modest correlation was observed for RVol and RF between both methods (r = 0.59 and 0.54, respectively, p <0.0001). Ten patients had a significant discrepancy in quantitative MR (difference in RF >20%); the frequency of secondary MR was higher (100% vs 46%; p = 0.003) in patients with discrepancy. Although interobserver variability in RF was higher with TTE compared with CMR (-5.5 ± 15% vs 0.1 ± 7.3%), patients with discrepancy were equally distributed by severity and clinical outcome without an overestimation by either method. In conclusion, there is a modest agreement between TTE and CMR in assessing MR severity. In patients with discrepancy, there is a higher prevalence of functional MR, without a consistent overestimation of MR severity by either method. PMID:26684513

  9. Clinical Use of Doppler Echocardiography in Organic Mitral Regurgitation: From Diagnosis to Patients' Management

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Antonio; Pasquale, Ferdinando; Biagini, Elena; Barberini, Francesco; Ferlito, Marinella; Leone, Ornella; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mitral regurgitation (MR) is essential for any care provider, and not only for those directly involved in the management of cardiovascular diseases. This happens because MR is the most frequent valvular lesion in North America and the second most common form of valve disease requiring surgery in Europe. Furthermore, due to the ageing of the general population and the reduced mortality from acute cardiovascular events, the prevalence of MR is expected to increase further. Doppler echocardiography is essential both for the diagnosis and the clinical management of MR. In the present article, we sought to provide a practical step-by-step approach to help either performing a Doppler echocardiography or interpreting its findings in light of contemporary knowledge on organic (but not only) MR. PMID:26448820

  10. Does Surgical Repair of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Improve Survival? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Tripathi, Byomesh; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Ahmed, Mohammed; Bavishi, Chirag; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Sardar, Partha; Giri, Jay; Omidvari, Karan; Chikwe, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the common complications in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Almost half of the post MI patients have MR (ischemic MR)(17) which is moderate to severe (grade II-IV). Whether there is a mortality benefit of performing mitral valve repair (MVR) along with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with post MI moderate MR remains inconclusive. Literature search was done from PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, and Medline databases. Studies which included post MI patients with moderate ischemic MR and reported mortality outcomes of performing CABG and MVR were chosen for the systematic review. Our preliminary literature search identified 194 studies, of which 11 studies met our inclusion criteria. Nine studies showed no survival benefit of performing simultaneous MVR and CABG. One study demonstrated survival benefit of performing CABG plus MVR only in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV, and one study suggested survival benefit of performing CABG plus MVR as compared to CABG alone in patient with ischemic MR irrespective of preoperative NYHA functional class. Review of current literature showed mixed results in terms of improvement in functional status but failed to show any survival benefit of performing MVR along with CABG. Limitations of studies include small sample size, difference in baseline demographic variables, and short follow-up period which might influence the outcome of the study. Prospective randomized studies are required to establish clear benefit of performing MVR simultaneously with CABG. PMID:26837498

  11. Severe Acute Traumatic Mitral Regurgitation, Cardiogenic Shock Secondary to Embolized Polymethylmethracrylate Cement Foreign Body After a Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elapavaluru, Subbarao; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Khan, Fawad; Khalil, Ramzi; Schuett, Amy; Bailey, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with acute decompensated heart failure secondary to acute traumatic mitral regurgitation, resulting from polymethylmethacrylate cement found in the left ventricle less than 24 hours after fluoroscopic percutaneous vertebroplasty. The patient had a history of ovarian cancer and had undergone treatment for symptomatic osteoporotic compression fractures of the vertebrae (T11, L1, and L3). The patient underwent a successful emergency open-heart operation, mitral valve replacement, closure of an atrial septal defect, and video-assisted removal of the cement foreign body from the left ventricle. The patient was later discharged with a good outcome. PMID:26897199

  12. Uncontrolled daily pulmonary oedema due to severe mitral regurgitation emergently and effectively corrected by Mitraclip® implantation.

    PubMed

    Leurent, Guillaume; Corbineau, Hervé; Donal, Erwan

    2016-04-01

    MitraClip® is usually implanted in stable patients. We report the case of a patient having a severe, refractory and daily pulmonary oedema, related to a severe restrictive mitral regurgitation secondary to a primitive dilated cardiomyopathy. A Mitraclip® was emergently implanted, with a dramatic long-term clinical success. The critical unstable status of a patient should not prevent any Mitraclip® implantation. PMID:25838439

  13. Left ventricular outflow track obstruction and mitral valve regurgitation in a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Fan, WuQiang; Chachula, Laura; Costacurta, Gary; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Elmi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) can be complicated by left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction and severe acute mitral regurgitation (MR), leading to hemodynamic instability in an otherwise benign disorder. Despite the severity of these complications, there is a paucity of literature on the matter. Because up to 20–25% of TCM patients develop LVOT obstruction and/or MR, it is important to recognize the clinical manifestations of these complications and to adhere to specific management in order to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. We report the clinical history, imaging, treatment strategy, and clinical outcome of a patient with TCM that was complicated with severe MR and LVOT obstruction. We then discuss the pathophysiology, characteristic imaging, key clinical features, and current treatment strategy for this unique patient population. Case report A postmenopausal woman with no clear risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) presented to the emergency department with chest pain after an episode of mental/physical stress. Physical examination revealed MR, mild hypotension, and pulmonary vascular congestion. Her troponins were mildly elevated. Cardiac catheterization excluded obstructive CAD, but revealed severe apical hypokinesia and ballooning. Notably, multiple diagnostic tests revealed the presence of severe acute MR and LVOT obstruction. The patient was diagnosed with TCM complicated by underlying MR and LVOT obstruction, and mild hemodynamic instability. The mechanism of her LVOT and MR was attributed to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM), which the transesophageal echocardiogram clearly showed during workup. She was treated with beta-blocker, aspirin, and ACE-I with good outcome. Nitroglycerin and inotropes were discontinued and further avoided. Conclusions Our case illustrated LVOT obstruction and MR associated with underlying SAM in a patient with TCM. LVOT obstruction and MR are severe complications of TCM and may result in heart failure and/or pulmonary edema. Timely and accurate identification of these complications is critical to achieve optimal clinical outcomes in patients with TCM. PMID:26653691

  14. Multi-MitraClip therapy for severe degenerative mitral regurgitation: "anchor" technique for extremely flail segments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagan D; Smith, Thomas W; Rogers, Jason H

    2015-08-01

    In high-risk or inoperable patients, implantation of MitraClip for treatment of severe symptomatic mitral regurgitation (MR) from central (A2/P2 pathology, EVEREST patient) is effective in reducing symptoms and improving functional class. Extending the use of MitraClip to the non-EVEREST patient is of considerable interest. MitraClip implantation for wide flail segments and non-central MR is technically more challenging but represents an important and highly prevalent subset of patients. We present a case of an 82-year-old male referred to our institution for medically refractory primary MR. Trans-esophageal echocardiogram demonstrated severe (4+) MR, annular dilatation, P3?>?P2 mitral valve prolapse, malcoaptation, and wide flail gaps and widths. The patient's age, frailty, chronic kidney disease, and mild cognitive impairment rendered him a candidate for MitraClip therapy. Our target area, the areas of maximum flail (A3/P3), proved too wide for grasping. Hence, the first clip was deployed medial to the target area. Subsequent deployment, in a sequential fashion ("zipper technique"), was not technically feasible due to persistent instability of the target area. Consideration was given to an alternative approach by "anchoring" our target area where the 2nd and 3rd clips were deployed lateral to the A3/P3 segment in efforts to "anchor" the maximum flail segment. This maneuver allowed final clip deployment into a more stable target area. Subsequent imaging demonstrated reduction in MR from 4+ to 1+ with preservation of a normal transmitral gradient. We report the first successful US case of four MitraClip implantation for the treatment of severe primary MR by "anchoring" flail segments. PMID:25559345

  15. Short-Term and Long-Term Survival After Revascularization with or without Mitral Valve Surgery of Patients with Ischemic Mitral Valve Regurgitation: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Yili; Qiu, Shaodong; Liang, Weixiang; Jiang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on whether mitral valve repair or replacement (MVRR) must be performed to treat ischemic mitral regurgitation (MVR) after myocardial infarction. Our objective in this study was to investigate the efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) combined with or without MVRR for the ischemic MVR. Material/Methods An article search was performed in OvidSP, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. In these articles, researchers compared the efficacy of CABG with or without MVRR in treating patients with ischemic MVR after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We performed a meta-analysis to compare the differences in the short-term and long-term survival rates of patients treated with CABG only and those treated with both CABG and MVRR. Secondary outcomes were compared with the preoperative and postoperative degree of MVR, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Results Out of the 1183 studies, we selected only 5 articles. A total of 3120 patients were enrolled; the CABG and MVRR group included 575 patients, while the CABG only group included 2545 patients. Long-term survival was higher in the CABG only group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.58, P=0.003). Hospital mortality was similar in both the groups (odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% CI, 0.65–9.95; P=0.18). No differences were found in the degree of residual MVR, the mean of LVESV, LVEF, or NYHA class. Conclusions In patients with ischemic MVR, the short-term survival rate was similar in both groups. Moreover, there was no significant improvement in the long-term survival rates of patients treated with both CAG and MVRR. PMID:26635041

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Survival After Revascularization with or without Mitral Valve Surgery of Patients with Ischemic Mitral Valve Regurgitation: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Yili; Qiu, Shaodong; Liang, Weixiang; Jiang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is no consensus on whether mitral valve repair or replacement (MVRR) must be performed to treat ischemic mitral regurgitation (MVR) after myocardial infarction. Our objective in this study was to investigate the efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) combined with or without MVRR for the ischemic MVR. MATERIAL AND METHODS An article search was performed in OvidSP, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. In these articles, researchers compared the efficacy of CABG with or without MVRR in treating patients with ischemic MVR after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We performed a meta-analysis to compare the differences in the short-term and long-term survival rates of patients treated with CABG only and those treated with both CABG and MVRR. Secondary outcomes were compared with the preoperative and postoperative degree of MVR, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. RESULTS Out of the 1183 studies, we selected only 5 articles. A total of 3120 patients were enrolled; the CABG and MVRR group included 575 patients, while the CABG only group included 2545 patients. Long-term survival was higher in the CABG only group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.58, P=0.003). Hospital mortality was similar in both the groups (odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% CI, 0.65-9.95; P=0.18). No differences were found in the degree of residual MVR, the mean of LVESV, LVEF, or NYHA class. CONCLUSIONS In patients with ischemic MVR, the short-term survival rate was similar in both groups. Moreover, there was no significant improvement in the long-term survival rates of patients treated with both CAG and MVRR. PMID:26635041

  17. Insights into the Mechanism of Severe Mitral Regurgitation: RT-3D TEE Guided Management with Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Senthil; Hamoud, Naktal; Thompson, Jess; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Mitral valve perforation is an uncommon but important complication of infective endocarditis. We report a case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed to have infective endocarditis of his mitral valve. Through the course of his admission he had a rapid development of hemodynamic instability and pulmonary edema secondary to acutely worsening mitral regurgitation. While the TEE demonstrated an increase in the size of his bacterial vegetation, Real Time 3D TEE was ultimately the imaging modality through which the valve perforation was identified. Through this case report we discuss the advantages that RT-3D TEE has over traditional 2D TEE in the management of valve perforation. PMID:26640719

  18. Human Cardiac Function Simulator for the Optimal Design of a Novel Annuloplasty Ring with a Sub-valvular Element for Correction of Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Brian; Costa, Ivan; Leach, Joseph R; Lee, Lik Chuan; Genet, Martin; Toutain, Arnaud; Wenk, Jonathan F; Rausch, Manuel K; Rebelo, Nuno; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Kuhl, Ellen; Navia, Jose L; Guccione, Julius M

    2015-06-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with substantial risk of death. We sought to: (1) detail significant recent improvements to the Dassault Systèmes human cardiac function simulator (HCFS); (2) use the HCFS to simulate normal cardiac function as well as pathologic function in the setting of posterior left ventricular (LV) papillary muscle infarction; and (3) debut our novel device for correction of ischemic mitral regurgitation. We synthesized two recent studies of human myocardial mechanics. The first study presented the robust and integrative finite element HCFS. Its primary limitation was its poor diastolic performance with an LV ejection fraction below 20% caused by overly stiff ex vivo porcine tissue parameters. The second study derived improved diastolic myocardial material parameters using in vivo MRI data from five normal human subjects. We combined these models to simulate ischemic mitral regurgitation by computationally infarcting an LV region including the posterior papillary muscle. Contact between our novel device and the mitral valve apparatus was simulated using Dassault Systèmes SIMULIA software. Incorporating improved cardiac geometry and diastolic myocardial material properties in the HCFS resulted in a realistic LV ejection fraction of 55%. Simulating infarction of posterior papillary muscle caused regurgitant mitral valve mechanics. Implementation of our novel device corrected valve dysfunction. Improvements in the current study to the HCFS permit increasingly accurate study of myocardial mechanics. The first application of this simulator to abnormal human cardiac function suggests that our novel annuloplasty ring with a sub-valvular element will correct ischemic mitral regurgitation. PMID:25984248

  19. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  20. Meta-analysis of the impact of mitral regurgitation on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Van Belle, Eric; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Noheria, Amit; Testa, Luca; Bedogni, Francesco; Rück, Andreas; Barbanti, Marco; Toggweiler, Stefan; Thomas, Martyn; Khawaja, Muhammed Zeeshan; Hutter, Andrea; Abramowitz, Yigal; Siegel, Robert J; Cheng, Wen; Webb, John; Leon, Martin B; Makkar, Raj R

    2015-04-01

    Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) constitutes an important co-existing valvular heart disease burden in the setting of aortic valve stenosis. There are conflicting reports on the impact of significant MR on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We evaluated the impact of MR on outcomes after TAVI by performing a meta-analysis of 8 studies involving 8,927 patients reporting TAVI outcomes based on the presence or absence of moderate-severe MR. Risk ratios (RRs) were calculated using the inverse variance random-effects model. None-mild MR was present in 77.8% and moderate-severe MR in 22.2% of the patients. The presence of moderate-severe MR at baseline was associated with increased mortality at 30 days (RR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14 to 1.59, p = 0.003) and 1 year (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.37, p <0.0001). The increased mortality associated with moderate-severe MR was not influenced by the cause of MR (functional or degenerative MR; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.30, p = 0.56). The severity of MR improved in 61 ± 6.0% of patients after TAVI. Moderate-severe residual MR, compared with none-mild residual MR after TAVI, was associated with significantly increased 1-year mortality (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.68, p <0.00001). In conclusion, baseline moderate-severe MR and significant residual MR after TAVI are associated with an increase in mortality after TAVI and represent an important group to target with medical or transcatheter therapies in the future. PMID:25779617

  1. Comparison of three-dimensional proximal isovelocity surface area to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for quantifying mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Nicolas; Wustmann, Kerstin; Hürzeler, Michael; Wahl, Andreas; de Marchi, Stefano F; Steck, Hélène; Zürcher, Fabian; Seiler, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) as a tool for quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) against in vitro and in vivo reference methods. A customized 3D PISA software was validated in vitro against a flowmeter MR phantom. Sixty consecutive patients, with ?mild MR of any cause, were recruited and the regurgitant volume (RVol) was measured by 2D PISA, 3D peak PISA, and 3D integrated PISA, using transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was used as reference method. Flowmeter RVol was associated with 3D integrated PISA as follows: y = 0.64x + 4.7, r(2) = 0.97, p <0.0001 for TEE and y = 0.88x + 4.07, r(2) = 0.96, p <0.0001 for TTE. The bias and limit of agreement in the Bland-Altman analysis were 6.8 ml [-3.5 to 17.1] for TEE and -0.059 ml [-6.2 to 6.1] for TTE. In vivo, TEE-derived 3D integrated PISA was the most accurate method for MR quantification compared to CMR: r(2) = 0.76, y = 0.95x - 3.95, p <0.0001; 5.1 ml (-14.7 to 26.5). It was superior to TEE 3D peak PISA (r(2) = 0.67, y = 1.00x + 6.20, p <0.0001; -6.3 ml [-33.4 to 21.0]), TEE 2D PISA (r(2) = 0.54, y = 0.76x + 0.18, p <0.0001; 8.4 ml [-20.4 to 37.2]), and TTE-derived measurements. It was also most accurate by receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve 0.99) for the detection of severe MR, RVol cutoff = 48 ml, sensibility 100%, and specificity 96%. RVol and the cutoff to define severe MR were underestimated using the most accurate method. In conclusion, quantitative 3D color Doppler echocardiography of the PISA permits a more accurate MR assessment than conventional techniques and, consequently, should enable an optimized management of patients suffering from MR. PMID:25747111

  2. Importance of Exercise Capacity in Predicting Outcomes and Determining Optimal Timing of Surgery in Significant Primary Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Peyman; Griffin, Brian P.; Barr, Tyler; Asfahan, Fadi; Gillinov, A. Marc; Grimm, Richard A.; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Stewart, William J.; Desai, Milind Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary mitral regurgitation (MR), exercise echocardiography aids in symptom evaluation and timing of mitral valve (MV) surgery. In patients with grade ?3 primary MR undergoing exercise echocardiography followed by MV surgery, we sought to assess predictors of outcomes and whether delaying MV surgery adversely affects outcomes. Methods and Results We studied 576 consecutive such patients (aged 57±13 years, 70% men, excluding prior valve surgery and functional MR). Clinical, echocardiographic (MR, LVEF, indexed LV dimensions, RV systolic pressure) and exercise data (metabolic equivalents) were recorded. Composite events of death, MI, stroke, and congestive heart failure were recorded. Mean LVEF was 58±5%, indexed LV end?systolic dimension was 1.7±0.5 mm/m2, rest RV systolic pressure was 32±13 mm Hg, peak?stress RV systolic pressure was 47±17 mm Hg, and percentage of age? and gender?predicted metabolic equivalents was 113±27. Median time between exercise and MV surgery was 3 months (MV surgery delayed ?1 year in 28%). At 6.6±4 years, there were 53 events (no deaths at 30 days). On stepwise multivariable survival analysis, increasing age (hazard ratio of 1.07 [95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.12], P<0.01), lower percentage of age? and gender?predicted metabolic equivalents (hazard ratio of 0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.94], P=0.007), and lower LVEF (0.94 [0.89 to 0.99], P=0.04) independently predicted outcomes. In patients achieving >100% predicted metabolic equivalents (n=399), delaying surgery by ?1 year (median of 28 months) did not adversely affect outcomes (P=0.8). Conclusion In patients with primary MR that underwent exercise echocardiography followed by MV surgery, lower achieved metabolic equivalents were associated with worse long?term outcomes. In those with preserved exercise capacity, delaying MV surgery by ?1 year did not adversely affect outcomes. PMID:25213567

  3. Impact of preprocedural mitral regurgitation upon mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, M Z; Williams, R; Hung, J; Arri, S; Asrress, K N; Bolter, K; Wilson, K; Young, C P; Bapat, V; Hancock, J; Thomas, M; Redwood, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the effects of preprocedural significant mitral regurgitation (MR) and change in MR severity upon mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using the Edwards SAPIEN system. Methods A retrospective analysis of 316 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI for aortic stenosis at a single centre in the UK between March 2008 and January 2013. Patients were stratified into two groups according to severity of MR: ?grade 3 were classed as significant and ?grade 2 were non-significant. Change in MR severity was assessed by comparison of baseline and 30-day echocardiograms. Results 60 patients had significant MR prior to TAVI (19.0%). These patients were of higher perioperative risk (logistic EuroScore 28.7±16.6% vs 20.3±10.7%, p=0.004) and were more dyspnoeic (New York Heart Association class IV 20.0% vs 7.4%, p=0.014). Patients with significant preprocedural MR displayed greater 12-month and cumulative mortality (28.3% vs 20.2%, log-rank p=0.024). Significant MR was independently associated with mortality (HR 4.94 (95% CI 2.07 to 11.8), p<0.001). Of the 60 patients with significant MR only 47.1% had grade 3–4 MR at 30?days (p<0.001). Patients in whom MR improved had lower mortality than those in whom it deteriorated (log-rank p=0.05). Conclusions Significant MR is frequently seen in patients undergoing TAVI and is independently associated with increased all-cause mortality. Yet almost half also exhibit significant improvements in MR severity. Those who improve have better outcomes, and future work could focus upon identifying factors independently associated with such an improvement. PMID:25155800

  4. Pulmonary venous flow determinants of left atrial pressure under different loading conditions in a chronic animal model with mitral regurgitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hua; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Kim, Yong Jin; Popovic, Zoran B.; Pu, Min; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Eto, Yoko; Sitges, Marta; Zetts, Arthur D.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare the changes and correlations between pulmonary venous flow variables and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP) under different loading conditions in animals with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) and without MR. METHODS: A total of 85 hemodynamic conditions were studied in 22 sheep, 12 without MR as control (NO-MR group) and 10 with MR (MR group). We obtained pulmonary venous flow systolic velocity (Sv) and diastolic velocity (Dv), Sv and Dv time integrals, their ratios (Sv/Dv and Sv/Dv time integral), mLAP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and MR stroke volume. We also measured left atrial a, x, v, and y pressures and calculated the difference between v and y pressures. RESULTS: Average MR stroke volume was 10.6 +/- 4.3 mL/beat. There were good correlations between Sv (r = -0.64 and r = -0.59, P <.01), Sv/Dv (r = -0.62 and r = -0.74, P <.01), and mLAP in the MR and NO-MR groups, respectively. Correlations were also observed between Dv time integral (r = 0.61 and r = 0.57, P <.01) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in the MR and NO-MR groups. In velocity variables, Sv (r = -0.79, P <.001) was the best predictor of mLAP in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of Sv = 0 in predicting mLAP 15 mm Hg or greater were 86% and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary venous flow variables correlated well with mLAP under altered loading conditions in the MR and NO-MR groups. They may be applied clinically as substitutes for invasively acquired indexes of mLAP to assess left atrial and left ventricular functional status.

  5. Prognostic Utility of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Asymptomatic Patients With Significant Mitral Regurgitation and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Mentias, Amgad; Patel, Krishna; Patel, Harsh; Gillinov, A Marc; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Svensson, Lars G; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Sabik, Joseph F; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2016-01-15

    We sought to study the prognostic utility of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with significant primary mitral regurgitation (MR) and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). Consecutive 548 asymptomatic patients (age 62 ± 13 years and 66% men) with ≥3 + primary MR and preserved LVEF on echo at rest, evaluated at our center from 2005 to 2008 were studied. Baseline clinical and echo data were recorded and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score was calculated. Mean STS score was 4 ± 1%. Mean LVEF, mitral effective regurgitant orifice, indexed LV end-systolic diameter, and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) were 62 ± 4%, 0.55 ± 0.3 cm(2), 1.6 ± 0.3 cm/m(2), and 38 ± 15 mm Hg; 43% had flail. Median log-transformed brain natriuretic peptide (lnBNP) was 4.1 (interquartile range 3.30 to 5.0), corresponding to an absolute BNP value of 60 pg/ml (only 13% had an absolute BNP value >250 pg/ml). At 7.4 ± 2 years, 493 patients (90%) had mitral surgery (92% repair) and nonmalignancy death occurred in 53 patients (10%). On multivariate Cox analysis, higher STS score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.88), higher baseline RVSP (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35), and higher ln BNP (HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.86 to 3.39) predicted death, whereas mitral surgery (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.30) was associated with improved survival (all p <0.01). Eighty-nine percent of deaths occurred in patients with lnBNP >4.1. Addition of lnBNP to a model of STS score, baseline RVSP, and mitral surgery provided incremental prognostic utility (chi-square for mortality increased from 137 to 162, p <0.001). In conclusion, in asymptomatic patients with ≥3 + primary MR and preserved LVEF, the addition of BNP improved risk stratification and higher BNP independently predicted reduced survival. PMID:26651455

  6. Automated quantification of mitral valve regurgitation based on normalized centerline velocity distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deserranno, D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Previous echocardiographic techniques for quantifying valvular regurgitation are limited by factors including uncertainties for orifice location and a hemispheric convergence assumption that often results in over- and underestimation of flow rate and regurgitant orifice area. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, these factors were eliminated, allowing a more accurate assessment of regurgitation. A model was developed to allow automated quantification of regurgitant orifice diameter based on the centerline velocity data available from color M-mode echocardiography. The model, validated using in vitro unsteady flow data, demonstrated improved accuracy for orifice diameter (y=0.95x + 0.38, r=0.96) and volume (y=1.18x - 4.72, r=0.93).

  7. Acute and Midterm Outcome After MitraClip Therapy in Patients With Severe Mitral Regurgitation and Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lesevic, Hasema; Sonne, Carolin; Braun, Daniel; Orban, Martin; Pache, Jürgen; Kastrati, Adnan; Schömig, Albert; Mehilli, Julinda; Barthel, Petra; Ott, Ilka; Sack, Gregor; Massberg, Steffen; Hausleiter, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    The clinical outcome of patients with severe primary and secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) and heart failure or significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) who underwent percutaneous mitral valve repair (pMVR) is yet not well known. This study compares midterm outcome of patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (EF ?30%) versus patients with slightly or moderately reduced or normal LVEF (EF >30%) after pMVR. One hundred thirty-six consecutive patients were enrolled: 42 patients displayed severe left ventricular dysfunction, group 1 (logistic EuroSCORE I 27.7 ± 21.8%; secondary MR in 37 patients), and 94 patients displayed slightly or moderately reduced or normal LVEF, group 2 (logistic EuroSCORE I 17 ± 18.2%; secondary MR in 21 patients). The primary efficacy endpoint was death of any cause, repeat mitral valve intervention, and/or New York Heart Association class ?III, which was reached in 31% of patients in group 1 versus 40% in group 2 (p = 0.719) at a median follow-up of 371 days. MR, graded by transthoracic echocardiography, was reduced in both groups (p <0.001) and New York Heart Association class improved in each group (p <0.001), with no differences between groups (p >0.05). In conclusion, at midterm follow-up, the pMVR provided significant clinical benefits with comparable results achieved both in patients with significantly reduced and in patients with moderately reduced to normal LVEF. Thus, pMVR represents a feasible and effective treatment in high-risk patients who otherwise have limited therapeutic options and no safe option to reduce MR. PMID:26160468

  8. [An emergent aortic and mitral valve replacement for active infective endocarditis preoperatively using extracorporeal ultrafiltration method].

    PubMed

    Sakahashi, H; Takazawa, A; Eishi, K; Aomi, S; Tsuchida, K; Harada, Y; Seino, R; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1991-03-01

    We reported a 29-year-old man with active endocarditis complicating aortic and mitral valve regurgitation. The echocardiogram showed a mycotic aneurysm at aortic valvular annulus and a aneurysm of mitral valve. Heart failure was progressive and caused anuria. Prior to emergent double valve replacement, 2,500 ml of water was removed. Then hemodynamics became stationary. Urination was good during and after operation. In this case, complicating acute renal failure, dehydration with extracorporeal ultrafiltration method was very effective for improvement of hemodynamics. PMID:2020151

  9. The value of assessing pulmonary venous flow velocity for predicting severity of mitral regurgitation: A quantitative assessment integrating left ventricular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, M.; Griffin, B. P.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Stewart, W. J.; Fan, X.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Although alteration in pulmonary venous flow has been reported to relate to mitral regurgitant severity, it is also known to vary with left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction. There are few data relating pulmonary venous flow to quantitative indexes of mitral regurgitation (MR). The object of this study was to assess quantitatively the accuracy of pulmonary venous flow for predicting MR severity by using transesophageal echocardiographic measurement in patients with variable LV dysfunction. This study consisted of 73 patients undergoing heart surgery with mild to severe MR. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA), regurgitant stroke volume (RSV), and regurgitant fraction (RF) were obtained by quantitative transesophageal echocardiography and proximal isovelocity surface area. Both left and right upper pulmonary venous flow velocities were recorded and their patterns classified by the ratio of systolic to diastolic velocity: normal (>/=1), blunted (<1), and systolic reversal (<0). Twenty-three percent of patients had discordant patterns between the left and right veins. When the most abnormal patterns either in the left or right vein were used for analysis, the ratio of peak systolic to diastolic flow velocity was negatively correlated with ROA (r = -0.74, P <.001), RSV (r = -0.70, P <.001), and RF (r = -0.66, P <.001) calculated by the Doppler thermodilution method; values were r = -0.70, r = -0.67, and r = -0.57, respectively (all P <.001), for indexes calculated by the proximal isovelocity surface area method. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversed pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a large ROA (>0.3 cm(2)) were 69%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the normal pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a small ROA (<0.3 cm(2)) were 60%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. However, the blunted pattern had low sensitivity (22%), specificity (61%), and predictive values (30%) for detecting ROA of greater than 0.3 cm(2) with significant overlap with the reversed and normal patterns. Among patients with the blunted pattern, the correlation between the systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was worse in those with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%, r = 0.23, P >.05) than in those with normal LV function (r = -0.57, P <.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the peak systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was independently correlated with RF (P <.001) and effective stroke volume (P <.01), with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.71 (P <.001). In conclusion, reversed pulmonary venous flow in systole is a highly specific and reliable marker of moderately severe or severe MR with an ROA greater than 0.3 cm(2), whereas the normal pattern accurately predicts mild to moderate MR. Blunted pulmonary venous flow can be seen in all grades of MR with low predictive value for severity of MR, especially in the presence of LV dysfunction. The blunted pulmonary venous flow pattern must therefore be interpreted cautiously in clinical practice as a marker for severity of MR.

  10. Spurious tricuspid regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. Hedley; Braimbridge, M. V.

    1973-01-01

    Brown, A. H., and Braimbridge, M. V. (1973).Thorax, 28, 495-497. Spurious tricuspid regurgitation: Three conditions mimicking tricuspid regurgitation diagnosed at operation. The diagnosis of tricuspid incompetence is difficult. Three patients are described in whom the diagnosis of tricuspid regurgitation was made but disproved by the findings at surgery. The first patient had aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation from chordal rupture, and constrictive pericarditis; the right atrium was compressed between the pulsating left atrium and the tight pericardium. The chordal rupture caused the mitral murmur to radiate parasternally. The second patient had severe mitral and aortic regurgitation and an interatrial septal defect with transmission of the left-sided `v' waves to the right atrium. The third patient had an iatrogenic Gerbode defect from a previously repaired ostium primum atrial septal defect. Intracardiac phonocardiography failed to distinguish the anatomical situation from tricuspid regurgitation. The best assessment of tricuspid valvular disease is still that of the surgeon at operation. PMID:4741454

  11. Real-time three-dimensional color doppler evaluation of the flow convergence zone for quantification of mitral regurgitation: Validation experimental animal study and initial clinical experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, Marta; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Agler, Deborah A.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pitfalls of the flow convergence (FC) method, including 2-dimensional imaging of the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the FC surface, can lead to erroneous quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR). This limitation may be mitigated by the use of real-time 3D color Doppler echocardiography (CE). Our objective was to validate a real-time 3D navigation method for MR quantification. METHODS: In 12 sheep with surgically induced chronic MR, 37 different hemodynamic conditions were studied with real-time 3DCE. Using real-time 3D navigation, the radius of the largest hemispherical FC zone was located and measured. MR volume was quantified according to the FC method after observing the shape of FC in 3D space. Aortic and mitral electromagnetic flow probes and meters were balanced against each other to determine reference MR volume. As an initial clinical application study, 22 patients with chronic MR were also studied with this real-time 3DCE-FC method. Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract automated cardiac flow measurement (Toshiba Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and real-time 3D LV stroke volume were used to quantify the reference MR volume (MR volume = 3DLV stroke volume - automated cardiac flow measurement). RESULTS: In the sheep model, a good correlation and agreement was seen between MR volume by real-time 3DCE and electromagnetic (y = 0.77x + 1.48, r = 0.87, P <.001, delta = -0.91 +/- 2.65 mL). In patients, real-time 3DCE-derived MR volume also showed a good correlation and agreement with the reference method (y = 0.89x - 0.38, r = 0.93, P <.001, delta = -4.8 +/- 7.6 mL). CONCLUSIONS: real-time 3DCE can capture the entire FC image, permitting geometrical recognition of the FC zone geometry and reliable MR quantification.

  12. Effect of QRS Narrowing After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Functional Mitral Regurgitation in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Oguz; Omaygenc, Mehmet Onur; Cakal, Beytullah; Cakal, Sinem Deniz; Gunes, Haci Murat; Barutcu, Irfan; Boztosun, Bilal; Kilicaslan, Fethi

    2016-02-01

    The determinants of improvement in functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remain unclear. We evaluated the predictors of FMR improvement and hypothesized that CRT-induced change in QRS duration (?QRS) might have an impact on FMR response after CRT. One hundred ten CRT recipients were enrolled. CRT response (?15 reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume) and FMR response (absolute reduction in FMR volume) were assessed with echocardiography before and 6 months after CRT. The study end points included all-cause death or hospitalization assessed in 12 ± 3 months (range 1 to 18). A total of 71 patients (65%) responded to CRT at 6 months. FMR response was observed in 49 (69%) of the CRT responders and 8 (20%) of the CRT nonresponders (p <0.001). Although the baseline QRS durations were similar, the paced QRS durations were shorter (p = 0.012) and the ?QRS values were greater (p = 0.003) in FMR responders compared with FMR nonresponders. There was a linear correlation between ?QRS and change in regurgitant volume (r = 0.49, p <0.001). At multivariate analysis, baseline tenting area (p = 0.012) and ?QRS (p = 0.028) independently predicted FMR response. A ?QRS ? 20 ms was related to CRT response, FMR improvement, and lower rates of death or hospitalization during follow-up (p values <0.05). In conclusion, QRS narrowing after CRT independently predicts FMR response. A ?QRS ?20 ms after CRT is associated with a favorable outcome in all clinical end points. PMID:26721652

  13. Predicting Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Surgery in Patients with Chronic Mitral Regurgitation: Assessment of Myocardial Deformation by 2-Dimensional Multilayer Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Yun, Hye Rim; Jeong, Dong Seop; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo; Park, Pyo Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The development of postoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a frequent complication in patients with chronic severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) and portends a poor prognosis. Assessment of myocardial deformation enables myocardial contractility to be accurately estimated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative regional LV contractile function assessment using two-dimensional multilayer speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D MSTE) analysis in patients with chronic severe MR with preserved LV systolic function. Subjects and Methods Forty-three consecutive patients with chronic severe MR with preserved LV systolic function scheduled for mitral valve replacement (MVR) or MV repair were prospectively enrolled. Serial echocardiographic studies were performed before surgery, at 7 days follow-up, and at least 3 months follow-up postoperatively. The conventional echocardiographic parameters were analyzed. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was obtained quantitatively by 2D MSTE. Results The mean age of patients was 51.7±14.3 years and 25 (58.1%) were male. In receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the most useful cutoff value for discriminating postoperative LV remodeling in severe MR with normal LV systolic function was -20.5% of 2D mid-layer GLS. Patients were divided into two groups by the baseline GLS -20.5%. Preoperative GLS values strongly predicted postoperative LV remodeling or LV dysfunction. The postoperative degree of decrease in LV end-diastolic dimension might be an additive predictive factor. Conclusion STE can be used to predict a decrease in LV function after MVR in patients with chronic severe MR. This promising method could be of use in the clinic when trying to decide upon the optimum time to schedule surgery for such patients. PMID:27014352

  14. Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy or MitraClip® Implantation for Patients with Severe Mitral Regurgitation and Left Bundle Branch Block?

    PubMed Central

    Kienemund, Jens; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Secondary or functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a common problem in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). About one-third of patients with chronic HF also have left bundle branch block (LBBB). Approximately one-third of patients with an indication for cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) have moderate-to-severe FMR. This FMR may either be a consequence of systolic dysfunction or it may occur due to dyssynchrony. Both directly reducing FMR and correcting cardiac dyssynchrony are viable therapeutic approaches in selected patients, according to the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines for valvular heart disease. Initial presence of FMR is an independent predictor of lack of clinical response to CRT. Patients undergoing CRT without signs of significant clinical improvement may be considered candidates for the percutaneous MitraClip® procedure. As yet, there are not enough data to select patients that would benefit from being treated primarily with MitraClip. A clinical trial in HF patients to be randomised to either MitraClip procedure or CRT is needed to confirm actual ESC Guideline therapy.

  15. Management of Difficult Airway With Laryngeal Mask in a Child With Mucopolysaccharidosis and Mitral Regurgitation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ferasatkish, Rasoul; Dashti, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of heredity storage diseases, transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner, associated with the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in various tissues and organs. The concerned patients have multiple concomitant hereditary anomalies. Considering the craniofacial abnormality in these patients, airway management may be difficult for anesthesiologists. In these patients, preanesthetic assessment is necessary and performed with the accurate assessment of airways, consisting of the physical exam and radiography, MRI or CT of head and neck. An anesthesiologist should set up a “difficult intubation set” with a flexible fiber-optic bronchoscope and also, it may be necessary to discuss with an ear-nose and throat (ENT) specialist if required, for unpredicted emergency situations. Case Presentation: In this case-report we presented a 2-year-old boy with known MPSs with psychomotor retardation, bilateral corneal opacities, impaired hearing and vision, inguinal hernia, severe mitral regurgitation, micrognathia, coarse facial feature, stiff and short neck and restricted mouth opening. He scheduled for left inguinal hernia repair surgery. Discussion: The patient’s difficult airway was managed successfully and the anesthesia of his surgical procedure had an uneventful course. PMID:25478534

  16. Short communication: Distribution of Porphyromonas gulae fimA genotypes in oral specimens from dogs with mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Nomura, Ryota; Kato, Yukio; Murakami, Masaru; Kondo, Chihiro; Takahashi, Soraaki; Yamasaki, Yoshie; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Arai, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Hidemi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2015-10-01

    Porphyromonas gulae, a suspected pathogen for periodontal disease in dogs, possesses approximately 41-kDa fimbriae (FimA) that are encoded by the fimA gene. In the present study, the association of fimA genotypes with mitral regurgitation (MR) was investigated. Twenty-five dogs diagnosed with MR (age range 6-13 years old, average 10.8 years) and 32 healthy dogs (8-15 years old, average 10.8 years) were selected at the participating clinics in a consecutive manner during the same time period. Oral swab specimens were collected from the dogs and bacterial DNA was extracted, then polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed using primers specific for each fimA genotype, with the dominant genotype determined. The rate for genotype C dominant specimens was 48.0% in the MR group, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (18.8%) (P <0.05). These results suggest that P. gulae fimA genotype C is associated with MR. PMID:26412519

  17. Relationship between systolic and diastolic function with improvements in forward stroke volume following reduction in mitral regurgitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg/ml) and relaxation (tau: 40-150 msec) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0 to 0.8 cm2). Improvements in forward stroke volume (fSV) were determined for the permutations of reduced MRa. For all conditions, LV end-diastolic pressure and volumes ranged from 7.3-24.2 mmHg and 64.8-174.3 ml, respectively. Overall, fSV ranged from 36.0-89.4 (mean: 64.2 +/- 12.8) ml, improved between 6.4 and 35.3% (mean: 15.6 +/- 8.1%), and was best predicted by (r=0.97, p<0.01) %delta(fSV)[correction of fVS]=34[MRa initial] - 46[MRa final] -0.5[elastance]. Reduced MRa, independent of relaxation and minimally influence by contractility, yield improved fSVs.

  18. Is valve surgery indicated in patients with severe mitral regurgitation even if they are asymptomatic?

    PubMed

    Levine, H J

    1990-01-01

    There is a natural reluctance among clinicians to recommend surgery in asymptomatic patients with cardiac disease and in patients with stenotic disease of the mitral and aortic valves; this instinct will mislead us very rarely. However, among patients with chronic volume overload of the LV, this rule-of-thumb does not always apply. For truly asymptomatic patients with severe MR who clearly have normal LV function, continued medical therapy with serial monitoring of LV dynamics is a prudent alternative to the small risk of corrective surgery. However, the major challenge in addressing this problem is the definition and detection of LV dysfunction in chronic MR. Thus, for MR patients with questionable impairment of myocardial function (generally those with an SEF between 0.55 and 0.70), an examination of chamber dimensions and particularly stress-shortening relations may be necessary to detect early LV dysfunction. Should LV dysfunction be identified or should serial studies indicate an adverse trend in LV performance, a strong case can be made for proceeding with surgery. Patients with an SEF of less than 0.55 must be assumed to have LV dysfunction and analogous data from patients with chronic AR suggest that a satisfactory surgical result may be achieved if the duration of LV dysfunction is brief. Those patients with chronic MR whose disease is likely to be amenable to mitral valve repair rather than valve replacement deserve a lower threshold for corrective surgery. PMID:2199046

  19. Impact of Functional Versus Organic Baseline Mitral Regurgitation on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Asch, Federico M; Magalhaes, Marco A; Didier, Romain; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Negi, Smita I; Baker, Nevin C; Jerusalem, Zachary D; Gai, Jiaxiang; Torguson, Rebecca; Okubagzi, Petros; Wang, Zuyue; Shults, Christian C; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Corso, Paul J; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2016-03-01

    The impact of the specific etiology of mitral regurgitation (MR) on outcomes in the transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) population is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal changes in functional versus organic MR after TAVR in addition to their impact on survival. Consecutive patients who underwent TAVR from May 2007 to May 2015 who had baseline significant (moderate or greater) MR were included. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to evaluate the cohort at baseline, post-procedure, 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up. The primary outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Longitudinal, mixed-model regression analyses were performed to assess the differences in the magnitude of longitudinal changes of MR, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and New York Heart Association functional class. Seventy patients (44% men, mean 83 years) with moderate or greater MR at baseline (30 functional vs 40 organic) were included, with the functional group having a statistically significant mean younger age and higher rates of previous coronary artery bypass grafting. Kaplan-Meier cumulative mortality rates were similar: 30 days (10% vs 17.5%, unadjusted log-ranked p = 0.413) and 1 year (29.4% vs 23.2%, unadjusted log-ranked p = 0.746) in the functional versus organic MR groups, respectively. There were greater degrees of short- and long-term improvement in MR severity (slope difference p = 0.0008), LV ejection fraction (slope difference p = 0.0009), and New York Heart Association class (slope difference p = 0.0054) in the functional versus organic group. In conclusion, patients with significant functional versus organic MR who underwent TAVR have similar short- and long-term survival; nevertheless, those with a functional origin are more likely to have significant improvements in MR severity, LV-positive remodeling, and functional class. These findings may help strategize therapies for MR in patients with combined aortic and mitral valve disease who are undergoing TAVR. PMID:26873331

  20. Severity of mitral regurgitation predicts risk of death or cardiac transplantation in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Patange, Amit; Thomas, Ronald; Ross, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    Clinical outcomes among children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) are diverse, which makes the decision as to when a patient should be listed for a cardiac transplantation challenging. This study aimed to determine echocardiographic and clinical variables that can help clinicians identify those at highest risk for death or cardiac transplantation. The study was a single-center, retrospective chart review of children with IDC. Patients younger than 18 years with a diagnosis of IDC, as defined by a left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) z-score higher than 2, and fractional shortening of less than 28 % on the initial echocardiogram, were included in the study. Echocardiographic parameters including mitral regurgitation (MR) grade and certain clinical parameters at the time of presentation were assessed. A follow-up echocardiogram was similarly studied. The study included 49 children with IDC. Those who died or underwent cardiac transplantation were grouped as "nonsurvivors" (n = 26). The remaining children who either completely recovered or experienced chronic dilated cardiomyopathy were grouped as "survivors" (n = 23). The median age overall was 1.25 years (range 0.1-17 years). The follow-up echocardiograms of the survivors showed significant improvement in left ventricle size, systolic function, left atrial volume, and MR grade, whereas these parameters did not change in the nonsurvivor group. The use of inotropic medications at initial presentation was an independent predictor of death or cardiac transplantation (p < 0.05). The presence of moderate to severe MR at diagnosis also was predictive of a worse outcome. PMID:23917522

  1. Catheter-based intervention for symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation and very poor left ventricular systolic function - Safe but no room for complacency

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bourantas, Christos V; Chan, Pak Hei; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Gustafsson, Fin; Clark, Andrew L; Price, Susanna; Mario, Carlo Di; Moat, Neil; Alamgir, Farqad; Estevez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Søndergaard, Lars; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction have concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Their symptoms and prognosis worsen with increasing severity of MR. Percutaneous MitraClip® can be used safely to reduce the severity of MR even in patients with advanced heart failure and is associated with improved symptoms, quality of life and exercise tolerance. However, a few patients with very poor left ventricular systolic function may experience significant haemodynamic disturbance in the peri-procedural period. We present three such patients, highlighting some of the potential problems encountered and discuss their possible pathophysiological mechanisms and safety measures. PMID:26635930

  2. Comparison of Transesophageal and Transthoracic Echocardiographic Measurements of Mechanism and Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (from the Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure Trial).

    PubMed

    Grayburn, Paul A; She, Lilin; Roberts, Brad J; Golba, Krzysztof S; Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Cherniavsky, Alexander; Przybylski, Roman; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Asch, Federico M; Holly, Thomas A; Haddad, Haissam; Yii, Michael; Maurer, Gerald; Kron, Irving; Schaff, Hartzell; Velazquez, Eric J; Oh, Jae K

    2015-09-15

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in ischemic heart disease and contributes to symptoms and mortality. This report compares the results of baseline transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) imaging of the mechanism and severity of functional MR in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial. Independent core laboratories measured both TTE and TEE images on 196 STICH participants. Common measurements to both models included MR grade, mitral valve tenting height and tenting area, and mitral annular diameter. For each parameter, correlations were assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. A modest correlation was present between TEE and TTE for overall MR grade (n = 176, r = 0.52). For mechanism of MR, modest correlations were present for long-axis tenting height (n = 152, r = 0.35), tenting area (n = 128, r = 0.27), and long-axis mitral annulus diameter (n = 123, r = 0.41). For each measurement, there was significant scatter. Potential explanations for the scatter include different orientation of the imaging planes between TEE and TTE, a mean temporal delay of 6 days between TEE and TTE, and statistically significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure and weight between studies. In conclusion, TEE and TTE measurements of MR mechanism and severity correlate only modestly with enough scatter in the data that they are not interchangeable. PMID:26170249

  3. Safety and feasibility of a novel adjustable mitral annuloplasty ring: a multicentre European experience†

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Martin; Doll, Nicolas; Livesey, Steve; Castella, Manuel; Kocher, Alfred; Casselman, Filip; Voth, Vladimir; Bannister, Christina; Encalada Palacios, Juan F.; Pereda, Daniel; Laufer, Guenther; Czesla, Markus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recurrent mitral regurgitation is a significant problem after mitral valve repair in patients with functional valve disease. We report the safety and feasibility of a novel adjustable mitral annuloplasty device that permits downsizing of the anterior–posterior diameter late after initial surgery. METHODS In this multicentre, non-randomized, observational register, patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation undergoing surgical mitral valve repair with the MiCardia EnCorSQ™ Mitral Valve Repair system were evaluated. Patient characteristics, operative specifications and results as well as postoperative follow-up were collected for all five centres. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with a median age of 71 (64–75) years (EuroSCORE II 6.7 ± 6.3; 66% male, 48% ischaemic MR, 37% dilated cardiomyopathy and 15% degenerative disease) were included. Operative mortality was 1% and the 1-year survival was 93%. Ring adjustment was attempted in 12 patients at a mean interval of 9 ± 6 months after surgery. In three of these attempts, a technical failure occurred. In 1 patient, mitral regurgitation was reduced two grades, in 2 patients mitral regurgitation was reduced one grade and in 6 patients, mitral regurgitation did not change significantly. The mean grade of mitral regurgitation changed from 2.9 ± 0.9 to 2.1 ± 0.7 (P = 0.02). Five patients were reoperated after 11 ± 9 months (Ring dehiscence: 2; failed adjustment: 3). CONCLUSION We conclude that this device may provide an additional treatment option in patients with functional mitral regurgitation, who are at risk for reoperation due to recurrent mitral regurgitation. Clinical results in this complex disease were ambiguous and patient selection seems to be a crucial step for this device. Further trials are required to estimate the clinical value of this therapeutic concept. PMID:25694471

  4. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-07-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ? 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ? 75 yr, Killip class ? III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ? 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ? 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ? 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR. PMID:26130953

  5. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ? 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ? 75 yr, Killip class ? III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ? 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ? 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ? 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR. PMID:26130953

  6. Quantitative Doppler-Echocardiographic Determination of Regurgitant Volume in Patients with Aortic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Drude, Ludwig; Klein, Hermann H; Garcia, Mario J

    2008-01-01

    Background: The severity of aortic regurgitation (AR) can be determined by invasive or echocardiographic methods. We systematically compared quantitative invasive and echocardiographic data with semiquantitative invasive grades in a prospective series of patients. Methods: Using Doppler-echocardiography we determined the cardiac output over the aortic, pulmonary and mitral valve in 27 patients (20 with, 7 without AR). Aortic regurgitant volume was calculated as the difference between the cardiac output over aortic and pulmonary valve/ mitral valve. During angiography the severity of AR was assessed semiquantitatively by aortography and the regurgitant volume was calculated invasively as the difference between the left- and right ventricular cardiac output. Results: The echocardiographically and invasively determined regurgitant blood volume correlated closely (R?0.8). The regurgitant volume increased with higher angiographic grade but there was significant overlap between adjoining qualitative grades. Conclusion: In patients with AR, quantitative echocardiographic and angiographic measurements of the regurgitant volume correlate closely. PMID:19590613

  7. Mitral valve regurgitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... imaging (MRI) Cardiac catheterization may be done if heart function becomes worse. ... care provider regularly to track your symptoms and heart function. You may need surgery to repair or replace ...

  8. Impact of mitral annular calcification on early and late outcomes following mitral valve repair of myxomatous degeneration†

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Vincent; Ruel, Marc; Hynes, Mark; Chaudry, Sophia; Mesana, Thierry G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mitral annular calcification is associated with significant morbidity and mortality at the time of mitral valve surgery. However, few data are available describing the impact of mitral annular calcification on early and late outcomes following mitral valve repair in the current era. METHODS Between 2001 and 2011, 625 patients were referred for mitral valve repair of severe mitral regurgitation due to myxomatous degeneration. The mean patient age was 63.9 ± 12.7 years and 164 (26%) were female. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 91 (15%) and 24 (4%) had previous cardiac surgery. Calcification of the mitral annulus was observed in 119 patients (19%), of whom complete debridement and extensive annulus reconstruction were performed in 14. The mean follow-up was for 2.4 ± 2.3 years. RESULTS There were no deaths within 30 days of surgery. Risk factors associated with mitral annular calcification included older age (odds ratio 1.05 ± 0.02 per increasing year), female gender (odds ratio 1.88 ± 0.42) and larger preoperative left atrial size (odds ratio 1.04 ± 0.03 per increasing mm) (all P<0.01). Severe renal impairment defined as a creatinine clearance <30 mL/min was observed in 9 patients, all of whom had mitral annular calcification. Intraoperative conversion to mitral valve replacement was performed in 19 patients (97% repair rate), 5 of whom had mitral annular calcification. Extension of mitral annular calcification into one or more leaflet scallops was observed for all patients who required conversion to valve replacement. Five-year survival, freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation ≥2+ and freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation ≥3+ was 88.1 ± 2.4, 89.6 ± 2.3 and 97.8 ± 0.8%, respectively. Mitral annular calcification was not associated with survival or recurrent mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for mitral annular calcification in patients with myxomatous degeneration and severe mitral regurgitation include older age, female gender, severe renal dysfunction and larger preoperative left atrial size. Nevertheless, favourable early and late results can be achieved with mitral valve repair in this population. PMID:23587525

  9. Lifting posterior mitral annuloplasty for enhancing leaflet coaptation in mitral valve repair: midterm outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Keun; Kim, Jun Seok; Yang, Hyun Suk

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the midterm outcomes of lifting posterior mitral annuloplasty for enhancing leaflet coaptation in mitral valve repair. Methods Between October 2007 and December 2012, 341 consecutive patients with significant mitral regurgitation underwent lifting posterior mitral annuloplasty using a specially designed fabric annuloplasty strip that lifts the middle portion of the posterior annulus. Associated procedures for mitral valve repairs, such as patch valvuloplasty for posterior leaflet prolapse (n=80), new chord placement for anterior leaflet prolapse (n=33), commissurotomy (n=29), and posterior leaflet extension (n=23), were performed in 141 patients (41.3%). Results Thirty-day mortality was 0.9%. Nine late deaths (2.6%) occurred. Mean overall survival at 5 years was 96.0%±1.1%. During the mean follow-up period of 38±17 months, six patients (1.8%) underwent valve-related reoperation (5-year freedom from valve-related reoperation, 98.1%±0.8%). At 5 years, mean freedom from recurrence of mitral regurgitation grade 3+ to 4+ (moderate to severe) was 95.1%±1.6%. The mean valve pressure gradient (PG) was 3.2±1.5 mmHg across all strip sizes at the time of follow-up. Conclusions Lifting posterior mitral annuloplasty using an innovative annuloplasty strip in mitral valve repair has a low rate of recurrent regurgitation or valve-related reoperation with rare relevant complications. PMID:26309826

  10. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 19782846 . Chandrashekhar Y, Westaby S, Narula J. Mitral stenosis. Lancet . 2009;374:1271-83. Epub 2009 Sep 9. ... Sarano M, Akins CW, Vahanian A. Mitral regurgitation. Lancet . 2009;373:1382-94. PMID: 19356795 www.ncbi. ...

  11. Development of a semi-automated method for mitral valve modeling with medial axis representation using 3D ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    M. Pouch, Alison; A. Yushkevich, Paul; M. Jackson, Benjamin; S. Jassar, Arminder; Vergnat, Mathieu; H. Gorman, Joseph; C. Gorman, Robert; M. Sehgal, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Precise 3D modeling of the mitral valve has the potential to improve our understanding of valve morphology, particularly in the setting of mitral regurgitation (MR). Toward this goal, the authors have developed a user-initialized algorithm for reconstructing valve geometry from transesophageal 3D ultrasound (3D US) image data. Methods: Semi-automated image analysis was performed on transesophageal 3D US images obtained from 14 subjects with MR ranging from trace to severe. Image analysis of the mitral valve at midsystole had two stages: user-initialized segmentation and 3D deformable modeling with continuous medial representation (cm-rep). Semi-automated segmentation began with user-identification of valve location in 2D projection images generated from 3D US data. The mitral leaflets were then automatically segmented in 3D using the level set method. Second, a bileaflet deformable medial model was fitted to the binary valve segmentation by Bayesian optimization. The resulting cm-rep provided a visual reconstruction of the mitral valve, from which localized measurements of valve morphology were automatically derived. The features extracted from the fitted cm-rep included annular area, annular circumference, annular height, intercommissural width, septolateral length, total tenting volume, and percent anterior tenting volume. These measurements were compared to those obtained by expert manual tracing. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) measurements were compared to qualitative assessments of MR severity. The accuracy of valve shape representation with cm-rep was evaluated in terms of the Dice overlap between the fitted cm-rep and its target segmentation. Results: The morphological features and anatomic ROA derived from semi-automated image analysis were consistent with manual tracing of 3D US image data and with qualitative assessments of MR severity made on clinical radiology. The fitted cm-reps accurately captured valve shape and demonstrated patient-specific differences in valve morphology among subjects with varying degrees of MR severity. Minimal variation in the Dice overlap and morphological measurements was observed when different cm-rep templates were used to initialize model fitting. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the use of deformable medial modeling for semi-automated 3D reconstruction of mitral valve geometry using transesophageal 3D US. The proposed algorithm provides a parametric geometrical representation of the mitral leaflets, which can be used to evaluate valve morphology in clinical ultrasound images. PMID:22320803

  12. Quantification of regurgitant lesions by MRI.

    PubMed

    Globits, S; Mayr, H; Frank, H; Neuhold, A; Glogar, D

    We examined 46 patients with angiographically documented regurgitant lesions (26 patients with mitral regurgitation, 20 patients with aortic regurgitation) using an 0.5 Tesla magnet. In each patient a multislice-multiphase spinecho sequence in sagittal-coronal double angulated plane was performed to assess left and right ventricular volumes, ejection fraction and regurgitant fraction. Additionally a blood flow sensitive gradient echo technique was done to visualize direction and extension of the regurgitant jet. MRI data were compared with quantitative and qualitative assessment of regurgitation by angiography and echocardiography. Using the gradient echo technique MRI could demonstrate the regurgitant jet in all patients. A linear correlation for volume parameters by MRI and angio was found with best correlation for the left ventricular stroke volume (r = 0.82, p less than 0.0001). Furthermore MRI regurgitant fraction correlated with angiographically determined regurgitant fraction in patients with aortic regurgitation (r = 0.91, p less than 0.0001) and mitral regurgitation (r = 0.67, p less than 0.001), respectively. Semiquantitative assessment of regurgitation by gradient echo technique showed an agreement with angiographic grading by Sellers in 70% of mitral and 75% of aortic regurgitation, respectively. The comparison of MRI and color Doppler sonography showed only moderate correlation of r = 0.72 (p less than 0.01). PMID:2097304

  13. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people to feel tired or short of breath. Mitral regurgitation can usually be treated with medicines, but some people need surgery to repair or replace the defective valve. How is MVP treated? Most of the time, ...

  14. Left Atrial Wall Dissection after Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Woo; Park, Se Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Choe, Won Joo; Park, Jang Su; Kim, Jung Won

    2013-01-01

    Left atrial dissection does occur, though rarely, after mitral valve surgery. A 68-year-old Korean female presented with moderate mitral stenosis, mild mitral regurgitation, moderate tricuspid regurgitation and mild aortic regurgitation. She was scheduled for mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty. We experienced a left atrial dissection after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and decided not to repair it. The patient recovered uneventfully. We suggest that a specific type of left atrial dissection can be treated conservatively. PMID:24198922

  15. Recent developments in percutaneous mitral valve treatment.

    PubMed

    La Canna, Giovanni; Denti, Paolo; Buzzatti, Nicola; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, various percutaneous techniques have been introduced for the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR), including direct leaflet repair, annuloplasty and left ventricular remodeling. Percutaneous mitral repair targets both primary degenerative and secondary mitral valve regurgitation and may be considered in selected high-surgical-risk patients. The assessment of mitral functional anatomy by echocardiography and computed tomography is crucial when selecting the appropriate repair strategy, according to the regurgitant valve lesion and the surrounding anatomy. The ongoing clinical use of new devices in annuloplasty and percutaneous mitral valve replacement is a promising new scenario in the treatment of MR that goes beyond the conventional surgical approach. PMID:26560529

  16. Functional and Biomechanical Effects of the Edge-to-Edge Repair in the Setting of Mitral Regurgitation: Consolidated Knowledge and Novel Tools to Gain Insight into Its Percutaneous Implementation.

    PubMed

    Sturla, Francesco; Redaelli, Alberto; Puppini, Giovanni; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Votta, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western population. When severe, it requires surgical treatment, repair being the preferred option. The edge-to-edge repair technique treats mitral regurgitation by suturing the leaflets together and creating a double-orifice valve. Due to its relative simplicity and versatility, it has become progressively more widespread. Recently, its percutaneous version has become feasible, and has raised interest thanks to the positive results of the Mitraclip(®) device. Edge-to-edge features and evolution have stimulated debate and multidisciplinary research by both clinicians and engineers. After providing an overview of representative studies in the field, here we propose a novel computational approach to the most recent percutaneous evolution of the edge-to-edge technique. Image-based structural finite element models of three mitral valves affected by posterior prolapse were derived from cine-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The models accounted for the patient-specific 3D geometry of the valve, including leaflet compound curvature pattern, patient-specific motion of annulus and papillary muscles, and hyperelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties of tissues. The biomechanics of the three valves throughout the entire cardiac cycle was simulated before and after Mitraclip(®) implantation, assessing the biomechanical impact of the procedure. For all three simulated MVs, Mitraclip(®) implantation significantly improved systolic leaflets coaptation, without inducing major alterations in systolic peak stresses. Diastolic orifice area was decreased, by up to 58.9%, and leaflets diastolic stresses became comparable, although lower, to systolic ones. Despite established knowledge on the edge-to-edge surgical repair, latest technological advances make its percutanoues implementation a challenging field of research. The modeling approach herein proposed may be expanded to analyze clinical scenarios that are currently critical for Mitraclip(®) implantation, helping the search for possible solutions. PMID:26577231

  17. Midregional-proAtrial Natriuretic Peptide and High Sensitive Troponin T Strongly Predict Adverse Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Repair of Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Trepte, Ulrike; Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Koenig, Wolfgang; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background It is not known whether biomarkers of hemodynamic stress, myocardial necrosis, and renal function might predict adverse outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous repair of severe mitral valve insufficiency. Thus, we aimed to assess the predictive value of various established and emerging biomarkers for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in these patients. Methods Thirty-four patients with symptomatic severe mitral valve insufficiency with a mean STS-Score for mortality of 12.6% and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 19.7% undergoing MitraClip therapy were prospectively included in this study. Plasma concentrations of mid regional-proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), Cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT), N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), galectin-3, and soluble ST-2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 1) were measured directly before procedure. MACE was defined as cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF). Results During a median follow-up of 211 days (interquartile range 133 to 333 days), 9 patients (26.5%) experienced MACE (death: 7 patients, rehospitalization for HF: 2 patients). Thirty day MACE-rate was 5.9% (death: 2 patients, no rehospitalization for HF). Baseline concentrations of hsTnT (Median 92.6 vs 25.2 ng/L), NT-proBNP (Median 11251 vs 1974 pg/mL) and MR-proANP (Median 755.6 vs 318.3 pmol/L, all p<0.001) were clearly higher in those experiencing an event vs event-free patients, while other clinical variables including STS-Score and logistic EuroSCORE did not differ significantly. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, NT-proBNP and in particular hsTnT and MR-proANP above the median discriminated between those experiencing an event vs event-free patients. This was further corroborated by C-statistics where areas under the ROC curve for prediction of MACE using the respective median values were 0.960 for MR-proANP, 0.907 for NT-proBNP, and 0.822 for hsTnT. Conclusions MR-proANP and hsTnT strongly predict cardiovascular death and rehospitalization for HF in patients undergoing percutaneous repair of mitral valve insufficiency. Both markers might be useful components in new scoring systems to better predict short- and potentially long-term mortality and morbidity after MitraClip procedure. PMID:26368980

  18. Mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Guy, T Sloane; Hill, Arthur C

    2012-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is defined as abnormal bulging of the mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium during ventricular systole. Mitral valve prolapse is a common condition that is a risk factor for mitral regurgitation, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and endocarditis. Myxomatous degeneration is the most common cause of mitral prolapse in the United States and Europe, and progression of myxomatous mitral prolapse is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation that requires surgical treatment. Myxomatous degeneration appears to have genetic etiology. The genetics of myxomatous degeneration is complex and not fully worked out; it appears to be heterogeneous with multi-gene, multi-chromosomal autosomal dominance with incomplete penetrance. The molecular disorder of myxomatous degeneration appears to consist of a connective tissue disorder with altered extracellular matrix status and involves the action of matrix metalloproteinase, cysteine endoproteases, and tenomodulin. Treatment of mitral prolapse with regurgitation is complex, and the technological advances that are currently in development will be challenging and controversial. PMID:22248324

  19. Cor Triatriatum with Mitral Valve Disease in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fuster-Siebert, M.; Llorens, R.; Arcas-Meca, R.; Rubio-Alvarez, J.; Prieto-Galán, F.; García-Bengochea, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    One 16-year-old boy with cor triatriatum and congenital mitral regurgitation and two women, 35- and 54-years-old, with cor triatriatum and rheumatic mitral stenosis are reported. The regurgitant mitral valve in the boy had three papillary muscles and short chordae tendineae. One of the patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a subtotal cor triatriatum with enlargement of the left atrial appendage and without asymmetry in the signs of pulmonary congestion. The mitral regurgitation facilitated the angiographic diagnosis of cor triatriatum. However, neither of the two patients associated with rheumatic mitral stenosis were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. All three patients were operated on with satisfactory results. Images PMID:15226941

  20. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results. PMID:26907868

  1. Mitral Valve Repair Using ePTFE Sutures for Ruptured Mitral Chordae Tendineae: A Computational Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yonghoon; Laing, Susan T.; McPherson, David D.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2013-01-01

    Mitral valve repair using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) sutures is an established and preferred interventional method to resolve the complex pathophysiologic problems associated with chordal rupture. We developed a novel computational evaluation protocol to determine the effect of the artificial sutures on restoring mitral valve function following valve repair. A virtual mitral valve was created using three-dimensional echocardiographic data in a patient with ruptured mitral chordae tendineae. Virtual repairs were designed by adding artificial sutures between the papillary muscles and the posterior leaflet where the native chordae were ruptured. Dynamic finite element simulations were performed to evaluate pre- and post-repair mitral valve function. Abnormal posterior leaflet prolapse and mitral regurgitation was clearly demonstrated in the mitral valve with ruptured chordae. Following virtual repair to reconstruct ruptured chordae, the severity of the posterior leaflet prolapse decreased and stress concentration was markedly reduced both in the leaflet tissue and the intact native chordae. Complete leaflet coaptation was restored when four or six sutures were utilized. Computational simulations provided quantitative information of functional improvement following mitral valve repair. This novel simulation strategy may provide a powerful tool for evaluation and prediction of interventional treatment for ruptured mitral chordae tendineae. PMID:24072489

  2. Restoration of normal left ventricular geometry after percutaneous mitral annuloplasty: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Soofi, Muhammad Adil; Alsamadi, Faisal

    2015-08-01

    Surgical mitral valve intervention is not considered suitable in patients with severe functional mitral regurgitation due to severe dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction. In such patients percutaneous mitral valve intervention is the next best alternative. We are presenting case report of a patient who presented with severe dyspnea progressing to orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. He was found to have severe functional mitral regurgitation and severe left ventricle systolic dysfunction. Surgical mitral intervention was not considered suitable and percutaneous mitral annuloplasty was done. At one month follow-up significant improvement in symptoms were noted with improvement in severity of mitral regurgitation severity. At 6 months follow-up further improvement in symptoms were noted along with significant improvement in the severity of mitral regurgitation and normalization of left ventricle geometry. At 1 year follow-up his symptoms further improved, left ventricle geometry remained normal and mitral regurgitation severity remained mild to moderate. Our case demonstrate that in patient with severe LV systolic dysfunction, severe mitral regurgitation and left bundle branch block percutaneous mitral annuloplasty can obviate the need for CRT-D due to significant improvement in LV function and geometry along with regression in severity of mitral regurgitation. Improvement in mitral regurgitation severity and LV geometry started early and kept improving with excellent result at 6 and 12 months. PMID:25258184

  3. Current challenges in interventional mitral valve treatment

    PubMed Central

    Candreva, Alessandro; Pozzoli, Alberto; Guidotti, Andrea; Gaemperli, Oliver; Nietlispach, Fabian; Barthelmes, Jens; Emmert, Maximilian Y.; Weber, Alberto; Benussi, Stefano; Alfieri, Ottavio; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter mitral valve therapies have emerged as an alternative option in high surgical risk or inoperable patients with severe and symptomatic mitral regurgitation (MR). As multiple technologies and different approaches will become available in the field of mitral valve interventions, different challenges are emerging, both patient- (clinical challenges) and procedure-related (technical challenges). This review will briefly explore the current open challenges in the evolving fields of interventional mitral valve treatment. PMID:26543599

  4. Increased risk of heart valve regurgitation after mediastinal radiation for Hodgkin's disease: an echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, M. B.; Ihlen, H.; Voss, B. M.; Abrahamsen, A. F.; Nome, O.; Kongerud, J.; Stugaard, M.; Forfang, K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess by echocardiography the occurrence and degree of late cardiac sequelae after treatment for Hodgkin's disease by radiation and chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In Norway from 1980 to 1988, 129 patients < 50 years old with Hodgkin's disease had curative treatment with mediastinal radiation, with or without chemotherapy. 116 (90%) of these patients (mean (SD) age 37 (7) years, 67 males) were examined by echocardiography 5-13 years after treatment. 40 healthy individuals (mean (SD) age 40 (11), 20 males) were examined as controls. All those examined were in regular sinus rhythm. RESULTS: Grade > 1 (scale 0-3) aortic and/or mitral valvar regurgitation was found in 24% of the patients (15% aortic, 7% mitral, and 2% aortic+mitral), affecting 46% of the females v 16% of the males (P < 0.001). Female gender was a significant risk factor for aortic and mitral regurgitation (odds ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 11.2), whereas age, period of follow up, radiation dose, and chemotherapy were not. Thickened pericardium was diagnosed in 15% of the patients. No risk factors were identified. No cases of pericardial thickening or valvar regurgitation grade > 1 were recorded in the control group. Mean values for measured and calculated indices of systolic and diastolic function were within the normal range for patients and controls. The patients had reduced E/A ratio compared with the healthy controls (E/A 1.1 v 2.0, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal left sided valvar regurgitation was detected in one fourth of the patients, affecting the aortic valve in more than half of the cases. Females had an increased risk of valvar regurgitation. Echocardiographic screening after high-dose mediastinal radiation is recommended. PMID:8697163

  5. Tricuspid regurgitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the lungs Swelling of the right lower heart chamber ... Surgical valve repair or replacement usually provides a cure. The outlook is poor for people who have severe tricuspid regurgitation that cannot be corrected.

  6. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy in juvenile mitral stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Rabi; Rajbhandari, Rajib; Shakya, Urmila; Sharma, Poonam; Shrestha, Nagma; KC, Bishal; Limbu, Deepak; KC, Man Bahadur

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) is a valid alternative to surgical therapy in selected patients with mitral stenosis. Juvenile mitral stenosis (JMS) varies uniquely from adult rheumatic heart disease (RHD). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PTMC in JMS patients. Methods It was a single centre, retrospective study conducted between July 2013 to June 2015 in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal. Medical records of all consecutive patients aged less than 21 years who underwent PTMC were included. Mitral valve area (MVA), left atrial pressure and mitral regurgitation (MR) were compared pre and post procedure. Results During the study period 131 JMS patients underwent PTMC. Seventy (53.4%) were female and 61 (46.6%) were male. Among the 131 patients, 40 (30.5%) patients were below the age of 15 years. Patient age ranged between 9 to 20 years with the mean of 16.3±2.9 years. Electrocardiography (ECG) findings were normal sinus rhythm in 115 (87.7%) patients and atrial fibrillation in 16 (12.3%) patients. Left atrial size ranged from 2.9 to 6.1 cm with the mean of 4.5±0.6 cm. The mean MVA increased from 0.8±0.1 cm2 to 1.6±0.2 following PTMC. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from their pre-PTMC state of 27.5±8.6 to 14.1±5.8 mmHg. Successful results were observed in 115 (87.7%) patients. Suboptimal MVA <1.5 cm2 in 11 (8.4%) patients and post-procedure MR of more than moderate MR in 5 (3.8%) patients was the reason for unsuccessful PTMC. Conclusions PTMC in JMS is safe and effective. PMID:26885488

  7. The Doppler echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation in normal children.

    PubMed

    Ayabakan, Canan; Ozkutlu, Süheyla; Kiliç, Ayhan

    2003-01-01

    To determine the frequency of valvular regurgitation, 174 children from birth to 18 years old (mean age 7.42+/-4.54 years), with structurally normal hearts were analyzed. Flow patterns across the four valves were examined by pulsed- (PW), continuous-wave (CW) and color Doppler. Regurgitation was detected in 59.7% of the valves. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was most commonly found in 32.8% (n=57), pulmonary regurgitation (PR) in 17.2% (n=30), mitral regurgitation (MR) in 8.6% (n=15), and aortic regurgitation (AR) in 1.1% (n=2). The range of peak velocities of the regurgitant flow with CW were as follows: TR:0.98-2.54 m/sec, PR:0.50-1.80 m/sec, MR:0.72-2.30 m/sec, and AR:1.22-1.25 m/sec. The mean peak velocities of the regurgitant flow were similar with CW and PW measurements (p>0.05). The length of the regurgitant flow with color Doppler was less than 1 cm beyond the mitral and aortic valves. It reached up to 1.8 cm behind the pulmonary and 1.83 cm behind the tricuspid valves. Frequency of valvular regurgitation was unchanged with age (p>0.05). Tricuspid regurgitation was more frequent in males (40.9% versus 23.5%; p=0.016). Regurgitation of tricuspid, pulmonary or mitral valves is relatively common in children with structurally normal hearts. Aortic regurgitation is scarce and the possible pathologic cause should always be carefully sought. PMID:12921295

  8. Study of Effectiveness and Safety of Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvulotomy for Treatment of Pregnant Patients with Severe Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hasit Sureshbhai; Deshmukh, Jagjeet Kishanrao; Prajapati, Jayesh Somabhai; Sahoo, Sibasis Shahsikant; Vyas, Pooja Maheshbhai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In pregnant women mitral stenosis is the commonest cardiac valvular lesion. When it is present in majorly severe condition it leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In mitral stenosis pregnancy can lead to development of heart failure. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of balloon mitral valvulotomy (BMV) in pregnant females with severe mitral stenosis. Materials and Methods A total of 30 pregnant patients who underwent BMV were included in the study from July 2011 to November 2013. Clinical follow-up during pregnancy was done every 3 months until delivery and after delivery. The mean follow up time after BMV was 6.72±0.56 months. Results From the 30 pregnant females 14 (46.67%) and 16 (53.3%) patients underwent BMV during the third and second trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean mitral valve area was 0.85+0.16 cm2 before BMV that increased to 1.60+0.27 cm2 (p<0.0001) immediately after BMV. Peak and mean diastolic gradients had decreased significantly within 48 hours after the procedure (p<0.001) but remained very much unchanged at 6.72 month period of follow-up. Two patients had an increase in mitral regurgitation by 2 grades. Conclusion During pregnancy BMV technique is safe and effective in patients with severe mitral stenosis. This results in marked symptomatic relief along with long term maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:26816932

  9. Neochordameter: A New Technology in Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh-Ghavidel, Alireza; Samiei, Niloofar; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Bashirpour, Kamiar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mitral valve repair has shown superior results compared to mitral valve replacement in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Using premeasured neochordae (the loop technique) has been proposed for both anterior and posterior leaflet repairs. However, there are two major problems that are usually experienced using this method. One is deciding the length of the neo-chordae, and the other is tying the knot at the intended length. Objectives: This study introduced a new technology in mitral valve repair that reduces the complexity of making neo-chordae loops, especially in minimally invasive surgeries. Patients and Methods: Neochordameter is a new device which utilizes preoperative transthoracic echocardiography to determine the exact length of required neochordae and enable surgeons to make neochordae loops before starting the cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we applied this technique in mitral valve repair of three patients. Results: Two of these patients were male and the other one was female. All of them had severe mitral regurgitation requiring anterior leaflet repair. Total eight neochordae loops were used in these patients. No change in the length of neochordae was required after saline test and all of these patients had none or trivial mitral regurgitation by intraoperative and follow up transesophageal echocardiography. No complication was seen in six-month follow up. Conclusions: The ability of this technology in developing premeasured neo-chordae loops with accurate sizes and not needing the post-implantation length adjustment which is efficient in reducing the complexity of both minimally invasive and conventional surgeries are the issues which is going to be regarded . PMID:25478522

  10. Non-invasive grading of aortic regurgitation by Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, A; Pfisterer, M; Stulz, P; Schmitt, H E; Burkart, F; Burckhardt, D

    1986-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound without concomitant echocardiographic imaging was used to grade isolated aortic regurgitation in 21 patients. The severity of aortic regurgitation was subsequently graded (from 0 to IV) angiographically. A 2 MHz continuous wave Doppler transducer was placed over the apex of the heart and the beam was aimed parallel to the mitral flow by means of acoustic guidance. Mitral pressure half time was calculated from the analogue maximum velocity tracing and it was less than or equal to 60 ms in 10 controls; 50-120 ms in five patients with grade II, 120-160 ms in nine patients with grade III, and greater than or equal to 160 ms in seven patients with grade IV aortic regurgitation. These results indicate that a semi-quantitative grading of aortic regurgitation may be obtained non-invasively with non-imaging Doppler ultrasonography in patients without concomitant mitral valve disease. PMID:3954909

  11. Rate of repair in minimally invasive mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hohenberger, Wolfgang; Lakew, Fitsum; Batz, Gerhard; Diegeler, Anno

    2013-01-01

    Background Valve repair has been shown to be the method of choice in the treatment of patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation. Minimally invasive surgery has raised skepticism regarding the rate of repair especially for supposedly complex lesions, when anterior leaflet involvement or bileaflet prolapse is present. We sought to review our experience of all our patients presenting with degenerative mitral valve regurgitation and operated on minimally invasively. Method From September 2006 to December 2012, 842 patients (mean age 56.12±11.62 years old) with degenerative mitral valve regurgitation and anterior leaflet (n=82, 9.7%), posterior leaflet (n=688, 81.7%) and bileaflet (n=72, 8.6%) prolapses were operated on using a minimally invasive approach. Results 836 patients had a valve repair (99.3%) and received a concomitant ring annuloplasty (mean size, 33.7; range, 28-40). Six patients (0.7%) underwent valve replacement. Two patients had a re-repair due to MR progression or infective endocarditis. Thirty-day mortality was 0.2% (two patients). There were 60 major adverse events (MAE) (7.1%). Conclusions A minimally invasive approach allows repair of almost all degenerative valves with good short-term outcomes in a tertiary referral center, when using proven and efficient surgical techniques. PMID:24349977

  12. Recurrent stuck mitral valve: eosinophilia an unusual pathology.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Bhat, Yasser; Radhakrishnan, S; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Eosinophilia is a very unusual and rare cause of thrombosis of prosthetic mitral valve. We report a 10-year-old male child of recurrent stuck prosthetic mitral valve. The child underwent mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation secondary to Rheumatic heart disease. He had recurrent prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis, despite desired INR levels. There was associated eosinophilia. The child was treated on the lines of tropical eosinophilia with oral prednisolone and diethylcarbamazine, the eosinophil count dropped significantly with no subsequent episode of stuck mitral valve. We discuss the management of recurrent stuck mitral valve and also eosinophilia as a causative factor for the same. PMID:25586257

  13. Finite Element Modeling of Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ashley E; Pantoja, Joe Luis; Weinsaft, Jonathan; Grossi, Eugene; Guccione, Julius M; Ge, Liang; Ratcliffe, Mark

    2016-02-01

    The mitral valve is a complex structure regulating forward flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle (LV). Multiple disease processes can affect its proper function, and when these diseases cause severe mitral regurgitation (MR), optimal treatment is repair of the native valve. The mitral valve (MV) is a dynamic structure with multiple components that have complex interactions. Computational modeling through finite element (FE) analysis is a valuable tool to delineate the biomechanical properties of the mitral valve and understand its diseases and their repairs. In this review, we present an overview of relevant mitral valve diseases, and describe the evolution of FE models of surgical valve repair techniques. PMID:26632260

  14. Sapien XT Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement Under Direct Vision in the Setting of Significant Mitral Annular Calcification.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Takashi; Suri, Rakesh M; Daly, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mitral valve replacement carries a high risk in patients with extensive mitral annular calcification. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with severely calcified mitral valve stenosis and extensive annular calcification. We approached the mitral valve through a left atriotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest. We successfully deployed a 29-mm Sapien XT valve under direct visualization with satisfactory positioning. We further balloon-expanded the device to diminish the likelihood of periprosthetic regurgitation. Open mitral valve replacement with a transcatheter valve can be performed without the need for decalcification of the mitral annulus and is a good alternative to conventional mitral valve replacement. PMID:26897200

  15. Mitral valve repair without mitral annuloplasty with extensive mitral annular calcification.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Akimasa; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Yosuke; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    In mitral valve repair, removal of mitral annular calcification (MAC) is necessary to secure the artificial ring but may cause rupture of the left ventricle or injury to the circumflex coronary artery. We experienced 3 cases of mitral valve regurgitation with extensive MAC. Patient 1, an 83-year old woman, had P1-P2 prolapse due to tendon rupture. We performed mitral valve repair with triangular resection of P2 and patch reconstruction, artificial-chordal reconstruction to P2 and anterolateral commissural edge-to-edge suturing. Patient 2 was a 76-year old man with P3 prolapse due to tendon rupture. We performed A3-P3 edge-to-edge suturing and small annular plication of the posteromedial commissure. Patient 3, an 84-year old woman with a non-specific coaptation defect in the anterolateral commissure and tenting of the anterior mitral leaflet due to a secondary chorda, underwent cutting of the secondary chorda of the anterior mitral leaflet and A1-P1 edge-to-edge suturing. We performed tricuspid annuloplasty in Patient 1 and aortic valve replacement in Patients 2 and 3. Postoperative echocardiography showed good control of mitral valve regurgitation, which we were able to regulate by repairing the leaflets and chordae without decalcification of the mitral annulus or implantation of an artificial ring. PMID:25205783

  16. Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Paul A.; Ferguson, James J.; Harlan, Mary; Gaos, Carlos M.; Massumi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    For treatment of symptomatic mitral valve stenosis, balloon valvuloplasty has emerged as an alternative to surgery. This report describes our initial clinical experience with balloon mitral valvuloplasty in 45 patients (37 women and 8 men; age range, 34 to 79 years) treated from December 1986 through March 1991. Thirty-nine of the 45 patients (87%) underwent a complete procedure (that is, they had at least 1 balloon inflation and did not require emergency surgery). Pre- and post-procedural catheterization showed that these patients had a significant improvement in mean mitral valve area, from 1.0 ± 0.3 cm2 to 1.9±0.8 cm2. Catheterization data revealed a decrease in transmitral gradient, from 16.3 ± 7.6 mmHg to 7.6 ± 3.7 mmHg, and an increase in cardiac index, from 2.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m2 to 2.9 ± 0.8 L/min/m2. These improvements were all statistically significant (p <0.0005). A clinically successful balloon mitral valvuloplasty was defined as an uncomplicated procedure yielding either a final mitral valve area > 1.5 cm2 or a 40% increase in mitral valve area, and an immediate post-valvuloplasty mitral regurgitation grade ?3+. Thirtytwo of the 45 patients (71%) were considered to have had a successful procedure. Another 7 patients underwent subsequent mitral valve replacement due to either a suboptimal final mitral valve area (3 patients) or >2+ increase in mitral regurgitation (4 patients). In 6 patients, the procedure was considered incomplete because of technical failure or complications. Two of these patients had nonfatal cardiac tamponade, and 1 had a torn mitral annulus that resulted in severe mitral regurgitation requiring emergent mitral valve replacement. In another patient, we were unable to cross the mitral valve with a 2nd valvuloplasty balloon after the 1st one proved unsatisfactory. There were 2 in-hospital deaths, only 1 of which was related to the procedure. Over time, our success rate has improved from 60% in the 1st 20 patients to 80% in the subsequent 25 patients, reflecting a learning curve. In particular, we attribute this improvement to increased operator experience, refinements in balloon technology, and, in more recent procedures, the initial use of smaller balloons. The improvement also reflects a change in demographic pattern, characterized by recent application of the procedure to younger patients with fewer concomitant illnesses. Because long-term follow-up data are available for only 23 patients, we cannot comment on the long-term efficacy of this technique. Overall, however, our short-term experience indicates that balloon mitral valvuloplasty is a safe, effective alternative for treating symptomatic mitral valve stenosis in carefully selected adults. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:270-7) Images PMID:15227453

  17. Unusual redo mitral valve replacement for bleeding in Glanzmann thrombasthenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villarreal, Ovidio A; Fernández-Ceseña, Ernesto; Solano-Ricardi, Mercedes; Aguilar-García, Alma L; Vega-Hernández, Raquel; Angel-Soto, Gustavo Del

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of 23-year-old man with mitral valve regurgitation and Glanzmann thrombasthenia, who underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement. Warfarin therapy was devastating, causing bilateral hemothorax, pericardial effusion, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hematuria. Redo mitral valve replacement with a biological prosthesis was required to resolve this critical situation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mitral valve replacement in Glanzmann thrombasthenia, highlighting the danger of oral anticoagulation in this pathology. PMID:24904176

  18. Rare Mycotic Aneurysm of the Mitral Valve without Aortic Valve Involvement.

    PubMed

    Zarrini, Parham; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Luthringer, Daniel; Siegel, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Mycotic aneurysms can be a rare, but serious complication of infectious endocarditis. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with fever and malaise from streptococcal bacteremia and found to have vegetation on the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. On follow-up visit, the patient was noted to have a mycotic aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve without aortic involvement. Her clinical course was complicated by mitral valve chordal rupture, severe mitral regurgitation, and dyspnea from severe mitral regurgitation for which she underwent successful surgical repair of the mitral valve. PMID:25881967

  19. Management of Acute Regurgitation in Left-Sided Cardiac Valves

    PubMed Central

    Mokadam, Nahush A.; Stout, Karen K.; Verrier, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    The management of acute, severe cardiac valvular regurgitation requires expeditious multidisciplinary care. Although acute, severe valvular regurgitation can be a true surgical emergency, accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions require clinical acumen, appropriate imaging, and sound judgment. An accurate and timely diagnosis is essential for successful outcomes and requires appropriate expertise and a sufficiently high degree of suspicion in a variety of settings. Whereas cardiovascular collapse is the most obvious and common presentation of acute cardiac valvular regurgitation, findings may be subtle, and the clinical presentation can often be nonspecific. Consequently, other acute conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, or nonvalvular heart failure may be mistaken for acute valvular regurgitation. In comparison with that of the right-sided valves, regurgitation of the left-sided valves is more common and has greater clinical impact. Therefore, this review focuses on acute regurgitation of the aortic and mitral valves. PMID:21423463

  20. Mitral Transcatheter Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Maisano, Francesco; Buzzatti, Nicola; Taramasso, Maurizio; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2013-01-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is often diagnosed in patients with heart failure and is associated with worsening of symptoms and reduced survival. While surgery remains the gold standard treatment in low-risk patients with degenerative MR, in high-risk patients and in those with functional MR, transcatheter procedures are emerging as an alternative therapeutic option. MitraClip® is the device with which the largest clinical experience has been gained to date, as it offers sustained clinical benefit in selected patients. Further to MitraClip implantation, several additional approaches are developing, to better match with the extreme variability of mitral valve disease. Not only repair is evolving, initial steps towards percutaneous mitral valve implantation have already been undertaken, and initial clinical experience has just started. PMID:23908865

  1. Late mitral annuloplasty failure: the loss of the ring.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Ballo, Piercarlo; Mondillo, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    An 81-year-old man complained with increasing dyspnoea and asthenia few months after a successful double mitral and tricuspid valvuloplasty intervention. The echocardiogram revealed a partial detachment of the mitral annuloplasty ring due to dehiscence determining a severe regurgitation. Curiously, at Color-Doppler analysis of mitral inflow, the prolapse of the detached ring produced a fascinating circular line inside the regurgitation signal, mimicking the shape of a gemstone ring. We described a case of a relatively uncommon cause of late mitral valvuloplasty failure characterized by a really unusual echocardiographic finding. PMID:16410026

  2. [A Case of Mitral Valvular Re-repair in a Patient with Hemolytic Anemia after Mitral Valvular Repair].

    PubMed

    Tomino, Mikiko; Miyata, Kazuto; Takeshita, Yuji; Kaneko, Koki; Kanazawa, Hiroko; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted for mitral valvular repair. After folding plasty to A3, a 30 mm Cosgrove-Edwards ring was placed. There was no mitral regurgitation jet observed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during the operation. However, high blood pressure was monitored and treated in the intensive care unit, hemolytic anemia developed, and the serum lactate dehydrogenase level was elevated. Two weeks after the operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase was again elevated. TEE showed mild mitral regurgitation and the regurgitation jet colliding with the annuloplasty ring. Multiple transfusions of red blood cells were required. Repeat surgery was therefore undertaken. Lam and associates previously studying patients on hemolysis after mitral valvular repair noted high grade mitral regurgitation jets fragmented or accelerated. In the present case, mitral regurgitation was mild, but the high velocity and manner of regurgitation (collision with the annuloplasty ring) could cause hemolytic anemia. In the present case, high blood pressure might have caused chordae rupture. Furthermore, a flexible ring, such as the Cosgrove-Edwards ring, is likely to cause hemolytic anemia. As contributing factors to hemolysis after mitral valvular repair, perioperative blood pressure management and type of ring are significant. PMID:26422945

  3. Mitral valve disease--current management and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Rick A; Vahanian, Alec; Eleid, Mackram F; Mack, Michael J

    2016-03-26

    The field of mitral valve disease diagnosis and management is rapidly changing. New understanding of disease pathology and progression, with improvements in and increased use of sophisticated imaging modalities, have led to early diagnosis and complex treatment. In primary mitral regurgitation, surgical repair is the standard of care. Treatment of asymptomatic patients with severe mitral regurgitation in valve reference centres, in which successful repair is more than 95% and surgical mortality is less than 1%, should be the expectation for the next 5 years. Transcatheter mitral valve repair with a MitraClip device is also producing good outcomes in patients with primary mitral regurgitation who are at high surgical risk. Findings from clinical trials of MitraClip versus surgery in patients of intermediate surgical risk are expected to be initiated in the next few years. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, mainly a disease of the left ventricle, the vision for the next 5 years is not nearly as clear. Outcomes from ongoing clinical trials will greatly inform this field. Use of transcatheter techniques, both repair and replacement, is expected to substantially expand. Mitral annular calcification is an increasing problem in elderly people, causing both mitral stenosis and regurgitation which are difficult to treat. There is anecdotal experience with use of transcatheter valves by either a catheter-based approach or as a hybrid technique with open surgery, which is being studied in early feasibility trials. PMID:27025438

  4. Short-term hemodynamic performance of the mitral Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve. Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Morehead, A. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Smedira, N. G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Marchand, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although long-term durability data exist, little data are available concerning the hemodynamic performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve in the mitral position. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who were implanted with mitral PERIMOUNT valves at seven international centers between January 1996 and February 1997 consented to participate in a short-term echocardiography follow-up. Echocardiographs were collected at a mean of 600+/-133 days after implantation (range, 110 to 889 days); all underwent blinded core lab analysis. RESULTS: At follow-up, peak gradients were 9.09+/-3.43 mm Hg (mean, 4.36+/-1.79 mm Hg) and varied inversely with valve size (p < 0.05). The effective orifice areas were 2.5+/-0.6 cm2 and tended to increase with valve size (p = 0.08). Trace mitral regurgitation (MR) was common (n = 48), 9 patients had mild MR, 1 had moderate MR, none had severe MR. All MR was central (n = 55) or indeterminate (n = 3). No paravalvular leaks were observed. Mitral regurgitation flow areas were 3.4+/-2.8 cm2 and were without significant volumes. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, these mitral valves are associated with trace, although physiologically insignificant, central MR. Despite known echocardiographic limitations, the PERIMOUNT mitral valves exhibit similar hemodynamics to other prosthetic valves.

  5. Automatic detection of cardiac cycle and measurement of the mitral annulus diameter in 4D TEE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graser, Bastian; Hien, Maximilian; Rauch, Helmut; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation is a wide spread problem. For successful surgical treatment quantification of the mitral annulus, especially its diameter, is essential. Time resolved 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is suitable for this task. Yet, manual measurement in four dimensions is extremely time consuming, which confirms the need for automatic quantification methods. The method we propose is capable of automatically detecting the cardiac cycle (systole or diastole) for each time step and measuring the mitral annulus diameter. This is done using total variation noise filtering, the graph cut segmentation algorithm and morphological operators. An evaluation took place using expert measurements on 4D TEE data of 13 patients. The cardiac cycle was detected correctly on 78% of all images and the mitral annulus diameter was measured with an average error of 3.08 mm. Its full automatic processing makes the method easy to use in the clinical workflow and it provides the surgeon with helpful information.

  6. Hemolytic anemia produced by regurgitation through transposed chordae tendineae.

    PubMed

    Birkbeck, James P; Gorton, Michael E; Vacek, James L

    2005-11-01

    Hemolytic anemia after mitral repair and annuloplasty ring placement is very uncommon, and rarely described. The case is presented of a 53-year-old woman who developed severe mitral regurgitation and transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia following mitral valve repair with a Carpentier-Edwards annuloplasty ring, which included transposition of chordae tendineae from the posterior leaflet to the anterior leaflet. Transesophageal echocardiography suggested that the transposed chordae tethered the anterior leaflet, causing malcoaptation of the leaflets. This resulted in central regurgitation divided by the chordae tendineae, producing two turbulent flow jets causing hemolysis. At reoperation, these chordae were removed and two longer Gortex neochordae to the anterior leaflet were placed with subsequent resolution of the anemia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of hemolytic anemia caused by transposed mitral valve chordae tendineae from the posterior to the anterior leaflet. PMID:16359054

  7. Minimally invasive concomitant aortic and mitral valve surgery: the “Miami Method”

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Valve surgery via a median sternotomy has historically been the standard of care, but in the past decade various minimally invasive approaches have gained increasing acceptance. Most data available on minimally invasive valve surgery has generally involved single valve surgery. Therefore, robust data addressing surgical techniques in patients undergoing double valve surgery is lacking. For patients undergoing combined aortic and mitral valve surgery, a minimally invasive approach, performed via a right lateral thoracotomy (the “Miami Method”), is the preferred method at our institution. This method is safe and effective and leads to an enhanced recovery in our patients given the reduction in surgical trauma. The following perspective details our surgical approach, concepts and results for combined aortic and mitral valve surgery. PMID:25694974

  8. Pathology of tricuspid valve stenosis and pure tricuspid regurgitation--Part III.

    PubMed

    Waller, B F; Howard, J; Fess, S

    1995-04-01

    This three-part article examines the histologic and morphologic basis for stenotic and purely regurgitant tricuspid valves. In Part III, morphometric analysis of tricuspid valve annular circumference, leaflet area, and the product of annular circumference and leaflet area are shown to be useful in establishing etiology for the purely regurgitant tricuspid valves and in assessing the anatomic basis of pure tricuspid regurgitation in the presence of mitral stenosis. PMID:7788951

  9. Multiple angiomatous mitral valve cysts leading to floppy mitral valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Nazmi; Küçükate?, Emine; Ersanli, Murat; Kansiz, Erhan

    2008-06-01

    We report an extremely rare case of cystic-tumor like formations that originated from the mitral valve tissue affected by verrucous endocarditis, leading to floppy mitral valve syndrome. These cystic tumoral formations were discovered during two-dimensional echocardiographic examination of a 46 year-old woman with cardiac symptoms of palpitation, dyspnea, and exertional angina pectoris. Multiple cysts were attached to the anterior mitral leaflet, resulting in pansystolic pseudoparachute-like floppy mitral valve prolapse, and severe mitral regurgitation. The patient underwent prosthetic mitral valve replacement following removal of the mitral valve and multiple cystic-tumoral formations. She had an uneventful postoperative course. Histological diagnosis was diffuse angiomatous cystic development of vasculatory tumor-like structures due to verrucous endocarditis. PMID:18765969

  10. Isolated Mitral Cleft in Trisomy 21: An Initially 'Silent' Lesion.

    PubMed

    Thankavel, Poonam P; Ramaciotti, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cardiac anomalies are common in trisomy 21, and transthoracic echocardiogram within the first month of life is recommended. While a cleft mitral valve associated with atrioventricular septal defect has been well defined in this population, the prevalence of isolated mitral valve cleft has not been previously reported. The aim of our study was to define the occurrence of isolated mitral cleft in the first echocardiogram of patients with trisomy 21. This retrospective chart review examined echocardiographic data on all Trisomy 21 patients <1 year of age obtained during January 1, 2010, to May 1, 2014, at our institution. Images were reviewed by one of the authors with no knowledge of the official diagnosis. In addition to evaluation for isolated mitral valve cleft, data obtained included presence of additional congenital heart defects and need for surgical intervention. A total of 184 patients (median age 5 days) were identified. Isolated mitral cleft was identified in 12 patients (6.5 %). Four were diagnosed retrospectively (33 %). Only one had mitral regurgitation on initial echocardiogram. Seven required surgery for closure of ventricular septal defects. Isolated mitral cleft is present in an important number of neonates with Trisomy 21. Mitral regurgitation is often absent in the neonatal period and should not be used as a reliable indicator of absence of valve abnormality. Careful attention should be directed toward the mitral valve during the first echocardiogram to exclude an isolated cleft, which can lead to progressive mitral regurgitation. PMID:26481224

  11. Coronary Revascularization Alone or with Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Goland, Sorel; Czer, Lawrence S.C.; Siegel, Robert J.; DeRobertis, Michele A.; Mirocha, James; Zivari, Kaveh; Kass, Robert M.; Raissi, Sharo; Fontana, Gregory; Cheng, Wen; Trento, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of patients at our hospital who had moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation and who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone or with concomitant mitral valve repair (CABG+MVr). A total of 83 patients had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and moderate mitral regurgitation: 28 patients underwent CABG+MVr, and 55 underwent CABG alone. Changes in mitral regurgitation, functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction were compared in both groups. The mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 3.6 years (range, 0.1–15.1 yr). Reduction of 2 mitral-regurgitation grades was found in 85% of CABG+MVr patients versus 14% of CABG-only patients (P < 0.0001) at 1 year, and in 56% versus 14% at 5 years, respectively (P = 0.1), as well as improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction and functional class. One- and 5-year survival rates were similar in the CABG+MVr and CABG-only groups: 96% ± 3% versus 96% ± 4%, and 87% ± 5% versus 81% ± 8%, respectively (P = NS). Propensity analysis showed similar results. Recurrent (3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation was found in 22% and 47% at late follow-up, respectively. In patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation, either surgical approach led to an improvement in functional class. Early and intermediate-term mortality rates were low with either CABG or CABG+MVr. However, an increased rate of late recurrent mitral regurgitation in the CABG+MVr group was observed. PMID:19876417

  12. Assessment of mitral Björk-Shiley prosthetic dysfunction using digitised M mode echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, K D; Cotter, L; Gibson, D G

    1984-01-01

    Digitised M mode echocardiograms were analysed in 22 patients with possible Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic dysfunction. Patients with paraprosthetic mitral regurgitation had a significantly greater shortening fraction, an increased peak rate of dimension change during systole, and an increased peak velocity of circumferential fibre shortening than those with poor left ventricular function. Patients with a clotted prosthesis had lower values for shortening fraction and peak rate of dimension change during systole than patients with paraprosthetic regurgitation. In this latter group, the peak rate of dimension change during diastole and peak lengthening rate were greater than in either those patients with poor left ventricular function or those with a clotted prosthesis. In addition, the peak lengthening rate was greater in those with a clotted prosthesis than in those with poor left ventricular function. Thus M mode echocardiography is a useful method of assessing mitral prosthetic dysfunction and allows patients with paraprosthetic regurgitation to be distinguished from those with either poor left ventricular function or a clotted prosthesis. PMID:6691866

  13. One-year results from cryopreserved mitral allograft transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep experimental model.

    PubMed

    Mokracek, A; Canadyova, J; Simunkova, Z; Fiala, R; Hmirak, M; Sulda, M; Burkert, J; Tintera, J; Kobylka, P; Spatenka, J

    2015-12-29

    Mitral allografts are still used only exceptionally in the mitral or tricuspid position. The main indication remains infectious endocarditis of atrioventricular valves for its flexibility and low risk of infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate 1-year results of mitral allografts transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep model. Mitral allografts were processed, cryopreserved, and transplanted into the tricuspid position anatomically (Group I - 11 animals) or antianatomically (Group II - 8 animals). All survivors (4 from Group I, and 3 from Group II) were checked at 3, 6, and 12 months by echocardiography with the exception of one survivor from Group II (which was examinated only visually). Examination throughout follow-up included for mitral allograft regurgitation and annuli dilatation. At postmortem, the papillary muscles were healed and firmly anchored to the right ventricular wall in all subjects. Transventricular fixation of the papillary muscles with buttressed sutures was proven to be a stable, reproducible, and safe method for anchoring mitral allograft leaflets. There were no significant differences between the two implantation methods. Annulus support of mitral allografts might be very useful in this type of operation and could prevent annular dilatation. PMID:26047374

  14. Right coronary cusp perforation after mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Al Yamani, Mohammed I.; Frapier, Jean-Marc; Battistella, Pascal D.; Albat, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Secondary to leaflet injury, which is a well-known technical mistake, aortic regurgitation can occur during mitral valve replacement or repair. In most cases, the left or the non-coronary cusps are affected. For the first time, we report the case of a patient who had severe aortic regurgitation due to right coronary cusp perforation after mitral valve replacement. This complication was not identified until reoperation. Had transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) been used during the first procedure, a delayed reoperation could have been avoided. During mitral surgery, every aortic cusp is at risk and peroperative TOE should be a mandatory procedure. PMID:23243033

  15. Mass attached to mechanical mitral valve mimicking a thrombus.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Taracido, Manuel; Bustamante, Sergio; Adasme, Óscar; Kara, Sergio; Merino, Jaime; Pivetta, Rodolfo; Macedo, Matías; Marrero, Roberto; Fernández, Ricardo; Puccio, José Miguel

    2015-12-15

    Mitral valve replacement with preservation of chordae tendineae and papillary muscles is a well-known technique which has proved beneficial by reducing postoperative left ventricular remodeling and preserving left ventricular function. This advantage has been demonstrated in functional mitral valve regurgitation as well as mitral valve regurgitation due to rheumatic disease. Regarding complications of this technique, several of them have been reported, papillary muscle rupture being one of them. We describe a clinical case of this weird but possible kind of complication. PMID:26298382

  16. Update on percutaneous mitral commissurotomy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Lodi-Junqueira, Lucas; Tan, Timothy C; Athayde, Guilherme Rafael Sant'Anna; Hung, Judy

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) is the first-line therapy for managing rheumatic mitral stenosis. Over the past two decades, the indications of the procedure have expanded to include patients with unfavourable valve anatomy as a consequence of epidemiological changes in patient population. The procedure is increasingly being performed in patients with increased age, more deformed valves and associated comorbidities. Echocardiography plays a crucial role in patient selection and to guide a more efficient procedure. The main echocardiographic predictors of immediate results after PMC are mitral valve area, subvalvular thickening and valve calcification, especially at the commissural level. However, procedural success rate is not only dependent on valve anatomy, but a number of other factors including patient characteristics, interventional management strategies and operator expertise. Severe mitral regurgitation continues to be the most common immediate procedural complication with unchanged incidence rates over time. The long-term outcome after PMC is mainly determined by the immediate procedural results. Postprocedural parameters associated with late adverse events include mitral valve area, mitral regurgitation severity, mean gradient and pulmonary artery pressure. Mitral restenosis is an important predictor of event-free survival rates after successful PMC, and repeat procedure can be considered in cases with commissural refusion. PMC can be performed in special situations, which include high-risk patients, during pregnancy and in the presence of left atrial thrombus, especially in centres with specialised expertise. Therefore, procedural decision-making should take into account the several determinant factors of PMC outcomes. This paper provides an overview and update of PMC techniques, complications, immediate and long-term results over time, and assessment of suitability for the procedure. PMID:26743926

  17. A simplified D-shaped model of the mitral annulus to facilitate CT-based sizing before transcatheter mitral valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Philipp; Dvir, Danny; Cheung, Anson; Ye, Jian; Levine, Robert A.; Precious, Bruce; Berger, Adam; Stub, Dion; Hague, Cameron; Murphy, Darra; Thompson, Christopher; Munt, Brad; Moss, Robert; Boone, Robert; Wood, David; Pache, Gregor; Webb, John; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Background The nonplanar, saddle-shaped structure of the mitral annulus has been well established through decades of anatomic and echocardiographic study. Its relevance for mitral annular assessment for transcatheter mitral valve implantation is uncertain. Objective Our objectives are to define the methodology for CT-based simplified “D-shaped” mitral annular assessment for transcatheter mitral valve implantation and compare these measurements to traditional “saddle-shaped” mitral annular assessment. Methods The annular contour was manually segmented, and fibrous trigones were identified using electrocardiogram-gated diastolic CT data sets of 28 patients with severe functional mitral regurgitation, yielding annular perimeter, projected area, trigone-to-trigone (TT) distance, and septal-lateral distance. In contrast to the traditional saddle-shaped annulus, the D-shaped annulus was defined as being limited anteriorly by the TT distance, excluding the aortomitral continuity. Hypothetical left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) clearance was assessed. Results Projected area, perimeter, and septal-lateral distance were found to be significantly smaller for the D-shaped annulus (11.2 ± 2.7 vs 13.0 ± 3.0 cm2; 124.1 ± 15.1 vs 136.0 ± 15.5 mm; and 32.1 ± 4.0 vs 40.1 ± 4.9 mm, respectively; P < .001). TT distances were identical (32.7 ± 4.1 mm). Hypothetical LVOT clearance was significantly lower for the saddle-shaped annulus than for the D-shaped annulus (10.7 ± 2.2 vs 17.5 ± 3.0 mm; P < .001). Conclusion By truncating the anterior horn of the saddle-shaped annular contour at the TT distance, the resulting more planar and smaller D-shaped annulus projects less onto the LVOT, yielding a significantly larger hypothetical LVOT clearance than the saddle-shaped approach. CT-based mitral annular assessment may aid preprocedural sizing, ensuring appropriate patient and device selection. PMID:25467833

  18. Mechanics of the mitral valve

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Famaey, Nele; Shultz, Tyler O’Brien; Bothe, Wolfgang; Miller, D. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in mitral valve mechanics are classical indicators of valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis. Computational modeling is a powerful technique to quantify these alterations, to explore mitral valve physiology and pathology, and to classify the impact of novel treatment strategies. The selection of the appropriate constitutive model and the choice of its material parameters are paramount to the success of these models. However, the in vivo parameters values for these models are unknown. Here we identify the in vivo material parameters for three common hyperelastic models for mitral valve tissue, an isotropic one and two anisotropic ones, using an inverse finite element approach. We demonstrate that the two anisotropic models provide an excellent fit to the in vivo data, with local displacement errors in the sub-millimeter range. In a complementary sensitivity analysis, we show that the identified parameter values are highly sensitive to prestrain, with some parameters varying up to four orders of magnitude. For the coupled anisotropic model, the stiffness varied from 119,021kPa at 0% prestrain via 36kPa at 30% prestrain to 9kPa at 60% prestrain. These results may, at least in part, explain the discrepancy between previously reported ex vivo and in vivo measurements of mitral leaflet stiffness. We believe that our study provides valuable guidelines for modeling mitral valve mechanics, selecting appropriate constitutive models, and choosing physiologically meaningful parameter values. Future studies will be necessary to experimentally and computationally investigate prestrain, to verify its existence, to quantify its magnitude, and to clarify its role in mitral valve mechanics. PMID:23263365

  19. Transfemoral aortic valve implantation in severe aortic stenosis patients with prior mitral valve prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sar?, Cenk; Ba?tu?, Serdal; Kasapkara, Hac? Ahmet; Durmaz, Tahir; Kele?, Telat; Akçay, Murat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Bozkurt, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients with a previous mitral valve prosthesis is technically challenging, and pre-procedural comprehensive assessment of these patients before transcatheter aortic valve implantation is vital for an uncomplicated and successful procedure. Aim We want to share our experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with a preexisting functional mitral valve prosthesis and describe a series of important technical and pre-procedural details. Material and methods At our center, 135 patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis were treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Six of them with a preexisting mitral valve prosthesis received an Edwards SAPIEN XT valve through the transfemoral route. Results Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed successfully in all 6 patients without any deformation of the cobalt-chromium/steel stents of the aortic valve bioprosthesis. Also no distortion or malfunction in the mitral valve prosthesis was observed after the procedure. There were no complications during the hospitalization period. Post-procedural echocardiography revealed no or mild aortic paravalvular regurgitation and normal valve function in all the patients. In addition, serial echocardiographic examination demonstrated that both the stability and function of the aortic and mitral prosthetic valves were normal without any deterioration in the gradients and the degree of the regurgitation at long-term follow-ups. Conclusions Our experience confirms that transcatheter aortic valve implantation is technically feasible in patients with previous mitral valve replacement but comprehensive evaluation of patients by multimodal imaging techniques such as transesophageal echocardiography and multislice computed tomography is mandatory for a successful and safe procedure. PMID:26677380

  20. Percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Ben Farhat, M.; Gamra, H.; Betbout, F.; Maatouk, F.; Jarrar, M.; Addad, F.; Tiss, M.; Hammami, S.; Chahbani, I.; Thaalbi, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy for the treatment of pregnant women with severe mitral stenosis over a period of six years. DESIGN: Analysis of clinical, haemodynamic, and echocardiographic data before and immediately after the procedure, the pregnancy outcome, and the fate of newborn babies. SETTING: Academic cardiovascular centre in Monastir, Tunisia. PATIENTS: 44 pregnant patients who underwent percutaneous transvenous dilatation of the mitral valve between January 1990 and February 1996. Grade 2 mitral regurgitation was present in two patients and densely calcific valves in three (7%). RESULTS: Commissurotomy was successfully achieved in all cases. The total mean (SD) duration of teh procedure was 72 (18) minutes and that of fluoroscopy 16 (7) minutes. Left atrial pressure decreased from 28 (10) to 14 (7) mm Hg, mitral pressure gradient fell from 22 (8) to 5 (3) mm Hg. Cardiac output increased from 4.8 (1.1) to 6.3 (1.2) l/min and Gorlin mitral valve area from 0.96 (0.21) to 2.4 (0.4) cm2 (all P < < 0.001). Cross sectional echocardiographic mitral valve area increased from 1.07 (0.21) to 2.32 (0.36) cm2. There were no maternal or fetal deaths. Complications included a grade 4 mitral regurgitation in one patient that required early valve replacement. All patients delivered at full term, 42 vaginally and two (5%) by caesarean section; 41 babies were normal and three whose mothers had the procedure near term were relatively hypotrophic. At a mean follow up of 28 (12) months (range 2 to 26) all children had normal growth. CONCLUSIONS: During pregnancy, balloon mitral commissurotomy is the treatment of choice of severe pliable mitral stenosis in patients who are refractory to medical treatment. PMID:9227303

  1. Intraoperative echocardiographic detection of regurgitant jets after valve replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, A. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J.; Armstrong, G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paravalvular jets, documented by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, have prompted immediate valve explantation by others, yet the significance of these jets is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients had intraoperative transesophageal two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography, performed to assess the number and area of regurgitant jets after valve replacement, before and after protamine. Patients were grouped by first time versus redo operation, valve position and type. RESULTS: Before protamine, 55 jets were identified (2.04+/-1.4 per patient) versus 29 jets after (1.07+/-1.2 per patient, p = 0.0002). Total jet area improved from 2.0+/-2.2 cm2 to 0.86+/-1.7 cm2 with protamine (p<0.0001). In all patients jet area decreased (average decrease, 70.7%+/-27.0%). First time and redo operations had similar improvements in jet number and area (both p>0.6). Furthermore, mitral and mechanical valves each had more jets and overall greater jet area when compared to aortic and tissue valves, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Following valve replacement, multiple jets are detected by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. They are more common and larger in the mitral position and with mechanical valves. Improvement occurs with reversal of anticoagulation.

  2. Accuracy of the flow convergence method for quantification of aortic regurgitation in patients with central versus eccentric jets.

    PubMed

    Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Goffinet, Céline; Vancraeynest, David; Pasquet, Agnès; Gerber, Bernhard L; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

    2008-08-15

    Proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) has been proposed as a quantitative method to assess the severity of aortic regurgitation (AR). Yet the accuracy of this method in patients with eccentric AR jets is unknown. The aims of this study were to compare the accuracy of the PISA method for the quantification of AR severity in patients with central versus eccentric AR jets and to verify whether imaging from the left parasternal instead of the apical window improves the accuracy of the PISA method in patients with eccentric jets. Fifty patients with AR (21 with central jets and 29 with eccentric jets) underwent PISA and phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements of AR volume. In patients with eccentric AR jets, PISA measurements obtained from the left parasternal and apical windows were compared. In patients with central AR jets, CMR- and PISA-derived AR volumes were similar (28 +/- 19 vs 30 +/- 20 ml, p = 0.34), were strongly correlated (r = 0.92, p <0.0001), and differed minimally from each other (by 2 +/- 8 ml). In patients with eccentric AR jets, PISA-derived AR volumes underestimated those measured by CMR (38 +/- 22 vs 51 +/- 27 ml, bias -13 +/- 20 ml) and were correlated only fairly (r = 0.69, p <0.001). Imaging from the left parasternal window eliminated the differences between CMR- and PISA-derived AR volumes (51 +/- 27 vs 53 +/- 26 ml, p = 0.24) and improved the correlation between the 2 measures (r = 0.95). In conclusion, in patients with eccentric AR jets imaged from the apical window, the PISA method significantly underestimated AR severity. This was no longer the case when imaging was performed from the left parasternal instead of the apical window. PMID:18678309

  3. Robotic Posterior Mitral Leaflet Repair: Neochordal versus Resectional Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Pattakos, Gregory; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Planinc, Mislav; Williams, Sarah J.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Resectional techniques are the established method of posterior mitral valve leaflet repair for degenerative disease; however, use of neochordae in a robotically assisted approach is gaining acceptance because of its versatility for difficult multi-segment disease. The purposes of this study were to compare the versatility, safety, and effectiveness of neochordal vs. resectional techniques for robotic posterior mitral leaflet repair. Methods From 12/2007 to 7/2010, 334 patients underwent robotic posterior mitral leaflet repair for degenerative disease by a resectional (n=248) or neochordal (n=86) technique. Outcomes were compared unadjusted and after propensity score matching. Results Neochordae were more likely to be used than resection in patients with two (28% vs. 13%, P=.002) or three (3.7% vs. 0.87%, P=.08) diseased posterior leaflet segments. Three resection patients (0.98%) but no neochordal patient required reoperation for hemodynamically significant systolic anterior motion (SAM). Residual mitral regurgitation (MR) at hospital discharge was similar for matched neochordal vs. resection patients (P=.14) (MR 0+, 82% vs. 89%; MR 1+, 14% vs. 8.2%; MR 2+, 2.3% vs. 2.6%; one neochordal patient had 4+ MR and was reoperated). Among matched patients, postoperative mortality and morbidity were similarly low. Conclusion Compared with a resectional technique, robotic posterior mitral leaflet repair with neochordae is associated with shorter operative times and no occurrence of SAM. The versatility, effectiveness, and safety of this repair make it a good choice for patients with advanced multi-segment disease. PMID:23103008

  4. Mitral valve plasty for a hammock mitral valve in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiaki; Tokoro, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Jyunji

    2015-09-01

    A 50-year old woman presented with arterial thrombosis in the right leg. Echocardiography revealed a mobile left atrial thrombus and severe mitral stenosis. She underwent a left atrial thrombectomy, the maze procedure and mitral valve plasty. Anterior and posterior mitral leaflets arose directly from the anterior papillary muscle, and from the posterior papillary muscle intervened by short chordae. This suggested a hammock mitral valve. A posterior papillary muscle division and commissurotomy were performed. The anterior leaflet was divided off the anterior papillary muscle, then extended by a triangular-shaped autologous pericardial patch and apically reattached. The postoperative mean pressure gradient of the mitral valve was 2.2 mmHg, and there was no regurgitation. The patient was in NYHA Class 1 and in sinus rhythm, 14 months after the operation. PMID:26034223

  5. Mitral valve disease—morphology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert A.; Hagége, Albert A.; Judge, Daniel P.; Padala, Muralidhar; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Aikawa, Elena; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bischoff, Joyce; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bruneval, Patrick; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Carpentier, Alain; Chaput, Miguel; Chester, Adrian H.; Clusel, Catherine; Delling, Francesca N.; Dietz, Harry C.; Dina, Christian; Durst, Ronen; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Jensen, Morten O.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier P.; Le Marec, Hervé; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Markwald, Roger R.; Mérot, Jean; Messas, Emmanuel; Milan, David P.; Neri, Tui; Norris, Russell A.; Peal, David; Perrocheau, Maelle; Probst, Vincent; Pucéat, Michael; Rosenthal, Nadia; Solis, Jorge; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Song, Jae-Kwan; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2016-01-01

    Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but—even in adult life—remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular–ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease. PMID:26483167

  6. Mitral valve disease-morphology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert A; Hagége, Albert A; Judge, Daniel P; Padala, Muralidhar; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Aikawa, Elena; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bischoff, Joyce; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bruneval, Patrick; Butcher, Jonathan T; Carpentier, Alain; Chaput, Miguel; Chester, Adrian H; Clusel, Catherine; Delling, Francesca N; Dietz, Harry C; Dina, Christian; Durst, Ronen; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Handschumacher, Mark D; Jensen, Morten O; Jeunemaitre, Xavier P; Marec, Hervé Le; Tourneau, Thierry Le; Markwald, Roger R; Mérot, Jean; Messas, Emmanuel; Milan, David P; Neri, Tui; Norris, Russell A; Peal, David; Perrocheau, Maelle; Probst, Vincent; Pucéat, Michael; Rosenthal, Nadia; Solis, Jorge; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Song, Jae-Kwan; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2015-12-01

    Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but-even in adult life-remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular-ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease. PMID:26483167

  7. Review of mitral valve insufficiency: repair or replacement

    PubMed Central

    Madesis, Athanasios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kesisis, George; Tsiouda, Theodora; Beleveslis, Thomas; Koletas, Alexander; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve (MV) dysfunction is the second-most common clinically significant form of valvular defect in adults. MV regurgitation occurs with the increasing frequency of degenerative changes of the aging process. Moreover, other causes of clinically significant MV regurgitation include cardiac ischemia, infective endocarditis and rhematic disease more frequently in less developed countries. Recent evidence suggests that the best outcomes after repair of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are achieved in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, who are selected for surgery soon after diagnosis on the basis of echocardiography. This review will focus on the surgical management of mitral insufficiency according to its aetiology today and will give insight to some of the perspectives that lay in the future. PMID:24672698

  8. Valvuloplasty of a stenosed mitral valve bioprothesis.

    PubMed

    Bekeredjian, Raffi; Katus, Hugo A; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    An 86-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with a stenosed biological mitral valve prothesis (orifice area 0.75 cm(2)). Additional cardiac surgery was refused by the patient and her physician. Therefore, balloon valvuloplasty of the mitral valve bioprothesis was planned. Valvulopasty was successfully and safely performed using a standard mitral valve valvuloplasty protocol. Positioning of the Inoue-balloon was facilitated using a wire that was inserted into the left ventricle and simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography. The Inoue balloon was inflated twice (26 mm). After valvuloplasty, echocardiography was repeated, showing a reduction in mean pressure gradient (5 mmHg) and increased orifice area (1.2 cm(2)) without relevant mitral valve regurgitation. PMID:20516519

  9. Accuracy of a Mitral Valve Segmentation Method Using J-Splines for Real-Time 3D Echocardiography Data

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Andrew W.; Icenogle, David A.; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Rossignac, Jarek; Lerakis, Stamatios; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific models of the heart’s mitral valve (MV) exhibit potential for surgical planning. While advances in 3D echocardiography (3DE) have provided adequate resolution to extract MV leaflet geometry, no study has quantitatively assessed the accuracy of their modeled leaflets versus a ground-truth standard for temporal frames beyond systolic closure or for differing valvular dysfunctions. The accuracy of a 3DE-based segmentation methodology based on J-splines was assessed for porcine MVs with known 4D leaflet coordinates within a pulsatile simulator during closure, peak closure, and opening for a control, prolapsed, and billowing MV model. For all time points, the mean distance error between the segmented models and ground-truth data were 0.40±0.32 mm, 0.52±0.51 mm, and 0.74±0.69 mm for the control, flail, and billowing models. For all models and temporal frames, 95% of the distance errors were below 1.64 mm. When applied to a patient data set, segmentation was able to confirm a regurgitant orifice and post-operative improvements in coaptation. This study provides an experimental platform for assessing the accuracy of an MV segmentation methodology at phases beyond systolic closure and for differing MV dysfunctions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of a MV segmentation methodology for the development of future surgical planning tools. PMID:23460042

  10. Minimally Invasive Approach for Redo Mitral Valve Replacement: No Aortic Cross-Clamping and No Cardioplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong Rae; Kim, Gwan Sic; Yoo, Jae Suk; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had previously undergone a double valve replacement was admitted to Asan Medical Center because of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction and tricuspid regurgitation. Under hypothermic fibrillatory arrest without aortic cross-clamping, minimally invasive mitral and tricuspid valve surgery was performed via a right minithoracotomy. PMID:25883896

  11. Percutaneous mitral heart valve repair--MitraClip.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Jay V; Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Jalaj; Paudel, Rajiv; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Doshi, Tina V; Gotsis, William; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common cardiac valvular disease in the United States. Approximately 4 million people have severe MR and roughly 250,000 new diagnoses of MR are made each year. Mitral valve surgery is the only treatment that prevents progression of heart failure and provides sustained symptomatic relief. Mitral valve repair is preferred over replacement for the treatment of MR because of freedom from anticoagulation, reduced long-term morbidity, reduced perioperative mortality, improved survival, and better preservation of left ventricular function compared with valve replacement. A large proportion of patients in need of valve repair or replacement do not undergo such procedures because of a perceived unacceptable perioperative risk. Percutaneous catheter-based methods for valvular pathology that parallel surgical principles for valve repair have been developed over the last few years and have been proposed as an alternate measure in high-risk patients. The MitraClip (Abbott Labs) device is one such therapy and is the subject of this review. PMID:25098200

  12. Mitral valve function following ischemic cardiomyopathy: a biomechanical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rim, Yonghoon; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic mitral valve (MV) is a common complication of pathologic remodeling of the left ventricle due to acute and chronic coronary artery diseases. It frequently represents the pathologic consequences of increased tethering forces and reduced coaptation of the MV leaflets. Ischemic MV function has been investigated from a biomechanical perspective using finite element-based computational MV evaluation techniques. A virtual 3D MV model was created utilizing 3D echocardiographic data in a patient with normal MV. Two types of ischemic MVs containing asymmetric medial-dominant or symmetric leaflet tenting were modeled by altering the configuration of the normal papillary muscle (PM) locations. Computational simulations of MV function were performed using dynamic finite element methods, and biomechanical information across the MV apparatus was evaluated. The ischemic MV with medial-dominant leaflet tenting demonstrated distinct large stress distributions in the posteromedial commissural region due to the medial PM displacement toward the apical-medial direction resulting in a lack of leaflet coaptation. In the ischemic MV with balanced leaflet tenting, mitral incompetency with incomplete leaflet coaptation was clearly identified all around the paracommissural regions. This computational MV evaluation strategy has the potential for improving diagnosis of ischemic mitral regurgitation and treatment of ischemic MVs. PMID:24211876

  13. Mitral valve function following ischemic cardiomyopathy: a biomechanical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yonghoon; McPherson, David D.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic mitral valve (MV) is a common complication of pathologic remodeling of the left ventricle due to acute and chronic coronary artery diseases. It frequently represents the pathologic consequences of increased tethering forces and reduced coaptation of the MV leaflets. Ischemic MV function has been investigated from a biomechanical perspective using finite element-based computational MV evaluation techniques. A virtual 3D MV model was created utilizing 3D echocardiographic data in a patient with normal MV. Two types of ischemic MVs containing asymmetric medial-dominant or symmetric leaflet tenting were modeled by altering the configuration of the normal papillary muscle (PM) locations. Computational simulations of MV function were performed using dynamic finite element methods, and biomechanical information across the MV apparatus was evaluated. The ischemic MV with medial-dominant leaflet tenting demonstrated distinct large stress distributions in the posteromedial commissural region due to the medial PM displacement toward the apical-medial direction resulting in a lack of leaflet coaptation. In the ischemic MV with balanced leaflet tenting, mitral incompetency with incomplete leaflet coaptation was clearly identified all around the paracommissural regions. This computational MV evaluation strategy has the potential for improving diagnosis of ischemic mitral regurgitation and treatment of ischemic MVs. PMID:24211876

  14. Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch after Mitral Valve Replacement: Comparison of Different Methods of Effective Orifice Area Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Jeong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after mitral valve replacement (MVR) has been reported to vary. The purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of PPM according to the different methods of calculating effective orifice area (EOA), including the continuity equation (CE), pressure half time (PHT) method and use of reference EOA, and to compare these with various echocardiographic variables. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 166 individuals who received isolated MVR due to rheumatic mitral stenosis and had postoperative echocardiography performed between 12 and 60 months after MVR. EOA was determined by CE (EOACE) and PHT using Doppler echocardiography. Reference EOA was determined from the literature or values offered by the manufacturer. Indexed EOA was used to define PPM as present if ≤1.2 cm2/m2. Results Prevalence of PPM was different depending on the methods used to calculate EOA, ranging from 7% in PHT method to 49% in referred EOA method to 62% in CE methods. The intraclass correlation coefficient was low between the methods. PPM was associated with raised trans-prosthetic pressure, only when calculated by CE (p=0.021). Indexed EOACE was the only predictor of postoperative systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, even after adjusting for age, preoperative systolic PA pressure and postoperative left atrial volume index (p<0.001). Conclusion Prevalence of mitral PPM varied according to the methods used to calculate EOA in patients with mitral stenosis after MVR. Among the various methods used to define PPM, EOACE was the only predictor of postoperative hemodynamic parameters. PMID:26847283

  15. Different ways to repair the mitral valve with artificial chordae: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral regurgitation (type II Carpentier's functional classification) affects about 1-2% of the population. This represents a very common indication for valve surgery resulting in a low percentage of repairs compared to replacement which is actually performed. In the last decades, several methods for mitral valve repair have been developed, to make the surgical feasibility easier, improve the long-term follow-up thus avoiding the need for reoperations. A very interesting method is represented by the combination of various valve repair techniques, depending on the involvement of the anterior, posterior, or both leaflets, and the use of PTFE artificial chordae tendineae when excessive chordal elongation or rupture due to myxomatous degeneration co-exists. The aim of this review is to summarize the evolution of these techniques from the beginning till now. PMID:20377866

  16. Mitral valve repair over five decades

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It has become evident that mitral valve (MV) repair is the preferable treatment for the majority of patients presenting with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). This success clearly testifies that the surgical procedure is accessible, reproducible and is carrying excellent long-lasting results. From the pre-extracorporeal circulation’s era to the last percutaneous approaches, a large variety of techniques have been proposed to address the different features of MV diseases. This article aimed at reviewing chronologically the development of these dedicated techniques through their origins and the debates that they generated in the literature. PMID:26309841

  17. Mitral valve repair using ePTFE sutures for ruptured mitral chordae tendineae: a computational simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Yonghoon; Laing, Susan T; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve (MV) repair using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures is an established and preferred interventional method to resolve the complex pathophysiologic problems associated with chordal rupture. We developed a novel computational evaluation protocol to determine the effect of the artificial sutures on restoring MV function following valve repair. A virtual MV was created using three-dimensional echocardiographic data in a patient with ruptured mitral chordae tendineae (RMCT). Virtual repairs were designed by adding artificial sutures between the papillary muscles and the posterior leaflet where the native chordae were ruptured. Dynamic finite element simulations were performed to evaluate pre- and post-repair MV function. Abnormal posterior leaflet prolapse and mitral regurgitation was clearly demonstrated in the MV with ruptured chordae. Following virtual repair to reconstruct ruptured chordae, the severity of the posterior leaflet prolapse decreased and stress concentration was markedly reduced both in the leaflet tissue and the intact native chordae. Complete leaflet coaptation was restored when four or six sutures were utilized. Computational simulations provided quantitative information of functional improvement following MV repair. This novel simulation strategy may provide a powerful tool for evaluation and prediction of interventional treatment for RMCT. PMID:24072489

  18. Repair for mitral valve aneurysm using autologous pericardium: a case of our experience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongqiang; Chen, Hao; Sun, Xiaoning; Yang, Shouguo; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Mitral Valve Aneurysm (MVA) is rarely reported and occurs most in association with infective endocarditis of the aortic valve. In our case, the 46-yr-old Chinese man was referred to our hospital with dyspnea and orthopnea. Transesophageal echocardiography during operation revealed a localized, thin-walled saccular structure in the anterior leaflet that bulged into the left atrium, and severe mitral and aortic regurgitation. Aortic valve was replaced with mechanical prostheses and mitral valve was repaired with autologous pericardium. Transesophageal echocardiography during operation and transthoracic echocardiography 3 months later showed mild regurgitation. PMID:25230935

  19. [Assessment of systolic function in patients with poor echogenicity: echocardiographic methods].

    PubMed

    Weidemann, F; Liu, D; Niemann, M; Herrmann, S; Hu, H; Gaudron, P D; Ertl, G; Hu, K

    2015-04-01

    The visual echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV) systolic function can be cumbersome, especially in patients with poor image quality. This review describes several alternative echocardiographic methods to determine LV systolic function: endocardial border delineation by contrast agents, mitral annular plane systolic excursion, mitral annular velocity derived from tissue Doppler, myocardial performance index, mitral regurgitation derived LV dP/dtMax and estimation of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography. The review introduces the respective methods along with the presentation of suitable measurements, clinical implications and methodological limitations. PMID:23942734

  20. In-vivo mitral annuloplasty ring transducer: implications for implantation and annular downsizing.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Andrew W; Touchton, Steven A; McGarvey, Jeremy R; Takebayashi, Satoshi; Rabbah, Jean Pierre M; Jimenez, Jorge H; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2013-09-27

    Mitral annuloplasty has been a keystone to the success of mitral valve repair in functional mitral regurgitation. Understanding the complex interplay between annular-ring stresses and left ventricular function has significant implications for patient-ring selection, repair failure, and patient safety. A step towards assessing these challenges is developing a transducer that can be implanted in the exact method as commercially available rings and can quantify multidirectional ring loading. An annuloplasty ring transducer was developed to measure stresses at eight locations on both the in-plane and out-of-plane surfaces of an annuloplasty ring's titanium core. The transducer was implanted in an ovine subject using 10 sutures at near symmetric locations. At implantation, the ring was observed to undersize the mitral annulus. The flaccid annulus exerted both compressive (-) and tensile stresses (+) on the ring ranging from -3.17 to 5.34 MPa. At baseline hemodynamics, stresses cyclically changed and peaked near mid-systole. Mean changes in cyclic stress from ventricular diastole to mid-systole ranged from -0.61 to 0.46 MPa (in-plane direction) and from -0.49 to 1.13 MPa (out-of-plane direction). Results demonstrate the variability in ring stresses that can be introduced during implantation and the cyclic contraction of the mitral annulus. Ring stresses at implantation were approximately 4 magnitudes larger than the cyclic changes in stress throughout the cardiac cycle. These methods will be extended to ring transducers of differing size and geometry. Upon additional investigation, these data will contribute to improved knowledge of annulus-ring stresses, LV function, and the safer development of mitral repair techniques. PMID:23948375

  1. Cardiogenic shock due to Gemella morbillorum native mitral valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Rosa, Maria Doroti; Ascoli, Aline Maria; Mattioni, Mariana; Barth, Jose Herve; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2015-06-01

    Gemella morbillorum is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Consequently, little is known about the natural course of endocarditis secondary to this pathogen. Herein, we report a case of cardiogenic shock as a complication of acute mitral valve regurgitation following Gemella morbillorum native valve endocarditis. PMID:26185624

  2. How has robotic repair changed the landscape of mitral valve surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Taggarse, Amit K.; Daly, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of robotic technology has revolutionized the performance of certain cardiac surgical procedures such as mitral valve (MV) repair. The foundation of modern MV repair was laid by Dr. Dwight C. McGoon in 1958. The operation was first performed with robotic assistance by Carpentier in 1998 using rudimentary motion-assisted equipment. Today, four generations later, telemanipulation technology enables surgeons to carry out all known methods of MV repair traditionally performed by conventional sternotomy; utilizing tiny port access incisions to safely and reliably eliminate mitral regurgitation. Extubation in the operating room following robotic MV repair is now routine and its benefits are well-documented, including transfer to the step-down from the intensive care unit several hours after surgery. This, in turn, translates into diminished usage of blood products, decreased need for pain medication, earlier dismissal from hospital, more rapid return to work and improved patient satisfaction. In addition, smaller, more cosmetically appealing scars and comparable short and mid-term outcomes of robotic and open MV repair have made the robotic approach a preferred option for many patients who meet appropriate safety criteria. As these procedures become more commonplace in large structural heart practices, it is important to reflect upon how the robotic approach has changed the landscape of MV surgery. We discuss the evolution and current status of robotic MV repair founded upon the principles of safe and effective open mitral valvuloplasty techniques. We will explore the potential of the robotic platform to improve both early referral and patient acceptance of interventions to eliminate severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. PMID:26309846

  3. A simple method of making artificial chordal loops for mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Cagli, Kerim

    2010-02-01

    Artificial chordal replacement with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is an established technique for mitral valve repair. This report describes a simple technique of using Hegar dilators for making premeasured artificial chordal loops, whether as a single set of loops or as two connected sets of loops arising from the same stem. This technique uses a simple and widely available tool, the Hegar dilator, for preparation of chordal loops and further establishes the repair of opposing two segments of mitral valve by securing only one stem of the neochordae to the papillary muscle. PMID:20103293

  4. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J; Bonnet, Fabrice; Lo, Su Hao; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Bruneval, Patrick; Markwald, Roger R; Norris, Russell A; Milan, David J; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Levine, Robert A; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Nonsyndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown etiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies in 1,412 MVP cases and 2,439 controls. We identified 6 loci, which we replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls, and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 (LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1), which encodes a transcription factor and for which morpholino knockdown of the ortholog in zebrafish resulted in atrioventricular valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained with knockdown of the ortholog of TNS1, which encodes tensin 1, a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also showed expression of tensin 1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1(-/-) mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair. PMID:26301497

  5. An improved method for determining the flow characteristics of prosthetic mitral heart valves

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. T. M.; Temple, L. J.

    1971-01-01

    The flow characteristics of most prosthetic mitral valves recommended for clinical use have not been adequately investigated. As a result vital information about their performance is lacking and, until this is published, comparisons between different prostheses cannot easily be made. In this paper the design and construction of a suitable rig for the testing of such valves is described. The results obtained will be presented in a subsequent paper. Images PMID:5543821

  6. Computational analysis of the effect of valvular regurgitation on ventricular mechanics using a 3D electromechanics model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Moo; Hong, Seung-Bae; Lee, Byong Kwon; Shim, Eun Bo; Trayanova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional electromechanical model of the canine ventricles with dyssynchronous heart failure, we investigated the relationship between severity of valve regurgitation and ventricular mechanical responses. The results demonstrated that end-systolic tension in the septum and left ventricular free wall was significantly lower under the condition of mitral regurgitation (MR) than under aortic regurgitation (AR). Stroke work in AR was higher than that in MR. On the other hand, the difference in stroke volume between the two conditions was not significant, indicating that AR may cause worse pumping efficiency than MR in terms of consumed energy and performed work. PMID:25644379

  7. Approaches to the management of functional tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jason H; Bolling, Steven F

    2015-11-01

    Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is an acquired valvular abnormality that is most frequently encountered during the evaluation and operative management of left-sided heart failure and left heart valve disease. Observational studies have demonstrated that uncorrected significant FTR during mitral valve surgery can result in inferior early and late outcomes due to progression of FTR and underlying right heart failure. The 2012 ESC/EACTS and 2014 ACC/AHA guidelines strongly encourage the surgical correction of greater than mild tricuspid regurgitation or tricuspid annular dilation greater than 4 cm in patients undergoing left-sided valve surgery. Prospective randomized trials are needed to bolster the evidence behind the current recommendations. Percutaneous therapies in development may eventually result in less invasive options for treating FTR. PMID:26535470

  8. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve by a single bifoil (2 x 19 mm) or trefoil (3 x 15 mm) catheter.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J; Vythilingum, S; Mitha, A S

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of balloon dilatation of the mitral valve by a bifoil (2 x 19 mm) or trefoil (3 x 15 mm) catheter (single catheter technique) was assessed in 53 patients (mean age 28) with mitral stenosis, most of whom were women. The procedure was unsuccessful in three patients. After balloon dilatation the left atrial pressure decreased from 22 mm Hg to 13 mm Hg and the mitral valve gradient from 12 mm Hg to 4 mm Hg. The mitral valve area increased from 0.7 cm2 to 2.1 cm2. Exercise time on the standard Bruce protocol increased from 3.9 minutes to 7.2 minutes. In 22 (44%) patients mitral regurgitation developed or the grade of regurgitation increased. Left to right shunts with pulmonary to systemic flow ratios greater than 1:5 were detected in four patients. Transient cerebrovascular episodes developed in two patients. One patient died after emergency valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve by the single catheter technique with the bifoil or trefoil catheters is an effective treatment for patients with mitral stenosis. Mild mitral regurgitation is a frequent complication of the procedure. Images Figure 3 PMID:2245119

  9. Mechanics of mitral valve edge-to-edge-repair and MitraClip procedure.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shamik; He, Zhaoming

    2015-01-01

    The edge-to-edge repair (ETER) technique has been used as a stand-alone procedure, or as a secondary procedure with ring annuloplasty for degenerative, functional mitral regurgitation, or for mitral regurgitation of other kinds of valvular etiologies. The percutaneous MitraClip technique based on ETER has been used in patients who are inoperable or at high surgical risk. However, adverse events such as residual mitral regurgitation, and clip detachment or fracture indicate that the mechanics underlying these procedures is not well understood. Therefore, current studies on mitral valve functionality and mechanics related to the ETER and MitraClip procedures are reviewed to improve the efficacy and safety of both procedures. Extensive in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies related to ETER and MitraClip procedures along with MitraClip clinical trial results are presented and discussed herein. The ETER suture force and the mitral valve tissue mechanics and hemodynamics of each procedure are discussed. A quantitative understanding of the interplay of mitral valve components and as to biological response to the procedures remains challenging. Based on mitral valve mechanics, ETER or MitraClip therapy can be optimized to enhance repair efficacy and durability. PMID:25955011

  10. Determination of correlation between backflow volume and mitral valve leaflet young modulus from two dimensional echocardiogram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Osman, Kahar; Adib, M. Azrul Hisham M.

    2012-06-01

    Mitral valve prolapse without proper monitoring might lead to a severe mitral valve failure which eventually leads to a sudden death. Additional information on the mitral valve leaflet condition against the backflow volume would be an added advantage to the medical practitioner for their decision on the patients' treatment. A study on two dimensional echocardiography images has been conducted and the correlations between the backflow volume of the mitral regurgitation and mitral valve leaflet Young modulus have been obtained. Echocardiogram images were analyzed on the aspect of backflow volume percentage and mitral valve leaflet dimensions on different rates of backflow volume. Young modulus values for the mitral valve leaflet were obtained by using the principle of elastic deflection and deformation on the mitral valve leaflet. The results show that the backflow volume increased with the decrease of the mitral valve leaflet Young modulus which also indicate the condition of the mitral valve leaflet approaching failure at high backflow volumes. Mitral valve leaflet Young modulus values obtained in this study agreed with the healthy mitral valve leaflet Young modulus from the literature. This is an initial overview of the trend on the prediction of the behaviour between the fluid and the structure of the blood and the mitral valve which is extendable to a larger system of prediction on the mitral valve leaflet condition based on the available echocardiogram images.

  11. PREVALENCE OF VALVULAR REGURGITATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY CAPTIVE LEOPARDS AND CHEETAHS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE WILDLIFE CARDIOLOGY (WLC) GROUP (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Petit, Thierry; Kohl, Muriel; Bourgeois, Aude; Gouni, Vassiliki; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Misbach, Charlotte; Petit, Amandine; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Garrigou, Audrey; Guepin, Raphaëlle; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Chetboul, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate transthoracic echocardiograms from clinically healthy large felids for the presence of valvular regurgitations (VR). Physiologic VR commonly occur in normal dogs and cats, but the percentage of large felids with VR has not been previously reported. During a 5-yr study period (2008-2013), 28 healthy animals were evaluated under general anesthesia: 16 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringuii) with a mean age of 1.5±0.8 yr (range 0.7-3.5 yr), 5 Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 snow leopard (Uncia uncia), and 6 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). For this study, all the leopards were gathered in one so-called "leopards group" with a mean age of 2.8±3.4 yr (range 0.3-10.7 yr). All valves observed in each view were examined for evidence of regurgitant jets and turbulent blood flow using the color-flow Doppler mode. Valves were also examined for structural changes. Mitral valve and aortic cusp abnormalities were considered to be of congenital origin. Mitral valve lesions led to mitral insufficiency in all the felids. Aortic cusp abnormalities led to aortic regurgitation in 94% of the cheetahs and 67% of the leopards. Leopards showed a predominance of early systolic mitral regurgitations, whereas all the mitral regurgitation jets in cheetahs were holosystolic. Tricuspid regurgitation was found in 81% of the cheetahs and in 50% of the leopards, whereas pulmonic regurgitation was detected in 44% of the cheetahs and 33% of the leopards. Interestingly, none of these tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were associated with two-dimensional structural valve abnormalities, thus suggesting their physiologic origin, as described in humans, cats, and dogs. In conclusion, subclinical valvular diseases are common in apparently healthy leopards and cheetahs. Longitudinal follow-up of affected animals is therefore required to assess their clinical outcome. PMID:26352956

  12. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system: acute results from a real world setting

    PubMed Central

    Tamburino, Corrado; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Maisano, Francesco; Capodanno, Davide; La Canna, Giovanni; Scandura, Salvatore; Colombo, Antonio; Giacomini, Andrea; Michev, Iassen; Mangiafico, Sarah; Cammalleri, Valeria; Barbanti, Marco; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2010-01-01

    Aims This study sought to evaluate the feasibility and early outcomes of a percutaneous edge-to-edge repair approach for mitral valve regurgitation with the MitraClip® system (Evalve, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA). Methods and results Patients were selected for the procedure based on the consensus of a multidisciplinary team. The primary efficacy endpoint was acute device success defined as clip placement with reduction of mitral regurgitation to ≤2+. The primary acute safety endpoint was 30-day freedom from major adverse events, defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, non-elective cardiac surgery for adverse events, renal failure, transfusion of >2 units of blood, ventilation for >48 h, deep wound infection, septicaemia, and new onset of atrial fibrillation. Thirty-one patients (median age 71, male 81%) were treated between August 2008 and July 2009. Eighteen patients (58%) presented with functional disease and 13 patients (42%) presented with organic degenerative disease. A clip was successfully implanted in 19 patients (61%) and two clips in 12 patients (39%). The median device implantation time was 80 min. At 30 days, there was an intra-procedural cardiac tamponade and a non-cardiac death, resulting in a primary safety endpoint of 93.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 77.2–98.9]. Acute device success was observed in 96.8% of patients (95% CI 81.5–99.8). Compared with baseline, left ventricular diameters, diastolic left ventricular volume, diastolic annular septal–lateral dimension, and mitral valve area significantly diminished at 30 days. Conclusion Our initial results with the MitraClip device in a very small number of patients indicate that percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is feasible and may be accomplished with favourable short-term safety and efficacy results. PMID:20299349

  13. An unusual presentation of hemolytic anemia in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Najib, Mohammad Q; Vinales, Karyne L; Paripati, Harshita R; Kundranda, Madappa N; Valdez, Riccardo; Rihal, Charanjit S; Chaliki, Hari P

    2011-07-01

    Although rare, periprosthetic valvular regurgitation can cause hemolytic anemia. We present the case of a 63-year-old man who had an unusual presentation of hemolytic anemia due to periprosthetic mitral valve regurgitation (PMVR) in the presence of cold agglutinins. Due to high surgical risk, PMVR was percutaneously closed with three Amplatzer devices under the guidance of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. PMID:21453302

  14. Cabergoline-induced tricuspid regurgitation: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Mohammad Hayat; Mushtaq, Syed; Saba, Sameena; Saif, Riyaz; Ali, Gazanfar

    2011-01-01

    The increased risk of cardiac valve disease in patients treated for Parkinson's disease with cabergoline has raised concerns about the safety of treatment with ergot-derived dopamine agonists in patients with endocrine diseases, especially prolactinoma. Concern is raised because the use of cabergoline was associated in one study with an increased prevalence of moderate tricuspid regurgitation, and in two other studies with mild tricuspid regurgitation. Furthermore, the use of cabergoline was associated with increased frequencies of valvular thickening, calcifications, and increased mitral tenting area. PMID:21731877

  15. Mitral Valve Replacement via Anterolateral Right Thoracotomy without Cross-Clamping in a Patient with Fungal Infective Endocarditis and Functioning Internal Mammary Artery after Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takahiro; Dillon, Jeswant; Yakub, Mohd Azhari

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old man developed severe mitral regurgitation with persistent fungal infective endocarditis 8 months after coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery and 2 saphenous veins, as well as mitral valve repair with a prosthetic ring. Echocardiography demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation and a valvular vegetation. Computed tomography coronary arteriography indicated that all grafts were patent and located intimately close to the sternum. Median resternotomy was not attempted due to the risk of injury to the bypass grafts, and therefore, a right anterolateral thoracotomy approach was utilized. Mitral valve replacement was performed with the patient under deep hypothermia and ventricular fibrillation without aortic cross-clamping. The patient`s postoperative course was uneventful. Thus, right anterolateral thoracotomy may be a superior approach to mitral valve surgery in patients who have undergone prior coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:26913683

  16. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mitral Some kids and many grown-ups have something called mitral valve prolapse (say: MY-trul VALV PRO-laps). For most people, it's a heart problem that isn't much to worry about. What Is the Mitral Valve? The mitral valve ...

  17. Mitral valve surgery - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Mitral valve replacement - open; Mitral valve repair - open; Mitral valvuloplasty ... your heart function. You are having open-heart surgery for another reason and your doctor may want to replace or repair your mitral valve at the same time. Your heart valve has ...

  18. Current state of transcatheter mitral valve repair with the MitraClip

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Emily A.; Lim, D. Scott; Saji, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients affected with mitral valve regurgitation suffer from multiple comorbidities. The MitraClip device provides a safe means of transcatheter valve repair in patients with suitable mitral valve anatomy who are at prohibitive risk for surgery. We describe our early procedural outcomes and present a summary of the current state of MitraClip technology in the United States. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of initial high-risk or inoperable patients who underwent MitraClip placement at our institution after completion of the EVEREST II study. We examined the primary outcome of 30-day mortality, and secondary outcomes included extent of reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class improvement, length of stay, and major complications. Results A total of 115 high-risk patients (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality 9.4%±6.1%) underwent the MitraClip procedure at our institution between March 2009 and April 2014. Co-morbidities including coronary artery disease (67.8%), pulmonary disease (39.1%) and previous cardiac surgery (44.3%) were common. The device was placed successfully in all patients with a 30-day mortality of 2.6%. All patients demonstrated 3+ or 4+ MR on preoperative imaging, and 80.7% of patients had trace or 1+ MR at hospital discharge. NYHA class improved substantially, with 79% of patients exhibiting class III or IV symptoms pre-procedure and 81% reporting class I or II symptoms at one month follow-up. Conclusions The MitraClip procedure provides a safe alternative to surgical or medical management for high-risk patients with MR and suitable valve anatomy. A comprehensive heart team approach is essential, with surgeons providing critical assessment of patient suitability for surgery versus percutaneous therapy as well as performance of the valve procedure. PMID:26309842

  19. Paraprosthetic leak closure 28 years after mitral caged-ball Starr-Edwards implantation.

    PubMed

    Anto?czyk, Karolina; Paluszkiewicz, Lech; Koertke, Heinrich; Gummert, Jan

    2013-08-01

    In this case report, we present a patient 28 years after mitral valve replacement with the Starr-Edwards prosthesis complicated by periprosthetic leak with severe aortic stenosis and moderate tricuspid regurgitation. We successfully repaired the periprosthetic regurgitation in a patient with extensive mitral annular calcification, without replacement of the valve. No apparent structural deterioration on the caged-ball valve was found. Moreover, aortic valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty were performed. One month after reoperation, the patient remained stable with improved clinical status and without any evidence for further paravalvular leak. PMID:23599186

  20. Postoperative mitral leaflet rupture in an infant with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Koichi; Tamura, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Sachiko; Sugita, Ryo; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Noriki, Sakon; Morisaki, Hiroko

    2014-12-01

    This report describes an infantile case of Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) with spontaneous mitral leaflet rupture. The patient was diagnosed with a type B interruption of the aortic arch. Bilateral pulmonary artery banding was performed 5?days after birth. On the 53rd day, intra-cardiac repair was performed without valvuloplasty. Although the operation was successful, mitral regurgitation deteriorated at 4?weeks after operation. On the 88th day, a mitral valvuloplasty was performed and a severely ruptured anterior leaflet was observed. Seven?days after valvuloplasty, the mitral valve insufficiency again worsened and a fourth operation was performed. Two tears were observed in the anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflets, and a mitral valve replacement was required. Subsequently, the patient was diagnosed with LDS according to gene mutational status. LDS is known to have a poor prognosis with cardiovascular complications, but valve rupture has not been previously reported in other cases. PMID:25521989

  1. Clinical trial experience with the MitraClip catheter based mitral valve repair system.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Francesco; Godino, Cosmo; Giacomini, Andrea; Denti, Paolo; Arendar, Iryna; Buzzatti, Nicola; Canna, Giovanni La; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) confers a poor prognosis, in particular for patients with heart failure. Based on the results of the Euro Heart Survey, a large proportion of patients with mitral regurgitation is not referred to surgery and many other patients are rejected for cardiac surgery due to the high surgical risk or co-pathologies. Improving ventricular function with ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers and CRT may reduce mitral regurgitation, but for most patients a mechanical intervention is ultimately preferable. Mitral valve surgery is invasive and requires a long recovery period; therefore, less invasive and effective approaches are highly desirable, particularly in high risk patients. Therefore, new techniques have been recently developed to treat MR with percutaneous approach. The MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) is used to treat both functional and degenerative mitral valve regurgitation. Its safety and efficacy has been initially tested in the Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge REpair Study (EVEREST), while MitraClip has been compared to surgery in the EVEREST II randomized trial. Besides EVEREST trials, safety and efficacy of the device as well as its health economic value is under evaluation in ongoing registries. Although the field of catheter based management of MR is at an early stage, initial clinical results have demonstrated that catheter based approaches can reduce MR, suggesting there is a great deal of potential for clinical benefit to patients with MR. PMID:21503702

  2. Percutaneous Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Patient-specific Three-dimensional Computer-based Heart Model and Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Theriault-Lauzier, Pascal; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-12-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of curative surgical intervention, a considerable proportion of patients with severe mitral regurgitation are not referred for treatment, largely due to the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, advanced age, and comorbid illnesses. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is a promising therapeutic alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological nature of the mitral valvular complex, however, presents significant challenges to the successful design and implementation of novel transcatheter mitral replacement devices. Patient-specific 3-dimensional computer-based models enable accurate assessment of the mitral valve anatomy and preprocedural simulations for transcatheter therapies. Such information may help refine the design features of novel transcatheter mitral devices and enhance procedural planning. Herein, we describe a novel medical image-based processing tool that facilitates accurate, noninvasive assessment of the mitral valvular complex, by creating precise three-dimensional heart models. The 3-dimensional computer reconstructions are then converted to a physical model using 3-dimensional printing technology, thereby enabling patient-specific assessment of the interaction between device and patient. It may provide new opportunities for a better understanding of the mitral anatomy-pathophysiology-device interaction, which is of critical importance for the advancement of transcatheter mitral valve replacement. PMID:26607029

  3. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  4. Two melodies in concert: mitral and pulmonary valve replacement late in repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhi; Hu, Jia; Zhu, Xianglan; Lin, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of pulmonary valve integrity after Tetralogy of Fallot repair often results in a cascade of hemodynamic and electrophysiological abnormalities. Here we report an uncommon case of severe pulmonary regurgitation with concomitant rheumatic mitral stenosis diagnosed 25 years after primary Tetralogy of Fallot repair. A 33-year-old man presented with symptomatic palpitation and exercise intolerance and was treated successfully with pulmonary and mitral valve replacement, after which his symptoms improved dramatically. PMID:25887053

  5. Septic Cerebral Embolisation in Fulminant Mitral Valve Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doolub, Gemina

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old male with known intravenous drug use was admitted with an acute onset of worsening confusion and speech impairment. His vitals and biochemical profile demonstrated severe sepsis, with a brain CT showing several lesions suspicious for cerebral emboli. He then went on to have a bedside transthoracic echocardiogram that was positive for vegetation on the mitral valve, with associated severe mitral regurgitation. Unfortunately, before he was stable enough to be transferred for valve surgery, he suffered an episode of acute pulmonary oedema requiring intubation and ventilation on intensive care unit. PMID:26120312

  6. Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Bonou, Maria; Vaina, Sophia; Kelepeshis, Glafkos; Tsakalis, Kostas; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Barbetseas, John

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa (MAIVF-P) usually ensues as a complication of endocarditis or aortic valve surgery. When large, symptomatic or related to complications (rupture, compression of adjacent structures, embolic events, mitral regurgitation or heart failure) it warrants surgical excision. The natural course of uncomplicated/asymptomatic MAIVF-Ps is largely unknown since most patients are offered surgery. Increased surgical risk imposed by repeat operations in the majority of these patients is an important consideration and conservative treatment should not be excluded in selected cases. Herein we present two illustrative cases of MAIVF-P manifesting with significant arrhythmogenesis and complex endocarditis respectively. Both patients were managed conservatively. By briefly reviewing the existing literature, we discuss important diagnostic and therapeutic issues for MAIVF-Ps. To our knowledge complex ventricular arrhythmia has not been previously described as a prominent manifestation of MAIVF-P. PMID:26755935

  7. Ultrasound based mitral valve annulus tracking for off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.

  8. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  9. Atrial Fibrillation and Early Clinical Outcomes After Mitral Valve Surgery in Patients with Rheumatic vs. Non-Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, S. J.; Ali-Hassan-Sayegh, Sadegh; Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Naderi, Nafiseh; Mostafavi Pour Manshadi, S. M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after open heart surgery that can lead to early morbidity and mortality following operation. Mitral stenosis (MS) is a structural abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus that can be resulted from previous rheumatic fever or non-rheumatic fever such as congenital mitral stenosis, malignant carcinoid disease etc. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that type of mitral stenosis can affect the incidence, duration and frequency of AF post mitral valve replacement. Materials and Methods: We selected fifty patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and 50 patients with non-rheumatic mitral stenosis who were candidates for mitral valve replacement (MVR) surgery. Pre-operative tests such as CRP, ESR, CBC, UA, ANA, APL (IgM, IgG), ANCA, RF were performed on participants’ samples and the type of mitral stenosis, rheumatic or non-rheumatic, was determined clinically. Early post-operative complications such as infection, bleeding, vomiting, renal and respiratory dysfunction etc., were recorded. All patients underwent holter monitoring after being out of ICU to the time of discharge. Results: The mean age of patients was 48.56 ± 17.64 years. 57 cases (57%) were male, and 43 cases (43%) were female. Post-operative AF occurred in 14 cases (14%); 3 cases (6%) in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis group, and 11 cases (22%) in the rheumatic mitral stenosis group. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of AF and type of mitral stenosis (P = 0.02). Renal dysfunction after MVR was higher in rheumatic MS group than in non-rheumatic MS group (P = 0.026). There was no relationship between the type of mitral stenosis (rheumatic or non-rheumatic) and early mortality after mitral valve replacement (P = 0.8). Conclusion: We concluded that the type of mitral stenosis affect post-operative outcomes, especially the incidence of atrial fibrillation and some complications after mitral valve replacement. PMID:23439740

  10. Schistosome Feeding and Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, Patrick J.; Da'dara, Akram A.; Li, Xiao-Hong; Castro-Borges, William; Wilson, R. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water) establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ?100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ?900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have major implications for worm survival under immunological or pharmacological pressure. PMID:25121497

  11. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... People with an abnormal mitral valve may need mitral valve repair or replacement if: • Symptoms are getting worse • The ... Loved One? Order AHA Brochures Your Heart Valve Surgery Your Mitral Valve Prolapse Innocent Heart Murmurs If Your Child Has ...

  12. [Diagnosis and differential therapy of mitral stenosis].

    PubMed

    Fassbender, D; Schmidt, H K; Seggewiss, H; Mannebach, H; Bogunovic, N

    1998-11-01

    Clinical symptoms and diagnostic findings in patients with mitral stenosis are usually determined by the extent of the stenosis. Compared to a normal mitral valve area (MVA) of > 4 cm2, MVA in patients with severe mitral stenosis is usually reduced to < 1.5 cm2. In older patients symptoms are frequently influenced by concomitant diseases (e.g. atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension or lung disease). An important diagnostic element besides anamnesis, auscultation, ECG and chest X-ray is echocardiography, which is required in order to measure non-invasively and reliably the mitral valve gradient (MVG), the MVA and morphologic changes to the valves, as well as concomitant valvular disease, ventricular functions and, where appropriate, left-atrial thrombi. In addition to the surgical treatment of patients with severe mitral stenosis, which has been an established procedure for 50 years, percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (MVP) has recently established itself as an alternative option. At the current time, the Inoue technique seems to display the most advantages. Following transseptal puncture, the Inoue balloon is guided transvenously into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle using a special support wire. The balloon is short and soft. Its special unfolding character enables it to be placed securely in the mitral valve without any risk of ventricular perforation (Figure 1). As with surgical commissurotomy, balloon valvuloplasty leads to a separation of fused commissures. This results in a significant reduction of MVG, accompanied by an increase in the MVA (Figure 2). The results and success of MVP are influenced by the morphology of the valves and the changes to the subvalvular apparatus. In randomized studies, the results of surgical commissurotomy were comparable with those of balloon mitral valvulotomy. In our hospital, an increase in MVA from 1.0 to 1.8 cm2 could be achieved in 899 patients (mean age 56 +/- 3 years). In younger patients with less significantly changed valves, the results were correspondingly more favorable than in older patients (Figure 3). Provided valve morphology is suitable, a relapse following previous surgical commissurotomy is not a contraindication for MVP. The MVP complication rate is very low in skilled hands: mortality is below 1%; mitral insufficiency occurs in 3 to 10% of interventions; we observed a severe mitral insufficiency in 5% of our patient group. Thromboembolic complications may be prevented after exclusion of atrial thrombi by transesophageal echocardiography. The occurrence of a hemodynamically significant atrial septum defect is a very rare event. The mid-term results (5 to 10 years) and the low restenosis rate following MVP in patients with suitable valves are comparable with those of surgical commissurotomy. In older patients with considerably changed, calcified and fibrotic valves, restenosis may be expected within 1 to 5 years. In these patients MVP represents no more than a palliative intervention in order to prolong the point of surgery, for example in patients where a concomitant aortic valve disease in itself is not yet an indication for surgery. Special indications are to be found in young patients with severe mitral stenosis yet few symptoms, in pregnant females and in emergency situations, as well as in patients with Grade II mitral stenosis with intermittent atrial fibrillation. Catheter therapy is much less invasive than surgery. In case of failure the patient still has the option of surgical therapy. Patients with morphologically significantly altered valves usually receive a valve replacement since an unsuccessful reconstruction would lead to a second operation within a very short time interval. Contraindications for MVP are thrombi in the left atrium, a previously existing > Grade II mitral regurgitation and marked, degenerative destruction of the subvalvular apparatus or extensive calcification of the valves. MVP thus represents a significant addi PMID:9859036

  13. Minimally invasive transaortic mitral valve repair during aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Santana, Orlando; Lamelas, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with congestive heart failure. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization revealed severe aortic stenosis with severe mitral regurgitation and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.20. Because of comorbidities, the patient was considered to be at high risk for double-valve surgery. In order to reduce the operative risk, a minimally invasive aortic valve replacement was performed together with a transaortic edge-to-edge repair (Alfieri stitch) of the mitral valve. We discuss the surgical technique and note the positive outcome. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement and transaortic mitral valve repair with use of the Alfieri stitch. PMID:21720478

  14. Design considerations and quantitative assessment for the development of percutaneous mitral valve stent.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gideon Praveen; Cui, Fangsen; Phang, Hui Qun; Su, Boyang; Leo, Hwa Liang; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt

    2014-07-01

    Percutaneous heart valve replacement is gaining popularity, as more positive reports of satisfactory early clinical experiences are published. However this technique is mostly used for the replacement of pulmonary and aortic valves and less often for the repair and replacement of atrioventricular valves mainly due to their anatomical complexity. While the challenges posed by the complexity of the mitral annulus anatomy cannot be mitigated, it is possible to design mitral stents that could offer good anchorage and support to the valve prosthesis. This paper describes four new Nitinol based mitral valve designs with specific features intended to address migration and paravalvular leaks associated with mitral valve designs. The paper also describes maximum possible crimpability assessment of these mitral stent designs using a crimpability index formulation based on the various stent design parameters. The actual crimpability of the designs was further evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). Furthermore, fatigue modeling and analysis was also done on these designs. One of the models was then coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with leaflets sutured and put to: (i) leaflet functional tests to check for proper coaptation of the leaflet and regurgitation leakages on a phantom model and (ii) anchorage test where the stented valve was deployed in an explanted pig heart. Simulations results showed that all the stents designs could be crimped to 18F without mechanical failure. Leaflet functional test results showed that the valve leaflets in the fabricated stented valve coapted properly and the regurgitation leakage being within acceptable limits. Deployment of the stented valve in the explanted heart showed that it anchors well in the mitral annulus. Based on these promising results of the one design tested, the other stent models proposed here were also considered to be promising for percutaneous replacement of mitral valves for the treatment of mitral regurgitation, by virtue of their key features as well as effective crimping. These models will be fabricated and put to all the aforementioned tests before being taken for animal trials. PMID:24746106

  15. The evolution from surgery to percutaneous mitral valve interventions: the role of the edge-to-edge technique.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Francesco; La Canna, Giovanni; Colombo, Antonio; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2011-11-15

    The edge-to-edge technique is a versatile procedure for mitral valve repair. Its technical simplicity has been the prerequisite for the development of a number of transcatheter technologies to perform percutaneous mitral valve repair. The evolution from a standard open heart surgical to percutaneous procedure involved the application of the technique in minimally invasive robotic surgery and direct access (transatrial) off-pump suture-based repair and finally in the fully percutaneous approach with either suture-based or device (clip)-based approach. The MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, California) is currently available for clinical use in Europe, and it is mainly applied to treat high-risk patients with functional mitral regurgitation. A critical review of the surgical as well as the early percutaneous repair data is necessary to elucidate the clinical role and the potential for future developments of the edge-to-edge repair in the treatment of mitral regurgitation. PMID:22078423

  16. Human Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse: Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in valvular interstitial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Sainger, Rachana; Grau, Juan B.; Branchetti, Emanuela; Poggio, Paolo; Seefried, William F.; Field, Benjamin C.; Acker, Michael A.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Hargrove, Clark W.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Myxomatous Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common cardiac valvular abnormality in industrialized countries and a leading cause of mitral valve surgery for isolated mitral regurgitation. The key role of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) during mitral valve development and homeostasis has been recently suggested, however little is known about the molecular pathways leading to MVP. We aim to characterize Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) as a cellular regulator of mitral valvular interstitial cell activation towards a pathologic synthetic phenotype and to analyze the cellular phenotypic changes and extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization associated with the development of myxomatous mitral valve prolapse. Microarray analysis showed significant up regulation of BMP4-mediated signaling molecules in myxomatous MVP when compared to controls. Histological analysis and cellular characterization suggest that during myxomatous MVP development, healthy quiescent mitral VICs undergo a phenotypic activation via up regulation of BMP4-mediated pathway. In vitro hBMP4 treatment of isolated human mitral VICs mimics the cellular activation and ECM remodeling as seen in MVP tissues. The present study characterizes the cell biology of mitral VICs in physiological and pathological conditions and provides insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediated by BMP4 during MVP. The ability to test and control the plasticity of VICs using different molecules may help in developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for myxomatous MVP. PMID:22105615

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Using the MitraClip® System in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Jan; van Hall, Silke; Rammos, Christos; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes mellitus show a negative outcome in percutaneous coronary intervention, aortic valve replacement and cardiac surgery. The impact of diabetes on patients undergoing treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) using the MitraClip system is not known. We therefore sought to assess whether percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results We included 58 patients with severe and moderate-to-severe MR in an open-label observational single-center study. Ninteen patients were under oral medication or insulin therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. MitraClip devices were successfully implanted in all patients with diabetes and in 97.4% (n?=?38) of patients without diabetes (p?=?0.672). Periprocedural major cardiac adverse and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurred in 5.1% (n?=?2) of patients without diabetes whereas patients with diabetes did not show any MACCE (p?=?0.448). 30-day mortality was 1.7% (n?=?1) with no case of death in the diabetes group. Short-term follow up of three months showed a significant improvement of NYHA class and quality of life evaluated by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in both groups, with no changes in the 6-minute walk test. Conclusions Mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Trial Registration MitraClip Registry NCT02033811 PMID:25375257

  18. Placement of Neochords in Mitral Valve Repair: Enhanced Exposure of the Papillary Muscles Using a Standard Valve Sizer.

    PubMed

    Erlebach, Magdalena; Lange, Ruediger; Mazzitelli, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive mitral valve repair with placement of artificial chordae for mitral valve regurgitation has become the standard of care. In some cases, such as Barlow's disease or bileaflet prolapse, papillary muscle exposure may be difficult. By using a valve sizer to retract both leaflets, visualization can be optimized, thus simplifying suture placement and thereby minimizing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times. This technique is simple, is cost effective, and can be applied quickly. PMID:26694289

  19. Giant Thrombus Formation Immediately After Mitral Valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yoshihiro; Nakai, Toshiko; Kurosawa, Takafumi; Saito, Yuki; Monno, Koyuru; Hatta, Takumi; Hiro, Takafumi; Arimoto, Munehito; Osaka, Shunji; Hata, Hiroaki; Shiono, Motomi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk of cardioembolism.(1,2)) Atrial thrombus formation associated with AF typically occurs in the left atrial appendage (LAA);(3)) therefore, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is important for detection of such a thrombus and measurement of LAA flow velocity.(4,5)) LAA closure is routinely performed during mitral valve surgery in patients with AF to prevent cardiogenic stroke.(6)) We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and AF in whom a giant thrombus formed almost immediately after mitral and tricuspid valvuloplasty and concurrent LAA resection. No atrial thrombus or spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) was detected by TEE before the surgery. However, a giant intramural thrombus was detected in the left atrium 7 days after surgery. It was thought that the atrial dysfunction as well as the change in morphology of the left atrium resulting from the severe MR complicated by AF and congestive heart failure produced a thrombotic substrate. This case suggests that careful surveillance for thrombus formation and careful maintenance of anticoagulation therapy are needed throughout the perioperative period even if no SEC or thrombus is detected before surgery. PMID:26549289

  20. Valvular regurgitation and surgery associated with fenfluramine use: an analysis of 5743 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Charles F; Allen, Marvin R; Urie, Paul M; Hopkins, Paul N

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of fenfluramines for weight loss has been associated with the development of characteristic plaques on cardiac valves causing regurgitation. However, previously published studies of exposure to fenfluramines have been limited by relatively small sample size, short duration of follow-up, and the lack of any estimate of the frequency of subsequent valvular surgery. We performed an observational study of 5743 users of fenfluramines examined by echocardiography between July 1997 and February 2004 in a single large cardiology clinic. Results The prevalence of at least mild aortic regurgitation (AR) or moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) was 19.6% in women and 11.8% in men (p < 0.0001 for gender difference). Duration of use was strongly predictive of mild or greater AR (p < 0.0001 for trend), MR (p = 0.002), and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (p < 0.0001), as was earlier scan date (p < 0.0001 for those scanned prior to 1 January 2000 versus later). Increasing age was also independently associated with increased risk of AR and MR (both p < 0.0001). With mean follow-up of 30.3 months, AR worsened in 15.2%, remained the same in 63.1%, and improved in 21.7%. Corresponding values for MR were 24.8%, 47.4% and 27.9%. Pulmonary hypertension was strongly associated with MR but not AR. Valve surgery was performed on 38 patients (0.66% of 5743), 25 (0.44%) with clear evidence of fenfluramine-related etiology. Conclusion Regurgitant valvulopathy was common in individuals exposed to fenfluramines, more frequent in females, and associated with duration of use in all valves assessed. Valve surgery was performed as frequently for aortic as mitral valves and some tricuspid valve surgeries were also performed. The incidence of surgery appeared to be substantially increased compared with limited general population data. PMID:18990200

  1. Minimally invasive valve sparing mitral valve repair—the loop technique—how we do it

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Mitral valve insufficiency is the second most common heart valve disease, with untreated regurgitation leading to enlargement of the left atrium (LA), atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Besides functional regurgitation, the main cause is degenerative valve disease with elongation of the chordae tendineae and prolapsing of the leaflets. Surgical repair is the gold standard therapy for mitral valve insufficiency today. Recently, the implantation of neochordae (the “loop-technique”) has been established and is the preferred technique in many centres including ours. Results of surgical mitral valve repair are good with low rates of re-intervention and mortality. With minimally invasive techniques, patient satisfaction is high and hospital stay is short. In conclusion, mitral valve repair should be the preferred strategy in patients with symptomatic mitral valve insufficiency or with asymptomatic mitral valve insufficiency in accordance with the guidelines. Modern repair techniques like neo-chord implantation with the loop-technique combined with minimally invasive access routes result in low mortality and morbidity and short hospital stay as well as high patient satisfaction. PMID:24349988

  2. Severe pulmonic valve regurgitation due to histoplasma endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Merri; Lin, Peter T; Pislaru, Sorin V

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 67-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome, disseminated histoplasmosis, and mitral valve replacement presented with dyspnea and peripheral edema. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated abnormal pulmonic valve with possible vegetation. Color flow imaging showed laminar flow from main pulmonary artery into right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in diastole. The continuous wave Doppler signal showed dense diastolic envelope with steep deceleration slope. These findings were consistent with severe pulmonic valve regurgitation, possibly due to endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated an echodense mass attached to the pulmonic valve. The mitral valve bioprosthesis appeared intact. Bacterial and fungal blood cultures were negative; however, serum histoplasma antigen was positive. At surgery, the valve appeared destroyed by vegetations. Gomori methenamine silver-stains showed invasive fungal hyphae and yeast consistent with a dimorphic fungus. Valve cultures grew one colony of filamentous fungus. Itraconazole was continued based on expert infectious diseases diagnosis. After surgery, dyspnea and ankle edema resolved. To the best of our knowledge, histoplasma endocarditis of pulmonic valve has not been previously reported. Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis is rare, accounting for about 2% of infectious endocarditis (IE) cases. Fungi account for about 3% of cases of native valve endocarditis. Characterization of pulmonary valve requires thorough interrogation with 2D and Doppler echocardiography techniques. Parasternal RVOT view allowed visualization of the pulmonary valve and assessment of regurgitation severity. As an anterior structure, it may be difficult to image with transesophageal echocardiography. Mid-esophageal right ventricular inflow–outflow view clearly showed the pulmonary valve and vegetation. Learning points Identification and characterization of pulmonary valve abnormalities require thorough interrogation with 2D and Doppler echocardiography techniques.Isolated pulmonary valve IE is rare and requires high index of suspicion. Histoplasma capsulatum IE is rare and requires high index of suspicion. PMID:26693325

  3. Captopril mediated decrease of aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed Central

    Reske, S N; Heck, I; Kropp, J; Mattern, H; Ledda, R; Knopp, R; Winkler, C

    1985-01-01

    The effect of captopril mediated afterload reduction on aortic regurgitation was investigated in 10 patients. Regurgitation was quantitated by means of the regurgitation fraction and the relation of regurgitant volume to end diastolic volume. These variables were derived from gated radionuclide ventriculography. After captopril treatment the blood concentration of angiotensin I rose whereas that of angiotensin II fell significantly. The conversion of angiotensin I to II was reduced to about 50% of the control value. Whereas blood pressure and heart rate did not change significantly, the regurgitation fraction and the regurgitant volume, normalised to end diastolic volume, were significantly reduced by captopril treatment. The ejection fraction remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that captopril reduces aortic regurgitation by reducing afterload. Images PMID:3902067

  4. Determinants of perception of heartburn and regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Bredenoord, A J; Weusten, B L A M; Curvers, W L; Timmer, R; Smout, A J P M

    2006-01-01

    Background and aim It is not known why some reflux episodes evoke symptoms and others do not. We investigated the determinants of perception of gastro?oesophageal reflux. Methods In 32 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastro?oesophageal reflux, 24?hour ambulatory pH and impedance monitoring was performed after cessation of acid suppressive therapy. In the 20 patients who had at least one symptomatic reflux episode, characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic reflux episodes were compared. Results A total of 1807 reflux episodes were detected, 203 of which were symptomatic. Compared with asymptomatic episodes, symptomatic episodes were associated with a larger pH drop (p<0.001), lower nadir pH (p<0.05), and higher proximal extent (p<0.005). Symptomatic reflux episodes had a longer volume and acid clearance time (p<0.05 and p<0.002). Symptomatic episodes were preceded by a higher oesophageal cumulative acid exposure time (p<0.05). The proximal extent of episodes preceding regurgitation was larger than those preceding heartburn; 14.8% of the symptomatic reflux episodes were weakly acidic. In total, 426 pure gas reflux episodes occurred, of which 12 were symptomatic. Symptomatic pure gas reflux was more frequently accompanied by a pH drop than asymptomatic gas reflux (p<0.05). Conclusions Heartburn and regurgitation are more likely to be evoked when the pH drop is large, proximal extent of the refluxate is high, and volume and acid clearance is delayed. Sensitisation of the oesophagus occurs by preceding acid exposure. Weakly acidic reflux is responsible for only a minority of symptoms in patients off therapy. Pure gas reflux associated with a pH drop (“acid vapour”) can be perceived as heartburn and regurgitation. PMID:16120760

  5. Percutaneous Mitral Valvotomy in a Case of Situs Inversus Totalis and Juvenile Rheumatic Critical Mitral Stenosis: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Thakur, Ramesh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Sayal, Karandeep Singh; Sachan, Mohit; Krishna, Vinay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mishra, Vikas; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital disorder where the heart being a mirror image is situated on the right side of the body. Distorted cardiac anatomy makes fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous mitral valvotomy (PMV) technically challenging and there are only few reports of PMV in situs inversus totalis. Here we report a case where PMV was successfully done for situs inversus totalis with rare coincidence of juvenile rheumatic severe mitral stenosis in a 12-year-old boy with a few modifications of standard Inoue technique. He had exertional dyspnea of NYHA class III with initial mitral valve area (MVA) of 0.6 cm(2) and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with features suitable for PMV. Femoral vein was accessed from the left side to align the septal puncture needle and balloon to facilitate left ventricular entry. Septal descent and puncture by Brockenbrough needle was performed in the right anterior oblique view with the needle facing 5 o'clock position. Accura balloon was negotiated across mitral valve in left anterior oblique and procedure was successfully executed. Echocardiography showed a well-divided anterior commissure with an MVA of 2.0 cm(2) and mild mitral regurgitation. In summary, PMV is safe and feasible in the rare patient with situs inversus totalis with few modifications of the Inoue technique. PMID:26985259

  6. Mutations in DCHS1 cause mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Durst, Ronen; Sauls, Kimberly; Peal, David S; deVlaming, Annemarieke; Toomer, Katelynn; Leyne, Maire; Salani, Monica; Talkowski, Michael E; Brand, Harrison; Perrocheau, Maëlle; Simpson, Charles; Jett, Christopher; Stone, Matthew R; Charles, Florie; Chiang, Colby; Lynch, Stacey N; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delling, Francesca N; Freed, Lisa A; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Le Tourneau, Thierry; LeMarec, Hervé; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Trujillano, Daniel; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier; Dina, Christian; Bruneval, Patrick; Chester, Adrian; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Irvine, Kenneth D; Mao, Yaopan; Wessels, Andy; Motiwala, Tahirali; Puceat, Michel; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Menick, Donald R; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Nie, Xingju; Broome, Ann-Marie; Williams, Katherine; Johnson, Amanda; Markwald, Roger R; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hagege, Albert; Levine, Robert A; Milan, David J; Norris, Russell A; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A

    2015-09-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic aetiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds), that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homologue dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 messenger RNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1(+/-) mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs, as well as in Dchs1(+/-) mouse MVICs, result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as aetiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease. PMID:26258302

  7. Mutations in DCHS1 Cause Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Ronen; Sauls, Kimberly; Peal, David S; deVlaming, Annemarieke; Toomer, Katelynn; Leyne, Maire; Salani, Monica; Talkowski, Michael E.; Brand, Harrison; Perrocheau, Maëlle; Simpson, Charles; Jett, Christopher; Stone, Matthew R.; Charles, Florie; Chiang, Colby; Lynch, Stacey N.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delling, Francesca N.; Freed, Lisa A.; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Le Tourneau, Thierry; LeMarec, Hervé; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Trujillano, Daniel; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier; Dina, Christian; Bruneval, Patrick; Chester, Adrian; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Irvine, Kenneth D.; Mao, Yaopan; Wessels, Andy; Motiwala, Tahirali; Puceat, Michel; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Menick, Donald R.; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Nie, Xingju; Broome, Ann-Marie; Williams, Katherine; Johnson, Amanda; Markwald, Roger R.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hagege, Albert; Levine, Robert A.; Milan, David J.; Norris, Russell A.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals1–3. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery4,5. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic etiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds) that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homolog dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 mRNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells, and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1+/? mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs as well as in Dchs1+/? mouse MVICs result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as etiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease. PMID:26258302

  8. Late Calcific Mitral Stenosis After MitraClip Procedure in a Dialysis-Dependent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Lim, Scott; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    The EVEREST II trial investigated the MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing surgical procedures. Although mitral stenosis was not reported in this cohort, this trial excluded patients receiving dialysis. We report a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive, dialysis-dependent patient with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and severe MR, who was considered at high operative risk because of frailty. She was treated with a MitraClip as part of the REALISM high-risk registry. Her symptomatic MR improved but severe symptomatic mitral stenosis developed 28 months after the MitraClip procedure. At that point, she was felt to be a better operative candidate but required open mitral valve replacement. Pathologic examination demonstrated significant calcification of the leaflets around the MitraClip devices. PMID:23608290

  9. Iatrogenic mitral valve chordal rupture during placement of an inflatable and repositionable percutaneous aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Ince, Hüseyin; Ortak, Jasmin; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Kische, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    A case is reported of iatrogenic mitral valve chordal rupture occurring during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with an inflatable and repositionable valve (Direct Flow; Direct Flow Medical, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). The specific implantation technique requires initial valve advancement into the left ventricular cavity, valve inflation within the ventricular cavity, and a final finely tuned valve upward pulling through the left ventricular outflow tract until contact with the aortic annulus is achieved. During this phase of the procedure, entangling with the mitral subvalvular apparatus should be excluded, to avoid inadvertent tissue tearing and consequent mitral valve malfunction. The present patient underwent TAVI but then developed symptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation resulting from chordal rupture. The condition was successfully treated percutaneously by implanting a Mitra-Clip. PMID:26204679

  10. Perioperative management of patient with Bombay blood group undergoing mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Priye, Shio; Sathyanarayan, J; Shivaprakash, S; Reddy, Durgaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of stenotic mitral valve with Bombay phenotype who underwent minimal invasive right lateral thoracotomy for the replacement of the mitral valve. A male patient from Bangladesh presented to the hospital with New York Heart Association III symptoms. His medical evaluation revealed severe mitral valve stenosis and mild aortic valve regurgitation. The patient received erythropoietin, intravenous iron succinate and folic acid tablets. Autologous blood transfusion was carried out. The mitral valve was replaced with a prosthetic valve successfully. After weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinisation was corrected with protamine. Post-operatively, the patient received autologous red blood cells. The patient recovered after 1-day of inotropic support with adrenaline and milrinone, and diuretics and was discharged on the 5th post-operative day. PMID:26903676

  11. Review of Congenital Mitral Valve Stenosis: Analysis, Repair Techniques and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baird, Christopher W; Marx, Gerald R; Borisuk, Michele; Emani, Sitram; Del Nido, Pedro J

    2015-06-01

    The spectrum of congenital mitral valve stenosis (MS) consists of a complex of defects that result in obstruction to left ventricular inflow. This spectrum includes patients with underdeveloped left heart structures (Fig. 1) to those with isolated congenital MS. The specific mitral valve defects can further be divided into categories based on the relationship to the mitral valve annulus including valvar, supravalvar and subvalvar components. Clinically, these patients present based on the degree of obstruction, associated mitral regurgitation, secondary pulmonary hypertension, associated lung disease and/or associated cardiac lesions. There are a number of factors that contribute to the successful outcomes in these patients including pre-operative imaging, aggressive surgical techniques and peri-operative management. Figure 1 (a) Image representing a parachute mitral valve with a small left ventricular cavity. Supra-mitral ring with a fibrous rim of tissue attaches to the mitral annulus and extends on the surfaces of the mitral leaflets. Stenosing mitral membranes or the thickened fribrotic rim of tissue grows on to the atrial aspects of the mitral leaflets restricting the effective orifice area. This thickened fibrous anterior leaflet tissue can extend down onto the chordae tendenae towards the papillary muscle creating an "arcade" like structure. Additional valvar components include commissural fusion and thickened fibrous leaflets that can lead to restricted leaflet motion. Note the sub-valvar or papillary muscle components of congenital MS including the shortened chordae tendenae, reduced inter-chordal space and tethering of the papillary muscles to the ventricle. (b) Pathologic specimen of a parachute mitral valve with a single papillary muscle. PMID:26577233

  12. Mitral Valve Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Thoracic Surgeon? Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Mitral Valve Replacement Aortic Valve Mitral Valve Repair Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Other Types of Surgery Clinical ...

  13. Mitral annulus morphologic and functional analysis using real time tridimensional echocardiography in patients submitted to unsupported mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Marco Antônio Vieira; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Brandão, Carlos Manuel de Almeida; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Tarasoutchi, Flávio; Spinola, Pablo da Cunha; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mitral valve repair is the treatment of choice to correct mitral insufficiency, although the literature related to mitral valve annulus behavior after mitral repair without use of prosthetic rings is scarce. Objective To analyze mitral annulus morphology and function using real time tridimensional echocardiography in individuals submitted to mitral valve repair with Double Teflon technique. Methods Fourteen patients with mitral valve insufficiency secondary to mixomatous degeneration that were submitted to mitral valve repair with the Double Teflon technique were included. Thirteen patients were in FC III/IV. Patients were evaluated in preoperative period, immediate postoperative period, 6 months and 1 year after mitral repair. Statistical analysis was made by repeated measures ANOVA test and was considered statistically significant P<0.05. Results There were no deaths, reoperation due to valve dysfunction, thromboembolism or endocarditis during the study. Posterior mitral annulus demonstrated a significant reduction in immediate postoperative period (P<0.001), remaining stable during the study, and presents a mean of reduction of 25.8% comparing with preoperative period. There was a significant reduction in anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters in the immediate postoperative period (P<0.001), although there was a significant increase in mediolateral diameter between immediate postoperative period and 1 year. There was no difference in mitral internal area variation over the cardiac cycle during the study. Conclusion Segmentar annuloplasty reduced the posterior component of mitral annulus, which remained stable in a 1-year-period. The variation in mitral annulus area during cardiac cycle remained stable during the study. PMID:26313723

  14. Simultaneous transfemoral transcatheter mitral and tricuspid valve edge-to-edge repair (using MitraClip system) completed by atrial septal defect occlusion in a surgically inoperable patient. First-in-human report.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Marek; Franz, Norbert; Ritter, Frank; Hofmann, Steffen; Stabel-Mahassine, Chourok; Warnecke, Henning; Thale, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Transcatheter transfemoral mitral valve repair using the MitraClip system (Abbott Vascular, USA) is used in high-risk or inoperable patients with severe mitral regurgitation. We report the first-in-human simultaneous transfemoral clipping of the mitral and tricuspid valve completed by occlusion of an atrial septal defect (ASD). The procedure was performed in an 84-year-old patient in October 2015. After effective reduction of mitral and tricuspid regurgitations using the MitraClip system a PFO Occluder (St. Jude Medical, USA) was implanted. Transfemoral simultaneous mitral and tricuspid valve repair using the MitraClip system with ASD occlusion seems to be an effective therapy for high-risk or inoperable patients. PMID:26855642

  15. Simultaneous transfemoral transcatheter mitral and tricuspid valve edge-to-edge repair (using MitraClip system) completed by atrial septal defect occlusion in a surgically inoperable patient. First-in-human report

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Norbert; Ritter, Frank; Hofmann, Steffen; Stabel-Mahassine, Chourok; Warnecke, Henning; Thale, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter transfemoral mitral valve repair using the MitraClip system (Abbott Vascular, USA) is used in high-risk or inoperable patients with severe mitral regurgitation. We report the first-in-human simultaneous transfemoral clipping of the mitral and tricuspid valve completed by occlusion of an atrial septal defect (ASD). The procedure was performed in an 84-year-old patient in October 2015. After effective reduction of mitral and tricuspid regurgitations using the MitraClip system a PFO Occluder (St. Jude Medical, USA) was implanted. Transfemoral simultaneous mitral and tricuspid valve repair using the MitraClip system with ASD occlusion seems to be an effective therapy for high-risk or inoperable patients. PMID:26855642

  16. Effect of varying ventricular function by extrasystolic potentiation on closure of the mitral valve.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, R. A.; Williams, J. C. P.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood , E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Mitral regurgitant indexes were measured by roentgen videodensitometry in anesthetized dogs without thoracotomy before, during and after extrasystolic potentiation of ventricular contraction while the atria and ventricles were driven in normal temporal sequence simultaneously or in such a way as to induce atrial fibrillation. Small amounts of mitral reflux were observed with simultaneous atrial and ventricular driving and with atrial fibrillation in the control measurements before initiation of extrasystolic potentiation. Reflux became negligible during extrasystolic potentiation and increased beyond control levels after termination of extrasystolic potentiation.

  17. [Cardiac Amyloidosis Diagnosed Following Mitral Valve Repair; Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Shuichiro; Katayama, Yuji; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of a 60-year-old female who underwent elective mitral valve repair for mitral valve regurgitation. Intra-aortic balloon pumping was necessary to wean her from cardiopulmonary bypass, and a sudden cardiac arrest happened on postoperative day 17. Due to such unexpected postoperative course, a right ventricular biopsy was done, and she was diagnosed with light chain amyloidosis (AL) type cardiac amyloidosis. Despite long percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass support, she never recovered from severe heart failure. Cardiac surgeons should be aware of this fatal disease, and preoperative screening with various tests is required. PMID:26555921

  18. Multimodality Imaging in the Context of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Establishing Consensus Among Modalities and Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Philipp; Naoum, Christopher; Webb, John; Dvir, Danny; Hahn, Rebecca T; Grayburn, Paul; Moss, Robert R; Reisman, Mark; Piazza, Nicolo; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2015-10-01

    Transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) represents a promising approach to treating mitral valve regurgitation in patients at increased risk of perioperative mortality. Similar to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), TMVI relies on pre- and periprocedural noninvasive imaging. Although these imaging modalities, namely echocardiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopy, are well established in TAVR, TMVI has entirely different requirements. Approaches and nomenclature need to be standardized given the multiple disciplines involved. Herein we provide an overview of anatomical principles and definitions, a methodology for anatomical quantification, and perioperative guidance. PMID:26481845

  19. Personalized Computational Modeling of Mitral Valve Prolapse: Virtual Leaflet Resection.

    PubMed

    Rim, Yonghoon; Choi, Ahnryul; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun

    2015-01-01

    Posterior leaflet prolapse following chordal elongation or rupture is one of the primary valvular diseases in patients with degenerative mitral valves (MVs). Quadrangular resection followed by ring annuloplasty is a reliable and reproducible surgical repair technique for treatment of posterior leaflet prolapse. Virtual MV repair simulation of leaflet resection in association with patient-specific 3D echocardiographic data can provide quantitative biomechanical and physiologic characteristics of pre- and post-resection MV function. We have developed a solid personalized computational simulation protocol to perform virtual MV repair using standard clinical guidelines of posterior leaflet resection with annuloplasty ring implantation. A virtual MV model was created using 3D echocardiographic data of a patient with posterior chordal rupture and severe mitral regurgitation. A quadrangle-shaped leaflet portion in the prolapsed posterior leaflet was removed, and virtual plication and suturing were performed. An annuloplasty ring of proper size was reconstructed and virtual ring annuloplasty was performed by superimposing the ring and the mitral annulus. Following the quadrangular resection and ring annuloplasty simulations, patient-specific annular motion and physiologic transvalvular pressure gradient were implemented and dynamic finite element simulation of MV function was performed. The pre-resection MV demonstrated a substantial lack of leaflet coaptation which directly correlated with the severe mitral regurgitation. Excessive stress concentration was found along the free marginal edge of the posterior leaflet involving the chordal rupture. Following the virtual resection and ring annuloplasty, the severity of the posterior leaflet prolapse markedly decreased. Excessive stress concentration disappeared over both anterior and posterior leaflets, and complete leaflet coaptation was effectively restored. This novel personalized virtual MV repair strategy has great potential to help with preoperative selection of the patient-specific optimal MV repair techniques, allow innovative surgical planning to expect improved efficacy of MV repair with more predictable outcomes, and ultimately provide more effective medical care for the patient. PMID:26103002

  20. Personalized Computational Modeling of Mitral Valve Prolapse: Virtual Leaflet Resection

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yonghoon; Choi, Ahnryul; McPherson, David D.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2015-01-01

    Posterior leaflet prolapse following chordal elongation or rupture is one of the primary valvular diseases in patients with degenerative mitral valves (MVs). Quadrangular resection followed by ring annuloplasty is a reliable and reproducible surgical repair technique for treatment of posterior leaflet prolapse. Virtual MV repair simulation of leaflet resection in association with patient-specific 3D echocardiographic data can provide quantitative biomechanical and physiologic characteristics of pre- and post-resection MV function. We have developed a solid personalized computational simulation protocol to perform virtual MV repair using standard clinical guidelines of posterior leaflet resection with annuloplasty ring implantation. A virtual MV model was created using 3D echocardiographic data of a patient with posterior chordal rupture and severe mitral regurgitation. A quadrangle-shaped leaflet portion in the prolapsed posterior leaflet was removed, and virtual plication and suturing were performed. An annuloplasty ring of proper size was reconstructed and virtual ring annuloplasty was performed by superimposing the ring and the mitral annulus. Following the quadrangular resection and ring annuloplasty simulations, patient-specific annular motion and physiologic transvalvular pressure gradient were implemented and dynamic finite element simulation of MV function was performed. The pre-resection MV demonstrated a substantial lack of leaflet coaptation which directly correlated with the severe mitral regurgitation. Excessive stress concentration was found along the free marginal edge of the posterior leaflet involving the chordal rupture. Following the virtual resection and ring annuloplasty, the severity of the posterior leaflet prolapse markedly decreased. Excessive stress concentration disappeared over both anterior and posterior leaflets, and complete leaflet coaptation was effectively restored. This novel personalized virtual MV repair strategy has great potential to help with preoperative selection of the patient-specific optimal MV repair techniques, allow innovative surgical planning to expect improved efficacy of MV repair with more predictable outcomes, and ultimately provide more effective medical care for the patient. PMID:26103002

  1. [Angiocardiographic and clinical development of Carpentier's mitral rings].

    PubMed

    Sala, J; Martín-Trenor, A; Triola, M; Huguet, R; Cordeiro, B; Malpartida, F

    1976-01-01

    Carpentier's ring was inserted in the mitral annulus of 79 patients suffering from mitral valve disease. 49 other patients also underwent surgery on other cardiac valves and are not considered in the present study. The mean follow up time was 19.5 months. The total hospital and late mortality in the isolated ring series was 3.8%. Clinical and hemodynamic improvement was evident postoperatively. The preoperative functional class (NYHA) of the patients was: I, 11.39%; II, 45.5%; III, 34.1%; IV, 8.86% respectively. The postoperative class was: I, 86.8%; II, 7.9%; III, 3.9%; and IV, 1.3% respectively. Postoperative hemodynamic and angiocardiographic evaluation was done in 27 patients. Mean pulmonary artery pressure fell from 49.8 +/- 2.4 mm. Hg to 38 +/- 2 mm. Hg. Mitral regurgitation present preoperatively in 66.6% of cases was present in residual form in only 18.5%. Atrial enlargement was moderate in 42.1% and severe in 57.9% before operation, and 80.3 moderate and 19.7 severe after operation. Tromboembolic accidents occurred in 2 patients (2.2%) both with severe atrial enlargement and atrial fibrillation pre and postoperatively. We conclude that Carpentier's ring is a valid alternative in the surgery of mitral valve disease. PMID:938162

  2. Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility Index (RPAD Index). A field study of an echocardiographic method to detect early development of pulmonary hypertension and its severity even in the absence of regurgitant jets for Doppler evaluation in heartworm-infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Venco, Luigi; Mihaylova, Liliya; Boon, June A

    2014-11-15

    Despite the term "heartworm disease" Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs should be considered a pulmonary arterial disease that might only involve the right heart structures in its late stage. Chronic infection by adult heartworms in dogs results in proliferative endoarteritis leading to progressively increasing pulmonary artery pressure due to reduced elasticity. Elasticity allows the pulmonary arteries to stretch in response to each pulse and helps maintain a relatively constant pressure in the arteries despite the pulsating nature of the blood flow. Pulmonary artery distensibility for both acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension has been investigated in humans using MRI and has been correlated with the severity of hypertension and its outcome and treatment response. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether echocardiographic measurement of the percentage change in diameter of the right pulmonary artery in systole and diastole (distensibility) may be of value in assessing the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in heartworm-infected dogs. The Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility Index (RPAD Index) (which is calculated as the difference in diameter of the right pulmonary artery in systole and diastole) was calculated in healthy and naturally infected heartworm-positive dogs. The right pulmonary artery was chosen because it is usually affected earlier and to a greater degree. Data were obtained from healthy heartworm-free dogs without any clinical, radiographic, or echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension; naturally infected heartworm-positive dogs in different stages of the disease in which pulmonary pressure could be measured by Doppler echocardiography (using tricuspid and or pulmonary regurgitation velocity and pressure gradient); and naturally infected heartworm-positive dogs in different stages of the disease (with or without tricuspid and or pulmonary regurgitation) in which the pulmonary pressure was measured invasively and noninvasively if possible. Results of these evaluations indicated that RPAD Index is a valuable method for early detection of the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in heartworm-infected dogs even in the absence of regurgitant jets for Doppler evaluation and that there is a strong correlation between the RPAD Index and the level of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25218885

  3. Nutritional management of regurgitation in infants.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; Lifshitz, J Z; Orenstein, S; Lifschitz, C H; Shepherd, R W; Casaubón, P R; Muinos, W I; Fagundes-Neto, U; Garcia Aranda, J A; Gentles, M; Santiago, J D; Vanderhoof, J; Yeung, C Y; Moran, J R; Lifshitz, F

    1998-08-01

    Infantile regurgitation is a frequently occurring problem. Throughout the world, anxious parents are imploring physicians to eliminate their infant's regurgitation. General practitioners, pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists strive to alleviate infantile regurgitation and its related parental stress. In this paper we define the scope of the problem and analyze the optimal, cost-efficient management approach to simple regurgitation in infants. The intent of this paper is to disseminate this information to practicing physicians and other health care professionals in an attempt to minimize the impact of this annoying problem of infancy and to eliminate confusion and expensive diagnostic tests and use of sub-optimal treatment modalities. Parental reassurance and dietary management by feeding thickened formula are important components in managing regurgitation in infants while maintaining optimal nutritional intake for adequate growth and development. PMID:9710837

  4. Mitral Annulus Calcification.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Yigal; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Chakravarty, Tarun; Mack, Michael J; Makkar, Raj R

    2015-10-27

    Mitral annulus calcification (MAC) is a chronic, degenerative process in the fibrous base of the mitral valve. Although MAC was initially thought to be an age-related degenerative process, there is accumulating evidence that other mechanisms, such as atherosclerosis and abnormal calcium-phosphorus metabolism, also contribute to the development of MAC. Despite its frequency, the clinical relevance of MAC is grossly underappreciated. Indeed, MAC is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, mitral valve disease, arrhythmias, and mortality. MAC also influences the outcomes of cardiac surgery and interventions, and its clinical relevance may well increase substantially in the forthcoming era of transcatheter mitral valve replacement. In this paper, we review the available published data to provide a consistent, clinically relevant description of MAC on the basis of contemporary imaging. We describe the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the formation of MAC and the clinical implications of this disease entity. PMID:26493666

  5. Mitral Valve Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need to be replaced in the future. Like mitral valve repair, replacement can be done minimally invasively or with traditional open heart surgery. Your medical team will discuss the advantages and ...

  6. Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergy, Gordon G.

    1980-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart disease seen in college and university health services. It underlies most arrhythmia and many chest complaints. Activity and exercise restrictions are usually unnecessary. (Author/CJ)

  7. Standard transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography views of mitral pathology that every surgeon should know

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The mitral valve is the most commonly diseased heart valve and the prevalence of mitral valve disease increases proportionally with age. Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic imaging modality used in the assessment of patients with mitral valve disease. It is a noninvasive method which provides accurate anatomic and functional information regarding the mitral valve and can identify the mechanism of mitral valve pathology. This is especially useful as it may guide surgical repair. This is increasingly relevant given the growing trend of patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Collaboration between cardiac surgeons and echocardiographers is critical in the evaluation of mitral valve disease and for identification of complex valvular lesions that require advanced surgical skill to repair. This article will provide an overview of transthoracic and transesophageal assessment of common mitral valve pathology that aims to aid surgical decision making. PMID:26539350

  8. Measurement of mitral leaflet and annular geometry and stress after repair of posterior leaflet prolapse: Virtual repair using a patient specific finite element simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; Morrel, William G.; Ward, Alison; Mishra, Rakesh; Zhang, Zhihong; Guccione, Julius M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve (MV) repair for degenerative disease occurs at a rate of 2.6% per year and re-operation rate progressively reaches 20% at 19.5 years. We believe that MV repair durability is related to initial post-operative leaflet and annular geometry with subsequent leaflet remodeling due to stress. We tested the hypothesis that MV leaflet and annular stress is increased after MV repair. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and intra-operative 3D trans-esophageal echocardiography was performed before and after repair of posterior leaflet (P2) prolapse in a single patient. The repair consisted of triangular resection and annuloplasty band placement. Images of the heart were manually co-registered. The left ventricle and MV were contoured, surfaced and a 3D finite element (FE) model was created. Elements of the P2 region were removed to model leaflet resection and virtual sutures were used to repair the leaflet defect and attach the annuloplasty ring. Results The principal findings of the current study are 1) FE simulation of MV repair is able to accurately predict changes in MV geometry including changes in annular dimensions and leaflet coaptation, 2) average posterior leaflet stress is increased, and 3) average anterior leaflet and annular stress are reduced after triangular resection and mitral annuloplasty. Conclusions We successfully conducted virtual mitral valve prolapse repair using FE modeling methods. Future studies will examine the effects of leaflet resection type as well as annuloplasty ring size and shape. PMID:24630767

  9. Role of vortices in growth of microbubbles at mitral mechanical heart valve closure.

    PubMed

    Rambod, Edmond; Beizai, Masoud; Sahn, David J; Gharib, Morteza

    2007-07-01

    This study is aimed at refining our understanding of the role of vortex formation at mitral mechanical heart valve (MHV) closure and its association with the high intensity transient signals (HITS) seen in echocardiographic studies with MHV recipients. Previously reported numerical results described a twofold process leading to formation of gas-filled microbubbles in-vitro: (1) nucleation and (2) growth of micron size bubbles. The growth itself consists of two processes: (a) diffusion and (b) sudden pressure drop due to valve closure. The role of diffusion has already been shown to govern the initial growth of nuclei. Pressure drop at mitral MHV closure may be attributed to other phenomena such as squeezed flow, water hammer and primarily, vortex cavitation. Mathematical analysis of vortex formation at mitral MHV closure revealed that a closing velocity of approximately 12 m/s can induce a strong regurgitant vortex which in return can instigate a local pressure drop of about 0.9 atm. A 2D experimental model of regurgitant flows was used to substantiate the impact of vortices. At simulated flow and pressure conditions, a regurgitant vortex was observed to drastically enlarge micron size hydrogen bubbles at its core. PMID:17404890

  10. Native Mitral Stenosis Treated With Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Jain, Renuka; Algahim, Mohamed F; Bajwa, Tanvir K; Khandheria, Bijoy K; O'Hair, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Surgical treatment of mitral stenosis with extreme calcification remains a challenge. Recently, the balloon-expandable valve prosthesis, anchored by radial force, offers a new option for these patients. We present 2 cases of transcatheter mitral valve replacement in patients with severe native mitral valve stenosis and annular calcification deemed too extensive for conventional surgical techniques. PMID:26897235

  11. Fluid-Structure Interactions of the Mitral Valve and Left Heart: Comprehensive Strategies, Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Del Pin, Facundo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The remodeling that occurs after a posterolateral myocardial infarction can alter mitral valve function by creating conformational abnormalities in the mitral annulus and in the posteromedial papillary muscle, leading to mitral regurgitation (MR). It is generally assumed that this remodeling is caused by a volume load and is mediated by an increase in diastolic wall stress. Thus, mitral regurgitation can be both the cause and effect of an abnormal cardiac stress environment. Computational modeling of ischemic MR and its surgical correction is attractive because it enables an examination of whether a given intervention addresses the correction of regurgitation (fluid-flow) at the cost of abnormal tissue stress. This is significant because the negative effects of an increased wall stress due to the intervention will only be evident over time. However, a meaningful fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart is not trivial; it requires a careful characterization of the in-vivo cardiac geometry, tissue parameterization though inverse analysis, a robust coupled solver that handles collapsing Lagrangian interfaces, automatic grid-generation algorithms that are capable of accurately discretizing the cardiac geometry, innovations in image analysis, competent and efficient constitutive models and an understanding of the spatial organization of tissue microstructure. In this manuscript, we profile our work toward a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart by reviewing our early work, presenting our current work and laying out our future work in four broad categories: data collection, geometry, fluid-structure interaction and validation. PMID:20454531

  12. Bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis less than one year after replacement and an ablative MAZE procedure: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Occurrence of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis less than a year after replacement is very uncommon. Here, we describe a case of a 57 year old male, who presented 10 months after receiving a bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement with a two week history of dyspnea on exertion, worsening orthopnea and decreased exercise tolerance. Echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation (MR), thrombosis of the posterior mitral leaflet, left atrial (LA) mural thrombus and a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction of twenty-five percent. Given severe clot burden and decompensated heart failure (New York Heart Association - NYHA class III) repeat sternotomy was done to replace the bioprosthetic mitral valve and remove LA mural thrombus. MR was resolved postoperatively. This brief report further reviews promoting factors, established guidelines and management strategies of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis. PMID:20350310

  13. [W-shaped Resection and Suture of the Posterior Mitral Leaflet in a Patient with Barlow's Disease].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Shigeto; Morimoto, Keisuke; Nishimura, Kengo; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu

    2015-02-01

    A 72-year-old female presented with congestive heart failure. Ultrasound cardiogram revealed billowing mitral leaflets and severe mitral regurgitation. We diagnosed her with Barlow's disease and performed mitral valve repair. The posterior leaflet was large, and the leaflet height was more than 26 mm. Leaflet height reduction was necessary in order to prevent systolic anterior movement (SAM). The middle scallop was resected in a" W" shape, and its center vertex was designed to have a height of 18 mm, which was the final height of the posterior leaflet. SAM and major leaks were not seen by transesophageal echocardiography after weaning the patient from cardiopulmonary bypass. The use of a W-shaped resection is a simple technique that can be used to reduce the volume and height of the posterior mitral leaflet. PMID:25743349

  14. Reoperation for a patient 25 years after a Starr-Edwards ball mitral valve was installed.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhidong; Shiono, Motomi; Sezai, Akira; Inoue, Tatsuya; Hata, Mitsumasa; Niino, Tetsuya; Goshima, Masakazu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Negishi, Nanao; Sezai, Yukiyasu

    2002-10-01

    A 45-year-old female suffered from increasing dyspnea during exercise and edema of lower extremities from January 2000. She had undergone mitral valve replacement with Starr-Edwards ball prosthesis (model 6320) due to mitral valve regurgitation 25 years ago. The cardiac catheterization and echocardiography documented mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves regurgitation grade III. Left ventricular ejection fraction rate was 49% and the pressures of CVP, RA, RV and PA were also increased. Laboratory examination showed slight hemolytic anemia. Double valve replacement (ATS valve) and tricuspid annuloplasty were carried out in April 2000. Strut cloth wear was confirmed at operation. Her postoperative course was uneventful. We hereby review the published paper of all cases with an implanted Starr-Edwards ball valve who required redo valve replacement with over 15 years follow-up. We consider that cloth injury is the main cause for reoperation and it usually associated with hemolytic anemia; cloth wear not only involves the aortic position but also frequently involves the mitral position for over 15 years follow-up patients and can be corrected by reoperation. Cloth wear should be concerned for those surviving patients who have received the Starr-Edwards ball valve during long-term follow-up. PMID:12472416

  15. An uncommon case of isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve in an adult.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    A 31-year-old asymptomatic male was referred to hospital for an examination of right bundle brunch block. Both, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular function, and two different-sized papillary muscles; the anterolateral muscle was more pronounced, with almost major chordae tendineae inserted into this dominant muscle, whereas the immature, flat posteromedial papillary muscle had very short chordae tendineae and was located higher in the left ventricle, inserted directly into the mitral annulus. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side, but no significant mitral stenosis or regurgitation was observed. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve (PLAMV), without any other congenital heart anomalies. The patient was followed up closely with periodic echocardiographic examinations. Parachute mitral valve is a rare congenital cardiac defect characterized by focalized attachment of the chordae tendineae of both leaflets to a single papillary muscle. In contrast to true parachute mitral valve, PLAMV has two separate papillary muscles, one of which is more pronounced and into which all chordae are inserted. PLAMV was highly associated with other congenital heart anomalies, and the involved dominant muscle was most frequently a posteromedial papillary muscle. Isolated PLAMV in an adult is even more rare, while the presence of an immature posteromedial papillary muscle--as in the present case--is extremely rare. PMID:25799716

  16. Echocardiographic changes after aortic valve replacement: Does the failure rate of mitral valve change?

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Arezoo; Sheykhloo, Hadi; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Saburi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Since some degrees of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) may be seen in patients who are candidate for undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), determining the effectiveness of AVR surgery on MR rate improvement can be effective in designing a protocol to deal with patients with functional MR. The purpose of this study was to examine the echocardiographic changes after AVR surgery with a focus on changes in MR. METHODS The research was conducted as a before-after observational study on patients hospitalized in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who were undergone AVR surgery between 2011 and 2012. After selecting the patients and obtaining informed consent to participate in the project, transthoracic echocardiographic data were collected by a specialist in Cardiology Echocardiography using ViVid 7 device before and till one week after AVR surgery. The MR rate was measured using methods; including Color Flow Doppler, PISA, Vena Cava Width and Effective Regurgitant Orifice. RESULTS Finally, the study was conducted on 85 patients (mean age = 56.23 ± 6.10 years, 27 women = 31.8%). Of 21 patients with preoperative MR more than mild (moderate, mild to moderate), 20 patients (95%) showed at least one degree decrease in MR. Among 64 patients who had mild MR before the surgery, 29 patients improved (45%), that this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The study results showed that in patients with preoperative MR degree higher than mild, after AVR the MR rate improved 24 times more than those who had preoperative MR degree equivalent to mild and lower. However, these changes are not affected by other echocardiographic changes and patients demographic characteristics. PMID:26405444

  17. Primary Left Cardiac Angiosarcoma with Mitral Valve Involvement Accompanying Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Cagdas; Durdu, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Sadik; Sirlak, Mustafa; Akar, A. Ruchan

    2015-01-01

    We report here on a 43-year-old female patient presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, severe mitral regurgitation, and mild mitral stenosis secondary to encroachment of the related structures by a primary cardiac angiosarcoma. A coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis in the left main and left circumflex arteries and at exploration, the tumour was arising from posterior left atrial free wall, invading the posterior mitral leaflet, and extending into all of the pulmonary veins and pericardium. Therefore, no further intervention was performed, except for left internal mammarian artery to left anterior descending artery anastomosis and biopsy. As far as we know, this case is unique with respect to its presentation. PMID:26649221

  18. Evaluation of a Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Annuloplasty Band for Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827

  19. Concomitant Repair of Mitral Valve Papillary Muscle Rupture and Tricuspid Valve Avulsion in a Pediatric Patient after a Motor Vehicle Collision

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley; Forbus, Geoff; Hsia, Tain Yen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: We report the case of an 8-year-old patient with severe acute mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation after a motor vehicle collision caused by traumatic injuries of the supporting structures of both valves. An echocardiogram showed avulsion of the posteromedial papillary muscle of the mitral valve and a severely prolapsed anterior tricuspid valve leaflet. In addition, there was a near-complete defect in the left ventricular side of the interventricular septum, with diffuse hematoma of the akinetic septal muscle. After emergency mitral and tricuspid valve repairs, consisting of re-implantation of the posteromedial papillary muscle and anterior tricuspid leaflet chordal support, the patient completely recovered with no residual valvular pathology. PMID:19806802

  20. Retrograde non trans-septal balloon mitral valvotomy in mitral stenosis with interrupted inferior vena cava, left superior vena cava, and hugely dilated coronary sinus.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ranjit Kumar; Soni, Dheeraj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A 22-year-old woman with severe mitral stenosis was referred to us for further evaluation and management. She was found to have severe mitral stenosis, severe tricuspid regurgitation with dilated right atrium and right ventricle with persistent left superior vena cava and hugely dilated coronary sinus. Valve was suitable for balloon mitral valvotomy. Cardiac catheterization showed interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation to right atrium and large left superior vena cava draining to coronary sinus which was very much dilated. Right trans-jugular approach was tried for balloon mitral valvotomy, but was unsuccessful due to a very large right atrium and coronary sinus. Retrograde non trans-septal approach was used and balloon valvotomy was done successfully using a 24 mm × 40 mm TYSHAK balloon without any major complication. Reduction in the transmitral pressure gradient on cardiac catheterization data and transthoracic echocardiography confirmed successful procedure. Balloon mitral valvotomy can be done successfully in patients with the above unusual cardiac anatomy with no major procedural complications. PMID:26032663

  1. Ruptured giant mitral valve aneurysm: an unexpected finding in a diabetic patient with dyspnea and new-onset atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Trifunovic, Danijela; Vujisic-Tesic, Bosiljka; Bozic, Vesna; Petrovic, Milan; Ostojic, Miodrag

    2014-07-01

    Mitral valve aneurysm (MVA) is a rare valve disease. The case is reported of pathologically proven MVA in a 61-year-old diabetic male with chronic alcoholic liver disease who presented with dyspnea and new-onset atrial fibrillation, without clinical elements of current or recent infection. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a 'cystic' formation of the anterior mitral leaflet (AML) with mild mitral regurgitation (MR) and aortic regurgitation (AR) hitting the AML. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed clearly that the formation on the AML was a valve aneurysm, and depicted the site of aneurysm rupture with an additional jet of MR through the rupture. Following mitral valve replacement, pathology of the excised valve showed chronic bacterial endocarditis with calcified bacterial colonies, myxomatous changes with fibrinoid dissection of lamina fibrosa, and neovascularization of the leaflet. The mechanisms of MVA formation are discussed, together with its potential complications, diagnostic modalities and therapeutic strategies. The present case emphasizes that MVA is often a remnant of endocarditis, even when the latter is clinically silent and undiagnosed. The importance of chronic AR directed towards the AML as a predisposing condition for MVA formation is also underlined in this case. The superiority of TEE in providing a full exploration of the mitral valve morphology is verified. PMID:25803977

  2. [Experience of Mitral Valve Replacement Using a Pulmonary Autograft (Ross II Operation) in an Infant;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Kawahito, Tomohisa; Egawa, Yoshiyasu; Yoshida, Homare; Shimoe, Yasushi; Onishi, Tatsuya; Miyagi, Yuhichi; Terada, Kazuya; Ohta, Akira

    2015-07-01

    A 24-day-old boy suddenly developed progressive heart failure and was transported to our hospital. Echocardiography showed massive mitral regurgitation due to chordal rupture. Mitral valve repair was performed at 28 days of life, but postoperative valvular function was not satisfactory. A mechanical valve was implanted in the supra-annular position at 37 days of life. Two months after valve replacement, the mechanical valve was suddenly stuck. Emergent redo valve replacement was performed, but the prosthetic valve became stuck again 2 months after the 3rd operation, despite sufficient anti-coagulation therapy. At the 4th operation (6 months after birth), we implanted a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position instead of another mechanical valve in an emergent operation. The right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed with a valved conduit. A postoperative catheter examination, which was performed 1 year after the Ross II operation, showed mild mitral stenosis with no regurgitation. Previous reports of Ross II operations in infants are rare and long-term results are unknown. However, we advocate that this procedure should be a rescue operation for mitral valve dysfunction in the early period of infants. PMID:26197828

  3. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or prevent complications. Very few people will need surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve. MVP puts you at risk for infective endocarditis, a kind of heart infection. To prevent it, doctors used to prescribe ... work or certain surgeries. Now, only people at high risk of endocarditis ...

  4. Mitral valve surgery: wait and see vs. early operation.

    PubMed

    De Bonis, Michele; Bolling, Steven F

    2013-01-01

    Mitral valve repair represents the optimal surgical treatment for severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. According to the current guidelines, mitral repair is indicated in the presence of symptoms and/or signs of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In asymptomatic patients with preserved LV function, surgery should be considered in the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or pulmonary hypertension. In asymptomatic patients with preserved LV function, normal pulmonary artery pressure, and no episodes of AF, surgical timing is still an object of debate. The controversial issue is whether, in those circumstances, a 'wait and see (watchful waiting)' approach should be followed or an 'early repair' policy should be preferred. Indeed, a randomized trial comparing the two strategies has never been performed. In the absence of evidence-based arguments definitely supporting any particular course of action, advantages, drawbacks, and requirements for both strategies will be discussed in this review on the basis of the most significant observational studies which have focused on this issue. PMID:22933568

  5. Transcatheter device occlusion of the left ventricular outflow tract as treatment for severe aortic regurgitation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elling, R; Stiller, B; Grohmann, J

    2015-09-01

    Aortic regurgitation is a rare but dangerous condition in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We report the case of a 2-year-old girl with HLHS with aortic/mitral stenosis (AS-MS) subtype after stage II palliation via the bilateral bidirectional Glenn (BBDG) procedure, when aortic regurgitation presented with the clinical manifestation of a paroxysmal coronary steal phenomenon provoked by exertion. Transcatheter closure of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) with an Amplatzer(TM) Vascular Plug 4 minimized and finally abolished aortic reflux without compromising either coronary perfusion or atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Midterm follow-up over 3 years revealed complete disappearance of her symptoms, and follow-up catheterization displayed complete LVOT closure. This case illustrates the promising potential of modern cardiac catherization techniques in certain cases and emphasizes that precise assessment of the native aorta and coronary system is critical in HLHS patients. PMID:25529536

  6. Reduced Longitudinal Function in Chronic Aortic Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Al Balbissi, Kais A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) patients demonstrate left ventricular (LV) remodeling with increased LV mass and volume but may have a preserved LV ejection fraction (EF). We hypothesize that in chronic AR, global longitudinal systolic and diastolic function will be reduced despite a preserved LV EF. Methods We studied with Doppler echocardiography 27 normal subjects, 87 patients with chronic AR with a LV EF > 50% (AR + PEF), 66 patients with an EF < 50% [AR + reduced LV ejection fraction (REF)] and 82 patients with hypertensive heart disease. LV volume, transmitral spectral and tissue Doppler were obtained. Myocardial velocities and their timing and longitudinal strain of the proximal and mid wall of each of the 3 apical views were obtained. Results As compared to normals, global longitudinal strain was reduced in AR + PEF (13.8 ± 4.0%) and AR + REF (11.4 ± 4.7%) vs. normals (18.4 ± 3.6%, both p < 0.001). As an additional comparison group for AR + PEF, global longitudinal strain was reduced as compared to patients with hypertensive heart disease (p = 0.032). The average peak diastolic annular velocity (e') was decreased in AR + PEF (6.9 ± 3.3 cm/s vs. 13.4 ± 2.6 cm/s, p < 0.001) and AR + REF (4.8 ± 2.1 cm/s, p < 0.001). Peak rapid filling velocity/e' (E/e') was increased in both AR + PEF (14.4 ± 6.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.3, p < 0.001) and AR + REF (18.8 ± 6.4, p < 0.001 vs. normals). Independent correlates of global longitudinal strain (r = 0.6416, p < 0.001) included EF (p < 0.0001), E/e' (p < 0.0001), and tricuspid regurgitation velocity (p = 0.0176). Conclusion With chronic AR, there is impaired longitudinal function despite preserved EF. Moreover, global longitudinal strain was well correlated with noninvasive estimated LV filling pressures and pulmonary systolic arterial pressures. PMID:26755930

  7. [Incidence and relevance of tricuspid-valve insufficiency in acquired mitral-valve defect. Analysis based on right ventricular angiograms].

    PubMed

    Simon, R; Lichtlen, P

    1976-08-01

    To detect tricuspid incompetence (TI) right ventricular angiography was performed in 167 patients suffering from moderate to severe mitral valve disease. Holosystolic reflux of contrast medium to the right atrium through the central part of the tricuspid valve was thought to represent true TI, whereas a jet of contrast medium following the injection catheter and originating from the region of its valve passage was assumed to reflect arteficial regurgitation. True TI was found in 35% of the total group (30% mild to moderate, 5% severe TI). TI was often accompanied by atrial fibrillation (91%), pulmonary hypertension (74%) and reduced contraction of the tricuspid annulus (55%). Since tricuspid regurgitation in mitral valve disease commonly represents "functional" incompetence surgical intervention may be recommandable only in case of severe TI or concomitant valvular stenosis. PMID:1086005

  8. Reciprocal interactions between mitral valve endothelial and interstitial cells reduce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and myofibroblastic activation

    PubMed Central

    Shapero, Kayle; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Levine, Robert A.; Mayer, John E.; Bischoff, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Thickening of mitral leaflets, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), and activated myofibroblast-like interstitial cells have been observed in ischemic mitral valve regurgitation. We set out to determine if interactions between mitral valve endothelial cells (VEC) and interstitial cells (VIC) might affect these alterations. We used in vitro co-culture in Transwell™ inserts to test the hypothesis that VIC secrete factors that inhibit EndMT and conversely, that VEC secrete factors that mitigate the activation of VIC to a myofibroblast-like, activated phenotype. Primary cultures and clonal populations of ovine mitral VIC and VEC were used. Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) and functional assays were used to assess changes in cell phenotype and behavior. VIC or conditioned media from VIC inhibited transforming growth factorβ (TGFβ)-induced EndMT in VEC, as indicated by reduced expression of EndMT markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Slug, Snai1 and MMP-2 and maintained ability of VEC to mediate leukocyte adhesion, an important endothelial function. VEC or conditioned media from VEC reversed the spontaneous cell culture-induced change in VIC to an activated phenotype, as indicated by reduced expression of α-SMA and type I collagen, increased expression chondromodulin-1 (Chm1), and reduced contractile activity. These results demonstrate that mitral VEC and VIC secrete soluble factors that can reduce VIC activation and inhibit TGFβ-driven EndMT, respectively. These findings suggest that the endothelium of the mitral valve is critical for the maintenance of a quiescent VIC phenotype and that, in turn, VIC prevent EndMT. We speculate that disturbance of the ongoing reciprocal interactions between VEC and VICs in vivo may contribute to the thickened and fibrotic leaflets observed in ischemic mitral regurgitation, and in other types of valve disease. PMID:25633835

  9. A novel finite element-based patient-specific mitral valve repair: virtual ring annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ahnryul; Rim, Yonghoon; Mun, Jeffrey S.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of normal mitral valve (MV) function lead to mitral insufficiency, i.e., mitral regurgitation (MR). Mitral repair is the most popular and most efficient surgical intervention for MR treatment. An annuloplasty ring is implanted following complex reconstructive MV repairs to prevent potential reoccurrence of MR. We have developed a novel finite element (FE)-based simulation protocol to perform patient-specific virtual ring annuloplasty following the standard clinical guideline procedure. A virtual MV was created using 3D echocardiographic data in a patient with mitral annular dilation. Proper type and size of the ring were determined in consideration of the MV apparatus geometry. The ring was positioned over the patient MV model and annuloplasty was simulated. Dynamic simulation of MV function across the complete cardiac cycle was performed. Virtual patient-specific annuloplasty simulation well demonstrated morphologic information of the MV apparatus before and after ring implantation. Dynamic simulation of MV function following ring annuloplasty demonstrated markedly reduced stress distribution across the MV leaflets and annulus as well as restored leaflet coaptation compared to pre-annuloplasty. This novel FE-based patient-specific MV repair simulation technique provides quantitative information of functional improvement following ring annuloplasty. Virtual MV repair strategy may effectively evaluate and predict interventional treatment for MV pathology. PMID:24211915

  10. Tissue-engineered mitral valve chordae tendineae: Biomechanical and biological characterization of decellularized porcine chordae.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenhui; Li, Sen; Lei, Dong; Huang, Peng; Yuan, Zhize; You, Zhengwei; Ye, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Chordae tendineae are essential for maintaining mitral valve function. Chordae replacement is one of the valve repair procedures commonly used to treat mitral valve regurgitation. But current chordae alternatives (polytetrafluoroethylene, ePTFE) do not have the elastic and self-regenerative properties. Moreover, the ePTFE sutures sometimes fail due to degeneration, calcification and rupture. Tissue-engineered chordae tendineae may overcome these problems. The utility of xenogeneic chordae for tissue-engineered chordae tendineae has not yet been adequately explored. In this study, polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) film modified decellularized porcine mitral valve chordae (PEM-DPC) were developed to explore tissue-engineered chordae tendineae as neochordae substitutes. Fresh porcine mitral chordae were decellularized and reserved the major elastic fiber and collagen components. Decellularized chordae with a PEM film were produced with chitosan-heparin by a lay-by-lay technique. Mesenchymal stem cells and vascular endothelial cells could grow well on the surface of the PEM-DPC. The superior biomechanical properties of PEM-DPC were proved with good flexibility and strength both in vitro and in vivo. PEM-DPC can be developed for potential alternative mitral valve chordae graft. PMID:26708255

  11. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jen?; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature. PMID:26599093

  12. Use of transoesophageal echocardiography to detect left atrial thrombi before percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, W J; Reis, G J; Douglas, P S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Systemic emboli related to atrial thrombi are a well known complication of percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. The presence of left atrial thrombi therefore, is believed to be a contraindication to balloon dilatation. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of left atrial thrombi in patients referred for balloon dilatation of the mitral valve, the added benefit of pre-procedural transoesophageal echocardiography, and to identify factors that predicted left atrial thrombi. DESIGN--Prospective study over a 14 month period of 20 consecutive patients by cross sectional transthoracic echocardiography 24-48 hours before balloon dilatation of the mitral valve and by transoesophageal echocardiography immediately before the procedure. RESULTS--One patient had a left atrial thrombus detected by transthoracic study. Two patients (10%) had left atrial thrombi identified by transoesophageal echocardiography. In both valve dilatation was not attempted and the thrombi were confirmed at surgery. The remaining 18 patients all underwent successful balloon dilatation of the mitral valve without clinical evidence of an embolic event. No association was found between patient age, mitral valve area, transmitral gradient, left atrial size, presence of atrial fibrillation, severity of mitral regurgitation, cardiac output, or the presence of left atrial swirling and an increased prevalence of atrial thrombi. CONCLUSION--Left atrial thrombi are often seen despite long term systemic anticoagulation in patients referred for balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. The frequency of unsuspected left atrial thrombi detected by transoesophageal echocardiography was similar to the reported frequency of embolic events after balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Transoesophageal echocardiography for the identification of left atrial thrombi is strongly recommended in all patients before balloon dilatation of the mitral valve including those treated with systemic anticoagulation and those who have had a normal transthoracic echocardiographic study. Images PMID:1540437

  13. [Syphilitic aortic regurgitation: a sexually transmissible cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Madani, M; Rissoul, K; Ajjaja, M R; Moutaouakkil, E M; Arji, M; Chikhaoui, Y; Rahali, M; Slaoui, A

    2013-04-01

    Syphilitic cardiovascular complications are currently rare. It concerns the tertiary phase of the disease and results in sacciform aneurysm of the thoracic aorta or ostial coronary artery stenosis. Syphilitic aortic regurgitation is even more rare. We illustrate it by a clinical observation and discuss its diagnosis and its treatment. PMID:21663893

  14. A comparison of different feature extraction methods for diagnosis of valvular heart diseases using PCG signals.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, M; Abdoli, R

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for diagnosis of valvular heart disease (VHD) based on phonocardiography (PCG) signals. Application of the pattern classification and feature selection and reduction methods in analysing normal and pathological heart sound was investigated. After signal preprocessing using independent component analysis (ICA), 32 features are extracted. Those include carefully selected linear and nonlinear time domain, wavelet and entropy features. By examining different feature selection and feature reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), genetic algorithms (GA), genetic programming (GP) and generalized discriminant analysis (GDA), the four most informative features are extracted. Furthermore, support vector machines (SVM) and neural network classifiers are compared for diagnosis of pathological heart sounds. Three valvular heart diseases are considered: aortic stenosis (AS), mitral stenosis (MS) and mitral regurgitation (MR). An overall accuracy of 99.47% was achieved by proposed algorithm. PMID:22149293

  15. Pulmonary microvascular permeability in patients with severe mitral stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, S W; Wilkinson, P; Keegan, J; Bailey, J; Timmis, A D; Wedzicha, J A; Rudd, R M

    1991-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis often have no pulmonary oedema despite considerably increased pulmonary venous pressure. Pulmonary microvascular permeability was measured non-invasively by a previously validated method of double isotope scintigraphy with indium-113m and technetium-99m. This permits calculation of an index reflecting transferrin efflux and thus, indirectly, the microvascular permeability. Fifteen patients with severe mitral stenosis (defined as valve area less than 1.0 cm2) were compared with a control group of 11 patients with mild coronary artery disease. The permeability index was significantly lower in patients with mitral stenosis than in the control group. Furthermore, the extent of reduction of the permeability index correlated with the severity of mitral stenosis as reflected by the Gorlin valve area. This finding may account for the relative resistance of these patients to pulmonary oedema despite chronic pulmonary venous hypertension. Images PMID:1867952

  16. Lipomatous hamartoma of mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Seetharama Ps; Gowda Sl, Girish; Chikkatur, Raghavendra; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, and tumors arising from cardiac valves are extremely rare. We present a case of lipomatous hamartoma of the mitral valve in a young female. This is the 6th case of lipomatous hamartoma of the mitral valve to be reported. We discuss the operative and histopathological findings. PMID:24821963

  17. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho Junior, Sirio; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defects. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 53 consecutive patients 3 years-old and younger presenting with complete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. Median age was 6.7 months; median weight was 5.3 Kg; 86.8% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 26 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (49.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 11.3%; annuloplasty was performed in 34% of the patients. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 21 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (39.6%). After performing a multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was the absence of Down syndrome (P=0.03). Conclusion Absence of Down syndrome was associated with moderate or severe postoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect at our practice. PMID:26313720

  18. Robotically-assisted left atrial fibrillation ablation and mitral valve repair through a right mini-thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Gil; Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2004-10-01

    A combined robotic-assisted left atrial ablation and mitral valve repair was done through a 5-cm right anterior mini-thoracotomy. The patient was a 54-year-old man with severe mitral regurgitation and a 10-month history of persistent atrial fibrillation. The patient underwent off-pump, beating heart epicardial peripulmonary vein microwave ablation using the FLEX 10 catheter (AFx Inc, Fremont, CA), followed by supplemental on-pump endocardial lesions. The procedure was done using the da Vinci surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA). The mitral valve repair consisted of a No. 38 Cosgrove annuloplasty band implantation (Edwards Life Sciences, LLC, Irvine, CA). The postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient maintained normal sinus rhythm. PMID:15464454

  19. Indication and timing of percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy and the role of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Langerveld, J.; Ernst, J.M.P.G.; van Hemel, N.M.; Jaarsma, W.

    2005-01-01

    Percutaneous transvenous mitral balloon valvotomy (PTMV) has been proven to be an effective and safe method for treatment of patients with severe mitral valve stenosis. This technique has become an accepted alternative for surgical commissurotomy, not only in young patients with pliable valves, but also in selected older patients with extensive valvular pathology. This review highlights the significance of coexisting atrial fibrillation, patient selection and timing of PTMV in patients with mitral valve stenosis. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696405

  20. One-year outcomes and predictors of mortality after MitraClip therapy in contemporary clinical practice: results from the German transcatheter mitral valve interventions registry

    PubMed Central

    Puls, Miriam; Lubos, Edith; Boekstegers, Peter; von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan; Ouarrak, Taoufik; Butter, Christian; Zuern, Christine S.; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Sievert, Horst; Nickenig, Georg; Eggebrecht, Holger; Senges, Jochen; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The transcatheter mitral valve interventions (TRAMI) registry was established in order to assess safety and efficacy of catheter-based mitral valve interventional techniques in Germany, and prospectively enrolled 828 MitraClip patients (median age 76 years, median log. EuroSCORE I 20.0%) between August 2010 and July 2013. We present the 1-year outcome in this MitraClip cohort—which is the largest published to date. Methods and results Seven forty-nine patients (90.5%) were available for 1-year follow-up and included in the following analyses. Mortality, major adverse cardiovascular event rates, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes were recorded. Predictors of 1-year mortality were identified by multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The 1-year mortality was 20.3%. At 1 year, 63.3% of TRAMI patients pertained to NYHA functional classes I or II (compared with 11.0% at baseline), and self-rated health status (on EuroQuol visual analogue scale) also improved significantly by 10 points. Importantly, a significant proportion of patients regained the complete independence in self-care after MitraClip implantation (independence in 74.0 vs. 58.6% at baseline, P = 0.005). Predictors of 1-year mortality were NYHA class IV (hazard ratio, HR 1.62, P = 0.02), anaemia (HR 2.44, P = 0.02), previous aortic valve intervention (HR 2.12, P = 0.002), serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL (HR 1.77, P = 0.002), peripheral artery disease (HR 2.12, P = 0.0003), left ventricular ejection fraction <30% (HR 1.58, P = 0.01), severe tricuspid regurgitation (HR 1.84, P = 0.003), and procedural failure (defined as operator-reported failure, conversion to surgery, failure of clip placement, or residual post-procedural severe mitral regurgitation) (HR 4.36, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Treatment of significant MR with MitraClip resulted in significant clinical improvements in a high proportion of TRAMI patients after 12 months. In the TRAMI cohort, the failure of procedural success exhibited the highest hazard ratio concerning the prediction of 1-year mortality. PMID:26614824

  1. Surgical repair of congenital aortic regurgitation by aortic root reduction: A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Peter E; Berra, Ignacio; del Nido, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    During surgical reconstruction of the aortic valve in the child, the use of foreign graft material can limit durability of the repair due to inability of the graft to grow with the child and to accelerated structural degeneration. In this study we use computer simulation and ex vivo experiments to explore a surgical repair method that has the potential to treat a particular form of congenital aortic regurgitation without the introduction of graft material. Specifically, in an aortic valve that is regurgitant due to a congenitally undersized leaflet, we propose resecting a portion of the aortic root belonging to one of the normal leaflets in order to improve valve closure and eliminate regurgitation. We use a structural finite element model of the aortic valve to simulate the closed, pressurized valve following different strategies for surgical reduction of the aortic root (e.g., triangular versus rectangular resection). Results show that aortic root reduction can improve valve closure and eliminate regurgitation, but the effect is highly dependent on the shape and size of the resected region. Only resection strategies that reduce the size of the aortic root at the level of the annulus produce improved valve closure, and only the strategy of resecting a large rectangular portion-extending the full height of the root and reducing root diameter by approximately 12% - is able to eliminate regurgitation and produce an adequate repair. Ex vivo validation experiments in an isolated porcine aorta corroborate simulation results. PMID:26456424

  2. A case of ventricular septal defect and mitral insufficiency after blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Ayumu; Kimura, Naritaka; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2014-09-01

    Few reports have described traumatic heart injury in children. We describe a case of acute mitral regurgitation associated with papillary muscle rupture, traumatic ventricular septal defect, and impending left ventricular free wall rupture due to blunt trauma in a 2-year-old girl. The papillary muscle was sutured to the left ventricular free wall. The septal defect and surrounding ruptured muscle were covered with a pericardial patch, and a Hemashield patch was used to close the ventriculotomy. A residual defect caused by dehiscence of the pericardial patch necessitated reoperation 10 months later. The patient is currently being observed on an outpatient basis. PMID:24887820

  3. First reported human case of native mitral infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis.

    PubMed

    Amsallem, Myriam; Iung, Bernard; Bouleti, Claire; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence; Eme, Anne-Line; Touati, Aziza; Kirsch, Matthias; Duval, Xavier; Vahanian, Alec

    2014-11-01

    A 65 year-old woman was admitted for acute heart failure and severe sepsis revealing definite mitral infective endocarditis with severe regurgitation, complicated by multiple embolisms. Three blood cultures yielded a group G Streptococcus canis strain. Urgent surgery was performed with bioprosthetic valve replacement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the valve found S canis DNA. Amoxicillin and gentamicin were given for 2 weeks followed by 4 weeks of amoxicillin alone. She reported contact with a dog without bite. S canis has been reported to cause zoonotic septicemia but to our knowledge, this is the first human case of native valve infective endocarditis. PMID:25442453

  4. Late embolization of a vascular plug III device after mitral paravalvular leak closure.

    PubMed

    Arzamendi, Dabit; Li, Chi Hion; Serra, Antoni

    2013-11-15

    We present a case report of an 80-year-old frail woman with hemolytic anemia and cardiac failure secondary to mitral severe paravalvular regurgitation. Her clinical history was significant for mitral valve replacement that was complicated with a paravalvular leak two months after surgery. The leak was closed percutaneously with an Amplatzer Vascular Plug III single device. A year later she is readmitted with heart failure and the transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a severe paravalvular leak beside the Vascular Plug III device that seemed to be dislodged and rocking. During a new attempt of percutaneous leak closure, while trying to lasso the old device, it embolized to the iliac bifurcation. The old device could be removed from the right femoral artery and the leak could be closed with two new Vascular Plug III devices deployed simultaneously. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a late embolization of a Vascular Plug III device. PMID:23729270

  5. Left ventricular pacing can be a complementary solution for systolic anterior motion after mitral valve plasty.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Tomoki; Nishida, Takahiro; Kan-O, Meikun; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year old man underwent redo mitral valve (MV) plasty because of recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography revealed severe MR and turbulent flow at the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract associated with systolic anterior motion of the MV. Various medical treatments, additional surgical correction, and atrial and right ventricular pacing had failed to resolve the MR associated with systolic anterior motion. LV pacing, however, markedly attenuated MR. Temporary LV pacing was discontinued on postoperative day 2, and subsequently MR associated with systolic anterior motion has not recurred. LV dyssynchrony resulting from conduction disturbances might cause systolic anterior motion immediately after MV plasty. We speculate that LV pacing eliminated LV dyssynchrony and improved the MR associated with systolic anterior motion. Temporary LV pacing can be performed easily and safely at the time of MV plasty. LV pacing can be a complementary treatment for systolic anterior motion and resultant MR. PMID:25904766

  6. Caseous Necrosis of Mitral Annulus

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Sinan; Akkaya, Selcuk; Ardali, Selin; Hazirolan, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    Masses or mass-like lesions located in proximity to mitral valve encompass a wide range of differential diagnoses including neoplasias, abscesses, thrombi, and rarely caseous calcification of mitral annulus. Due to asymptomatic presentation, its diagnosis is usually incidental. Echocardiography is the first choice of imaging in evaluation. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is helpful in establishing diagnosis by showing dense calcifications while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used primarily as a problem solving tool. Imaging in evaluation of mitral annulus caseous calcification is essential in order to prevent unnecessary operations. PMID:26355421

  7. Percutaneous mitral repair with the MitraClip.

    PubMed

    Maisano, F; Alfieri, O; La Canna, G

    2011-05-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with poor prognosis and high incidence of clinical events if left untreated. To reduce the invasiveness of the surgical approach, different types of trans-catheter procedures are becoming available. The MitraClip procedure (Abbott Vascular Inc. Menlo Park, CA) is yet the only available at the moment. The procedure is used to treat high risk surgical candidates with either functional or degenerative MR. Recent trials have shown that the procedure is safer than surgery, although less effective. Efficacy of the procedure depends on several factors, including patient selection, anatomy of the valve and the experience of the operators. However, when treating high risk patients a suboptimal repair obtained with low risk can be a acceptable outcome. In the future, novel devices, improved knowledge, more efficient imaging and transcatheter mitral prosthetic valve implantation may expand the indications to those patients currently not treated by MitraClip for anatomical unsuitability, as well as may improve the results both in term of early efficacy and long term durability. PMID:21703485

  8. Finite-element-method (FEM) model generation of time-resolved 3D echocardiographic geometry data for mitral-valve volumetry

    PubMed Central

    Verhey, Janko F; Nathan, Nadia S; Rienhoff, Otto; Kikinis, Ron; Rakebrandt, Fabian; D'Ambra, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Mitral Valve (MV) 3D structural data can be easily obtained using standard transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) devices but quantitative pre- and intraoperative volume analysis of the MV is presently not feasible in the cardiac operation room (OR). Finite element method (FEM) modelling is necessary to carry out precise and individual volume analysis and in the future will form the basis for simulation of cardiac interventions. Method With the present retrospective pilot study we describe a method to transfer MV geometric data to 3D Slicer 2 software, an open-source medical visualization and analysis software package. A newly developed software program (ROIExtract) allowed selection of a region-of-interest (ROI) from the TEE data and data transformation for use in 3D Slicer. FEM models for quantitative volumetric studies were generated. Results ROI selection permitted the visualization and calculations required to create a sequence of volume rendered models of the MV allowing time-based visualization of regional deformation. Quantitation of tissue volume, especially important in myxomatous degeneration can be carried out. Rendered volumes are shown in 3D as well as in time-resolved 4D animations. Conclusion The visualization of the segmented MV may significantly enhance clinical interpretation. This method provides an infrastructure for the study of image guided assessment of clinical findings and surgical planning. For complete pre- and intraoperative 3D MV FEM analysis, three input elements are necessary: 1. time-gated, reality-based structural information, 2. continuous MV pressure and 3. instantaneous tissue elastance. The present process makes the first of these elements available. Volume defect analysis is essential to fully understand functional and geometrical dysfunction of but not limited to the valve. 3D Slicer was used for semi-automatic valve border detection and volume-rendering of clinical 3D echocardiographic data. FEM based models were also calculated. Method A Philips/HP Sonos 5500 ultrasound device stores volume data as time-resolved 4D volume data sets. Data sets for three subjects were used. Since 3D Slicer does not process time-resolved data sets, we employed a standard movie maker to animate the individual time-based models and visualizations. Calculation time and model size were minimized. Pressures were also easily available. We speculate that calculation of instantaneous elastance may be possible using instantaneous pressure values and tissue deformation data derived from the animated FEM. PMID:16512925

  9. Could anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis explain early mitral valve repair failure?

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Generali, Tommaso; Henaine, Roland; Mitchell, Julia; Lemaire, Anais; Chiari, Pascal; Fran, Jean; Obadia, Jean François

    2014-09-01

    Standardized techniques of mitral valve repair (MVR) have recently witnessed the introduction of a 'respect rather than resect' concept, the strategy of which involves the use of artificial chordae. MVR displays several advantages over mitral valve replacement in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), but the risk of reoperation for MVR failure must be taken into account. Different mechanisms could be advocated as the leading cause of MVR failure; procedure-related mechanisms are usually involved in early MVR failure, while valve-related mechanisms are common in late failure. Here, the case is reported of an early failure of MVR using artificial chordae that could be explained by an unusual procedure-related mechanism, namely anterior papillary muscle necrosis. MVR failure is a well-known complication after surgical repair of degenerative MR, but anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis might also be considered a possible mechanism of procedure-related MVR failure, especially when considering the increasing use of artificial chordae. Owing to the encouraging results obtained, mitral valve re-repair might be considered a viable solution, but must be selected after only a meticulous evaluation of the underlying mechanism of MVR failure. PMID:25799709

  10. Macrophage involvement in mitral valve pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome).

    PubMed

    Brands, Marion; Roelants, Jorine; de Krijger, Ronald; Bogers, Ad; Reuser, Arnold; van der Ploeg, Ans; Helbing, Wim

    2013-10-01

    Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder in which the pathologic storage of glycosaminoglycans in various tissues can lead to severe symptoms, including cardiomyopathy. We report on a child with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome whose cardiac condition deteriorated and eventually led to cardiac failure at the age of 7 years due to severe mitral regurgitation. She received a mitral valve replacement and tricuspid repair with successful outcome. Histologic examination of the mitral valve showed abundant "clear" cells in both the leaflets and chordae tendineae. In Hurler disease (MPS I), similar cells have been identified as activated valvular interstitial cells (VICs, a myofibroblast like cell type). Here we report that the "clear" cells are CD68 positive, a frequently used marker of macrophage lineage. The "clear" cells remained unstained with the more specific macrophage marker CD14 while persistent staining of other cells demonstrated macrophage infiltration. From these observations, we infer that macrophages are involved in mitral valve pathology in MPS VI. PMID:23949968

  11. Acute congestive heart failure due to ruptured mitral chordae tendineae in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Sugiko; Nitta, Hayase; Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Masamoto, Hitoshi; Sakumoto, Kaoru; Maeda, Tatsuya; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Aoki, Yoichi

    2013-03-01

    A 31-year-old woman complained of dyspnea and orthopnea at 38 weeks of gestation. A grade 3/6 pansystolic murmur was heard, and echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation with a hyperechoic obstacle on the posterior mitral valve leaflet, consistent with a diagnosis of acute heart failure due to a ruptured chordae tendineae or an infectious endocarditis. An emergency cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. A male infant was born weighing 2928?g with Apgar scores of 7 and 8 at 1 and 5?min, respectively. The patient was managed in the intensive care unit and underwent open-heart surgery for mitral valve repair on postpartum day 3. The two chordal tendineae appeared torn and frail, and a mitral annuloplasty was performed. No finding of infectious endocarditis was observed. Because it is a dramatic and life-threatening clinical situation, proper diagnosis and treatment in the intensive care unit assure a good outcome for both mother and fetus. PMID:23106781

  12. Mitral Valve Prolapse (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System Congenital Heart Defects Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Marfan Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse EKG ( ...

  13. The accuracy of echocardiography versus surgical and pathological classification of patients with ruptured mitral chordae tendineae: a large study in a Chinese cardiovascular center

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accuracy of echocardiography versus surgical and pathological classification of patients with ruptured mitral chordae tendineae (RMCT) has not yet been investigated with a large study. Methods Clinical, hemodynamic, surgical, and pathological findings were reviewed for 242 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of RMCT that required mitral valvular surgery. Subjects were consecutive in-patients at Fuwai Hospital in 2002-2008. Patients were evaluated by thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). RMCT cases were classified by location as anterior or posterior, and classified by degree as partial or complete RMCT, according to surgical findings. RMCT cases were also classified by pathology into four groups: myxomatous degeneration, chronic rheumatic valvulitis (CRV), infective endocarditis and others. Results Echocardiography showed that most patients had a flail mitral valve, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, a dilated heart chamber, mild to moderate pulmonary artery hypertension and good heart function. The diagnostic accuracy for RMCT was 96.7% for TTE and 100% for TEE compared with surgical findings. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing anterior, posterior and partial RMCT were high, but the sensitivity of diagnosing complete RMCT was low. Surgical procedures for RMCT depended on the location of ruptured chordae tendineae, with no relationship between surgical procedure and complete or partial RMCT. The echocardiographic characteristics of RMCT included valvular thickening, extended subvalvular chordae, echo enhancement, abnormal echo or vegetation, combined with aortic valve damage in the four groups classified by pathology. The incidence of extended subvalvular chordae in the myxomatous group was higher than that in the other groups, and valve thickening in combination with AV damage in the CRV group was higher than that in the other groups. Infective endocarditis patients were younger than those in the other groups. Furthermore, compared other groups, the CRV group had a larger left atrium, higher aortic velocity, and a higher pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. Conclusions Echocardiography is a reliable method for diagnosing RMCT and is useful for classification. Echocardiography can be used to guide surgical procedures and for preliminary determination of RMCT pathological types. PMID:21801375

  14. Direct Measurement of Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area by Real-Time Three-Dimensional Color Doppler for Quantitation of Aortic Regurgitant Volume: An In Vitro Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pirat, Bahar; Little, Stephen H.; Igo, Stephen R.; McCulloch, Marti; Nosé, Yukihiko; Hartley, Craig J.; Zoghbi, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is useful in the quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR). We hypothesized that actual measurement of PISA provided with real-time 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler yields more accurate regurgitant volumes than those estimated by 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler PISA. Methods We developed a pulsatile flow model for AR with an imaging chamber in which interchangeable regurgitant orifices with defined shapes and areas were incorporated. An ultrasonic flow meter was used to calculate the reference regurgitant volumes. A total of 29 different flow conditions for 5 orifices with different shapes were tested at a rate of 72 beats/min. 2D PISA was calculated as 2? r2, and 3D PISA was measured from 8 equidistant radial planes of the 3D PISA. Regurgitant volume was derived as PISA × aliasing velocity × time velocity integral of AR/peak AR velocity. Results Regurgitant volumes by flow meter ranged between 12.6 and 30.6 mL/beat (mean 21.4 ± 5.5 mL/beat). Regurgitant volumes estimated by 2D PISA correlated well with volumes measured by flow meter (r = 0.69); however, a significant underestimation was observed (y = 0.5x + 0.6). Correlation with flow meter volumes was stronger for 3D PISA-derived regurgitant volumes (r = 0.83); significantly less underestimation of regurgitant volumes was seen, with a regression line close to identity (y = 0.9x + 3.9). Conclusion Direct measurement of PISA is feasible, without geometric assumptions, using real-time 3D color Doppler. Calculation of aortic regurgitant volumes with 3D color Doppler using this methodology is more accurate than conventional 2D method with hemispheric PISA assumption. PMID:19168322

  15. [Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for managing patients with prosthetic carbon valve in the mitral position].

    PubMed

    Koito, H; Imai, Y; Suzuki, J; Ohkubo, N; Nakamura, C; Takahashi, H; Iwasaka, T; Inada, M

    1997-11-01

    The safety, findings and clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were assessed in patients with a prosthetic carbon valve in the mitral position. In vitro deflection, heating and image distortion due to the magnetic field of a 1.5 tesla MR machine were examined in three carbon valves (CarboMedics, St. Jude Medical and Björk-Shiley valves). In vivo MR imaging of the left ventricular horizontal long-axis, vertical long-axis and short-axis views was performed by electrocardiographically synchronized spin echo and field (gradient) echo techniques in eight patients with prosthetic mitral carbon valves, consisting of six CarboMedics valves, one St. Jude Medical valve and one Björk-Shiley valve. No deflection and significant heating was seen in all three valves in vitro. Although little image distortion was shown in the CarboMedics and St. Jude Medical valves, a small distortion toward the frequency encoded direction was seen in the Björk-Shiley valve but caused no difficulty in assessing the surrounding images. Four of the eight patients had normal sinus rhythm and the other four had atrial fibrillation. The prosthetic valves were depicted as signal voids in the images taken by both spin echo and field echo techniques in vivo. Clear structural information with little image distortion of the adjacent tissues of the prosthetic valves were obtained in all patients, although the image of the Björk-Shiley valve which contained stainless steel in the frame had a slightly stronger distortion than those of the CarboMedics and St. Jude Medical valves which contained titanium. The stainless wire suture material used to close the sternal incision was depicted as a signal void, and the areas of the signal loss were larger in the images taken by the field echo technique than those by the spin echo technique. The images taken by the spin echo technique in patients with atrial fibrillation had reduced quality due to the irregularity of repetition time. Cine MR imaging by the field echo technique showed physiological mitral regurgitant jets as signal loss within the flowing blood, which appeared as high signal intensity, bidirectionally in the bileaflet mechanical valve and unidirectionally in the monoleaflet mechanical valve. An abnormal cavity was seen behind the basal left ventricular myocardium in one patient with a CarboMedics valve. The wall of the abnormal cavity was disrupted abruptly and the rest of the wall consisted of pericardium and adjacent tissue in the image taken by the spin echo technique. The image taken by the field echo technique showed an abnormal jet flow from the basal part of the left ventricular cavity into the abnormal cavity, which was compatible with left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. Two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler color flow mapping disclosed the abnormal cavity and the abnormal flow inside, but failed to show the connection between the left ventricle and the cavity due to reverberation of the ultrasound signal by the prosthetic valve. These findings suggest that MR imaging is a safe and promising method to assess the complications and valvular function in patients with a prosthetic carbon valve in the mitral position. PMID:9395956

  16. Effect of leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction on computational mitral valve evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational simulation using numerical analysis methods can help to assess the complex biomechanical and functional characteristics of the mitral valve (MV) apparatus. It is important to correctly determine physical contact interaction between the MV apparatus components during computational MV evaluation. We hypothesize that leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction plays an important role in computational MV evaluation, specifically in quantitating the degree of leaflet coaptation directly related to the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). In this study, we have performed dynamic finite element simulations of MV function with and without leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction, and determined the effect of leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction on the computational MV evaluation. Methods Computational virtual MV models were created using the MV geometric data in a patient with normal MV without MR and another with pathologic MV with MR obtained from 3D echocardiography. Computational MV simulation with full contact interaction was specified to incorporate entire physically available contact interactions between the leaflets and chordae tendineae. Computational MV simulation without leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction was specified by defining the anterior and posterior leaflets as the only contact inclusion. Results Without leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction, the computational MV simulations demonstrated physically unrealistic contact interactions between the leaflets and chordae. With leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction, the anterior marginal chordae retained the proper contact with the posterior leaflet during the entire systole. The size of the non-contact region in the simulation with leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction was much larger than for the simulation with only leaflet-to-leaflet contact. Conclusions We have successfully demonstrated the effect of leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction on determining leaflet coaptation in computational dynamic MV evaluation. We found that physically realistic contact interactions between the leaflets and chordae should be considered to accurately quantitate leaflet coaptation for MV simulation. Computational evaluation of MV function that allows precise quantitation of leaflet coaptation has great potential to better quantitate the severity of MR. PMID:24649999

  17. Device closure of periprosthetic paravalvular regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal; Capps, Christopher; Alli, Oluseun

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic paravalvular regurgitation is an important sequel associated with prosthetic valves whether implanted surgically or via transcatheter approach. They can remain clinically silent or manifest as clinical heart failure, intravascular hemolysis or a combination of both. Periprosthetic defects are becoming increasingly recognized as a source of morbidity and mortality in patients with prosthetic heart valves and in the last few years, the management of this condition has evolved. This review aims to address the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, imaging modalities and management of these defects. It further details the principles, methodology and outcomes of catheter-based device therapy of periprosthetic paravalvular defects. PMID:26305839

  18. Modified Surgical Intervention for Extensive Mitral Valve Endocarditis and Posterior Mitral Annular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwan Sic; Beom, Min Sun; Kim, Sung Ryong; Kim, Na Rae; Jang, Ji Wook; Jang, Mi Hee; Ryu, Sang Wan

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant presence of posterior mitral annular calcification and infectious mitral valve lesions poses a technical challenge with considerable perioperative risk when using previously proposed techniques for mitral valve surgery. Herein, we report a case of the use of a modified surgical technique to successfully treat a patient with mitral infective endocarditis complicated by a subendocardial abscess and extensive posterior mitral annular calcification. PMID:26889447

  19. Mitral Annulus Segmentation from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robert J; Perrin, Douglas P; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Marx, Gerald R; Del Nido, Pedro J; Howe, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and reproducible segmentation of the mitral valve annulus from 3D ultrasound is useful to clinicians and researchers in applications such as pathology diagnosis and mitral valve modeling. Current segmentation methods, however, are based on 2D information, resulting in inaccuracies and a lack of spatial coherence. We present a segmentation algorithm which, given a single user-specified point near the center of the valve, uses max-flow and active contour methods to delineate the annulus geometry in 3D. Preliminary comparisons to manual segmentations and a sensitivity study show the algorithm is both accurate and robust. PMID:22011812

  20. The effect of patient-specific annular motion on dynamic simulation of mitral valve function

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yonghoon; McPherson, David D.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical procedures for patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) focus on optimization of annular dimension and shape utilizing ring annuloplasty to restore normal annular geometry, increase leaflet coaptation, and reduce regurgitation. Computational studies may provide insight on the effect of annular motion on mitral valve (MV) function through the incorporation of patient-specific MV apparatus geometry from clinical imaging modalities such as echocardiography. In the present study, we have developed a novel algorithm for modeling patient-specific annular motion across the cardiac cycle to further improve our virtual MV modeling and simulation strategy. The MV apparatus including the leaflets, annulus, and location of papillary muscle tips was identified using patient 3D echocardiography data at end diastole and peak systole and converted to virtual MV model. Dynamic annular motion was modeled by incorporating the ECG-gated time-varying scaled annular displacement across the cardiac cycle. We performed dynamic finite element (FE) simulation of two sets of patient data with respect to the presence of MR. Annular morphology, stress distribution across the leaflets and annulus, and contact stress distribution were determined to assess the effect of annular motion on MV function and leaflet coaptation. The effect of dynamic annular motion clearly demonstrated reduced regions with large stress values and provided an improved accuracy in determining the location of improper leaflet coaptation. This strategy has the potential to better quantitate the extent of pathologic MV and better evaluate functional restoration following MV repair. PMID:23433464

  1. Superior septal approach for mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villarreal, Ovidio A

    2016-02-01

    Superior septal approach is a very useful technique to address the mitral valve surgery. Since this approach virtually divides the left atrium in two parts between the ascending aorta and the superior vena cava, mitral valve exposure becomes quite easy. We present a case of mitral valve repair by means of this approach. PMID:26534911

  2. Missed diagnosis of Behçet disease causing aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Tham, Yi Chuan; Sin, Yoong Kong

    2016-02-01

    Aortic regurgitation is a rare and serious presentation of Behçet's disease. Here we describe a case of missed diagnosis of Behçet's disease in a 37-year-old man, causing symptomatic aortic regurgitation. Perioperative diagnosis of Behçet's aortitis is crucial because surgical intervention carries high reoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25186424

  3. Dietary treatment for regurgitation--recommendations from a working party.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Cadranel, S; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Heymans, H; Polanco, I

    1998-04-01

    Regurgitation is a common manifestation in infants below the age of 1 y, and is a frequent reason for counselling of general practitioners and paediatricians. Current recommended therapeutic management starts with parental reassurance and dietary measures, followed by prokinetics. In this paper, the efficacy, safety and nutritional implications of the dietary treatment of regurgitation are evaluated. Industrially prepared thickened feeds may contain cereals of fibres; some have a low lipid content and are casein-predominant. Milk-thickened agents can also be added to regular infant feeding. Formulae claimed as "anti-regurgitation formulae", or positioned as such, should be considered as medical foods or therapeutic diets, and only be available on medical prescription. It is proposed to limit the "anti-regurgitation" (AR) label to those diets which have been proven clinically effective on regurgitation and which are nutritionally safe. PMID:9628309

  4. TexMi: Development of Tissue-Engineered Textile-Reinforced Mitral Valve Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ricardo; Gesche, Valentine N.; Hurtado-Aguilar, Luis G.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation together with aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Europe and North America. Mechanical and biological prostheses available for mitral valve replacement have significant limitations such as the need of a long-term anticoagulation therapy and failure by calcifications. Both types are unable to remodel, self-repair, and adapt to the changing hemodynamic conditions. Moreover, they are mostly designed for the aortic position and do not reproduce the native annular-ventricular continuity, resulting in suboptimal hemodynamics, limited durability, and gradually decreasing ventricular pumping efficiency. A tissue-engineered heart valve specifically designed for the mitral position has the potential to overcome the limitations of the commercially available substitutes. For this purpose, we developed the TexMi, a living textile-reinforced mitral valve, which recapitulates the key elements of the native one: annulus, asymmetric leaflets (anterior and posterior), and chordae tendineae to maintain the native annular-ventricular continuity. The tissue-engineered valve is based on a composite scaffold consisting of the fibrin gel as a cell carrier and a textile tubular structure with the twofold task of defining the gross three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the valve and conferring mechanical stability. The TexMi valves were molded with ovine umbilical vein cells and stimulated under dynamic conditions for 21 days in a custom-made bioreactor. Histological and immunohistological stainings showed remarkable tissue development with abundant aligned collagen fibers and elastin deposition. No cell-mediated tissue contraction occurred. This study presents the proof-of-principle for the realization of a tissue-engineered mitral valve with a simple and reliable injection molding process readily adaptable to the patient's anatomy and pathological situation by producing a patient-specific rapid prototyped mold. PMID:24665896

  5. TexMi: development of tissue-engineered textile-reinforced mitral valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ricardo; Gesche, Valentine N; Hurtado-Aguilar, Luis G; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Mela, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation together with aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Europe and North America. Mechanical and biological prostheses available for mitral valve replacement have significant limitations such as the need of a long-term anticoagulation therapy and failure by calcifications. Both types are unable to remodel, self-repair, and adapt to the changing hemodynamic conditions. Moreover, they are mostly designed for the aortic position and do not reproduce the native annular-ventricular continuity, resulting in suboptimal hemodynamics, limited durability, and gradually decreasing ventricular pumping efficiency. A tissue-engineered heart valve specifically designed for the mitral position has the potential to overcome the limitations of the commercially available substitutes. For this purpose, we developed the TexMi, a living textile-reinforced mitral valve, which recapitulates the key elements of the native one: annulus, asymmetric leaflets (anterior and posterior), and chordae tendineae to maintain the native annular-ventricular continuity. The tissue-engineered valve is based on a composite scaffold consisting of the fibrin gel as a cell carrier and a textile tubular structure with the twofold task of defining the gross three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the valve and conferring mechanical stability. The TexMi valves were molded with ovine umbilical vein cells and stimulated under dynamic conditions for 21 days in a custom-made bioreactor. Histological and immunohistological stainings showed remarkable tissue development with abundant aligned collagen fibers and elastin deposition. No cell-mediated tissue contraction occurred. This study presents the proof-of-principle for the realization of a tissue-engineered mitral valve with a simple and reliable injection molding process readily adaptable to the patient's anatomy and pathological situation by producing a patient-specific rapid prototyped mold. PMID:24665896

  6. Changes in Left Ventricular Morphology and Function After Mitral Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shafii, Alexis E.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Stewart, William; Batizy, Lillian H.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative mitral valve disease is the leading cause of mitral regurgitation in North America. Surgical intervention has hinged on symptoms and ventricular changes that develop as compensatory ventricular remodeling takes place. In this study, we sought to characterize the temporal response of left ventricular (LV) morphology and function to mitral valve surgery for degenerative disease, and identify preoperative factors that influence reverse remodeling. From 1986–2007, 2,778 patients with isolated degenerative mitral valve disease underwent valve repair (n=2,607/94%) or replacement (n=171/6%) and had at least 1 postoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE); 5,336 TTEs were available for analysis. Multivariable longitudinal repeated-measures analysis was performed to identify factors associated with reverse remodeling. LV dimensions decreased in the first year after surgery (end-diastolic from 5.7±0.80 to 4.9±1.4 cm; end-systolic from 3.4±0.71 to 3.1±1.4 cm). LV mass index decreased from 139±44 to 112±73 g·m?2. Reduction of LV hypertrophy was less pronounced in patients with greater preoperative left heart enlargement (P<.0001) and greater preoperative LV mass (P<.0001). Postoperative LV ejection fraction initially decreased from 58±7.0 to 53±20, increased slightly over the first postoperative year, and was negatively influenced by preoperative heart failure symptoms (P<.0001) and lower preoperative LV ejection fraction (P<.0001). Risk-adjusted response of LV morphology and function to valve repair and replacement was similar (P>.2). In conclusion, a positive response toward normalization of LV morphology and function after mitral valve surgery is greatest in the first year. The best response occurs when surgery is performed before left heart dilatation, LV hypertrophy, or LV dysfunction develop. PMID:22534055

  7. Use of barbed suture in robot-assisted mitral valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Go; Ishikawa, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Robot-assisted annuloplasty using a mitral band has a major issue: suturing is time consuming because knot tying is performed mechanically under endoscopic view. We suture the mitral band to the native valve by running sutures using the V-Loc barbed suture nonabsorbable wound closure device (Covidien, Mansfield, MA) with 3-0 monofilament. This technique allows rapid suturing of the band to the valve. Although conventional interrupted sutures leave multiple knots protruding on the band, using the V-Loc eliminates the need to tie surgical knots and leaves a clean surface, which may potentially reduce the risk of thrombogenesis. This method is highly useful for robotic mitral annuloplasty. PMID:25555967

  8. Three-Directional Evaluation of Mitral Flow in the Rat Heart by Phase-Contrast Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Skårdal, Kristine; Espe, Emil KS; Zhang, Lili; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Sjaastad, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Determination of mitral flow is an important aspect in assessment of cardiac function. Traditionally, mitral flow is measured by Doppler echocardiography which suffers from several challenges, particularly related to the direction and the spatial inhomogeneity of flow. These challenges are especially prominent in rodents. The purpose of this study was to establish a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol for evaluation of three-directional mitral flow in a rodent model of cardiac disease. Materials and Methods Three-directional mitral flow were evaluated by phase contrast CMR (PC-CMR) in rats with aortic banding (AB) (N = 7) and sham-operated controls (N = 7). Peak mitral flow and deceleration rate from PC-CMR was compared to conventional Doppler echocardiography. The accuracy of PC-CMR was investigated by comparison of spatiotemporally integrated mitral flow with left ventricular stroke volume assessed by cine CMR. Results PC-CMR portrayed the spatial distribution of mitral flow and flow direction in the atrioventricular plane throughout diastole. Both PC-CMR and echocardiography demonstrated increased peak mitral flow velocity and higher deceleration rate in AB compared to sham. Comparison with cine CMR revealed that PC-CMR measured mitral flow with excellent accuracy. Echocardiography presented significantly lower values of flow compared to PC-CMR. Conclusions For the first time, we show that PC-CMR offers accurate evaluation of three-directional mitral blood flow in rodents. The method successfully detects alterations in the mitral flow pattern in response to cardiac disease and provides novel insight into the characteristics of mitral flow. PMID:26930073

  9. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; de Godoy, Moacyr Fernandes; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defect. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 51 consecutive patients 14 years-old and younger presenting with incomplete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. The median age was 4.1 years; the median weight was 13.4 Kg; 37.2% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 23 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (45.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 17.6%; annuloplasty was performed in 21.6%. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 12 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (23.5%). The variation between pre- and postoperative grades of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation of patients with atrioventricular valve malformation did not reach significance (P=0.26), unlike patients without such abnormalities (P=0.016). During univariate analysis, only absence of Down syndrome was statistically significant (P=0.02). However, after a multivariate analysis, none of the factors reached significance. Conclusion None of the factors studied was determinant of a moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within the first 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect in the sample. Patients without abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve benefit more of the operation. PMID:26107451

  10. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsetos, Manny C. Toce, Dale T.

    2003-11-15

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.

  11. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-06-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability (p) . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest.

  12. [Surgical techniques in mitral valve diseases : Reconstruction and/or replacement].

    PubMed

    Noack, T; Mohr, F-W

    2016-02-01

    Mitral valve (MV) disease is one of the most common heart valve diseases. The surgical and interventional treatment for MV disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. For primary mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) surgical MV repair is the treatment of choice, which can be performed with an excellent outcome and long-term survival in reference centers. The surgical technique used for MV repair depends on the pathological mechanism, the morphological dimensions of the MV, the operative risk and the expertise of the cardiac surgeon. The surgical and interventional treatment of secondary MVVR is the subject of on-going discussions. In patients with moderate secondary MVR undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, concomitant MV repair should be performed. In the presence of severe secondary MR with risk factors for failure of MV repair, patients should consider having MV replacement. In the rare cases of patients presenting with mitral valve stenosis (MVS) MV repair can be considered in young patients and who are most often treated with MV replacement. The choice between biological or mechanical MV replacement depends on the pathophysiology, the comorbidities, the amount of anticoagulation necessary and the age of the patient. New percutaneous techniques for MV replacement offer new treatment options for reoperation in high-risk patients. PMID:26659846

  13. Importance of mitral valve repair associated with left ventricular reconstruction for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Asher, Craig R.; Hail, Melanie; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Starling, Randall C.; Young, James B.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.

  14. Noninvasive estimation of transmitral pressure drop across the normal mitral valve in humans: importance of convective and inertial forces during left ventricular filling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that color M-mode (CMM) images could be used to solve the Euler equation, yielding regional pressure gradients along the scanline, which could then be integrated to yield the unsteady Bernoulli equation and estimate noninvasively both the convective and inertial components of the transmitral pressure difference. BACKGROUND: Pulsed and continuous wave Doppler velocity measurements are routinely used clinically to assess severity of stenotic and regurgitant valves. However, only the convective component of the pressure gradient is measured, thereby neglecting the contribution of inertial forces, which may be significant, particularly for nonstenotic valves. Color M-mode provides a spatiotemporal representation of flow across the mitral valve. METHODS: In eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, high-fidelity left atrial and ventricular pressure measurements were obtained synchronously with transmitral CMM digital recordings. The instantaneous diastolic transmitral pressure difference was computed from the M-mode spatiotemporal velocity distribution using the unsteady flow form of the Bernoulli equation and was compared to the catheter measurements. RESULTS: From 56 beats in 16 hemodynamic stages, inclusion of the inertial term ([deltapI]max = 1.78+/-1.30 mm Hg) in the noninvasive pressure difference calculation significantly increased the temporal correlation with catheter-based measurement (r = 0.35+/-0.24 vs. 0.81+/-0.15, p< 0.0001). It also allowed an accurate approximation of the peak pressure difference ([deltapc+I]max = 0.95 [delta(p)cathh]max + 0.24, r = 0.96, p<0.001, error = 0.08+/-0.54 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Inertial forces are significant components of the maximal pressure drop across the normal mitral valve. These can be accurately estimated noninvasively using CMM recordings of transmitral flow, which should improve the understanding of diastolic filling and function of the heart.

  15. Late clinical and echocardiographic follow up after percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, C. E.; Zhang, H. P.; Gamra, H.; Allen, J. W.; Lau, F. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the outcome after attempted percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in patients with severe mitral stenosis between February 1986 and June 1992. DESIGN--Clinical state, mitral valve area, and restenosis at follow up were analysed. Mitral valve area as determined by the Gorlin formula, planimetry, and Doppler methods was compared before and after dilatation and at follow up. SETTING--University hospital. PATIENTS--176 patients had serial clinical and Doppler echocardiographic follow up and 44 of them also underwent recatheterisation. RESULT--At follow up 93% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or class II. Mitral valve area (planimetry) increased from 0.97(0.24) cm2 before to 1.86(0.39) cm2 after dilatation (p = 0.0001) and then decreased to 1.72(0.39) cm2 at follow up (p < 0.001); mitral valve area (Doppler) increased from 1.01 (0.24) to 1.89 (0.42) cm2 (p = 0.0001) and then decreased to 1.78(0.40) cm2 (p < 0.05). The overall restenosis rate was 15% and over 90% of the patients were free from cardiovascular events. Age, valvar calcification, echocardiographic score, and mitral valve area after dilatation were found to be determinant predictors of restenosis. In patients who underwent recatheterisation, mitral valve area by the Gorlin method at follow up was comparable with that by planimetry and Doppler methods whereas a significant discrepancy between the three methods was noted immediately after dilatation. CONCLUSION--Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve provided sustained anatomical and functional improvement in over 80% of patients at late follow up. Older age, heavy calcification, high echocardiographic score, and suboptimal immediate results are significant predictors of restenosis. Doppler echocardiographic examination is the procedure of choice for follow up evaluation. PMID:8011410

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Left-Sided Prosthetic Paravalvular Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulos, Konstantinos; Aggeli, Constantina; Megalou, Aikaterini; Barbetseas, John; Budts, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a complication related to the surgical implantation of left-sided prosthetic valves. The prevalence of paravalvular regurgitation ranges between 5 and 20%. Left-sided prosthetic paravalvular regurgitation presents with a wide constellation of signs and symptoms ranging from asymptomatic murmur to heart failure, hemolysis and cardiac cachexia. Echocardiography plays a key role in imaging the PVL and can help in guiding the closure procedure with both transesophageal and intracardiac probes. Transcatheter closure of paravalvular regurgitations is an appealing prospect. PMID:26414284

  17. Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannelli, Claire; Moore, John; McLeod, Jonathan; Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClipand numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.

  18. A critical appraisal of current management practices for infant regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y

    1997-01-01

    Regurgitation is a common manifestation in infants below the age of one year and a frequent reason of counseling of general practitioners and paediatricians. Current management starts with postural and dietary measures, followed by antacids and prokinetics. Recent issues such as an increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position and persistent occult gastro-oesophageal reflux in a subset of infants receiving milk thickeners or thickened "anti-regurgitation formula" challenge the established approach. Therefore, the clinical practices for management of infant regurgitation have been critically evaluated with respect to their efficacy, safety and practical implications. The updated recommendations on the management of infant regurgitation contain 5 phases: (1A) parental reassurance; (1B) milk-thickening agents; (2) prokinetics; (3) positional therapy as an adjuvant therapy; (4A) H2-blockers; (4B) proton pump inhibitors; (5) surgery. PMID:9230536

  19. Severe Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation 40 Years After Blunt Chest Trauma.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Simon; Heiberg, Johan; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Severe pulmonary valve regurgitation caused by a pulmonary valve tear is a rare complication to a blunt chest trauma. In this case report, we present a patient with pulmonary regurgitation originating from a chest trauma 40 years ago. Possible mechanisms are osseous pinch of the pulmonary valve between the anterior chest wall and the vertebral column, and retrograde blowout from severe compression of the lungs. PMID:26434447

  20. Fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with Mitral stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nazia; Kausar, Hafeeza; Ali, Lubna; Rakhshinda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with Mitral stenosis admitted in Civil Hospital Karachi. Methods: It was a two years descriptive study done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Civil Hospital Karachi. All pregnant women with a known or newly diagnosed Mitral stenosis on echocardiography were included in the study. History was taken regarding age, parity, gestational age (calculated by ultrasound) and complaints. Mode of delivery and Maternal mortality noted. Foetal outcome was analyzed by birth weight and Apgar score. Results: A total of 101 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The ages of the women ranged between 20-29 years (69%) and 81% were multigravidas. Vaginal delivery occurred in 67 (66.3%) women and 78.3% were term pregnancies. Preterm deliveries were 21.8% and 27.7% newborns were low birth weight. APGAR score <7 was found in 14.9% of neonates and 9 babies had intrauterine death. Low ejection fraction<55% was diagnosed in 20(13.9%) women and Maternal mortality was found in two cases. Conclusion: Heart disease in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity, it should be carefully managed in a tertiary care hospital to obtain optimum maternal and foetal outcome. PMID:26150860

  1. Alternative approaches for mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Unique situations arise in which alternative exposures for mitral valve surgery offer distinct advantages over traditional approaches. Each exposure facilitates both mitral valve repair and replacement, although the standard repair procedures must be modified to accommodate these non-traditional exposures. Here, we detail the technical considerations required to perform transventricular and transaortic mitral valve repair as well as discuss the advantages for employing these less conventional approaches. PMID:26539353

  2. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  3. Computational mitral valve evaluation and potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Krishnan B; Kim, Hyunggun

    2015-06-01

    The mitral valve (MV) apparatus consists of the two asymmetric leaflets, the saddle-shaped annulus, the chordae tendineae, and the papillary muscles. MV function over the cardiac cycle involves complex interaction between the MV apparatus components for efficient blood circulation. Common diseases of the MV include valvular stenosis, regurgitation, and prolapse. MV repair is the most popular and most reliable surgical treatment for early MV pathology. One of the unsolved problems in MV repair is to predict the optimal repair strategy for each patient. Although experimental studies have provided valuable information to improve repair techniques, computational simulations are increasingly playing an important role in understanding the complex MV dynamics, particularly with the availability of patient-specific real-time imaging modalities. This work presents a review of computational simulation studies of MV function employing finite element structural analysis and fluid-structure interaction approach reported in the literature to date. More recent studies towards potential applications of computational simulation approaches in the assessment of valvular repair techniques and potential pre-surgical planning of repair strategies are also discussed. It is anticipated that further advancements in computational techniques combined with the next generations of clinical imaging modalities will enable physiologically more realistic simulations. Such advancement in imaging and computation will allow for patient-specific, disease-specific, and case-specific MV evaluation and virtual prediction of MV repair. PMID:25134487

  4. Intraoperative measurements on the mitral apparatus using optical tracking: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Sandy; De Simone, Raffaele; Wald, Diana; Zimmermann, Norbert; Al Maisary, Sameer; Beller, Carsten J.; Karck, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2014-03-01

    Mitral valve reconstruction is a widespread surgical method to repair incompetent mitral valves. During reconstructive surgery the judgement of mitral valve geometry and subvalvular apparatus is mandatory in order to choose for the appropriate repair strategy. To date, intraoperative analysis of mitral valve is merely based on visual assessment and inaccurate sizer devices, which do not allow for any accurate and standardized measurement of the complex three-dimensional anatomy. We propose a new intraoperative computer-assisted method for mitral valve measurements using a pointing instrument together with an optical tracking system. Sixteen anatomical points were defined on the mitral apparatus. The feasibility and the reproducibility of the measurements have been tested on a rapid prototyping (RP) heart model and a freshly exercised porcine heart. Four heart surgeons repeated the measurements three times on each heart. Morphologically important distances between the measured points are calculated. We achieved an interexpert variability mean of 2.28 +/- 1:13 mm for the 3D-printed heart and 2.45 +/- 0:75 mm for the porcine heart. The overall time to perform a complete measurement is 1-2 minutes, which makes the method viable for virtual annuloplasty during an intervention.

  5. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 2: endpoint definitions: A consensus document from the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Généreux, Philippe; Vranckx, Pascal; Mehran, Roxana; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Leon, Martin B; Piazza, Nicolo; Head, Stuart J; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Vahanian, Alec S

    2015-08-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous aetiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodelling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of trans- catheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26170468

  6. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 2: Endpoint Definitions: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Généreux, Philippe; Vranckx, Pascal; Mehran, Roxana; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Leon, Martin B; Piazza, Nicolo; Head, Stuart J; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Vahanian, Alec S

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26184623

  7. Wide range force feedback for catheter insertion mechanism for use in minimally invasive mitral valve repair surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Sokhanvar, Saeed; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2009-02-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is a condition in which heart's mitral valve does not close tightly, which allows blood to leak back into the left atrium. Restoring the dimension of the mitral-valve annulus by percutaneous intervention surgery is a common choice to treat MR. Currently, this kind of open heart annuloplasty surgery is being performed through sternotomy with cardiomyopathy bypass. In order to reduce trauma to the patient and also to eliminate bypass surgery, robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure, which requires small keyhole incisions, has a great potential. To perform this surgery through MIS procedure, an accurate computer controlled catheter with wide-range force feedback capabilities is required. There are three types of tissues at the site of operation: mitral leaflet, mitral annulus and left atrium. The maximum allowable applied force to these three types of tissue is totally different. For instance, leaflet tissue is the most sensitive one with the lowest allowable force capacity. For this application, therefore, a wide-range force sensing is highly required. Most of the sensors that have been developed for use in MIS applications have a limited range of sensing. Therefore, they need to be calibrated for different types of tissue. The present work, reports on the design, modeling and simulation of a novel wide-range optical force sensor for measurement of contact pressure between catheter tip and heart tissue. The proposed sensor offers a wide input range with a high resolution and sensitivity over this range. Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technology, this sensor can be microfabricated and integrated with commercially available catheters.

  8. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELS OF THE MITRAL VALVE: FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzelman, K. S.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Cochran, R. P.

    2007-08-29

    Successful mitral valve repair is dependent upon a full understanding of normal and abnormal mitral valve anatomy and function. Computational analysis is one such method that can be applied to simulate mitral valve function in order to analyze the roles of individual components, and evaluate proposed surgical repair. We developed the first three-dimensional, finite element (FE) computer model of the mitral valve including leaflets and chordae tendineae, however, one critical aspect that has been missing until the last few years was the evaluation of fluid flow, as coupled to the function of the mitral valve structure. We present here our latest results for normal function and specific pathologic changes using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Normal valve function was first assessed, followed by pathologic material changes in collagen fiber volume fraction, fiber stiffness, fiber splay, and isotropic stiffness. Leaflet and chordal stress and strain, and papillary muscle force was determined. In addition, transmitral flow, time to leaflet closure, and heart valve sound were assessed. Model predictions in the normal state agreed well with a wide range of available in-vivo and in-vitro data. Further, pathologic material changes that preserved the anisotropy of the valve leaflets were found to preserve valve function. By contrast, material changes that altered the anisotropy of the valve were found to profoundly alter valve function. The addition of blood flow and an experimentally driven microstructural description of mitral tissue represent significant advances in computational studies of the mitral valve, which allow further insight to be gained. This work is another building block in the foundation of a computational framework to aid in the refinement and development of a truly noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the mitral valve. Ultimately, it represents the basis for simulation of surgical repair of pathologic valves in a clinical and educational setting.

  9. [Ultrasonic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation. Personal investigations].

    PubMed

    Lastowiecka, E; Rydlewska-Sadowska, W

    1993-08-01

    Decision for valve replacement in valvular heart disease is actually based on non-invasive assessment without cardiac catheterization. This decision is particularly difficult in asymptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation (AR). Semiquantitative and quantitative assessment of the AR was performed in 74 pts aged 11-66, mean 34.9, 26 women, 48 men. M mode, 2D, Doppler PW, CW, color flow mapping in parasternal long, short axis, 4.5 CH and suprasternal view were obtained by Hewlett Packard Sonos 500 or 1000 with 3.5, 2.5 and 1.9 MHz transducer. LV internal diastolic diameter (LVIDD), stroke volume (SV) of the left and right ventricle, regurgitant fraction (RF), regurgitant volume (RV), regurgitant orifice (RO), LVEDP, deceleration slope, pressure half time (PHT) of regurgitant flow and proximal color flow regarding aortic valve diameter were calculated. The value of RF was 19-81%, mean 53 +/- 16% and correlated with SV (r = 0.72) Relation of the RF and LVEDP should be noticed. Positive correlation with observed up to 20-25 mmHg LVEDP. Further increasing LVEDP caused decreasing of the RF. High LVEDP confined regurgitant volume, because of diminished aorta (Ao)-LV diastolic pressure gradient. Ao-LV diastolic gradient dynamics is a very important supplement of LVEDP assessment. Deceleration in this group was 147-805 cm/s2 mean 270 +/- 120. PHT 128-812 ms mean 270 +/- 161 and correlated well with LVEDP (r = 0.87 and r = 0.85). Proximal color width in parasternal long axis correlated with RF (r = 0.76) and RO (r = 0.77). LVIDD was 4.3-8.8 cm mean 6.2 cm correlated with LVEDP r = 0.60, PHT = -0.69.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8231011

  10. The Circulating Levels of Selenium, Zinc, Midkine, Some Inflammatory Cytokines, and Angiogenic Factors in Mitral Chordae Tendineae Rupture.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Birsen; Akdemir, Ramazan; Vatan, M Bulent; Cinemre, F Behice; Cinemre, Hakan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Bahtiyar, Nurten; Buyukokuroglu, M Emin; Gurol, Gonul; Ogut, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Chordae tendineae rupture process is associated with increased production of inflammatory and angiogenesis mediators in connective tissues, which contributes to chronic inflammation and pathogenesis of degenerative chordae. A few trace elements are known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether zinc, selenium, midkine (MK), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels are associated with inflammation and angiogenesis processes in the context of a potential etiology causing aggravation of mitral regurgitation and/or ruptured chordae tendineae. Seventy-one subjects comprising 34 patients with mitral chordae tendineae rupture (MCTR) and 37 healthy controls diagnosed on the basis of their clinical profile and transthoracic echocardiography were included in this study. The levels of GSH, MK, selenium, and zinc were found to be lower in the patients group when compared to control group. There were no significant difference in plasma TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF-A, and PDGF-BB levels between two groups. There were positive significant correlations between MK and GSH, MK, and selenium levels in patients with MCTR. According to our data in which selenium, zinc, MK, and GSH decreased in MCTR patients, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and trace element levels may contribute to etiopathogenesis of mitral regurgitation and/or ruptured chordae tendineae. PMID:25787827

  11. Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation: Initial Manifestation of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Woog; Park, Byung-Jo; Kim, In Sook; Jeong, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposits in the heart are not exceptional in systemic amyloidosis. The clinical manifestations of cardiac amyloidosis may include restrictive cardiomyopathy, characterized by progressive diastolic and eventually systolic bi-ventricular dysfunction; arrhythmia; and conduction defects. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of isolated tricuspid regurgitation as the initial manifestation of cardiac amyloidosis have been reported. We describe a rare case of cardiac amyloidosis that initially presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 42-year-old woman who was successfully treated with tricuspid valve replacement. Unusual surgical findings prompted additional evaluation that established a diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma. PMID:26665112

  12. Multidetector row computed tomography assessment of the native aortic and mitral valve: a call for routine assessment of left-sided heart valves during coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Linda M; Habets, Jesse; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Mali, Willem P Th M; van Herwerden, Lex A; Kluin, Jolanda; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2012-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation are the most common valvular heart diseases (VHD) in Western countries. In daily clinical practice, the diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of VHD is based on clinical findings and imaging. Transthoracic echocardiography is the preferred imaging technique for the initial evaluation of VHD. In patients with inconclusive transthoracic echocardiography, transoesophageal echocardiography can have additional diagnostic value. Cardiac multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has proven to have diagnostic value in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients with a low-to-intermediate pretest probability. The images acquired for coronary assessment also contain diagnostic information on heart valves. The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnostic value of MDCT for the evaluation of left-sided VHD. We provide an overview of the literature comparing echocardiography and MDCT for VHD assessment focusing on aortic valve and mitral valve disease, and we present clinical recommendations. PMID:23045729

  13. Pseudoaneurysm Arising from Mitral Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa (P-MAIVF) Communicating with Left Atrium (LA): Multiple Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Kartik; Agrawal, Rajat; Dey, Amit K.; Gadewar, Rohit; Dadhania, Divyesh; Hira, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The entity pseudoaneurysm arising from the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa (P-MAIVF) is a rare cardiac finding caused by multiple factors. This entity is usually diagnosed with echocardiography and confirmed with cardiac computed tomography (CT). Case Report We presented a case of congenital P-MAIVF communicating with the left atrium (LA) and an aberrant right subclavian artery, misdiagnosed as primary mitral regurgitation (MR) in transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) due to relative contraindications to transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), revealed in a hemophilic patient, and diagnosed with cardiac CT. Conclusions In conclusion, cardiac CT plays a definitive role not only in anatomical assessment and confirmation of the lesion but also in primary diagnostics in patients suspected of MAIVF – especially those with relative and absolute contraindications to TEE. PMID:25745522

  14. Assessment of transmitral flow after mitral valve edge-to-edge repair using High-speed particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Shahriari, Shahrokh; Labrosse, Michel; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 500,000 people in North America suffer from mitral valve regurgitation (MR). MR is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve (MV) leaflets do not close securely during systole. Edge-to-edge repair (EtER) technique can be used to surgically treat MR. This technique produces a double-orifice configuration for the MV. Under these un-physiological conditions, flow downstream of the MV forms a double jet structure that may disturb the intraventricular hemodynamics. Abnormal flow patterns following EtER are mainly characterized by high-shear stress and stagnation zones in the left ventricle (LV), which increase the potential of blood component damage. In this study, a custom-made prosthetic bicuspid MV was used to analyze the LV flow patterns after EtER by means of digital particle image velocimetry (PIV). Although the repair of a MV using EtER technique is an effective approach, this study confirms that EtER leads to changes in the LV flow field, including the generation of a double mitral jet flow and high shear stress regions.

  15. [Left Ventricular Rupture during Both Mitral and Aortic Valve Replacements].

    PubMed

    Kurumisawa, Soki; Aizawa, Kei; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Ohki, Shinnichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman on hemodialysis was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment of heart valve disease. She required both mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves, associated with tricuspid annuloplasty. After aortic de-clamping, a massive hemorrhage from the posterior atrioventricular groove was observed. Under repeated cardiac arrest, the left atrium was reopened, the implanted mitral prosthetic valve was removed and a type I left ventricular rupture (Treasure classification) was diagnosed. The lesion was directly repaired with mattress stitches and running sutures, using reinforcement materials such as a glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium. To avoid mechanical stress by the prosthetic valve on the repaired site, a mechanical valve was implanted using a translocation method. The patient suffered from aspiration pneumonia and disuse atrophy for 3 months. However, she was doing well at 1 year post-operation. PMID:25963782

  16. Percutaneous Mitral Valvuloplasty in a Mid-Term Pregnant Woman with Severe Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung Mook; Sohn, Dae-Won; Oh, Byung Hee; Kim, Jung Goo; Park, Young Bae; Choi, Yun Shik; Seo, Jung Don; Lee, Young Woo

    1992-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman with severe mitral stenosis underwent percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty at 26 weeks’ gestation. Balloon dilation using a double 18-18 mm balloon resulted in improvement in mean mitral pressure gradient (32 to 8 mmHg) and in calculated mitral valve area (0.9 to 2.4 cm2) without complications and any evidence of fetal distress during procedures with an estimated radiation exposure to the fetus of 0.13 rem. This procedure resulted in the disappearance of symptoms of congestive heart failure and allowed for normal full term spontaneous delivery of a 3.51 kg boy without any complication. PMID:1477032

  17. Challenges in rheumatic valvular disease: Surgical strategies for mitral valve preservation

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Manuel J

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, rheumatic fever and carditis still constitutes a major public health problem. Patients have special characteristics that differ from those with rheumatic mitral valve disease we still see in developed countries. They are usually young, poor, uneducated, and have low compliance to prophylaxis / therapy. In addition, they usually have great difficulty in accessing medical care. In these situations, the rate of complications associated to valve replacement is significantly increased. Alternatively, mitral valve repair is now known to achieve better long-term results in this pathology, but this was not widely recognized three or four decades ago, when first reports showed worse results after repair of rheumatic regurgitation than with degenerative valves. This has been reported by several groups in developing countries in different continents, with high incidence of repairs and excellent long term results. It is, therefore, becoming increasingly clear that, although, the results may not compare to those obtained with degenerative pathology, repair of rheumatic valves, when feasible, is the procedure of choice, especially in these underprivileged populations.

  18. Circulating cytokine concentrations in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Zois, Nora E; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Rasmussen, Caroline E; Falk, Torkel; Fossing, Christine; Häggström, Jens; Pedersen, Henrik D; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2012-04-01

    Cytokines have been associated with the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans and may be implicated in the pathophysiology of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of cytokines in dogs with MMVD. The study included 16 Cairn terriers with no or minimal mitral regurgitation (MR), 41 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with different degrees of MR and 11 dogs of different breeds with CHF due to MMVD. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interferon-?-induced protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. CHF dogs had significantly higher MCP-1 concentrations than dogs with no or minimal MR. Among the CKCS, IL-2 and IL-7 decreased with increasing left atrial size and IL-7 also decreased with increasing MR. IL-8 decreased with increasing left ventricular end-systolic internal dimensions. MCP-1 was increased in CHF dogs compared to healthy control dogs and IL-2, IL-7 and IL-8 decreased with increasing indices of disease severity. The results suggest a role for these cytokines in canine MMVD and CHF. PMID:21696985

  19. Characterization of the mechanical properties of the coronary sinus for percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment of percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices for the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation. Characterization of the mechanical response of the CS is an important step towards an understanding of tissue–device interaction in PTMA intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of the porcine CS using the pressure–inflation test and constitutively model the wall behavior using a four fiber family strain energy function (SEF). The results showed that the CS exhibited an S-shaped pressure–radius response and could be dilated up to 88% at a pressure of 80 mm Hg. Excellent results from model fitting indicated that the four fiber family SEF could capture the experimental data well and could be used in future numerical simulations of tissue–device interaction. In addition, a histological study was performed to identify the micro-structure of the CS wall. We found a high content of striated myocardial fibers (SMFs) surrounding the CS wall, which was also mainly composed of SMFs, while the content of smooth muscle cells was very low. Elastin and collagen fibers were highly concentrated in the luminal and outer layers and sparsely distributed in the medial layer of the CS wall. These structural and mechanical properties of the CS should be taken into consideration in future PTMA device designs. PMID:20621635

  20. Late re-operation for aortic and mitral Starr-Edwards ball valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Arinaga, Koichi; Yokokura, Yoshinori; Yokokura, Hiroko; Egawa, Noriko

    2006-12-01

    Starr-Edwards ball valves removed more than 15 years after implantation were retrospectively investigated macroscopically. Eight patients required re-operation. Valve models used in the initial operations were a non-cloth-covered valve in 2 patients and a cloth-covered valve in 6. Two patients had replacement of an aortic ball valve (model 1260 and model 2320) and 6 underwent mitral valve replacement (model 6120 in one, model 6320 in 5). The mean time to re-operation was 23.0 +/- 4.8 years after implantation. Cloth wear causing significant hemolysis was observed in all cloth-covered valves, regardless of valve position. Autologous tissue growth was noted on the orifice ring and struts in both aortic and mitral prostheses. Thrombus formation was not found in any of the valves. Ball variance in silicone rubber balls was mild in the non-cloth-covered valves, even in the aortic position. The most significant problem with the cloth-covered ball valve was cloth wear. Cloth wear should always be considered when 15 years or more have passed since valve implantation. Significant hemolysis, elevation of lactate dehydrogenase values, and echocardiographic detection of transvalvular regurgitation are diagnostic of cloth wear, and are indications for replacement of a cloth-covered ball valve. PMID:17130320

  1. Rare or unusual causes of chronic, isolated, pure aortic regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, B.F.; Taliercio, C.P.; Dickos, D.K.; Howard, J.; Adlam, J.H.; Jolly, W. )

    1990-08-01

    Six patients undergoing aortic valve replacement had rare or unusual causes of isolated, pure aortic regurgitation. Two patients had congenitally bicuspid aortic valves with a false commissure (raphe) displaced to the aortic wall (tethered bicuspid aortic valve), two had floppy aortic valves, one had a congenital quadricuspid valve, and one had radiation-induced valve damage.

  2. Iatrogenic Aortic Insufficiency Following Mitral Valve Replacement: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kolakalapudi, Pavani; Chaudhry, Sadaf; Omar, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    We report a 28-year-old white female who suffered significant aortic insufficiency (AI) following mitral valve (MV) replacement for endocarditis. The patient had history of rheumatoid arthritis and presented to our emergency department with a 3-month history of dyspnea, orthopnea, fevers and weight loss, worsening over 2 weeks, for which she took intermittent acetaminophen. On admission, vital signs revealed blood pressure of 99/70 mm Hg, heart rate of 120 beats/minute, and temperature of 98.8 °F; her weight was 100 lbs. Physical exam revealed a thin and pale female. Cardiac auscultation revealed regular tachycardic rhythm with a third heart sound, and a short early systolic murmur at the left lower sternal border without radiation. Lungs revealed right lower lobe rhonchi. Initial pertinent laboratory evaluation revealed hemoglobin 9.6 g/dL and white blood cell count 17,500/?L. Renal function was normal, and hepatic enzymes were mildly elevated. Chest radiogram revealed right lower lobe infiltrate. Blood cultures revealed Enterococcus faecalis. Two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed large multilobed vegetation attached to the anterior MV leaflet with severe mitral regurgitation (MR), otherwise normal left ventricular systolic function. She was started on appropriate antibiotics and underwent MV replacement with 25-mm On-X prosthesis. She was noted post-operatively to have prominent systolic and diastolic murmurs. Repeat echocardiogram revealed normal mitral prosthesis function, with new moderately severe AI. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed AI originating from a tethered non-coronary cusp, due to a suture preventing proper cusp mobility. The patient declined further surgery. She recovered slowly and was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation 4 weeks later. This case highlights the importance of vigilance to this potential serious complication of valve surgery with regard to diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term adverse consequences. PMID:25883714

  3. Mitral annular calcification in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Takami, Yoshiyuki; Tajima, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Limited data exis t on clinical relevance of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral annular calcification (MAC), although with similar pathophysiologic basis. We sought to reveal the prevalence of MAC and its clinical features in the patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AVS. We reviewed 106 consecutive patients who underwent isolated AVR from 2004 to 2010. Before AVR, CT scans were performed to identify MAC, whose severity was graded on a scale of 0-4, with grade 0 denoting no MAC and grade 4 indicating severe MAC. Echocardiography was performed before AVR and at follow-up over 2 years after AVR. MAC was identified in 56 patients with grade 1 (30 %), 2 (39 %), 3 (18 %), and 4 (13 %), respectively. Patients with MAC presented older age (72 ± 8 versus 66 ± 11 years), higher rate of dialysis-dependent renal failure (43 versus 4 %), and less frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (9 versus 36 %), when compared to those without MAC. No significant differences were seen in short- and mid-term mortality after AVR between the groups. In patients with MAC, progression of neither mitral regurgitation nor stenosis was observed at follow-up of 53 ± 23 months for 102 survivors, although the transmitral flow velocities were higher than in those without MAC. In conclusion, MAC represented 53 % of the patients undergoing isolated AVR for AVS, usually appeared in dialysis-dependent elder patients with tricuspid AVS. MAC does not affect adversely upon the survival, without progression of mitral valve disease, at least within 2 years after AVR. PMID:25252778

  4. Iatrogenic aortic insufficiency following mitral valve replacement: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kolakalapudi, Pavani; Chaudhry, Sadaf; Omar, Bassam

    2015-06-01

    We report a 28-year-old white female who suffered significant aortic insufficiency (AI) following mitral valve (MV) replacement for endocarditis. The patient had history of rheumatoid arthritis and presented to our emergency department with a 3-month history of dyspnea, orthopnea, fevers and weight loss, worsening over 2 weeks, for which she took intermittent acetaminophen. On admission, vital signs revealed blood pressure of 99/70 mm Hg, heart rate of 120 beats/minute, and temperature of 98.8 °F; her weight was 100 lbs. Physical exam revealed a thin and pale female. Cardiac auscultation revealed regular tachycardic rhythm with a third heart sound, and a short early systolic murmur at the left lower sternal border without radiation. Lungs revealed right lower lobe rhonchi. Initial pertinent laboratory evaluation revealed hemoglobin 9.6 g/dL and white blood cell count 17,500/?L. Renal function was normal, and hepatic enzymes were mildly elevated. Chest radiogram revealed right lower lobe infiltrate. Blood cultures revealed Enterococcus faecalis. Two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed large multilobed vegetation attached to the anterior MV leaflet with severe mitral regurgitation (MR), otherwise normal left ventricular systolic function. She was started on appropriate antibiotics and underwent MV replacement with 25-mm On-X prosthesis. She was noted post-operatively to have prominent systolic and diastolic murmurs. Repeat echocardiogram revealed normal mitral prosthesis function, with new moderately severe AI. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed AI originating from a tethered non-coronary cusp, due to a suture preventing proper cusp mobility. The patient declined further surgery. She recovered slowly and was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation 4 weeks later. This case highlights the importance of vigilance to this potential serious complication of valve surgery with regard to diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term adverse consequences. PMID:25883714

  5. Quantitative mitral valve anatomy and pathology.

    PubMed

    Garbi, Madalina; Monaghan, Mark J

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative analysis is an important part of the morphological assessment of the diseased mitral valve. It can be used to describe valve anatomy, pathology, function and the mechanisms of disease. Echocardiography is the main source of indirect quantitative data that is comparable with direct anatomic or surgical measurements. Furthermore, it can relate morphology with function. This review provides an account of current mitral valve quantification techniques and clinical applications. PMID:26693344

  6. Quantitative mitral valve anatomy and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis is an important part of the morphological assessment of the diseased mitral valve. It can be used to describe valve anatomy, pathology, function and the mechanisms of disease. Echocardiography is the main source of indirect quantitative data that is comparable with direct anatomic or surgical measurements. Furthermore, it can relate morphology with function. This review provides an account of current mitral valve quantification techniques and clinical applications.

  7. Marfan syndrome and mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Weyman, Arthur E.; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2004-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), an abnormal displacement into the left atrium of a thickened and redundant mitral valve during systole, is a relatively frequent abnormality in humans and may be associated with serious complications. A recent study implicates fibrillin-1, a component of extracellular matrix microfibrils, in the pathogenesis of a murine model of MVP. This investigation represents an initial step toward understanding the mechanisms involved in human MVP disease and the development of potential treatments. PMID:15578086

  8. Regurgitant leak from the area between the stent post and the sewing ring of a stented bovine pericardial valve implanted in the aortic valve position.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masataka; Sudo, Takashi; Koizuka, Shiro; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kadoi, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Biologic valves can sometimes have a small closure or leakage backflow jet originating from the central coaptation point. This is physiologic regurgitation that usually only requires monitoring, and not treatment.Another non-central transvalvular leakage is occasionally seen in both porcine and pericardial valves and originates from the base of the stent post. Typically, it spontaneously decreases or even disappears by the end of the surgery, after administration of protamine. This leak, however, needs to be distinguished from abnormal paravalvular leakages, especially if the regurgitation is relatively large, as this may require an extra cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) run.In our case with stented bovine pericardial valves, detailed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination immediately after CPB showed oblique and turbulent flow, which originated from the base of the stent post and flowed toward the anterior mitral leaflet. An extra CPB run, assessment of the cause of the leakage, and restoration if necessary, might have been required if the leakage did not improve or was exacerbated, because contact of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the oblique flow is associated with the risks of infective endocarditis and hemolysis. Detailed TEE examination accurately delineated the site of the leak, which was subsequently found to originate from the site between the anterior stent post and the sewing ring. The leakage in this case was classified as non-paravalvular, non-central leakage within the sewing ring. Accurate diagnosis of the leakage by intra-operative TEE led to the decision to administer protamine and to adopt a wait-and-watch approach. PMID:21110895

  9. Regurgitant leak from the area between the stent post and the sewing ring of a stented bovine pericardial valve implanted in the aortic valve position

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biologic valves can sometimes have a small closure or leakage backflow jet originating from the central coaptation point. This is physiologic regurgitation that usually only requires monitoring, and not treatment. Another non-central transvalvular leakage is occasionally seen in both porcine and pericardial valves and originates from the base of the stent post. Typically, it spontaneously decreases or even disappears by the end of the surgery, after administration of protamine. This leak, however, needs to be distinguished from abnormal paravalvular leakages, especially if the regurgitation is relatively large, as this may require an extra cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) run. In our case with stented bovine pericardial valves, detailed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination immediately after CPB showed oblique and turbulent flow, which originated from the base of the stent post and flowed toward the anterior mitral leaflet. An extra CPB run, assessment of the cause of the leakage, and restoration if necessary, might have been required if the leakage did not improve or was exacerbated, because contact of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the oblique flow is associated with the risks of infective endocarditis and hemolysis. Detailed TEE examination accurately delineated the site of the leak, which was subsequently found to originate from the site between the anterior stent post and the sewing ring. The leakage in this case was classified as non-paravalvular, non-central leakage within the sewing ring. Accurate diagnosis of the leakage by intra-operative TEE led to the decision to administer protamine and to adopt a wait-and-watch approach. PMID:21110895

  10. MITRAL VALVULAR INTERSTITIAL CELLS DEMONSTRATE REGIONAL, ADHESIONAL, AND SYNTHETIC HETEROGENEITY

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tracy L.; Peterson, Sherket B.; Lee, Elaine L.; Bailey, Annie M.; Frederick, Jonathan D.; Huynh, Thanh N.; Gupta, Vishal; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Because various regions of the mitral valve contain distinctive extracellular matrix enabling the tissues to withstand diverse mechanical environments, we investigated phenotype and matrix production of porcine valvular interstitial cells (VICs) from different regions. Methods VICs were isolated from the chordae (MCh), the center of the anterior leaflet (AlCtr), and the posterior leaflet free edge (PlFree), then assayed for metabolic, growth, and adhesion rates, collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production, and phenotype using biochemical assays, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Results The AlCtr VICs exhibited the fastest metabolism but slowest growth. PlFree cells grew the fastest, but demonstrated the least smooth muscle α-actin, vimentin, and internal complexity. AlCtr VICs secreted less collagen into the culture medium but more 4-sulfated GAGs than other cells. Adhesion-based separation resulted in altered secretion of sulfated GAGs by MCh and AlCtr cells but not by the PlFree cells. Conclusions VICs isolated from various regions of the mitral valve demonstrate phenotypic differences in culture, corresponding to the ability of the mitral valve to accommodate the physical stresses or altered hemodynamics that occur with injury or disease. Further understanding of VIC and valve mechanobiology could lead to novel medical or tissue engineering approaches to treat valve diseases. PMID:17851228

  11. Evaluation of first-trimester tricuspid regurgitation for Down syndrome screening.

    PubMed

    McGee, Deborah Cooper

    2008-01-01

    Screening for Down syndrome has become an integral part of prenatal care. In recent years, there has been significant interest in first-trimester screening methods. Increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester of pregnancy has been identified as a marker for chromosomal anomalies and congenital cardiac disease. In addition, research has identified a correlation between tricuspid regurgitation, diagnosed by pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography, in aneuploid fetuses between 11 and 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. This article provides a brief historical overview of screening for aneuploidy and examines the emerging trend and pitfalls of first-trimester screening. PMID:19011492

  12. Automatic quantification of aortic regurgitation using 3D full volume color doppler echocardiography: a validation study with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehuk; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Minji; Cho, In Jeong; Shim, Chi Young; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Mancina, Joel; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography provide the automated measurement of mitral inflow and aortic stroke volume without the need to assume the geometry of the heart. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of 3D full volume color Doppler echocardiography (FVCDE) to quantify aortic regurgitation (AR). Thirty-two patients with more than a moderate degree of AR were enrolled. AR volume was measured by (1) two-dimensional-CDE, using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and (2) real-time 3D-FVCDE with (3) phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (PC-CMR) as the reference method. Automated AR quantification using 3D-FVCDE was feasible in 30 of the 32 patients. 2D-PISA underestimated the AR volume compared to 3D-FVCDE and PC-CMR (38.6 ± 9.9 mL by 2D-PISA; 49.5 ± 10.2 mL by 3D-FVCDE; 52.3 ± 12.6 mL by PC-CMR). The AR volume assessed by 3D-FVCDE showed better correlation and agreement with PC-CMR (r = 0.93, p < 0.001, 2SD: 9.5 mL) than did 2D-PISA (r = 0.76, p < 0.001, 2SD: 15.7 mL). When used to classify AR severity, 3D-FVCDE agreed better with PC-CMR (k = 0.94) than did 2D-PISA (k = 0.53). In patients with eccentric jets, only 30% were correctly graded by 2D-PISA. Conversely, almost all patients with eccentric jets (86.7%) were correctly graded by 3D-FVCDE. In patients with multiple jets, only 3 out of 10 were correctly graded by 2D-PISA, while 3D-FVCDE correctly graded 9 out of 10 of these patients. Automated quantification of AR using the 3D-FVCDE method is clinically feasible and more accurate than the current 2D-based method. AR quantification by 2D-PISA significantly misclassified AR grade in patients with eccentric or multiple jets. This study demonstrates that 3D-FVCDE is a valuable tool to accurately measure AR volume regardless of AR characteristics. PMID:26164059

  13. Papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve 12 years after mitral valve commissurotomy.

    PubMed

    Cesena, F H; Pereira, A N; Dallan, L A; Aiello, V D; Mansur, A J

    1999-10-01

    A 63 year-old woman who had had mitral valve commissurotomy 12 years earlier was seen because of rheumatic mitral stenosis and left brachial paresis due to cerebral embolism. On clinical evaluation, a diastolic rumble was heard over the mitral area, and the echocardiogram revealed a mass attached to the mitral subvalvular apparatus. The patient was operated on, and both the surgical and histologic findings depicted papillary fibroelastoma. This tumor may occur as an isolated lesion or be associated with mitral valve stenosis or other cardiac abnormalities, and it is an important source of emboli. Early echocardiographic diagnosis, followed by surgical excision, may avoid serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. PMID:10548180

  14. Bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction due to native valve preserving procedure.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yukihiro; Mori, Yoshio; Umeda, Yukio; Takiya, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Mitral valve replacement with preservation of the mitral leaflets and subvalvular apparatus is considered to maintain left ventricular geometry and function and reduce the risk of myocardial rupture. However, the routine use of this technique may lead to early complications such as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and even mitral inflow obstruction, requiring reoperation. We describe a rare case of bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction caused by a native valve preserving procedure. PMID:25392048

  15. Conservative approach to mitral valve replacement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with systolic anterior motion – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Suder, Bogdan; Szymoński, Krzysztof; Wasilewski, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Kapelak, Boguslaw

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 60-year-old patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), systolic anterior motion (SAM), and high gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) who underwent surgical treatment. During the surgery, myomectomy of the septum was performed using the Morrow method: despite the persisting SAM and increased LVOT gradients, the mitral valve was not replaced. The case study presents a conservative approach to mitral valve replacement during HCM surgery. PMID:26855652

  16. Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Patricia; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Nogales, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies). The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups. PMID:19746259

  17. An unusual cause of pacemaker-induced severe tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Loupy, A; Messika-Zeitoun, D; Cachier, A; Himbert, D; Brochet, E; Lung, B; Vahanian, A

    2008-01-01

    Pacemaker (PM) induced tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common echocardiographic finding. Although mild or moderate TR is frequently observed, severe TR is rare. We report the exceptional observation of a severe TR due to leaflet malcoaptation occurring late after PM implantation and in the following weeks after an aortic valve replacement. Our hypothesis is that the aortic valve surgery has been responsible for conformational changes between cardiac cavities, tricuspid valve and PM leads resulting in a severe TR. PMID:18267925

  18. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; Werner, John Christian

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 36 home-reared young adults with Down's syndrome found that 20 had abnormal echocardiographic findings. Thirteen had mitral valve prolapse, three had mitral valve prolapse and aortic insufficiency, two had only aortic insufficiency, and two had other mitral valve disorders. Theories of pathogenesis and relationship to exercise and…

  19. Evolution of the concept and practice of mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Lawrence H; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Rajab, Taufiek K

    2015-07-01

    The first successful mitral valve repair was performed by Elliot Cutler at Brigham and Women's Hospital in 1923. Subsequent evolution in the surgical techniques as well as multi-disciplinary cooperation between cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and cardiac anesthesiologists has resulted in excellent outcomes. In spite of this, the etiology of mitral valve pathology ultimately determines the outcome of mitral valve repair. PMID:26309840

  20. 'Fast-implantable' aortic valve implantation and concomitant mitral procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe; Marinakis, Sotirios; Berdajs, Denis; von Segesser, Ludwig

    2014-10-01

    Concomitant aortic and mitral valve replacement or concomitant aortic valve replacement and mitral repair can be a challenge for the cardiac surgeon: in particular, because of their structure and design, two bioprosthetic heart valves or an aortic valve prosthesis and a rigid mitral ring can interfere at the level of the mitroaortic junction. Therefore, when a mitral bioprosthesis or a rigid mitral ring is already in place and a surgical aortic valve replacement becomes necessary, or when older high-risk patients require concomitant mitral and aortic procedures, the new 'fast-implantable' aortic valve system (Intuity valve, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) can represent a smart alternative to standard aortic bioprosthesis. Unfortunately, this is still controversial (risk of interference). However, transcatheter aortic valve replacements have been performed in patients with previously implanted mitral valves or mitral rings. Interestingly, we learned that there is no interference (or not significant interference) among the standard valve and the stent valve. Consequently, we can assume that a fast-implantable valve can also be safely placed next to a biological mitral valve or next to a rigid mitral ring without risks of distortion, malpositioning, high gradient or paravalvular leak. This paper describes two cases: a concomitant Intuity aortic valve and bioprosthetic mitral valve implantation and a concomitant Intuity aortic valve and mitral ring implantation. PMID:25015540

  1. Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

  2. Predictive factors of left atrial spontaneous echo contrast in patients with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis: a retrospective study of 159 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitral valve stenosis is a common manifestation of chronic rheumatic heart disease. The presence of spontaneous echo contrast in the left atrium and left atrial appendage has been reported to be an independent predictor of thrombo-embolic risk in patients with mitral stenosis. The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate various clinical and echocardiographic variables to predict the spontaneous echo contrast in these patients. Methodology This is a bicentric retrospective study which includes 159 cases of symptomatic mitral stenosis from January 2011 to June 2012. All of the patients had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Patients who had significant mitral regurgitation (> Grade I), significant aortic valve disease, previous mitral valvulotomy and anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy were excluded from the study. Our study population was divided into two groups based on the presence (Group I) or absence (Group II) of spontaneous echo contrast. Result Left atrial spontaneous contrast was present in 34.6% of cases. Patients in this group have more frequent atrial fibrillation (P = 0.001), larger left atrial area (P = 0.027) and diameter (P=0.023), smaller mitral valve area (P = 0.025), and higher mean transmitral diastolic gradient (p = 0.003) as compared to patients without spontaneous echo contrast. There were no significant differences in the mean age (p = 0.38), duration of symptoms (p = 0.4) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.7) between patients with and without spontaneous echo contrast. On multivariate analysis, only mitral valve area and transmitral diastolic gradient (OR: 18.753, 1.21, CI [1,838-191,332], [1,064-1,376], p: 0.013, 0.004, respectively) were found to be independently associated to the presence of spontaneous echo contrast. Conclusion Patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm have a higher risk of developing spontaneous echo contrast. These patients might benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. The long-term outcomes can be ascertained in a study over a longer period and with periodic follow-up. PMID:24995039

  3. Hemodynamic rounds series: Left heart catheterization and mitral balloon valvuloplasty in a patient with a mechanical aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Kosmicki, Douglas; Michaels, Andrew D

    2008-02-15

    Patients with rheumatic heart disease and a history of mechanical aortic valve replacement will occasionally present with significant mitral stenosis for consideration of mitral balloon valvuloplasty. The conventional retrograde trans-aortic method for left heart catheterization cannot be done for patients with a mechanical aortic valve. We present a patient with a mechanical aortic valve who underwent successful left heart catheterization and mitral valvuloplasty via a transseptal approach. A 5 French pigtail catheter was advanced through the left atrial 8 French Mullins sheath into the left ventricle, for simultaneous pressure measurement across the mitral valve. This manuscript discusses the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches for left heart catheterization in patients with a mechanical aortic valve. PMID:18288758

  4. Mitral valve replacement with the Biocor stentless mitral valve: early results.

    PubMed

    Morea, M; De Paulis, R; Galloni, M; Gastaldi, L; di Summa, M

    1994-09-01

    Chordal preservation during mitral valve replacement is thought to greatly preserve left ventricular function. Recently a stentless mitral valve (Biocor) became available for clinical use. It is a porcine mitral valve with the entire chordal apparatus, the sewing ring being reinforced by a bovine pericardial ring and the chordae being sutured together onto two pericardial patches. During a six months period, seven patients undergoing mitral valve replacement for mitral insufficiency (four cases), mitral stenosis (two cases) or mixed lesions (one case) received a stentless mitral valve. Their mean age was 66.3 +/- 4.8. The valve was implanted by suturing the pericardial patches onto the papillary muscles and the sewing ring onto the mitral annulus. Echocardiography control immediately after surgery showed good valve function. Three valves failed after a period of seven days, seven and 12 months respectively. The valve lesions were similar and consistent with an excessive tension on the chordae and on the valvular tissue. There were tears along the posterior annulus and at the level of the commissures, often accompanied by chordal rupture. Histology and scanning electron microscopy showed good integration of the prosthesis with the patients own tissues. There were areas of overgrowing tissue without endothelial cells especially in the area of papillary muscle -pericardial patch interaction. The remaining four patients continue to do well after a mean follow up of two years. The apparent excessive tension on the valve tissues leading to the premature failure of the prosthesis could be due to the variability in the distance between mitral annulus and papillary muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8000580

  5. New indexes for assessing aortic regurgitation with two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic measurement of the regurgitant aortic valvular area.

    PubMed

    Veyrat, C; Lessana, A; Abitbol, G; Ameur, A; Benaim, R; Kalmanson, D

    1983-11-01

    Direct examination of the aortic orifice at the level of the aortic valves (aortic valvular orifice area, AVOA) in the short-axis plane was performed with a 3 MHz two-dimensional pulsed Doppler echocardiographic apparatus. The AVOA was mapped with the Doppler gate to detect or rule out the presence of a regurgitant aortic valvular area (RAVA) established by recording of abnormal diastolic Doppler signals on a "yes or no" basis. A group of 12 normal subjects and 83 patients, including 40 patients with aortic regurgitation proven by aortography, were investigated with this procedure. In the 38 patients with aortic regurgitation diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography (diagnostic sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%), planimetric measurements of the RAVA and AVOA were performed with calculation of two indexes: the RAVA/square meter of body surface area and the RAVA/AVOA ratio. These indexes correlated well with independently performed angiographic grading on a three-point scale (r = .87 for the RAVA, .88 for the RAVA/AVOA; p less than .001), with highest significance of differences in mean values among each grade of severity found for the RAVA/AVOA (p less than .001). In addition, Doppler echocardiography identified the anatomic valvular site of the lesion, and we confirmed the site during surgery. PMID:6616800

  6. Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Donya; Nguyen, Giang; Raju, Rekha; Wheeler, Miriam; Thompson, Chris; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred for echocardiography to evaluate recently detected systolic murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed an echodense obstructive mass in the left ventricular outflow tract of unclear origin. Subsequent transesophageal echo suggested an intracardiac calcified tumor and recommended surgical excision. Contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) confirmed a well-defined lobulated mass adherent to the anterior mitral valve leaflet, the non-enhanced scout view revealed marked hyper-attenuation confirming diffuse calcification. Caseous calcification was diagnosed and surgery was deferred. Caseous calcification is typically benign and most commonly involves the posterior mitral annulus. Our patient displayed an atypical location of exuberant mitral annular calcification. PMID:24282757

  7. [Left Ventricular Rupture following Mitral Valve Replacement].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    Left ventricular rupture is a rare but lethal complication after mitral valve replacement (MVR). Between 1989 and 2014, of 850 patients who underwent MVR, 6 developed left ventricular rupture in Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University. Treasure type I rupture occurred in 5 patients and Miller type III in 1. Four cases developed ventricular rupture right after declamping of the ascending aorta, and the remaining 2 after the transfer to the intensive care unit( ICU). Prompt surgical therapy was achieved for the instant closure of the muscular wall defect under the cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest, however, leading to the disappointing result of 66.7% of hospital death. It is the most important to relieving the stress of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during mitral surgery by using the modification techniques with the preservation of posterior mitral leaflet and avoiding pre and afterload of the left ventricle right after the MVR. PMID:26197900

  8. Severe bioprosthetic mitral valve stenosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Mendoza, Jerson; Pinto Miranda, Veronica; Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Badiye, Amit; Chaparro, Sandra V

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman in the 16th week of pregnancy was admitted due to acute presentation of severe exertional dyspnea. She had undergone mitral valve replacement (MVR) with bioprosthetic valve for infective endocarditis 2 years ago. She developed congestive heart failure from mitral bioprosthetic valve stenosis due to early structural valve deterioration. She also had severe pulmonary hypertension and underwent a redo MVR using a mechanical valve prosthesis with good maternal outcome but fetal demise. This report brings up the debate about what type of valve should be used in women in reproductive age, and discusses the management of severe mitral stenosis and stenosis of a bioprosthetic valve during pregnancy. Surgical options can almost always be delayed until fetal maturity is achieved and a simultaneous cesarean section can be performed. However, under certain circumstances when the maternal welfare is in jeopardy the surgical intervention is mandatory even before the fetus reaches viability. PMID:24374988

  9. Unexpected Pathologic Diagnosis of the Mitral Valvular Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-A; Hwang, Seong-Ho; Kim, Mi-Na; Son, Ho-Sung; Shim, Wan-Joo

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with multifocal cerebral infarction was found to have the large obstructive mitral valvular mass. Although benign tumor was under suspicion before surgery, he was finally diagnosed as chronic infective endocarditis by microscopic evaluation. The precise diagnosis and the proper management of a cardiac mass are very important since even the benign tumor may cause fatal complications. However, primary cardiac mass has the broad spectrum from pseudo-tumor to malignancy and the differential diagnosis using non-invasive methods is not easy even with the currently available imaging techniques. PMID:26755938

  10. Reference values for mitral and tricuspid annular dimensions using two-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Girish; Mahadevan, Ganadevan; Jimenez, Donie; Frenneaux, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Only limited data are available from which normal ranges of mitral annular (MA) and tricuspid annular (TA) dimensions have been established. Normative data are important to assist the echocardiographer in defining the mechanism of atrioventricular valve regurgitation and to inform surgical planning. This study was conceived to establish normal MA and TA dimensions. Consecutive healthy subjects over the age of 60 were randomly recruited from the community as part of a screening project within South Birmingham. MA and TA dimensions in end-systole and end-diastole were evaluated in the parasternal and apical acoustic windows views using transthoracic echocardiography. Gender (males (M) and females (F))-specific dimensions were then assessed. A total of 554 subjects were screened and 74 with pathology considered to have an effect on annular dimensions were excluded from analysis. The mean age of the remaining 480 subjects was 70±7 years and the majority were female (56%). Dimensions were larger in men than in women and greater at end-diastole than end-systole (both P<0.05). Mean MA diameters at end-systole in the parasternal long axis view (cm) were 3.44?cm (M) and 3.11?cm (F) and at end-diastole 3.15?cm (M) and 2.83?cm (F) respectively. Mean TA diameters (cm) at end-systole in the apical 4 chamber view were 2.84 (M) and 2.80 (F) and at end-diastole 3.15 (M) and 3.01 (F) respectively. The reference ranges derived from this study differ from current published standards and should help to improve distinction of normal from pathological findings, in identifying aetiology and defining the mechanism of regurgitation.

  11. Captopril-induced reduction of regurgitation fraction in aortic insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, J.; Reske, S.N.; Biersack, H.J.; Heck, I.; Mattern, H.; Winkler, C.

    1984-01-01

    Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in aortic insufficiency (AI) leads to increased afterload and consequently to augmented aortic regurgitation (R). Therefore Captopril (C) mediated RAS-inhibition should diminish systemic vascular resistance and thus reduce R. In 9 patients (pts) with pure severe AI regurgitation fraction (RF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined before and 1 hr after i.v. injection of 25 mg C by gated radionuclide ventriculographie (RNV), using red blood cells labeled in vivo with 15 mCi Tc-99m. Enddiastolic and endsystolid frames were derived from the left ventricular volume curve. ROI's were selected over both ventricles. Ventricular boundaries were defined by a fourier phase image overlay. RF was calculated by the background corrected count rate ratio of left and right ventricular ROI. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), plasma levels of angiotensin I, II (A1,A2), and the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were determined before and 1 hr after C-injection. Before C-medication mean RF was 54% (range 34% - 67%), after C mean RF decreased to 37% (17% - 59% range, rho<.05). Mean LVEF increased not significantly from 60% (range 51%-70%) to 66% (range 56% - 77%, rho>0.55). C did not significantly change HR or BP (HR: rho>0.9, BP: rho>0.6). A2 and ACE activity decreased to 40% and 50% of control values (rho<.01), respectively. A1 increased excessively. The authors conclude that the inhibition of ACE reduces significantly aortic regurgitation in patients with A1 and has thus a beneficial effect on left ventricular performance.

  12. Predicting Acute Kidney Injury Following Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Shao-Wei; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Wu, Victor Chien-Chia; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with short-term and long-term adverse outcomes. Novel biomarkers have been identified for the early detection of AKI; however, examining these in every patient who undergoes cardiac surgery is prohibitively expensive. Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and Age, Creatinine, and Ejection Fraction (ACEF) scores have been proven to predict mortality in bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether these scores can be used to predict AKI after mitral valve repair. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 196 patients who underwent mitral valve repair were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, outcomes, and scores of prognostic models were collected. The primary outcome was postoperative AKI, defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome 2012 clinical practice guidelines for AKI. Results: A total of 76 patients (38.7%) developed postoperative AKI. The STS renal failure (AUROC: 0.797, P < .001) and ACEF scores (AUROC: 0.758, P < .001) are both satisfactory tools for predicting all AKI. The STS renal failure score exhibited superior accuracy compared with the ACEF score in predicting AKI stage 2 and 3. The overall accuracy of both scores was similar for all AKI and AKI stage 2 and 3 when the cut-off points of the STS renal failure and ACEF scores were 2.2 and 1.1, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, the STS renal failure score can be used to accurately predict stage 2 and 3 AKI after mitral valve repair. The ACEF score is a simple tool with satisfactory power in screening patients at risk of all AKI stages. Additional studies can aim to determine the clinical implications of combining preoperative risk stratification and novel biomarkers. PMID:26816491

  13. Echocardiographic Assessment of Mantle Radiation Mitral Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bastiaenen, Rachel; Sneddon, James; Sharma, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The long-term sequelae of mantle radiotherapy include lung disease and cardiac disorders. Dyspnea on exertion is a common complaint and can be due to one or more pathologies. We describe a case of mantle radiotherapy-induced mitral stenosis, characterized by aorto-mitral continuity calcification and absent commissural fusion which precludes balloon valvotomy. The latency period is long, and this patient presented 42 years after radiotherapy. Importantly, as previously described with radiation-induced valve disease, significant mitral stenosis developed 10 years after surgery for significant aortic stenosis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography should be considered during assessment of symptomatic survivors of Hodgkin's disease where the index of suspicion for valvular stenosis increases over time. Given the natural history of mantle radiation valvular disease, a lower threshold for surgical intervention in radiation-induced mitral stenosis may need to be considered if cardiac surgery is planned for other reasons in order to avoid repeated sternotomy in patients with prior irradiation. PMID:26493026

  14. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Young Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFaul, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research regarding mitral valve prolapse in young children indicates that up to five percent of this population have the condition, with the majority being asymptomatic and requiring reassurance that the condition usually remains mild. Beta-blocking drugs are prescribed for patients with disabling chest pain, dizziness, palpitation, or…

  15. Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device fitting after left ventricular reconstruction with mitral valve plasty.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Nishimura, Takashi; Itoh, Satoshi; Yuri, Koichi; Kyo, Shunei; Adachi, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Both left ventricular assist device and left ventricular reconstruction are treatment choices for severe heart failure conditions. Our institution performed a left ventricular assist device installation following a left ventricular reconstruction procedure on a 42-year-old male patient who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy and low cardiac output syndrome. A mitral valve plasty was used to correct the acute mitral valve regurgitation and we performed a Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation on post-operative day 14. Due to the left ventricular reconstruction that the patient had in a previous operation, we needed to attach an apical cuff on posterior apex, insert the inflow cannula with a large curve, and shift the skin insertion site laterally to the left. We assessed the angle between the cardiac longitudinal axis and the inflow cannula using computed tomography. The patient did not complain of any subjective symptoms of heart failure. Although Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation after left ventricular reconstruction has several difficulties historically, we have experienced a successful case. PMID:25971993

  16. [Catheter-based mitral valve repair by MitraClip implantation : Development, studies, and use in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Puls, M; Schillinger, W

    2016-04-01

    The percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip® is evolving as a potential alternative to conventional surgery in high-risk patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR). The randomized controlled EVEREST II-trial which compared percutaneous repair versus surgery in operable patients with symptomatic severe MR demonstrated superior safety of MitraClip® implantation but better MR reduction after surgery at 12 months. However, large registries on MitraClip® therapy showed that real-world MitraClip® patients differ significantly from the EVEREST II-cohort: they are older, in more advanced stages of heart failure, present predominantly with secondary MR, and exhibit a higher burden of comorbidities. For these patients, registry data confirm a low incidence of peri-interventional complications and a significant improvement of heart failure symptoms and quality of life measures after MitraClip® implantation. The ongoing RESHAPE trial with randomization of MitraClip® implantation against optimal medical therapy investigates a possible survival benefit after MitraClip® in patients with secondary MR. PMID:26968857

  17. Motion of mitral apparatus in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, J C

    1976-01-01

    Motion of the mitral apparatus in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with obstruction was investigated by conventional single dimensional and multidimensional echocardiography. In systole, anterosuperior displacement of the posterior papillary muscle, failure of mitral valve closure, and anterior motion of both mitral leaflets were shown. The anterior leaflet was seen to impinge on the posterior papillary muscle but not on the interventricular septum in systole. The abnormality of the single dimensional mitral echogram, previously ascribed to systolic anterior motion of the mitral anterior leaflet, was found to be a complex of echoes from the chordae tendineae, the papillary muscle, and, furthest from the septum, the mitral anterior leaflet. It is concluded that systolic anterior motion of the mitral anterior leaflet is of smaller amplitude than others have suggested, and that obstruction to left ventricular outflow in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is produced by systolic contact between the mitral anterior cusp and the posterior papillary muscle. The theory is put forward that displacement of the posterior papillary muscle above and in front of the mitral leaflets produces chordal slackening, and that it is displacement of the chordae tendineae by the blood flowing to the aortic root during left ventricular ejection, which is responsible for systolic anterior motion of the mitral leaflets. Images PMID:987790

  18. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation during Mitral-Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillinov, A. Marc; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Parides, Michael K.; DeRose, Joseph J.; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Voisine, Pierre; Ailawadi, Gorav; Bouchard, Denis; Smith, Peter K.; Mack, Michael J.; Acker, Michael A.; Mullen, John C.; Rose, Eric A.; Chang, Helena L.; Puskas, John D.; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Gardner, Timothy J.; Varghese, Robin; Horvath, Keith A.; Bolling, Steven F.; Michler, Robert E.; Geller, Nancy L.; Ascheim, Deborah D.; Miller, Marissa A.; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G.; Williams, Paula; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C.; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Argenziano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Among patients undergoing mitral-valve surgery, 30 to 50% present with atrial fibrillation, which is associated with reduced survival and increased risk of stroke. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation has been widely adopted, but evidence regarding its safety and effectiveness is limited. Methods We randomly assigned 260 patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation who required mitral-valve surgery to undergo either surgical ablation (ablation group) or no ablation (control group) during the mitral-valve operation. Patients in the ablation group underwent further randomization to pulmonary-vein isolation or a biatrial maze procedure. All patients underwent closure of the left atrial appendage. The primary end point was freedom from atrial fibrillation at both 6 months and 12 months (as assessed by means of 3-day Holter monitoring). Results More patients in the ablation group than in the control group were free from atrial fibrillation at both 6 and 12 months (63.2% vs. 29.4%, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation between patients who underwent pulmonary-vein isolation and those who underwent the biatrial maze procedure (61.0% and 66.0%, respectively; P = 0.60). One-year mortality was 6.8% in the ablation group and 8.7% in the control group (hazard ratio with ablation, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.84; P = 0.55). Ablation was associated with more implantations of a permanent pacemaker than was no ablation (21.5 vs. 8.1 per 100 patient-years, P = 0.01). There were no significant between-group differences in major cardiac or cerebrovascular adverse events, overall serious adverse events, or hospital readmissions. Conclusions The addition of atrial fibrillation ablation to mitral-valve surgery significantly increased the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation at 1 year among patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, but the risk of implantation of a permanent pacemaker was also increased. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00903370.) PMID:25853744

  19. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 1: clinical trial design principles: A consensus document from the mitral valve academic research consortium.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous aetiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodelling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26170467

  20. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 1: Clinical Trial Design Principles: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26184622

  1. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Failure in Postpartum Woman With Rheumatic Mitral Valve Disease: Benefit, Factors Furthering the Success of This Procedure, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fayad, Georges; Larrue, Benoît; Modine, Thomas; Azzaoui, Richard; Regnault, Alexi; Koussa, Mohammad; Gourlay, Terry; Fourrier, François; Decoene, Christophe; Warembourg, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Pregnancy is a common decompensation factor for women with post-rheumatic mitral disease. However, valvular heart diseases causing severe acute respiratory distress are rare. Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) early in the event of cardiorespiratory failure after cardiac surgery may be of benefit. Indeed, ECMO cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support could help pulmonary recovery if the mitral pathology is involved. A 31-year-old female patient at 30 weeks of amenorrhea was admitted to the obstetrics department with 40°C hyperthermia and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 4 dyspnea. The patient’s medical history included a post-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Blood gases showed severe hypoxemia associated with hypocapnia. The patient needed to be rapidly intubated and was placed on ventilatory support because of acute respiratory failure. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a severe mitral stenosis, mild mitral insufficiency, and diminished left ventricular function, hypokinetic, dilated right ventricle, and a severe tricuspid regurgitation. An urgent cesarean section was performed. Because of the persistent hemodynamic instability, a mitral valvular replacement and tricuspid valve annuloplasty were performed. In view of the preoperative acute respiratory distress, we decided, at the beginning of the operation, to carry on circulatory support with oxygenation through an ECMO-type CPB at the end of the operation. This decision was totally justified by the unfeasible CPB weaning off. ECMO use led to an efficient hemodynamic state without inotropic drug support. The surgical post-operative course was uneventful. Early use of cardiorespiratory support with veno-arterial ECMO allows pulmonary and right heart recovery after cardiac surgery, thus avoiding the use of inotropic drugs and complex ventilatory support. PMID:17672195

  2. Application of color Doppler flow mapping to calculate orifice area of St Jude mitral valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, D. Y.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Pu, M.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effective orifice area (EOA) of a prosthetic valve is superior to transvalvular gradients as a measure of valve function, but measurement of mitral prosthesis EOA has not been reliable. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro flow across St Jude valves was calculated by hemispheric proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and segment-of-spheroid (SOS) methods. For steady and pulsatile conditions, PISA and SOS flows correlated with true flow, but SOS and not PISA underestimated flow. These principles were then used intraoperatively to calculate cardiac output and EOA of newly implanted St Jude mitral valves in 36 patients. Cardiac output by PISA agreed closely with thermodilution (r=0.91, Delta=-0.05+/-0.55 L/min), but SOS underestimated it (r=0.82, Delta=-1.33+/-0.73 L/min). Doppler EOAs correlated with Gorlin equation estimates (r=0.75 for PISA and r=0.68 for SOS, P<0.001) but were smaller than corresponding in vitro EOA estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal flow convergence methods can calculate forward flow and estimate EOA of St Jude mitral valves, which may improve noninvasive assessment of prosthetic mitral valve obstruction.

  3. Juvenile severe mitral stenosis predisposing Eisenmenger syndrome in a case with ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of aorta & hypoplastic aortic arch: Report of first case of rare association

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Soumya; Kumar, Basant; Sadananda, Kanchanahalli Siddegowda; Krishnappa, Santhosh; Basappa, Harsha; Nanjappa, Manjunath Cholenahalli

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting the first case of rare association between multiple congenital cardiac malformations with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis which is an acquired structural cardiac disease. A 16 years old female patient presented with progressive dyspnoea & cyanosis for the last one month with past history of recurrent pneumonia since infancy. Physical examination revealed presence of cyanosis, grade I clubbing, radio-radial & radio-femoral delay, loud & single second heart sound, apical long mid diastolic murmur and left parasternal ejection systolic murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe rheumatic mitral stenosis, multiple ventricular septal defects (VSD) with bidirectional shunt, hypoplastic aortic arch, Coarctation of aorta and severe pulmonary hypertension. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed the same findings along with the presence of moderate mitral regurgitation and 9 mm perimembranous VSD extending into muscular septum. Cardiac catheterization study confirmed the echocardiographic findings and demonstrated large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We have planned for high-risk percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy (PTMC) for this patient to decrease the back pressure on pulmonary vasculature. So that right to left shunt will be decreased and cyanosis will also improve. But parents refused to give consent for PTMC. She was on treatment with regular penicillin prophylaxis, diuretics, sildenafil and infective endocarditic prophylaxis. We should be aware of this kind of complex association between congenital and acquired structure heart disease. Eisenmenger syndrome could also be a presentation of juvenile severe rheumatic mitral stenosis when it is associated with congenital shunt lesion like VSD/PDA in our case. PMID:24396261

  4. Paravalvular leak closure for persisting aortic regurgitation after implantation of the CoreValve transcatheter valve.

    PubMed

    Poliacikova, Petra; Hildick-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Significant aortic regurgitation after TAVI results in lack of symptomatic and prognostic benefit from the procedure and generally requires intervention. While most of the regurgitations can be successfully targeted with standard techniques, occasional patients have restrictive calcification resistant to post-dilatation and significant regurgitation persists. We present a case of refractory aortic regurgitation successfully treated with percutaneous paravalvular leak closure. An 81-year-old man with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent a transfemoral CoreValve TAVI in December 2009. He had significant aortic regurgitation refractory to medical and interventional therapy including balloon post-dilatation, valve repositioning and valve-in-valve reimplantation. Aortic regurgitation remained severe and therefore in early 2013, we proceeded with an attempted percutaneous closure of the residual paraprosthetic leak. Using 6-French femoral access and a Terumo wire, the defect was successfully crossed with a 4-French Multipurpose catheter and an 8 mm Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 device (St. Jude Medical) was deployed through this catheter, resulting in abolition of aortic regurgitation on aortography and TOE, with associated excellent clinical response. Refractory paravalvular aortic regurgitation post CoreValve implantation can be successfully treated using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 device. PMID:24130146

  5. Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy for Post-Surgical Mitral Restenosis: Acute Outcome and Analysis of Factors Influencing Results.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar; Abraham; Rajagopal; Somanath; Sudarsana

    1998-05-01

    The present study examined the utility of percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) for post-surgical mitral restenosis (Group I, n = 71 patients), and the factors influencing the outcome of the procedure. The results of PTMC were also compared with a group of patients (Group II, n = 70 patients), who underwent PTMC for de novo mitral stenosis. Both the groups were matched for age, pre-procedure mitral valve area and echocardiographic score. PTMC was successful in 60 patients (85%) in group I and in 68 patients (97%) in group II (p < 0.05). However, the final mitral valve area achieved was similar between the two groups (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2 sq.cm, p = NS). Patients in group I had significantly greater mitral valve calcification (0.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.6, p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis of results in patients with post-surgical restenosis revealed that only basal mean pulmonary artery pressure and basal cardiac index correlated significantly with increase in valve area. Mitral valve leaflet mobility, thickness and subvalvular deformity did not correlate significantly with the increase in mitral valve area. CONCLUSION: PTMC is a safe procedure for post-surgical mitral restenosis with negligible complication, with a higher success and significantly lower complication rate than that reported for repeat surgical commissurotomy. Although patients with surgical restenosis had a greater degree of calcification of mitral valve leaflets; only basal mean pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac index significantly influenced the increase in mitral valve area. Increased fibrosis of mitral leaflet following surgery probably adversely influences the results of PTMC for post-surgical mitral restenosis. PMID:10973342

  6. A comparison of cylindrical and Inoue balloon techniques for mitral valvotomy in patients in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, T R; Turnbull, C M; Currie, P; Flapan, A D; Pringle, S; Lee, B C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the use of cylindrical balloons and the Inoue balloon for percutaneous mitral valvotomy in patients in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Comparison of the haemodynamic results, complications, and symptomatic outcome of balloon dilatation for mitral stenosis in consecutive patients treated by cylindrical balloons and a second consecutive series of patients treated by the Inoue balloon. SETTING--A tertiary cardiac referral centre in Scotland. PATIENTS--70 patients (mean age 60.6 years) treated by the single or double cylindrical balloon technique and 70 patients (mean age 58.9 years) treated with the Inoue balloon method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Success in obtaining dilatation at the mitral orifice, procedure and screening times, increase in valve area, complications, and early symptomatic outcome. RESULTS--Dilatation of the mitral valve was obtained in 91% of patients when cylindrical balloons were used and in 99% of patients treated with the Inoue balloon. Use of the Inoue balloon gave significantly shorter procedure and screening times. Technical problems in obtaining and maintaining the position at the mitral orifice were more common with cylindrical balloons. Improvements in valve area and symptoms were not significantly different with use of the two types of balloon. The Inoue balloon avoided cardiac tamponade and the creation of larger atrial septal defects, but had a higher incidence of increase in mitral reflux. CONCLUSIONS--In these elderly patients, the Inoue balloon method was safer and faster for percutaneous mitral valvotomy, with a higher success rate for dilatation within the valve orifice. Haemodynamic and symptomatic improvement was similar with the two techniques. Images PMID:7818970

  7. The transseptal approach for mitral valve replacement revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Santibáñez Escobar, F; Serrano Gallardo, G; Ramirez Marroquin, S; Lopez Soriano, F; Barragán García, R

    1997-01-01

    We describe our experience with the transseptal approach for mitral valve replacement, a technique that we applied especially in cases of 3rd and 4th operations wherein numerous adhesions made the usual left atrial approach difficult. We report 39 cases of mitral procedures in which we used 3 slightly different transseptal approaches, depending on the cardiac anatomy and the preferences of the surgeon. There were no complications associated with any of these approaches. Indeed they made the mitral valve procedure easier, because they enabled full exposure of the mitral valvular and subvalvular apparatus. We also propose the transseptal approach as a very safe and reproducible technique for use in patients with friable tissues, heavily calcified mitral valves, or small left atria- and in patients who must undergo combined tricuspid and mitral procedures. In this series, there were no conduction abnormalities secondary to the approach, nor were there any procedure-related deaths. PMID:9339510

  8. Material Properties of Aged Human Mitral Valve Leaflets

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the mechanical properties of aged human anterior (AML) and posterior (PML) mitral leaflets. Materials and Methods The AML and PML samples from explanted human hearts (n = 21, mean age of 82.62 ± 8.77 years old) were subjected to planar biaxial mechanical tests. The material stiffness, extensibility and degree of anisotropy of the leaflet samples were quantified. The microstructure of the samples was assessed through histology. Results Both the AML and PML samples exhibited a nonlinear and anisotropic behavior with the circumferential direction being stiffer than the radial direction. The AML samples were significantly stiffer than the PML samples in both directions, suggesting that they should be modeled with separate sets of material properties in computational studies. Histological analysis indicated the changes in the tissue elastic constituents, including the fragmented and disorganized elastin network, the presence of fibrosis and proteoglycan/glycosaminoglycan infiltration and calcification, suggesting possible valvular degenerative characteristics in the aged human leaflet samples. Overall, stiffness increased and areal strain decreased with calcification severity. In addition, leaflet tissues from hypertensive individuals also exhibited a higher stiffness and low areal strain than normotensive individuals. Conclusion There are significant differences in the mechanical properties of the two human mitral valve leaflets from this advanced age group. The morphologic changes in the tissue composition and structure also infer the structural and functional difference between aged human valves and those of animals. PMID:24039052

  9. Iatrogenic mitral stenosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Iwan; Chandrasekaran, Badrinathan; Barnes, Edward; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2015-01-01

    A 57 year old female underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for severe aortic stenosis. Mild iatrogenic mitral stenosis was noted intraoperatively. Attempts to reposition the device were hampered by aortic angulation. One year later, severe mitral stenosis was confirmed on transoesophageal echocardiography. It is important to recognise that iatorgenic mitral stenosis due to TAVR may progress over time. Care should be taken to minimise the risk of this rare complication PMID:25820053

  10. Evolution of the concept and practice of mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Rajab, Taufiek K.

    2015-01-01

    The first successful mitral valve repair was performed by Elliot Cutler at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 1923. Subsequent evolution in the surgical techniques as well as multi-disciplinary cooperation between cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and cardiac anesthesiologists has resulted in excellent outcomes. In spite of this, the etiology of mitral valve pathology ultimately determines the outcome of mitral valve repair. PMID:26309840

  11. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined. PMID:24904177

  12. Effect of the mitral valve on diastolic flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Abraham, Theodore; Lardo, Albert C.; Dawoud, Fady; Luo, Hongchang; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-12-01

    The leaflets of the mitral valve interact with the mitral jet and significantly impact diastolic flow patterns, but the effect of mitral valve morphology and kinematics on diastolic flow and its implications for left ventricular function have not been clearly delineated. In the present study, we employ computational hemodynamic simulations to understand the effect of mitral valve leaflets on diastolic flow. A computational model of the left ventricle is constructed based on a high-resolution contrast computed-tomography scan, and a physiological inspired model of the mitral valve leaflets is synthesized from morphological and echocardiographic data. Simulations are performed with a diode type valve model as well as the physiological mitral valve model in order to delineate the effect of mitral-valve leaflets on the intraventricular flow. The study suggests that a normal physiological mitral valve promotes the formation of a circulatory (or "looped") flow pattern in the ventricle. The mitral valve leaflets also increase the strength of the apical flow, thereby enhancing apical washout and mixing of ventricular blood. The implications of these findings on ventricular function as well as ventricular flow models are discussed.

  13. Effect of the mitral valve on diastolic flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Dawoud, Fady; Luo, Hongchang; Lardo, Albert C.

    2014-12-15

    The leaflets of the mitral valve interact with the mitral jet and significantly impact diastolic flow patterns, but the effect of mitral valve morphology and kinematics on diastolic flow and its implications for left ventricular function have not been clearly delineated. In the present study, we employ computational hemodynamic simulations to understand the effect of mitral valve leaflets on diastolic flow. A computational model of the left ventricle is constructed based on a high-resolution contrast computed-tomography scan, and a physiological inspired model of the mitral valve leaflets is synthesized from morphological and echocardiographic data. Simulations are performed with a diode type valve model as well as the physiological mitral valve model in order to delineate the effect of mitral-valve leaflets on the intraventricular flow. The study suggests that a normal physiological mitral valve promotes the formation of a circulatory (or “looped”) flow pattern in the ventricle. The mitral valve leaflets also increase the strength of the apical flow, thereby enhancing apical washout and mixing of ventricular blood. The implications of these findings on ventricular function as well as ventricular flow models are discussed.

  14. Surgical Management of Caseous Calcification of the Mitral Annulus.

    PubMed

    Wehman, Brody; Dawood, Murtaza; Ghoreishi, Mehrdad; Cheema, Faisal; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Ward, Christopher W; Gammie, James S

    2015-06-01

    Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification where liquefaction and caseation result in formation of a mass at the border of the calcified annulus. Limited reports of operative therapy for caseous calcification of the mitral annulus describe wide excision and gross débridement of the mass, a technique that can cause perioperative stroke. We present a strategy of limited incision and drainage of the liquid material, closure of the incision, and subsequent suture obliteration of the cavity and mitral valve repair or replacement. In our experience, this technique is safe and has not been associated with perioperative stroke. PMID:26046892

  15. Robotically assisted minimally invasive mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alwair, Hazaim; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Increased recognition of advantages, over the last decade, of minimizing surgical trauma by operating through smaller incisions and its direct impact on reduced postoperative pain, quicker recovery, improved cosmesis and earlier return to work has spurred the minimally invasive cardiac surgical revolution. This transition began in the early 1990s with advancements in endoscopic instruments, video & fiberoptic technology and improvements in perfusion systems for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) via peripheral cannulation. Society of Thoracic Surgeons data documents that 20% of all mitral valve surgeries are performed using minimally invasive techniques, with half being robotically assisted. This article reviews the current status of robotically assisted mitral valve surgery, its advantages and technical modifications for optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:24251030

  16. Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy Without Heparin.

    PubMed

    Abraham; Chandrasekar; Sriram; Somanath; Sudarsana

    1997-11-01

    Six-hundred twenty-nine patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis in normal sinus rhythm underwent percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) by the standard Inoue balloon technique. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography, when necessary, transesophageal echocardiogram was done before PTMC to exclude left atrial clot. In all cases, the PTMC procedure was completed without administration of heparin. There was no incidence of embolism either in the immediate post-procedure period or at a median follow-up of 3 months. There were no femoral artery or venous complications in any of the cases. We conclude that the conventional use of heparin during PTMC may not be required in patients with sinus rhythm and no left atrial clot. PMID:10762963

  17. Normal joint mobility in mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Marks, J. S.; Sharp, J.; Brear, S. G.; Edwards, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven adults (19 male, 18 female) with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) were examined for evidence of joint hypermobility scored on a 0-9 scale. None of the patients had hypermobility scores exceeding 3, and comparison with 37 healthy age and sex matched controls recruited from hospital staff failed to show an increased prevalence of hypermobility in MVP. There was no evidence that the MVP syndrome is a forme fruste of a heritable disorder of connective tissue. PMID:6830324

  18. Model-driven physiological assessment of the mitral valve from 4D TEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Houle, Helene; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Disorders of the mitral valve are second most frequent, cumulating 14 percent of total number of deaths caused by Valvular Heart Disease each year in the United States and require elaborate clinical management. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the valve is an important step in the clinical workflow according to experts as knowledge about mitral morphology and dynamics is crucial for interventional planning. Traditionally this involves examination and metric analysis of 2D images comprising potential errors being intrinsic to the method. Recent commercial solutions are limited to specific anatomic components, pathologies and a single phase of cardiac 4D acquisitions only. This paper introduces a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of the mitral valve based on a 4D model estimated from ultrasound data. A physiological model of the mitral valve, covering the complete anatomy and eventual shape variations, is generated utilizing parametric spline surfaces constrained by topological and geometrical prior knowledge. The 4D model's parameters are estimated for each patient using the latest discriminative learning and incremental searching techniques. Precise evaluation of the anatomy using model-based dynamic measurements and advanced visualization are enabled through the proposed approach in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible manner. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated through experiments and an initial validation based on clinical research results. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time such a patient specific 4D mitral valve model is proposed, covering all of the relevant anatomies and enabling to model the common pathologies at once.

  19. The surgical treatment of aortic regurgitation secondary to aortitis.

    PubMed

    Isomura, T; Hisatomi, K; Yanagi, I; Shimada, S; Uraguchi, K; Aoyagi, S; Kosuga, K; Ohishi, K

    1988-02-01

    We describe the operative and perioperative management of 11 patients with aortic regurgitation due to aortitis. All patients required aortic valve replacement because of severely uncoapted cusps secondary to dilatation of the ascending aorta. The right coronary ostium was narrowed in 5 patients and consequently necessitated a smaller coronary tip for the administration of cardioplegic solution. To implant the prosthetic valve, pledgeted 2-0 Tevdek sutures were placed through the aortic valve annulus either from the ventricular side or from outside the aortic wall. Steroids were administered to 4 patients preoperatively and 8 patients postoperatively. Postoperative dehiscence of the prosthesis was seen in 1 of the 3 patients not given any steriods. We conclude that it is important to arrest the inflammatory reaction before operation and if the aortic valve must be replaced, to reinforce the implanted prosthesis with pledgeted sutures. Also, we suggest the possible importance of steroid therapy. PMID:3277555

  20. HOW DO ANNULOPLASTY RINGS AFFECT MITRAL LEAFLET DYNAMIC MOTION?

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Wolfgang; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Swanson, Julia C.; Göktepe, Serdar; Vo, Kathy N.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To define the effects of annuloplasty rings (ARs) on the dynamic motion of anterior and posterior mitral leaflets (AML, PML). Methods Sheep had radiopaque markers inserted: 8 around the mitral annulus, four along the central meridian (from edge to annulus) of the AML (#A1–#A4) and one on the PML edge (#P1). True-sized Edwards Cosgrove (COS, n=12), St Jude RSAR (n=12), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHYSIO, n=12), Edwards IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=10) or Edwards GeoForm (GEO, n=12) ARs were implanted in a releasable fashion. Under acute open-chest conditions, 4-D marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with the ARs inserted (COS, RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL, GEO) and after release (COS-CONTROL, RSAR-CONTROL, PHYSIO-CONTROL, ETL-CONTROL, GEO-CONTROL). AML and PML excursions were calculated as the difference between minimum and maximum angles between the central mitral annular septal-lateral chord and the anterior mitral leaflet edge markers (?1exc – ?4exc) and PML edge marker (?1exc) during the cardiac cycle. Results Relative to CONTROL, 1.) RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL and GEO increased excursion of the AML annular (?4exc: 13±6° vs. 16±7°*, 16±7° vs. 23±10°*, 12±4° vs. 18±9°*, 15±1° vs. 20±9°*, respectively) and belly region (?2exc: 41±10° vs. 45±10°*, 42±8° vs. 45±6°, n.s., 33±13° vs. 42±14°*, 39±6° vs. 44±6°*, respectively, ?3exc: 24±9° vs. 29±11°*, 28±10° vs. 33±10°*, 16±9° vs. 21±12°*, 25±7° vs. 29±9°*, respectively), but not of the AML edge (?1exc: 42±8° vs. 44±8°, 43±8° vs. 41±6°, 42±11 vs. 46±10°, 39±9° vs. 38±8°, respectively, all n.s.). COS did not affect AML excursion (?1exc: 40±8° vs. 37±8°, ?2exc: 43±9° vs. 41±9°, ?3exc: 27±11° vs. 27±10°, ?4exc: 18±8° vs. 17±7°,, all n.s.). 2.) PML excursion (?1exc) was reduced with GEO (53±5° vs. 43±6°*), but unchanged with COS, RSAR, PHYSIO or ETL (53±13° vs. 52±15°, 50±13° vs. 49±10°, 55±5° vs. 55±7°, 52±8° vs. 58±6°, respectively, all n.s). *=p<0.05 Conclusions RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL and GEO rings, but not COS, increase AML excursion of the AML annular and belly region suggesting higher anterior mitral leaflet bending stresses with rigid rings, which potentially could be deleterious with respect to repair durability. The decreased PML excursion observed with GEO could impair LV filling. Clinical studies are needed to validate these findings in patients. PMID:20335042

  1. Beat-rate dependent mitral flow patterns for in vitro hemodynamic applications.

    PubMed

    Vismara, Riccardo; Fiore, Gianfranco B

    2010-12-01

    The conservative surgery approach for restoring the functionality of heart valves has predominated during the last two decades, particularly for the mitral valve. In vitro pulsatile testing is a key methodology for the investigation of heart valve hemodynamics, and particularly for the ideation, validation and optimization of novel techniques in heart valve surgery. Traditionally, however, pulsatile mock loops have been developed for the study of aortic valve substitutes, and scarce attention has been paid in replicating the mitral flow patterns with due hemodynamic fidelity. In this work we provide detailed analytical expressions to produce beat-rate dependent, physiologic-like mitral flow patterns for in vitro applications. The approach we propose is based on a biomechanical analysis of the factors which govern hemodynamic changes in the mitral flow pattern, namely in terms of E and A wave contours and E/A peaks ratio, when switching from rest to mild exercise conditions. The patterns from the model we obtained were in good agreement with clinical literature data in terms of i) gradual superimposition of the E and A wave, which yielded a single peak at 96 bpm; ii) decrease in the E/A ratio with increasing heart rate; iii) amount of flow delivered by each of the two waves. The proposed method provides a physiologically representative, beat-rate dependent analytical expression of the mitral flow pattern, which can be used in in vitro hydrodynamic investigations to accurately replicate the changes that the flow waves experience when the heart rate shifts from rest to mild exercise conditions. PMID:21186468

  2. Validation of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements of mitral and tricuspid prosthetic valve gradients: a simultaneous Doppler-catheter study.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, G T; Gillam, L D; Kritzer, G L; Levine, R A; Palacios, I F; Weyman, A E

    1986-10-01

    For patients with stenotic native valves, the modified Bernoulli equation (delta P = 4V2) may be applied to Doppler-measured transvalvular velocities to yield an accurate estimate of transvalvular gradients. Although it would be useful if the same approach could be used for those with stenotic prosthetic valves, no previous study has validated the Doppler technique in this setting. We therefore recorded simultaneous continuous-wave Doppler flow profiles and transvalvular manometric gradients in 12 catheterized patients in whom all atrial and ventricular pressures were directly measured (transseptal left atrial catheterization and transthoracic ventricular puncture were performed where necessary). A total of 13 prostheses were studied: 11 mitral (seven porcine, three Starr-Edwards, and one Björk-Shiley) and two tricuspid (one porcine and one Björk-Shiley). The Doppler-determined mean gradient was calculated as the mean of the instantaneous gradients (delta P = 4V2) at 10 msec intervals throughout diastole. The correlation of simultaneous Doppler (DMG) and manometric mean gradients (MG) for the whole group (n = 13) demonstrated a highly significant relationship (MG = 1.07 DMG + 0.28; r = .96, p = .0001). The correlation was equally good for porcine valves alone (n = 8) (MG = 1.06 DMG + 0.55; r = .96, p = .001) and for mechanical valves alone (n = 5) (MG = 1.06 DMG - 0.04; r = .93, p = .02). In a subset of patients without regurgitation (n = 8), prosthetic valve areas were estimated by two Doppler methods originally described by Holen and Hatle, as well as by the invasive Gorlin method. As expected from theoretical considerations, a close correlation was not demonstrated between results of the Gorlin method and those of either Hatle's Doppler method (r = .65, fp = NS) or Holen's method (r = .14, p = NS). Comparison of the results of the two Doppler methods yielded a somewhat closer correlation (r = .73, p less than or equal to .05). These results suggest that in patients with disk-occluder, ball-occluder, and porcine prosthetic valves, Doppler estimates of transvalvular gradients are virtually identical to those obtained invasively. PMID:3757190

  3. Left ventricular post-infraction pseudoaneurysm mimicking mitral valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Koukis, Ioannis; Roussakis, Antonios; Tsipas, Pantelis; Rouska, Effie

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present a patient who was initially diagnosed as suffering from mitral valve endocarditis. The proper use of diagnostic modalities revealed a pseudo aneurysm of the left ventricle which was mimicking mitral valve vegetations. This allowed better planning of the subsequent operation. The optimal preoperative diagnostic studies are discussed along with the proper surgical treatment. PMID:24228621

  4. Mitral stenosis and acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cardoz, Joseph; Jayaprakash, K; George, Raju

    2015-04-01

    We describe a patient who presented with acute (inferior wall) ST elevation myocardial infarction. Her echocardiogram showed severe mitral stenosis with ball valve thrombus in the left atrial body and thrombus in the left atrial appendage. Coronary angiogram revealed thromboembolic material in the right coronary artery. Mitral valve replacement was scheduled. PMID:25829656

  5. Pseudoaneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Albert; Poppas, Athena; Mansoor, Atizaz; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2015-01-01

    A pseudoaneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa is a rare but potentially fatal complication seen primarily in the context of infective endocarditis. In this study, we discuss a case of infective endocarditis that was complicated by the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa. We review the salient echocardiographic findings of this clinical condition. PMID:25050527

  6. Mitral stenosis with high left ventricular diastolic pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Traill, T A; St John Sutton, M G; Gibson, D G

    1979-01-01

    Three patients with mitral stenosis are described, in whom the haemodynamic findings at cardiac catheterisation were more suggestive of left ventricular myocardial disease, in that the left ventricular diastolic pressure was high and the mitral valve gradient small. However, their echocardiograms showed abnormal wall movement during diastole characteristic of severe inflow obstruction, with slow and protracted filling, and at operation mitral stenosis was confirmed. Left ventricular wall stress was estimated throughout the cardiac cycle in one patient, and the diastolic stress-strain relation shown to be abnormal. The effects of mitral stenosis on left ventricular function are complex, and are not explicable simply by reduction in size of the mitral orifice. Images PMID:465208

  7. Prosthetic valve thrombosis in a patient with mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Haseeb, Abdul; Khan, Abdul Bari

    2015-07-01

    Prosthetic valve thrombosis within one year after mitral valve replacement is rarely seen in patients on warfarin therapy and without any risk factor. Here, we describe a case of a 39-year- old female, who presented with dyspnoea and shortness of breath 11 months after mitral valve replacement. The echocardiogram revealed severe valvular stenosis due to presence of clots on the mitral valve and restricted motion of the mitral leaflets. As a result of deterioration of general condition and haemodynamic un-stability, plan was made to re-operate for her valve replacement surgery. This case report highlights the diagnosis, prevention and management of patients with prosthetic valve thrombosis following mitral valve replacement. PMID:26160099

  8. Review of the endovascular approach to mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Jacob; Mirtaheri, Peyman; Hiorth, Nikolai; Fosse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The first interventional attempts at relieving mitral valve disease were in a sense minimally invasive, using relatively small incisions and introduction of instruments or a finger to open stenotic valves on the beating heart. The development of reliable cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) made exact anatomic repair of mitral pathology possible with improved results. Mitral valve surgery on an arrested heart has been the mainstay of treatment for decades. Modifications and minimalization of the surgical approach using videoscopic or robotic instruments have made less invasive procedures possible. Such procedures demand excellent technical skills and are still not widely adopted. More recently, attempts have been made to repair mitral valves using endovascular access on the beating heart, guiding the repair process with real-time imaging. We are presenting a review of available and developing techniques for endovascular repair of the mitral valve. A device developed by our group will be briefly described. PMID:26201541

  9. Patient-Specific Mitral Valve Closure Prediction using 3D Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Burlina, Philippe; Sprouse, Chad; Mukherjee, Ryan; DeMenthon, Daniel; Abraham, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling the closure of the mitral valve using patient-specific anatomical information derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE). Our approach uses physics-based modeling to solve for the stationary configuration of the closed valve structure from the patient-specific open valve structure, which is recovered using a user-in-the-loop, thin-tissue detector segmentation. The method utilizes a tensile shape finding approach based on energy minimization. This method is used to predict the aptitude of the mitral valve leaflets to coapt. We tested the method using ten intraoperative 3D TEE sequences by comparing (a) the closed valve configuration predicted from the segmented open valve, with (b) the segmented closed valve, taken as ground truth. Experiments show promising results, with prediction errors on par with 3D TEE resolution and with good potential for applications in pre-operative planning. PMID:23497987

  10. Patient-specific mitral valve closure prediction using 3D echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Burlina, Philippe; Sprouse, Chad; Mukherjee, Ryan; DeMenthon, Daniel; Abraham, Theodore

    2013-05-01

    This article presents an approach to modeling the closure of the mitral valve using patient-specific anatomical information derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Our approach uses physics-based modeling to solve for the stationary configuration of the closed valve structure from the patient-specific open valve structure, which is recovered using a user-in-the-loop, thin-tissue detector segmentation. The method uses a tensile shape-finding approach based on energy minimization. This method is employed to predict the aptitude of the mitral valve leaflets to coapt. We tested the method using 10 intraoperative 3D TEE sequences by comparing the closed valve configuration predicted from the segmented open valve with the segmented closed valve, taken as ground truth. Experiments show promising results, with prediction errors on par with 3D TEE resolution and with good potential for applications in pre-operative planning. PMID:23497987

  11. Fully automatic segmentation of the mitral leaflets in 3D transesophageal echocardiographic images using multi-atlas joint label fusion and deformable medial modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pouch, A.M.; Wang, H.; Takabe, M.; Jackson, B.M.; Gorman, J.H.; Gorman, R.C.; Yushkevich, P.A.; Sehgal, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive visual and quantitative analysis of in vivo human mitral valve morphology is central to the diagnosis and surgical treatment of mitral valve disease. Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) is a practical, highly informative imaging modality for examining the mitral valve in a clinical setting. To facilitate visual and quantitative 3D TEE image analysis, we describe a fully automated method for segmenting the mitral leaflets in 3D TEE image data. The algorithm integrates complementary probabilistic segmentation and shape modeling techniques (multi-atlas joint label fusion and deformable modeling with continuous medial representation) to automatically generate 3D geometric models of the mitral leaflets from 3D TEE image data. These models are unique in that they establish a shape-based coordinate system on the valves of different subjects and represent the leaflets volumetrically, as structures with locally varying thickness. In this work, expert image analysis is the gold standard for evaluating automatic segmentation. Without any user interaction, we demonstrate that the automatic segmentation method accurately captures patient-specific leaflet geometry at both systole and diastole in 3D TEE data acquired from a mixed population of subjects with normal valve morphology and mitral valve disease. PMID:24184435

  12. A critical appraisal of current management practices for infant regurgitation--recommendations of a working party.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Benhamou, P; Cadranel, S; Cezard, J P; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Faure, C; Gottrand, F; Hassall, E; Heymans, H; Kneepkens, C M; Sandhu, B

    1997-05-01

    Regurgitation is a common manifestation in infants below the age of 1 year and a frequent reason of counselling of general practitioners and paediatricians. Current management starts with postural and dietary measures, followed by antacids and prokinetics. Recent issues such as an increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position and persistent occult gastro-oesophageal reflux in a subset of infants receiving milk thickeners or thickened "anti-regurgitation formula" challenge the established approach. Therefore, the clinical practices for management of infant regurgitation have been critically evaluated with respect to their efficacy, safety and practical implications. The updated recommendations reached by the working party on the management of infant regurgitation contain five phases: (1 A) parental reassurance; (1 B) milk-thickening agents; (2) prokinetics; (3) positional therapy as an adjuvant therapy; (4 A) H2-blockers; (4 B) proton pump inhibitors; (5) surgery. PMID:9177975

  13. ECG predictors of ventricular arrhythmias and biventricular size and wall mass in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, W A; Roest, A A W; Niezen, R A; Vliegen, H W; Hazekamp, M G; Ottenkamp, J; de Roos, A; van der Wall, E E

    2002-01-01

    Background: In patients with the tetralogy of Fallot, QRS prolongation predicts malignant ventricular arrhythmias. QRS prolongation may result from right ventricular dilatation. The relation of ECG markers to biventricular wall mass and volumes has not been assessed. Objective: To investigate the relations of surface ECG markers of depolarisation and repolarisation to right and left ventricular volume and biventricular wall mass. Methods: 37 Fallot patients (mean (SD) age 17 (9) years) were studied 14 (8) years after surgical repair; 34 had important pulmonary regurgitation. Left and right ventricular size was assessed from tomographic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the amount of pulmonary regurgitation by velocity mapping MRI. QT, QRS, and JT duration and interlead dispersion markers were derived from a standard 12 lead ECG. Results: Mean QRS duration was significantly prolonged (133 (31) v 91 (11) ms in controls), as were dispersion of QRS (36 (17) v 20 (6) ms), QT interval (87 (48) v 42 (20) ms), and JT interval (93 (48) v 42 (19) ms). Biventricular volumes were increased (right ventricular end diastolic volume, 129 (41) v 70 (9) ml/m2; left ventricular end diastolic volume, 83 (16) v 69 (10) ml/m2), as was right ventricular wall mass (24 (7) v 17 (2) g/m2). QRS duration correlated best with right ventricular mass (r = 0.55, p < 0.01). Conclusions: In patients operated on for tetralogy of Fallot and with pulmonary regurgitation, ECG predictors of ventricular arrhythmias are influenced by several mechanical factors that may occur simultaneously. These include increased right ventricular volume, but also increases in left ventricular volume and in right and left ventricular wall mass. PMID:12381647

  14. Combining Tricuspid Valve Repair With Double Lung Transplantation in Patients With Severe Pulmonary Hypertension, Tricuspid Regurgitation, and Right Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sareyyupoglu, Basar; Bhama, Jay; Bonde, Pramod; Thacker, Jnanesh; Bermudez, Christian; Gries, Cynthia; Crespo, Maria; Johnson, Bruce; Pilewski, Joseph; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concomitant tricuspid valve repair (TVR) and double lung transplantation (DLTx) has been a surgical option at our institution since 2004 in an attempt to improve the outcome of DLTx for end-stage pulmonary hypertension, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. This study is a review of that single institutional experience. Methods: Consecutive cases of concomitant TVR and DLTx performed between 2004 and 2009 (TVR group, n = 20) were retrospectively compared with cases of DLTx alone for severe pulmonary hypertension without TVR (non-TVR group, n = 58). Results: There was one in-hospital death in the TVR group. The 90-day and 1- and 3-year survival rates for the TVR group were 90%, 75%, and 65%, respectively, which were not significantly different from those for the non-TVR group. The TVR group required less inotropic support and less prolonged mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Follow-up echocardiography demonstrated immediate elimination of both volume and pressure overload in the RV and tricuspid regurgitation in the TVR group. Notably, there was a significantly lower incidence of primary graft dysfunction following transplantation in the TVR group (P < .05). Pulmonary functional improvement shown by an FEV1 increase after 6 months was also significantly better in the TVR group (40% vs 20%, P < .05). Conclusions: Combined TVR and DLTx procedures were successfully performed without an increase in morbidity or mortality and contributed to decreased primary graft dysfunction. In our experience, this combined operative approach achieves clinical outcomes equal or superior to the outcomes seen in DLTx patients without RV dysfunction and severe tricuspid regurgitation. PMID:21700686

  15. [Left ventricular rupture of mitral valve prosthesis implantation treated using an intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation].

    PubMed

    García-Villarreal, Ovidio Alberto; Ramírez-González, Bertín; Saldaña-Becerra, Martín A

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular rupture is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of mitral valve replacement. In spite of the fact that several methods of repair have previously been described, the mortality rate remains nearly 85%. The use of the intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation may increase the possibilities of success in the repair of this dreaded complication. We present here three cases of left ventricular rupture associated to mitral valve prosthesis implantation successfully treated with the aid of intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation. PMID:26581539

  16. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement: design implications, potential pitfalls and outcomes assessment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gilbert H L; George, Isaac; Hahn, Rebecca T; Bapat, Vinayak; Szeto, Wilson Y; Kodali, Susheel K

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is an emerging new treatment option in patients with advanced mitral valve disease deemed a high or prohibitive risk for surgery. Designing an ideal TMVR device requires a detailed understanding of different mitral valve pathologies and the complex, dynamic anatomy and physiology of the mitral apparatus. This review aims to critically evaluate design implications in TMVR in the context of mitral valve disease, imaging prerequisites, procedural approaches, potential complications, and outcomes assessment. PMID:26274537

  17. The Effects of Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty on the Left Atrial Appendage Function in Patients With Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Jafaripour, Iraj; Toufan, Mehrnoush; Sohrabi, Bahram; Separham, Ahmad; Madadi, Reza; Feazpour, Hossein; Asgharzadeh, Yosef; Ahmadi, Mostafa; Safaiyan, Abdolrasol; Ghafari, Samad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mitral stenosis (MS) causes structural and functional abnormalities of the left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA), and studies show that LAA performance improves within a short time after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). This study aimed to investigate the effects of PTMC on left atrial function by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: We enrolled 56 patients with severe mitral stenosis (valve area less than 1.5 CM2). All participants underwent mitral valvuloplasty; they also underwent transesophageal echocardiography before and at least one month after PTMC. Results: Underlying heart rhythm was sinus rhythm (SR) in 28 patients and atrial fibrillation (AF) in remainder 28 cases. There was no significant change in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDD), or the left ventricular end systolic dimension (LVESD) before and after PTMC in both groups. However, both groups showed a significant decrease in the left atrial volume index (LAVI) following PTMC (P=0.032 in SR and P=0.015 in AF group). LAA ejection fraction (LAAEF) and the LAA emptying velocity (LAAEV) were improved significantly after PTMC in both groups with SR and AF (P<0.001 for both). Conclusion: Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy improves left atrial appendage function in patients with mitral stenosis irrespective of the underlying heart rhythm. PMID:25859314

  18. A new approach to the interventional therapy of tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Amerini, Andrea Luigi; Malasa, Margarita; Hatam, Nima; Safi, Yara; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Mahnken, Andreas; Goetzenich, Andreas; Haushofer, Marcus; Hildinger, Martin; Autschbach, Rudiger; Carpi, Angelo; Spillner, Jan Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are no fully developed interventional approaches for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of orthotopic interventional placement of a biological prosthetic valve in the tricuspid position by inserting, with a transvenous approach, a self-expandable valve-bearing stent into the right atrium. Based on findings of computerized tomography (CT), a model of the porcine right heart was obtained. A self-expanding vascular endoprosthesis, carrying a prosthetic heart valve, was reshaped to fit the superior vena cava and the tricuspid annulus. Fenestrations were created to allow blood flow from the inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. This new device ("tricuspid endoprosthesis": TE) was implanted operatively into the superior vena cava, right atrium, and tricuspid annulus in six pigs. CT demonstrated proper fitting of the device, and echocardiography demonstrated correct positioning and function of the TE. Five animals were successfully weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Autopsy confirmed correct positioning of the TE without major trauma to surrounding tissues. These findings demonstrate a complete interventional approach for treating TR. PMID:23277010

  19. Detection of seed DNA in regurgitates of granivorous carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, C; Sint, D; Baier, F; Schmid, C; Mayer, R; Traugott, M

    2015-12-01

    Granivory can play a pivotal role in influencing regeneration, colonization as well as abundance and distribution of plants. Due to their high abundance, nutrient content and longevity, seeds are an important food source for many animals. Among insects, carabid beetles consume substantial numbers of seeds and are thought to be responsible for a significant amount of seed loss. However, the processes that govern which seeds are eaten and are therefore prevented from entering the seedbank are poorly understood. Here, we assess if DNA-based diet analysis allows tracking the consumption of seeds by carabids. Adult individuals of Harpalus rufipes were fed with seeds of Taraxacum officinale and Lolium perenne allowing them to digest for up to 3 days. Regurgitates were tested for the DNA of ingested seeds at eight different time points post-feeding using general and species-specific plant primers. The detection of seed DNA decreased with digestion time for both seed species, albeit in a species-specific manner. Significant differences in overall DNA detection rates were found with the general plant primers but not with the species-specific primers. This can have implications for the interpretation of trophic data derived from next-generation sequencing, which is based on the application of general primers. Our findings demonstrate that seed predation by carabids can be tracked, molecularly, on a species-specific level, providing a new way to unravel the mechanisms underlying in-field diet choice in granivores. PMID:26271284

  20. [Mitral insufficiency caused by isolated rupture of the papillary muscle secondary to blunt thoracic trauma].

    PubMed

    Prieto Solís, J A; Olalla Antolín, J J; Enrŕiquez Giraudo, P; Ruiz Delgado, B

    1995-07-01

    We report a patient suffering from mitral insufficiency after isolated rupture a papillary muscle as a result of a car accident with blunt chest trauma. The diagnosis is often difficult due to related multiple lesions which vary the clinical picture. Physical exploration, electrocardiogram, enzymatic and nuclear scan lack adequate sensitivity and specificity. Echocardiography appears to be the most reliable noninvasive diagnostic method now available. PMID:7638411

  1. Survival and echocardiographic data in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by mitral valve disease and treated by multiple drugs: a retrospective study of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    de Madron, Eric; King, Jonathan N; Strehlau, Günther; White, Regina Valle

    2011-11-01

    This retrospective study reports the survival time [onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) to death from any cause] of 21 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and CHF treated with a combination of furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, benazepril, or enalapril), pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine. Baseline echocardiographic data: end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices (ESVI and EDVI), left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao), and regurgitant fraction (RF) are reported. Median survival time (MST) was 430 d. Initial dosage of furosemide (P = 0.0081) and LA/Ao (P = 0.042) were negatively associated with survival. Baseline echocardiographic indices (mean ± standard deviation) were 40.24 ± 16.76 for ESVI, 161.48 ± 44.49 mL/m(2) for EDVI, 2.11 ± 0.75 for LA/Ao, and 64.71 ± 16.85% for RF. Combining furosemide, ACEI, pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine may result in long survival times in dogs with MR and CHF. Severity of MR at onset of CHF is at least moderate. PMID:22547843

  2. Survival and echocardiographic data in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by mitral valve disease and treated by multiple drugs: A retrospective study of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    de Madron, Eric; King, Jonathan N.; Strehlau, Günther; White, Regina Valle

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study reports the survival time [onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) to death from any cause] of 21 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and CHF treated with a combination of furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, benazepril, or enalapril), pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine. Baseline echocardiographic data: end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices (ESVI and EDVI), left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao), and regurgitant fraction (RF) are reported. Median survival time (MST) was 430 d. Initial dosage of furosemide (P = 0.0081) and LA/Ao (P = 0.042) were negatively associated with survival. Baseline echocardiographic indices (mean ± standard deviation) were 40.24 ± 16.76 for ESVI, 161.48 ± 44.49 mL/m2 for EDVI, 2.11 ± 0.75 for LA/Ao, and 64.71 ± 16.85% for RF. Combining furosemide, ACEI, pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine may result in long survival times in dogs with MR and CHF. Severity of MR at onset of CHF is at least moderate. PMID:22547843

  3. Sexual dimorphism in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells: a quantitative Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Caminero, A A; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells in rats and to investigate the effects of male orchidectomy and female androgenization on the day of birth upon this dendritic field. The rapid Golgi method was used to conduct a quantitative study of various characteristics of the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells. The results indicated greater values for males than females for the following characteristics: (i) somatic area; (ii) degree of branching in the dendritic field; (iii) total dendritic length; and (iv) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. Orchidectomy of males, as well as androgenization of females, on the day of birth inverted these differences. PMID:1723181

  4. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement: Review of pseudoaneurysms late after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    ?ahan, Ekrem; ?ahan, Suzan; Karamanl?o?lu, Murat; Gül, Murat; Tüfekçio?lu, Omac

    2015-08-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVPA) due to incomplete or late rupture after mitral valve replacement is a rare condition but can be life threatening if it develops into perdicardial tamponade. LVPA may develop de novo after the surgical procedure or may be a sequela of an earlier rupture. Clinical presentation includes shortness of breath, heart failure, chest pain, endocarditis, and pericardial tamponade. However, it can also have an asymptomatic course. The recommended treatment for LVPA is surgical repair. Conservative follow-up is an alternative for patients who refuse surgical treatment or are considered high risk for re-operation. We conducted a review of all the available literature on cases of LVPA after mitral valve replacement and present the findings here. PMID:25939434

  5. On the effects of leaflet microstructure and constitutive model on the closing behavior of the mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hao; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Sacks, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term studies showed an unsatisfactory recurrence rate of severe mitral regurgitation 3-5 years after surgical repair, suggesting that excessive tissue stresses and the resulting strain-induced tissue failure are potential etiological factors controlling the success of surgical repair for treating mitral valve (MV) diseases. We hypothesized that restoring normal MV tissue stresses in MV repair techniques would ultimately lead to improved repair durability through the restoration of MV normal homeostatic state. Therefore, we developed a micro- and macro- anatomically accurate MV finite element model by incorporating actual fiber microstructural architecture and a realistic structure-based constitutive model. We investigated MV closing behaviors, with extensive in vitro data used for validating the proposed model. Comparative and parametric studies were conducted to identify essential model fidelity and information for achieving desirable accuracy. More importantly, for the first time, the interrelationship between the local fiber ensemble behavior and the organ-level MV closing behavior was investigated using a computational simulation. These novel results indicated not only the appropriate parameter ranges, but also the importance of the microstructural tuning (i.e., straightening and re-orientation) of the collagen/elastin fiber networks at the macroscopic tissue level for facilitating the proper coaptation and natural functioning of the MV apparatus under physiological loading at the organ level. The proposed computational model would serve as a logical first step toward our long-term modeling goal-facilitating simulation-guided design of optimal surgical repair strategies for treating diseased MVs with significantly enhanced durability. PMID:25947879

  6. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  7. Dissecting intramyocardial hematoma after robotic mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Tory; Ushukumari, Deepu; Canale, Leonardo; Gillinov, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We report the first case of a dissecting intramyocardial hematoma discovered intraoperatively after robotic mitral valve repair, potential etiologies relevant to robotic surgery, and its successful management. PMID:25742825

  8. Dissection of the atrial wall after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, L; Kassai, I; Lengyel, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe an unusual sequela of mitral valve replacement in a 50-year-old woman who had undergone a closed mitral commissurotomy in 1975. She was admitted to our hospital because of mitral restenosis in November 1993, at which time her mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. On the 8th postoperative day, the patient developed symptoms of heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed dissection and rupture of the left atrial wall. At prompt reoperation, we found an interlayer dissection and rupture of the atrial wall into the left atrium. We repaired the ruptured atrial wall with a prosthetic patch. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative transesophageal echocardiography showed normal prosthetic valve function and no dissection. Images PMID:8680278

  9. Transient tricuspid valve regurgitation following surgical treatment of cor triatriatum dexter in a dog.

    PubMed

    Chanoit, G; Bublot, I; Viguier, E

    2009-05-01

    Echocardiographically documented tricuspid valve regurgitation appeared immediately after surgical treatment of cor triatriatum dexter in a two-month-old rottweiler. Medical treatment was instituted with benazepril, spironolactone and furosemide. Pimobendan was added after five months, and all treatment was discontinued two months later when clinical signs of ascites and hepatomegaly had resolved and tricuspid valve regurgitation was markedly reduced on echocardiography. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the development and spontaneous improvement of haemodynamically significant tricuspid valve regurgitation following surgical treatment of cor triatriatum dexter in a dog. It is hypothesised that the increase in right atrial volume and pressure following cor triatriatum dexter repair and transient ischaemia of papillary muscles led to dilatation of the right atrioventricular annulus and subsequent severe tricuspid valve regurgitation in the face of an anatomically normal valve. Time and pharmacological preload reduction as well as normalisation of right atrial inflow and subsequent cardiac remodelling substantially reduced tricuspid valve regurgitation and eliminated clinical signs of heart failure. It is also possible that heart recovery has been spontaneous. PMID:19425172

  10. Mitral Valve Replacement and Limited Myectomy for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stassano, Paolo; Di Tommaso, Luigi; Triggiani, Donato; Contaldo, Antonio; Gagliardi, Cesare; Spampinato, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is a dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract caused by septal hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. When the condition cannot be controlled by medical therapy, the most frequently used surgical approach is left ventricular myotomy-myectomy. Mitral valve replacement (to correct another mechanism of obstruction) is another surgical option; however, its use for this condition is controversial. We review the long-term results of patients who underwent limited left ventricular myotomy-myectomy and mitral valve replacement at our institution. Eighteen patients who had hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and severe mitral insufficiency underwent surgery between 1978 and 1983: 7 were men and 11 were women (mean age, 41.8 ± 10.5 years). Preoperatively, most of the patients (78.8%) were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. The operation consisted of a shallow myectomy of the hypertrophied septum and mitral valve replacement. One patient died in the hospital (5.5%); 3 patients died later during follow-up. The remaining 14 patients are alive and in good condition (mean follow-up, 21.9 ± 1.7 years). Functional class improved postoperatively in all surviving patients. The mean left ventricular outflow tract gradient fell from 78.1 ± 20.9 mmHg preoperatively to 9.4 ± 5.2 mmHg postoperatively (P < 0.001). At present, surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy does not include mitral valve replacement. However, our long-term results show that limited ventricular myectomy and mitral valve replacement predictably and consistently lower the left ventricular outflow tract gradient and resolve the mitral valve insufficiency. PMID:15212123

  11. Presynaptic T-type Ca2+ channels modulate dendrodendritic mitral-mitral and mitral-periglomerular connections in mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Adam; Johnston, Jamie; Delaney, Kerry R

    2014-10-15

    Mitral cells express low-voltage activated Cav3.3 channels on their distal apical tuft dendrites (McKay et al., 2006; Johnston and Delaney, 2010). They also discharge Na(+)-dependent dendritic action potentials and release glutamate from these dendrites. Around resting membrane potentials, between -65 and -50 mV, Cav3.x channels are a primary determinant of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)]. In this study using C57 mice, we present evidence that subthreshold Cav3.x-mediated Ca(2+) influx modulates action potential evoked transmitter release and directly drives asynchronous release from distal tuft dendrites. Presynaptic hyperpolarization and selective block of Cav3.x channels with Z941 (Tringham et al., 2012) reduce mitral-to-mitral EPSP amplitude, increase the coefficient of variation of EPSPs, and increase paired-pulse ratios, consistent with a reduced probability of transmitter release. Both hyperpolarization and Cav3.x channel blockade reduce steady-state cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] in the tuft dendrite without reducing action potential evoked Ca(2+) influx, suggesting that background [Ca(2+)] modulates evoked release. We demonstrate that Cav3.x-mediated Ca(2+) influx from even one mitral cell at membrane potentials between -65 and -50 mV is sufficient to produce feedback inhibition from periglomerular neurons. Deinactivation of Cav3.x channels by hyperpolarization increases T-type Ca(2+) influx upon repolarization and increases feedback inhibition to produce subthreshold modulation of the mitral-periglomerular reciprocal circuit. PMID:25319700

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of High-Risk Mitral Valve Operations: Implications for Novel Transcatheter Valve Therapies

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Isbell, James M.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Kern, John; Lim, D. Scott; Fonner, Edwin; Speir, Alan M.; Rich, Jeffrey B.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Background The MitraClip REALISM (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) trial included several inclusion criteria to identify patients at high risk for conventional mitral valve (MV) surgery. This study evaluated contemporary surgical outcomes for high-risk surgical patients who met these defined criteria to serve as a benchmark to evaluate appropriateness in treatment allocation between surgical and percutaneous MV repair. Methods A statewide Society for Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database was queried for patients undergoing isolated mitral valve surgery over a 12-year study period from 17 different hospitals. Patients were stratified into high-risk (HR) versus non-high-risk (non-HR) cohorts based upon clinical criteria similar to those utilized in the REALISM trial. Mixed effects multivariable regression modeling was used to evaluate study endpoints including mortality, morbidity, and resource utilization. Results Of 2,440 isolated mitral operations, 29% (n = 698) were HR per REALISM criteria. Median STS Predicted Risk of Mortality (PROM) for HR patients was 6.6% compared with 1.6% for non-HR patients (p < 0.001). The HR patients more commonly underwent MV replacement as well as urgent (30% vs 19%, p < 0.001) operations. High-risk patients incurred higher morbidity and mortality (7% vs 1.6%) with longer intensive care unit (48 vs 41 hours) and hospital stays (7 vs 6 days, all p < 0.001). Among REALISM criteria, STS PROM 12% or greater and high-risk STS criteria were the only criteria associated with mortality. Conclusions Select REALISM criteria, including reoperation with patent grafts and functional MR with ejection fraction less than 0.40, may not identify patients truly at high risk of death with surgery. In addition to conventional STS criteria, risk assessment by surgeons is essential to direct appropriate treatment allocation for high-risk mitral disease. PMID:25282165

  13. How to start a minimal access mitral valve program.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Steven

    2013-11-01

    The seven pillars of governance established by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom provide a useful framework for the process of introducing new procedures to a hospital. Drawing from local experience, the author present guidance for institutions considering establishing a minimal access mitral valve program. The seven pillars of governance apply to the practice of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, based on the principle of patient-centred practice. The author delineate the benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in terms of: "clinical effectiveness", including reduced length of hospital stay, "risk management effectiveness", including conversion to sternotomy and aortic dissection, "patient experience" including improved cosmesis and quicker recovery, and the effectiveness of communication, resources and strategies in the implementation of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Finally, the author have identified seven learning curves experienced by surgeons involved in introducing a minimal access mitral valve program. The learning curves are defined as: techniques of mitral valve repair, Transoesophageal Echocardiography-guided cannulation, incisions, instruments, visualization, aortic occlusion and cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. From local experience, the author provide advice on how to reduce the learning curves, such as practising with the specialised instruments and visualization techniques during sternotomy cases. Underpinning the NHS pillars are the principles of systems awareness, teamwork, communication, ownership and leadership, all of which are paramount to performing any surgery but more so with minimal access surgery, as will be highlighted throughout this paper. PMID:24349981

  14. Congenital mitral stenosis. Anatomical and functional assessment by echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Smallhorn, J; Tommasini, G; Deanfield, J; Douglas, J; Gibson, D; Macartney, F

    1981-01-01

    Digitised left ventricular echocardiograms were studied in nine children with congenital mitral stenosis to assess the severity of inflow obstruction. In six children the two prime indices of mitral stenosis were abnormal, with a prolonged time from minimum dimension to 20 per cent dimension change and a reduced peak dimension change during diastole. In three, however, these values did not suggest inflow obstruction, depsite significant gradients at cardiac catheterisation. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 10 children with congenital mitral stenosis to determine the mitral annular size and the morphology of the valve and subvalvular apparatus. The annular size and number of papillary muscles could be assessed along with the detection of combined mitral abnormalities. Two-dimensional studies can reliably delineate the type of mitral abnormality, and should be performed in all cases with congenital heart disease having a high incidence of associated left ventricular inflow obstruction. Digitised M-mode left ventricular echocardiography is in general unreliable in assessing congenital obstruction, though it may be of some value in individual cases. Images PMID:7236458

  15. Open-Heart Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerein, Alfred N.; Gourlay, Robert H.; Kavanagh-Gray, Doris

    1965-01-01

    The findings in and experiences with 19 consecutive patients subjected to open mitral valve surgery are described. All patients underwent a right-heart catheterization. In order to exclude multivalvular heart disease, a left-heart catheterization was performed in 10 patients and angiographic studies of the aortic valve area in 12. Pulmonary function studies were performed on 11 patients. The FEV (0.75 sec.) and the MMFR were found to correlate well with existing pulmonary reserves. Fourteen of the 19 patients subjected to open mitral valve surgery survived the operation and have been followed up for three months to 2½ years. Four patients had a mitral valvuloplasty. Three of these four have deteriorated and will require a valvular replacement. Ten of 15 patients subjected to a mitral valve replacement are alive; five of these 10 have had signs and symptoms indicating peripheral embolization. Mitral valvuloplasty is preferable to a valvular replacement as far as embolic complications are concerned, while valvular replacements result in a more perfect and lasting hemodynamic repair. The high incidence of peripheral embolization following valvular replacements focuses attention on the need for improved mitral valve prostheses. PMID:14346463

  16. Regurgitations in a Lamb with Acute Coenurosis-A case Report

    PubMed Central

    IOANNIDOU, Evi; PSALLA, Dimitra; PAPADOPOULOS, Elias; DIAKOU, Anastasia; PAPANIKOLOPOULOU, Vasiliki; KARATZIAS, Harilaos; POLIZOPOULOU, Zoe S; GIADINIS, Nektarios D

    2015-01-01

    Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Multiceps multiceps, which inhabits the small intestine of Canidae. A case of regurgitations in a 2.5 month old lamb with acute coenurosis is being reported. The lamb was presented with a sudden onset of ataxia and regurgitations for 10 days. The post-mortem examination revealed 4 immature C. cerebralis cysts between 0.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter located in the brainstem and cerebellum, and histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, so a diagnosis of acute coenurosis was established. Thus, acute coenurosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of regurgitations in lambs. PMID:26246831

  17. Regurgitations in a Lamb with Acute Coenurosis-A case Report.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Evi; Psalla, Dimitra; Papadopoulos, Elias; Diakou, Anastasia; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karatzias, Harilaos; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2015-01-01

    Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Multiceps multiceps, which inhabits the small intestine of Canidae. A case of regurgitations in a 2.5 month old lamb with acute coenurosis is being reported. The lamb was presented with a sudden onset of ataxia and regurgitations for 10 days. The post-mortem examination revealed 4 immature C. cerebralis cysts between 0.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter located in the brainstem and cerebellum, and histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, so a diagnosis of acute coenurosis was established. Thus, acute coenurosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of regurgitations in lambs. PMID:26246831

  18. Insect regurgitant and wounding elicit similar defense responses in poplar leaves: not something to spit at?

    PubMed

    Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter

    2007-01-01

    How plants perceive insect attacks is an area of active research. Numerous studies have shown that regurgitant from feeding insects elicits a defense response in plants, which is often assumed to be distinct from a wound response. We have characterized the inducible defense response in hybrid poplar and found it to be qualitatively similar between wounding and application of regurgitant from forest tent caterpillar. We suggest that this is likely attributable to our wounding treatment which is much more intense compared to most other studies. These overlapping responses appear to be activated via jasmonic acid signaling, and we speculate that they are both triggered by elicitors of plant origin. Wounding would release such elicitor molecules when leaf cells are disrupted, and regurgitant may contain them in a modified or processed form. This hypothesis could explain why some other necrosis-inducing stresses also induce herbivore defense genes. PMID:19704794

  19. Growth of mitral annulus in the pediatric patient after suture annuloplasty of the entire posterior mitral annulus.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Takeshi; Huebler, Michael; Berger, Felix; Hetzer, Roland

    2009-08-01

    When mitral annuloplasty is performed in small children, room for annular growth should be allowed. However, it has not been reported how the valve develops after mitral annuloplasty of the entire posterior annulus. We report a case showing traces of annular growth at redo surgery. A female patient suffering from mitral valve insufficiency due to annular dilatation underwent modified Paneth plasty with Kay-Wooler commissural plication annuloplasty at the age of two years one month. In redo surgery 8.4 years after initial repair, enlargement of the commissural portion of the posterior annulus in addition to enlargement of the anterior leaflet and anterior annulus was observed. Modified Paneth plasty reinforced with a pericardial strip and Kay-Wooler annuloplasty of the posteromedial commissure were performed. Mitral orifice size measured with the Hegar dilator was 18 mm after the re-repair, increasing from 16 mm after the initial repair. Taking into account the normal mitral annulus diameter related to body surface area (BSA) of 16 mm at initial operation and 20 mm at redo surgery, the increase in mitral orifice size from 16 mm to 18 mm in this patient may be regarded as the annular growth in 8.4 years. PMID:19454416

  20. Successful treatment of acute, severe aortic regurgitation caused by Takayasu's arteritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Isaka, N; Takezawa, H; Kusagawa, M

    1986-07-01

    Acute, severe aortic regurgitation due to dilatation of the aortic root was studied in a 16-year-old Japanese female with Takayasu's arteritis. The patient was admitted because of acute pulmonary edema followed by systemic illness characterized by fever, anorexia, and general fatigue. The echocardiogram and aortogram demonstrated acute, severe aortic regurgitation due to dilation of the aortic root. She was successfully treated with aortic valve replacement and steroid. Microscopic examination of the aortic wall demonstrated granulomatous lesions with multinucleated giant cells. Now, three years later, she remains asymptomatic and hemodynamically stable. PMID:2873765

  1. Right aortic cusp aneurysm causing aortic valve regurgitation with complete heart block

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devender; Darbari, Anshuman; Sharma, Manish K

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a rare case of aortic valve aneurysm without any vegetation with complete heart block. A 26-year-old man with severe acute aortic regurgitation was admitted to our admitted to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed right cusp aneurysm without any vegetations. Transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed these findings. Colour Doppler echocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation. For complete heart block, a transvenous permanent pacemaker was inserted as a first stage of treatment. Successful aortic valve replacement was performed as a second stage. The possible aetiology of this case is endocarditis. PMID:21686406

  2. Discharge patterning in rat olfactory bulb mitral cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Gareth; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tsuji, Chiharu; Sabatier, Nancy; Ludwig, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a detailed statistical analysis of the discharge characteristics of mitral cells of the main olfactory bulb of urethane?anesthetized rats. Neurons were recorded from the mitral cell layer, and antidromically identified by stimuli applied to the lateral olfactory tract. All mitral cells displayed repeated, prolonged bursts of action potentials typically lasting >100 sec and separated by similarly long intervals; about half were completely silent between bursts. No such bursting was observed in nonmitral cells recorded in close proximity to mitral cells. Bursts were asynchronous among even adjacent mitral cells. The intraburst activity of most mitral cells showed strong entrainment to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm; similar entrainment was seen in some, but not all nonmitral cells. All mitral cells displayed a peak of excitability at ~25 msec after spikes, as reflected by a peak in the interspike interval distribution and in the corresponding hazard function. About half also showed a peak at about 6 msec, reflecting the common occurrence of doublet spikes. Nonmitral cells showed no such doublet spikes. Bursts typically increased in intensity over the first 20–30 sec of a burst, during which time doublets were rare or absent. After 20–30 sec (in cells that exhibited doublets), doublets occurred frequently for as long as the burst persisted, in trains of up to 10 doublets. The last doublet was followed by an extended relative refractory period the duration of which was independent of train length. In cells that were excited by application of a particular odor, responsiveness was apparently greater during silent periods between bursts than during bursts. Conversely in cells that were inhibited by a particular odor, responsiveness was only apparent when cells were active. Extensive raw (event timing) data from the cells, together with details of those analyses, are provided as supplementary material, freely available for secondary use by others. PMID:25281614

  3. Accurate assessment of mitral valve area in patients with mitral stenosis by three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Nosir, Y F; Vletter, W B; Kint, P P; Salustri, A; Roelandt, J R

    1997-03-01

    The accuracy of measurements of mitral valve orifice area (MVA) from three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) image data sets obtained by a transthoracic or transesophageal rotational imaging probe was studied in 15 patients with native mitral stenosis. The smallest MVA was identified from a set of eight parallel short-axis cut planes of the mitral valve between the anulus and the tips of leaflets (paraplane echocardiography) and measured by planimetry. In addition, MVA was measured from the two-dimensional short-axis view (2DE). Values of MVA measured by 3DE and 2DE were compared with those calculated from Doppler pressure half-time (PHT) as a gold standard. Observer variabilities were studied for 3DE. MVA measured from PHT ranged between 0.55 and 3.19 cm2 (mean +/- SD 1.57 +/- 0.73 cm2), from 3DE between 0.83 and 3.23 cm2 (mean +/- SD 1.55 +/- 0.67 cm2), and from 2DE between 1.27 and 4.08 cm2 (mean +/- SD 1.9 +/- 0.7 cm2). The variability of intraobserver and interobserver measurements for 3DE measurements was not significantly different (p = 0.79 and p = 0.68, respectively); for interobserver variability, standard error of the estimate = 0.25. There was excellent correlation, close limits of agreement (mean difference +/- 2 SD), and nonsignificant differences between 3DE and PHT for MVA measurements (r = 0.98 [0.02 +/- 0.3] and p = 0.6), respectively. There was moderate correlation, wider limits of agreement, and significant difference between 2DE and PHT for MVA measurements (r = 0.89 [0.32 +/- 0.66] and p = 0.002), respectively. This may be related to the difficulties in visualization of the smallest orifice in precordial short-axis views. This study suggests that three-dimensional image data sets, by providing the possibility of "computer slicing" to generate equidistant parallel cross sections of the mitral valve independently from physically dictated ultrasonic windows, allow accurate and reproducible measurement of the MVA. PMID:9083968

  4. Early and Mid-Term Outcome of Pediatric Congenital Mitral Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Ramin; Tabib, Avisa; Jalili, Farshad; Totonchi, Ziae; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital lesions of the mitral valve are relatively rare and are associated with a wide spectrum of cardiac malformations. The surgical management of congenital mitral valve malformations has been a great challenge. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and intermediate-term outcome of congenital mitral valve (MV) surgery in children and to identify the predictors for poor postoperative outcomes and death. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 100 consecutive patients with congenital MV disease undergoing mitral valve surgery were reviewed in 60-month follow-up (mean, 42.4 ± 16.4 months) during 2008 - 2013. Twenty-six patients (26%) were under one-year old. The mean age and weight of the patients were 41.63 ± 38.18 months and 11.92 ± 6.12 kg, respectively. The predominant lesion of the mitral valve was MV stenosis (MS group) seen in 21% and MR (MR group) seen in 79% of the patients. All patients underwent preoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and then every six months after surgery Results: Significant improvement in degree of MR was noted in all patients with MR during postoperative and follow-up period in both patients with or without atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (P = 0.045 in patients with AVSD and P = 0.008 in patients without AVSD). Decreasing trend of mean gradient (MG) in MS group was statistically significant (P = 0.005). In patients with MR, the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) had improved postoperatively (P < 0.001). Although PAP in patients with MV stenosis was reduced, this reduction was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). In-hospital mortality was 7%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age (P < 0.001), weight (P < 0.001), and pulmonary stenosis (P = 0.03) are strong predictors for mortality. Based on the echocardiography report at the day of discharge from hospital, surgical results were optimal (up to moderate degree for MR group and up to mild degree for MS group) in 85.7% of patients with MS and in 76.6% of patients with MR. Age (P = 0.002) and weight (P = 0.003) of patients are strong predictors for surgical success in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Surgical repair of the congenital MV disease yields acceptable early and intermediate-term satisfactory valve function and good survival at intermediate-term follow-up. Strong predictors for poor surgical outcome and death were age smaller than 1 year, weight smaller or equal than 6 kg, and associated cardiac anomalies such as pulmonary stenosis. PMID:26446282

  5. Life-saving PTMC for critical calcific mitral stenosis in cardiogenic shock with balloon impasse.

    PubMed

    Dugal, J S; Jetley, V; Sabharwal, J S; Sofat, S; Singh, Charanjit

    2003-01-01

    A 32-year-old male patient, a case of critical calcific mitral stenosis (following closed mitral valvotomy in 1989) was admitted for mitral valve replacement in September 2001. In hospital, he developed cardiogenic shock, pulmonary oedema and oliguria precluding surgery. An emergency percutaneous transatrial balloon mitral commissurotomy as a life-saving procedure in a valve with unfavourable morphology and 'balloon impasse' is discussed. PMID:12959736

  6. Increased dispersion of refractoriness in the absence of QT prolongation in patients with mitral valve prolapse and ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Tieleman, R. G.; Crijns, H. J.; Wiesfeld, A. C.; Posma, J.; Hamer, H. P.; Lie, K. I.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The mechanism responsible for the reported high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in mitral valve prolapse is not clear. Electrocardiographic studies show an increased occurrence of repolarisation abnormalities on the 12 lead surface electrocardiogram, indicating regional differences in ventricular recovery. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dispersion of refractoriness was an arrhythmogenic mechanism. METHODS--QT dispersion was measured in 32 patients with echocardiographically documented mitral valve prolapse and ventricular arrhythmias on 24 hour Holter recordings. QT dispersion was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum average QT interval in any of the 12 leads of the surface electrocardiogram. QT dispersion corrected for heart rate was calculated by Bazett's formula. The results were compared with the data from 32 matched controls without a history of cardiac disease. Patients taking drugs that influence the QT interval and patients with a QRS duration > 120 ms were excluded. RESULTS--QT dispersion was greater in patients with mitral valve prolapse than in matched controls (60 (20) v 39 (11 ms) respectively, P < or = 0.001) as was corrected QT (64 (20 ms) v 43 (12 ms) respectively, P < or = 0.001). There was no significant difference in minimum or maximum QT intervals between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS--QT dispersion on the 12 lead surface electrocardiogram was greater in patients with mitral valve prolapse with ventricular arrhythmias than in normal controls, but the maximum QT interval was not increased. The results accord with the hypothesis that regional shortening and lengthening of repolarisation times in patients with mitral valve prolapse may account for the increased dispersion of refractoriness. PMID:7888258

  7. Low Magnesium Levels and FGF-23 Dysregulation Predict Mitral Valve Calcification as well as Intima Media Thickness in Predialysis Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jerónimo, Teresa; Fragoso, André; Silva, Claudia; Guilherme, Patrícia; Santos, Nélio; Faísca, Marília; Neves, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve calcification and intima media thickness (IMT) are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) implicated with high cardiovascular mortality. Objective. To investigate the implication of magnesium and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels with mitral valve calcification and IMT in CKD diabetic patients. Methods. Observational, prospective study involving 150 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD, divided according to Wilkins Score. Carotid-echodoppler and transthoracic echocardiography were used to assess calcification. Statistical tests used to establish comparisons between groups, to identify risk factors, and to establish cut-off points for prediction of mitral valve calcification. Results. FGF-23 values continually increased with higher values for both IMT and calcification whereas the opposite trend was observed for magnesium. FGF-23 and magnesium were found to independently predict mitral valve calcification and IMT (P < 0.05). Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the number of deaths was higher in patients with lower magnesium levels and poorer Wilkins score. The mean cut-off value for FGF-23 was 117?RU/mL and for magnesium 1.7?mg/dL. Conclusions. Hypomagnesemia and high FGF-23 levels are independent predictors of mitral valve calcification and IMT and are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in this population. They might be used as diagnostic/therapeutic targets in order to better manage the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PMID:26089881

  8. Low Magnesium Levels and FGF-23 Dysregulation Predict Mitral Valve Calcification as well as Intima Media Thickness in Predialysis Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Paula; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Jerónimo, Teresa; Fragoso, André; Silva, Claudia; Guilherme, Patrícia; Santos, Nélio; Faísca, Marília; Neves, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve calcification and intima media thickness (IMT) are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) implicated with high cardiovascular mortality. Objective. To investigate the implication of magnesium and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels with mitral valve calcification and IMT in CKD diabetic patients. Methods. Observational, prospective study involving 150 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD, divided according to Wilkins Score. Carotid-echodoppler and transthoracic echocardiography were used to assess calcification. Statistical tests used to establish comparisons between groups, to identify risk factors, and to establish cut-off points for prediction of mitral valve calcification. Results. FGF-23 values continually increased with higher values for both IMT and calcification whereas the opposite trend was observed for magnesium. FGF-23 and magnesium were found to independently predict mitral valve calcification and IMT (P < 0.05). Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the number of deaths was higher in patients with lower magnesium levels and poorer Wilkins score. The mean cut-off value for FGF-23 was 117?RU/mL and for magnesium 1.7?mg/dL. Conclusions. Hypomagnesemia and high FGF-23 levels are independent predictors of mitral valve calcification and IMT and are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in this population. They might be used as diagnostic/therapeutic targets in order to better manage the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PMID:26089881

  9. Mitral chordae myxoma-chordae replacement with a premeasured gore-tex loop using a minimally invasive video-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Hata, Masatoshi; Gummert, Jan F; Börgermann, Jochen; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myxomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors and are associated with embolization, angina, and sudden death. Most cardiac myxomas arise from the fossa ovalis, while those that arise from the mitral valve are exceedingly rare and those that arise from the chordae are even rarer. We report the case of a 28-year-old Caucasian woman who suffered from a brain infarction. A duplex ultrasound showed no cerebrovascular stenosis or occlusion, but an echocardiogram revealed a left ventricle pedunculated mobile mass (5 mm in diameter) that was attached to the mitral valve chordae tendineae. We elected cardiac surgery to resect the cardiac tumor and to avoid further embolic events. The traditional surgical strategy-mitral valve replacement through full sternotomy-has many disadvantages, particularly for young women. Therefore we desided to use the Premeasured Gore-Tex chordal loop method followed by annuloplasty using a minimally invasive video-assisted approach. Exploration of the mitral valve showed a globular tumor involving the anterior mitral leaflet chordae tendineae, which was removed along with the involved chordae tendineae. Histopathological examination of the tissue revealed a benign polypoid myxoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery and has remained symptom-free.Echocardiography one week after surgery showed satisfactory valve function. We believe our surgical treatment was the most appropriate option for this case and it resulted in an excellent medical outcome and improved the quality of life, including only a small lateral scar without the need for teratogenic anticoagulants. PMID:24330768

  10. A Case of Mitral Valve Tophus in a Patient with Severe Gout Tophaceous Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Atooshe; Chamanian, Soheila; Hosseinzade, Peiman; Ramezani, Javad

    2012-01-01

    A few cases of cardiac valve tophi have been reported in literature. In this case report, the echocardiographic characteristics of the hyperechoic mass in the posterior leaflet mitral valve, intact mitral valve ring, and the occurrence of severe tophaceous gout arthritis suggested the diagnosis of a gout tophus on the mitral valve. PMID:23230550

  11. Modified commissural patch repair in a child with active mitral endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Nishigaki, Kyoichi; Kanaya, Tomomitsu; Araki, Kanta; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old patient with massive destruction of the mitral apparatus caused by active infective endocarditis underwent mitral valve plasty using a modified commissural autologous pericardial patch repair. This procedure is a clinically relevant and feasible technique for pediatric patients with active mitral valve endocarditis. PMID:24842454

  12. Opening snap and isovolumic relaxation period in relation to mitral valve flow in patients with mitral stenosis. Significance of A2--OS interval.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmanson, D; Veyrat, C; Bernier, A; Witchitz, S; Chiche, P

    1976-01-01

    In 15 patients with pure or predominant mitral stenosis and in a control group of 11 patients without mitral stenosis the blood flow velocity through the mitral valve orifice was recorded by means of a directional Doppler ultrasound velocity catheter introduced transeptally and positioned in the orifice of the mitral valve. A simultaneous surface phonocardiogram was obtained. The timing of the mitral opening snap in relation to the blood velocity record of the flow through the valve supported the hypothesis that the opening snap is due to a sudden tensing of the valve leaflets by the chordae tendineae. Determination of the exact time of mitral valve opening, made possible by the blood velocity record, led to the division of the classical A2-0S interval (aortic valve closure to opening snap) into two components representing respectively the diastolic isovolumic relaxation period and the time of excursion of the mitral valve cusps. The durations of the isovolumic relaxation period were compared with those in the control patients and were found to correlate with the severity of the mitral stenosis, whereas those of the excursion time of the mitral cusps were influenced by the presence or absence of mitral valve calcification. PMID:1259828

  13. Usefulness of radionuclide angiocardiography in predicting stenotic mitral orifice area

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Armitage, D.L.; Fountas, P.N.; Tremblay, P.C.; Druck, M.N.

    1986-12-01

    Fifteen patients with pure mitral stenosis (MS) underwent high-temporal-resolution radionuclide angiocardiography for calculation of the ratio of peak left ventricular (LV) filling rate divided by mean LV filling rate (filling ratio). Whereas LV filling normally occurs in 3 phases, in MS it is more uniform. Thus, in 13 patients the filling ratio was below the normal range of 2.21 to 2.88 (p less than 0.001). In 11 patients in atrial fibrillation, filling ratio divided by mean cardiac cycle length and by LV ejection fraction provided good correlation (r = 0.85) with modified Gorlin formula derived mitral area and excellent correlation with echocardiographic mitral area (r = 0.95). Significant MS can be detected using radionuclide angiocardiography to calculate filling ratio. In the absence of the confounding influence of atrial systole calculation of 0.14 (filling ratio divided by cardiac cycle length divided by LV ejection fraction) + 0.40 cm2 enables accurate prediction of mitral area (+/- 4%). Our data support the contention that the modified Gorlin formula, based on steady-state hemodynamics, provides less certain estimates of mitral area for patients with MS and atrial fibrillation, in whom echocardiography and radionuclide angiocardiography may be more accurate.

  14. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R; Brender, D; McCredie, M

    1989-01-01

    Pregnancy can cause life threatening complications in women with mitral stenosis, and there is a substantial risk of fetal death if valvotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass is required. A patient is described in whom pulmonary oedema developed after delivery of her first child by caesarean section 13 months previously. Subsequent cardiac catheterisation showed severe mitral stenosis (valve area 0.96 cm2, valve gradient 12 mm Hg, pulmonary artery pressure 30/16 mm Hg). Before valvotomy could be performed the patient again became pregnant and presented in pulmonary oedema at twenty two weeks' gestation. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and she underwent percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. This increased the valve area to 1.78 cm2 and reduced the transmitral gradient to 6 mm Hg. The procedure was uncomplicated, and she remained symptom free on no medication. She delivered vaginally at 37 weeks' gestation. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a safe and effective alternative to mitral valvotomy in pregnancy. PMID:2757867

  15. Chronic Regurgitation among Persons with Mental Retardation: A Need for Combined Medical and Interdisciplinary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study found chronic regurgitation in 23 of 220 institutionalized adults with severe mental retardation. A high prevalence of dysphagia and gastroesophageal abnormalities was found, suggesting the importance of full evaluation and treatment prior to a diagnosis of rumination in this population. (Author/DB)

  16. Effects of hydration on mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Lax, D; Eicher, M; Goldberg, S J

    1993-08-01

    We investigated the effect of hydration on mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Ten subjects with documented diagnosis of MVP were studied before and after oral hydration with 1 L of fluid. Increased weight and cardiac output were present after hydration. Results showed that all 10 subjects with diagnosis of MVP before hydration continued to have MVP after hydration; however, subtle changes were detected, especially on auscultation. Seven of 9 subjects (with cardiac examination recorded before and after hydration) had auscultatory findings of MVP before hydration. No detectable auscultatory change after hydration was present in one subject; in six subjects a loss of either a click or a murmur was detected after hydration. All subjects had echocardiographically detected MVP before hydration; evidence of MVP on two-dimensional or M-mode examination persisted after hydration in all 10 subjects. Minor changes in the echocardiographic examination (M-mode n = 2, Doppler n = 1) were detected in three subjects. Thus we found that hydration of subjects with MVP did not alter the overall diagnosis; however, changes occurred, especially on auscultation. This suggests that alterations in hydration may affect auscultatory expression of MVP and could explain, in part, the variable auscultatory findings in patients with MVP. PMID:8338013

  17. Imaging in Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Stefanie; Castillo-Sang, Mario; Schoepf, U Joseph; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Fuller, Stephen R; Wichmann, Julian L; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; De Cecco, Carlo N

    2015-11-01

    Minimally invasive mitral valve (MV) repair and replacement techniques have evolved as increasingly used alternatives to open heart surgery especially in patients unsuitable for surgery or at high perioperative risk. The vast majority of these techniques are still under development, and only a limited number of devices are approved for clinical use; however, they do show promising results in terms of minimizing complications and improving clinical outcome. The complex anatomy of the MV and the annulus complicates not only the development of devices for minimally invasive MV repair or replacement but also complicates preprocedural planning, which is mandatory for minimization of postprocedural complications. Although echocardiography still plays a crucial clinical role, cross-sectional imaging modalities such as coronary computed tomography (CCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are increasingly gaining importance for preprocedural planning. Specifically, CCT seems to be more practicable for preinterventional planning and device sizing, whereas CMR has been shown useful in detecting increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes through delayed gadolinium enhancement and the monitoring of cardiac morphology and function in the framework of follow-up examinations. This article describes recent techniques currently available or under development for minimally invasive repair or replacement of the MV and reviews the current state of CCT and CMR imaging for preinterventional and postinterventional diagnostic workup. PMID:26258600

  18. In vitro balloon dilatation of mitral valve stenosis: the importance of subvalvar involvement as a cause of mitral valve insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Sadee, A S; Becker, A E

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism that increases the orifice area of the mitral valve during balloon dilatation 43 surgically excised intact rheumatic mitral valves were studied. The main pathological features were (a) fibrosis of mitral valve leaflets and commissures (10 valves); (b) fibrosis with calcification of one commissure (eight anterolateral, seven posteromedial); (c) fibrosis with calcification of both commissures (seven valves); and (d) predominant involvement of the subvalvar apparatus (11 valves). The valves were assessed by photography and radiography before and after balloon dilatation (balloons up to 38 mm (bifoil 2 x 19 mm) and pressures up to 4 atmospheres). The valve was dilated in stages under direct visual control by balloons of increasing diameter. Splitting of the fused commissures was the most common mode of widening the orifice. However, the mitral valve leaflets were torn in two fibrotic valves and in six valves with extensive involvement of the subvalvar apparatus. In the fibrotic valves (group (a] the tear originated near the valve perimeter, at the thinnest part of the remaining valve leaflet. In the valves with subvalvar involvement splitting started at the apex of spaces between the fused chordal columns and proceeded upward. Where there is extensive involvement of the subvalvar apparatus in rheumatic mitral valve disease the risk of tearing of the valve leaflets by balloon dilatation is increased and this is likely to predispose to the development of acute valvar insufficiency. Images PMID:2039673

  19. Comprehensive assessment of the severity and mechanism of aortic regurgitation using multidetector CT and MR.

    PubMed

    Goffinet, Céline; Kersten, Valérie; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoit; Vancraeynest, David; Pasquet, Agnès; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that both cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) can quantify aortic regurgitation (AR) by planimetry of the anatomical regurgitant orifice (ARO). However, this measurement was not compared with quantitative assessment of AR such as the effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) by proximal isosurface area (PISA) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or phase contrast MR. In 42 patients (34 men, age 54 +/- 11 years) we compared planimetered ARO by MDCT and MR with ERO and regurgitant volume by PISA TTE and phase contrast MR. ARO by MDCT (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and MR (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) correlated highly with ERO by TTE. However, ARO by MDCT (27 +/- 15 mm(2), p < 0.001), but not by MR (23 +/- 13 mm(2), p = 0.58), were larger than PISA ERO (22 +/- 11 mm(2)). ARO by MDCT (r = 0.78, p < 0.001; r = 0.85, p < 0.001) and MR (r = 0.85, p < 0.001; r = 0.87 p < 0.001) correlated well with regurgitant volume by PISA and phase contrast MR. Both MDCT (small ka, Cyrillic = 0.80, p < 0.001) and MR (small ka, Cyrillic = 0.84, p < 0.001) demonstrated excellent agreement in correctly assessing the mechanisms of AR, i.e. aortic root dilatation (type I), cusp prolapse (type II) and restrictive cusp motion (type III), using surgical inspection as a reference. Measurement of ARO by both MDCT and MR allows accurate quantitative assessment of AR. Both techniques can also accurately determine the mechanism of AR. PMID:19652976

  20. Surgical phantom for off-pump mitral valve replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Campbell, Gordon; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Off-pump, intracardiac, beating heart surgery has the potential to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping but it requires extensive image guidance as well as the development of specialized instrumentation. Previously, developments in image guidance and instrumentation were validated on either a static phantom or in vivo through porcine models. This paper describes the design and development of a surgical phantom for simulating off-pump mitral valve replacement inside the closed beating heart. The phantom allows surgical access to the mitral annulus while mimicking the pressure inside the beating heart. An image guidance system using tracked ultrasound, magnetic instrument tracking and preoperative models previously developed for off-pump mitral valve replacement is applied to the phantom. Pressure measurements and ultrasound images confirm the phantom closely mimics conditions inside the beating heart.

  1. Evaluation of aortic regurgitation by using PC MRI: A comparison of the accuracies at different image plane locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong-Gull; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Yong-Soon

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study is to determine which imaging location on phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC MRI) best correlates with echocardiography to enable the severity of aortic regurgitation to be accurately evaluated by using PC MRI. The subjects were 34 patients with aortic regurgitation confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac MRI. Two velocity distribution images were obtained by positioning image planes above and below the aortic valve in the PC MRI. Using the acquired images, regurgitation fractions were calculated by calculating the average forward and reverse blood flows. The severity of aortic regurgitation was then evaluated and compared with the severity as determined by using echocardiography. When image planes were positioned above the aortic valve, the regurgitation fraction obtained by using PC MRI was 44.5 ± 18.7%, and when planes were positioned below the valve, the regurgitation fraction was 34.8 ± 15.9%. Regarding agreement with echocardiographic findings, concurrence was shown to be 50% when image planes sections were positioned above the valve and 85.3% when they were positioned below the valve. The present study shows that if image planes are positioned below the valve rather than above the valve, provides as accurate evaluation of the severity of aortic regurgitation.

  2. Clinical and echocardiographic results of the Kalangos biodegradable tricuspid ring for moderate and severe functional tricuspid regurgitation treatment

    PubMed Central

    Goncu, Tugrul; Alur, Ihsan; Gucu, Arif; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Toktas, Faruk; Kahraman, Nail; Vural, Hakan; Yavuz, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Kalangos Biodegradable Tricuspid Ring (Kalangos Biodegradable Tricuspid Ring®, Bioring SA, Lonay, Switzerland) is a biodegradable prothesis in the treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR). In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical and echocardiographic results of this prosthesis for moderate and severe FTR treatment and compare this technique with the results of semicircular DeVega annuloplasty. Materials and methods: From January 2005 through January 2010 we retrospectively studied the data on 64 consecutive patients underwent annuloplasty procedures for FTR treatment. The patients were assigned to 2 groups: (1) Kalangos BTR annuloplasty was performed in 32 patients, and (2) Semicircular DeVega annuloplasty was performed in the 32 patients. All patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography preoperatively, at the end of the 1st week, 3rd and 6th month following surgery. Results: No complications related to the prosthesis or the procedures within the follow-up period were recorded. At the follow-up period, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and tricuspid valve area diameter were found to be significantly lower than the preoperative values in both groups (p < 0.0001). At the follow-up period residual tricuspid regurgitation and the Tei index (Myocardial performance index) was significantly lower in group 1 compared to group 2 (p < 0.05). Three-quarters of the annuloplasty ring had degraded in the postoperative 6-months period. Discussion: We conclude that Kalangos BTR is an efficient and safe prosthesis with easy implantation technique for FTR treatment, with encouraging midterm results. PMID:25932243

  3. Evaluation of in vivo morphological results of balloon mitral valvotomy.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, M; Biagini, A; Anastasio, G; Maffei, S; Levantino, M; Salvatore, L

    1990-01-01

    Percutaneous valvotomy is now more often considered for the treatment of mitral stenosis in poor risk patients. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the morphological changes produced by a similar procedure on the mitral valves of nine nonconsecutive patients undergoing a mitral valve replacement because of calcific isolated or prevalent mitral stenosis. The mitral valve was dilated through the left atriotomy before the valve excision with the same balloon catheter used in the percutaneous procedure. The pathological condition of the valve had been studied before dilatation by means of doppler echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and a visual examination performed by the surgeon before insertion of the balloon. At that time, the orifice area was measured with a Hegar dilator. A new measurement was performed after one or two dilatations performed at a balloon pressure of 2.7 atm. After excision, the valve was examined, photographed and X-rays were taken for evaluation of valve calcification. The pre-dilatation mean mitral valve orifice area was 1.3 +/- 0.4 cm2 and after the procedure was 2.8 +/- 0.3 cm2. In only one patient did the orifice area, originally 2.4 cm2, not increase. There was only one fused and calcified commissure, the other was normal. Before dilatation, the two commissures were fused in 17/18 cases and in 9/18, calcified. After dilatation, 5/17 commissures were completely open (not all were calcified), 10/17 incompletely opened and 2/17 remained fused (one in the above-mentioned patient).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2361023

  4. Parachute mitral valve in a young adult with recurrent pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Justyna; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Ku?mierczyk, Mariusz; Róza?ski, Jacek; Kowalski, Miros?aw; Hoffman, Piotr

    2011-06-01

    A parachute mitral valve is a rare congenital malformation resulting from fusion of the mitral chordae tendineae and their attachment to the one prominent papillary muscle. It can be found either as an isolated lesion or, more often, associated with left heart obstructive lesions, patent ductus arteriosus or ventricular septal defect. Congenital mitral stenosis usually presents with severe symptoms in early childhood, otherwise remains stable and hardly ever requires surgical intervention. We present a case of a young adult with severe stenosis of a parachute mitral valve and history of recurrent pulmonary oedema treated by mitral commissurotomy. PMID:21744717

  5. Damage to the circumflex coronary artery during mitral valve repair with sliding leaflet technique.

    PubMed

    Tavilla, G; Pacini, D

    1998-12-01

    We report a case of damage to the circumflex coronary artery during mitral valve repair