Objective Forces acting on mitral annular devices in the setting of ischemic mitral regurgitation are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the cyclic forces that result from mitral annular contraction in a chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation ovine model and compare them with forces measured previously in healthy animals. Methods A novel force transducer was implanted in the mitral annulus of 6 ovine subjects 8 weeks after an inferior left ventricle infarction that produced progressive, severe chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation. Septal–lateral and transverse forces were measured continuously for cardiac cycles reaching a peak left ventricular pressure of 90, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mm Hg. Cyclic forces and their rate of change during isovolumetric contraction were quantified and compared with those measured in healthy animals. Results Animals with chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation exhibited a mean mitral regurgitation grade of 2.3 ± 0.5. Ischemic mitral regurgitation was observed to decrease significantly septal–lateral forces at each level of left ventricular pressure (P<.01). Transverse forces were consistently lower in the ischemic mitral regurgitation group despite not reaching statistical significance. The rate of change of these forces during isovolumetric contraction was found to increase significantly with peak left ventricular pressure (P<.005), but did not differ significantly between animal groups. Conclusions Mitral annular forces were measured for the first time in a chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation animal model. Our findings demonstrated an inferior left ventricular infarct to decrease significantly cyclic septal–lateral forces while modestly lowering those in the transverse. The measurement of these forces and their variation with left ventricular pressure contributes significantly to the development of mitral annular ischemic mitral regurgitation devices.
Siefert, Andrew W.; Jimenez, Jorge H.; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; Aguel, Fernando; West, Dustin S.; Shuto, Takashi; Snow, Teresa K.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
Mitral regurgitation may result from left ventricular dilatation and cause progression of heart failure. Percutaneous techniques for mitral valve repair are under development. Techniques utilizing a trans-coronary venous approach exploit the anatomical relationship between the mitral annulus and the venous system of the heart. The coronary sinus, great cardiac vein and the origin of the anterior interventricular vein surround the posterior mitral annulus. This enables percutaneous approaches to annuloplasty for mitral regurgitation. Devices can be implanted into the coronary veins that modify the shape and size of the mitral annulus. We present a case of ischaemic mitral regurgitation successfully treated by use of a percutaneous approach, the Carillon Mitral Contour System. Significant reduction of the mitral regurgitation jet was observed. The patient was discharged 4 days after the procedure. During the follow-up visits, the patient showed an improved general condition and increased exercise capacity. Procedural steps are shown in detail and the current status of the coronary sinus based technique is discussed. Percutaneous techniques for mitral valve repair may be an attractive alternative to cardiac surgery in heart failure patients with secondary mitral regurgitation. The Carillon Mitral Contour System is under ongoing clinical evaluation in the AMADEUS trial. PMID:17436155
Siminiak, Tomasz; Firek, Ludwik; Jerzykowska, Olga; Ka?mucki, Piotr; Wo?oszyn, Maciej; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Link, Rafa?
Purpose In mitral valve prolapse, determining whether the valve is suitable for surgical repair depends on the location and mechanism of regurgitation. We assessed whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) could accurately identify prolapsing or flail mitral valve leaflets and regurgitant jet direction in patients with known moderate or severe mitral regurgitation. Methods CMR of the mitral valve was compared with trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 27 patients with chronic moderate to severe mitral regurgitation due to mitral valve prolapse. Contiguous long-axis high temporal resolution CMR cines perpendicular to the valve commissures were obtained across the mitral valve from the medial to lateral annulus. This technique allowed systematic valve inspection and mapping of leaflet prolapse using a 6 segment model. CMR mapping was compared with trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TOE) or surgical inspection in 10 patients. Results CMR and TTE agreed on the presence/absence of leaflet abnormality in 53 of 54 (98%) leaflets. Prolapse or flail was seen in 36 of 54 mitral valve leaflets examined on TTE. CMR and TTE agreed on the discrimination of prolapse from flail in 33 of 36 (92%) leaflets and on the predominant regurgitant jet direction in 26 of the 27 (96%) patients. In the 10 patients with TOE or surgical operative findings available, CMR correctly classified presence/absence of segmental abnormality in 49 of 60 (82%) leaflet segments. Conclusion Systematic mitral valve assessment using a simple protocol is feasible and could easily be incorporated into CMR studies in patients with mitral regurgitation due to mitral valve prolapse.
Gabriel, Ruvin S; Kerr, Andrew J; Raffel, Owen C; Stewart, Ralph A; Cowan, Brett R; Occleshaw, Christopher J
Mitral valve regurgitation is a relatively common and important heart valve lesion in clinical practice and adequate assessment is fundamental to decision on management, repair or replacement. Disease localised to the posterior mitral valve leaflet or focal involvement of the anterior mitral valve leaflet is most amenable to mitral valve repair, whereas patients with extensive involvement of the anterior leaflet or incomplete closure of the valve are more suitable for valve replacement. Echocardiography is the recognized investigation of choice for heart valve disease evaluation and assessment. However, the technique is depended on operator experience and on patient's hemodynamic profile, and may not always give optimal diagnostic views of mitral valve dysfunction. Cardiac catheterization is related to common complications of an interventional procedure and needs a hemodynamic laboratory. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) seems to be a useful tool which gives details about mitral valve anatomy, precise point of valve damage, as well as the quantity of regurgitation. Finally, despite of its higher cost, cardiac MRI using cine images with optimized spatial and temporal resolution can also resolve mitral valve leaflet structural motion, and can reliably estimate the grade of regurgitation.
Apostolakis, Efstratios E; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G
Objectives We sought to evaluate the geometric changes of the mitral leaflets, local and global LV remodeling in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and varying degrees of Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Background Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) occurs as a consequence of systolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction caused by ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Mitral valve repair in ischemic MR is one of the most controversial topic in surgery and proper repairing requires an understanding of its mechanisms, as the exact mechanism of FMR are not well defined. Methods 136 consecutive patients mean age of 55 with systolic LV dysfunction and FMR underwent complete echocardiography and after assessing MR severity, LV volumes, Ejection Fraction, LV sphericity index, C-Septal distance, Mitral valve annulus, Interpapillary distance, Tenting distance and Tenting area were obtained. Results There was significant association between MR severity and echocardiogarphic indices (all p values < 0.001). Severe MR occurred more frequently in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients compared to ischemic patients, (p < 0.001). Based on the model, only Mitral valve tenting distance (TnD) (OR = 22.11, CI 95%: 14.18 – 36.86, p < 0.001) and Interpapillary muscle distance (IPMD), (OR = 6.53, CI 95%: 2.10 – 10.23, p = 0.001) had significant associations with MR severity. Mitral annular dimensions and area, C-septal distance and sphericity index, although greater in patients with severe regurgitation, did not significantly contribute to FMR severity. Conclusion Degree of LV enlargement and dysfunction were not primary determinants of FMR severity, therefore local LV remodeling and mitral valve apparatus deformation are the strongest predictors of functional MR severity.
Sadeghpour, Anita; Abtahi, Firoozeh; Kiavar, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Samiei, Niloofar; Ojaghi, Seyedeh Zahra; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Maleki, Majid; Noohi, Feridoun; Mohebbi, Ahmad
Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) frequently develop in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Ventricular volume overload that occurs in patients with MR and TR may lead to progression of myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesized that MR and TR would provide markers of risk in patients with LVSD. Methods We reviewed clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data on
Todd M. Koelling; Keith D. Aaronson; Robert J. Cody; David S. Bach; William F. Armstrong
Qualitative grading of mitral regurgitation severity has significant pitfalls secondary to hemodynamic variables, sonographic technique, blood pool entrainment, and the Coanda effect. Volumetric and proximal isovelocity surface area methods can be used to quantitate regurgitant orifice area, regurgitant volume, and regurgitant fraction, but have several limitations and can pose technical challenges. The vena contracta width method provides a rapid and accurate quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation severity, but is clinically underused. This article is intended to generate an understanding of the flow mechanics of the vena contracta and the sonographic technique required to provide consistent and accurate measurements of vena contracta width in patients with mitral regurgitation. PMID:12931115
Roberts, Brad J; Grayburn, Paul A
Mitral regurgitation results from the incomplete closure of the mitral valve, and the noninvasive diagnosis of this disease remains an important clinical goal. In this study, steady flow computer simulations were used to evaluate flow convergence method for flow rate estimation. The hemispheric and hemielliptic formulae were compared for accuracy in the presence of complicating factors such as ventricular confinement, orifice shape, and aortic outflow. Results showed that in the absence of aortic outflow and ventricular confinement, there was a plateau zone where the hemispheric formula approximated the true flow rate, independent of orifice shape. However, in the presence of complicating factors such as aortic outflow and ventricular confinement, there was no clear zone where the hemispheric formula could be applied. The hemielliptic formula, however, worked in all cases, regardless of chamber size or magnitude of aortic outflow. Therefore, application of the hemielliptic formula should be considered in future clinical studies. PMID:8886237
Hopmeyer, J; Whitney, E; Papp, D A; Navathe, M S; Levine, R A; Kim, Y H; Yoganathan, A P
Purpose of review Surgical treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation with reduction annuloplasty is the current standard of practice, yet recurrence rates approaching 30% limit the benefits of repair in this subset of patients. In an effort to improve outcomes, attention has turned to understanding the contribution of leaflet tethering in this disease process. Subvalvular techniques to alleviate leaflet restriction have recently been incorporated into methods of repair. Recent findings Parameters of left ventricular remodeling have been quantified as risk factors for recurrence of mitral regurgitation following reduction annuloplasty. Papillary muscle relocation restores the physiologic configuration of the subvalvular apparatus, and results in significantly reduced rates of recurrent mitral regurgitation and adverse cardiac events over time. Secondary chordal cutting or reimplantation results in significantly increased leaflet mobility, decreased severity of recurrent mitral regurgitation, and improved reverse remodeling without adverse effect on left ventricular function. Summary A superior repair with decreased recurrence of mitral regurgitation and enhanced reversal of left ventricular remodeling is possible when subvalvular techniques are combined with traditional ring annuloplasty. Further understanding of preoperative parameters that predict disease recurrence and inclusion of concomitant subvalvular techniques in this subset of patients will be the next major advance in this field.
Wagner, Cynthia E.; Kron, Irving L.
Background. Current techniques of mitral valve repair rely on decreasing valve area to increase leaflet apposition, but fail to address subvalvular dysfunction. A novel repair has been introduced with partial left ventriculectomy, which apposes the anterior leaflet to a corresponding point on the posterior leaflet creating a double-orifice valve, with reported adequate control of mitral regurgitation.Methods. We started to use
Juan P Umaña; Bijan Salehizadeh; Joseph J DeRose; Tamanna Nahar; Alan Lotvin; Shunichi Homma; Mehmet C Oz
Relationship between mitral leaflets angles, left ventricular geometry and mitral deformation indices in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation: imaging by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance
Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is associated with a markedly worse prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI).The\\u000a study aimed to evaluate the relationship between anterior and posterior mitral leaflet angle (MLA) values, left ventricle\\u000a remodeling and severity of ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Methods: Forty-two patients (age 63.5 ± 9.7 years, 36 men) with chronic IMR (regurgitant volume, RV > 20 ml; >6 months after MI)\\u000a underwent transthoracic echocardiography
Agata Lesniak-SobelgaEwa; Ewa Wicher-Muniak; Magdalena Kostkiewicz; Maria Olszowska; Piotr Musia?ek; Piotr Klimeczek; Pawe? Bany?; Mieczys?aw Pasowicz; Wies?awa Tracz; Piotr Podolec
Objectives: The new percutaneous mitral annuloplasty Viking device was evaluated in surviving sheep with pacing-induced mitral regurgitation. Methods and results: Twenty sheep were subjected to rapid ventricular pacing for one to three months, leading to cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation. Device implantation could be successfully performed in 11 of these animals after pacemaker treatment for 64+/-7 days. The device-related procedure time was 12+/-2 min. The mean follow-up time was 58+/-8 days after implantation of the device. Mitral annulus septo-lateral diameter was significantly reduced after insertion of the device, from 35+/-1 mm before implantation to 30+/-1 mm at the final follow up intracardiac echocardiography (P = 0.0097). The degree of mitral regurgitation (on a scale from 0 to 4) was 2.6+/-0.2 before device implantation and decreased to 0.8+/-0.2 after treatment (P = 0.0039), and the vena contracta was reduced from 7+/-0.4 mm to 3+/-0.8 mm (P = 0.0019). Angiography showed no signs of impairment of the coronary arteries. No thrombosis was observed. Conclusions: These results indicate that the septo-lateral diameter of the mitral annulus, and the degree of experimentally induced mitral regurgitation, can be significantly reduced with a percutaneous catheter technique in surviving sheep. PMID:19758928
Kimblad, Per Ola; Harnek, Jan; Roijer, Anders; Meurling, Carl; Brandt, Johan; Solem, Jan Otto
Pulsed Doppler indices were devised in order to grade the severity of mitral regurgitation on a quantitative basis. Indices were obtained by mapping the regurgitant jet by recording abnormal systolic Doppler signals detected on a \\
C Veyrat; A Ameur; S Bas; A Lessana; G Abitbol; D Kalmanson
Background The systolic variation of mitral regurgitation (MR) is a pitfall in its quantification. Current recommendations advocate using quantitative echocardiographic techniques that account for this systolic variation. While prior studies have qualitatively described patterns of systolic variation no study has quantified this variation. Methods This study includes 41 patients who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) evaluation for the assessment of MR. Systole was divided into 3 equal parts: early, mid, and late. The MR jets were categorized as holosystolc, early, or late based on the portions of systole the jet was visible. The aortic flow and left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) acquired by CMR were plotted against time. The instantaneous regurgitant rate was calculated for each third of systole as the difference between the LVSV and the aortic flow. Results The regurgitant rate varied widely with a 1.9-fold, 3.4-fold, and 1.6-fold difference between the lowest and highest rate in patients with early, late, and holosystolic jets respectively. There was overlap of peak regurgitant rates among patients with mild, moderate and severe MR. The greatest variation of regurgitant rate was seen among patients with mild MR. Conclusion CMR can quantify the systolic temporal variation of MR. There is significant variation of the mitral regurgitant rate even among patients with holosystolic MR jets. These findings highlight the need to use quantitative measures of MR severity that take into consideration the temporal variation of MR.
Evaluation of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity remains complex and challenging. An integrative approach to grading MR is recommended. The use of multiple Doppler methods should be used to help discriminate between grades of severity. Importantly, MR severity should always be considered in the context of clinical data. The emerging inclusion of 3-dimensional echocardiography may provide complementary data for MR quantification and better anatomic and pathophysiological detail of the mitral valve. This article summarizes recommendations for MR assessment and highlights the importance of an integrated approach, using anatomic information as well as qualitative and quantitative Doppler measures. PMID:23743070
Solis, Jorge; Piro, Victoria; Loughlin, Gerard; Vazquez de Prada, Jose Antonio
Background Ischemic mitral regurgitation often complicates severe ischemic heart disease and adversely affects the prognosis in these patients. There is wide variation in the clinical spectrum of ischemic mitral regurgitation due to varying location and chronicity of ischemia and anomalies in annular and ventricular remodeling. As a result, there is lack of consensus in treating these patients. Treatment has to be individualized for each patient. Most of the available surgical options do not consistently correct this condition in all the patients. Chordal cutting is one of the newer surgical approaches in which cutting a limited number of critically positioned basal chordae have found success by relieving the leaflet tethering and thereby improving the coaptation of leaflets. Three-dimensional echocardiography is a potentially valuable tool in identifying the specific pattern of tethering and thus the suitability of this procedure in a given clinical scenario. Case Presentation A 66-year-old man with cardiomyopathy and ischemic mitral regurgitation presented to us with the features of congestive heart failure. The three-dimensional echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation associated with the tethering of the lateral (P1) and medial (P3) scallops of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve due to secondary chordal attachments. The ejection fraction was only 15% with severe global systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Mitral regurgitation was successfully corrected with mitral annuloplasty and resection of the secondary chordae tethering the medial and lateral scallops of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Conclusion Cutting the second order chordae along with mitral annuloplasty could be a novel method to remedy Ischemic mitral regurgitation by relieving the tethering of the valve leaflets. The preoperative three-dimensional echocardiography should be considered in all patients with Ischemic mitral regurgitation to assess the complex three-dimensional interactions between the mitral valve apparatus and the left ventricle. This aids in timely surgical planning.
Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B; Vandse, Rashmi; Armen, Todd A; Bickle, Katherine M; Nathan, Nadia S
Structured Abstract Objectives We developed and tested a novel transcatheter circumferential annuloplasty technique to reduce mitral regurgitation in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy. Background Catheter-based annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation exploits the proximity of the coronary sinus to the mitral annulus, but is limited by anatomic variants and coronary artery entrapment. Methods The procedure, “cerclage annuloplasty,” is guided by MRI roadmaps fused with live X-ray. A coronary sinus guidewire traverses a short segment of basal septal myocardium to reenter the right heart where it is exchanged for a suture. Tension is applied interactively during imaging and secured with a locking device. Results We found two feasible suture pathways from the great cardiac vein across the interventricular septum to create cerclage. Right-ventricular septal reentry required shorter fluoroscopy times than right atrial reentry, which entailed a longer intramyocardial traversal but did not cross the tricuspid valve. Graded tension progressively reduced septal-lateral annular diameter but not end-systolic elastance or regional myocardial function. A simple arch-like device protected entrapped coronary arteries from compression even during supra-therapeutic tension. Cerclage reduced mitral regurgitation fraction (from 22.8 ± 12.7% to 7.2 ± 4.4%, p=0.04) by slice-tracking velocity-encoded MRI. Flexible cerclage reduced annular size but preserved annular motion. Cerclage also displaced the posterior annulus towards the papillary muscles. Cerclage introduced reciprocal constraint to the left ventricular outflow tract and mitral annulus that enhanced leaflet coaptation. A sample of human coronary venograms and CT angiograms suggested that most have suitable venous anatomy for cerclage. Conclusions Transcatheter mitral cerclage annuloplasty acutely reduces mitral regurgitation in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy. Entrapped coronary arteries can be protected. MRI provided insight into the mechanism of cerclage action.
Kim, June-Hong; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Sonmez, Merdim; Sampath, Smita; Saikus, Christina E.; Kim, Ann H.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Derbyshire, J. Andrew; Schenke, William H.; Wright, Victor J.; Berry, Colin; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.
Secondary or 'functional' mitral regurgitation (MR) is often due to ischemic heart disease that results in disordered left ventricle and mitral valve geometry. In patients with coronary disease, concomitant MR results in worse morbidity and mortality. Coronary artery disease may result in annular dilation due to left ventricle cavity dilation, excessive leaflet motion, impaired leaflet motion due to leaflet tethering and papillary muscle displacement, and/or decreased mitral valve closing forces due to systolic dysfunction. Although transthoracic echocardiography is the first step in the diagnosis of ischemic MR, transesophageal and three-dimensional echocardiography are often useful adjuncts to better understand the mechanism(s) of disease and planning repair. Furthermore, noninvasive evaluation of ischemia and viability may provide important prognostic information. Medical therapy for ischemic MR is directed at the underlying ischemic substrate and concomitant systolic dysfunction, and consists of ?-blockers and vasodilators. Percutaneous strategies for repair are currently under investigation, and have shown promising results. Surgical repair is favored over replacement, and is generally recommended for patients with moderate or severe MR undergoing coronary artery bypass. Unfortunately, long-term freedom from MR is elusive even with surgical repair, and trials are currently underway to determine the best approach to treatment in patients with moderate disease. PMID:21572322
Krishnaswamy, Amar; Marc Gillinov, Alan; Griffin, Brian P
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used to assess patients with mitral regurgitation. Its advantages include quantitative determination of ventricular volumes and function and the mitral regurgitant fraction, and in ischemic mitral regurgitation, regional myocardial function and viability. In addition to these, identification of leaflet prolapse or restriction is necessary when valve repair is contemplated. We describe a systematic approach to the evaluation of mitral regurgitation using CMR which we have used in 149 patients with varying etiologies and severity of regurgitation over a 15 month period. Following standard ventricular cine acquisitions, including 2, 3 and 4 chamber long axis views and a short axis stack for biventricular function, we image movements of all parts of the mitral leaflets using a contiguous stack of oblique long axis cines aligned orthogonal to the central part of the line of coaptation. The 8–10 slices in the stack, orientated approximately parallel to a 3-chamber view, are acquired sequentially from the superior (antero-lateral) mitral commissure to the inferior (postero-medial) commissure, visualising each apposing pair of anterior and posterior leaflet scallops in turn (A1-P1, A2-P2 and A3-P3). We use balanced steady state free precession imaging at 1.5 Tesla, slice thickness 5 mm, with no inter-slice gaps. Where the para-commissural coaptation lines curve relative to the central region, two further oblique cines are acquired orthogonal to the line of coaptation adjacent to each commissure. To quantify mitral regurgitation, we use phase contrast velocity mapping to measure aortic outflow, subtracting this from the left ventricular stroke volume to calculate the mitral regurgitant volume which, when divided by the left ventricular stroke volume, gives the mitral regurgitant fraction. In patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation, we further assess regional left ventricular function and, with late gadolinium enhancement, myocardial viability. Comprehensive assessment of mitral regurgitation using CMR is feasible and enables determination of mitral regurgitation severity, associated leaflet prolapse or restriction, ventricular function and viability in a single examination and is now routinely performed at our centre. The mitral valve stack of images is particularly useful and easy to acquire.
Chan, KM John; Wage, Ricardo; Symmonds, Karen; Rahman-Haley, Shelley; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N; Pepper, John R; Pennell, Dudley J; Kilner, Philip J
Advances in echocardiographic systems and computer applications have made three dimensional reconstruction of anatomical structures possible which open a new and fascinating field of color Doppler flow image, but the spatial shape and quantitative evaluation of mitral eccentric regurgitation is often difficult in the clinical setting. In this paper, we present a method to complete the 3D reconstruction of the mitral eccentric regurgitation, mitral eccentric regurgitation information was first derived from color Doppler flow images and then the mitral eccentric regurgitation velocity values was mapped according to the color bar in the images. With the proper method of interpolation and rendering, the experiment result of 3D visualization of mitral eccentric regurgitation is satisfying. Measurements from a 3D reconstructed flow convergence region may be superior to measurements from 2D color Doppler recordings to calculate volume flow, 3D mitral eccentric regurgitation reconstruction is possible and opens new possibilities in flow quantification. Futher study of the method may be very helpful in the diagnosis of heart diseases.
Liu, Qi; Wang, Ling J.; Wang, Tian Fu; Zheng, Chang Qiong; Zheng, Yi
The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified.
Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis
Background and aim of the study Diastolic mitral valve (MV) opening characteristics during ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) are poorly characterized. The diastolic MV opening dynamics was quantified along the entire valvular coaptation line in an ovine model of acute IMR. Methods Ten radiopaque markers were sutured in pairs on the anterior (A1-E1) and corresponding posterior (A2-E2) leaflet edges from the anterior (A1/A2) to the posterior (E1/E2) commissure in 11 adult sheep. Immediately after surgery, 4-D marker coordinates were obtained before and during occlusion of the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. Distances between marker pairs were calculated throughout the cardiac cycle every 16.7 ms. Leaflet opening was defined as the time after end-systole (ES) when the first derivative of the distance between marker pairs was greater than a threshold value of 3 cm/s. Valve opening velocity was defined as the maximum slope of marker pair tracings. Results Hemodynamics were consistent with acute ischemia, as reflected by increased MR grade (0.5 ± 0.3 versus 2.3 ± 0.7, p <0.05), decreased contractility (dP/dtmax: 1,948 ± 598 versus 1,119 ± 293 mmHg/s, p <0.05), and slower left ventricular relaxation rate (dP/dtmin: ?1,079 ± 188 versus ?538 ± 147 mmHg/s, p <0.05). During ischemia, valve opening occurred earlier (A1/A2: 112 ± 28 versus 83 ± 43 ms, B1/B2: 105 ± 32 versus 68 ± 35 ms, C1/C2: 126 ± 25 versus 74 ± 37 ms, D1/D2: 114 ± 28 versus 71 ± 34 ms, E1/E2: 125 ± 29 versus 105 ± 33 ms; all p <0.05) and was slower (A1/A2: 16.8 ± 9.6 versus 14.2 ± 9.4 cm/s, B1/B2: 40.4 ± 9.9 versus 32.2 ± 10.0 cm/s, C1/C2: 59.0 ± 14.9 versus 50.4 ± 18.1 cm/s, D1/D2: 34.4 ± 10.4 versus 25.5 ± 10.9 cm/s; all p <0.05), except at the posterior edge (E1/E2: 13.3 ± 8.7 versus 10.6 ± 7.2 cm/s). The sequence of regional mitral leaflet separation along the line of coaptation did not change with ischemia. Conclusion Acute posterolateral left ventricular ischemia causes earlier leaflet opening, probably due to a MR-related elevation in left-atrial pressure; reduces leaflet opening velocity, potentially reflecting an impaired left ventricular relaxation rate; and does not perturb the homogeneous temporal pattern of regional valve opening along the line of coaptation. Future studies will confirm whether these findings are apparent in patients with chronic IMR, and may help to refine the current strategies used to treat IMR.
Bothe, Wolfgang; Ennis, Daniel B.; Carlhall, Carl Johan; Nguyen, Tom C.; Timek, Tomasz A.; Lai, David T.; Itoh, Akinobu; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig
Background. We sought to characterize patient survival and degree of late mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients undergoing surgical revascularization with moderate ischemic MR. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 251 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery between 1991 and 2001 with 3 ischemic MR, including 31 patients who had concomitant mitral annuloplasty. Univariate and multivariable testing was employed. Results. Actuarial
Daniel R. Wong; Arvind K. Agnihotri; Judy W. Hung; Gus J. Vlahakes; Cary W. Akins; Alan D. Hilgenberg; Joren C. Madsen; Thomas E. MacGillivray; Michael H. Picard; David F. Torchiana
Current surgical management of restrictive ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) includes mitral valve annuloplasty (MVA) using an undersized ring when the mechanism is secondary to leaflet restriction. In our experience, MVA alone is inadequate to eliminate mitral incompetence in these patients. We report the 'Down-Under Repair' as an adjunctive concept for the treatment of a subset of patients with restrictive IMR and associated inferobasal left ventricular aneurysm. The 'Down-Under Repair' reduces mitral leaflet restriction by approximating the origin of the posterior papillary muscle towards the mitral annulus. Midterm results demonstrated sustained valvular competence and symptomatic improvement. PMID:23948288
Goh, Siew; Newcomb, Andrew; Prior, David; Rosalion, Alexander; Nixon, Ian; Davis, Philip; Yii, Michael
Functional mitral regurgitation is a highly prevalent condition among patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Arising from remodeling of both the mitral valve annulus and the left ventricle, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In selected patients, cardiac resynchronization therapy helps to reduce functional mitral regurgitation, but surgical intervention remains the mainstay of therapy when medical therapy for left ventricular dysfunction has been inadequate. It is, however, associated with significant perioperative risks and does not alter long-term mortality. Percutaneous devices, and more recently the Mitraclip in particular, represent a promising alternative that can improve symptoms and ventricular remodeling with significantly lower periprocedural risk. PMID:24440574
Punnoose, Lynn; Burkhoff, Daniel; Cunningham, Lian; Horn, Evelyn M
Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It is unknown whether the criteria for MR classification are inadequate for patients with DCM. Objective We aimed to evaluate the agreement among the four most common echocardiographic methods for MR classification. Methods Ninety patients with DCM were included. Functional MR was classified using four echocardiographic methods: color flow jet area (JA), vena contracta (VC), effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) and regurgitant volume (RV). MR was classified as mild, moderate or important according to the American Society of Echocardiography criteria and by dividing the values into terciles. The Kappa test was used to evaluate whether the methods agreed, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the absolute values of each method. Results MR classification according to each method was as follows: JA: 26 mild, 44 moderate, 20 important; VC: 12 mild, 72 moderate, 6 important; ERO: 70 mild, 15 moderate, 5 important; RV: 70 mild, 16 moderate, 4 important. The agreement was poor among methods (kappa = 0.11; p < 0.001). It was observed a strong correlation between the absolute values of each method, ranging from 0.70 to 0.95 (p < 0.01) and the agreement was higher when values were divided into terciles (kappa = 0.44; p < 0.01) Conclusion The use of conventional echocardiographic criteria for MR classification seems inadequate in patients with DCM. It is necessary to establish new cutoff values for MR classification in these patients.
Mancuso, Frederico Jose Neves; Moises, Valdir Ambrosio; Almeida, Dirceu Rodrigues; Oliveira, Wercules Antonio; Poyares, Dalva; Brito, Flavio Souza; de Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando
Incidence of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is increasing due to aging and better survival after acute myocardial infarction, the most frequent cause of FMR. At the basis of FMR there is a displacement of one of both papillary muscle(s) and/or annular enlargement, which can be primitive or, more often, secondary. There is general agreement that its natural history is unfavorable, as witnessed by a considerable body of evidences. However, even if there is no clear evidence that surgical treatment of FMR changes consistently the outcome of patients with this disease, at least in terms of survival, there are some studies which show that function improves, as well as the global quality of life. The guidelines reflect this uncertainty, providing no clear indications, even in the gradation of severity of the FMR. Surgical techniques are variable and are mainly addressed to the annulus (restrictive annuloplasty), which is only a part of the anatomic problem related to FMR. Insertion of a prosthesis inside the native valve is appearing more and more a valuable option rather than a bail out procedure. On the other side, techniques addressed to modify the position of the papillary muscles appear to be still under investigation and not yet in the armamentarium of surgical treatment of FMR. Even after many years, rules are not established and results are fluctuating, but how and when to treat FMR is becoming more and more a topic of interest in cardiac surgery. PMID:22633664
Calafiore, Antonio M; Iacò, Angela L; Gallina, Sabina; Al-Amri, Hussein; Penco, Maria; Di Mauro, Michele
Mitral and tricuspid are increasingly prevalent. Doppler echocardiography not only detects the presence of regurgitation but also permits to understand mechanisms of regurgitation, quantification of its severity and repercussions. The present document aims to provide standards for the assessment of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. PMID:20435783
Lancellotti, Patrizio; Moura, Luis; Pierard, Luc A; Agricola, Eustachio; Popescu, Bogdan A; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hagendorff, Andreas; Monin, Jean-Luc; Badano, Luigi; Zamorano, Jose L
Mitral regurgitation has become recognized as an important health problem. More specifically, functional mitral regurgitation is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure, postmyocardial infarction, and perioperative coronary artery bypass surgery patients. Many patients with severe mitral regurgitation are denied or refused mitral valve surgery. A less invasive procedure with possibly fewer potential complications may thus be attractive for patients with severe mitral regurgitation. Devices used for coronary sinus (CS) mitral annuloplasty are directed toward patients with functional mitral regurgitation. Because of its easy accessibility and close relationship to the posterior mitral annulus (MA), alterations of the CS geometry with percutaneous devices may translate to displacement of the posterior annulus and correct mitral leaflet coaptation. This review will focus on the contemporary CS annuloplasty devices: (1) Edwards MONARC system; (2) Cardiac Dimensions CARILLON; and (3) Viacor Shape Changing Rods system. In addition, important information obtained from recent imaging studies describing the relationship between the CS, MA, and coronary arteries will be reviewed. PMID:18042055
Piazza, Nicolo; Bonan, Raoul
Background To determine sensitivity and specificity of E wave velocity in patients with severe chronic organic mitral regurgitation (MR) and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and to evaluate prevalence of A wave dominance in patients with severe MR. Methods We compared 35 patients with quantified severe, chronic, quantified, organic MR due to flail/prolapsed leaflets who had reparative surgery with 35 age-matched control subjects. Exclusion criteria: EF < 60%, atrial fibrillation, and more than mild aortic regurgitation. Results Mean [standard deviation (SD)] age [70 (8) years vs. 69 (8) years; p = 0.94] and mean (SD) EF [66% (6%) vs. 65% (4%); p = 0.43] were not different between the two groups. Mean (SD) E wave velocity was greater in case patients than control subjects [1.2 (0.3) m/sec vs. 0.7 (0.15) m/sec; p < 0.001]. However, E wave velocity of 1.2 m/sec had a sensitivity of only 57% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41-7 and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90-100%) in identifying severe MR. E wave velocity of 0.9 m/sec had a more optimal combined sensitivity (89%; 95% CI, 74-95%) and specificity (86%; 95% CI, 71-94%). A wave dominance was seen in 18% of case patients and 66% of control subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusion E wave velocity of 1.2 m/sec is specific not sensitive for severe organic MR; E wave velocity of 0.9 m/sec has better sensitivity and specificity. A wave dominance pattern alone cannot exclude patients with severe organic MR. Our findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive echocardiographic exam rather than relying on a few Doppler parameters in diagnosing MR.
Quader, Nishath; Katta, Prasanth; Najib, Mohammad Q.
[Percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty with the carillon mitral contour system by cardiac dimensions. A minimally invasive therapeutic option for the treatment of severe functional mitral valve regurgitation].
Morbidity in patients with systolic heart failure is significantly increased by functional mitral valve regurgitation. In addition to pharmaceutical treatment or surgical reconstruction of the impaired valve, minimally invasive procedures have continuously advanced into the focus of interest. The Carillon Mitral Contour System (Cardiac Dimensions) is a new catheter-based method to converge dehiscent mitral valve leaflets with implantation of a nitinol clip into the coronary sinus, leading to a closer approach of the valve leaflets with subsequent decrease in mitral regurgitation. The device is implanted via a central venous catheter, using a special delivery system under fluoroscopy. The immediate success of minimizing mitral valve regurgitation is verified by online transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), device-related impairment of perfusion of contiguous coronary vessels is ruled out by coronary angiography performed simultaneously during deployment of the device. As soon as reduction of the mitral valve regurgitation is demonstrated in TEE, the Carillon System is disconnected from the delivery system, before, however, the Carillon device can be withdrawn into the delivery system as necessary. Following the successful implantation of the Carillon Mitral Contour System, a left ventricular lead for cardiac resynchronization therapy can still be successfully placed alongside through the coronary sinus. PMID:19784563
Degen, Hubertus; Lickfeld, Thomas; Stoepel, Carsten; Haude, Michael
Congenital subvalvular aortic stenosis may be associated with anomalies of the mitral valve. In this case, we present a patient with severe mitral valve regurgitation due to a perforation in the anterior mitral leaflet detected 4?months after an operation for relief of subaortic stenosis. A 10-year-old male patient who was operated for subvalvular aortic stenosis in another clinic was admitted to our hospital, and transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe mitral valve regurgitation due to a defect that was demonstrated at the anterior valve leaflet. The perforated area at the mitral valve zone A1 was repaired with a PTFE patch. The patient was successfully operated for the mitral valve perforation and the postoperative course was uneventful. In our case, the perforation in the anterior mitral leaflet implies a possible implementation of inappropriate surgical technique which necessitated a second surgical intervention after the initial operation. PMID:24859561
Ozyuksel, Arda; Yildirim, Ozgur; Onsel, Ibrahim; Bilal, Mehmet Salih
Objectives Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is associated with mitral annular dilatation in the septal-lateral dimension and flattening of the annular 3-D saddle-shape. To examine whether these perturbations are due to the ischemic insult, mitral regurgitation (MR), or both, we investigated the effects of pure MR (low pressure volume overload) on annular geometry and shape. Methods Eight radiopaque markers were sutured evenly around the mitral annulus in sheep randomized to control (CTRL, n=8) or experimental (HOLE, n=12) groups. In HOLE, a 3.5mm to 4.8mm hole was punched in the posterior leaflet to generate pure MR. 4-D marker coordinates were obtained radiographically 1 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Mitral annular area (MAA), annular septal-lateral (SL) and commissure-commissure (CC) dimensions, and annular height were calculated every 16.7ms. Results MR grade was 0.4±0.4 in CTRL and 3.0±0.8 in HOLE (p<0.001) at 12 weeks. End-diastolic LV volume index was greater in HOLE at both 1 and 12 weeks; end-systolic volume index was larger in HOLE at 12 weeks. MAA increased in HOLE predominantly in the CC dimension, with no difference in annular height between HOLE vs. CTRL at 1 or 12 weeks, respectively. Conclusions In contrast to annular SL dilatation and flattening of annular saddle-shape observed with chronic IMR, pure MR was associated with CC dimension annular dilatation and no change in annular shape. Thus, infarction is a more important determinant of SL dilatation and annular shape than is MR, which reinforces the need for disease-specific designs of annuloplasty rings. ULTRAMINI- ABSTRACT In a chronic pure mitral regurgitation (MR) ovine model, we examined changes in mitral annular dimensions and shape over 12 weeks to understand the contribution of MR to annular remodeling independent of the effects of myocardial infarction. Pure MR resulted in commissure-commissure annular dilatation and no change in annular saddle-shape.
Nguyen, Tom C.; Itoh, Akinobu; Carlhall, Carl J.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Timek, Tomasz A.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Oakes, Robert A.; Liang, David; Daughters, George T.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig
Abstract A 33-year-old female patient with advanced idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension underwent bilateral lung transplantation. The postsurgical course was complicated by prolonged mechanical ventilation and acute hypoxemia with recurrent episodes of pulmonary edema. An echocardiogram revealed improved right-sided pressures along with a dilated left atrium, a structurally normal mitral valve, and a new posterior-oriented severe mitral regurgitation. The patient’s condition improved after treatment with arterial vasodilators and diuretics, and she has remained in World Health Organization functional class I after almost 36 months of follow-up. We hypothesize that cardiac ventricle remodeling and a geometric change in mitral valve apparatus after transplantation led to the hemodynamic changes and recurrent pulmonary edema seen in our patient. Our case is, to our knowledge, the second report of severe valvular regurgitation in a structurally normal mitral valve apparatus in the postoperative period and the first of a patient to be treated without valve replacement.
Force, Seth D.; Pelaez, Andres
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (IVNC) is a cardiomyopathy thought to be caused by arrest of normal embryogenesis of the endocardium and myocardium. This abnormality is often associated with other congenital cardiac defects. A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with worsening exertional dyspnea during the previous 2 months. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography revealed an enlarged left atrium (LA) and a markedly dilated left ventricle (LV) with preserved LV systolic function, severe mitral valve regurgitation, and prolapse due to chordae rupture. The myocardium of the LV and right ventricle (RV) had excessively prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. He is the first patient in Korea who has undergone mitral valve replacement surgery because of severe mitral valve regurgitation and prolapse due to chordae rupture accompanied by IVNC.
Chung, Jong Won; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Jae Hak; Chin, Jung Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jin; Lee, Chang Jung; Choi, Yun Seok; Shim, Sung Bo; Lee, Sun Hee
Calciphylaxis is uncommon and typically seen in patients with end-stage renal disease. It has been defined as a vasculopathic disorder characterised by cutaneous ischaemia and necrosis due to calcification, intimal fibroplasia and thrombosis of pannicular arterioles. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage III who developed calciphylaxis leading to mitral valve calcification, chordae tendineae rupture and acute mitral regurgitation. Although an alternative explanation can typically be found for non-uraemic calciphylaxis, her evaluation did not reveal any usual non-uraemic causes including elevated calcium-phosphorus product, hyperparathyroidism, or evidence of connective tissue disease. Her wounds improved with sodium thiosulfate, pamidronate, penicillin and hyperbaric oxygen therapies but she ultimately decompensated with the onset of acute mitral regurgitation attributed to rupture of a previously calcified chordae tendineae. This case highlights an unusual case of calciphylaxis without clear precipitant as well as a novel manifestation of the disease. PMID:24789150
Gallimore, Grant Gardner; Curtis, Blair; Smith, Andria; Benca, Michael
Background Left ventricular remodeling after postero-basal myocardial infarction can lead to ischemic mitral regurgitation. This occurs as a consequence of leaflet tethering due to posterior papillary muscle displacement. Methods A finite element model of the left ventricle, mitral apparatus, and chordae tendineae was created from magnetic resonance images from a sheep that developed moderate mitral regurgitation after postero-basal myocardial infarction. Each region of the model was characterized by a specific constitutive law that captured the material response when subjected to physiological pressure loading. Results The model simulation produced a gap between the posterior and anterior leaflets, just above the infarcted posterior papillary muscle, which is indicative of mitral regurgitation. When the stiffness of the infarct region was reduced, this caused the wall to distend and the gap area between the leaflets to increase by 33%. Additionally, the stress in the leaflets increased around the chordal connection points near the gap. Conclusions The methodology outlined in this work will allow a finite element model of both the left ventricle and mitral valve to be generated using non-invasive techniques.
Wenk, Jonathan F.; Zhang, Zhihong; Cheng, Guangming; Malhotra, Deepak; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Burger, Mike; Suzuki, Takamaro; Saloner, David A.; Wallace, Arthur W.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.
To characterize the spectrum of mitral regurgitation in mitral valve prolapse, one hundred patients were studied by color Doppler flow mapping. The findings were correlated with the clinical presentation and with the possible complications. Mitral regurgitation was absent in 46 patients, mild in 26 patients, moderate in 18 patients and severe in 10 patients. The jet orientation was central in 15 patients, antero-medial in 13 patients and postero-lateral in 26 patients. The regurgitation was early systolic in 7 patients, late systolic in 20 patients and holosystolic in 27 patients. A good agreement was observed between the color flow patterns and the presence, timing and radiation of a murmur. Systolic clicks were not predictors of the presence or the severity of regurgitation. The grade of mitral regurgitation was positively correlated with, age, left heart enlargement and valvular redundancy. No sex difference was observed. The prevalence of serious arrhythmias or cerebral ischemic events was not significantly increased when a regurgitation was present. PMID:2286773
Decoodt, P; Péperstraete, B; Kacenelenbogen, R; Verbeet, T; Bar, J P; Telerman, M
Functional mitral regurgitation is a frequent complication of severe course of ischemic heart disease and plays a role of no small importance in origin and progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Severe degree of mitral regurgitation is found in 18.9%, moderate - in 29.7% of patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction. A major precondition for origin of mitral regurgitation is the presence of the process of left ventricular remodeling which disturbs coordination between the ventricle and valvular apparatus. Changes of anatomo-functional state of the mitral valve occurring during its closure determine severity of mitral regurgitation in patients with CHF and left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:20001986
Larina, V N; Alekhin, M N; art, B Ia
OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate direct planimetry of mitral regurgitant orifice area from three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstructions. BACKGROUND: Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) is an important measure of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) that up to now has been calculated from hemodynamic data rather than measured directly. We hypothesized that improved spatial resolution of the mitral valve (MV) with three-dimensional (3D) echo might allow accurate planimetry of ROA. METHODS: We reconstructed the MV using 3D echo with 3 degrees rotational acquisitions (TomTec) using a transesophageal (TEE) multiplane probe in 15 patients undergoing MV repair (age 59 +/- 11 years). One observer reconstructed the prolapsing mitral leaflet in a left atrial plane parallel to the ROA and planimetered the two-dimensional (2D) projection of the maximal ROA. A second observer, blinded to the results of the first, calculated maximal ROA using the proximal convergence method defined as maximal flow rate (2pi(r2)va, where r is the radius of a color alias contour with velocity va) divided by regurgitant peak velocity (obtained by continuous wave [CW] Doppler) and corrected as necessary for proximal flow constraint. RESULTS: Maximal ROA was 0.79 +/- 0.39 (mean +/- SD) cm2 by 3D and 0.86 +/- 0.42 cm2 by proximal convergence (p = NS). Maximal ROA by 3D echo (y) was highly correlated with the corresponding flow measurement (x) (y = 0.87x + 0.03, r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with close agreement seen (AROA (y - x) = 0.07 +/- 0.12 cm2). CONCLUSIONS: 3D echo imaging of the MV allows direct visualization and planimetry of the ROA in patients with severe MR with good agreement to flow-based proximal convergence measurements.
Breburda, C. S.; Griffin, B. P.; Pu, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.
A new era in the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation is emerging with new devices that can be placed percutaneously or minimally invasively without cardiopulmonary bypass. These devices are categorized into three groups: annuloplasty, edge-to-edge repair, and ventricular reshaping. Percutaneous annuloplasty devices, implanted via the coronary sinus, mimic surgical annuloplasty by reducing the mitral annular anterior-posterior (or septal-lateral) dimension. Several devices, such as the PTMA, CARILLON, Monarch, and PS3 systems, are in clinical trials. Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair devices mimic the surgical Alfieri edge-to-edge repair technique, creating a double-orifice mitral valve; of these, MitraClip is in clinical trials. Ventricular reshaping devices treat both mitral annular dilatation and papillary muscle displacement (and thus leaflet tethering). The surgical Coapsys device is currently in clinical trials, and its percutaneous "interventional" version, iCoapsys, is being prepared for a clinical trial. Numerous issues need to be addressed before these devices can become standard therapies for functional mitral regurgitation. Device safety and efficacy must be demonstrated in carefully designed clinical trials with the goal of achieving outcomes equal to or better than those of surgical repair. PMID:18414987
Direct planimetry of anatomic regurgitation orifice area (AROA) using 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been described. This study sought to (1) compare mitral valve regurgitant volume (RV) derived by AROA using 3-dimensional TEE with RV obtained by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and (2) determine the impact of AROA and flow velocity changes throughout systole on the dynamic variation in mitral regurgitation. In 43 patients (71 ± 11 years old) with mild to severe mitral regurgitation, 3-dimensional TEE and CMR were performed. Mitral valve RV was determined based on (1) AROA at 5 subintervals of systole and analysis of the regurgitant continuous-wave Doppler signal at equal durations of systole, (2) effective regurgitation orifice area (EROA) using the proximal isovelocity surface area method, (3) CMR with subtraction of aortic outflow volume from left ventricular stroke volume. RV calculated by AROA tended to overestimate RV less than RV calculated by EROA compared to RV by CMR (average bias +20 ml, 95% confidence interval [CI] -41 to +81, vs +13 ml, 95% CI -22 to 47). In patients with RV >30 ml by CMR, overestimation of RV using the AROA method was less than using the EROA method (difference in means +18 ml, 95% CI 4 to 32, p <0.001). AROA determined by 3-dimensional TEE varied by only 18% among the 5 subintervals of systole, and the velocity time integral of the subinterval with the highest flow was 120% of the subinterval with the lowest flow. In conclusion, 3-dimensional TEE allows accurate analysis of mitral valve RV. In the clinically relevant group of patients with RV >30 ml as defined by CMR, the AROA method results in less overestimation of RV than the EROA method. Changes in AROA during systole contribute much less to dynamic variation in mitral regurgitation severity than changes in regurgitant flow velocity. PMID:22727180
Hamada, Sandra; Altiok, Ertunc; Frick, Michael; Almalla, Mohammed; Becker, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus; Hoffmann, Rainer
The accurate quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR) using 2D imaging tools is difficult due to its structural complexity; however, it is crucially important in clinical medicine as MR severity has prognostic consequences. Novel 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography and 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler methods can provide quantitative and qualitative classification of MR including measurement of the vena contracta area, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA). Nevertheless, with so many conventional and developing techniques it can be difficult to decide which technique to use for selected patients. We suggest using an approach that is focused not only on the techniques and measurements but also combines imaging portability, availability, clinical efficiency, and accurate and reproducible assessments. In this review we discuss the established and emerging applications of 3D color Doppler for the quantification of MR severity. PMID:23812836
Maragiannis, Dimitrios; Little, Stephen H
Objectives To assess patterns and functional consequences of mitral apparatus infarction after acute MI (AMI). Background The mitral apparatus contains two myocardial components – papillary muscles and the adjacent LV wall. Delayed-enhancement CMR (DE-CMR) enables in-vivo study of inter-relationships and potential contributions of LV wall and papillary muscle infarction (PMI) to mitral regurgitation (MR). Methods Multimodality imaging was performed: CMR was used to assess mitral geometry and infarct pattern, including 3D DE-CMR for PMI. Echocardiography (echo) was used to measure MR. Imaging occurred 27±8 days post-AMI (CMR, echo within 1 day). Results 153 patients with first AMI were studied. PMI was present in 30% (n=46; 72% posteromedial, 39% anterolateral). When stratified by angiographic culprit vessel, PMI occurred in 65% of patients with left circumflex, 48% with right coronary, and only 14% of patients with left anterior descending infarctions (p<0.001). Patients with PMI had more advanced remodeling as measured by LV size and mitral annular diameter (p<0.05). Increased extent of PMI was accompanied by a stepwise increase in mean infarct transmurality within regional LV segments underlying each papillary muscle (p<0.001). Prevalence of lateral wall infarction was 3.0 fold higher among patients with, compared to those without, PMI (65% vs. 22%, p<0.001). Infarct distribution also impacted MR, with greater MR among patients with lateral wall infarction (p=0.002). Conversely, MR severity did not differ based on presence (p=0.19) or extent (p=0.12) of PMI, or by angiographic culprit vessel. In multivariable analysis, lateral wall infarct size (OR=1.20[CI=1.05–1.39], p=0.01) was independently associated with substantial (?moderate) MR even after controlling for mitral annular (OR=1.22[1.04–1.43], p=0.01) and LV end-diastolic diameter (OR=1.11 [0.99–1.23], p=0.056). Conclusions PMI is common post-AMI, affecting nearly one-third of patients. PMI extent parallels adjacent LV wall injury, with lateral infarction – rather than PMI - associated with increased severity of post-AMI MR.
Chinitz, Jason S.; Chen, Debbie; Goyal, Parag; Wilson, Sean; Islam, Fahmida; Nguyen, Thanh; Wang, Yi; Hurtado-Rua, Sandra; Simprini, Lauren; Cham, Matthew; Levine, Robert A.; Devereux, Richard B.; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.
New percutaneous technologies are rapidly emerging for the treatment of structural heart disease including mitral valve disease. Preliminary data suggest a potential clinical benefit of percutaneous treatment of mitral regurgitation by the MitraClip procedure in selected patients. Until final data are available from randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trials, there is an urgent need for a consensus among all the operators involved in the treatment of patients with mitral regurgitation, including clinical cardiologists, heart failure specialists, surgeons, interventional cardiologists, and imaging experts. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, the heart-team approach is the most reliable method of making proper decisions. This study is the result of multidisciplinary consensus activity, and has the aim of helping physicians in the difficult task of making decisions for the treatment of patients with mitral regurgitation. It is the result of a joint effort of the major Italian Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Societies, working together to find a proper balance between the points of view of the clinical cardiologist, the interventional cardiologist, and the cardiac surgeon. PMID:24662461
Maisano, Francesco; Alamanni, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio; Bartorelli, Antonio; Bedogni, Francesco; Bovenzi, Francesco M; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Antonio; Cremonesi, Alberto; Denti, Paolo; Ettori, Federica; Klugmann, Silvio; La Canna, Giovanni; Martinelli, Luigi; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Metra, Marco; Oliva, Fabrizio; Padeletti, Luigi; Parolari, Alessandro; Santini, Francesco; Senni, Michele; Tamburino, Corrado; Ussia, Gian P; Romeo, Francesco
Background Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), frequent in unoperated severe mitral regurgitation (MR), confers mortality risk (sudden [SD] and cardiac [CD]). The prognostic value of VT after mitral valve surgery (MVS) is unknown; we aimed to define this, and to assess its modulation by left (LV) and/or right (RV) ventricular ejection fraction (EF), for mortality after MVS. Methods In 57 patients (53% female; age 58±12 years) with severe MR prospectively followed before and after MVS we performed 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms approximately annually. LVEF and RVEF were determined within 1 year after MVS by radionuclide cineangiography. Results During 9.52±3.49 end-point free follow-up years, late postoperative CD occurred in 11 pts (7 sudden, 4 heart failure [HF]). In univariable analysis,, >1 VT episode after MVS predicted SD (p<.01) and CD (SD or HF, p<.04). Subnormal postoperative RVEF predicted CD (p<.04). When adjusted for preoperative age, gender, etiology, or antiarrhythmics, both postoperative VT and RVEF predicted CD (p?.05). When postoperative VT and RVEF were both in the multivariable model, only subnormal RVEF predicted CD (p<.04). Among those with normal RVEF, VT >1 episode predicted SD (p=.03). Conclusion Postoperative VT and subnormal RVEF predict late postoperative deaths in nonischemic MR. Their assessment may aid patient management.
Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Hochreiter, Clare A.; Borer, Jeffrey S.; Supino, Phyllis G.; Herrold, Edmund M.; Budzikowski, Adam S.; Hai, Ofek Y.; Bouraad, Dany; Kligfield, Paul D.; Girardi, Leonard N.; Krieger, Karl H.; Isom, O. Wayne
Background and aim Rheumatic mitral regurgitation is rather common in developing countries. It usually progresses insidiously, because the heart compensates for increasing regurgitant volume by left-atrial enlargement, causes left-ventricular overload and dysfunction, and yields poor outcome when it becomes severe. Doppler-echocardiographic methods can be used to quantify the severity of mitral regurgitation. It is known that ejection fraction underestimates the presence of left ventricular dysfunction in these patients. This study aimed to study global cardiac function of these patients by using LV Tei index. Methods One hundred patients with rheumatic mitral regurge predominantly were included (40 males and 60 females; aged 10–24 years, median 20.6 years). All participants were subjected to full echocardiographic study including total isovolumic index (Tei index = isovolumic relaxation time IRT + isovolumic contraction time ICT/ejection time ET) for the left ventricle. Special attention was paid to grading of severity of the mitral regurgitation. Results LV ejection fraction was preserved in all cases but, however, the total left isovolumic index was prolonged 0.56 ± 3 in 64 of them (34 females and 30 males) denoting masked LV dysfunction P < .00001. There was a correlation of increasing severity of dysfunction with the degree of mitral regurgitation. Conclusion Ejection fraction underestimates the presence of left ventricular dysfunction in these patients. However, this was unmasked by the Tei index which could be an additive data for detecting early left ventricular dysfunction.
Nasr, Gamela; Moselhy, Mohamed S; Elattar, Gamal; Zaghlool, Safaa; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab
We present the case of a young man with severe eccentric aortic regurgitation, obstructing mitral inflow and provoking an audible Austin Flint murmur at clinical examination. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography depicts the remarkable mechanical interaction between aortic regurgitant jet and anterior mitral leaflet opening. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography aids in understanding the geometric and hemodynamic consequences of the regurgitant jet and in the genesis of the Austin Flint murmur. This case accentuates the incremental value of three-dimensional echocardiography when evaluating valvular pathology, and offers more insight in the interaction between aortic regurgitant flow and mitral leaflet dynamics. PMID:23742271
Bertrand, Philippe B; Verhaert, David; Vandervoort, Pieter
Transventricular mitral valve surgery combined with left ventricular restoration avoids atriotomy and provides a larger operative field. We describe a series of 5 patients in whom we performed transventricular mitral valve repair by various techniques, such as band annuloplasty, papillary muscle reattachment, chordal cutting, and edge-to-edge repair. The more acute forms of ischemic mitral regurgitation, as found in our patients, can coexist with post-myocardial infarction contained rupture or post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture. Because these patients already have an indication for ventriculotomy, concomitant transventricular repair of the mitral valve can render a separate atriotomy unnecessary and thereby shorten the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Moreover, in patients with acute presentations, the absence of atrial dilation (this last associated with chronic cases) might make transventricular repair a better choice than the more difficult atrial approach.
Gedik, Hikmet Selcuk; Korkmaz, Kemal; Budak, Baran; Yener, Umit; Lafci, Gokhan
Transventricular mitral valve surgery combined with left ventricular restoration avoids atriotomy and provides a larger operative field. We describe a series of 5 patients in whom we performed transventricular mitral valve repair by various techniques, such as band annuloplasty, papillary muscle reattachment, chordal cutting, and edge-to-edge repair. The more acute forms of ischemic mitral regurgitation, as found in our patients, can coexist with post-myocardial infarction contained rupture or post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture. Because these patients already have an indication for ventriculotomy, concomitant transventricular repair of the mitral valve can render a separate atriotomy unnecessary and thereby shorten the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Moreover, in patients with acute presentations, the absence of atrial dilation (this last associated with chronic cases) might make transventricular repair a better choice than the more difficult atrial approach. PMID:24955051
Cagli, Kerim; Gedik, Hikmet Selcuk; Korkmaz, Kemal; Budak, Baran; Yener, Umit; Lafci, Gokhan
Mitral regurgitation is uncommon with left atrial myxoma. The echocardiographic assessment of presence of mitral regurgitation and its severity are impaired by the presence of left atrial myxoma. We describe an uncommon association of left atrial myxoma with coronary artery disease and mitral regurgitation. MR was reported as mild on pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography but found to be severe due to ruptured chordae tendinae during intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography, which lead to change in the surgical plan to mitral valve replacement in addition to excision of myxoma. PMID:24732613
Kumar, Bhupesh; Raj, Ravi; Jayant, Aveek; Kuthe, Sachin
Background Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR: MR) is associated with poor outcome. However, the effect of CIMR on left ventricular (LV) remodeling after postero-lateral myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that moderate MR accelerates LV remodeling after postero-lateral MI. Methods/Results Postero-lateral MI was created in 10 sheep. Cardiac MRI was performed 2 weeks before and 2, 8 and 16 weeks after MI. LV and right ventricular (RV) volumes were measured and regurgitant volume (RegurgVolume) calculated as the difference between LV and RV stroke volumes. Multivariate mixed effect regression showed that LV volumes at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) and LV sphericity were strongly correlated with both RegurgVolume (p<0.0001, p=0.0086 and p=0.0007 respectively) and %Infarct area (p=0.0156, 0=0.0307, and p<0.0001 respectively). On the other hand, while LV hypertrophy (LV wall volume) increased from 2 to 16 weeks post-MI there was no effect of either RegurgVolume or %Infarct. Conclusions Moderate mitral regurgitation accelerates LV remodeling after postero-lateral MI. Further studies are needed to determine whether mitral valve repair is able to slow or reverse MI remodeling after postero-lateral MI.
Soleimani, Mehrdad; Khazalpour, Michael; Cheng, Guangming; Zhang, Zhihong; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Saloner, David A.; Mishra, Rakesh; Wallace, Arthur W.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ge, Liang; Ratcliffe, Mark B.
Background Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) occurs in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease even after mitral valve surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze surgical results of TR after previous successful mitral valve surgery. Methods From September 1996 to September 2008, 45 patients with TR after previous mitral valve replacement underwent second operation for TR. In those, 43 patients (95.6%) had right heart failure symptoms (edema of lower extremities, ascites, hepatic congestion, etc.) and 40 patients (88.9%) had atrial fibrillation. Twenty-six patients (57.8%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III, and 19 (42.2%) in class IV. Previous operations included: 41 for mechanical mitral valve replacement (91.1%), 4 for bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (8.9%), and 7 for tricuspid annuloplasty (15.6%). Results The tricuspid valves were repaired with Kay's (7 cases, 15.6%) or De Vega technique (4 cases, 8.9%). Tricuspid valve replacement was performed in 34 cases (75.6%). One patient (2.2%) died. Postoperative low cardiac output (LCO) occurred in 5 patients and treated successfully. Postoperative echocardiography showed obvious reduction of right atrium and ventricle. The anterioposterior diameter of the right ventricle decreased to 25.5 ± 7.1 mm from 33.7 ± 6.2 mm preoperatively (P < 0. 05). Conclusion TR after mitral valve replacement in rheumatic heart disease is a serious clinical problem. If it occurs or progresses late after mitral valve surgery, tricuspid valve annuloplasty or replacement may be performed with satisfactory results. Due to the serious consequence of untreated TR, aggressive treatment of existing TR during mitral valve surgery is recommended.
Background Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), a complication of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease more generally, is associated with a high mortality rate and estimated to affect 2.8 million Americans. With 1-year mortality rates as high as 40%, recent practice guidelines of professional societies recommend repair or replacement, but there remains a lack of conclusive evidence supporting either intervention. The choice between therapeutic options is characterized by the trade-off between reduced operative morbidity and mortality with repair versus a better long-term correction of mitral insufficiency with replacement. The long-term benefits of repair versus replacement remain unknown, which has led to significant variation in surgical practice. Methods and Results This paper describes the design of a prospective randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of mitral valve repair and replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. This trial is being conducted as part of the Cardiothoracic (CT) Surgical Trials Network. This paper addresses challenges in selecting a feasible primary endpoint, characterizing the target population (including the degree of MR), and analytical challenges in this high mortality disease. Conclusions The paper concludes by discussing the importance of information on functional status, survival, neurocognition, quality of life and cardiac physiology in therapeutic decision-making.
Perrault, Louis P.; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Kron, Irving L.; Acker, Michael A.; Miller, Marissa A.; Horvath, Keith A.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Argenziano, Michael; D'Alessandro, David A.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Mathew, Joseph P.; Hung, Judy; Gardner, Timothy J.; Parides, Michael K.
Background: Conventional Doppler measurements, including mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow, are used to estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). However, these parameters have limitations in predicting LVEDP among patients with mitral regurgitation. This study sought to establish whether the correlation between measurements derived from tissue Doppler echocardiography and LVEDP remains valid in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation. Methods: Thirty patients (mean age: 57.37 ± 13.29 years) with severe mitral regurgitation and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of 46.0 ± 14.95 were enrolled; 16 (53.4%) patients were defined to have EF < 50% and 14 (46.6%) patients had EF ? 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and Doppler tissue imaging indices were obtained, and LVEDP was measured invasively through cardiac catheterization. Results: The majority of the standard Doppler and Doppler tissue imaging indices were not significantly correlated with LVEDP in the univariate analysis. In the multiple linear regression, however, early (E) transmitral velocity to annular E? (E/E?) ratio (? = 1.09, p value < 0.01), E wave velocity to propagation velocity (E/Vp) ratio (? = 7.87, p value < 0.01), and isovolumic relaxation time (? = 0.21, p value = 0.01) were shown as independent predictors of LVEDP (R2 = 91.7%). Conclusion: The ratio of E/Vp and E/E? ratio and also the isovolumic relaxation time could be applied properly to estimate LVEDP in mitral regurgitation patients even in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation.
Badkoubeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Jenab, Yaser; Zoroufian, Arezou; Salarifar, Mojtaba
Background Whether mitral valve repair (MVRep) during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improves survival in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) remains unknown. Methods and Results Patients with ejection fraction ? 35% and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomized at 99 sites worldwide to medical therapy (MED) with or without CABG. The decision to treat the mitral valve during CABG was left to the surgeon. The primary endpoint was mortality. Of 1212 randomized patients, 435 (36%) had none/trace, 554 (46%) mild, 181 (15%) moderate, and 39 (3%) severe MR. In the medical arm, 70 deaths (32%) occurred in patients with none/trace, 114 (44%) with mild and 58 (50%) in moderate-severe MR. In patients with moderate-severe MR, there were 29 deaths (53%) among 55 patients randomized to CABG who did not receive mitral surgery (HR vs. MED 1.20, 95% CI 0.77–1.87) and 21 deaths (43%) among 49 patients who received mitral surgery (HR vs. MED 0.62, 95% CI 0.35–1.08). After adjustment for baseline prognostic variables, the HR for CABG with mitral surgery vs. CABG alone was 0.41 (95%CI 0.22–0.77; p=0.006). Conclusions While these observational data suggest that adding MVRep to CABG in patients with LV dysfunction and moderate-severe MR may improve survival compared with CABG alone or MED alone, a prospective randomized trial would be necessary to confirm the validity of these observations.
Deja, Marek A.; Grayburn, Paul A.; Sun, Benjamin; Rao, Vivek; She, Lilin; Krejca, Michal; Jain, Anil R.; Chua, Yeow Leng; Daly, Richard; Senni, Michele; Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Oh, Jae K.; Michler, Robert; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Lamy, Andre; Velazquez, Eric J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Jones, Robert H.
Severe primary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a progressive condition which engenders significant mortality and morbidity if left untreated. The optimal timing of surgery in patients with MR of degenerative origin continues to be debated, especially for those who are asymptomatic. Apart from symptoms, current authoritative guidelines recommend intervention when there is incipient left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension or new onset atrial fibrillation. This review focuses on the asymptomatic subject with severe MR, and examines contemporary clinical decision-making and management strategies, including the 2012 European guidelines on valvular heart disease. We discuss the rationale for risk stratifying the asymptomatic individual, and highlight current and novel diagnostic tools that may have a useful role, with an emphasis on echocardiographic imaging.
Dolor-Torres, Maria Consolacion
Mitral regurgitation (MR) has previously been classified into rheumatic, primary, and secondary MR according to the underlying disease process. Carpentier's/Duran functional classifications are apt in describing the mechanism(s) of MR. Modern management of MR, however, depends primarily on the severity of MR, status of the left ventricular function, and the presence or absence of symptoms, hence the need for a management-oriented classification of MR. In this paper we describe a classification of MR into 4 phases according to LV function: phase I = MR with normal left ventricle, phase II = MR with normal ejection fraction (EF) and indirect signs of LV dysfunction such as pulmonary hypertension and/or recent onset atrial fibrillation, phase III = EF ? 30%–< 50% and/or mild to moderate LV dilatation (ESID 40–54?mm), and phase IV = EF < 30% and/or severe LV dilatation (ESDID ? 55?mm). Each phase is further subdivided into three stages: stage “A” with an effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) < 20?mm, stage “B” with an ERO = 20–39?mm, and stage “C” with an ERO ? 40?mm. Evidence-based indications and outcome of intervention for MR will also be discussed.
El Oakley, Reida; Shah, Aijaz
The validity and reproducibility of echocardiographic methods used to quantify mitral regurgitation (MR) in children with congenital heart disease are unknown. We evaluated the usefulness of methods used to quantify MR in children enrolled in a multicenter trial of enalapril 6 months after surgical repair of an atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). MR severity in this trial was assessed using body surface area (BSA)-adjusted vena contracta lateral (i-VCWlat) and anterior-posterior (i-VCWap) dimensions and cross-sectional area (i-VCA), regurgitant volume/BSA, regurgitant fraction, and qualitative MR grade. For each method, association with left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDVz) and end-diastolic dimension (LVEDDz) z-scores and interobserver agreement were assessed. In 149 children (median age 1 year), i-VCWlat, i-VCWap, and i-VCA were best associated with LVEDVz (r2 = 0.54, r2 = 0.24, and r2 = 0.46, respectively; p < 0.001 for all) and showed the highest interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.62, 0.73, and 0.68, respectively). Qualitative MR grade was also associated with LVEDVz (r2 = 0.31, p < 0.001) and showed modest interobserver agreement (kappa 0.56). Regurgitant volume/BSA and regurgitant fraction were associated with LVEDVz (r2 = 0.45 and r2 = 0.45, p < 0.001 for both) but showed poor interobserver agreement [ICC = 0.28 (n = 91) and ICC = 0.17 (n = 76), respectively], and their values were negative in 75% of subjects. In conclusion, echocardiographic assessment of MR severity after AVSD remains challenging. Among the quantitative methods used in this trial, i-VCW and i-VCA performed the best but offered little advantage compared with qualitative MR grade. The utility of regurgitant volume and fraction was severely limited by poor interobserver agreement and frequently negative values.
Lacro, Ronald V.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Colan, Steven D.; McCrindle, Brian; Covitz, Wesley; Golding, Fraser; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Levine, Jami C.; Cohen, Meryl S.
Background Three?dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D?TTE) with dedicated software permits quantification of mitral annulus dynamics and papillary muscle motion throughout the cardiac cycle. Methods and Results Mitral apparatus 3D?TTE was acquired in controls (n=42), patients with left ventricle dysfunction and functional mitral regurgitation (LVD?FMR; n=43) or without FMR (LVD?noMR, n=35). Annulus in both normal and LVD?noMR subjects displayed saddle shape accentuation in early?systole (ratio of height to intercommissural diameter, 10.6±3.7 to 13.5±4.0 in normal and 9.1±4.3 to 12.6±3.6 in LVD?noMR; P<0.001 for diastole to early?systole motion, P=NS between those groups). In contrast, saddle shape was unchanged from diastole in FMR patients (10.0±6.4 to 8.0±5.2; P=NS, P<0.05 compared to both other groups). Papillary tips moved symmetrically towards to the midanterior annulus in control and LVD?noMR subjects, maintaining constant ratio of the distances between both tips to midannulus (PtAR) throughout systole. In LVD?FMR patients midsystolic posterior papillary tip to anterior annulus distance was increased, resulting in higher PtAR (P=0.05 compared to both other groups). Mechanisms of early? and midsystolic FMR differed between different etiologies of LV dysfunction. In patients with anterior MI and global dysfunction annular function and dilatation were the dominant parameters, while papillary muscle motion was the predominant determinant of FMR in patients with inferior MI. Conclusions Inadequate early?systolic annular contraction and saddle?shape accentuation in patients with impaired LV contribute to early–mitral incompetency. Asymmetric papillary tip movement towards the midanterior annulus is a major determinant of mid? and late?systolic functional mitral regurgitation.
Topilsky, Yan; Vaturi, Ori; Watanabe, Nozomi; Bichara, Valentina; Nkomo, Vuyisile T.; Michelena, Hector; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Mankad, Sunil V.; Park, Soon; Capps, Mary Ann; Suri, Rakesh; Pislaru, Sorin V.; Maalouf, Joseph; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate dependence of posture and exercise on the degree of mitral regurgitation using combined first pass and equilibrium radionuclide cardiography. DESIGN--24 patients with clinically stable chronic mitral regurgitation and sinus rhythm were studied by first pass list mode and simultaneous multigated frame mode equilibrium radionuclide cardiography using red cells labelled with technetium-99m. RESULTS--When patients changed posture from supine to sitting upright, left ventricular volumes decreased considerably. Regurgitation tended to increase in patients with valve prolapse but decreased in patients with ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. During submaximal bicycle exercise cardiac output increased without dilatation of the left ventricle. The increase in left ventricular forward stroke volume was more pronounced than that in the total stroke volume, leading to a considerable decrease in the regurgitant flow through the mitral valve. The repeatability and observer variability of radionuclide determination of regurgitation was acceptable, with limits of agreement within about 10%. CONCLUSIONS--Change in posture induces a normal haemodynamic response in most patients with chronic mitral regurgitation; the effect of posture on regurgitation depends on the underlying disease. Mild to moderate exercise causes no deterioration in the severity of regurgitation.
Kelbaek, H; Aldershvile, J; Skagen, K; Hildebrandt, P; Nielsen, S L
A 29-year-old man was admitted for abrupt dyspnea and hemoptysis. An echocardiogram revealed severe mitral regurgitation due to papillary muscle rupture for which an emergency mitral valve replacement operation was performed 4 days after admission. Herein, we report our experience with this case along with a review of the literature.
Lee, Chul Ho; Lee, Sub; Jang, Jae Seok
In mitral valvuloplasty, the saline injection test is commonly employed. However, discrepancies in regurgitation between the naked eye findings during the saline injection test and the postoperative echocardiographical findings are noted. Here, we describe a technique that allows direct transatrial evaluation of the valve in the fully loaded, beating heart without the risks of air embolism. Physiological systolic mitral valve movement is reproduced under aortic cross-clamping. This novel evaluation enables a complete and safe mitral valve repair. PMID:23315958
Tachibana, Kazutoshi; Higami, Tetsuya; Miyaki, Yasuko; Takagi, Nobuyuki
A 65-year-old female was first treated under a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis at the age of 62 years. Just after subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules appeared, she suddenly complained of shortness of breath and vomiting. The diagnosis was overt congestive heart failure with complete atrioventricular block and severe mitral regurgitation. She was treated with temporary pacing, and a permanent pacemaker was implanted 1 month later. She suffered recurrence of congestive heart failure and died 8 months later. Autopsy revealed a giant rheumatoid nodule located on the mitral valve and extending to the atrioventricular node. Presumedly this solitary giant nodule had induced complete atrioventricular block and severe mitral regurgitation. PMID:16127897
Arakawa, Kentaro; Yamazawa, Mioko; Morita, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Izumi; Horiguchi, Yoriko; Kamimura, Daisuke; Shibue, Ryoma; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Himeno, Hideo; Nemoto, Toyoji; Toma, Shigeto
Aims Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) contributes to morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether percutaneous mitral annuloplasty could safely and effectively reduce FMR and yield durable long-term clinical benefit. Methods and results The impact of mitral annuloplasty (Carillon Mitral Contour System) was evaluated in HF patients with at least moderate FMR. Patients in whom the device was placed then acutely recaptured for clinical reasons served as a comparator group. Quantitative measures of FMR, left ventricular (LV) dimensions, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, 6 min walk distance (6MWD), and quality of life were assessed in both groups up to 12 months. Safety and key functional data were assessed in the implanted cohort up to 24 months. Thirty-six patients received a permanent implant; 17 had the device recaptured. The 30-day major adverse event rate was 1.9%. In contrast to the comparison group, the implanted cohort demonstrated significant reductions in FMR as represented by regurgitant volume [baseline 34.5 ±11.5 mL to 17.4 ±12.4 mL at 12 months (P < 0.001)]. There was a corresponding reduction in LV diastolic volume [baseline 208.5 ±62.0 mL to 178.9 ±48.0 mL at 12 months (P =0.015)] and systolic volume [baseline 151.8 ±57.1 mL to 120.7 ±43.2 mL at 12 months (P =0.015)], compared with progressive LV dilation in the comparator. The 6MWD markedly improved for the implanted patients by 102.5 ±164 m at 12 months (P =0.014) and 131.9 ±80 m at 24 months (P < 0.001). Conclusion Percutaneous reduction of FMR using a coronary sinus approach is associated with reverse LV remodelling. Significant clinical improvements persisted up to 24 months.
Siminiak, Tomasz; Wu, Justina C.; Haude, Michael; Hoppe, Uta C.; Sadowski, Jerzy; Lipiecki, Janusz; Fajadet, Jean; Shah, Amil M.; Feldman, Ted; Kaye, David M.; Goldberg, Steven L.; Levy, Wayne C.; Solomon, Scott D.; Reuter, David G.
Prosthetic shadowing of the left atrium may prevent detection of mitral regurgitation during transthoracic echocardiography. In 60 patients with mitral valves, Carpentier-Edwards (n = 20), St. Jude (n = 22), and cage-ball (n = 18), we blindly evaluated the accuracy of three transthoracic Doppler signs of significant (> 2+) mitral regurgitation: (1) color Doppler flow convergence, (2) a color Doppler jet of significant regurgitation in the left atrium, and (3) an intense continuous wave Doppler signal. All 60 patients had transesophageal echocardiography, 26 had cardiac catheterization, and 28 had surgery. The sensitivity and specificity of flow convergence for significant regurgitation by transesophageal echocardiography was 73% and 70%, respectively, compared with 33% and 93% for left atrial color Doppler, and 15% and 97% for continuous wave Doppler. The sensitivity of flow convergence in Carpentier-Edwards, St. Jude, and cage-ball valves was 80%, 73%, and 67%, respectively; whereas the sensitivity of left atrial color Doppler was 70%, 27%, and 0%, and the sensitivity of continuous wave Doppler was 33%, 0%, and 13%. Flow convergence was the only sign of significant regurgitation in 12 of 30 patients (40%); 10 of these patients had mechanical valves. We conclude flow convergence is a more sensitive, though less specific, predictor of significant mitral regurgitation than color Doppler, spatial mapping of the left atrium, and continuous wave Doppler, especially when a mechanical valve is present. PMID:1466887
Cohen, G I; Davison, M B; Klein, A L; Salcedo, E E; Stewart, W J
Can the proximal isovelocity surface area method calculate stenotic mitral valve area in patients with associated moderate to severe aortic regurgitation? Analysis using low aliasing velocity of 10% of the peak transmitral velocity.
To assess the ability of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method to accurately measure the stenotic mitral valve area (MVA), and to assess whether aortic regurgitation (AR) affects the calculation, we compared the accuracy of the PISA method and the pressure half-time (PHT) method for determining MVA in patients with and without associated AR by using two-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry as a standard. The study population consisted of 45 patients with mitral stenosis. Seventeen of the 45 patients had associated moderate-to-severe AR. The PISA method was performed using low aliasing velocity (AV) of 10% of the peak transmitral velocity, which provided the most accurate estimation of MVA when compared with planimetry. The maximal radius r of the PISA was measured from the orifice to blue-red aliasing interface. Using the PISA method, MVA was calculated as (2pir(2)) x theta / 180 x AV/Vmax, where theta was the inflow angle formed by mitral leaflets, AV was the aliasing velocity (cm/sec), and Vmax was the peak transmitral velocity (cm/sec). MVA by the PISA method correlated well with planimetry both in patients with AR (r = 0.90, P < 0.001, SEE = 0.17 cm(2)) and without AR (r = 0.92, P < 0.001, SEE = 0.16 cm(2)). However, MVA by the PHT method did not correlate as well with planimetry (r = 0.57, P < 0.05, SEE = 0.37 cm(2)) in patients with associated AR, and the PHT method produced a significant overestimation (24%) of MVA obtained by planimetry in these patients. We conclude that the PISA method allows accurate estimation of MVA and is not influenced by AR. PMID:11262531
Ikawa, H; Enya, E; Hirano, Y; Uehara, H; Ozasa, Y; Yamada, S; Ishikawa, K
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an automated noninvasive method to quantify mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: Automated cardiac output measurement (ACM), which integrates digital color Doppler velocities in space and in time, has been validated for the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract but has not been tested for the LV inflow tract or to assess mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS: First, to validate ACM against a gold standard (ultrasonic flow meter), 8 dogs were studied at 40 different stages of cardiac output (CO). Second, to compare ACM to the LV outflow (ACMa) and inflow (ACMm) tracts, 50 normal volunteers without MR or aortic regurgitation (44+/-5 years, 31 male) were studied. Third, to compare ACM with the standard pulsed Doppler-two-dimensional echocardiographic (PD-2D) method for quantification of MR, 51 patients (61+/-14 years, 30 male) with MR were studied. RESULTS: In the canine studies, CO by ACM (1.32+/-0.3 liter/min, y) and flow meter (1.35+/-0.3 liter/min, x) showed good correlation (r=0.95, y=0.89x+0.11) and agreement (deltaCO(y-x)=0.03+/-0.08 [mean+/-SD] liter/min). In the normal subjects, CO measured by ACMm agreed with CO by ACMa (r=0.90, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.09+/-0.42 liter/min), PD (r=0.87, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=0.12+/-0.49 liter/min) and 2D (r=0.84, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.16+/-0.48 liter/min). In the patients, mitral regurgitant volume (MRV) by ACMm-ACMa agreed with PD-2D (r= 0.88, y=0.88x+6.6, p < 0.0001, deltaMRV=2.68+/-9.7 ml). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that ACM is a feasible new method for quantifying LV outflow and inflow volume to measure MRV and that ACM automatically performs calculations that are equivalent to more time-consuming Doppler and 2D measurements. Additionally, ACM should improve MR quantification in routine clinical practice.
Sun, J. P.; Yang, X. S.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Zhou, J.; Vazquez, C. J.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.
The cases are reported of mitral valve repair with symmetrical papillary muscle approximation from heads to bases close to cardiac apex for functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). The two papillary heads attaching the chordae to both leaflets from the posteromedial papillary muscle were approximated parallel to the solitary head of the anterolateral papillary muscle. This procedure permits an even reduction of lateral shift of the papillary muscle, resulting in an elimination of mitral tethering, and provides a satisfactory and durable mitral valve repair with good outcomes in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and FMR. PMID:24224420
Inoue, Takehiro; Fujii, Kosuke; Yugami, Shintaro; Kitayama, Hitoshi; Saga, Toshihiko
Percutaneous transcatheter therapies for mitral regurgitation have found a role for patients at high operative risk with both degenerative and functional pathologies. The MitraClip therapy utilizes a catheter-based system to deliver a clip-type implant to provide apposition between anterior and posterior mitral leaflets. Key to the procedure is using imaging to guide patient selection as well as intra-procedure performance. Careful patient selection remains paramount for success with the MitraClip, with imaging determination of appropriate mitral pathology. Technical success is dependent on skill with echocardiographic imaging, with three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography particularly valuable. PMID:24057275
Lim, D Scott
BACKGROUND: The true prevalence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in the population has been controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of MVP and associated valvular abnormalities in healthy teenage students. METHODS: The Anthony Bates Foundation performed screening echocardiography in high schools across the United States. A total of 2072 students between 13 and 19 years of age were identified for the present study. RESULTS: Total prevalence of MVP was 0.7%. The prevalence of MVP was significantly higher among female teenagers (nine of 690 female teenagers [1.3%] versus five of 1382 male teenagers [0.4%], P=0.01, OR 3.6, CI 1.21 to 10.70). The prevalence of mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was higher in teenagers with MVP. MR occurred in five of 14 teenagers (35.7%) with MVP versus 15 of 2058 controls (0.7%) (P<0.001, OR 75.6, CI 22.6 to 252.5). TR occurred in one of 14 teenagers (7.1%) with MVP versus nine of 2058 controls (0.4%) (P<0.001, OR 17.5, CI 2.0 to 148.3). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MVP in this cohort of healthy teenage students was less than 1%. Furthermore, the prevalence of MVP was higher in female teenagers and was associated with a higher prevalence of MR and TR.
Sattur, Sudhakar; Bates, Sharon; Reza Movahed, Mohammad
A 43-year-old female with a history of osteogenesis imperfecta was admitted to our hospital for congestive heart failure due to mitral valve regurgitation. The patient had suffered from bone fractures 5 times, dislocation of elbow and fingers 3 times since childhood, and subarachnoid hemorrhage 2 years before. She and her son have blue scleras. She was diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta type IA clinically. Echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation and aneurysmal formation in the interatrial septum bulging to the right atrium. Mitral valve replacement and repair of the atrial septum were performed without any blood transfusion, but with rib fractures. Echocardiography showed no peri-valvular regurgitation at 1 year after the valve replacement. Cardiovascular disease is rarely associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, but its surgical mortality rate is high due to coagulation abnormality and fragile tissue. To reduce postoperative complications, precise classification of the disease and careful handling of the tissues during operation will be needed. PMID:24743416
Nagai, Ryo; Hattori, Takashi; Shigeta, Osamu
The coexistence of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) is not infrequent and has been associated with adverse outcome. The aims of this study were to evaluate the change in MR severity and to identify the correlates of MR improvement in patients with severe AS and moderate to severe MR who underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Patients with severe AS and at least moderate MR who underwent their first BAV procedures (n = 74) were divided into 2 groups: patients with improved- (n = 34 [46%]) and those without improved (n = 40 [54%]) MR after BAV on transthoracic echocardiography. The population had a mean age of 84 years and was more frequently female (63.5%), with a high risk profile (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 15%, mean European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score 57%). Baseline characteristics were balanced between the 2 groups. Patients with improved MR after BAV had smaller left atrial dimensions (45 ± 7 vs 49 ± 7 mm, p = 0.01) and lower peak aortic velocities (3.7 ± 0.6 vs 4.0 ± 0.8 m/s, p = 0.05) and mean transaortic valve gradients (33.2 ± 12.1 vs 40.6 ± 17.4 mm Hg, p = 0.05) at baseline. Left atrial dimension [odds ratio (OR) 3.37, p = 0.006], left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (OR 2.7, p = 0.04), and mean transaortic valve gradient (OR 1.04, p = 0.05), but not left ventricular systolic function or functional MR, were correlated with MR improvement by logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, nearly half of the patients with severe AS and coexistent MR showed improvement in the magnitude of MR after BAV. Larger left atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and higher transaortic valve gradients were associated with lack of MR improvement. PMID:21924392
Maluenda, Gabriel; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Laynez-Carnicero, Ana; Barbash, Israel M; Sardi, Gabriel; Gaglia, Michael A; Mitulescu, Lavinia; Torguson, Rebecca; Goldstein, Steven A; Wang, Zuyue; Suddath, William O; Kent, Kenneth M; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron
We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptomatic mitral regurgitation caused by a left-to-right shunt via anastomoses consisting of microfistulae, most likely of inflammatory origin, between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. The three arteries responsible for fistulous formation, including the internal mammary, thyrocervical, and lateral thoracic arteries, were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization using superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) particles combined with metallic coils. No complications have been identified following treatment with SAP-MS particles. This approach significantly reduced the patient's mitral regurgitation and she has remained asymptomatic for more than 4 years.
Iwazawa, Jin, E-mail: email@example.com [Nissay Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nakamura, Kenji; Hamuro, Masao; Nango, Mineyoshi; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nishida, Norifumi [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)
We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptomatic mitral regurgitation caused by a left-to-right shunt via anastomoses consisting of microfistulae, most likely of inflammatory origin, between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. The three arteries responsible for fistulous formation, including the internal mammary, thyrocervical, and lateral thoracic arteries, were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization using superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) particles combined with metallic coils. No complications have been identified following treatment with SAP-MS particles. This approach significantly reduced the patient's mitral regurgitation and she has remained asymptomatic for more than 4 years. PMID:18040737
Iwazawa, Jin; Nakamura, Kenji; Hamuro, Masao; Nango, Mineyoshi; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nishida, Norifumi
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is associated with fatal cardiovascular complications and intraoperative death. The lack of literature on cardiac surgery in the syndrome makes it difficult for surgeons to assess the risk of an operation and to choose optimal treatment. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type I or II, mitral regurgitation and atrial fibrillation who was managed successfully with mitral valve repair and surgical cardioversion. PMID:10461252
Avlonitis, V S; Large, S R
Tako-Tsubo syndrome is characterized by ECG changes mimicking acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in the apical region with preserved function of base, and normal coronary arteries. We report the cases of two old women, presenting apical akinesis, basal hyperkinesis, severe systolic dysfunction and severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Doppler echocardiography showed a left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO),
Natale Daniele Brunetti; Riccardo Ieva; Giuseppe Rossi; Nunziatina Barone; Luisa De Gennaro; Pier Luigi Pellegrino; Giovanni Mavilio; Andrea Cuculo; Matteo Di Biase
The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two different regurgitant flow conditions were tested using symmetric and asymmetric flow orifices. Three-dimensional–PISA was reconstructed from a hand-held real-time 3D-CD data set. Regurgitant volume was derived using both 2D-CD and 3D-CD PISA methods, and each was compared against a flowmeter standard. The circulatory loop achieved regurgitant volume within the clinical range of MR (11 to 84 ml). Three-dimensional–PISA geometry reflected the 2D geometry of the regurgitant orifice. Correlation between the 2D-PISA method regurgitant volume and actual regurgitant volume was significant (r2 = 0.47, p <0.001). Mean 2D-PISA regurgitant volume underestimate was 19.1 ± 25 ml (2 SDs). For the 3D-PISA method, correlation with actual regurgitant volume was significant (r2 = 0.92, p <0.001), with a mean regurgitant volume underestimate of 2.7 ± 10 ml (2 SDs). The 3D-PISA method showed less regurgitant volume underestimation for all orifice shapes and regurgitant volumes tested. In conclusion, in an in vitro model of MR, 3D-CD was used to directly measure PISA without geometric assumption. Compared with conventional 2D-PISA, regurgitant volume was more accurate when derived from 3D-PISA across symmetric and asymmetric orifices within a broad range of hemodynamic flow conditions.
Little, Stephen H.; Igo, Stephen R.; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J.; Nose, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A.
The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two different regurgitant flow conditions were tested using symmetric and asymmetric flow orifices. Three-dimensional-PISA was reconstructed from a hand-held real-time 3D-CD data set. Regurgitant volume was derived using both 2D-CD and 3D-CD PISA methods, and each was compared against a flow-meter standard. The circulatory loop achieved regurgitant volume within the clinical range of MR (11 to 84 ml). Three-dimensional-PISA geometry reflected the 2D geometry of the regurgitant orifice. Correlation between the 2D-PISA method regurgitant volume and actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.47, p <0.001). Mean 2D-PISA regurgitant volume underestimate was 19.1 +/- 25 ml (2 SDs). For the 3D-PISA method, correlation with actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.92, p <0.001), with a mean regurgitant volume underestimate of 2.7 +/- 10 ml (2 SDs). The 3D-PISA method showed less regurgitant volume underestimation for all orifice shapes and regurgitant volumes tested. In conclusion, in an in vitro model of MR, 3D-CD was used to directly measure PISA without geometric assumption. Compared with conventional 2D-PISA, regurgitant volume was more accurate when derived from 3D-PISA across symmetric and asymmetric orifices within a broad range of hemodynamic flow conditions. PMID:17493476
Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J; Nosé, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A
Changes in the geometric and intravalvular relationships between subunits of the ovine mitral valve were measured before and after acute posterior wall myocardial infarction in three dimensions by means of sonomicrometry array localization. In 13 sheep, nine sonomicrometer transducers were attached around the mitral anulus and to the tip and base of each papillary muscle. Five additional transducers were placed
Robert C Gorman; James S McCaughan; Mark B Ratcliffe; Krishanu B Gupta; James T Streicher; Victor A Ferrari; Martin G St. John-Sutton; Daniel K Bogen; L. Henry Edmunds
Background Since reduction annuloplasty alone for ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) cannot prevent late recurrence of MR or improve survival for those with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and the surgical approach to this etiology is still controversial, we conducted a study to assess the efficacy of the additional papillary muscle approximation (PMA) procedure for ischemic MR by comparing the different subtypes of PMA. Methods We studied 45 patients who underwent mitral annuloplasty and papillary muscle approximation (PMA) for ischemic MR between 2003 and 2012. Papillary muscles were approximated entirely (cPMA: complete PMA, n?=?32) through an LV incision or partially from the tips to mid-parts (iPMA: incomplete PMA, n?=?13) through the mitral and aortic valves. Twenty-three patients with cPMA also underwent LV plasty (LVP). We assessed the outcomes after PMA by comparing cPMA and iPMA. Results The baseline MR grade, NYHA class, LV end-diastolic diameter, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were 2.8?±?1.0, 3.2?±?0.6, 67?±?6 mm, and 30?±?10%, respectively. There were no significant differences in these parameters among those with iPMA, cPMA/LVP-, and cPMA/LVP+, though iPMA patients had better LVEF than others. Three patients died before discharge and 12 died during the follow-up. Recurrence of grade 2+ and 3+ MR occurred in 8 and 2 patients, respectively. Reoperation for recurrent MR was performed only for the 2 patients with recurrence of grade 3+ MR. The cPMA was associated with lower mortality (log-rank P?=?0.020) and a lower rate of recurrence of MR ?2+ (log-rank P?=?0.005) than iPMA. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the mortality (log-rank P?=?0.45) and rate of recurrence (log-rank P?=?0.98) between those with cPMA/LVP- and cPMA/LVP+. The 4-year survival rate and rate of freedom from recurrence of MR ?2+ were 83% and 85% for those with cPMA, repectively. In contrast, the rates were 48% and 48% for those with iPMA, respectively. Conclusions Complete PMA could be associated with lower postoperative mortality and higher durability of mitral valve repair for ischemic MR.
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.
Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.
Vena contracta width (VCW) and effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) are well established methods for evaluating mitral regurgitation using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). For color-flow Doppler (CF) measurements Nyquist limit of 50-60 cm/s is recommended. Aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a baseline shift of the Nyquist limit for these measurements. After a comprehensive 2-dimensional (2D) TEE examination, the mitral regurgitation jet was acquired with a Nyquist limit of 50 cm/s (NL50) along with a baseline shift to 37.5 cm/s (NL37.5) using CF. Moreover a real time 3-dimensional (RT 3D) color complete volume dataset was stored with a Nyquist limit of 50 cm/s (NL50) and 37.5 cm/s (NL37.5). Vena contracta width (VCW) as well as proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) derived EROA were measured based on 2D TEE and compared to RT 3D echo measurements for vena contracta area (VCA) using planimetry method. Correlation between VCA 3D NL50 and VCW NL50 was 0.29 (p < 0.05) compared to 0.6 (p < 0.05) using NL37.5. Correlation between VCA 3D NL50 and EROA 2D NL50 was 0.46 (p < 0.05) vs. 0.6 (p < 0.05) EROA 2D NL37.5. Correlation between VCA 3D NL37.5 and VCW NL50 was 0.45 (p < 0.05) compared to 0.65 (p < 0.05) using VCW NL37.5. Correlation between VCA 3D NL37.5 and EROA 2D NL50 was 0.41 (p < 0.05) vs. 0.53 (p < 0.05) using EROA 2D NL37.5. Baseline shift of the NL to 37.5 cm/s improves the correlation for VCW and EROA when compared to RT 3D NL50 planimetry of the vena contracta area. Baseline shift in RT 3D to a NL of 37.5 cm/s shows similar results like NL50. PMID:22752361
Heß, Hannah; Eibel, Sarah; Mukherjee, Chirojit; Kaisers, Udo X; Ender, Joerg
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) occurs when normal or nearly normal mitral leaflets are prevented from proper coaptation by underlying left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, mitral annular dilation, or both. FMR is associated with an adverse prognosis in nonischemic or ischemic LV dysfunction. Multiple studies have confirmed that even mild FMR portends a worse prognosis, and that the risk of FMR is independent of LV volumes and other clinical risk factors. FMR can be difficult to quantitate echocardiographically because it is load dependent and can vary considerably from exam to exam. There is a systematic tendency to underestimate FMR severity by echocardiography because the regurgitant orifice in FMR is typically elliptical, but the formula for calculating regurgitant orifice area assumes circular geometry. Treatment of FMR begins with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for LV dysfunction and heart failure, including cardiac resynchronization, if indicated. Revascularization should be considered for ischemic FMR, when indicated. Finally, mitral valve surgery should be considered in patients undergoing CABG in whom moderate or greater FMR is present, and also when severe symptomatic FMR persists despite optimal GDMT and revascularization. Percutaneous options for treatment of FMR are in development but are not currently approved in the US. PMID:24957516
Benjamin, Mina M; Smith, Robert L; Grayburn, Paul A
Five million Americans suffer from heart failure (HF). Despite innovative new pharmacologic and device therapies, the 5-year mortality rate for patients remains near 50%. Conservatively, 300,000 patients with HF also have severe functional mitral regurgitation. Over the past decade, the surgical approach to these patients has become more aggressive because the extent of the problem has become widely recognized, and surgeon familiarity with annuloplasty techniques has increased. Although clinical experience and enthusiasm have resulted in an expansion of literature, the role that mitral valve repair surgery plays in the treatment of HF is not fully established. In this article, we review the existing data on the efficacy of mitral valve surgery in HF patients. Specifically, we will review the available data regarding the effect of mitral valve surgery on longevity, ventricular remodeling, and symptoms. No randomized prospective data are available, but careful analysis of existing retrospective studies allows important conclusions to be made.
Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.
In this article we review the currently available data on percutaneous mitral valve annulorrhaphy devices using the coronary sinus in patients with functional mitral valve regurgitation (MR). Of these devices the greatest clinical experience exists for the Carillon mitral contour system which has gained increasing application also outside trials in the last 2 years. The advantages include the ease of use with an effective reduction in functional MR and a subsequent improvement of echocardiographic and clinical parameters. A limitation is the compromise of flow in the circumflex artery in some patients especially with a crossing of the coronary sinus with this artery. Future investigations need to focus on the evaluation of this coronary sinus-based technology versus mitral valve clipping technology for the treatment of functional MR. PMID:23836012
Degen, H; Schneider, T; Wilke, J; Haude, M
Purpose Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and myocardial dyssynchrony commonly occur in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in FMR in relation to those in left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony as well as geometric parameters of the mitral valve (MV) in DCM patients during dobutamine infusion. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine DCM patients (M:F=15:14; age: 62±15 yrs) with FMR underwent echocardiography at baseline and during peak dose (30 or 40 ug/min) of dobutamine infusion. Using 2D echocardiography, LV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction (EF), and effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) were estimated. Dyssynchrony indices (DIs), defined as the standard deviation of time interval-to-peak myocardial systolic contraction of eight LV segments, were measured. Using the multi-planar reconstructive mode from commercially available 3D image analysis software, MV tenting area (MVTa) was measured. All geometrical measurements were corrected (c) by the height of each patient. Results During dobutamine infusion, EF (28±8% vs. 39±11%, p=0.001) improved along with significant decrease in cLVESV (80.1±35.2 mm3/m vs. 60.4±31.1 mm3/m, p=0.001); cMVTa (1.28±0.48 cm2/m vs. 0.79±0.33 cm2/m, p=0.001) was significantly reduced; and DI (1.31±0.51 vs. 1.58±0.68, p=0.025) showed significant increase. Despite significant deterioration of LV dyssynchrony during dobutamine infusion, ERO (0.16±0.09 cm2 vs. 0.09±0.08 cm2, p=0.001) significantly improved. On multivariate analysis, ?cMVTa and ?EF were found to be the strongest independent determinants of ?ERO (R2=0.443, p=0.001). Conclusion Rather than LV dyssynchrony, MV geometry determined by LV geometry and systolic pressure, which represents the MV closing force, may be the primary determinant of MR severity.
Choi, Woong Gil; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Han; Park, Sang Don; Baek, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Hee; Woo, Sung Il; Kim, Dae Hyeok; Park, Keum Soo
Background Ring annuloplasty is the standard treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), however, it has been associated with some drawbacks. It abolishes normal annular dynamics and freezes the posterior leaflet. In the present study, we evaluated Paneth suture annuloplasty in chronic ischemic MR and both early and mid-term outcomes of the technique on a selected population. Methods The study period was from June 2010 to June 2012. We operated on 21 patients who had the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and MR of grade 3 or 4. The patients had both a coronary artery bypass operation and the mitral semicircular reduction annuloplasty described by Paneth-Burr. The data on the patients were retrospectively collected. Patients were contacted by outpatient clinic controls for mid-term results. Results The male/female ratio was 10/11. The mean age of the patients was 71.0 ± 6.4 years. Preoperative and postoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was statistically similar (P = 0.973). Early postoperative MR grade (mean, 0.57 ± 0.51) was statistically lower than the preoperative MR grades (mean, 3.38 ± 0.50) (P < 0.001). There was no revision for excess bleeding. Two patients had prolonged hospitalization, one for sternal infection and the other for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. No hospital or late postoperative deaths occurred. The mean late postoperative MR grade was 0.66 ± 0.97 degrees. One patient had progression of MR in the later follow-up, which was treated by mitral valve replacement. Conclusion Semicircular reduction annuloplasty is an effective, inexpensive and easy surgical annuloplasty technique with low mortality and morbidity in severe symptomatic ischemic MR.
Emrecan, Bilgin; Onem, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Ahmet Coskun; K?l?c, Ismail Dogu; Alihanoglu, Yusuf Izzettin
We here report the case of a 67-year-old woman with moderate mitral regurgitation without significant structural abnormalities that get worse during severe recurrent heart failures and preserved ejection fraction with concomitant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation became permanent and despite a well-controlled cardiac frequency, new heart failure episodes occurred. Exercise doppler echocardiography showed that the mechanism of this mitral regurgitation was a two leaflet mitral tenting. We discuss here the different mechanisms that could induce these kinds of mitral regurgitation with excessive tenting. We emphasize the interest of early detection by exercise doppler echocardiography even when a triggering factor like atrial fibrillation seems to be involved. We also discuss the interest of mitral valve replacement for these patients. PMID:22436632
Attari, M; Legrand, M; Philippe, C; Rosak, P
Objective Minimally invasive approaches to mitral valve surgery are increasingly used, but the surgical approach must not compromise the clinical outcome for improved cosmesis. We examined the outcomes of mitral repair performed through right minithoracotomy or median sternotomy. Methods Between January 2002 and October 2011, 1011 isolated mitral valve repairs were performed in the University of Pennsylvania health system (455 sternotomies, 556 right minithoracotomies). To account for key differences in preoperative risk profiles, propensity scores identified 201 well-matched patient pairs with mitral regurgitation of any cause and 153 pairs with myxomatous disease. Results In-hospital mortality was similar between propensity-matched groups (0% vs 0% for the degenerative cohort; 0% vs 0.5%, P = .5 for the overall cohort; in minimally invasive and sternotomy groups, respectively). Incidence of stroke, infection, myocardial infarction, exploration for postoperative hemorrhage, renal failure, and atrial fibrillation also were comparable. Transfusion was less frequent in the minimally invasive groups (11.8% vs 20.3%, P = .04 for the degenerative cohort; 14.0% vs 22.9%, P .03 for the overall cohort), but time to extubation and discharge was similar. A 99% repair rate was achieved=in patients with myxomatous disease, and a minimally invasive approach did not significantly increase the likelihood of a failed repair resulting in mitral valve replacement. Patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral repair were more likely to have no residual post-repair mitral regurgitation (97.4% vs 92.1%, P = .04 for the degenerative cohort; 95.5% vs 89.6%, P = .02 for the overall cohort). In the overall matched cohort, early readmission rates were higher in patients undergoing sternotomies (12.6% vs 4.4%, P = .01). Over 9 years of follow-up, there was no significant difference in long-term survival between groups (P = .8). Conclusions In appropriate patients with isolated mitral valve disease of any cause, a right minithoracotomy approach may be used without compromising clinical outcome.
Goldstone, Andrew B.; Atluri, Pavan; Szeto, Wilson Y.; Trubelja, Alen; Howard, Jessica L.; MacArthur, John W.; Newcomb, Craig; Donnelly, Joseph P.; Kobrin, Dale M.; Sheridan, Mary A.; Powers, Christiana; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Pochettino, Alberto; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Acker, Michael A.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Woo, Y. Joseph
Mitral valve and aortic valve regurgitation associated with enlarged left ventricle remains difficult to manage and the long-term results following surgical treatment is uncertain. Between April 1988 and September 2000, 82 patients with aortic and mitral regurgitation associated with enlarged left ventricle underwent valve replacement at Anzhen Hospital. The valve disease was rheumatic in origin in 75 patients (91.5%) and congenital in 7 (8.5%). Twenty-eight patients were in New York heart Association Functional (NYHA) class II and 39 in class III and 15 in class IV. Echocardiogram showed severe aortic insufficiency associated with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation in 66 patients and severe mitral regurgitation associated with mild to moderate AI in 16 patients. The mean left ventricular diastole diameter (LVDD) was 77.8 ± 5.2 mm. Valve replacement was performed under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Early hospital mortality was 7.3%. Two weeks after surgery the echocardiogram showed a reduction of LVDD. Follow up was completed in 69 patients with mean of 13.5 years. 20 patients were in NYHA class I; 26 in Class II and 3 in Class III and 2 in class IV. The follow-up survival rate was 73.9%, and follow-up mortality was 26.1%. LVDD reduced from 77.8 ± 5.2 mm to 58.3 ± 4.5 mm (P < 0.001). In 24 patients, the LVDD was less than 50 mm. Double valve replacement and/or repair carried out an acceptable early and Long-term clinical outcomes in patients with MR and AI with associated LV great enlargement. Both LVDD and NYHA improved following surgical treatment in survival patients.
Liu, Xian-Min; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wu-Kui; Xu, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xiu-Fang; Li, Wen-Bin; Meng, Xu; Chen, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Qi-Wen; Zhou, Zi-Fan
A 71-year-old woman presented with congestive heart failure due to severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitations. In addition, she had significant ostial right coronary stenosis. She received radiation therapy following left radical mastectomy for carcinoma of breast in the past. She underwent successful combined mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annuloplasty, and coronary artery bypass graft for radiation-induced heart disease. PMID:7656309
Raviprasad, G S; Salem, B I; Gowda, S; Leidenfrost, R
BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to compare operative mortality and midterm outcome of patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone or CABG with mitral valve (MV) repair.
Michael D. Diodato; Marc R. Moon; Michael K. Pasque; Hendrick B. Barner; Nader Moazami; Jennifer S. Lawton; Marci S. Bailey; Tracey J. Guthrie; Bryan F. Meyers; Ralph J. Damiano
Background Studies assessing ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) comprised of heterogeneous population and evaluated IMR in the subacute setting. The incidence of early IMR in the setting of primary PCI, its progression and clinical impact over time is still undetermined. We sought to determine the predictors and prognosis of early IMR after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods Using our primary PCI database, we screened for patients who underwent ?2 transthoracic echocardiograms early (1–3 days) and late (1 year) following primary PCI. The primary outcomes were: (1) major adverse events (MACE) including death, ischemic events, repeat hospitalization, re-vascularization and mitral repair or replacement (2) changes in quantitative echocardiographic assessments. Results From January 2006 to July 2012, we included 174 patients. Post-primary PCI IMR was absent in 95 patients (55%), mild in 60 (34%), and moderate to severe in 19 (11%). Early after primary PCI, IMR was independently predicted by an ischemic time?>?540 min (OR: 2.92 [95% CI, 1.28 – 7.05]; p?=?0.01), and female gender (OR: 3.06 [95% CI, 1.42 – 6.89]; p?=?0.004). At a median follow-up of 366 days [34–582 days], IMR was documented in 44% of the entire cohort, with moderate to severe IMR accounting for 15%. During follow-up, MR regression (change???1 grade) was seen in 18% of patients. Moderate to severe IMR remained an independent predictor of MACE (HR: 2.58 [95% CI, 1.08 – 5.53]; p?=?0.04). Conclusions After primary PCI, IMR is a frequent finding. Regression of early IMR during long-term follow-up is uncommon. Since moderate to severe IMR post-primary PCI appears to be correlated with worse outcomes, close follow-up is required.
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most frequent valvular heart diseases. To assess MR severity, color Doppler imaging (CDI) is the clinical standard. However, inadequate reliability, poor reproducibility and heavy user-dependence are known limitations. A novel approach combining computational and experimental methods is currently under development aiming to improve the quantification. A flow chamber for a circulatory flow loop was developed. Three different orifices were used to mimic variations of MR. The flow field was recorded simultaneously by a 2D Doppler ultrasound transducer and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted using the same geometry and boundary conditions. The resulting computed velocity field was used to simulate synthetic Doppler signals. Comparison between PIV and CFD shows a high level of agreement. The simulated CDI exhibits the same characteristics as the recorded color Doppler images. The feasibility of the proposed combination of experimental and computational methods for the investigation of MR is shown and the numerical methods are successfully validated against the experiments. Furthermore, it is discussed how the approach can be used in the long run as a platform to improve the assessment of MR quantification. PMID:24398572
Sonntag, Simon J; Li, Wei; Becker, Michael; Kaestner, Wiebke; Büsen, Martin R; Marx, Nikolaus; Merhof, Dorit; Steinseifer, Ulrich
OBJECTIVES Our goal was to prospectively compare the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler vena contracta (VC) area and two-dimensional (2D) VC diameter in an in vitro model and in the clinical assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. BACKGROUND Real-time 3D color Doppler allows direct measurement of VC area and may be more accurate for assessment of MR than the conventional VC diameter measurement by 2D color Doppler. METHODS Using a circulatory loop with an incorporated imaging chamber, various pulsatile flow rates of MR were driven through 4 differently sized orifices. In a clinical study of patients with at least mild MR, regurgitation severity was assessed quantitatively using Doppler-derived effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA), and semiquantitatively as recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography. We describe a step-by-step process to accurately identify the 3D-VC area and compare that measure against known orifice areas (in vitro study) and EROA (clinical study). RESULTS In vitro, 3D-VC area demonstrated the strongest correlation with known orifice area (r = 0.92, p < 0.001), whereas 2D-VC diameter had a weak correlation with orifice area (r = 0.56, p = 0.01). In a clinical study of 61 patients, 3D-VC area correlated with Doppler-derived EROA (r = 0.85, p < 0.001); the relation was stronger than for 2D-VC diameter (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). The advantage of 3D-VC area over 2D-VC diameter was more pronounced in eccentric jets (r = 0.87, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.6, p < 0.001, respectively) and in moderate-to-severe or severe MR (r = 0.80, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.18, p = 0.4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Measurement of VC area is feasible with real-time 3D color Doppler and provides a simple parameter that accurately reflects MR severity, particularly in eccentric and clinically significant MR where geometric assumptions may be challenging.
Little, Stephen H.; Pirat, Bahar; Kumar, Rahul; Igo, Stephen R.; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J.; Xu, Jiaqiong; Zoghbi, William A.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with additional ventricular septal defect (VSD) forms a difficult surgical subset. Commonly, additional VSD is in the muscular septum and direct visualization may be difficult during surgical repair especially in arrested heart. Consequently, direct closure of these defects is performed based upon preoperative imaging and/or intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiogram. We hereby report an unforeseen occurrence of traumatic acute severe mitral regurgitation after TOF repair possibly during closure of additional muscular VSD. We discuss the possible mechanism of this unprecedented complication, which was promptly diagnosed and managed with good surgical outcomes. PMID:24591398
Malankar, Dhananjay; Nair, Vinitha Viswambharan; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Das, Sambhunath; Airan, Balram
Occurrence of dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is not infrequent in critically ill patients, and it is associated with potential danger. Here, we report a case of transient heart failure with hemodynamic deterioration paradoxically induced by extreme dehydration. This article describes clinical features of the patient and echocardiographic findings of dynamic LVOT obstruction and significant mitral regurgitation caused by systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in a volume-depleted heart.
Kim, Dongmin; Mun, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Eun Young
Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) doubles mortality following myocardial infarction (MI). We have demonstrated that MR worsens remodeling after MI, and that early correction reverses remodeling. SERCA2a is downregulated in this process. We hypothesized that upregulating SERCA2a may inhibit remodeling in a surgical model of apical MI (no intrinsic MR) with independent MR-type flow. Methods and Results In 12 sheep, percutaneous gene delivery was performed using a validated protocol to perfuse both LAD and circumflex coronary arteries with occlusion of venous drainage. We administered adeno-associated virus 6 (AAV6) carrying SERCA2a under CMV promoter control in 6 sheep, and a reporter gene in 6 controls. After 2 weeks, standardized apical MI was created, and a shunt implanted between the LV and LA, producing regurgitant fractions of ~30%. Animals were compared at baseline, 1 and 3 months using 3D echo, Millar hemodynamics and biopsies. The SERCA2a group had well-maintained preload-recruitable stroke work at 3 months (decrease by 8±10% vs. 42±12% with reporter gene controls (p<0.001)). LV dP/dt followed the same pattern (no change vs. 55% decrease, p<0.001). LVESV was lower with SERCA2a (82.6±9 6 vs 99.4±9.7 ml, p=0.03); LVEDV, reflecting volume overload, was not significantly different (127.8±6.2 vs 134.3±9.4 ml). SERCA2a sheep showed 15% rise in anti-apoptotic pAkt vs. 30% reduction with reporter gene (P<0.001). Pro-hypertrophic activated STAT3 was also 41% higher with SERCA2a than in controls (p<0.001). Pro-apoptotic activated caspase-3 rose over 5-fold over 1 month in both SERCA2a and controls (p=NS), and decreased by 19% at 3 months, remaining elevated in both groups. Conclusions In this controlled model, upregulating SERCA2a induces better function and lesser remodeling, with improved contractility, smaller volume and activation of pro-hypertrophic/anti-apoptotic pathways. Although caspase-3 remains activated in both arms, SERCA2a sheep had increased molecular anti-remodeling “tone”. We therefore conclude that upregulating SERCA2a inhibits MR-induced post-MI remodeling in this model, and thus may constitute a useful approach to reduce the vicious cycle of remodeling in ischemic MR.
Beeri, Ronen; Chaput, Miguel; Guerrero, J. Luis; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Yosefy, Chaim; Abedat, Suzan; Karakikes, Ioannis; Morel, Charlotte; Tisosky, Ashley; Sullivan, Suzanne; Handschumacher, Mark; Gilon, Dan; Vlahakes, Gus J.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Levine, Robert A.
Libman-Sacks endocarditis of the mitral valve was first described by Libman and Sacks in 1924. Currently, the sterile verrucous vegetative lesions seen in Libman-Sacks endocarditis are regarded as a cardiac manifestation of both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although typically mild and asymptomatic, complications of Libman-Sacks endocarditis may include superimposed bacterial endocarditis, thromboembolic events, and severe valvular regurgitation and/or stenosis requiring surgery. In this study we report two cases of mitral valve repair and two cases of mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In addition, we provide a systematic review of the English literature on mitral valve surgery for MR caused by Libman-Sacks endocarditis. This report shows that mitral valve repair is feasible and effective in young patients with relatively stable SLE and/or APS and only localized mitral valve abnormalities caused by Libman-Sacks endocarditis. Both clinical and echocardiographic follow-up after repair show excellent mid- and long-term results.
Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the long-term results of mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation caused by myxomatous disease of the mitral valve and the late effects of chordal replacement with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures in this operation. Methods: A total of 324 patients with mitral regurgitation caused by myxomatous disease underwent mitral valve repair from 1981 to
Tirone E. David; Ahmad Omran; Susan Armstrong; Zhao Sun; Joan Ivanov
This study was to investigate the mechanisms of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) by using a finite element (FE) approach. IMR is a common complication of coronary artery disease; and it usually occurs due to myocardial infarction. The pathophysiological mechanisms of IMR have not been fully understood, much debate remains about the exact contribution of each mechanism to IMR. Two patient-specific FE models of normal mitral valves (MV) were reconstructed from multi-slice computed tomography scans. Different grades of IMR during its pathogenesis were created by perturbation of the normal MV geometry. Effects of annular dilatation and papillary muscle (PM) displacement (both isolated and combined) on the severity of IMR were examined. We observed greater increase in IMR (in terms of regurgitant area and coaptation length) in response to isolated annular dilatation than that caused by isolated PM displacement, while a larger PM displacement resulted in higher PM forces. Annular dilation, combined with PM displacement, was able to significantly increase the severity of IMR and PM forces. Our simulations demonstrated that isolated annular dilatation might be a more important determinant of IMR than isolated PM displacement, which could help explain the clinical observation that annular size reduction by restrictive annuloplasty is generally effective in treating IMR. PMID:24767703
Wang, Qian; Primiano, Charles; Sun, Wei
PURPOSE: Advances in surgery permit for earlier intervention with improved outcomes for patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Many patients still appear to be referred to surgery late in their course. Consensus guidelines were compared with the surgical referral practices for MR among Canadian cardiologists. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all adult cardiologists in Canada. This included seven case scenarios, as well as direct questions designed to establish the influence of factors including atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular (LV) dilation, experience of the cardiac surgeon, symptoms and ejection fraction (EF) on referral. RESULTS: There were 319 respondents; LVEF was rated as extremely important in 71.5% of patients and moderately important in 26% of patients. In asymptomatic patients, EF of 50% to 60% was correctly identified as a trigger for surgery by 57.2 % of cardiologists, while only 15.6% of cardiologists correctly referred New York Heart Association class II patients with normal LV function. The group complied in only 4.77 of the seven case scenarios. Compliance was inversely related to years in practice for asymptomatic patients with mild LV dysfunction, as well as in overall compliance. Referral practices were similar among clinicians, echocardiographers, interventional cardiologists and researchers, with no differences in geographic region or academic affiliation. CONCLUSION: Compliance with published guidelines for patients with MR and either New York Heart Association class II or mild LV dysfunction among Canadian cardiologists was poor. Compliance was somewhat better in more recent graduates, suggesting the need to institute programs geared at enhancing knowledge of published standards and introduce practical tools to aid in their implementation.
Toledano, Karine; Rudski, Lawrence G; Huynh, Thao; Beique, Francois; Sampalis, John; Morin, Jean-Francois
Afterload mismatch, defined as acute impairment of left ventricular function after mitral surgery, is a major issue in patients with low ejection fraction and functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Safety and efficacy of MitraClip therapy have been assessed in randomized trials, but limited data on its acute hemodynamic effects are available. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and prognostic role of afterload mismatch in patients affected by FMR treated with MitraClip therapy. We retrospectively analyzed patients affected by FMR and submitted to MitraClip therapy from October 2008 to December 2012. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to the occurrence of the afterload mismatch: patients with afterload mismatch (AM+) and without afterload mismatch (AM-). Of 73 patients, 19 (26%) experienced afterload mismatch in the early postoperative period. Among preoperative variables, end-diastolic diameter (71 ± 8 vs 67 ± 7 mm, p = 0.02) and end-systolic diameter (57 ± 9 vs 53 ± 7 mm, p = 0.04) were both significantly larger in AM+ group. An increased incidence of right ventricular dysfunction (68% vs 31%, p = 0.049) and pulmonary hypertension (49 ± 10 vs 40 ± 10 mm Hg, p = 0.0009) was found in AM+ group. Before hospital discharge, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) became similar in both groups (31 ± 9% vs 33 ± 11%, p = 0.65). Long-term survival was comparable between the 2 groups (p = 0.44). A low LVEF in the early postoperative period (LVEF <17%) was significantly associated with higher mortality rate in long-term follow-up (p = 0.048). In conclusion, reduction of mitral regurgitation with MitraClip can cause afterload mismatch; however, this phenomenon is transient, without long-term prognostic implications. PMID:24837263
Melisurgo, Giulio; Ajello, Silvia; Pappalardo, Federico; Guidotti, Andrea; Agricola, Eustachio; Kawaguchi, Masanori; Latib, Azeem; Covello, Remo Daniel; Denti, Paolo; Zangrillo, Alberto; Alfieri, Ottavio; Maisano, Francesco
Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs most often in patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with an adverse prognosis. Recently, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been validated as a marker of cardiac function and prognosis. We sought to assess the relation between functional MR and BNP levels in patients with HF, and hypothesized that MR is associated with higher
Susan A Mayer; James A de Lemos; Sabina A Murphy; Sandra Brooks; Brad J Roberts; Paul A Grayburn
The literature concerning heart surgery after pneumonectomy is still poor. Moreover, there is still a lack of a standardized approach to such a patient in the decision-making process. Here, we report a case of a patient who had previously had left pneumonectomy for malignancy and who had coronary artery disease and mitral and tricuspid regurgitation treated with a hybrid procedure. PMID:24771204
Gennari, Marco; Kassem, Samer; Teruzzi, Giovanni; Agrifoglio, Marco
Usefulness of atrial deformation analysis to predict left atrial fibrosis and endocardial thickness in patients undergoing mitral valve operations for severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve prolapse.
In patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) referred for cardiac surgery, left atrial (LA) remodeling and enlargement are accompanied by mechanical stress, mediated cellular hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis that finally lead to LA failure. Speckle tracking echocardiography is a novel non-Doppler-based method that allows an objective quantification of LA myocardial deformation, becoming useful for LA functional analysis. We conducted a study to evaluate the relation between the traditional and novel atrial indexes and the extent of ultrastructural alterations, obtained from patients with severe MR who were undergoing surgical correction of the valvular disease. The study population included 46 patients with severe MR, referred to our echocardiographic laboratory for a diagnostic examination before cardiac surgery. The global peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) was measured in all subjects by averaging all atrial segments. LA tissue samples were obtained from all patients. Masson's trichrome staining was performed to assess the extent of the fibrosis. The LA endocardial thickness was measured. A close negative correlation between the global PALS and grade of LA myocardial fibrosis was found (r = -0.82, p <0.0001), with poorer correlations for the LA indexed volume (r = 0.51, p = 0.01), LA ejection fraction (r = 0.61, p = 0.005), and E/E' ratio (0.14, p = NS). Of these indexes, global PALS showed the best diagnostic accuracy to detect LA fibrosis (area under the curve 0.89), and it appears to be a strong and independent predictor of LA fibrosis. Furthermore, we also demonstrated an inverse correlation between the global PALS and LA endocardial thickness (r = -0.66, p = 0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with severe MR referred for cardiac surgery, impairment of LA longitudinal deformation, as assessed by the global PALS, correlated strongly with the extent of LA fibrosis and remodeling. PMID:23211360
Cameli, Matteo; Lisi, Matteo; Righini, Francesca Maria; Massoni, Alberto; Natali, Benedetta Maria; Focardi, Marta; Tacchini, Damiana; Geyer, Alessia; Curci, Valeria; Di Tommaso, Cristina; Lisi, Gianfranco; Maccherini, Massimo; Chiavarelli, Mario; Massetti, Massimo; Tanganelli, Piero; Mondillo, Sergio
In many heart diseases, exercise treadmill testing(ETT) has useful functional correlates and/or prognostic value. However, its predictive value in mitral regurgitation(MR) is undefined. To determine whether ETT descriptors predict death or indications for mitral valve surgery among patients with MR, we prospectively followed, for 7±3 endpoint-free years, a cohort of 38 patients with chronic severe nonischemic MR who underwent modified Bruce ETT; all lacked surgical indications at study entry. Their baseline exercise descriptors also were compared with those from 46 patients with severe MR who, at entry, already had reached surgical indications. Endpoints during follow-up among the cohort included sudden death(n=1), heart failure symptoms(n=2), atrial fibrillation(n=4), LVEF<60%(n=2), LV systolic dimensions(IDs)?45 mm(n=12) and LVIDs>40mm(n=11), LVEF<60%+LVIDs 45 mm(n=3), and heart failure+LVIDs 45mm+LVEF<60%(n=1). In univariate analysis, exercise duration(p=.004), chronotropic response(p=.007), percent predicted peak heart rate(p=.01) and heart rate recovery(p<.02) predicted events; in multivariate analysis, only exercise duration was predictive(p<.02). Average annual event risk was 5-fold lower(4.62%) with exercise duration?15 minutes vs. <15 minutes(average annual risk=23.48%, p=.004). Relative risks among patients with and without exercise-inducible ST segment depression were comparable(?1.3[NS]) whether defined at entry and/or during follow-up. Exercise duration, but not prevalence of exercise-inducible ST segment depression, was lower(p<.001) among patients with surgical indications at entry vs. initially endpoint-free patients. In conclusion, among asymptomatic patients with chronic severe nonischemic MR and no objective criteria for operation, progression to surgical indications generally is rapid. However, those with excellent exercise tolerance have a relatively benign course. Exercise-inducible ST segment depression has no prognostic value in this population. We followed, for 7±3 endpoint-free years, 38 patients with chronic severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) who underwent modified Bruce exercise treadmill testing (ETT) to determine whether ETT descriptors predict death or indications for mitral valve surgery. At study entry, all lacked surgical indications. Exercise duration independently predicted subsequent events; event risks among patients with and without exercise-inducible ST segment depression were comparable. We conclude that among asymptomatic patients with chronic severe nonischemic MR and no objective criteria for operation, those with excellent exercise tolerance have a relatively benign course. Exercise-inducible ST segment depression has no prognostic value in this population.
Supino, Phyllis G.; Borer, Jeffrey S.; Schuleri, Karlheinz; Gupta, Anuj; Hochreiter, Clare; Kligfield, Paul; Herrold, Edmund McM.; Preibisz, Jacek J.
Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip is a new promising therapeutic option for symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a well recognized cause of papillary muscle rupture (PMR). If PMR is untreated, the prognosis is poor and the mortality could be as high as 80% during the first week of post MI. For patients with PMR, the standard therapy for MR is open surgical repair or replacement. However, in our case, percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip was chosen technique because of the metastatic colon cancer. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who underwent successful percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system for the treatment of acute MI complicated by PMR. PMID:23592592
Bilge, Mehmet; Alemdar, Recai; Yasar, Ayse Saatci
Abstract Objective: In patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) at high risk of mortality and morbidity from mitral valve surgery, transcatheter mitral valve repair with the MitraClip System is associated with a reduction in MR and improved quality-of-life and functional status compared with baseline. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of MitraClip therapy compared with standard of care in patients with significant MR at high risk for mitral valve surgery from a Canadian payer perspective. Methods: A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the lifetime costs, life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost per life year and QALY gained for patients receiving MitraClip therapy compared with standard of care. Treatment-specific overall survival, risk of clinical events, quality-of-life, and resource utilization were obtained from the Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge REpair High Risk Study (EVEREST II HRS). Health utility and unit costs (CAD $2013) were taken from the published literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the impact of alternative assumptions and parameter uncertainty on results. Results: The base case incremental cost per QALY gained was $23,433. Results were most sensitive to alternative assumptions regarding overall survival, time horizon, and risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed MitraClip therapy to have a 92% chance of being cost-effective compared with standard of care at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY gained. Study limitations: Key limitations include the small number of patients included in the EVEREST II HRS which informed the analysis, the limited data available to inform clinical events and disease progression in the concurrent comparator group, and the lack of a comparator group from a randomized control trial. Conclusion: MitraClip therapy is likely a cost-effective option for the treatment of patients at high risk for mitral valve surgery with significant MR. PMID:24826880
Cameron, H L; Bernard, L M; Garmo, V S; Hernandez, J B; Asgar, A W
Mitral regurgitation (MR) due to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is a frequent finding in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs). Sinus arrhythmia and atrial premature complexes leading to R-R interval variations occur in dogs. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the duration of the R-R interval immediately influences the degree of MR assessed by echocardiography in dogs. Clinical examination including echocardiography was performed in 103 privately-owned dogs: 16 control Beagles, 70 CKCSs with different degree of MR and 17 dogs of different breeds with clinical signs of congestive heart failure due to MMVD. The severity of MR was evaluated in apical four-chamber view using colour Doppler flow mapping (maximum % of the left atrium area) and colour Doppler M-mode (duration in ms). The influence of the ratio between present and preceding R-R interval on MR severity was evaluated in 10 consecutive R-R intervals using a linear mixed model for repeated measurements. MR severity was increased when a short R-R interval was followed by a long R-R interval in CKCSs with different degrees of MR (P<0.005 when adjusted for multiple testing). The relationship was not significant in control dogs with minimal MR and in dogs with severe MR and clinical signs of heart failure. In conclusion, MR severity increases in long R-R intervals when these follow a short R-R interval in CKCSs with different degrees of MR due to asymptomatic MMVD. Thus, R-R interval variations may affect the echocardiographic grading of MR in CKCSs. PMID:24507881
Reimann, M J; Møller, J E; Häggström, J; Markussen, B; Holen, A E W; Falk, T; Olsen, L H
Abstract Objectives. We aimed to develop a porcine model for chronic nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) to investigate left ventricular (LV) enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy. Design. Nonischemic MR was induced in 30 pigs by open-chest immobilization of the posterior mitral leaflet by transannular traction sutures that where applied in transmyocardial fashion. A sham operated control group (n = 13) was included. Echocardiographic LV size and heart weight assessed at euthanasia were used to evaluate the development of LV enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy after 8 weeks follow-up. Results. Eight pigs died and seven were excluded due to mediastinal infection (n = 2) or failure to produce MR (n = 5). Thus, 28 pigs were included and were divided into three groups: controls (n = 12), mild MR (mMR; n = 10), and moderate to severe MR (sMR; n = 6). The change in LV internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd) from baseline to follow-up was significantly higher in the sMR group compared to that of the control group (P = 0.0017). Furthermore, LV weight was significantly increased in the mMR (P = 0.047) and the sMR (P = 0.0087) groups compared to that of the control group. Conclusions. A new model for chronic moderate to severe nonischemic MR with development of LV enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy within 8 weeks has been established in pigs. PMID:24548173
Ravn, Nathja; Zois, Nora E; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Honge, Jesper L; Smerup, Morten H; Hasenkam, J Michael; Sloth, Erik; Cremer, Signe E; Olsen, Lisbeth H
A 48 year old man was transferred to our department with cardiogenic shock, pyrexia, a high white cell count and significant serum troponin T level. Clinical evaluation revealed severe mitral regurgitation secondary to a flail of both mitral valve leaflets. An emergency cardiac catheterisation did not reveal any significant coronary artery disease. Left ventricular angiogram and echocardiography demonstrated a good
Federico Bizzarri; Consalvo Mattia; Massimo Ricci; Flaminia Coluzzi; Vincenzo Petrozza; Giacomo Frati; Giuseppe Pugliese; Luigi Muzzi
Left ventricular performance was studied during isometric exercise in 17 patients with severe congestive heart failure, combining invasive hemodynamic and echo-Doppler techniques. Isometric exercise at 30% of maximum resulted in a decrease in stroke volume index (27.4 +/- 7.1 to 22.7 +/- 7.4 ml/m2), with a significant increase in heart rate from 81 +/- 10 to 92 +/- 14 beats/min and in systemic vascular resistance from 1827 +/- 527 to 2372 +/- 737 dyne.sec.cm-5. A significant rise in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (18 +/- 9 to 31 +/- 10 mm Hg) was associated with a marked increase in mitral regurgitant volume (14 +/- 11 to 27 +/- 15 ml), calculated as the difference between total stroke volume obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography and forward stroke volume measured by pulsed Doppler at the aortic anulus. During isometric exercise, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes did not change markedly, but the total stroke volume tended to increase from 62 +/- 13 to 67 +/- 13 ml. The increase in mitral regurgitant volume induced by isometric exercise was correlated with the fall in forward stroke volume (r = 0.7, p less than 0.01). Thus a rise in systemic arterial pressure induced by isometric exercise is associated with a decrease in cardiac performance attributable to redistribution of total left ventricular output with an increase in mitral regurgitation and a simultaneous decrease in forward cardiac output. PMID:2816708
Keren, G; Katz, S; Gage, J; Strom, J; Sonnenblick, E H; LeJemtel, T H
Impella LP 5.0 (Abiomed) is a relatively new technology that has been used over the last few years as a ventricular assist device to provide full circulatory support for patients presenting with cardiogenic shock. There is limited evidence available in literature with regard to insertion approaches, safety, complications and long-term clinical outcomes. Complications that have been reported are device malfunction, pump displacement, intravascular haemolysis, intra-ventricular thrombosis, functional mitral stenosis due to displacement and local vascular complications at vascular access site. We report here the first case with acute mitral regurgitation due to chordal rupture and flail mitral valve leaflet as a result of Impella device displacement, a new complication. Review of literature is also reported. PMID:24296306
Elhussein, Tarek Ali; Hutchison, Stuart James
This study examines the clinical and surgical outcome of a group of 55 patients (mean age 33 years) with secundum atrial septal defect who underwent surgical repair of this defect between 1981 and 1990. A group of 25 of these patients underwent late echocardiographic follow-up. Fifty-two patients underwent repair by direct suturing and three by patch closure. Surgical mortality was nil. There was one late death of a 58 year old who died from cardiac failure 4 years after surgery. Late postoperative morbidity consisted of two patients; one, age 63 at the time of surgery, required mitral and tricuspid valve replacement 6 years later and one, age 77 at surgery, developed cardiac failure 3 years later. Atrial fibrillation persisted in the six patients who had the rhythm before surgery and developed postoperatively in two patients aged 54 and 58. Two patients aged 49 and 57 developed immediate postoperative sinus node dysfunction requiring permanent pacing. The mean age at surgery of those six patients who suffered cardiac morbidity was 60 years. The patients with preoperative angiographic evidence of mitral valve prolapse were significantly older (P < 0.001) and had higher mean pulmonary artery pressures (P < 0.001) than patients with normal valves. There was no significant relationship between shunt size and mitral valve prolapse. Echocardiographic follow-up showed persistent mitral valve prolapse in all nine patients who developed the condition preoperatively. Five patients developed mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation postoperatively, one of whom needed subsequent mitral and tricuspid valve replacement. These five patient were on average older (mean age 54) but the group was too small to prove significance. The follow-up data illustrate the current low mortality and morbidity associated with surgical closure of atrial septal defects. Late postoperative echocardiography had revealed not only that mitral valve prolapse persists in those patients who developed the condition pre-operatively but that new cases of mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation can occur after atrial septal defect closure. PMID:8121863
Speechly-Dick, M E; John, R; Pugsley, W B; Sturridge, M F; Swanton, R H
The simplified Bernoulli’s equation is widely used in cardiology to measure the pressure difference between the left ventricle (LV) and the left atrium (LA). Even though this is a standard method, its derivation has not been well-clarified physically, which may lead to inappropriate usage of the method. In this study, derivation of the simplified Bernoulli’s equation is presented with five assumptions: incompressible, irrotational, steady-state, negligible LV-LA height difference, and LA open space. Each assumption is analytically and numerically discussed as quantitatively as possible. We found that three factors, the LA size, the measurement location of regurgitation velocity, and the patient position in measuring regurgitation, need to be considered for appropriate usage of the simplified Bernoulli’s equation.
Tomohiko Tanaka,; Kunio Hashiba,
Objective Non-ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is primarily caused by myxomatous mitral valve (MV) disease leading to adaptive remodeling, enlargement, and dysfunction of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of plasma markers and several cardiac key genes in a novel porcine model of non-ischemic MR. Methods and results Twenty-eight production pigs (Sus scrofa) were randomized to experimental MR or sham surgery controls. MR was induced by external suture(s) through the posterior MV leaflet and quantified using echocardiography. The experimental group was subdivided into mild MR (mMR, MR=20–50%, n=10) and moderate/severe MR (sMR, MR >50%, n=6) and compared with controls (CON, MR ?10%, n=12). Eight weeks postoperatively, follow-up examinations were performed followed by killing. Circulating concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP), l-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were measured. MV, anterior papillary muscle, and left ventricular free wall tissues were collected to quantify mRNA expression of eNOS (NOS3), iNOS (NOS2), MMP9, MMP14, ANP (NPPA), BNP (NPPB), and TGFB1, 2, and 3 and five microRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR. Pigs with sMR displayed markedly increased plasma proANP and SDMA concentrations compared with both controls and mMR (P<0.05). The expression of all genes examined differed significantly between the three localizations in the heart. miR-21 and miR-133a were differently expressed among the experimental groups (P<0.05). Conclusions Plasma proANP and SDMA levels and tissue expression of miR-21 and miR-133a are associated with severity of chronic MR in an experimental porcine model.
Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Zois, Nora E; Ravn, Nathja; Goetze, Jens P; Cremer, Signe E; Teerlink, Tom; Leifsson, Pall S; Honge, Jesper L; Hasenkam, J Michael; Olsen, Lisbeth H
A 48 year old man was transferred to our department with cardiogenic shock, pyrexia, a high white cell count and significant serum troponin T level. Clinical evaluation revealed severe mitral regurgitation secondary to a flail of both mitral valve leaflets. An emergency cardiac catheterisation did not reveal any significant coronary artery disease. Left ventricular angiogram and echocardiography demonstrated a good left ventricular function and massive mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures were negative for aerobics, anaerobics and fungi. The patient underwent emergency mitral valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Intraoperatively, the posteromedial papillary muscle was found to be ruptured. Histology of the papillary muscle revealed myocardial necrosis with no signs of infection. Cultures obtained from a mitral valve specimen were negative. The patient's recovery was uneventful and he was discharged on the 6th postoperative day. PMID:18983645
Bizzarri, Federico; Mattia, Consalvo; Ricci, Massimo; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Frati, Giacomo; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Muzzi, Luigi
The present study aimed to investigate geometric remodeling of the mitral valve (MV) and to identify the geometric determinants of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity in patients with significant MR secondary to a rheumatic or prolapse etiology. We studied 90 consecutive patients in normal sinus rhythm, including 70 patients showing significant MR (52 with prolapsed/flail and 18 with rheumatic MV) and 20 controls with normal MV without MR. A full volume image was acquired using transesophageal echocardiography, and geometric analysis of the MV leaflet was performed with dedicated software. Areas of the MV annulus and the anterior and posterior leaflets were larger in the rheumatic and prolapsed MV than in the normal controls. No difference was found between the rheumatic and prolapsed MR in those parameters, except that the posterior leaflet area was smaller in rheumatic MR than in prolapsed MR. The leaflet to annulus area ratio was lower and the anterior to posterior leaflet area ratio was higher in the rheumatic MR group than in the prolapsed MR group. A large anteroposterior annulus diameter and small posterior leaflet tenting angle were independently associated with the effective regurgitant orifice area in rheumatic MV, although the leaflet to annulus area ratio was independently associated with the effective regurgitant orifice area in the prolapsed MV. In conclusion, similarities and differences in geometric MV remodeling exist between rheumatic and prolapsed MR. The knowledge of those quantitative differences could open the way to precise planning of surgery tailored to the underlying pathologic entity. PMID:23499274
Song, Jong-Min; Jung, Yoo-Jin; Jung, Yeon-Ju; Ji, Hyo-Won; Kim, Dae-Hee; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan
The mechanism by which beta blockade improves left ventricular dysfunction in various cardiomyopathies has been ascribed to improved contractile function of the myocardium or to improved beta-adrenergic responsiveness. In this study we tested two hypotheses: (a) that chronic beta blockade would improve the left ventricular dysfunction which develops in mitral regurgitation, and (b) that an important mechanism of this effect would be improved innate contractile function of the myocardium. Two groups of six dogs with chronic severe mitral regurgitation were studied. After 3 mo both groups had developed similar and significant left ventricular dysfunction. One group was then gradually beta-blocked while the second group continued to be observed without further intervention. In the group that remained unblocked, contractile function remained depressed. However, in the group that received chronic beta blockade, contractile function improved substantially. The contractility of cardiocytes isolated from the unblocked hearts and then studied in the absence of beta receptor stimulation was extremely depressed. However, contractility of cardiocytes isolated from the beta-blocked ventricles was virtually normal. Consistent with these data, myofibrillar density was much higher, 55 +/- 4% in the beta-blocked group vs. 39 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in the unblocked group; thus, there were more contractile elements to generate force in the beta-blocked group. We conclude that chronic beta blockade improves left ventricular function in chronic experimental mitral regurgitation. This improvement was associated with an improvement in the innate contractile function of isolated cardiocytes, which in turn is associated with an increase in the number of contractile elements. Images
Tsutsui, H; Spinale, F G; Nagatsu, M; Schmid, P G; Ishihara, K; DeFreyte, G; Cooper, G; Carabello, B A
Background:Degenerative mitral valve disease is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in the United States. Mitral valve repair is applicable in the majority of these patients and has become the procedure of choice. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify factors influencing the durability of mitral valve repair. Patients and methods: Between 1985 and 1997, 1072 patients underwent primary
A. Marc Gillinov; Delos M. Cosgrove; Eugene H. Blackstone; Ramon Diaz; John H. Arnold; Bruce W. Lytle; Nicholas G. Smedira; Joseph F. Sabik; Patrick M. McCarthy; Floyd D. Loop
Background Guidelines for quantifying mitral regurgitation (MR) using “proximal isovelocity surface area” (PISA) instruct operators to measure the PISA radius from valve orifice to Doppler flow convergence “hemisphere”. Using clinical data and a physically-constructed MR model we (A) analyse the actually-observed colour Doppler PISA shape and (B) test whether instructions to measure a “hemisphere” are helpful. Methods and results In part A, the true shape of PISA shells was investigated using three separate approaches. First, a systematic review of published examples consistently showed non-hemispherical, “urchinoid” shapes. Second, our clinical data confirmed that the Doppler-visualized surface is non-hemispherical. Third, in-vitro experiments showed that round orifices never produce a colour Doppler hemisphere. In part B, six observers were instructed to measure hemisphere radius rh and (on a second viewing) urchinoid distance (du) in 11 clinical PISA datasets; 6 established experts also measured PISA distance as the gold standard. rh measurements, generated using the hemisphere instruction significantly underestimated expert values (? 28%, p < 0.0005), meaning rh2 was underestimated by approximately 2-fold. du measurements, generated using the non-hemisphere instruction were less biased (+ 7%, p = 0.03). Finally, frame-to-frame variability in PISA distance was found to have a coefficient of variation (CV) of 25% in patients and 9% in in-vitro data. Beat-to-beat variability had a CV of 15% in patients. Conclusions Doppler-visualized PISA shells are not hemispherical: we should avoid advising observers to measure a hemispherical radius because it encourages underestimation of orifice area by approximately two-fold. If precision is needed (e.g. to detect changes reliably) multi-frame averaging is essential.
Moraldo, Michela; Cecaro, Fabrizio; Shun-Shin, Matthew; Pabari, Punam A.; Davies, Justin E.; Xu, Xiao Y.; Hughes, Alun D.; Manisty, Charlotte; Francis, Darrel P.
Background The efficacy of annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) has been difficult to establish. Using an established ovine model of IMR, we tested the ability of ring annuloplasty to durably relieve IMR and reverse or limit progression of left ventricular (LV) remodeling during a clinically relevant follow-up period. Methods A posterolateral infarction known to result in chronic IMR was initiated in 33 sheep. Echocardiography was used to assess LV end diastolic and systolic volumes and IMR (0 to 4 scale) before and 8 weeks after infarction. Eight weeks after infarction, 20 surviving animals with ?2+ IMR were randomized (1:1) to no treatment or undersized, semi-rigid, complete ring annuloplasty placement. LV remodeling and IMR were assessed at 4 and 6 months after infarction. Results All animals had similarly sized LV volumes at baseline (end systolic, 27.8 ± 4.6 mL; end diastolic, 53.5 ± 6.4 mL). The 20 randomized animals survived to complete the study. The degree of IMR before randomization was similar in treatment (2.6 ± 0.4) and control (2.8 ± 0.3) groups. At the 6-month follow-up, the degree of IMR was significantly less in the annuloplasty group (0.3 ± 0.1 vs 3.4 ± 0.6); however, LV volumes in the treatment group were not significantly different from the control group (end systolic, 82.1 ± 15.6 vs 81.1 ± 8.6 mL; end diastolic, 110.4 ± 22.1 vs 111.1 ± 16.5 mL). Conclusions In a clinically relevant ovine model of IMR, annuloplasty provides durable relief from IMR during an extended follow-up period but does not significantly influence LV remodeling.
Matsuzaki, Kanji; Morita, Masato; Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Noma, Mio; Robb, J. Daniel; Gillespie, Matthew J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.
Background There is limited information about any association between the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the presence of valvular disease. Methods We retrospectively examined 940 patients in sinus rhythm, examined by echocardiography in 1996. During 11 years of follow-up, we assessed the incidence of AF and outcome defined as valvular surgery or death, in relation to baseline valvular function. AS (aortic stenosis) severity at baseline examination was assessed using peak transaortic valve pressure gradient. Results In univariate analysis, the risk of developing AF was related to AS (significant AS versus no significant AS; hazard ratio (HR) 3.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.39-5.61, p<0.0001) and mitral regurgitation (MR) (significant MR versus no significant MR; HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.77-3.51, p<0.0001). Also the risk of valvular surgery or death was related to AS (HR 3.90, 95% CI 3.09-4.88, p<0.0001) and MR (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.67-2.53, p<0.0001). In multivariate analyses, adjusting for sex, age, other valvular abnormalities, left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrial size ? AS was independently related to both endpoints, whereas MR was not independently related to either endpoint. Conclusions AS, but not MR, was independently predictive of development of AF and combined valvular surgery or death. In patients with combined AS and MR, the grade of AS, more than the grade of MR, determined the risk of AF and combination of valvular surgery or death. Further studies using contemporary echocardiographic quantification of aortic stenosis are warranted to confirm these retrospective data based on peak transaortic valve pressure gradient.
Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of left ventricular thrombosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and whether the occurrence of early mitral regurgitation has a protective effect against the formation of left ventricular thrombus. Design and setting: Multicentre clinical trial carried out in 47 Italian coronary care units. Patients and methods: 757 patients from the GISSI-3 echo substudy population with their first acute myocardial infarct were studied by echocardiography at 24–48 hours from symptom onset (S1), at discharge (S2), at six weeks (S3), and at six months (S4). The diagnosis of left ventricular thrombosis was based on the detection of an echo dense mass with defined margins visible throughout the cardiac cycle in at least two orthogonal views. Results: In 64 patients (8%), left ventricular thrombosis was detected in one or more examinations. Compared with the remaining 693 patients, subjects with left ventricular thrombosis were older (mean (SD) age: 64.6 (13.0) v 59.8 (11.7) years, p < 0.005), and had larger infarcts (extent of wall motion asynergy: 40.9 (11.5)% v 24.9 (14)%, p < 0.001), greater depression of left ventricular ejection fraction at S1 (43.3 (6.9)% v 48.1 (6.8)%, p < 0.001), and greater left ventricular volumes at S1 (end diastolic volume: 87 (22) v 78 (18) ml/m2, p < 0.001; end systolic volume: 50 (17) v 41 (14) ml/m2, p < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation on colour Doppler at S1 was greater in patients who had left ventricular thrombosis at any time (10.2% v 4.2%, p < 0.05). On stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis the only independent variables related to the presence of left ventricular thrombosis were the extent of wall motion asynergy and anterior site of infarction. Conclusions: Left ventricular thrombosis is not reduced, and may even be increased, by early moderate to severe mitral regurgitation after acute myocardial infarction. The only independent determinant of left ventricular thrombosis is the extent of the akinetic-dyskinetic area detected on echocardiography between 24–48 hours from symptom onset.
Ascione, L; Antonini-Canterin, F; Macor, F; Cervesato, E; Chiarella, F; Giannuzzi, P; Temporelli, P L; Gentile, F; Lucci, D; Maggioni, A P; Tavazzi, L; Badano, L; Stoian, I; Piazza, R; Bosimini, E; Pavan, D; Nicolosi, G L
Previous echocardiographic techniques for quantifying valvular regurgitation are limited by factors including uncertainties for orifice location and a hemispheric convergence assumption that often results in over- and underestimation of flow rate and regurgitant orifice area. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, these factors were eliminated, allowing a more accurate assessment of regurgitation. A model was developed to allow automated quantification of regurgitant orifice diameter based on the centerline velocity data available from color M-mode echocardiography. The model, validated using in vitro unsteady flow data, demonstrated improved accuracy for orifice diameter (y=0.95x + 0.38, r=0.96) and volume (y=1.18x - 4.72, r=0.93).
Deserranno, D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.
An 80-year-old diabetic man with severe aortic stenosis was admitted to our hospital for cardiogenic shock complicating non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Echocardiographic evaluation showed also a severe degree of both left ventricular dysfunction and mitral regurgitation. The patient was initially stabilized with inotropes and mechanical ventilation was necessary because of concurrent pulmonary edema. The day after, he was submitted to coronary angiography showing bivessel coronary disease. Given the high estimated operative risk, the patient was treated with angioplasty and bare metal stent implantation on both right coronary and circumflex artery; contemporarily, balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) was performed with anterograde technique, obtaining a significant increase in planimetric valve area and reduction in transvalvular peak gradient. Few days after the procedure echocardiogram showed an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction, moderate aortic stenosis with mild regurgitation and moderate mitral regurgitation. Hemodynamic and clinical stabilization were also obtained, allowing amine support discontinuation and weaning from mechanical ventilation. At three months follow-up, the patient reported a further clinical improvement from discharge, and echocardiographic evaluation showed moderate aortic stenosis and an additional increase in left ventricular function and decrease in mitral regurgitation degree. In conclusion, combined BAV and coronary angioplasty were associated in our patient with hemodynamic and clinical stabilization as well as with a significant reduction in transvalvular aortic gradient and mitral regurgitation and an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction both in-hospital and at three month follow-up; this case suggests that these procedures are feasible even in hemodynamically unstable patients and are associated with a significant improvement in quality of life. PMID:24026997
Cecchi, Emanuele; Giglioli, Cristina; Agostini, Cecilia; Gensini, Gian Franco; Santoro, Gennaro
Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the second most common valvular heart disease after aortic stenosis. Without intervention, prognosis is poor in patients with severe symptomatic MR. While surgical repair is recommended for many patients with severe degenerative MR (DMR), as many as 49% of patients do not qualify as they are at high surgical risk. Furthermore, surgical correction for functional MR (FMR) is controversial with suboptimal outcomes and significant perioperative mortality. The percutaneous MitraClip implantation can be seen as a viable option in high surgical risk patients. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the safety, clinical efficacy, and survival outcomes of MitraClip implantation with surgical correction of severe MR. Methods Six electronic databases were searched for original published studies from January 2000 to August 2013. Two reviewers independently appraised studies, using a standard form, and extracted data on methodology, quality criteria, and outcome measures. All data were extracted and tabulated from the relevant articles’ texts, tables, and figures and checked by another reviewer. Results Overall 435 publications were identified. After applying selection criteria and removing serial publications with accumulating number of patients or increased length of follow-up, four publications with the most complete dataset were included for quality appraisal and data extraction. There was one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and three prospective observational studies. At baseline, patients in the MitraClip group were significantly older (P=0.01), had significantly lower LVEF (P=0.03) and significantly higher EuroSCORE (P<0.0001). The number of patients with post-procedure residual MR severity >2 was significantly higher in the MitraClip group compared to the surgical group (17.2% vs. 0.4%; P<0.0001). 30-day mortality was not statistically significant (1.7% vs. 3.5%; P=0.54), nor were neurological events (0.85% vs. 1.74%; P=0.43), reoperations for failed MV procedures (2% vs. 1%; P=0.56), NYHA Class III/IV (5.7% vs. 11.3; P=0.42) and mortality at 12 months (7.4% vs. 7.3%; P=0.66). Conclusions Despite a higher risk profile in the MitraClip patients compared to surgical intervention, the clinical outcomes were similar although surgery was more effective in reducing MR in the early post procedure period. We conclude the non-inferiority of the MitraClip as a treatment option for severe, symptomatic MR in comparison to conventional valvular surgery.
Wan, Benjamin; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Tian, David H.; Phan, Kevin; Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Bannon, Paul G.
The purpose of our study was (1) to assess retrospectively, in healthy subjects and in patients with moderate and severe functional mitral regurgitation (FMR), the normal mitral annular dimensions, (2) to determine differences in mitral annular geometry between healthy subjects and patients with FMR, and (3) to evaluate potential errors in 2-dimensional (2D) measurements given the 3D nature of the mitral annulus. 15 patients with no cardiac abnormalities (referred to as normals), 13 with moderate and 15 with severe FMR as determined by echocardiography underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac 64-slice Computed tomography (CT) with prospective electrocardiography-gating for excluding coronary artery disease. With an advanced visualization, segmentation, and image analysis software, the area, intercommissural distance (CC), septolateral distance (SLD), and the anterior and posterior circumference of the MA were measured in diastole. We found significant (P < .001) differences between normals and patients with severe FMR for area, SLD and posterior circumference in 3D (P < .001) and 2D (P < .001). Similarly, the SLD and the posterior circumference in both 3D (P = .002) and 2D (P = .001) were significantly smaller in patients with moderate FMR as compared to those with severe FMR. In contrast, there were no significant differences between groups regarding the CC and the anterior circumference both in 3D and 2D (all, P > .05). Measurements in 3D differed significantly from those with 2D for all circumference measurements and groups (P < .01), with a systematic underestimation of the posterior circumference of 2.1 ± 1.5 mm in normals, 1.8 ± 1.3 mm in patients with moderate FMR, and 1.9 ± 1.9 mm in patients with severe FMR for 2D. Our study provides in vivo human CT data on MA dimensions in normals and patients with FMR, indicating differences in patients for the area, posterior circumference and SLD but not for the anterior circumference and CC. Systematic differences exist between 2D and 3D measurements for all circumferential measurements. PMID:24306054
Gordic, Sonja; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Manka, Robert; Sündermann, Simon; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Maisano, Francesco; Falk, Volkmar; Alkadhi, Hatem
Although alteration in pulmonary venous flow has been reported to relate to mitral regurgitant severity, it is also known to vary with left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction. There are few data relating pulmonary venous flow to quantitative indexes of mitral regurgitation (MR). The object of this study was to assess quantitatively the accuracy of pulmonary venous flow for predicting MR severity by using transesophageal echocardiographic measurement in patients with variable LV dysfunction. This study consisted of 73 patients undergoing heart surgery with mild to severe MR. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA), regurgitant stroke volume (RSV), and regurgitant fraction (RF) were obtained by quantitative transesophageal echocardiography and proximal isovelocity surface area. Both left and right upper pulmonary venous flow velocities were recorded and their patterns classified by the ratio of systolic to diastolic velocity: normal (>/=1), blunted (<1), and systolic reversal (<0). Twenty-three percent of patients had discordant patterns between the left and right veins. When the most abnormal patterns either in the left or right vein were used for analysis, the ratio of peak systolic to diastolic flow velocity was negatively correlated with ROA (r = -0.74, P <.001), RSV (r = -0.70, P <.001), and RF (r = -0.66, P <.001) calculated by the Doppler thermodilution method; values were r = -0.70, r = -0.67, and r = -0.57, respectively (all P <.001), for indexes calculated by the proximal isovelocity surface area method. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversed pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a large ROA (>0.3 cm(2)) were 69%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the normal pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a small ROA (<0.3 cm(2)) were 60%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. However, the blunted pattern had low sensitivity (22%), specificity (61%), and predictive values (30%) for detecting ROA of greater than 0.3 cm(2) with significant overlap with the reversed and normal patterns. Among patients with the blunted pattern, the correlation between the systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was worse in those with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%, r = 0.23, P >.05) than in those with normal LV function (r = -0.57, P <.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the peak systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was independently correlated with RF (P <.001) and effective stroke volume (P <.01), with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.71 (P <.001). In conclusion, reversed pulmonary venous flow in systole is a highly specific and reliable marker of moderately severe or severe MR with an ROA greater than 0.3 cm(2), whereas the normal pattern accurately predicts mild to moderate MR. Blunted pulmonary venous flow can be seen in all grades of MR with low predictive value for severity of MR, especially in the presence of LV dysfunction. The blunted pulmonary venous flow pattern must therefore be interpreted cautiously in clinical practice as a marker for severity of MR.
Pu, M.; Griffin, B. P.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Stewart, W. J.; Fan, X.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Thomas, J. D.
Background Mitral valve calcification is often incidentally detected on chest computed tomography (CT) scans obtained for a variety of noncardiac indications. In this study, we evaluated the association between mitral valve calcification incidentally detected on chest CT and the presence and severity of mitral valve disease on echocardiography. Methods Of 760 patients undergoing 64-row multidetector CT of the chest, 50 with mitral valve calcification and 100 controls were referred on for echocardiography. Calcifications of the mitral valve leaflet and annulus were assessed for length, Agatston score, and site, and were compared with echocardiographic findings. Results Mitral valve calcification was noted in 59 (7.7%) patients on multidetector CT. Fifty of these patients were assessed by echocardiography, and 32 (64%) were found to have mitral annular calcification. Nine patients (18%) had posterior mitral valve leaflet calcification, and both mitral valve leaflet and annular calcification were detected in nine (18%) cases. Nine (18%) patients had mild, three (6%) had moderate, and one (2%) had severe mitral stenosis. None of the patients with isolated mitral annular calcification had mitral stenosis; however, all the patients with mitral stenosis showed mitral valve leaflet calcification with or without mitral annular calcification (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with mitral stenosis had a larger mitral calcification length and greater Agatston scores in comparison with those without mitral stenosis (P = 0.001). While 31 patients (62%) with mitral calcification had mitral regurgitation on echocardiography, 21 (21%) in the control group showed mitral regurgitation (P = 0.001). Conclusion Mitral valve leaflet calcification, with or without annular calcification, may be an indicator of mitral stenosis. Mitral calcification can also be considered as an indicator for mitral regurgitation in general. Therefore, patients with mitral valve calcification detected incidentally on chest CT scan may benefit from functional assessment of the valve using echocardiography.
Toufan, Mehrnoush; Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Gojazadeh, Morteza; Khalili, Majid
Objective: To assess whether microbubbles are associated with a specific type of mitral valve prosthesis and to investigate the relationship of microbubbles to ventricular function and mitral regurgitation. One of the types of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast observed in patients with prosthetic heart valves has been described as microbubbles. Methods: Clinical data and videotapes of patients with a prosthetic mitral valve
Denis J Levy; John S Child; Edmond Rambod; Morteza Gharib; Simcha Milo; Shimon A Reisner
Left atrial diverticulum is rare in a pediatric patient. A 4-year-old girl underwent a left atrial plication concomitant with mitral valve replacement, and early postoperative course was uneventful. This patient has remained asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrent diverticular formation after 9 months of follow-up. PMID:18402786
Nomura, Koji; Matsumura, Yoko; Shinohara, Gen; Nakamura, Yuzuru
Objective: To examine the mid-term results of patients on whom a coronary revascularization as well as a mitral ring and suture annuloplasty have been performed due to coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Methodology: Totally 73 patients on whom a revascularization and a mitral valve repair due to CAD and IMR had been performed in our clinic between 2000-2008 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups one of which included 38 patients (52.05%) on whom a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and a ring annuloplasty on the mitral valve had been performed (Group 1) and the other one 35 patients (47.95%) on whom only suture annuloplasty as well as a CABG had been performed (Group 2). The study was planned retrospectively and study data have been obtained by screening the hospital registries retrospectively. In the mid-term, patients were invited for a check and their intragroup and intergroup echocardiographic parameters and functional capacities were assessed statistically. Results: In pre-operational and post-operational intragroup assessment in terms of echocardiographic findings; although LVEDD, LVESD, EDV, PAP and the degree of recurrent MR have been decreased in both groups, the decrease in LVESD and PAP and the low degree of recurrent MR were statistically significant in Group 1 patients (p=0.047, p=0.023, p=0.01, respectively). When the mid-term intergroup echocardiograpic findings were assessed; PAP and recurrent MR have been determined statistically lower in Group 1 patients (p=0.005, p=0.08, respectively). The length of intensive care unit stay, length of hospitalization and length of detachment from respiratory support were statistically significantly longer in ring annuloplasty performed group (p=0.012, p=0.033, p=0.029, respectively). Conclusions: In moderate to severe IMR patients, a positive contribution can be provided to ventricular remodeling by a ring annuloplasty through a significant decrease in left ventricular diameter and a low recurrent MR and PAP. PMID:24353503
Aydin, Cemalettin; Kara, Ibrahim; Ay, Yasin; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Yanartas, Mehmet; Zeybek, Rahmi
Objective: To examine the mid-term results of patients on whom a coronary revascularization as well as a mitral ring and suture annuloplasty have been performed due to coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Methodology: Totally 73 patients on whom a revascularization and a mitral valve repair due to CAD and IMR had been performed in our clinic between 2000-2008 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups one of which included 38 patients (52.05%) on whom a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and a ring annuloplasty on the mitral valve had been performed (Group 1) and the other one 35 patients (47.95%) on whom only suture annuloplasty as well as a CABG had been performed (Group 2). The study was planned retrospectively and study data have been obtained by screening the hospital registries retrospectively. In the mid-term, patients were invited for a check and their intragroup and intergroup echocardiographic parameters and functional capacities were assessed statistically. Results: In pre-operational and post-operational intragroup assessment in terms of echocardiographic findings; although LVEDD, LVESD, EDV, PAP and the degree of recurrent MR have been decreased in both groups, the decrease in LVESD and PAP and the low degree of recurrent MR were statistically significant in Group 1 patients (p=0.047, p=0.023, p=0.01, respectively). When the mid-term intergroup echocardiograpic findings were assessed; PAP and recurrent MR have been determined statistically lower in Group 1 patients (p=0.005, p=0.08, respectively). The length of intensive care unit stay, length of hospitalization and length of detachment from respiratory support were statistically significantly longer in ring annuloplasty performed group (p=0.012, p=0.033, p=0.029, respectively). Conclusions: In moderate to severe IMR patients, a positive contribution can be provided to ventricular remodeling by a ring annuloplasty through a significant decrease in left ventricular diameter and a low recurrent MR and PAP.
Aydin, Cemalettin; Kara, Ibrahim; Ay, Yasin; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Yanartas, Mehmet; Zeybek, Rahmi
Right ventricular (RV) infarction is associated with increased mortality. Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) may complicate inferoposterior infarction with RV involvement leading to pulmonary hypertension and increased RV afterload, potentially exacerbating RV remodeling and dysfunction. We studied 179 patients with inferior wall left ventricular (LV) ST-elevation myocardial infarction and RV infarction. The presence and severity of FMR and RV function were assessed by echocardiography. FMR was diagnosed based on echocardiographic criteria and when the severity of regurgitation was ?moderate. Eighteen patients (10.0%) had ?moderate FMR. Estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure was higher in patients with FMR than in patients without FMR (43 ± 10 vs 34 ± 10 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.002). RV systolic dysfunction was present in 76 patients (42.5%). FMR was a strong predictor of RV dysfunction (odds ratio 5.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65 to 17.48, p = 0.005) independent of reperfusion therapy. During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 20 (12.4%) and 10 (55.6%) deaths occurred in patients with and without FMR, respectively (p <0.001). In a multivariable Cox regression model, compared with patients without FMR and with normal RV function, the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality was 1.02 in patients without FMR and with RV dysfunction (95% CI 0.39 to 2.69, p = 0.97) and 3.62 in patients with FMR with RV dysfunction (95% CI 1.33 to 9.85, p = 0.01). In conclusion, in patients with RV infarction, the development of concomitant hemodynamically significant FMR is associated with RV dysfunction. The risk for mortality is increased predominantly in patients with both RV dysfunction and FMR. PMID:24819897
Yalonetsky, Sergey; Eden, Hila; Lessick, Jonathan; Kapeliovich, Michael; Dragu, Robert; Mutlak, Diab; Carasso, Shemy; Reisner, Shimon; Agmon, Yoram; Hammerman, Haim; Aronson, Doron
Background One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP). There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine’s effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2?mg/kg PO q12h) vs benazepril (0.5?mg/kg PO q12h), on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Results Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20?±?4.19?mmHg vs 14.61?±?3.81?mmHg at baseline, p?.01) but not after benazepril treatment (13.19?±?3.47?mmHg, p?>?.05). LAP was lower after 7?days of amlodipine treatment than after 7?days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4?days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA) of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p?.05) after 7?days compared to baseline. Other echocardiographic parameters did not change significantly. Conclusions LAP was significantly decreased after amlodipine treatment in dogs with surgically-induced MR but not after benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.
We report a case of a staged surgical and endovascular management in a 62-year-old woman with aortic coarctation associated with aortic valve stenosis and mitral regurgitation. The patient was admitted for severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve incompetence. During hospitalization and preoperative imaging, a previously undiagnosed aortic coarctation was discovered. The patient underwent a 2-stage approach that combined a Bentall procedure and mitral valve replacement in the first stage, followed by correction of the aortic coarctation by percutaneous placement of an Advanta V12 large-diameter stent graft (Atrium, Mijdrecht, The Netherlands) which to our knowledge has not been used in an adult patient with this combination of additional cardiac comorbidities. A staged approach combining surgical treatment first and endovascular placement of an Advanta V12 stent graft in the second stage can be effective and safe in adult patients with coarctation of the aorta and additional cardiac comorbidities. PMID:24332897
Novosel, Luka; Perkov, Dražen; Dobrota, Savko; ?ori?, Vedran; Štern Padovan, Ranka
The mechanisms underlying functional mitral regurgitation (MR) and the relation between mechanism and severity of MR have not been evaluated in a large, multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed in 215 patients at 17 centers in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial. Both 2-dimensional (n = 215) and 3-dimensional (n = 81) TEEs were used to assess multiple quantitative measurements of the mechanism and severity of MR. By 2-dimensional TEE, leaflet tenting area, anterior and posterior leaflet angles, mitral annulus diameter, left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume index, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and sphericity index (p <0.05 for all) were significantly different across MR grades. By 3-dimensional TEE, mitral annulus area, leaflet tenting area, LV end-systolic volume index, LVEF, and sphericity index (p <0.05 for all) were significantly different across MR grades. A multivariate analysis showed a trend for annulus area (p = 0.069) and LV end-systolic volume index (p = 0.071) to predict effective regurgitant orifice area and for annulus area (p = 0.018) and LV end-systolic volume index (p = 0.073) to predict vena contracta area. In the STICH trial, multiple quantitative parameters of the mechanism of functional MR are related to MR severity. The mechanism of functional MR in ischemic cardiomyopathy is heterogeneous, but no single variable stands out as a strong predictor of quantitative severity of MR. PMID:24035166
Golba, Krzysztof; Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Cherniavsky, Alexander; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Roberts, Bradley J; Haddad, Haissam; Maurer, Gerald; Yii, Michael; Asch, Federico M; Handschumacher, Mark D; Holly, Thomas A; Przybylski, Roman; Kron, Irving; Schaff, Hartzell; Aston, Susan; Horton, John; Lee, Kerry L; Velazquez, Eric J; Grayburn, Paul A
Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) is frequent in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). In these cases, concomitant mitral valve repair or replacement is usually performed at the time of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has recently been considered as an alternative for patients at high or prohibitive surgical risk. However, concomitant significant MR in this setting is typically left untreated. Moderate to severe MR after aortic valve replacement is therefore a relevant entity in the TAVR era. The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge on the clinical impact and post-procedural evolution of concomitant significant MR in patients with severe AS who have undergone aortic valve replacement (SAVR and TAVR). This information could contribute to improving both the clinical decision-making process in and management of this challenging group of patients. PMID:24681140
Nombela-Franco, Luis; Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Urena, Marina; Allende, Ricardo; Amat-Santos, Ignacio; DeLarochellière, Robert; Dumont, Eric; Doyle, Daniel; DeLarochellière, Hugo; Laflamme, Jerôme; Laflamme, Louis; García, Eulogio; Macaya, Carlos; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Côté, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sebastien; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Pibarot, Philippe; Rodés-Cabau, Josep
Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip device has evolved as a new tool for the treatment of severe mitral valve regurgitation. This technique has been evaluated in surgical low- and high-risk patients. Patients with advanced age, multiple morbidities, and heart failure will be the first to be considered for a nonsurgical approach. Thus safety and feasibility data in very high-risk patients are crucial for clinical decision making. The aim of this study was to assess short-term safety and clinical efficacy in high-risk patients with a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score >15% after MitraClip implantation (mean STS score 24 ± 4%). All relevant complications, mortality, echocardiographic improvement, and changes in brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitive troponin T, 6-minute walk distance test, and New York Heart Association functional class were collected in patients within 30 days after MitraClip implantation. Mitral regurgitation had significantly decreased after 30 days from grade 2.9 ± 0.2 to 1.7 ± 0.7 (p < 0.0001). Accordingly, New York Heart Association functional class had significantly improved from 3.38 ± 0.59 to 2.2 ± 0.4 (p <0.001). Objective parameters of clinical improvement showed a significant increase in 6-minute walk distance test (from 194 ± 44 to 300 ± 70 m, p <0.01) and insignificant trends in brain natriuretic peptide (10,376 ± 1,996 vs 4,385 ± 1,266 ng/L, p = 0.06) and high-sensitive troponin T (43 ± 8.9 vs 36 ± 7.7 pg/L, p = 0.27) improvement. Thirty-day mortality was 0. Two patients developed a left atrial thrombus, 1 patient was on a ventilator for >12 hours, and 1 patient had significant access site bleeding. In conclusion, this study shows that percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair can be safely performed even in surgical high-risk patients with an STS score >15. At 1-month follow-up most patients showed persistent improvement in mitral regurgitation and a clinical benefit. PMID:21890084
Pleger, Sven T; Mereles, Derliz; Schulz-Schönhagen, Marius; Krumsdorf, Ulrike; Chorianopoulos, Emmanuel; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Katus, Hugo A; Bekeredjian, Raffi
Background The volume overload of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog results in left ventricular (LV) dilatation and interstitial collagen loss. To better understand the mechanism of collagen loss we performed a gene array and overlaid regulated genes into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Methods and Results Gene arrays from LV tissue were compared in 4 dogs prior to and 4 months after MR. Cine-magnetic resonance-derived LV end-diastolic volume increased 2-fold (p=0.005) and LV ejection fraction increased from 41 to 53% (p < 0.001). LV interstitial collagen decreased 40% (p<0.05) compared to controls and replacement collagen was in short strands and in disarray. IPA identified Marfan’s syndrome, aneurysm formation, LV dilatation, and myocardial infarction, all of which have extracellular matrix (ECM) protein defects and/or degradation. MMP-1 and -9 mRNA increased 5- (p=0.01) and 10-fold (0.003), while collagen I did not change and collagen III mRNA increased 1.5-fold (p=0.02). However, noncollagen genes important in ECM structure were significantly downregulated, including decorin, fibulin 1, and fibrillin 1. Decorin mRNA downregulation correlated with LV dilatation (r= 0.83 p<0.05). In addition, connective tissue growth factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor were downregulated, along with multiple genes in TGF-? signaling pathway, resulting decreased LV TGF-?1 activity (p=0.03). Conclusions LV collagen loss in isolated, compensated MR is chiefly due to post-translational processing and degradation. The downregulation of multiple noncollagen genes important in global ECM structure, coupled with decreased expression of multiple profibrotic factors, explain the failure to replace interstitial collagen in the MR heart.
Zheng, Junying; Chen, Yuanwen; Pat, Betty; Dell'Italia, Louis A; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Powell, Pamela; Shi, Ke; Shah, Neil; Denney, Thomas; Husain, Ahsan; Dell'Italia, Louis J
Background The LV dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition to pro-fibrotic effects, chymase has significant antifibrotic actions because it activates matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and kallikrein and degrades fibronectin. Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate ECM loss and LV remodeling in MR. Methods and Results We studied dogs with four months of untreated MR (MR, n=9) or treated with CI (MR+CI, n=8). Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a >40% increase in LV end-diastolic volume in both groups, consistent with a failure of CI to improve a 25% decrease in interstitial collagen in MR. However, LV cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR vs. normals (3.71 ± 0.24% vs. 4.81 ± 0.31%, P<0.05) and normalized in MR+CI dogs (4.85 ± 0.44%). MRI with tissue tagging demonstrated an increase in LV torsion angle in MR+CI vs. MR dogs. CI normalized the significant decrease in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation, and prevented cardiomyocyte myofibrillar degeneration in MR dogs. In addition, total titin and its stiffer isoform were increased in the LV epicardium and paralleled the changes in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation in MR+CI dogs. Conclusions These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can adversely affect cardiomyocyte myofibrillar structure and function. The greater effect of CI on epicardial vs. endocardial titin and non collagen cell surface proteins may be responsible for the increase in torsion angle in chronic MR.
Pat, Betty; Chen, Yuanwen; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Gladden, James D; Shi, Ke; Zheng, Junying; Powell, Pamela C; Walcott, Greg; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Granzier, Henk; Denney, Thomas; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Husain, Ahsan; Dell'Italia, Louis J
Objective: We sought to document the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of performing mitral valve repair using a totally endoscopic approach.Methods: Between February 1997 and October 1, 2001, 187 patients underwent totally endoscopic mitral valve repair at our institution. The mean age was 60.7 ± 13.1 years, and 62% were male. Median preoperative functional class and degree of mitral regurgitation were
Filip P. Casselman; Sam Van Slycke; Helge Dom; Dave L. Lambrechts; Yvette Vermeulen; Hugo Vanermen
Background Robotic mitral surgery is the most common robotic cardiac procedures. However, in mitral endocarditis the repair become more challenging especially in minimally approach. We applied robotic surgery in mitral endocarditis repair and reviewed our surgical methods and results. Patients From January 2012 to December 2013, 12 patients with mitral endocarditis in National Taiwan University Hospital were operated via robotic assisted repair. Age of them was among 21 to 65 years old, mean 43. Results The vegetation involves anterior leaflet in 3, posterior leaflet in 8 and commissural leaflet in 4. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time is 124 minutes and cross clamp time is 89 minutes. There was no stroke and no operation death. Mitral valve repair technique including anterior leaflet patch augmentation in 2, direct closure of rupture hole on anterior leaflet in one, plication commissural leaflet in 2, and artificial chordae in 10. There was no mitral regurgitation detected immediately after weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass. All of them got free-from-regurgitation or -stenosis rate was 100% at one-year follow. Conclusions Although mitral infective endocarditis is complex and difficult to repair, robotic mitral repair in infective endocarditis is feasible. Even in the complex repair group, the cardiopulmonary bypass time is not prolonged and the result is good.
Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Shu-Chien; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wang, Shoei-Shen
A relatively new minimally invasive cardiological procedure, called the MitraClip(™) , does not require sternotomy and may have a number of advantages compared with open mitral valve surgery, but its acute impact on the pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function during general anaesthesia is unclear. We prospectively assessed the effects of the MitraClip procedure in 81 patients with or without pulmonary hypertension (defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mmHg), who were anaesthetised using fentanyl (5 ?g.kg(-1) ), etomidate (0.2-0.3 mg.kg(-1) ), rocuronium (0.5-0.6 mg.kg(-1) ) and isoflurane. Placement of the MitraClip led to a 60% increase in mean (SD) right ventricular stroke work index (from 512 (321) to 820 (470) mmHg.ml.m(-2) , p < 0.0001), while mean (SD) pulmonary vascular resistance index decreased by 24% (522 (330) to 399 (244) dyn.s.cm(-5) , p < 0.0001), and mean (SD) pulmonary artery pressure decreased by 10% (30 (8) to 27 (8) mmHg, p < 0.0001). Patients with pulmonary hypertension experienced a similar decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure compared with those without, and they also had a slight reduction in mean (SD) pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (22 (6) down to 20 (6) mmHg, p = 0.044). We conclude that successful MitraClip treatment for mitral regurgitation acutely improves right ventricular performance by reducing right ventricular afterload, regardless of whether patients have pre-operative pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24801455
Kottenberg, E; Dumont, M; Frey, U H; Heine, T; Plicht, B; Kahlert, P; Erbel, R; Peters, J
Objective: The aim of this study is to report our results with the central doubleorifice technique used for the treatment of complex mitral valve lesions. Methods: The central double-orifice repair has been used in 260 patients (mean age, 56 ± 14.3 years) over a period of 7 years. The mechanism responsible for mitral regurgitation was prolapse of both leaflets in
Ottavio Alfieri; Francesco Maisano; Michele De Bonis; Pier Luigi Stefano; Lucia Torracca; Michele Oppizzi; Giovanni La Canna
Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Annuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is in early stages of development and involves a complex intervention which can not be done in patients with left ventricular leads. Since functional mitral regurgitation is common in low ejection fraction states, we propose a device which can serve for annuloplasty in addition to cardiac resynchronization therapy and simplifying the intervention.
Manzoor Ali, Andrabi Syed; Iqbal, Khurshid; Trambu, Nisar Ahmed
Massive calcification of the mitral annulus associated with severe mitral regurgitation and underlying Marfan's syndrome was seen in a 21-year-old woman. This patient is believed to be the youngest reported with mitral annulus calcification, and the secon...
M. Grossman A. P. Knott W. J. Jacoby
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is common with coronary artery disease as altered myocardial substrate can affect valve performance. Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) enables assessment of myocardial perfusion alterations. This study examined perfusion pattern in relation to MR. A total of 2,377 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent stress MPI and echocardiography within 1.6 ± 2.3 days. MR was present on echocardiography in 34% of patients, among whom 13% had advanced (moderate or more) MR. MR prevalence was higher in patients with abnormal MPI (44% vs 29%, p <0.001), corresponding to increased global ischemia (p <0.001). Regional perfusion varied in left ventricular segments adjacent to each papillary muscle: adjacent to the anterolateral papillary muscle, magnitude of baseline and stress-induced anterior/anterolateral perfusion abnormalities was greater in patients with MR (both p <0.001). Adjacent to the posteromedial papillary muscle, baseline inferior/inferolateral perfusion abnormalities were greater with MR (p <0.001), whereas stress inducibility was similar (p = 0.39). In multivariate analysis, stress-induced anterior/anterolateral and rest inferior/inferolateral perfusion abnormalities were independently associated with MR (both p <0.05) even after controlling for perfusion in reference segments not adjacent to the papillary muscles. MR severity increased in relation to magnitude of perfusion abnormalities in each territory adjacent to the papillary muscles, as evidenced by greater prevalence of advanced MR in patients with at least moderate anterior/anterolateral stress perfusion abnormalities (10.7% vs 3.6%), with similar results when MR was stratified based on rest inferior/inferolateral perfusion (10.4% vs 3.0%, both p <0.001). In conclusion, findings demonstrate that myocardial perfusion pattern in left ventricular segments adjacent to the papillary muscles influences presence and severity of MR. PMID:24948494
Volo, Samuel C; Kim, Jiwon; Gurevich, Sergey; Petashnick, Maya; Kampaktsis, Polydoros; Feher, Attila; Szulc, Massimiliano; Wong, Franklin J; Devereux, Richard B; Okin, Peter M; Girardi, Leonard N; Min, James K; Levine, Robert A; Weinsaft, Jonathan W
Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is among the most prevalent and significant valve problems in the Western world. Echocardiography plays a significant role in the diagnosis of degenerative valve disease. However, a simple and accurate means of quantifying MR has eluded both the technical and clinical ultrasound communities. Perhaps the best clinically accepted method used today is the 2-D proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method. In this study, a new quantification method using 3-D color Doppler ultrasound, called the field optimization method (FOM), is described. For each 3-D color flow volume, this method iterates on a simple fluid dynamics model that, when processed by a model of ultrasound physics, attempts to agree with the observed velocities in a least-squares sense. The output of this model is an estimate of the regurgitant flow and the location of its associated orifice. To validate the new method, in vitro experiments were performed using a pulsatile flow loop and different geometric orifices. Measurements from the FOM and from 2-D PISA were compared with measurements made with a calibrated ultrasonic flow probe. Results show that the new method has a higher correlation to the truth data and has lower inter- and intra-observer variability than the 2-D PISA method. PMID:25004499
Choon-Hwai Yap; Thiele, K; Qifeng Wei; Santhanakrishnan, A; Khiabani, R; Cardinale, M; Salgo, I S; Yoganathan, A P
BACKGROUND—The severity of aortic regurgitation can be estimated using pressure half time (PHT) of the aortic regurgitation flow velocity, but the correlation between regurgitant fraction and PHT is weak.?AIM—To test the hypothesis that the association between PHT and regurgitant fraction is substantially influenced by left ventricular relaxation.?METHODS—In 63 patients with aortic regurgitation, subdivided into a group without (n = 22) and a group with (n = 41) left ventricular hypertrophy, regurgitant fraction was calculated using the difference between right and left ventricular cardiac outputs. Left ventricular relaxation was assessed using the early to late diastolic Doppler tissue velocity ratio of the mitral annulus (E/ADTI), the E/A ratio of mitral inflow (E/AM), and the E deceleration time (E-DT). Left ventricular hypertrophy was assessed using the M mode derived left ventricular mass index.?RESULTS—The overall correlation between regurgitant fraction and PHT was weak (r = 0.36, p < 0.005). In patients without left ventricular hypertrophy, there was a significant correlation between regurgitant fraction and PHT (r = 0.62, p < 0.005), but not in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. In patients with a left ventricular relaxation abnormality (defined as E/ADTI< 1, E/AM< age corrected lower limit, E-DT ? 220 ms), no associations between regurgitant fraction and PHT were found, whereas in patients without left ventricular relaxation abnormalities, the regurgitant fraction to PHT relations were significant (normal E/AM: r = 0.57, p = 0.02; E-DT< 220 ms: r = 0.50, p < 0.001; E/ADTI < 1: r = 0.57, p = 0.02).?CONCLUSIONS—Only normal left ventricular relaxation allows a significant decay of PHT with increasing aortic regurgitation severity. In abnormal relaxation, which is usually present in left ventricular hypertrophy, wide variation in prolonged backward left ventricular filling may cause dissociation between the regurgitant fraction and PHT. Thus the PHT method should only be used in the absence of left ventricular relaxation abnormalities.???Keywords: aortic regurgitation; left ventricular relaxation; pressure half time
de Marchi, S F; Windecker, S; Aeschbacher, B; Seiler, C
Today, technical advances have decreased the risk of cardiopulmonary bypass to the point that closed mitral commissurotomy is performed infrequently in most cardiac centers and is considered hazardous. We describe a modified technique for closed mitral commissurotomy, improved in terms of safety and efficacy, and adapted for situations in which resources are limited. This operation was performed in 12 symptomatic patients with severe mitral stenosis whose valves were judged suitable for closed mitral commissurotomy or balloon valvuloplasty. After modified closed commissurotomy, the mitral valve areas of these patients were increased substantially, from 1.8 to 3.1 cm2. There was no new incidence of mitral regurgitation. We conclude that closed mitral commissurotomy is a safe alternative to open mitral commissurotomy, provided that patient selection criteria are strictly followed. Images
Attman, W G; El Tahan, S
Background Mitral annular disjunction (MAD) consists of an altered spatial relation between the left atrial wall, the attachment of the mitral leaflets, and the top of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, manifested as a wide separation between the atrial wall-mitral valve junction and the top of the LV free wall. Originally described in association with myxomatous mitral valve disease, this abnormality was recently revisited by a surgical group that pointed its relevance for mitral valve reparability. The aims of this study were to investigate the echocardiographic prevalence of mitral annular disjunction in patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease, and to characterize the clinical profile and echocardiographic features of these patients. Methods We evaluated 38 patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease (mean age 57 ± 15 years; 18 females) and used standard transthoracic echocardiography for measuring the MAD. Mitral annular function, assessed by end-diastolic and end-systolic annular diameters, was compared between patients with and without MAD. We compared the incidence of arrhythmias in a subset of 21 patients studied with 24-hour Holter monitoring. Results MAD was present in 21 (55%) patients (mean length: 7.4 ± 8.7 mm), and was more common in women (61% vs 38% in men; p = 0.047). MAD patients more frequently presented chest pain (43% vs 12% in the absence of MAD; p = 0.07). Mitral annular function was significantly impaired in patients with MAD in whom the mitral annular diameter was paradoxically larger in systole than in diastole: the diastolic-to-systolic mitral annular diameter difference was -4,6 ± 4,7 mm in these patients vs 3,4 ± 1,1 mm in those without MAD (p < 0.001). The severity of MAD significantly correlated with the occurrence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) on Holter monitoring: MAD›8.5 mm was a strong predictor for (NSVT), (area under ROC curve = 0.74 (95% CI, 0.5-0.9); sensitivity 67%, specificity 83%). There were no differences between groups regarding functional class, severity of mitral regurgitation, LV volumes, and LV systolic function. Conclusions MAD is a common finding in myxomatous mitral valve disease patients, easily recognizable by transthoracic echocardiography. It is more prevalent in women and often associated with chest pain. MAD significantly disturbs mitral annular function and when severe predicts the occurrence of NSVT.
Introduction Surgical restoration of the left ventricular wall (Dor procedure) has been advocated as a therapy for left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. This procedure involves placement of an endoventricular patch through a ventriculotomy. Methods We reviewed our series of patients that underwent the Dor procedure within the past 4 years and examined their pre and postoperative ventricular function and mitral valve function. Pre and postoperative ejection fraction and degree of mitral regurgitation were analyzed using the paired Student t-test. We hypothesized that this procedure would result in improved ventricular function and that it would also help improve mitral valve function. Results Thirty-four patients underwent this procedure, with one death. Of these, 30 patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and 8 patients had mitral intervention (seven had an Alfieri repair of the mitral valve, and one had mitral valve annuloplasty). The average preoperative ejection fraction among these patients was 26.8% (range 10–45%). The postoperative ejection fraction was significantly higher at 35.4% (range 25–52%) (P < .001). We noted an improvement in ejection fraction in 27 patients (82%). We also noted that 21 of 33 patients (64%) had improvement in the degree of mitral regurgitation based on echocardiography data (P < .001). Conclusions We conclude that the Dor procedure results in improvement in the left ventricular function. Furthermore, we also note that this procedure ameliorates mitral regurgitation in a majority of these patients even in the absence of associated mitral valve procedures, probably due to reduction in the size of the ventricle and improved orientation of the papillary muscles.
Kaza, Aditya K.; Patel, Mayank R.; Fiser, Steven M.; Long, Stewart M.; Kern, John A.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Kron, Irving L.
Uncontrollable severe mitral regurgitation is a frequent complication of end-stage cardiomyopathy, significantly contributing to heart failure in these patients, and predicts a poor survival. Although elimination of mitral valve regurgitation could be most beneficial in this group, corrective mitral valve surgery has not been routinely undertaken in these very ill patients because of the presumed prohibitive operative mortality. We studied
Steven F. Bolling; G. Michael Deeb; Louis A. Brunsting; David S. Bach
An 80-year-old woman was referred to our institution because of acute heart failure due to moderate mitral stenosis and severe regurgitation. After medical treatment of heart failure, she underwent mitral valve surgery. Intraoperatively severe calcification of the posterior mitral annulus was revealed. We excised only the anterior mitral leaflet and preserved the posterior mitral leaflet to prevent a fatal complication such as left ventricular rupture, injury of the coronary artery or embolism. Partial resection of the calcified annulus was performed using Ultrasonic Surgical System (SonoSurg), after 2-0 polyester mattress sutures were placed through the anterior and posterior annuli from the left ventricle to the left atrium. Then, mitral valve replacement was performed using a St. Jude Medical mechanical heart valve at the supra-annular position. The postoperative course was uneventful. We concluded that partial resection of a severely calcified posterior mitral annulus by the ultrasonic device was a safe and simple procedure. PMID:24008639
Kuriyama, Mitsuhito; Kioka, Yukio; Tanabe, Atsushi
Objective: To assess the prevalence, mechanisms, and significance of paraprosthetic regurgitation detected incidentally by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in patients after heart valve replacement. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Tertiary referral centre. Patients: 360 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age 65.8(9.5) years, 193 women) undergoing elective first ever valve replacement. Methods: Postoperative and follow up TOE, and tests for haemolysis and anaemia. Results: There were 243 aortic, 90 mitral, and 27 double valve replacements, using 316 mechanical and 44 tissue valves, giving 270 aortic and 117 mitral valves. One patient with severe paraprosthetic mitral regurgitation underwent immediate reoperation and was excluded from subsequent analyses. Paraprosthetic jets were detected around 16 (6%) of the aortic and 38 (32%) of the mitral valves (p < 0.05) at the postoperative study. Follow up TOE was available for 151 aortic and 67 mitral valves, 0.9 (0.5) years after operation. Paraprosthetic jets were present in 15 (10%) of the aortic and 10 (15%) of the mitral valves (NS). Two thirds of the aortic and a fifth of the mitral jets were new. Paraprosthetic jets were more common in aortic valves in a supra-annular (12 of 88, 14%) than in an intra-annular position (4 or 182, 2%; p < 0.005) and in mitral valves inserted with continuous (36 of 88, 41%) rather than interrupted sutures (2 of 28, 7%; p < 0.001). Lactate dehydrogenase concentration was higher in patients with paraprosthetic jets than in those without (752 (236) v 654 (208) IU/l, p < 0.001). Haemoglobin and haptoglobin concentrations were not different. Conclusions: Small paraprosthetic leaks are common, are related to surgical factors, are not associated with increased subclinical haemolysis, and are benign during the first year after heart valve replacement.
Ionescu, A; Fraser, A G; Butchart, E G
Intraoperative assessment of a repaired mitral valve is of paramount importance for reparative mitral surgery. From September 2010 through November 2012, 20 consecutive patients underwent mitral valve plasty for mitral regurgitation. The patients who underwent surgery after June 2012 received assessment of the repair with the heart beating (HB group, n = 10), and the patients who underwent the operation before May 2012 were assessed for the repair only under cardioplegic heart arrest (non-HB group, n = 10). Intermittent cold retrograde blood cardioplegia was used in all patients. In the HB-group, after completion of the procedures, pump blood without a crystalloid additive was delivered into the coronary sinus. The function of the mitral valve was assessed under beating conditions. There were no differences between the two groups in aortic cross clamp time and operation time, although operative and concomitant procedures were slightly more complicated in the HB group than in the non-HB group. Postoperative echocardiography revealed none or mild mitral regurgitation in all the patients in both groups. Reopening of the closed left atrium for additional repair was necessary only in one patient in the HB group and 3 patients in the non-HB group. In conclusion, the method of perfusing the myocardium retrogradely via the coronary sinus with warm blood is safe and effective for assessing the competency of the mitral valve in a beating heart. PMID:23924929
Miyairi, Takeshi; Miura, Sumio; Taketani, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhara, Takayoshi; Lee, Yangsin; Unai, Shinya; Ohno, Takayuki; Fukuda, Sachito; Takamoto, Shinichi
Nonsurgical treatment of clinically important mitral regurgitation (MR) has evolved tremendously over the past decade. Recent studies of percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures have shown that less invasive procedures are safe and can be effective in selected patients. MitraClip has been studied most extensively. The MitraClip is attached to the middle scallop of the mitral leaflets by a transseptal-transvascular approach. The device approximates the leaflets in an edge-to-edge percutaneous repair technique that diminishes MR, improves functional status, and improves left ventricular remodeling. The subgroup that has the most benefit includes patients with older age, poorer left ventricular function, and functional MR and is considered high risk for surgical valve replacement. Other novel percutaneous mitral valve therapies under investigation include indirect and direct annuloplasty, and ventricular remodeling devices. PMID:24281977
Young, Amelia; Feldman, Ted
Background: In some inherited connective tissue diseases with involvement of the cardiovascular system, for example, Marfan syndrome, early impairment of left ventricular function, which have been described as Marfan-related cardiomyopathy has been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the left ventricular function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse without significant mitral regurgitation using two-dimensional strain imaging and to determine the possible role of the transforming growth factor-? pathway in its deterioration. Methods: We studied 78 young adults with mitral valve prolapse without mitral regurgitation in comparison with 80 sex-matched and age-matched healthy individuals. Longitudinal strain and strain rates were defined using spackle tracking. Concentrations of transforming growth factor-?1 and ?2 in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: In 29 patients, classic relapse was identified with a leaflet thickness of ? 5 mm; 49 patients had a non-classic mitral valve prolapse. Despite the similar global systolic function, a significant reduction in global strain was found in the classic group (-15.5 ± 2.9%) compared with the non-classic group (-18.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.0002) and the control group (-19.6 ± 3.4%; p < 0.0001). In young adults with non-classic prolapse, a reduction in longitudinal deformation was detected only in septal segments. Transforming growth factor-?1 and ?2 serum levels were elevated in patients with classic prolapse as compared with the control group and the non-classic mitral valve prolapse group. Conclusions: These changes in the deformations may be the first signs of deterioration of the left ventricular function and the existence of primary cardiomyopathy in young adults with mitral valve prolapse, which may be caused by increased transforming growth factor-? signalling. PMID:23880103
Malev, Eduard; Reeva, Svetlana; Vasina, Lyubov; Timofeev, Eugeny; Pshepiy, Asiyet; Korshunova, Alexandra; Prokudina, Maria; Zemtsovsky, Eduard
Background Many previous studies have evaluated the impact of mitral valve (MV) deformity scores on the percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) outcome in patients with mitral stenosis; however, the relationship between mitral annulus calcification (MAC) and the PTMC result has not yet been established. The current study aimed to investigate whether MAC could independently influence the immediate result of PTMC. Methods Of all patients undergoing PTMC in our institution between April 2005 and November 2009, we included 87 patients (28.7%male, mean ± SD age = 42.8 ± 12.6 years) with rheumatic mitral stenosis who had additional data on the echocardiographic evaluation of MAC along with MV leaflets morphology. Echocardiographic assessments were repeated up to six weeks after PTMC to evaluate the immediate PTMC outcome. The frequency of the optimal PTMC result (secondary MV area > = 1.5 cm2 with > = 25% increase and without final mitral regurgitation grade > 2) was compared between two groups of patients with MAC (n = 17) and those without MAC (n = 70). Results The optimal result was obtained in 55 (63.2%) patients, whereas the result was suboptimal in 32 (36.8%) patients due to insufficient MV area increase in 31(96.9%) subjects and post-procedure mitral regurgitation grade > 2 in 1(3.1%). The rate of optimal PTMC results was less in patients with MAC in comparison to those without MAC (29.4% vs.71.4%). After adjustments for possible confounders such as age and leaflets morphological subcomponents (thickening, mobility, calcification, and subvalvular thickening), MAC remained a significant negative predictor of a suboptimal PTMC result (odds ratio = 0.154; 95%CI = 0.038-0.626, p value = 0.009) together with leaflet thickening (odds ratio = 0.214; 95%CI = 0.060-0.770, p value = 0.018). Conclusions MAC appeared to independently influence the immediate result of PTMC; therefore, mitral annulus evaluation may be considered in the echocardiographic assessment of the mitral apparatus prior to PTMC.
Background Proponents of flexible annuloplasty rings have hypothesized that such devices maintain annular dynamics. This hypothesis is based on the supposition that annular motion is relatively normal in patients undergoing mitral valve repair. We hypothesized that mitral annular dynamics are impaired in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) and myxomatous mitral regurgitation (MMR). Methods and Results Philips iE33 echocardiographic module and X7-2t probe were used to acquire full volume rt-3DTEE loops in 11 normal subjects, 11 patients with IMR and 11 patients with MMR. Image analysis was performed using Tomtec Image Arena -4D-MV Assessment© - 2.1 (Munich, Germany). A midsystolic frame was selected for the initiation of annular tracking using the semi-automated program. Continuous parameters were normalized in time to provide for uniform systolic and diastolic periods. Both IMR (9.98±155 cm2) and MMR annuli (13.29±3.05 cm2) were larger in area than normal annuli (7.95±1.40 cm2) at midsystole. In general, IMR annuli were less dynamic than controls. In MMR, annular dynamics were also markedly abnormal with the mitral annulus dilating rapidly in early systole in response to rising ventricular pressure. Conclusions In both IMR and MMR, annular dynamics and anatomy are abnormal. Flexible annuloplasty devices used in mitral valve repair are, therefore, unlikely to result in either normal annular dynamics or normal anatomy.
Levack, Melissa M.; Jassar, Arminder S.; Shang, Eric K.; Vergnat, Mathieu; Woo, Y. Joseph; Acker, Michael A.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.
Recent studies suggest that the presence of aortic regurgitation can interfere with Doppler measurement of mitral pressure half-time in patients with mitral stenosis. Amongst the factors affecting the transmitral flow in aortic regurgitation a putative role may be played by the mechanical hit of the aortic regurgitant jet impinging on the anterior mitral leaflet, as is very often seen with Doppler Color Flow examination. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of pure aortic regurgitation on the transmitral flow in patients with normal mitral valves. We studied 35 patients affected by pure chronic aortic regurgitation but with a normal mitral valve and compared them with 30 normal subjects. In all the patients the aortic regurgitant jet was directed toward the anterior mitral leaflet. In all the patients and control subjects a standard echo-Doppler examination was performed, sampling the transmitral flow at the level of the tip of the mitral leaflets. In 7 patients and 11 normal subjects the transmitral flow was also sampled at the level of the mitral annulus. Patients with aortic regurgitation showed significantly higher values of the mitral pressure half-time (61.04 +/- 15.14 vs 50.59 +/- 7.07 ms, P < 0.05) and of the time-velocity integral of the total transmitral flow, while the other parameters of transmitral flow, the mitral annulus diameter and the mitral stroke volume didn't show statistically significant differences. The comparison of the pressure half-time and time-velocity flow values measured at the level of the mitral annulus between patients and normal subjects didn't show significant differences.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8212968
Castini, D; Gentile, F; Siffredi, M; Lippolis, A; Mangiarotti, E; Donzelli, W; Maggi, G C
Objective To assess the surgical risk of additional mitral valve repairs in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Summary Background Data Severe mitral regurgitation in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy increases the death rate and symptomatic status. The 1-year survival rate for medical therapy in this subset of patients is less than 20%. Transplantation is usually not feasible because of donor shortage and death while on the waiting list. Methods To assess additive risk, a retrospective chart review from 1993 to 1998 was performed comparing patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction [EF] <25%) and severe mitral regurgitation undergoing mitral valve repair and coronary artery bypass graft operations with patients with an EF of <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass graft alone. These groups were also compared with 140 patients receiving heart transplants since 1993 (group 3). Results The overall hospital death rate for group 1 was 6.3%. The one death occurred 2 weeks after surgery secondary to sepsis. This was not significantly different from the death rate of 4.1% in group 2. In group 1, there were two deaths at 1 year (87% survival rate), one related to heart failure. One patient was New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV at 1 year; the remainder of patients were NYHA class I–II. These results were not significantly different than the 8% death rate noted with transplantation. There was no change in EF and minimal residual mitral regurgitation in group 1 based on postoperative transesophageal echocardiography, whereas group 2 had an average 11.7% improvement in EF. Conclusions Previously, severe mitral regurgitation in the setting of ischemic cardiomyopathy has been associated with poor survival. In these authors’ experience, repairing the mitral valve along with coronary artery bypass grafting does not increase the surgical risk, yields improvement in symptomatic status, and compares favorably to coronary artery bypass grafting alone and cardiac transplantation. However, the lack of change in EF in these patients probably represents an overestimation of the EF before surgery secondary to severe mitral regurgitation.
Gangemi, James J.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Ross, Scott D.; McPherson, John A.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.
A transient multi-physics model of the mitral heart valve has been developed, which allows simultaneous calculation of fluid flow and structural deformation. A recently developed contact method has been applied to enable simulation of systole (the stage when blood pressure is elevated within the heart to pump blood to the body). The geometry was simplified to represent the mitral valve
Daniel M. Espino; Duncan E. T. Shepherd; David W. L. Hukins
Dilation and hypertrophy of the atria occur in patients with valvular heart disease especially in mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis or tricuspid abnormalities. In sub-saharan Africa, rheumatic fever is still the leading cause of valvular heart disease. We report a case of an unusual giant right atrium in context of rheumatic stenosis and severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 58-year-old woman.
Anzouan-Kacou, Jean Baptiste; Konin, Christophe; Coulibaly, Iklo; N'guetta, Roland; Adoubi, Anicet; Soya, Esaie; Boka, Benedicte
A patient with myxomatous mitral valve prolapse underwent mitral mitral valve repair due to severe symptomatic mitral regurgitation. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. This finding disappeared once spontaneous chordal rupture occurred, resulting in a flail posterior mitral leaflet. As the patient was considered at high risk of developing post-repair SAM, he was operated on using surgical techniques aimed at lowering the risk of this complication. Despite this, post-repair SAM did develop and could only be eliminated by a surgical edge-to-edge (Alfieri) repair.
Eyal, Allon; Raanani, Ehud; Shapira, Yaron
Objective: We sought to characterize the mechanical properties of normal and myxomatous mitral valve tissues. Methods: We tested 113 mitral valve sections from patients undergoing mitral valve repair or replacement for myxomatous mitral valve prolapse and sections from 33 normal valves obtained at autopsy. Results: Myxomatous mitral valve leaflets were more extensible than normal leaflets when tested parallel to the
J. Edward Barber; F. Kurtis Kasper; Norman B. Ratliff; Delos M. Cosgrove; Brian P. Griffin; Ivan Vesely
Diseased, replaced or repaired mitral valve can lead to restricted blood flow to left ventricle and inadequate flow in left ventricular assist device (LVAD). A middle age woman with ‘burnt out’ hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation. She needed LVAD to support severe decompensating heart failure. Repaired mitral valve posed a risk of restricted flow through the device. Mitral commissurotomy was performed on beating heart through the left ventricular apical hole created for insertion of inflow cannula of LVAD.
Objective: To compare the outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in revascularized patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Summary Background Data: Combined coronary bypass (CABG) and mitral procedures have been associated with the highest mortality (>10%) in cardiac surgery. Recent studies have suggested that mitral valve replacement (MVR) with sparing of the subvalvular apparatus had comparable results to mitral repair when associated with CABG. Methods: Over the past 7 years, 54 patients had CABG/mitral repair versus 56 who had CABG/MVR with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. The groups were similar in age at 69.2 years in the replacement group versus 67.0 in the repair group. We compared these 2 groups based on hospital mortality, incidence of complications including nosocomial infection, neurologic decompensation (stroke), pulmonary complication (pneumonia, atelectasis, and prolonged ventilation), and renal complications (acute renal failure or insufficiency). Results: The mitral repair group had a hospital mortality of 1.9% versus 10.7% in the replacement group (P = 0.05). Infection occurred in 9% of repairs compared with 13% of replacements (P = 0.59). The incidence of stroke was no different between groups (2 of 54 repairs vs. 2 of 56 replacements, P = 1.00). Pulmonary complication rate was 39% in repairs versus 32% in replacements (P = 0.59). Worsening renal function occurred in 15% of repairs versus 18% of replacements (P = 0.67). Conclusions: Mitral repair is superior to mitral replacement when associated with coronary artery disease in terms of perioperative morbidity and hospital mortality. Although preservation of the subvalvular apparatus with MVR has a theoretical advantage in terms of ventricular function, mitral repair clearly adds a survival benefit in patients with concomitant ischemic cardiac disease.
Reece, T Brett; Tribble, Curtis G.; Ellman, Peter I.; Maxey, Thomas S.; Woodford, Randall L.; Dimeling, George M.; Wellons, Harry A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation, as well as interventional mitral valve repair, offer reasonable therapeutic options for high-risk surgical patients. We report a rare case of early post-interventional aortic valve prosthesis migration to the left ventricular outflow tract, with paravalvular leakage and causing severe mitral valve regurgitation. Initial successful interventional mitral valve repair using a clipped edge-to-edge technique revealed, in a subsequent procedure, the recurrence of mitral valve regurgitation leading to progressive heart failure and necessitating subsequent surgical aortic and mitral valve replacement. PMID:23864579
Wendeborn, Jens; Donndorf, Peter; Westphal, Bernd; Steinhoff, Gustav
This study is to quantitatively evaluate abnormal movement of mitral apparatus (MA) in patient with congenital mitral valve regurgitation using self-designed three dimensional motion analyses software and enable doctors to intuitionistic and \\
K. Sun; X. Yan; L. P. Yao; Q. Guo; L. P. Wu; Y. F. Shang
We present a case of a 70 year-old woman operated due to severe mitral regurgitation. Early after surgery transthoracic echocardiography revealed the decreased effective orifice area of the implanted bioprosthetic valve and the stenotic features of transvalvular flow. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) disclosed a thrombotic cause of heterograft dysfunction. Due to the clinical deterioration and the unclear cause of prosthesis stenosis, the patient was reoperated. Intra-operatively bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis was confirmed. Precipitating factors of this rare complication including cardiac device related infective endocarditis (CDRIE) and the diagnostic applicability of TEE in this clinical scenario are discussed. PMID:22427084
Tkaczyszyn, Micha?; Olbrycht, Tomasz; Kustrzycka Kratochwil, Dorota; Sokolski, Mateusz; Sukiennik Kujawa, Ma?gorzata; Skiba, Jacek; Gemel, Marek; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr
Valvular regurgitation represents an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography has become the primary non-invasive imaging method for the evaluation of valvular regurgitation. The echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation should integrate quantification of the regurgitation, assessment of the valve anatomy, and function as well as the consequences of valvular disease on cardiac chambers. In clinical practice, the management of patients with valvular regurgitation thus largely integrates the results of echocardiography. It is crucial to provide standards that aim at establishing a baseline list of measurements to be performed when assessing regurgitation. PMID:20375260
Lancellotti, Patrizio; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hagendorff, Andreas; Moura, Luis; Popescu, Bogdan A; Agricola, Eustachio; Monin, Jean-Luc; Pierard, Luc A; Badano, Luigi; Zamorano, Jose L
Congenital mitral regurgitation is rare and usually part of complex cardiac anomalies. When needed, early surgery represents a great challenge. In small babies avoiding valve replacement is desirable, but valve repair may be extremely complex. We describe an isolated congenital mitral regurgitation, successfully treated with conservative surgery about 1 h after birth. In a 30-year-old pregnant woman, fetal echocardiography revealed mitral annular dilatation with massive regurgitation, functional aortic atresia and a very small patent foramen ovale. Realizing that the baby had a poor chance of survival after birth, a cesarean section was scheduled at 37 weeks of pregnancy. The procedure was performed in the operating room next to the cardiac surgery theatre, where the newborn was urgently transferred. After an unsuccessful attempt of percutaneous atrial septostomy, a rescue surgical mitral repair was performed. To avoid mitral replacement, moderate residual regurgitation was accepted. Postoperative hospital stay was 57 days and the baby was discharged in good clinical condition. Residual mitral regurgitation was moderate at discharge and decreased thereafter. During a five-year follow-up the child remained asymptomatic with normal growth. Preserved ventricular function and progressive volume reduction of left heart chambers were observed. PMID:20709700
Deorsola, Luca; Chiappa, Enrico; Agnoletti, Gabriella; Abbruzzese, Pietro Angelo
Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is an enigmatic syndrome characterized by chest pain, transient left ventricular dysfunction and specific electrocardiographic changes induced by physical or emotional stress. We describe the first case of this syndrome associated with acute mitral regurgitation due to bacterial endocarditis: the reversible ventricular dysfunction might have been induced by altered catecholamine dynamics due to the pulmonary edema. PMID:17056141
Cattaneo, Paolo; Marchetti, Paolo; Morandi, Fabrizio; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A
Repair of the mitral valve is the treatment of choice for mitral valve regurgitation when the anatomy is favorable. It is well known that mitral valve repair enjoys better clinical and functional results than any other type of valve substitute. This fact is beyond doubt regardless of the etiology of the valve lesion and is of particular importance in degenerative diseases. This review analyzes the most important advances in the knowledge of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and chordal function of the mitral valve as well as the different alternatives in the surgical repair and clinical results of the most prevalent diseases of the mitral valve. An attempt has been made to organize the acquired information available in a practical way.
Mestres, Carlos-A.; Bernal, Jose M.
\\u000a When considered separately from mitral valve anomalies associated with atrioventricular septal defects and with hypoplastic\\u000a left heart syndrome, congenital mitral valve malformations resulting in mitral stenosis are rare. Reported prevalence is 0.4–0.5%\\u000a of congenital heart defects [1–3]. Acquired mitral stenosis is primarily related to rheumatic heart disease and, though uncommon\\u000a in the United States, remains a considerable problem for children
Kristin P. Barton; Jacqueline Kreutzer; Victor O. Morell; Ricardo Muñoz
Comparison of the novel Medtentia double helix mitral annuloplasty system with the Carpentier-Edwards Physio annuloplasty ring: morphological and functional long-term outcome in a mitral valve insufficiency sheep model
Background The prevalence of mitral regurgitation in cardiac diseases requires annuloplasty systems that can be implanted without excessive patient burden. This study was designed to examine the morphological and functional outcome of a new double helix mitral annuloplasty ring in an ovine model in comparison to the classical Carpentier-Edwards (CE) annuloplasty ring as measured by reduction of mitral regurgitation and tissue integration. The Medtentia annuloplasty ring (MAR) is a helical device that is rotated into the annulus self-restoring the valve geometry, enabling a faster fixation without the need of elaborate repair of the valve geometry. The ventricular part of the helical ring encircles the valve chords. Methods Twenty adult sheep were overpaced until 2+ level mitral valve regurgitation was achieved. Seven animals per group received either the MAR or the CE ring. Implantation was performed on-pump in a beating heart through the left atrial appendix. The animals were sacrificed 3.6?±?0.3 months after surgery following an echocardiography for assessing mitral regurgitation as primary endpoint. The annuloplasty rings with surrounding tissue were harvested for histological analyses as secondary endpoints. The remaining six sheep received the MAR system and were sampled seven, nine or 12 months after surgery. Results Implantation time (p?0.01) and perfusion time (p?0.001) as clinical secondary endpoints were significantly shorter in the MAR group. Echocardiography follow-ups showed sufficient valve function repair in nearly all animals with a normalization of the ventricle diameters in both groups (group difference: p?=?0.147). The weights of the hearts did not differ significantly. Histology revealed adequately covered atrial annuloplasty rings with functional endothelium and lack of excessive granulation tissue or fibrosis in all specimens. The ventricular projections of the MAR systems encircling the chordae tendineae were not completely covered with neointimal tissue, although in no case were microthrombi detected and no thromboembolic events were recorded. Conclusions The new MAR system is an easy to use annuloplasty system with a functional outcome comparable to that of the well–proven CE ring. Mitral valve regurgitation is effectively stopped both by restricting the pathological expansion of the annulus and by gathering the chords without thrombus formation.
In this study we aimed to analyze, with reference to mitral regurgitation (MR), the incidence and predictors of left atrial (LA) thrombus and spontaneous echo contrast in patients with rheumatic valve disease before and after mitral valve replacement. The incidence of LA thrombus is known to be less in patients with MR. The impact of mitral valve replacement on this
Mehmet Özkan; Cihangir Kaymaz; Cevat Kirma; Ali Civelek; Ali Riza Cenal; Cevat Yakut; Ubeydullah Deligonul
Ischemic mitral regurgitation is mitral insuffciency caused by myocardial infarction. Recent studies suggest that mitral leaflets have the potential to grow and reduce the degree of regurgitation. Leaflet growth has been associated with papillary muscle displacement, but role of annular dilation in leaflet growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that chronic leaflet stretch, induced by papillary muscle tethering and annular dilation, triggers chronic leaflet growth. To decipher the mechanisms that drive the growth process, we further quantified regional and directional variations of growth. Five adult sheep underwent coronary snare and marker placement on the left ventricle, papillary muscles, mitral annulus, and mitral leaflet. After eight days, we tightened the snares to create inferior myocardial infarction. We recorded marker coordinates at baseline, acutely (immediately post infarction), and chronically (five weeks post infarction). From these coordinates, we calculated acute and chronic changes in ventricular, papillary muscle, and annular geometry along with acute and chronic leaflet strains. Chronic left ventricular dilation of 17.15% (p<0.001) induced chronic posterior papillary muscle displacement of 13.49mm (p=0.07). Chronic mitral annular area, commissural and septal-lateral distances increased by 32.50% (p=0.010), 14.11% (p=0.007), and 10.84% (p=0.010). Chronic area, circumferential, and radial growth were 15.57%, 5.91%, and 3.58%, with non-significant regional variations (p=0.868). Our study demonstrates that mechanical stretch, induced by annular dilation and papillary muscle tethering, triggers mitral leaflet growth. Understanding the mechanisms of leaflet adaptation may open new avenues to pharmacologically or surgically manipulate mechanotransduction pathways to augment mitral leaflet area and reduce the degree of regurgitation.
Rausch, Manuel K.; Tibayan, Frederick A.; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen
BACKGROUND: Paravalvular jets, documented by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, have prompted immediate valve explantation by others, yet the significance of these jets is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients had intraoperative transesophageal two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography, performed to assess the number and area of regurgitant jets after valve replacement, before and after protamine. Patients were grouped by first time versus redo operation, valve position and type. RESULTS: Before protamine, 55 jets were identified (2.04+/-1.4 per patient) versus 29 jets after (1.07+/-1.2 per patient, p = 0.0002). Total jet area improved from 2.0+/-2.2 cm2 to 0.86+/-1.7 cm2 with protamine (p<0.0001). In all patients jet area decreased (average decrease, 70.7%+/-27.0%). First time and redo operations had similar improvements in jet number and area (both p>0.6). Furthermore, mitral and mechanical valves each had more jets and overall greater jet area when compared to aortic and tissue valves, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Following valve replacement, multiple jets are detected by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. They are more common and larger in the mitral position and with mechanical valves. Improvement occurs with reversal of anticoagulation.
Morehead, A. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J.; Armstrong, G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.
Background Application of annuloplasty rings during mitral valve (MV) repair has been shown to significantly change the mitral annular geometry. Until recently, a comprehensive two-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of annular geometric changes was difficult owing to its nonplanar orientation. In this study, an analysis of the three-dimensional intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of the MV annulus is presented before and immediately after repair. Methods We performed three-dimensional geometric analysis on 75 patients undergoing MV repair during coronary artery bypass graft surgery for mitral regurgitation or myxomatous mitral valve disease. Geometric analysis of the MV was performed before and immediately after valve repair with full rings and annuloplasty bands. The acquired three-dimensional volumetric data were analyzed in the operating room. Specific measurements included annular diameter, leaflet lengths, the nonplanarity angle, and the circularity index. Before and after repair data were compared. Results Complete echocardiographic assessment of the MV was feasible in 69 of 75 patients (92%) within 2 to 3 minutes of acquisition. Placement of full rings resulted in an increase in the nonplanarity angle or a less saddle shape of the native mitral annulus (137 ±14 versus 146 ± 14; p = 0.002. By contrast, the nonplanarity angle did not change significantly after placement of partial rings. Conclusions Mitral annular nonplanarity can be assessed in the operating room. Application of full annuloplasty rings resulted in the mitral annulus becoming more planar. Partial annuloplasty bands did not significantly change the nonplanarity angle. Neither of the two types of rings restored the native annular planarity.
Mahmood, Feroze; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Gorman, Joseph H.; Levine, Robert M.; Gorman, Robert C.; Maslow, Andrew; Panzica, Peter J.; Hagberg, Robert M.; Karthik, Swaminathan; Khabbaz, Kamal R.
Patient-specific models of the heart's mitral valve (MV) exhibit potential for surgical planning. While advances in 3D echocardiography (3DE) have provided adequate resolution to extract MV leaflet geometry, no study has quantitatively assessed the accuracy of their modeled leaflets vs. a ground-truth standard for temporal frames beyond systolic closure or for differing valvular dysfunctions. The accuracy of a 3DE-based segmentation methodology based on J-splines was assessed for porcine MVs with known 4D leaflet coordinates within a pulsatile simulator during closure, peak closure, and opening for a control, prolapsed, and billowing MV model. For all time points, the mean distance error between the segmented models and ground-truth data were 0.40 ± 0.32 mm, 0.52 ± 0.51 mm, and 0.74 ± 0.69 mm for the control, flail, and billowing models. For all models and temporal frames, 95% of the distance errors were below 1.64 mm. When applied to a patient data set, segmentation was able to confirm a regurgitant orifice and post-operative improvements in coaptation. This study provides an experimental platform for assessing the accuracy of an MV segmentation methodology at phases beyond systolic closure and for differing MV dysfunctions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of a MV segmentation methodology for the development of future surgical planning tools. PMID:23460042
Siefert, Andrew W; Icenogle, David A; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre M; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Rossignac, Jarek; Lerakis, Stamatios; Yoganathan, Ajit P
Patient-specific models of the heart’s mitral valve (MV) exhibit potential for surgical planning. While advances in 3D echocardiography (3DE) have provided adequate resolution to extract MV leaflet geometry, no study has quantitatively assessed the accuracy of their modeled leaflets versus a ground-truth standard for temporal frames beyond systolic closure or for differing valvular dysfunctions. The accuracy of a 3DE-based segmentation methodology based on J-splines was assessed for porcine MVs with known 4D leaflet coordinates within a pulsatile simulator during closure, peak closure, and opening for a control, prolapsed, and billowing MV model. For all time points, the mean distance error between the segmented models and ground-truth data were 0.40±0.32 mm, 0.52±0.51 mm, and 0.74±0.69 mm for the control, flail, and billowing models. For all models and temporal frames, 95% of the distance errors were below 1.64 mm. When applied to a patient data set, segmentation was able to confirm a regurgitant orifice and post-operative improvements in coaptation. This study provides an experimental platform for assessing the accuracy of an MV segmentation methodology at phases beyond systolic closure and for differing MV dysfunctions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of a MV segmentation methodology for the development of future surgical planning tools.
Siefert, Andrew W.; Icenogle, David A.; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Rossignac, Jarek; Lerakis, Stamatios; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
Ischemic mitral valve (MV) is a common complication of pathologic remodeling of the left ventricle due to acute and chronic coronary artery diseases. It frequently represents the pathologic consequences of increased tethering forces and reduced coaptation of the MV leaflets. Ischemic MV function has been investigated from a biomechanical perspective using finite element-based computational MV evaluation techniques. A virtual 3D MV model was created utilizing 3D echocardiographic data in a patient with normal MV. Two types of ischemic MVs containing asymmetric medial-dominant or symmetric leaflet tenting were modeled by altering the configuration of the normal papillary muscle (PM) locations. Computational simulations of MV function were performed using dynamic finite element methods, and biomechanical information across the MV apparatus was evaluated. The ischemic MV with medial-dominant leaflet tenting demonstrated distinct large stress distributions in the posteromedial commissural region due to the medial PM displacement toward the apical-medial direction resulting in a lack of leaflet coaptation. In the ischemic MV with balanced leaflet tenting, mitral incompetency with incomplete leaflet coaptation was clearly identified all around the paracommissural regions. This computational MV evaluation strategy has the potential for improving diagnosis of ischemic mitral regurgitation and treatment of ischemic MVs.
Rim, Yonghoon; McPherson, David D.; Kim, Hyunggun
Three-dimensional echocardiography is a growing imaging modality, particularly for the evaluation of mitral valve pathology.\\u000a Functional anatomy in disease states such as mitral regurgitation and stenosis as well as prosthetic valves can be effectively\\u000a studied, offering superior knowledge to treating physicians. Additionally, three-dimensional echocardiography has the ability\\u000a to help guide operative and percutaneous interventions, allowing for improved patient outcomes and
Carrie B. Chapman; Peter S. Rahko
The role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has increased tremendously since its first use in 1979. Today intraoperative TEE is a class I indication for surgical mitral valve reconstruction for evaluation of mitral valve pathology, graduation of mitral regurgitation and detection of potential risk factors as well as post-repair assessment. Real-time three-dimensional TEE offers anatomical visualization of the mitral valve apparatus, fundamental for virtual surgical planning of proper annuloplasty ring size. As minimally invasive and even off-pump techniques for mitral valve repair become more popular, image guidance by intraoperative TEE will play an essential role.
Myxomatous mitral regurgitation (type II Carpentier's functional classification) affects about 1-2% of the population. This represents a very common indication for valve surgery resulting in a low percentage of repairs compared to replacement which is actually performed. In the last decades, several methods for mitral valve repair have been developed, to make the surgical feasibility easier, improve the long-term follow-up thus avoiding the need for reoperations. A very interesting method is represented by the combination of various valve repair techniques, depending on the involvement of the anterior, posterior, or both leaflets, and the use of PTFE artificial chordae tendineae when excessive chordal elongation or rupture due to myxomatous degeneration co-exists. The aim of this review is to summarize the evolution of these techniques from the beginning till now.
We report a 65-year-old woman with chronic diastolic congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and severe mitral valve regurgitation. She was not a candidate for percutaneous mitral valve repair and was turned down for an open heart operation by 2 institutions based on her severe pectus excavatum deformity. A left posterior lateral thoracotomy approach provided excellent exposure for central cannulation and replacement of the mitral valve. PMID:23992732
Bastidas, Juan G; Razzouk, Anees J; Hasaniya, Nahidh W; Bailey, Leonard L
Mitral valve annulus calcification is a degenerative cardiac condition often found at autopsy in the elderly. While usually considered incidental to the cause of death, we report two cases where mitral valve annulus calcification with valve stenosis was associated with sudden death. Case 1: a 61-year-old female who had underlying atherosclerosis and hypertension collapsed at home. At autopsy there was marked mitral valve annulus calcification with valve stenosis and cardiomegaly. Case 2: a previously well 74-year-old female collapsed in a toilet. At autopsy there was marked calcification of the mitral valve annulus with valve stenosis. In both cases death was attributed to the effects of the calcified mitral valve annulus. Although such calcification may be unrelated to the terminal lethal mechanism, the association with left atrial enlargement, atrial fibrillation, mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis, bacterial endocarditis, ischaemic and thromboembolic stroke, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias, means that it should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis in cases of sudden and unexpected death. PMID:23622459
Quick, Esther; Byard, Roger W
Objective The mitral annulus is a dynamic, saddle-shaped structure consisting of fibrous and muscular regions. Normal physiologic mechanisms of annular motion are incompletely understood, and more complete characterization is needed to provide rational basis for annuloplasty ring design and to enhance clinical outcomes. Methods Seventeen sheep had radiopaque markers implanted; 16 around the annulus and 2 on middle anterior and posterior leaflet edges. Four-dimensional marker coordinates were acquired with biplanar videofluoroscopy at 60 Hz. Hinge angle was quantified between fibrous and muscular annular planes, with 0° defined at end diastole, to characterize its contribution to alterations in mitral septal–lateral dimension and 2-dimensional total annular area throughout the cardiac cycle. Results During isovolumic contraction (pre-ejection), hinge angle abruptly increased, reaching maximum (steepest saddle shape, change 18° ± 13°) at peak left ventricular pressure. During ejection, hinge angle did not change; it then decreased during early filling (change 2° ± 2°). Septal–lateral dimension and total area paralleled hinge angle dynamics and leaflet distance (anterior to posterior marker). Pre-ejection septal–lateral reduction was 13% ± 7% (3.3 ± 1.5 mm) from 9% muscular dimension fall and 18° ± 13° hinge angle increase. Conclusions Pre-ejection increase in hinge angle contributes substantially to septal–lateral and total area reduction, facilitating leaflet coaptation. Semirigid annuloplasty rings or partial bands may preserve hinge motion, but possible recurrent annular dilatation could result in recurrent mitral regurgitation. Long-term clinical studies are required to determine who might benefit most from preserving intrinsic hinge motion without compromising repair durability.
Itoh, Akinobu; Ennis, Daniel B.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Swanson, Julia C.; Krishnamurthy, Gaurav; Nguyen, Tom C.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig
Background We have developed a novel and practical cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mitral annular motion by tracking the atrioventricular junction (AVJ). To test AVJ motion analysis as a metric for LV function, we compared AVJ motion variables between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a group with recognized systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and healthy volunteers. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 24 HCM patients with normal ejection fractions (EF) and 14 healthy volunteers. Using the 4-chamber view cine images, we tracked the longitudinal motion of the lateral and septal AVJ at 25 time points during the cardiac cycle. Based on AVJ displacement versus time, we calculated maximum AVJ displacement (MD) and velocity in early diastole (MVED), velocity in diastasis (VDS) and the composite index VDS/MVED. Results Patients with HCM showed significantly slower median lateral and septal AVJ recoil velocities during early diastole, but faster velocities in diastasis. We observed a 16-fold difference in VDS/MVED at the lateral AVJ [median 0.141, interquartile range (IQR) 0.073, 0.166 versus 0.009 IQR -0.006, 0.037, P?0.001]. Patients with HCM also demonstrated significantly less mitral annular excursion at both the septal and lateral AVJ. Performed offline, AVJ motion analysis took approximately 10 minutes per subject. Conclusions Atrioventricular junction motion analysis provides a practical and novel CMR method to assess mitral annular motion. In this proof of concept study we found highly statistically significant differences in mitral annular excursion and recoil between HCM patients and healthy volunteers.
Periprosthetic valve leak can develop as a complication of valve replacement surgery and may manifest as symptomatic valvular regurgitation, heart failure, or haemolysis. We report a case of severe mitral periprosthetic valve leak requiring a two-stage percutaneous closure technique with multiple Amplatzer® III vascular plugs. PMID:21681903
Hetherington, Simon L; Murphy, Ross T; Pate, Gordon E
Degenerative valvular heart disease, the most common form of valve disease in the Western world, can lead to aortic stenosis (AS) or mitral regurgitation (MR). In current guidelines for the management of patients with degenerative valvular disease, surgical intervention is recommended at the onset of symptoms or in the presence of left ventricular systolic impairment. Whether surgery is appropriate for
Valentin Fuster; Martin Goldman; Robert O. Bonow; Prashant Vaishnava
A new clinical entity is described in which free aortic regurgitation from congenital aortic valve disease caused rupture of the chordae to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve in 7 men aged 45 to 63 years (mean 52 years); 2 of the patients also had rupture of chordae to the posterior leaflet. Comparing these patients with those with ruptured mitral chordae in association with rheumatic heart disease and patients with spontaneous chordal rupture, differences were evident. No patient had a history of rheumatic fever and none had active infection. The typical clinical presentation was of acute mitral regurgitation into a small left atrium, with severe pulmonary oedema which was often resistant to medical treatment. The cause of chordal rupture in these patients was in part the result of progressive left ventricular dilatation, of direct trauma to the anterior cusp of the mitral valve, and possibly of a genetic factor. The anatomical features of both aortic and mitral valves are described, and in 3 histology of the mitral valve was available; 2 had myxomatous degeneration similar to that seen in patients with spontaneous chordal rupture, and in 1 there was degeneration of collagen tissue. All patients were treated surgically but the mortality was high (5 out of 7,70%). Early operation with replacement of the aortic and mitral valves is recommended if this high mortality is to be reduced. Images
Joseph, S; Emanuel, R; Sturridge, M; Olsen, E
Background Saddle-shaped annuloplasty rings are being increasingly used during mitral valve (MV) repair to conform the mitral annulus to a more nonplanar shape and possibly reduce leaflet stress. In this study utilizing three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography we compared the effects of rigid flat rings with those of the saddle rings on the mitral annular geometry. Specifically we measured the changes in nonplanarity angle (NPA) before and after MV repair. Methods Geometric analysis on 38 patients undergoing MV repair for myxomatous and ischemic mitral regurgitation with full flat rings (n = 18) and saddle rings (n = 18) were performed. The acquired three-dimensional volumetric data were analyzed utilizing the “Image Arena” software (TomTec GmBH, Munich, Germany). Specifically, the degree of change in the NPA was calculated and compared before and after repair for both types of rings. Results Both types of annuloplasty rings resulted in significant changes in the geometric structure of the MV after repair. However, saddle rings lead to a decrease in the NPA (7% for ischemic and 8% for myxomatous MV repairs) (ie, made the annulus more nonplanar), whereas flat rings increased the NPA (7.9% for ischemic and 11.8% for myxomatous MV repairs) (ie, made the annulus less nonplanar); p value 0.001 or less. Conclusions Implantation of saddle-shaped rings during MV repair surgery is associated with augmentation of the nonplanar shape of the mitral annulus (ie, decreases NPA). This favorable change in the mitral annular geometry could possibly confer a structural advantage to MV repairs with the saddle rings.
Mahmood, Feroze; Gorman, Joseph H.; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Gorman, Robert C.; Panzica, Peter J.; Hagberg, Robert C.; Lerner, Adam B.; Hess, Philip E.; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal R.
Mitral valve aneurysms (MVAs) are rarely encountered in echocardiography laboratories. Although they are commonly associated with endocarditis of the aortic valve, various mechanisms have been suggested for the etiopathogenesis of MVAs associated with non-infectious conditions. 5,887 patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively for MVA. Mitral valve aneurysm is defined as a localized saccular bulging of the mitral leaflet towards the left atrium with systolic expansion and diastolic collapse. The color flow Doppler image of a perforation was described as a high-velocity turbulent jet traversing a valve leaflet in systole. We found that 12 of 5,887 patients (0.204 %) had MVA in TEE examinations. The mean age of patients with MVA was 53 years (range 21-80 years), including four females and eight males. Nine patients presented with symptoms of endocarditis. On TEE, aneurysms were located in the anterior mitral leaflet in 11 patients, and in the posterior mitral leaflet in one patient. Eight patients had severe, three had moderate, and one had trace mitral regurgitation. Of the nine patients with perforated leaflets, eight patients had severe and one patient had moderate mitral regurgitation. Aortic regurgitation was present in nine patients, being severe in three, moderate in two, mild in two, and trace in two patients. Two patients without severe mitral regurgitation were followed-up conservatively, while nine patients underwent surgery. Two patients died from septic shock, one in the postoperative period and the other one prior to surgery. Although MVAs occur during the course of aortic valve endocarditis and, in particular, due to aortic regurgitation jet, it should be borne in mind that they may develop as an isolated valvular pathology and may be misdiagnosed as chordal rupture, other cardiac masses, or vegetation. Thus, MVAs may not be so infrequent as they are thought; they may justify to be considered in the differential diagnosis of masses seen on the mitral valve on echocardiographic examination. PMID:24420419
Guler, Ahmet; Karabay, Can Y; Gursoy, Ozan M; Guler, Yeliz; Candan, Ozkan; Akgun, Taylan; Bulut, Mustafa; Pala, Selcuk; Izgi, Akin I; Esen, Ali M; Kirma, Cevat; Ozkan, Mehmet
Patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease who have undergone valve surgery may present later with progression of disease in other valves. We report a case of successful percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) in a 58-year-old male who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a No. 23 Björk-Shiley valve for severe rheumatic aortic regurgitation in 1982. At AVR, echocardiography revealed mild mitral stenosis (MS) and mitral valve area (MVA) 2.5 cm2. Over 18 years, the mitral valve disease progressed to severe MS and the patient presented with class III exertional dyspnea. He underwent successful PTMC (Inoue balloon technique). Post-procedure echocardiography revealed a MVA of 2.0cm2 and grade II mitral regurgitation. Anticoagulation management, infective endocarditis prophylaxis and procedural modifications are discussed. PMID:11767192
Faizal, A; Umesan, C V; Radhakrishnan, N; Lakshmi, V; Hemalatha, R
A severely calcified mitral annulus represents a unique challenge during mitral valve replacement. To ensure proper healing of the sewing ring of the prosthesis and to avoid periprosthetic regurgitation, the mitral annulus often must be debrided for secure attachment. However, the extensive debridement that can be required in some cases could increase the risk of atrioventricular groove disruption, with a subsequent increase in morbidity and mortality. Bypass of the mitral valve with a left atrial to left ventricular-valved conduit has been described for difficult cases with congenital mitral valve stenosis. In our report, we describe its use as a safe alternative to standard mitral valve replacement in a patient with a densely calcified annulus and severe mitral stenosis. PMID:24656669
Said, Sameh M; Schaff, Hartzell V
Introduction : Patients with hemodynamically significant mitral stenosis (MS) have prolonged P-wave duration and increased P-wave dispersion (PWD) that decrease after successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (PBMV). The purpose of this study was to investigate if the changes in these indices may predict a successful procedure. Methods : Fifty two patients with MS in sinus rhythm underwent PBMV (90.4% female; mean age 38±10 years). Mitral valve area (MVA), valve score, mean diastolic mitral gradient (mMVG), mitral regurgitation severity, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) were evaluated by echocardiography before PBMV and repeated after one month. P-wave duration (Pmax /Pmin) and PWD were measured before and immediately after PBMV, at discharge, and at the end of the first month after discharge. Results : Among all procedures, 38 (73.1%) were defined as successful. Mean age, valve score, mMVG, and MVA before PBMV were similar for both groups. MVA was significantly greater in the successful PBMV group (1.65±0.27 vs. 1.41±0.22; P= 0.003). sPAP was reduced after PBMV in all patients and there were no significant differences in the mean sPAP before and after PBMV in both successful and unsuccessful groups. Pmax and PWD were significantly decreased immediately after the procedure (P= 0.035), the next day (P= 0.005) and at one month (P= 0.002) only in patients with successful PBMV. Pmin did not change significantly in either group. Conclusion : Only is successful PBMV associated with a decrease in Pmax and PWD. These simple electrocardiographic indices may predict the success of the procedure immediately after PBMV. PMID:24753825
Kazemi, Babak; Rostami, Ali; Aslanabadi, Naser; Ghaffari, Samad
Introduction: Patients with hemodynamically significant mitral stenosis (MS) have prolonged P-wave duration and increased P-wave dispersion (PWD) that decrease after successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (PBMV). The purpose of this study was to investigate if the changes in these indices may predict a successful procedure. Methods: Fifty two patients with MS in sinus rhythm underwent PBMV (90.4% female; mean age 38±10 years). Mitral valve area (MVA), valve score, mean diastolic mitral gradient (mMVG), mitral regurgitation severity, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) were evaluated by echocardiography before PBMV and repeated after one month. P-wave duration (Pmax /Pmin) and PWD were measured before and immediately after PBMV, at discharge, and at the end of the first month after discharge. Results: Among all procedures, 38 (73.1%) were defined as successful. Mean age, valve score, mMVG, and MVA before PBMV were similar for both groups. MVA was significantly greater in the successful PBMV group (1.65±0.27 vs. 1.41±0.22; P= 0.003). sPAP was reduced after PBMV in all patients and there were no significant differences in the mean sPAP before and after PBMV in both successful and unsuccessful groups. Pmax and PWD were significantly decreased immediately after the procedure (P= 0.035), the next day (P= 0.005) and at one month (P= 0.002) only in patients with successful PBMV. Pmin did not change significantly in either group. Conclusion: Only is successful PBMV associated with a decrease in Pmax and PWD. These simple electrocardiographic indices may predict the success of the procedure immediately after PBMV.
Kazemi, Babak; Rostami, Ali; Aslanabadi, Naser; Ghaffari, Samad
The combination of congenital left ventricular aneurysm associated with mitral insufficiency is rare. We describe the case of a girl aged 11 years, bearing these two entities simultaneously. Aneurysmal resection of the left ventricle was performed with Dor technic to allow remodelation of the anatomy of the left ventricle. Mitral annuloplasty was performed through a transseptal approach. Three months after surgery, the child presents a good myocardial contractility without mitral regurgitation and normal ejection fraction. PMID:24251007
Mitsomoy, Michel Francklyn; Ajaja, Mohomed Reda; Fkiri, Btisam; Haddour, L; Cheikhaoui, Younes
The combination of congenital left ventricular aneurysm associated with mitral insufficiency is rare. We describe the case of a girl aged 11 years, bearing these two entities simultaneously. Aneurysmal resection of the left ventricle was performed with Dor technic to allow remodelation of the anatomy of the left ventricle. Mitral annuloplasty was performed through a transseptal approach. Three months after surgery, the child presents a good myocardial contractility without mitral regurgitation and normal ejection fraction.
Mitsomoy, Michel Francklyn; Ajaja, Mohomed Reda; Fkiri, Btisam; Haddour, L; Cheikhaoui, Younes
Quadrangular resection of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve is a well-established technique for the treatment of mitral regurgitation from prolapse of P2. Recently, Suri described triangular resection of the prolapsing scallop, a technique that, avoiding the plication of the annulus corresponding to the resected leaflet, maintains the geometry of the mitral annulus, allowing a more physiologic function of the mitral valve. In this paper, we report multiple triangular resection for the treatment of multiple prolapse of the posterior leaflet. PMID:19483638
Gregorini, Renato; Chiappini, Bruno; De Remigis, Franco; Petrella, Licia; Villani, Carmine; Di Eusanio, Mauro; Ciocca, Marco; Giancola, Raffaele; Minuti, Ugo; Di Pietrantonio, Fabrizio; Pavicevic, Srdan; Mazzola, Alessandro
Aims: To evaluate the characteristics and clinical outcome of patients with new formation of left ventricular (LV) thrombus after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. Methods and results: Between 2009 and 2012 we intended to treat 150 patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair in our centre. Post-procedural transthoracic echocardiographic examinations scheduled during the hospital stay revealed the new formation of LV thrombi in three out of 150 patients. All three patients suffered from end-stage systolic heart failure with a LV ejection fraction (LVEF) below 20% and were successfully treated in terms of MR reduction (reduction of at least two MR grades). No thrombus formation was observed in patients with a LVEF >20% treated in our centre (a total of 136 patients). The frequency of new LV thrombus formation in the cohort of patients with a LVEF ?20% treated in our centre was 21% (three out of 14 patients). Conclusions: New formation of LV thrombus was detected in patients with severely depressed LVEF (?20%) after successful reduction of MR following percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. This phenomenon could be a play of chance, but percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip¨ system is a new procedure. Special care is needed when performing new procedures, and the unexpected post-procedural finding of LV thrombus formation in approximately 20% in this cohort is worth reporting. PMID:24168894
Orban, Martin; Braun, Daniel; Sonne, Carolin; Orban, Mathias; Thaler, Raffael; Grebmer, Christian; Lesevic, Hasema; Schömig, Albert; Mehilli, Julinda; Massberg, Steffen; Hausleiter, Jörg
Background Advances in the understanding of mitral valve pathology have laid to mitral valve plasty (MPL) as the procedure of choice of all the mitral intervention as compared to mitral valve replacement (MVR). This study is aimed to compare the outcome mortality and reoperation and to estimate failure of repair between the two procedures during the follow up time. Material and methods A cohort of 355 patients with mitral valve disease operated between January 1993 to January 2007 with closing date first of mars 2011. There were 214 MPL and 141 MVR at the Hospital discharge. This retrospective cohort had the design of exposed (MPL) versus non-exposed (MVR) with outcome total mortality and reoperation during follow up. Also echocardiography follow-up was undertaken to estimate the true long-term failure rate of repair. Results The mean follow up was 5.3 years SE (3.82) maximum follow up was 14.1 years. Considering the patient time model the association between repair/replacement and total mortality RR?=?0.43 95% (0.28-074) p?=?0.002 controlling for the confounding effect of 3-vessels disease. Those results were confirmed by propensity score analysis. As far as outcome re-operation, presence of atrial fibrillation AF was an effect modifier indicating lower reoperation rate for MPL compared to MVR for patients without AF, RR?=?0.32 95% CL (0.13-0.81) p?=?0.017 while no difference in reoperation rates between MPL/MVR for patients with AF RR?=?1.82 95% CL (0.52-6.4) p?=?0.344. Echocardiography follows up showed incidence of moderate and severe recurrent mitral regurgitation was 1.34 per 100 patients years and 0.27 per 100 patients years during the follow-up time. Conclusion In a cohort of patient with mitral valve disease undergoing MPL/MVR was examined. MPL was associated with better survival, and lower reoperation rate for patients without AF but same rate for patients with AF. We advocate more attention in controlling risk factors of AF in the clinical management of mitral disease. Long-term failure rate of MPL was low during follow up time. A replication of our results by a randomized clinical trial is mandatory.
Doppler echocardiography was performed in 104 patients with a Björk-Shiley prosthetic valve in the mitral position. Valves of size 25 mm and 27 mm were inserted in 39 and 65 patients, respectively. Each valve had two models; the older convexo-concave model (22 and 40, of 25 and 27 mm size, respectively). Inflow velocities were recorded using Doppler techniques and the gradients calculated using the Bernoulli principle. The area of the mitral valve was determined by the T1/2 method. Comparison of the two models for both sizes did not reveal any significant differences in either the gradients across the valves or the area of the valve. Trivial mitral regurgitation was detected in a higher percentage of monostrut valves (18% and 20% for the 25 and 27 mm older convexo-concave models and 59.9% and 52% for the 25 and 27 mm monostrut valve). We conclude that the newer monostrut model of the Björk-Shiley valve in the mitral position does not offer any additional haemodynamic benefit. PMID:2788623
Radhakrishnan, S; Dev, V; Saxena, A; Bahl, V K; Venugopal, P; Shrivastava, S
\\u000a Heart valves are functionally complex, making surgical repair difficult. Simulation-based surgical planning could facilitate\\u000a repair, but current finite element studies are prohibitively slow for rapid, clinically-oriented simulations. An anisotropic,\\u000a nonlinear mass-spring (M-S) model is used to approximate the behavior of valve leaflets and applied to fully image-based mitral\\u000a valve models to simulate valve closure for fast applications like intraoperative surgical
Peter E. Hammer; Pedro J. del Nido; Robert D. Howe
Pseudoaneurysm of mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa (P-MAIVF) is a rare cardiac surgical condition. P-MAIVF commonly occurs as a complication of aortic and mitral valve replacement surgeries. The surgical trauma during replacement of the valves weakens the avascular mitral and aortic intervalvular area. We present a case of P-MAIVF recurrence 5 years after a primary repair. Congestive cardiac failure was the presenting feature with mitral and aortic regurgitation. In view of the recurrence, the surgical team planned for a double valve replacement. The sewing rings of the two prosthetic-valves were interposed to close the mouth of the pseudoaneurysm and to provide mechanical reinforcement of the MAIVF. Intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) helped in delineating the anatomy, extent of the lesion, rupture of one of the pseudoaneurysm into left atrium and severity of the valvular regurgitation. Post-procedure TEE confirmed complete obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm and prosthetic valve function. PMID:24732619
Joshi, Shreedhar S; Thimmarayappa, Ashwini; Nagaraja, P S; Jagadeesh, A M; Furtado, Arul; Bhat, Seetharam
We report a mitral valve repair for a broad prolapse in the high posterior leaflet. Prolapse in the high redundant posterior leaflet with elongation of the chordae had caused the severe mitral valve regurgitation in a 45-year-old man. At operation, the prolapsed portion of the middle scallop was quadrangularly resected in 22 mm wide and 17 mm high. We combined the sliding leaflet technique with the posterior leaflet folding plasty to reduce the height of the posterior leaflet and to lessen the degree of mitral annular plication. Mitral valve regurgitation disappeared after the operation. No left ventricular outflow obstruction associated with systolic anterior motion and no injury to the left circumflex artery were confirmed. These procedures after a broad resection of the high posterior leaflet could successfully prevent systolic anterior motion and injury to the left circumflex artery, and reduce the stress on the suture line of the leaflet. PMID:13677920
Yoshikai, M; Kamohara, K; Yunoki, J; Fumoto, H
Valvular regurgitation represents an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography has become the primary non-invasive imaging method for the evaluation of valvular regurgitation. The echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation should integrate the quantification of the regurgitation, assessment of the valve anatomy and function, as well as the consequences of valvular disease on cardiac chambers. In clinical practice, the management of patients with valvular regurgitation thus largely integrates the results of echocardiography. It is crucial to provide standards that aim at establishing a baseline list of measurements to be performed when assessing regurgitation. PMID:23733442
Lancellotti, Patrizio; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hagendorff, Andreas; Popescu, Bogdan A; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Badano, Luigi; Zamorano, Jose L
Severe mitral valve regurgitation due to systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare cause of valvular heart disease, necessitating valve surgery. Currently, there are 36 case reports in the world medical literature of mitral valve replacement or repair in patients who have lupus. The current trend in mitral valve surgery is toward anatomic valve repair. In patients who have systemic lupus erythematosus, however, valve repair often leads to repeat surgery and valve replacement. We report the cases of 5 patients with lupus and severe mitral valve regurgitation who underwent mitral valve surgery. In 3 of these patients, replacement with a mechanical prosthetic mitral valve was performed with good long-term results. In the other 2 patients, mitral valve repair was performed, but only 1 of the repairs was successful. The 2nd patient required subsequent replacement with a mechanical valve. To our knowledge, this report of 5 patients is the largest series of mitral valve surgery in patients with lupus. These results, along with a review of the literature, suggest the superiority of mechanical prosthetic valve replacement to repair in patients who have systemic lupus erythematosus.
Hakim, John P.; Mehta, Anurag; Jain, Abnash C.; Murray, Gordon F.
We report on a 77-year-old woman in whom percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure was performed. The patient had a left atrial myxoma resection 3 years previously, and 2 years later, she suffered a transient ischemic attack. Atrial fibrillation was detected and anticoagulation therapy was established. An episode of intracranial bleeding forced interruption of anticoagulation. Thus, percutaneous LAA closure with an Amplatzer Amulet LAA Occluder (St Jude Medical) was proposed. During the procedure, the LAA occluder migrated and became trapped in the mitral valve. Secondary massive mitral regurgitation and hemodynamic instability forced emergent cardiac surgery. Successful removal of the Amplatzer Amulet LAA Occluder was achieved. PMID:24182760
González-Santos, Jose María; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Arribas-Jiménez, Antonio; López-Rodríguez, Javier; Rodríguez-Collado, Javier; Vargas-Fajardo, María del Carmen; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María Encarnación; Arévalo-Abascal, R Adolfo
We report a case of discrete type subaortic stenosis disclosed by hemolytic anemia 7 years after aortic and mitral prosthetic valve replacement. A 53-year-old female complained of general fatigue, dyspnea, macrohematuria and hemolysis. She had undergone aortic valve replacement for non-coronary cusp perforation 15 years before, and mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty 7 years before. Echocardiography showed mitral prosthetic valve regurgitation (III/IV degree) and symptomatic hemolysis might be caused by accelerated blood flow through the prosthetic valve. A mild aortic stenosis (peak flow verocity:3.73 m/s) was alsopointed out. The redo double valve replacement was performed. Intraoperative findings showed discrete type subaortic stenosis due to extensive pannus formation, but that the previously implanted prosthetic valves were intact. The blood flow biased by the interference of the subaortic stenosis might have obstructed closure of the mitral prosthetic valve and caused mitral regurgitation. Postoperatively, hemolysis and mitral regurgitation were diminished, and aortic stenosis was improved. PMID:24743533
Kawahara, Yu; Inage, Yuichi; Masaki, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Jinbu, Ryota; Toyama, Shuji; Fukasawa, Manabu
BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.
Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.
Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.
Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.
We present a case of a 45-year-old man with symptomatic heart failure and ischaemic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR), who underwent a successful percutaneous trans-coronary venous mitral annuloplasty with the Carillon system. The procedure resulted in clinical improvement as well as in a decrease in the degree of MR as assessed by echocardiography. Fifteen months later, the patient underwent cardiac resynchronisation (CRT) device implantation, resulting in a further improvement in echocardiographic measures of FMR. This case not only confirms the feasibility of CRT after percutaneous trans-coronary-venous mitral annuloplasty, but also suggests a possible synergistic effect of both therapies, warranting future clinical trials. PMID:24399586
Siminiak, Tomasz; Jerzykowska, Olga; Kalmucki, Piotr; Link, Rafa?; Baszko, Artur
Quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital condition that occurs not only as an isolated anomaly, but also with other cardiac defects. We describe a 10-year-old boy whose aortic stenosis was diagnosed during infancy. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed dilation of the left ventricle, valvular and subvalvular aortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve, aortic regurgitation, and mitral valve prolapse. The results of cardiac catheterization and aortography showed severe aortic regurgitation, an aortic valve gradient of 76 mmHg, a bicuspid aortic valve, a subaortic membrane, and an ascending aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent elective valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis, and during surgery, the valve was noted to be quadricuspid. The patient was diagnosed as having a quadricuspid aortic valve associated with aortic regurgitation, severe aortic stenosis, and an ascending aortic aneurysm. PMID:19102060
Yildirim, Selman Vefa; Gümü?, Ayten; Co?kun, Isa; Türköz, Riza
The incidence of hemopericardium following percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty is reported at 1–3%, being related to either trans-septal puncture, or left ventricular perforation with guide wires or balloons. We report a case of percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty for a middle-aged man with moderately severe rheumatic mitral stenosis. The procedure was performed through a right femoral vein approach, employing the multitrack technique, utilizing 2 balloons (20 and 18 mm). Inadvertently, the procedure was complicated by cardiac tamponade. Despite immediate diagnosis and prompt pericardiocentesis, hemodynamic stability was not maintained. Echocardiography revealed a mass in the posterior pericardial sac. The patient was arrested in asystole, and rigorously resuscitated during transfer to the operating room. Exploration revealed a tear in the left ventricular apex that was adequately sutured. In a few days, the patient gradually regained adequate consciousness, and was ultimately discharged. Post-procedural echocardiography revealed a mitral valve area of 1.9 cm2, with no mitral regurgitation.
Rifaie, Osama; Nammas, Wail
Myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs is heritable, and it is therefore important to detect the early signs of the disease. This study was conducted to assess the predictive value of early echocardiographic and auscultatory signs of mitral valve prolapse, measured in terms of the leaflet thickness, the area of the regurgitant jet, and the intensity of the murmur, on the increases in left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left atrial diameter (LAD) in a population of 190 clinically healthy dachshunds followed up for three years. The most significant predictor of an increase in LVEDD was the interaction between the index of mitral valve prolapse and the area of the regurgitant jet (P < 0.0001). In dogs with a jet area greater than 50 per cent of the left atrium, the disease progressed more quickly in terms of increases in LVEDD in relation to the severity of the prolapse at the initial examination. In dogs with smaller jets, the initial prolapse index was not significantly associated with increases in LVEDD. The initial index of mitral valve prolapse, the area of the jet and the intensity of the heart murmur were all significant predictors of an increase in LAD. PMID:12650472
Olsen, L H; Martinussen, T; Pedersen, H D
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the early outcomes of robotic mitral valve (MV) repair using standard open techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 100 patients with severe mitral regurgitation due to leaflet prolapse who underwent robot-assisted MV repair using conventional open-repair techniques between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009, at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.9 years; 77 patients (77%) were male. Fifty-nine patients (59%) had posterior leaflet prolapse, 38 (38%) had bileaflet disease, and 3 (3%) had isolated anterior leaflet prolapse. Median cross-clamp and bypass times decreased significantly during the course of the study (P<.001). Median postoperative ventilation time was 0 hours for the last 25 patients, with most patients extubated in the operating room. No deaths occurred. Reexploration for postoperative bleeding occurred in 1 patient (1%); 3 patients (3%) required percutaneous coronary intervention. Median hospital stay was 3 days. One patient (1%) underwent mitral reoperation for annuloplasty band dehiscence. Residual regurgitation was mild or less in all patients at dismissal and 1 month postoperatively. Significant reverse remodeling occurred by 1 month, including decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (–7.2 mm; P<.001) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (–61.0 mL;P<.001). CONCLUSION: Robot-assisted MV repair using proven, conventional open-repair techniques is reproducible and safe and hastens recovery for all categories of leaflet prolapse. One month after surgery, significant regression in left ventricular size and volume is evident.
Suri, Rakesh M.; Burkhart, Harold M.; Rehfeldt, Kent H.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Daly, Richard C.; Williamson, Eric E.; Li, Zhuo; Schaff, Hartzell V.
Percutaneous heart valve replacement is gaining popularity, as more positive reports of satisfactory early clinical experiences are published. However this technique is mostly used for the replacement of pulmonary and aortic valves and less often for the repair and replacement of atrioventricular valves mainly due to their anatomical complexity. While the challenges posed by the complexity of the mitral annulus anatomy cannot be mitigated, it is possible to design mitral stents that could offer good anchorage and support to the valve prosthesis. This paper describes four new Nitinol based mitral valve designs with specific features intended to address migration and paravalvular leaks associated with mitral valve designs. The paper also describes maximum possible crimpability assessment of these mitral stent designs using a crimpability index formulation based on the various stent design parameters. The actual crimpability of the designs was further evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). Furthermore, fatigue modeling and analysis was also done on these designs. One of the models was then coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with leaflets sutured and put to: (i) leaflet functional tests to check for proper coaptation of the leaflet and regurgitation leakages on a phantom model and (ii) anchorage test where the stented valve was deployed in an explanted pig heart. Simulations results showed that all the stents designs could be crimped to 18F without mechanical failure. Leaflet functional test results showed that the valve leaflets in the fabricated stented valve coapted properly and the regurgitation leakage being within acceptable limits. Deployment of the stented valve in the explanted heart showed that it anchors well in the mitral annulus. Based on these promising results of the one design tested, the other stent models proposed here were also considered to be promising for percutaneous replacement of mitral valves for the treatment of mitral regurgitation, by virtue of their key features as well as effective crimping. These models will be fabricated and put to all the aforementioned tests before being taken for animal trials. PMID:24746106
Kumar, Gideon Praveen; Cui, Fangsen; Phang, Hui Qun; Su, Boyang; Leo, Hwa Liang; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt
Balloon atrial septostomy is ordinarily a safe palliative procedure for cyanotic congenital heart disease; however, if echocardiographic guidance is unavailable and fluoroscopy is used, distortions in the cardiac anatomy can invalidate the usual landmarks. Herein, we report iatrogenic mitral papillary muscle rupture during balloon atrial septostomy in a 4-day-old male neonate with total anomalous connection of the pulmonary veins. The anomalous connection and severe mitral regurgitation were emergently corrected, and the patient grew and developed normally. At age 24 years, he had only mild residual mitral regurgitation and was in New York Heart Association functional class I.In addition to describing the surgical treatment and positive late outcome of a rare complication, we highlight the importance of accurately evaluating balloon catheter location during atrial septostomy, especially in patients with a small left atrium. PMID:21841871
Sachdeva, Ashwin; Bansal, Ramesh C; Bailey, Leonard L; Razzouk, Anees J
Myxomatous Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common cardiac valvular abnormality in industrialized countries and a leading cause of mitral valve surgery for isolated mitral regurgitation. The key role of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) during mitral valve development and homeostasis has been recently suggested, however little is known about the molecular pathways leading to MVP. We aim to characterize Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) as a cellular regulator of mitral valvular interstitial cell activation towards a pathologic synthetic phenotype and to analyze the cellular phenotypic changes and extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization associated with the development of myxomatous mitral valve prolapse. Microarray analysis showed significant up regulation of BMP4-mediated signaling molecules in myxomatous MVP when compared to controls. Histological analysis and cellular characterization suggest that during myxomatous MVP development, healthy quiescent mitral VICs undergo a phenotypic activation via up regulation of BMP4-mediated pathway. In vitro hBMP4 treatment of isolated human mitral VICs mimics the cellular activation and ECM remodeling as seen in MVP tissues. The present study characterizes the cell biology of mitral VICs in physiological and pathological conditions and provides insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediated by BMP4 during MVP. The ability to test and control the plasticity of VICs using different molecules may help in developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for myxomatous MVP.
Sainger, Rachana; Grau, Juan B.; Branchetti, Emanuela; Poggio, Paolo; Seefried, William F.; Field, Benjamin C.; Acker, Michael A.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Hargrove, Clark W.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Ferrari, Giovanni
The surgical team of Pr Ch. Dubost operated 5 cases of idiopathic subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm with associated mitral incompetence over a 6 year period (from 1976 to 1981). These 5 cases closely resemble Abraham's et al's classical description of "annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysms". They occur in black Africans, often young adults (mean age of our five cases 31,8 years) in the absence of coronary artery disease. The common feature is the peculiar anatomical localisation of the aneurysm on the posterior or lateral wall of the left ventricle, which explains the common finding of mitral regurgitation. They are often calcified and thrombosed, the thrombosis tending to extend into the left heart chambers. This was the case in 3 of the reported cases. Mitral regurgitation was controlled in one case by closure of a fistula into the left atrium with a very good result, and in 2 cases by simple section-suture of the neck of the aneurysm with good results and a small residual mitral leak. In a fourth case (Case n degree 1) the mitral valve was normal, regurgitation being the result of an extensive thrombosis. The valve was replaced but, in the light of the following cases, it is possible that the valve might have been unnecessarily sacrificed. Despite their sometime vast size and the association with mitral regurgitation, these subvalvular idiopathic left ventricular aneurysms are reasonable surgical indications for the following three reasons: the neck is often narrow, enabling closure under satisfactory surgical conditions; the structure of the valve is normal which, in the majority of cases, means that it can be respected at surgery; the absence of coronary artery disease. PMID:6424597
d'Allaines, C; Nottin, R; Deloche, A; Chauvaud, S; Benomar, M; Baubion, N; Bouramoue, C; Dubost, C
Traumatic tricuspid regurgitation is a rare disease owing to penetrating or nonpenetrating thoracic trauma. In the last 40 years, since motorism is increasing, this disease can be seen more frequently. In most cases, rupture of chordae tendinae on the tricuspid valve, damage of the front papillary muscle and rupture of the tricuspid valve leaflets. On an acute stage, the damage of the valve can remain undiagnosed. Later on, the patient might have no symptoms; however, symtoms of right heart failure indicating an operation appear. This case-study is concerned with a patient with traumatic tricuspid regurgitation. PMID:17091607
Bizo?, J; Brát, R
The impact of aortic valve replacement (AVR) on the dynamic geometry and motion of the mitral annulus remains unknown. We analyzed the effects of AVR on the dynamic geometry and motion of the mitral annulus. We used 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography to analyze 39 consecutive patients undergoing elective surgical AVR for aortic stenosis. Intraoperative 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was performed immediately before and after AVR. Volumetric data sets were analyzed using a software package capable of dynamically tracking the mitral annulus and leaflets during the entire systolic ejection phase. After AVR, there were significant decreases (p <0.01) in annular dimensions such as anteroposterior (3.5 ± 0.1 vs 3.2 ± 0.1 cm), anterolateral-posteromedial (3.7 ± 0.1 vs 3.5 ± 0.1 cm), and commissural diameters (3.7 ± 0.1 vs 3.3 ± 0.1 cm), as well as annular circumference (12.0 ± 0.30 vs 11.1 ± 0.2 cm) and 3-dimensional mitral annular area (mean 10.9 ± 0.6 vs 9.3 ± 0.3 cm(3)). Vertical mitral annular displacement was also reduced (6.2 ± 3.1 vs 4.3 ± 2.2 mm). Mitral annular nonplanarity angle (154 ± 1.5° vs 161 ± 1.6°) and aorto-mitral angle (133 ± 3.3° vs 142 ± 2.0°) were both increased after AVR, suggesting reduced nonplanar shape of the mitral annulus and reduced aorto-mitral flexion. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that mitral annular size is reduced immediately after AVR and that the dynamic motion of the mitral annulus is restricted. These findings may have important clinical implications for patients undergoing AVR with concurrent mitral regurgitation. PMID:23891429
Warraich, Haider J; Matyal, Robina; Bergman, Remco; Hess, Philip E; Khabbaz, Kamal; Manning, Warren J; Mahmood, Feroze
We present the first system for measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) on a 3D ultrasound acquisition using modified ultrasound hardware, volumetric image segmentation and a simple efficient workflow. Accurate measurement of the PISA in 3D flow through a valve is an emerging method for quantitatively assessing cardiac valve regurgitation and function. Current state of the art protocols for assessing regurgitant flow require laborious and time consuming user interaction with the data, where a precise execution is crucial for an accurate diagnosis. We propose a new improved 3D PISA workflow that is initialized interactively with two points, followed by fully automatic segmentation of the valve annulus and isovelocity surface area computation. Our system is first validated against several in vitro phantoms to verify the calculations of surface area, orifice area and regurgitant flow. Finally, we use our system to compare orifice area calculations obtained from in vivo patient imaging measurements to an independent measurement and then use our system to successfully classify patients into mild-moderate regurgitation and moderate-severe regurgitation categories. PMID:22003738
Grady, Leo; Datta, Saurabh; Kutter, Oliver; Duong, Christophe; Wein, Wolfgang; Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; Liu, Shizhen; Vannan, Mani
Background Robotic telemanipulators have evolved to assist the challenges of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MVS). A systematic review was performed to provide a synopsis of the literature, focusing on clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Method Structured searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were performed in August 2013. All original studies except case-reports were included in qualitative review. Studies with ?50 patients were presented quantitatively. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the search results, 27 studies were included in qualitative review, 16 of which had ?50 patients. All studies were observational in nature, and thus the quality of evidence was rated low to medium. Patients generally had good left ventricular performance, were relatively asymptomatic, and mean patient age ranged from 52.6-58.4 years. Rates of intraoperative outcomes ranged from: 0.0-9.1% for conversion to non-robotic surgery, 106±22 to 188.5±53.8 min for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and 79±16 to 140±40 min for cross-clamp (XC) time. Rates of short-term postoperative outcomes ranged from: 0.0-3.0% for mortality, 0.0-3.2% for myocardial infarction (MI), 0.0-3.0% for permanent stroke, 1.6-15% for pleural effusion, 0.0-5.0% for reoperations for bleeding, 0.0-0.3% for infection, and 1.1-6% for prolonged ventilation (>48 hours), 1.5-5.4% for early repair failure, 12.3±6.7 to 36.6±24.7 hours for intensive care length of stay, 3.1±0.3 to 6.3±3.9 days for hospital length of stay (HLOS) and 81.7-97.6% had no or trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) before discharge. Conclusions All subtypes of mitral valve prolapse are repairable with robotic techniques. CPB and XC times are long, and novel techniques such as the Cor-Knot, Nitinol clips or running sutures may reduce the time required. The overall rates of early postoperative mortality and morbidity are low. Improvements in postoperative quality of life (QoL) and expeditious return to work offset the increase in equipment and intraoperative cost. Evidence for long-term outcomes is as yet limited.
Seco, Michael; Cao, Christopher; Modi, Paul; Bannon, Paul G.; Wilson, Michael K.; Vallely, Michael P.; Phan, Kevin; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich
The patient is a 75-year-old man with a history significant for hypertension and congestive heart failure who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement secondary to acute onset of aortic insufficiency. Cultures of the native valve were positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to nafcillin and intravenous cefazolin was initiated. On postoperative day 24, he developed acute decompensated heart failure. A transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated a structurally abnormal mitral valve with severe regurgitation, anterior and posterior leaflet vegetations, and scallop prolapse. There was also evidence of a mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa pseudoaneurysm (P-MAIF) with systolic expansion and flow within the aneurysm. Antibiotic treatment was changed from cefazolin to vancomycin for presumed development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. He subsequently underwent a bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and has restoration of health without sequella. This case highlights the development of a P-MAIF as a rare complication of both aortic or mitral valve replacement and infective endocarditis.
Elegino-Steffens, Diane; Stratton, Amy; Geimer-Flanders, Jone
Color flow Doppler has been useful in diagnosing the presence and severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). We noted a hitherto unreported sign of MR due to flail mitral leaflet: intense local mosaic pattern at the site of the flail leaflet. This sign was seen well in 11 of 14 patients (79%) with the two-dimensional echocardiographic features of flail mitral leaflet, all with moderate or severe MR. In 3 other patients, the sign was absent; two of those had flail mitral leaflet with severe MR. No local mosaic pattern was seen on color Doppler in 20 other patients with MR but no flail mitral leaflet. We speculate that the focal intense mosaic color Doppler morphology may have been caused by intrusion of the flail leaflet into the MR stream, or to a Coanda-like effect of the MR jet "adhering" to the flail leaflet. PMID:16194168
Khouzam, Rami N; D'Cruz, Ivan A; Minderman, Daniel; Kaiser, Jacqueline
Background: Regurgitation, vomiting and aspiration may occur unexpectedly in association with anaesthesia. "Aspiration/regurgitation" was ranked fifth in a large collection of previously reported incidents that arose during general anaesthesia. These problems are encountered by all practising anaesthetists and require instant recognition and a rapid, appropriate response. However, the diagnosis may not be immediately apparent as the initial presentation may vary from laryngospasm, desaturation, bronchospasm or hypoventilation to cardiac arrest. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for regurgitation, vomiting and aspiration, in the management of these complications occurring in association with anaesthesia. Methods: The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: There were 183 relevant incidents of regurgitation, vomiting and aspiration among the first 4000 reports to the AIMS. Aspiration was documented in 96, was excluded in 69, and in 18 it could not be determined whether or not aspiration had occurred. It was considered that the correct use of an explicit algorithm would have led to earlier recognition and/or better management of the problem in 10% of all cases of regurgitation and vomiting and in 19% of those in which aspiration occurred. Conclusion: Regurgitation and/or aspiration should always be considered immediately in any spontaneously breathing patient who suffers desaturation, laryngospasm, airway obstruction, bronchospasm, bradycardia, or cardiac arrest. Any patient in whom aspiration is suspected must be closely monitored in an appropriate perioperative facility, the acuity of which will depend on local staffing and workload. If clinical instability is likely to persist or if there are concerns by attending staff, the patient should be admitted to a high dependency unit or intensive care unit.
Kluger, M; Visvanathan, T; Myburgh, J; Westhorpe, R
A 67-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for coronary artery bypass graft and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) treatment. The patient had a history of coronary disease and MR treated in 2007 with a CARILLON device. Left mammary and saphenous vein were used to graft the diseased coronaries. MR was corrected with a saddle ring; however, we had some difficulties anchoring ring sutures to the mitral annulus caused by the protruding CARILLON. The ring was finally stitched, and the patient was weaned from bypass. A transoesophageal echo showed a competent valve. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit on moderate catecholamines. PMID:21422158
Bartkowiak, Marek; Bugajski, Pawel; Jedlinski, Ireneusz; Kalawski, Ryszard
Purpose Regurgitation is known to peak at the age of 3-4 months, with a sharp decrease around the age of 6 months. Little is known about the natural evolution of infants who still regurgitate after the age of 6 months. Methods Hundred thirty-one infants older than 6 months regurgitating more than once a day were followed for a period of 3 months. Results According to our data, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is seldom at this age. Most of the infants regurgitated 3 or more times/day and spit up an estimated volume of more than 15 mL. Eighty-five parents were educated regarding frequency of feeding. There were only 6 infants that still had frequent regurgitation (>3 times/day) despite an appropriate feeding schedule. The Infant GER Questionnaire score reached a score of 0 in 50% of the infants after one month of follow-up and in 81.9% at the third month of follow-up. There was an increase of the "weight for age z-score" trends in infants that still regurgitated at the end of follow-up and a declining z-score in infants that no longer regurgitated. An explanation may be that infants that regurgitate drink larger volumes than infants who do not regurgitate. Conservative treatment (reassurance, dietary treatment, behavioral advice) resulted in a significant better outcome than natural evolution. Conclusion Regurgitation that persisted after the age of 6 months, strongly decreased during a 3-month follow-up with conservative treatment. GERD is rare in this age group; therefore, anti-reflux medication is only seldom needed.
Hegar, Badriul; Satari, Debora Hindra I.; Sjarif, Damayanti R.
To evaluate acute changes in left ventricular volumes and function immediately after successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvoplasty, twenty young patients with isolated rheumatic mitral stenosis (male 9, female 11, mean age 22 +/- 6 years) were studied. The area of the orifice of the mitral valve following valvoplasty, increased from 0.97 +/- 0.27 cm2 to 2.46 +/- 0.75 cm2 (P less than 0.001). No significant change was observed in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (117 +/- 27 ml to 119 +/- 29 ml, P greater than 0.10), end-systolic volumes (51 +/- 21 ml to 50 +/- 20 ml, P greater than 0.10), ejection fraction (0.57 +/- 0.10 to 0.58 +/- 0.10, P greater than 0.10) and left ventricular meridian wall stress (68 +/- 20.10(3) dynes/cm2 to 65 +/- 14, P greater than 0.10) immediately after valvoplasty. There was no acute change in heart rate, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, cardiac index and grade of mitral regurgitation. Patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (less than or equal to 0.55, n = 10) and those with normal ejection fraction (greater than 0.55, n = 10) had similar baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volumes and showed no significant change in volumes and ejection fraction after the procedure, although the former group had a greater orificial area after valvoplasty (P less than 0.05). We conclude that an acute increase in the orifice of the mitral valve in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis is not associated with any significant change in left ventricular volumes and function. PMID:1743789
Mohan, J C; Nair, M; Arora, R
Continuous wave Doppler methods have been widely used clinically for evaluating the severity of aortic regurgitation; however, there have been no studies comparing these continuous wave Doppler methods with a strictly quantifiable reference for regurgitant severity. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of continuous wave Doppler methods (deceleration slope and pressure half-time) for evaluation of chronic
Masahiro Ishii; Michael Jones; Takahiro Shiota; Izumi Yamada; Russell S. Heinrich; Scott R. Holcomb; Tahir El-Kadi; Ajit P. Yoganathan; David J. Sahn
The mitral annulus plays an essential role in mitral valve (MV) competency. When surgical intervention is needed, the placement of an annular ring is considered a major component of MV repair. However, the use of a foreign material increases the risk of infectious and thromboembolic complications and is problematic in children as it does not allow for annular growth. Herein is reported a case of infective endocarditis affecting a mitral ring that was implanted to treat severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) some 10 years earlier. Surgery was performed to remove the MV vegetation, and subsequent echocardiography revealed only trace MR. The concept that the ring may be needed for a limited period of time to induce valve remodeling is consistent with new data on biodegradable rings. These rings degrade over months, inducing dense fibrous tissue that replaces the ring and maintains valve competency. The present case is one of the first human examples to support the potential efficacy of a biodegradable ring. PMID:24597407
Slipczuk, Leandro; Trento, Alfredo; Luo, Huai; Siegel, Robert J
A 14 year old girl presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation after she was diagnosed with "transient tricuspid regurgitation of the newborn". In the neonatal period she had presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation without an obvious underlying anatomical cause. This spontaneously regressed during the first months of life. She was dismissed from follow up at the age of 5 years after complete normalisation of the clinical and echocardiographic examination. The subsequent evolution and management of the patient, as well as the possible pathogenesis responsible for the unusual clinical course, is discussed. This case stresses the importance of long term follow up of patients with transient tricuspid regurgitation.???Keywords: neonatal cardiomyopathy; regurgitation; tricuspid valve
Boshoff, D; Mertens, L; Gewillig, M
Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart disease seen in college and university health services. It underlies most arrhythmia and many chest complaints. Activity and exercise restrictions are usually unnecessary. (Author/CJ)
Bergy, Gordon G.
Objective Edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve (MV) has been described as a viable option used for the surgical management of mitral regurgitation (MR). Based on the significant changes in MV geometry associated with this technique, we hypothesized that edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative transmitral pressure gradients (TMPG) compared to conventional methods. Methods Patient records and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examinations of 552 consecutive patients undergoing MV repair at a single institution over a three year period were assessed. After separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), peak and mean TMPG were recorded for each patient and subsequently analyzed. Results 84 patients (15%) underwent edge-to-edge MV repair. Peak and mean TMPG were significantly higher compared to gradients in patients undergoing conventional repairs: 10.7±0.5 mmHg vs 7.1±0.2 mmHg; P<0.0001 and 4.3±0.2 mmHg vs 2.8±0.1 mmHg; P<0.0001. Only patients with mean TMPG ?7 mmHg (n?=?9) required prompt reoperation for iatrogenic mitral stenosis (MS). No differences in peak and mean TMPG were observed among edge-to-edge repairs performed in isolation, compared to those performed in combination with annuloplasty: 11.0±0.7 mmHg vs 10.3±0.6 mmHg and 4.4±0.3 mmHg vs 4.3±0.3 mmHg. There were no differences in TMPG between various types of annuloplasty techniques used in combination with the edge-to-edge repairs. Conclusions Edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative peak and mean TMPG after separation from CPB compared to conventional repair techniques. Unless gradients are severely elevated, these findings are not necessarily suggestive of iatrogenic MS. Thus, in the immediate postoperative period mildly elevated TMPG can be expected and tolerated after edge-to-edge mitral repairs.
Hilberath, Jan N.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Shernan, Stanton K.; Worthington, Andrea H.; Aranki, Sary F.; Nowak-Machen, Martina
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors for return to sinus rhythm after mitral valve repair. Method: One hundred ninety-one patients underwent surgery for mitral valve repair, including 142 procedures for valve repair only (74%). The patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation (50.5%) were older, clinically more symptomatic, and had a greater degree of left atrial
Jean F. Obadia; Mazen el Farra; Olivier H. Bastien; Michel Lièvre; Yvan Martelloni; Jean F. Chassignolle
Objective: This study was done to determine the potential benefits of minimally invasive mitral surgery performed with intraoperative video assistance. Methods: From May 1996 until March 1997, a minithoracotomy and video assistance were used in 31 consecutive patients undergoing mitral repair (n = 20) and replacement (n = 11). Their ages ranged from 18 to 77 years (59 ± 2.6
W. Randolph Chitwood; Christopher L. Wixon; Joseph R. Elbeery; Jon F. Moran; William H. H. Chapman; Robert M. Lust
SUMMARY The remodeling that occurs after a posterolateral myocardial infarction can alter mitral valve function by creating conformational abnormalities in the mitral annulus and in the posteromedial papillary muscle, leading to mitral regurgitation (MR). It is generally assumed that this remodeling is caused by a volume load and is mediated by an increase in diastolic wall stress. Thus, mitral regurgitation can be both the cause and effect of an abnormal cardiac stress environment. Computational modeling of ischemic MR and its surgical correction is attractive because it enables an examination of whether a given intervention addresses the correction of regurgitation (fluid-flow) at the cost of abnormal tissue stress. This is significant because the negative effects of an increased wall stress due to the intervention will only be evident over time. However, a meaningful fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart is not trivial; it requires a careful characterization of the in-vivo cardiac geometry, tissue parameterization though inverse analysis, a robust coupled solver that handles collapsing Lagrangian interfaces, automatic grid-generation algorithms that are capable of accurately discretizing the cardiac geometry, innovations in image analysis, competent and efficient constitutive models and an understanding of the spatial organization of tissue microstructure. In this manuscript, we profile our work toward a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart by reviewing our early work, presenting our current work and laying out our future work in four broad categories: data collection, geometry, fluid-structure interaction and validation.
Einstein, Daniel R.; Del Pin, Facundo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.
In the 1990s, the success of ‘minimally invasive’ laparoscopic operations in other surgical subspecialties sparked an interest in minimally-invasive approaches for cardiac surgery, specifically for mitral valve repair. In 1996 at New York University (NYU) we began our experience with minimally invasive mitral valve repair performed through a small right anterior mini-thoracotomy incision using the Port-Access system in a phase I clinical trial. This was the beginning of our extensive right mini-thoracotomy experience for mitral valve repair at NYU. Currently at our institution the preferred approach for the right mini-thoracotomy mitral valve surgery is through the 3rd or 4th interspace mini-thoracotomy incision. Perfusion is accomplished with direct aortic or femoral cannulation, long femoral venous cannula drainage, and a retrograde cardioplegia catheter placed trans-atrialy in the coronary sinus under TEE guidance. An antegrade cardioplegia and venting needle is placed in the ascending aorta and direct external aortic clamping is achieved with one of several specialized crossclamps. With over four decades of experience, more than 4,000 patients have undergone mitral valve repair at NYU including 1,922 performed through a right mini-thoracotomy. We have reported an overall operative mortality of 1.3%, 8-year freedom from reoperation of 95%, freedom from reoperation or severe recurrent mitral regurgitation of 93%, and freedom from all valve-related complications of 90% for our initial series of 1,071 right mini-thoracotomy mitral valve repair. Based on our extensive experience we believe that mitral valve repair through a right mini-thoracotomy provides a durable and safe alternative to a traditional sternotomy with the benefits of improved cosmesis, reduced post-operative pain, less blood loss with fewer blood transfusions, fewer infections, shorter length of stay, and faster return to activity. It is our standard of care approach for mitral valve surgery.
Ward, Alison F.; Grossi, Eugene A.
Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair.
Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.
This report presents the procedural results from the AMADEUS trial that support coronary sinus (CS)-based percutaneous mitral annuloplasty. Despite therapeutic advances, functional mitral regurgitation (MR) continues to be a significant clinical problem for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. CS approaches to mitral valve repair have been viewed with skepticism because of the distance of the CS/great cardiac vein from the mitral valve annulus and the potential to compress a coronary artery. This report presents the procedural results from the AMADEUS trial that support CS-based percutaneous mitral annuloplasty. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were eligible to receive a mitral annuloplasty device. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to assess changes in MR, angiography was used to assess the coronary arteries, and multislice computed tomography was used to evaluate the anatomic relations between the coronary venous system and the mitral valve. Acute MR reduction (grade 3.0 +/- 0.6 to 2.0 +/- 0.8, p <0.0001) and permanent implantation were achieved in 30 of 43 patients in whom an attempt was made. Additional measurements in 20 patients with implants showed reductions in the vena contracta (0.69 +/- 0.29 to 0.46 +/- 0.26 cm, p <0.0001), effective regurgitant orifice area (0.33 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.08 cm(2), p <0.0001), regurgitant volume (40 +/- 20 to 24 +/- 11 ml, p = 0.0005), and jet area/left atrial area (45 +/- 13% to 32 +/- 12%, p <0.0001). The coronary arteries were crossed in 36 patients (84%). Arterial compromise contributed to a lack of implantation in 6 patients (14%). No difference was found in the CS/great cardiac vein position relative to the annulus between the patients who did and did not have a reduction in MR. In conclusion, percutaneous mitral annuloplasty reduces MR and permanent implantation can be achieved in most eligible patients. PMID:19660613
Siminiak, Tomasz; Hoppe, Uta C; Schofer, Joachim; Haude, Michael; Herrman, Jean-Paul; Vainer, Jindra; Firek, Ludwik; Reuter, David G; Goldberg, Steven L; Van Bibber, Richard
Background: The interest in beating heart surgery is growing since better results can be obtained with this procedure compared to conventional myocardial protection techniques using cardioplegic solutions. This led us to consider mitral valve replacement with beating heart. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of beating heart mitral valve replacement without cross clamp. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on the patients with isolated mitral valve disease requiring mitral valve replacement according to ACC / AHA guidelines. In this study, 15 patients underwent mitral valve replacement using beating heart technique (Group A) and 15 ones underwent mitral valve replacement using arrested heart technique (Group B). The patients were randomized using block randomization. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results: Preoperative parameters were comparable in the two groups. Most of the patients in both study groups were in NYHA class III or IV. Postoperatively, however, most of the patients in the two groups were either in NYHA class I or II. No mortality occurred in the beating heart group, while one mortality occurred in the arrested heart group. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean bypass time, mean operating time, mean ICU stay, and mean length of hospital stay. Conclusions: Beating heart mitral valve replacement is equally safe as the arrested heart technique. Thus, it is recommended as an appropriate alternative to the arrested heart technique for mitral valve replacement.
Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Abdul Gani; Singh, Shyam; Irshad, Ifat; ul-Hassan, Nayeem; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Ahmad Ganie, Farooq; Bhat, Mohd Akbar
Anterior leaflet (AL) stiffening during isovolumic contraction (IVC) may aid mitral valve closure. We tested the hypothesis that AL stiffening requires atrial depolarization. Ten sheep had radioopaque-marker arrays implanted in the left ventricle, mitral annulus, AL, and papillary muscle tips. Four-dimensional marker coordinates (x, y, z, and t) were obtained from biplane videofluoroscopy at baseline (control, CTRL) and during basal interventricular-septal pacing (no atrial contraction, NAC; 110–117 beats/min) to generate ventricular depolarization not preceded by atrial depolarization. Circumferential and radial stiffness values, reflecting force generation in three leaflet regions (annular, belly, and free-edge), were obtained from finite-element analysis of AL displacements in response to transleaflet pressure changes during both IVC and isovolumic relaxation (IVR). In CTRL, IVC circumferential and radial stiffness was 46 ± 6% greater than IVR stiffness in all regions (P < 0.001). In NAC, AL annular IVC stiffness decreased by 25% (P = 0.004) in the circumferential and 31% (P = 0.005) in the radial directions relative to CTRL, without affecting edge stiffness. Thus AL annular stiffening during IVC was abolished when atrial depolarization did not precede ventricular systole, in support of the hypothesis. The likely mechanism underlying AL annular stiffening during IVC is contraction of cardiac muscle that extends into the leaflet and requires atrial excitation. The AL edge has no cardiac muscle, and thus IVC AL edge stiffness was not affected by loss of atrial depolarization. These findings suggest one reason why heart block, atrial dysrhythmias, or ventricular pacing may be accompanied by mitral regurgitation or may worsen regurgitation when already present.
Swanson, Julia C.; Krishnamurthy, Gaurav; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Craig Miller, D.
New intra-operative mitral regurgitation is an unusual complication of tricuspid annuloplasty and maybe ischemic in etiology as a consequence of right coronary artery distortion. We report the case of a woman in whom this was treated by mitral valve annuloplasty with ensuing hemodynamic instability and ventricular arrhythmia secondary to a new left circumflex occlusion. Injury/distortion to either of the coronary arteries running in the atrio-ventricular groove is rare, and described only several times. To our knowledge, concurrent right coronary artery and circumflex artery injury/distortion has not been reported previously. PMID:23857759
Patel, Niket; Cuculi, Florim; Banning, Adrian P
We describe a simple, safe and reliable intraoperative saline injection leak test for accomplishing and testing the efficacy of mitral valve repair when a simultaneous aortotomy is present. PMID:17670721
Nakajima, Masato; Tsuchiya, Koji; Okamoto, Yuki; Suetsugu, Fuminaga
Background Pulmonary regurgitation is a common and clinically important residual lesion after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phase contrast velocity mapping is widely used for measurement of pulmonary regurgitant fraction. Breath-hold acquisitions, usually acquired during held expiration, are more convenient than the non-breath-hold approach, but we hypothesized that breath-holding might affect the amount of pulmonary regurgitation. Methods Forty-three adult patients with a previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot and residual pulmonary regurgitation were investigated with CMR. In each, pulmonary regurgitant fraction was measured from velocity maps transecting the pulmonary trunk, acquired during held expiration, held inspiration, by non-breath-hold acquisition, and also from the difference of right and left ventricular stroke volume measurements. Results Pulmonary regurgitant fraction was lower when measured by velocity mapping in held expiration compared with held inspiration, non-breath-hold or stroke volume difference (30.8 vs. 37.0, 35.6, 35.4%, p = 0.00017, 0.0035, 0.026). The regurgitant volume was lower in held expiration than in held inspiration (41.9 vs. 48.3, p = 0.0018). Pulmonary forward flow volume was larger during held expiration than during non-breath-hold (132 vs. 124 ml, p = 0.0024). Conclusion Pulmonary regurgitant fraction was significantly lower in held expiration compared with held inspiration, free breathing and stroke volume difference. Altered airway pressure could be a contributory factor. This information is relevant if breath-hold acquisition is to be substituted for non-breath-hold in the investigation of patients with a view to re-intervention.
Johansson, Bengt; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Kilner, Philip J
Background Patients undergoing mitral valve surgery were assessed for morphology and function by Transoesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)\\u000a at surgery over a 5 year period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods From January 1994 through May 1998, 591 patients underwent mitral valve surgery. Four hundred and eleven patients (mean age\\u000a 22+3.6 yrs, range 8 years to 55 years, 186 male) underwent mitral valve reconstruction, 143 patients (mean age 24.5+4.2
Arkalgud Sampath Kumar; Anita Saxena
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are often used in preventing and treating heart failure due to regurgitant valve disease. The majority of patients with symptomatic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) have significant mitral stenosis (MS) and are denied ACEI therapy, because of the fear of hypotension in the presence of fixed obstruction. The authors assessed the safety and efficacy of ACEI in 109 consecutive patients with RHD and with significant mitral stenosis (mitral valve orifice, MVO < 1.5 cm2)and with NYHA class III or IV heart failure symptoms. Mean age was 33.1+/-12 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) was 111+/-10, and diastolic BP was 73+/-8 mm Hg. MS was significant in 100 patients with mitral regurgitation in 46, aortic regurgitation in 19, and pulmonary hypertension in 60 patients. After initial stabilization, enalapril 2.5 mg bid was started in hospital and titrated up to 10 mg bid over 2 weeks. NYHA status, Borg score, and 6-minute walk test were assessed at baseline, and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Seventy-nine of the 100 patients who completed the study had severe MS (MVO < 1.0 cm2). Enalapril was well tolerated by all study patients without hypotension or worsening of symptoms. NYHA class (3.2+/-0.5 baseline vs 2.3+/-0.5 at 4 weeks, p < 0.01) Borg Dyspnea Index (7.6+/-1.3 vs 5.6+/-1.3, p < 0.01), and 6-minute walk distance (226+/-106 vs 299+/-127 m, p < 0.01) improved significantly with enalapril. Patients with associated regurgitant lesions showed more improvement in exercise capacity (120+/-93 vs 39+/-56 m, p < 0.001). Enalapril was well tolerated in patients with RHD with moderate and severe MS. Irrespective of the valve pathology, enalapril improved functional status and exercise capacity with maximum benefit in patients with concomitant regurgitant valvular heart disease. PMID:15793604
Chockalingam, Anand; Venkatesan, S; Dorairajan, Smrita; Chockalingam, V; Subramaniam, T; Jaganathan, V; Elangovan, S; Alagesan, R; Gnanavelu, G; Arul, A S
Alterations of normal mitral valve (MV) function lead to mitral insufficiency, i.e., mitral regurgitation (MR). Mitral repair is the most popular and most efficient surgical intervention for MR treatment. An annuloplasty ring is implanted following complex reconstructive MV repairs to prevent potential reoccurrence of MR. We have developed a novel finite element (FE)-based simulation protocol to perform patient-specific virtual ring annuloplasty following the standard clinical guideline procedure. A virtual MV was created using 3D echocardiographic data in a patient with mitral annular dilation. Proper type and size of the ring were determined in consideration of the MV apparatus geometry. The ring was positioned over the patient MV model and annuloplasty was simulated. Dynamic simulation of MV function across the complete cardiac cycle was performed. Virtual patient-specific annuloplasty simulation well demonstrated morphologic information of the MV apparatus before and after ring implantation. Dynamic simulation of MV function following ring annuloplasty demonstrated markedly reduced stress distribution across the MV leaflets and annulus as well as restored leaflet coaptation compared to pre-annuloplasty. This novel FE-based patient-specific MV repair simulation technique provides quantitative information of functional improvement following ring annuloplasty. Virtual MV repair strategy may effectively evaluate and predict interventional treatment for MV pathology.
Choi, Ahnryul; Rim, Yonghoon; Mun, Jeffrey S.; Kim, Hyunggun
Fifty-three patients were studied with combined echo-phonocardiography or phonocardiography alone following prosthetic valve replacement. In sixteen of these patients, clinical deterioration developed, and all subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization and/or surgery. Two patients came to autopsy. Included in this group of sixteen patients were five with obstructed prosthesis, six with paravalvular regurgitation, and five with left ventricular dysfunction. Measurements were made of the time interval from the aortic valve closure sound to the peak opening of the mitral prosthesis determined echocardiographically or to the mitral prosthetic opening click (A2-MVO). Echocardiographic studies of left ventricular wall motion were also performed. The A2-MVO interval was significantly shortened (P less than 0.01) with prosthetic valve obstruction (.05 +/- .02 sec) and paravalvular regurgitation (.05 +/- .01 sec) compared with normally functioning prostheses (Starr-Edwards ball valves .10 +/- .02 sec, Lillehei-Kaster tilting disc prostheses .09 +/- .01 sec). Shortening of this interval was not specific for these conditions because it was sometimes shortened with left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiographic studies of left ventricular wall motion were helpful in distinguishing among prosthetic valve obstruction, paravalvular regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. The combined echo-phonocardiographic technique was especially helpful in detecting malfunction of tilting disc prostheses, because the technique enables measurement of the A2-MVO interval in the absence of an audible opening click. PMID:1244259
Brodie, B R; Grossman, W; McLaurin, L; Starek, P J; Craige, E
Objectives: This study evaluates the feasibility of video-assisted minimally invasive mitral valve surgery by means of the Port-Access system. The aim of the study was to minimize surgical access and to develop a video-assisted surgical technique. Methods: The Port-Access system allows for closed chest endoluminal aortic clamping, cardioplegic arrest, and decompression of the heart. The mitral valve was either repaired
F. W. Mohr; V. Falk; A. Diegeler; T. Walther; J. A. M. van Son; R. Autschbach; Hans G. Borst
A patient who died of Whipple's disease had moderate mitral stenosis with large firm yellow vegetations on the contact area of the mitral leaflets. Light microsocopy showed PAS positive macrophages within the thickened cusps and overlying vegetations. Negative images of rod-shaped bodies were visible in the cytoplasm of the histiocytes. No Aschoff bodies were seen, and there was no history
A G Rose
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Mitral Valve Prolapse Most people who have mitral valve prolapse (MVP) have no symptoms or related problems, ... them with medicine. Some people may need heart valve surgery to relieve their symptoms and prevent complications. ...
Mitral valve prolapse is extremely common in children. It is diagnosed by the presence of a nonejection click with or without an associated murmur. In isolated mitral valve prolapse, the prognosis is excellent, but regular office visits are necessary for cardiac status review and infective endocarditis prophylaxis. Patients with significant dysrhythmias represent a small subset with an unknown long-term prognosis. PMID:3825853
Greenwood, R D
We herein describe a simple method for the fine length adjustment of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) using the loop technique for mitral valve repair. The loops are temporarily anchored to the mitral leaflet with a second e-PTFE suture by tying only once (one-knot technique). This anchor suture can be easily removed and repositioned if necessary. We believe that this simple technique allows for the more precise and reproducible repair of mitral valve prolapse. PMID:23238885
Sakaguchi, Taichi; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Ueno, Takayoshi; Sawa, Yoshiki
A three year old girl with severe congenital mitral stenosis was successfully treated by percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Cardiac catheterisation and cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography indicated that the orifice of the mitral valve had doubled in area. A small atrial septal defect was found at follow up cardiac catheterisation and angiography. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a reasonable alternative to surgical treatment for typical congenital mitral stenosis even in young children. Images Fig 1 Fig 2
Alday, L E; Juaneda, E
The shape of the mitral valve annulus is used in diagnostic and modeling applications, yet methods to accurately and reproducibly delineate the annulus are limited. This paper presents a mitral annulus segmentation algorithm designed for closed mitral valves which locates the annulus in three-dimensional ultrasound using only a single user-specified point near the center of the valve. The algorithm first constructs a surface at the location of the thin leaflets, and then locates the annulus by finding where the thin leaflet tissue meets the thicker heart wall. The algorithm iterates until convergence metrics are satisfied, resulting in an operator-independent mitral annulus segmentation. The accuracy of the algorithm was assessed from both a diagnostic and surgical standpoint by comparing the algorithm’s results to delineations made by a group of experts on clinical ultrasound images of the mitral valve, and to delineations made by an expert with a surgical view of the mitral annulus on excised porcine hearts using an electromagnetically tracked pointer. In the former study, the algorithm was statistically indistinguishable from the best performing expert (p = 0.85) and had an average RMS difference of 1.81 ± 0.78mm to the expert average. In the latter, the average RMS difference between the algorithm’s annulus and the electromagnetically tracked points across six hearts was 1.19 ± 0.17mm.
Schneider, Robert J.; Perrin, Douglas P.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Marx, Gerald R.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Howe, Robert D.
In vivo human mitral valves (MV) were imaged using real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (rt-3DTEE), and volumetric images of the MV at mid-systole were analyzed by user-initialized segmentation and 3D deformable modeling with continuous medial representation, a compact representation of shape. The resulting MV models were loaded with physiologic pressures using finite element analysis (FEA). We present the regional leaflet stress distributions predicted in normal and diseased (regurgitant) MVs. Rt-3DTEE, semi-automated leaflet segmentation, 3D deformable modeling, and FEA modeling of the in vivo human MV is tenable and useful for evaluation of MV pathology.
Pouch, Alison M.; Xu, Chun; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Jassar, Arminder S.; Vergnat, Mathieu; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Jackson, Benjamin M.
Prevention is better than cure best applies here. As per many authors, posterior leaflet chordae preservation prevent Left ventricular rupture (LVR) and preserve LV geometry. We are presenting here 5 types of left ventricular rupture (LVR) post Mitral valve replacement (MVR) with different methods to repair with the advantages and disadvantages of each. The mortality rate is still very high despite the advances in cardiac surgery. Many therapeutic approaches have been adopted. Yet, none is ideal.
Sersar, Sameh I.; Jamjoom, Ahmed A.
A 27-year-old woman with a history of bileaflet mitral valve prolapse and moderate mitral regurgitation presented to our emergency with untractable polymorphic wide complex tachycardia and unstable haemodynamics. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, return of spontaneous circulation was achieved 30 min later. Her post-resuscitation ECG showed a prolonged QT interval which progressively normalised over the same day. Her laboratory investigations revealed hypocalcaemia while other electrolytes were within normal limits. A diagnosis of ventricular arrhythmia secondary to structural heart disease further precipitated by hypocalcaemia was made. Further hospital stay did not reveal a recurrence of prolonged QT interval or other arrhythmias except for an episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. However, the patient suffered diffuse hypoxic brain encephalopathy secondary to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:24827670
Rajani, Ali Raza; Murugesan, Vagishwari; Baslaib, Fahad Omar; Rafiq, Muhammad Anwer
In the selection of patients for mitral commissurotomy, five separate categories are to be considered: (1) true mitral block with small heart and high pulmonary artery pressure, (2) mitral stenosis without mitral block, (3) mitral stenosis with subacute carditis, (4) mitral stenosis with marked cardiac hypertrophy, and (5) mitral stenosis with embolism. Surgical results are good to excellent provided adequate preoperative evaluation has eliminated the groups with subacute carditis, and those without mitral block. Cardiac catheterization is a valuable adjunct in difficult problems.
Cosby, Richard S.
Mitral paravalvular leak closure by antegrade percutaneous approach: three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic guided multiple Amplatzer implantation by a modified sequential anchoring-based technique.
We describe the technical aspects and the possible advantages of a modified anchoring-based technique for the implantation of multiple Amplatzer devices, in a case of large anteroseptal mitral paravalvular leak causing massive regurgitation, which was manaed by antegrade transseptal, single-stage, percutaneous approach. Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic guidance was crucial to ensure successful recrossings of the target defect and the optimal anatomical closure. PMID:23613380
Tarantini, Giuseppe; Mojoli, Marco; Napodano, Massimo
Patient: Female, 62 Final Diagnosis: Tricuspid regurgitation Symptoms: Dyspnea exertional • fatigue • leg edema Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) can mimic some hemodynamic findings of constrictive pericarditis (CP), due to the restraining effect of the enlarged right heart on intact pericardium and on the left ventricle. In this article, we report a case of severe tricuspid regurgitation in which hemodynamic findings were consistent with CP. Case Report: A 62-year-old Caucasian woman presented with right heart failure symptoms. Echocardiography showed enlarged right heart chambers and severe tricuspid regurgitation. Right heart catheterization surprisingly demonstrated a constrictive physiology. Diastolic pressures of both ventricles were elevated and equalized, with a prominent deep and plateau pattern. The patient was re-evaluated with a further focus on constrictive pericarditis. However, echocardiography, thorax CT, and cardiac MRI did not demonstrate any pathological finding related to pericardium. The remaining explanation was that the severe TR itself and secondary right heart enlargement caused the restraining effect on the intact pericardium and on the left ventricle. The pericardium was normal and tricuspid annulus was severely dilated on surgical inspection. The tricuspid valve was replaced with a bioprosthetic valve. The patient did well just after the surgery, with a rapid decrease in cardiac pressures; however, she died due to respiratory failure on the 15th postoperative day. Conclusions: This was a case with right heart failure symptoms in which invasive hemodynamic findings were consistent with constrictive pericarditis and the noninvasive imaging modalities were not. This case illustrates that severe TR can mimic some hemodynamic findings of constrictive pericarditis, due to restraining effect of the enlarged right heart on intact pericardium and on the left ventricle. Lack of significant respiratory changes in hemodynamic parameters that can safely be demonstrated by echocardiography and cardiac MRI suggest a normal pericardium.
Ozpelit, Ebru; Akdeniz, Bahri; Ozpelit, Mehmet Emre; Goldeli, Ozhan
Objective The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is useful in the quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR). We hypothesized that actual measurement of PISA provided with real-time 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler yields more accurate regurgitant volumes than those estimated by 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler PISA. Methods We developed a pulsatile flow model for AR with an imaging chamber in which interchangeable regurgitant orifices with defined shapes and areas were incorporated. An ultrasonic flow meter was used to calculate the reference regurgitant volumes. A total of 29 different flow conditions for 5 orifices with different shapes were tested at a rate of 72 beats/min. 2D PISA was calculated as 2? r2, and 3D PISA was measured from 8 equidistant radial planes of the 3D PISA. Regurgitant volume was derived as PISA × aliasing velocity × time velocity integral of AR/peak AR velocity. Results Regurgitant volumes by flow meter ranged between 12.6 and 30.6 mL/beat (mean 21.4 ± 5.5 mL/beat). Regurgitant volumes estimated by 2D PISA correlated well with volumes measured by flow meter (r = 0.69); however, a significant underestimation was observed (y = 0.5x + 0.6). Correlation with flow meter volumes was stronger for 3D PISA-derived regurgitant volumes (r = 0.83); significantly less underestimation of regurgitant volumes was seen, with a regression line close to identity (y = 0.9x + 3.9). Conclusion Direct measurement of PISA is feasible, without geometric assumptions, using real-time 3D color Doppler. Calculation of aortic regurgitant volumes with 3D color Doppler using this methodology is more accurate than conventional 2D method with hemispheric PISA assumption.
Pirat, Bahar; Little, Stephen H.; Igo, Stephen R.; McCulloch, Marti; Nose, Yukihiko; Hartley, Craig J.; Zoghbi, William A.
We examined the accuracy with which left ventricular output can be estimated by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography. After red blood cells were labeled in vivo, we measured left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic count rates and the count rate in 5 ml of the patient's blood. After estimating the average ratio of counting efficiency for the left ventricle to counting efficiency for the blood sample (Elv/Es) in six patients, we calculated left ventricular output in 26 other patients as (left ventricular activity ejected per minute divided by activity per liter of blood) divided by the previously estimated Elv/Es. Radionuclide left ventricular output closely approximated Fick cardiac output (r = 0.94) in patients without mitral or aortic regurgitation and exceeded Fick cardiac output in all patients with valvular regurgitation. Regurgitant fraction, calculated as the difference between the radionuclide and Fick outputs divided by the radionuclide output, correlated with the severity of of regurgitation as assessed angiographically. The equilibrium radionuclide ventriculogram is an excellent means for noninvasive estimation of left ventricular output. PMID:6266693
Konstam, M A; Wynne, J; Holman, B L; Brown, E J; Neill, J M; Kozlowski, J
Objectives. We report the clinical course and unique hemodynamic findings after placement of a supraannular mitral valve prosthesis.Background. Children with symptomatic mitral valve disease whose annulus is too small for the smallest prosthesis are difficult to manage. One option is valve replacement with a prosthesis positioned entirely within the left atrium (LA).Methods. We reviewed 17 patients (median age 10 months)
Ian Adatia; Phillip M Moore; Richard A Jonas; Steven D Colan; James E Lock; John F Keane
Background. A computerized 48-channel mapping system was used to investigate the characteristics of an atrial epicardial electrogram during chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with solitary mitral valve disease. We have devised a simple left atrial procedure to eliminate the chronic AF during a mitral valve operation.Methods. Using this mapping system, we performed intraoperative atrial mapping in 11 patients with
Taijiro Sueda; Hideyuki Nagata; Hiroo Shikata; Kazumasa Orihashi; Satoru Morita; Masafumi Sueshiro; Kenji Okada; Yuichiro Matsuura
Objectives: To determine if a relationship exists in mitral stenosis, in patients with either sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation, between left atrial spontaneous echo contrast and the haematologic indices haematocrit, red cell concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count and volume. Methods: Left atrial spontaneous echo contrast severity was graded on a scale of 0–4 in 163 patients with symptomatic mitral
Roger E Peverill; Richard Graham; John Gelman; Lynette A Yates; Richard W Harper; Joseph J Smolich
AIM—To investigate gastric pacemaker activity in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using the electrogastrogram.?PATIENTS—Forty patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (20 with acid reflux, 20 with the additional symptom of food regurgitation) and 30 asymptomatic controls.?METHODS—Patients were studied using an electrogastrogram, oesophageal manometry, and 24 hour ambulatory oesophageal pH analysis.?RESULTS—An abnormal electrogastrogram was recorded in two (7%) controls, two (10%) patients with acid reflux, and 10 (50%) patients with food regurgitation. Food regurgitators had significantly more gastric dysrhythmias (tachygastrias) both before (p<0.02) and after (p<0.01) a test meal. Gastric pacemaker activity was also significantly less stable following the test meal in food regurgitators (p<0.003). Patients with food regurgitation and an abnormal electrogastrogram had higher oesophageal acid exposure than those with a normal electrogastrogram (p<0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—The electrogastrogram is usually normal in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease but an abnormal rhythm occurred in half of our patients with the additional symptom of food regurgitation. Furthermore, an abnormal electrogastrogram is associated with increased oesophageal acid exposure.???Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux; gastrointestinal motility; electrogastrogram
Leahy, A; Besherdas, K; Clayman, C; Mason, I; Epstein, O
Background Computational simulation using numerical analysis methods can help to assess the complex biomechanical and functional characteristics of the mitral valve (MV) apparatus. It is important to correctly determine physical contact interaction between the MV apparatus components during computational MV evaluation. We hypothesize that leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction plays an important role in computational MV evaluation, specifically in quantitating the degree of leaflet coaptation directly related to the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). In this study, we have performed dynamic finite element simulations of MV function with and without leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction, and determined the effect of leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction on the computational MV evaluation. Methods Computational virtual MV models were created using the MV geometric data in a patient with normal MV without MR and another with pathologic MV with MR obtained from 3D echocardiography. Computational MV simulation with full contact interaction was specified to incorporate entire physically available contact interactions between the leaflets and chordae tendineae. Computational MV simulation without leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction was specified by defining the anterior and posterior leaflets as the only contact inclusion. Results Without leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction, the computational MV simulations demonstrated physically unrealistic contact interactions between the leaflets and chordae. With leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction, the anterior marginal chordae retained the proper contact with the posterior leaflet during the entire systole. The size of the non-contact region in the simulation with leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction was much larger than for the simulation with only leaflet-to-leaflet contact. Conclusions We have successfully demonstrated the effect of leaflet-to-chordae contact interaction on determining leaflet coaptation in computational dynamic MV evaluation. We found that physically realistic contact interactions between the leaflets and chordae should be considered to accurately quantitate leaflet coaptation for MV simulation. Computational evaluation of MV function that allows precise quantitation of leaflet coaptation has great potential to better quantitate the severity of MR.
OBJECTIVES Implantation of an annuloplasty ring is an essential component of a durable mitral valve repair. Currently available off-the-shelf rings still do not cover all the variations in mitral annulus anatomy and pathology from subject to subject. Computed tomography (CT) and echo imaging allow for 3-D segmentation of the mitral valve and mitral annulus. The concept of tailored annuloplasty rings has been proposed although, to date, no surgically applicable implementation of patient-specific annuloplasty rings has been seen. The objective of this trial was to prove the concept of surgical implantation of a model-guided, personalized mitral annuloplasty ring, manufactured based on individual CT-scan models. METHODS ECG-gated CT angiography was performed in six healthy pigs under general anaesthesia. Based on the individual shape of the mitral annulus in systole, a customized solid ring with integrated suturing holes was designed and manufactured from a biocompatible titanium alloy by a rapid process using laser melting. The ring was implanted three days later and valve function was assessed by intraoperative echocardiography. The macroscopic annulus–annuloplasty match was assessed after heart explantation. RESULTS CT angiography provided good enough image quality in all animals to allow for segmentation of the mitral annulus. The individually tailored mitral rings were manufactured and successfully implanted in all pigs. In 50%, a perfect matching of the implanted ring and the mitral annulus was achieved. In one animal, a slight deviation of the ring shape from the circumference was seen postoperatively. The rings implanted in the first two animals were significantly oversized but the deviation did not affect valve competence. CONCLUSIONS CT image quality and accuracy of the dimensions of the mitral annulus were sufficient for digital modelling and rapid manufacturing of mitral rings. Implantation of individually tailored annuloplasty rings is feasible.
Sundermann, Simon H.; Gessat, Michael; Cesarovic, Nikola; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Biaggi, Patric; Bettex, Dominique; Falk, Volkmar; Jacobs, Stephan
The study of systolic changes in both the inflow and outflow of the left ventricle after mitral repair elucidates the geometric characteristics after surgery. The study included eight normal subjects and six patients after mitral repair without a prosthesis. The left ventricular (LV) base, consisting of both mitral valve annulus (MVA) and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) orifice, was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images. The angle between the planes of the MVA and LV base (MB angle), and the proportionate share of the LVOT at the LV base were calculated. After mitral repair, both the MVA and LV base became almost normal in size, showing flexible change (i.e., contraction and dorsiflexion) in the MVA and contraction of the LV base in systole. Compared with the normal heart at 100 ms delay from the electrocardiogram R wave, the hearts of the patients at the same phase had a mean 1.05 cm2 larger LVOT orifice, resulting in a mean 8.0 degree larger MB angle. Furthermore, the LVOT orifice occupied a mean of 49.5% of the LV base (41.9% in normal subjects). We hypothesize that the higher MB angle at early systole may weaken the tension of the chordae of the anterior mitral leaflet. PMID:12141474
Komoda, Takeshi; Hetzer, Roland; Siniawski, Henryk; Huebler, Michael; Felix, Roland; Maeta, Hajime
In standard textbooks of anatomy it is generally accepted that the fibrous ring of the mitral valve lies in a single plane throughout its entire circumference. Some authors have stated otherwise, but there are no morphometric studies. 30 formalin-fixed hearts were sectioned to reveal the shape of the fibrous ring of the mitral valve and studied by morphometric, radiographic and histological methods. It was noted that the fibrous ring adopted a horizontal "S" shape around the two commissures and the average distance between the highest and lowest parts of the fibrous ring was found to be 7.1 mm (range 6.2-12.5 mm). Radiographic evaluation revealed that the fibrous ring lies approximately in two planes rather than in one. Histological study showed that the fibrous tissue of the mitral valve is continuous with the aortic fibrous ring, and that a slight but significant thickening marks the insertion of the mitral valve. The mitral valve thus lies in two planes, and it is hoped that this information will contribute to cardiac and valvuloplastic surgery. PMID:7741275
Kopuz, C; Erk, K; Baris, Y S; Onderoglu, S; Sinav, A
A study on the value of pulsed Doppler in the detection and quantitative assessment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has been conducted on 33 consecu tive adult patients with valvular heart disease. Only 1 patient had to be excluded owing to a technically inadequate Doppler examination. Data for comparison were obtained from a right heart catheterization performed within a twenty- four-hour
F. Carreras; X. Borrás; J. M. Augé; G. Pons-Lladó
Objective—To examine the pathophysiological significance of adrenomedullin in the pulmonary circulation by investigating the relation between plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and central haemodynamics in patients with mitral stenosis.?Methods—Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin in blood samples obtained from the femoral vein, pulmonary artery, left atrium, and aorta were measured by a newly developed specific radioimmunoassay in 23 consecutive patients with mitral stenosis (16 females and seven males, aged 53 (10) years (mean (SD)) who were undergoing percutaneous mitral commissurotomy.?Results—Patients with mitral stenosis had higher concentrations of adrenomedullin than age matched normal controls (3.9 (0.3) v 2.5 (0.3) pmol/l, p < 0.001). There was a reduction in adrenomedullin concentrations between the pulmonary artery and the left atrium (3.8 (0.2) v 3.2 (0.4) pmol/l, p < 0.001). The venous concentrations of adrenomedullin correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), total pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), and pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin did not change immediately after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy; however, they decreased significantly one week later.?Conclusions—Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin are increased in patients with mitral stenosis. This may help to attenuate the increased pulmonary arterial resistance in secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral stenosis.?? Keywords: adrenomedullin; pulmonary hypertension; mitral stenosis; pulmonary circulation
Nishikimi, T.; Nagata, S.; Sasaki, T.; Tomimoto, S.; Matsuoka, H.; Takishita, S.; Kitamura, K.; Miyata, A.; Matsuo, H.; Kangawa, K.
Background The three-dimensional saddle shape of the mitral annulus is well characterized in animals and humans, but the impact of annular nonplanarity on valve function or mechanics is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of the saddle shaped mitral annulus on the mechanics of the P2 segment of the posterior mitral leaflet. Methods Eight porcine mitral valves (n = 8) were studied in an in-vitro left heart simulator with an adjustable annulus that could be changed from flat to different degrees of saddle. Miniature markers were placed on the atrial face of the posterior leaflet, and leaflet strains at 0%, 10%, and 20% saddle were measured using dual-camera stereophotogrammetry. Averaged areal strain and the principal strain components are reported. Results Peak areal strain magnitude decreased significantly from flat to 20% saddle annulus, with a 78% reduction in the measured strain over the entire P2 region. In the radial direction (annulus free edge), a 44.4% reduction in strain was measured, whereas in the circumferential direction (commissure-commissure), a 34% reduction was measured from flat to 20% saddle. Conclusions Nonplanar shape of the mitral annulus significantly reduced the mechanical strains on the posterior leaflet during systolic valve closure. Reduction in strain in both the radial and circumferential directions may reduce loading on the suture lines and potentially improve repair durability, and also inhibit progression of valve degeneration in patients with myxomatous valve disease.
Padala, Muralidhar; Hutchison, Ross A.; Croft, Laura R.; Jimenez, Jorge H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Sacks, Michael S.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
Proximal extension of acute type A aortic dissection can affect the aortic valve but seldom affects the tricuspid valve. We report the case of an octogenarian who underwent successful surgical repair of an aortic dissection that was accompanied by tricuspid regurgitation. We believe that the tricuspid regurgitation was attributable to displacement of the valve resulting from aortic dissection. PMID:24996748
Kurisu, Kazuhiro; Baba, Hironori; Nakashima, Hidehiko; Kajiwara, Takashi; Hisahara, Manabu; Joo, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Yoshie
Equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography was performed in 2 control groups (15 patients with no organic heart disease and 24 patients with organic heart disease but without right- or left-sided valvular regurgitation) and in 9 patients with clinical tricuspid regurgitation. The regurgitant index, or ratio of left to right ventricular stroke counts, was significantly lower in patients with tricuspid regurgitation than in either control group. Time-activity variation over the liver was used to compute a hepatic expansion fraction which was significantly higher in patients with tricuspid regurgitation than in either control group. Fourier analysis of time-activity variation in each pixel was used to generate amplitude and phase images. Only pixels with values for amplitude at least 7% of the maximum in the image were retained in the final display. All patients with tricuspid regurgitation had greater than 100 pixels over the liver automatically retained by the computer. These pixels were of phase comparable to that of the right atrium and approximately 180 degrees out of phase with the right ventricle. In contrast, no patient with no organic heart disease and only 1 of 24 patients with organic heart disease had any pixels retained by the computer. In conclusion, patients with tricuspid regurgitation were characterized on equilibrium gated angiography by an abnormally low regurgitant index (7 of 9 patients) reflecting increased right ventricular stroke volume, increased hepatic expansion fraction (7 of 9 patients), and increased amplitude of count variation over the liver in phase with the right atrium (9 of 9 patients).
Handler, B.; Pavel, D.G.; Pietras, R.; Swiryn, S.; Byrom, E.; Lam, W.; Rosen, K.M.
Eighty-two patients with mitral stenosis underwent cardiac catheterization with coronary angiography. Twenty-one patients (26 percent) had coronary artery disease. Characteristics of the mitral valve area, cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, and atypical chest pain did not correlate with findings of angina pectoris or of coronary artery disease; however, there was correlation with sex, age, and angina. Coronary artery disease occurred only after the age of 40 years and was more frequent in males with angina. Coronary artery disease could not be ruled out in patients with mitral stenosis, especially those over age 40, without coronary arteriography. PMID:7053940
Chun, P K; Gertz, E; Davia, J E; Cheitlin, M D
There is no gold standard for the measurement of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) severity. Two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography is most commonly used to quantify PR severity using color Doppler criteria for aortic regurgitation. However, this method is limited by visualization of only one or two dimensions of the proximal PR jet or vena contracta (VC) precluding accurate assessment of its shape or size. This limitation would be expected to be obviated by three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography, which could provide a more accurate quantitative assessment of PR severity. This study evaluated 82 adult patients with PR using 2D and 3D. PR VC area by 3D was obtained by planimetry by positioning the cropping plane exactly parallel to the VC, which was viewed en face by cropping of the 3D data set. Regurgitant volumes were calculated by 2D (assuming a circular VC) and by 3D as a product of the VC and velocity time integral obtained by color Doppler-guided conventional Doppler interrogation of the PR jet.The 3D VC area correlated with 2D jet width (JW)/right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) width (r = 0.71) and 2D VC area (r = 0.79). 3D JW/RVOT width correlated with 2D JW/RVOT (r = 0.87). 3D regurgitant volumes also correlated with 2D regurgitant volumes (r = 0.76). The 3D VC values of <0.20, 0.20-0.45, 0.46-1.15, and >1.15 cm(2) and regurgitant volumes of <15 ml, 15-50 ml, 51-115 ml, and >115 ml were effective as cutoffs for grades 1, 2, 3, and 4 PR, respectively. In conclusion, quantification of 3D VC area and regurgitant volumes correlate reasonably well with the current 2D methods for measurement of PR. Since 3D visualizes PR VC in three dimensions, it would be expected to provide a more accurate and more quantitative assessment of PR severity as compared to 2D. PMID:18986421
Pothineni, Koteswara R; Wells, Bryan J; Hsiung, Ming Chon; Nanda, Navin C; Yelamanchili, Pridhvi; Suwanjutah, Thouantosaporn; Prasad, A N Ravi; Hansalia, Sachin; Lin, Chang-Chyi; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Young, Mason-Shing
Uncomplicate regurgitation in otherwise healthy infants is not a disease. It consists of milk flow from mouth during or after feeding. Common causes include overfeeding, air swallowed during feeding, crying or coughing; physical exam is normal and weight gain is adequate. History and physical exam are diagnostic, and conservative therapy is recommended. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to infants with regurgitation and vomiting associated with poor weight gain, respiratory symptoms, esophagitis. Reflux episodes occur most often during transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter unaccompanied by swallowing, which permit gastric content to flow into the esophagus. A minor proportion of reflux episodes occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to increase pressure during a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure or when lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure is chronically reduced. Alterations in several protective mechanisms allow physiologic reflux to become gastroesophageal reflux disease; diagnostic approach is both clinical and instrumental: radiological series are useful to exclude anatomic abnormalities; pH-testing evaluates the quantity, frequency and duration of the acid reflux episodes; endoscopy and biopsy are performed in the case of esophagitis. Therapy with H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are suggested.
Mitral isthmus ablation forms part of the electrophysiologist’s armoury in the catheter ablation treatment of atrial fibrillation. It is well recognised however, that mitral isthmus ablation is technically challenging and incomplete ablation may be pro-arrhythmic, leading some to question its role. This article first reviews the evidence for the use of adjunctive mitral isthmus ablation and its association with the development of macroreentrant perimitral flutter. It then describes the practical techniques of mitral isthmus ablation, with particular emphasis on the assessment of bi-directional mitral isthmus block. The anatomy of the mitral isthmus is also discussed in order to understand the possible obstacles to successful ablation. Finally, novel techniques which may facilitate mitral isthmus ablation are reviewed.
Wong, Kelvin CK; Betts, Timothy R
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that color M-mode (CMM) images could be used to solve the Euler equation, yielding regional pressure gradients along the scanline, which could then be integrated to yield the unsteady Bernoulli equation and estimate noninvasively both the convective and inertial components of the transmitral pressure difference. BACKGROUND: Pulsed and continuous wave Doppler velocity measurements are routinely used clinically to assess severity of stenotic and regurgitant valves. However, only the convective component of the pressure gradient is measured, thereby neglecting the contribution of inertial forces, which may be significant, particularly for nonstenotic valves. Color M-mode provides a spatiotemporal representation of flow across the mitral valve. METHODS: In eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, high-fidelity left atrial and ventricular pressure measurements were obtained synchronously with transmitral CMM digital recordings. The instantaneous diastolic transmitral pressure difference was computed from the M-mode spatiotemporal velocity distribution using the unsteady flow form of the Bernoulli equation and was compared to the catheter measurements. RESULTS: From 56 beats in 16 hemodynamic stages, inclusion of the inertial term ([deltapI]max = 1.78+/-1.30 mm Hg) in the noninvasive pressure difference calculation significantly increased the temporal correlation with catheter-based measurement (r = 0.35+/-0.24 vs. 0.81+/-0.15, p< 0.0001). It also allowed an accurate approximation of the peak pressure difference ([deltapc+I]max = 0.95 [delta(p)cathh]max + 0.24, r = 0.96, p<0.001, error = 0.08+/-0.54 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Inertial forces are significant components of the maximal pressure drop across the normal mitral valve. These can be accurately estimated noninvasively using CMM recordings of transmitral flow, which should improve the understanding of diastolic filling and function of the heart.
Firstenberg, M. S.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.
Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS) model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV) loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.
Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to the deficient activity of ?-glucuronidase (GUSB) and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes and multisystemic disease with cardiovascular manifestations. The goal here was to determine the pathogenesis of mitral valve (MV) disease in MPS VII dogs. Untreated MPS VII dogs had a marked reduction in the histochemical signal for structurally-intact collagen in the MV at 6 months of age, when mitral regurgitation had developed. Electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils were of normal diameter, but failed to align into large parallel arrays. mRNA analysis demonstrated a modest reduction in the expression of genes that encode collagen or collagen-associated proteins such as the proteoglycan decorin which helps collagen fibrils assemble, and a marked increase for genes that encode proteases such as cathepsins. Indeed, enzyme activity for cathepsin B (CtsB) was 19-fold normal. MPS VII dogs that received neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector had an improved signal for structurally-intact collagen, and reduced CtsB activity relative to that seen in untreated MPS VII dogs. We conclude that MR in untreated MPS VII dogs was likely due to abnormalities in MV collagen structure. This could be due to upregulation of enzymes that degrade collagen or collagen-associated proteins, to the accumulation of GAGs that compete with proteoglycans such as decorin for binding to collagen, or to other causes. Further delineation of the etiology of abnormal collagen structure may lead to treatments that improve biomechanical properties of the MV and other tissues. PMID:23856419
Bigg, Paul W; Baldo, Guilherme; Sleeper, Meg M; O'Donnell, Patricia A; Bai, Hanqing; Rokkam, Venkata R P; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Giugliani, Roberto; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Ponder, Katherine P
Double orifice mitral valve is a rare congenital anomaly presenting as the division of the mitral orifice into two anatomically distinct orifices, it is most often associated with other congenital heart defects such as left-sided obstructive lesions, ventricular septal defects or aortic coarctation. We report the case of a 15 year’s old boy, admitted for arterial hypertension, auscultation revealed a rude aortic systolic murmur. Femoral pulses were weak. Owing to the suspicion of aortic coarctation, transthoracic echocardiography was performed, the aortic coarctation with dilation of the aorta proximal to the stenosis was confirmed and bicuspid aortic valve was found with good function. The mitral valve was dysmorphic, having two orifices; it was divided into 2 separate valve orifices by a fibrous bridge. No mitral or aortic regurgitation was documented by color Doppler flow imaging. The left ventricular ejection fraction was normal. There was a small peri membranous ventricular septal defect with left to right shunt. Owing to the severity of the aortic coarctation and taking into account the anatomy and characteristics of the patient, he was made a surgical correction of aortic coarctation with good outcome.
Double orifice mitral valve is a rare congenital anomaly presenting as the division of the mitral orifice into two anatomically distinct orifices, it is most often associated with other congenital heart defects such as left-sided obstructive lesions, ventricular septal defects or aortic coarctation. We report the case of a 15 year's old boy, admitted for arterial hypertension, auscultation revealed a rude aortic systolic murmur. Femoral pulses were weak. Owing to the suspicion of aortic coarctation, transthoracic echocardiography was performed, the aortic coarctation with dilation of the aorta proximal to the stenosis was confirmed and bicuspid aortic valve was found with good function. The mitral valve was dysmorphic, having two orifices; it was divided into 2 separate valve orifices by a fibrous bridge. No mitral or aortic regurgitation was documented by color Doppler flow imaging. The left ventricular ejection fraction was normal. There was a small peri membranous ventricular septal defect with left to right shunt. Owing to the severity of the aortic coarctation and taking into account the anatomy and characteristics of the patient, he was made a surgical correction of aortic coarctation with good outcome. PMID:24693935
Mouine, Najat; Amri, Rachida; Cherti, Mohamed
An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.
Katsetos, Manny C. [St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, University of Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship Program (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Toce, Dale T. [St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, University of Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, Department of Cardiovascular Disease (United States)
Background:?Increased sympathetic activity, commonly reported in mitral valve prolapse, indicates that the sympathetic nervous system might play an important role in regulating mitral interstitial cells. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the level and pattern of adrenergic receptors expressed in human mitral valve leaflets and to investigate the effect of norepinephrine on physiologic behaviors of mitral interstitial cells. Methods and Results:?Immunohistochemistry displayed significantly increased expressions of ?1, ?2, and ?1 adrenergic receptors in mitral valve prolapse. Norepinephrine was found to activate the phenotype of interstitial cells with increased ?-SMA expression (2.26 fold). In synthesis, norepinephrine downregulated levels of mRNA for type I to type III collagen in ratio, but increased the elastin gene transcription and glycosaminoglycan levels in valve interstitial cells greatly. In view of the extracellular matrix remodel, sympathetic effects presented catabolic metabolism displaying significantly increased expressions of total, secretory and active MMP-2 protein (matrix metalloproteinase-2), as well as MMP-9 protein. Diminished MMP inhibitor expression, TIMP2, also could reflect this effect in the norepinephrine medium. Conclusions:?A novel role for the sympathetic effect in influencing physiologic behaviors in mitral interstitial cells was identified. It is indicated that sympathetic activity could promote myxomatous degeneration in mitral valve prolapse, propagating the disease severity, which might identify potential therapeutic targets.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 1486-1493). PMID:24670922
Hu, Xiang; Wang, Hao-Zhe; Liu, Jun; Chen, An-Qin; Ye, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Qiang
There is a current trend to design innovative mitral valve replacements that mimic the native mitral valve (MV). A prerequisite for these new designs is the characterization of MV structure. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of MV collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) in MV anterior leaflets. Methods: Specimens from the mid-line of eight sheep MV anterior leaflets were
David W. Quick; Karyn S. Kunzelman; Richard P. Cochran
A precise pre-procedural evaluation of mitral valve (MV) pathology is essential for planning the surgical strategy for severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and preparing for the intraoperative procedure. In the present case, a 38-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo MV replacement due to severe MR. She had a history of undergoing percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty due to rheumatic mitral stenosis during a previous pregnancy. A preoperative transthoracic echocardiography suggested a tear in the mid tip of the anterior mitral leaflet. However, the "en face" view of the MV in the left atrial perspective using intraoperative real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D-TEE) provided a different diagnosis: a torn cleft in the P2-scallop of the posterior mitral leaflet (PML) with rupture of the chordae. Thus, surgical planning was changed intraoperatively to MV repair (MVRep) consisting of patch closure of the PML, commissurotomy, and lifting annuloplasty. The present case shows that intraoperative RT 3D-TEE provides more precise and reliable spatial information of MV for MVRep and facilitates critical surgical decision-making. PMID:24567819
Jung, Hyun Ju; Yu, Ga-Yon; Seok, Jung-Ho; Oh, Chungsik; Kim, Seong-Hyop; Yoon, Tae-Gyoon; Kim, Tae-Yop
Limited knowledge exists regarding the forces which act on devices implanted to the heart’s mitral valve. Developing a transducer to measure the peak force magnitudes, time rates of change, and relationship with left ventricular pressure will aid in device development. A novel force transducer was developed and implanted in the mitral valve annulus of an ovine subject. In the post-cardioplegic heart, septal-lateral and transverse forces were continuously measured for cardiac cycles reaching a peak left ventricular pressure of 90 mmHg. Each force was seen to increase from ventricular diastole and found to peak at mid-systole. The mean change in septal-lateral and transverse forces throughout the cardiac cycle was 4.4 ± 0.2 N and 1.9 ± 0.1 N respectively. During isovolumetric contraction, the septal-lateral and transverse forces were found to increase at peak rate of 143 ± 8 N/s and 34 ± 9 N/s, respectively. Combined, this study provides the first quantitative assessment of septal-lateral and transverse forces within the contractile mitral annulus. The developed transducer was successful in measuring these forces whose methods may be extended to future studies. Upon additional investigation, these data may contribute to the safer development and evaluation of devices aimed to repair or replace mitral valve function.
Siefert, Andrew W.; Jimenez, Jorge H.; West, Dustin S.; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
Background. Left ventricular assist devices have been reported previously to reverse ventricular remodeling in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In patients with prolonged mechanical support, structural failure of the left ventricular assist device inflow valve can cause regurgitation into the left ventricle, which may affect adversely this process.Methods. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure–volume relation of hearts explanted from 8 patients with left
Nader Moazami; Michael Argenziano; Takushi Kohomoto; Shahram Yazdani; Eric A Rose; Daniel Burkhoff; Mehmet C Oz
Sixty-four patients with pure mitral insufficiency were operated upon. Thirty of them had torn chordae tendineae. It was possible to repair the mitral valve in 57 patients and there were five operative deaths. One patient had a femoral artery embolus and another had a cerebral embolus. The incidence of peripheral embolization was 4 per cent compared with 40 per cent reported for ball valve replacement. Forty-eight of the 57 patients with repair (84 per cent) were living and well with at most a grade II/VI apical systolic murmur up to seven and a half years after operation. There has been no evidence of recurrence in these patients. In approximately 90 per cent of patients with pure mitral insufficiency, repair should be performed. When feasible, repair is more satisfactory than valvular replacement, with not only excellent long-term results, but far less morbidity than is reported with ball valve replacement. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.
Kay, Jerome Harold; Tsuji, Harold K.; Redington, John V.; Yokoyama, Taro
Double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is an uncommon congenital anomaly, being present in 0.05% of the general population. The isolated occurrence of this anomaly is very rare and, to our knowledge, no data are currently available on the incidence of an isolated DOMV. A DOMV is characterized by a mitral valve with a single fibrous annulus with 2 orifices opening into the left ventricle (LV). Subvalvular structures, especially the tensor apparatus, invariably show various degrees of abnormality. It can substantially obstruct mitral valve inflow or cause mitral valve incompetence. We present a rare case of nineteen-year-old male who underwent percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy in stenotic DOMV.
Patted, Suresh V.; Halkati, Prabhu C.; Ambar, Sameer S.; Sattur, Ameet G.
Heart rate variability (HRV) and echocardiography were performed in 14 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) before and after 14 days of 0.5mg/kg/day of enalapril treatment. All dogs were in heart failure stages B1 and B2. After enalapril treatment, left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left ventricular end diastolic diameter normalized for body weight (LVEDdN) and percent mitral regurgitant jet decreased (P<0.05). The diastolic blood pressure decreased (P<0.05). Increased time domain parameters of HRV were found. For frequency domain analysis, the total frequency (TF) increased significantly (P<0.05). The normalized low frequency (LF norm) decreased while normalized high frequency (HF norm) increased causing significant reduction in LF/HF (P<0.05). Before enalapril treatment, LF was correlated with end diastolic volume (EDV) (P<0.01) and LVEDd (P<0.05). In conclusion, MR dogs receiving enalapril treatment for 14 days had increased cardiac parasympathetic tone while sympathetic tone was suppressed. The decreased sympathetic activity corresponded to the reduction in cardiac preload and afterload. PMID:24559801
Chompoosan, Chayanon; Buranakarl, Chollada; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Chansaisakorn, Winai
Background. This study analyzes a single institutional experience with minimally invasive mitral valve operations of 6 years, reviewing short-term morbidity and mortality and long-term echocardiographic follow-up data.Methods. Seven hundred fourteen consecutive patients had minimally invasive mitral valve procedures between November 1995 and November 2001; concomitant procedures included 91 multiple valves and 18 coronary artery bypass grafts. Of these 714 patients,
Eugene A Grossi; Aubrey C Galloway; Angelo LaPietra; Greg H Ribakove; Patricia Ursomanno; Julie Delianides; Alfred T Culliford; Costas Bizekis; Rick A Esposito; F. Gregory Baumann; Marc S Kanchuger; Stephen B Colvin
Background The effect of mitral leaflet curvature on stress reduction is an important mechanism in optimizing valve function. We hypothesize that annuloplasty ring shape could directly influence leaflet curvature and, potentially, repair durability. We describe an echocardiographically based methodology for quantifying mitral valve geometry and its application to the characterization of ovine mitral valve geometry before and after implantation of an annuloplasty ring. Methods Multiple mitral annular and leaflet geometric variables were calculated for 8 naïve adult male sheep using real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic images. These indexes were recalculated after annuloplasty using a 30-mm Carpentier-Edward Physio ring (n = 4; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) or a 30-mm saddle ring (n = 4). Results After implantation of the Physio ring, the annular height to commissural width ratio (AHCWR) decreased from 19.4% ± 2.3% to 11.1% ± 2.5% (p = 0.06). After implantation of the saddle ring, AHCWR increased from 19.6% ± 1.3% to 24.3% ± 1.3% (p < 0.05). Statistically significant increases in three-dimensional Gaussian curvature occurred after implantation within six defined leaflet regions (A1 to A3, P1 to P3) of the saddle ring but only within the P1 and P3 leaflet regions with the Physio ring. Conclusions Annuloplasty ring shape affects leaflet curvature. Implantation of a saddle ring reflecting normal human annular geometry augmented ovine annular non-planarity and increased three-dimensional leaflet curvature across the entire mitral valve surface. The Physio ring decreased annular nonplanarity and increased leaflet curvature only across limited regions of the posterior leaflet. These findings confirm the hypothesis that ring design influences leaflet curvature.
Ryan, Liam P.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Hamamoto, Hirotsuga; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; St. John-Sutton, Martin; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.
Mitral valve reconstruction is a widespread surgical method to repair incompetent mitral valves. During reconstructive surgery the judgement of mitral valve geometry and subvalvular apparatus is mandatory in order to choose for the appropriate repair strategy. To date, intraoperative analysis of mitral valve is merely based on visual assessment and inaccurate sizer devices, which do not allow for any accurate and standardized measurement of the complex three-dimensional anatomy. We propose a new intraoperative computer-assisted method for mitral valve measurements using a pointing instrument together with an optical tracking system. Sixteen anatomical points were defined on the mitral apparatus. The feasibility and the reproducibility of the measurements have been tested on a rapid prototyping (RP) heart model and a freshly exercised porcine heart. Four heart surgeons repeated the measurements three times on each heart. Morphologically important distances between the measured points are calculated. We achieved an interexpert variability mean of 2.28 +/- 1:13 mm for the 3D-printed heart and 2.45 +/- 0:75 mm for the porcine heart. The overall time to perform a complete measurement is 1-2 minutes, which makes the method viable for virtual annuloplasty during an intervention.
Engelhardt, Sandy; De Simone, Raffaele; Wald, Diana; Zimmermann, Norbert; Al Maisary, Sameer; Beller, Carsten J.; Karck, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo
Severe haemolytic anaemia is a rare complication of prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT). Emergent surgical replacement of the affected valve is normally the treatment of choice unless contraindicated, such as in high surgical risk patients. Systemic thrombolysis is the alternative to surgical valve replacement. The purpose of this report is to highlight the unique case of an elderly man with New York Heart Association class IV heart failure, history of extensive cardiopulmonary surgeries and haemorrhagic stroke, who presented with severe haemolytic anaemia secondary to prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis. After weighing the risks and benefits, our decision was to use systemic thrombolytic therapy, even in light of the patient's previous intracranial haemorrhage. Pretreatment and post-treatment Doppler echocardiography showed markedly reduced regurgitant jetting that ultimately resolved completely, thereby eliminating the underlying cause of haemolysis and achieving symptom resolution. PMID:24879723
Beckord, Brian; Berkowitz, Robert; Espinoza, Cholene; Anand, Neil
A case of parachute deformity of the mitral valve, a rare congenital form of mitral stenosis characterized by insertion of the chordae tendineae into a single posterior papillary muscle, is described in an 11-year-old girl. The eleven other cases in the English literature are reviewed. Images
Bett, J. H. N.; Stovin, P. G. I.
This study investigates the transient regurgitant flow downstream of a prosthetic heart valve using both laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Until now, LDV has been the more commonly used tool in investigating the flow characteristics associated with mechanical heart valves. The LDV technique allows point-by-point velocity measurements and provides enough information about the temporal variations in the flow. The main drawback of this technique is the time consuming nature of the data acquisition process in order to assess an entire flow field area. The PIV technique, on the other hand, allows measurement of the entire flow field in space in a plane at a given instant. In this study, PIV with spatial resolution of 0 (1 mm) and LDV with a temporal resolution of 0 (1 ms) were used to measure the regurgitant flow proximal to the Björk-Shiley monostrut (BSM) valve in the mitral position. With PIV, the ability to measure 2 velocity components over an entire plane simultaneously provides a very different insight into the flow field compared to a more traditional point-to-point technique like LDV. In this study, a picture of the effects of occluder motion on the fluid flow in the atrial chamber is interpreted using an integration of PIV and LDV measurements. Specifically, fluid velocities in excess of 3.0 m/s were recorded in the pressure-driven jet during valve closure, and a 1.5 m/s sustained regurgitant jet was observed on the minor orifice side. Additionally, the effects of the impact and subsequent rebound of the occluder on the flow also were clearly recorded in spatial and temporal detail by the PIV and LDV measurements, respectively. The PIV results provide a visually intuitive way of interpreting the flow while the LDV data explore the temporal variations and trends in detail. This analysis is an integrated flow description of the effects of valve closure and leakage on the pulsatile regurgitation flow field past a tilting-disc mechanical heart valve (MHV). It further reinforces the hypothesis that the planar flow visualization techniques, when integrated with traditional point-to point techniques, provide significantly more insight into the complex pulsatile flow past MHVs. PMID:11251479
Kini, V; Bachmann, C; Fontaine, A; Deutsch, S; Tarbell, J M
Three patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis were treated with percutaneous mitral valvotomy. A Brockenbrough catheter was advanced transseptally into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle over a long guide wire. An angle wire loop retriever was advanced through a 10 Fr straight catheter via the femoral artery into the left ventricle. The retriever was used to catch the flexible end of the long guide wire. This end of the long guide wire was then drawn out of the right femoral artery by the retriever through the straight catheter. The straight catheter was left in the descending aorta; the Brockenbrough catheter was removed and a 7 Fr balloon catheter was introduced percutaneously over the long guide wire through the femoral vein. This balloon catheter was used for interatrial septal dilatation and right femoral venous dilatation. In two patients this catheter was replaced over the long guide wire with a 9 Fr Schneider-Medintag Grüntzig catheter (3 X 12 mm diameter when inflated) and in the other by a Mansfield (18 mm diameter when inflated). The procedure was well tolerated in these three patients and there were no complications. Haemodynamic function improved, there was appreciable decrease in dyspnoea, and exercise tolerance was increased. This procedure has several advantages: the balloon is more easily positioned through the mitral valve; the stability of the balloon during inflation is improved by traction at both ends of the long guide wire; and there is the option of rapidly exchanging one balloon for a larger one over the long guide wire. This technique seems to be less arrhythmogenic and results in less blood loss because manual compression of the femoral vessels after the procedure is easier. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5
Commeau, P; Grollier, G; Huret, B; Foucault, J P; Potier, J C
Background Patients with mitral restenosis who have undergone prior PTMC or surgical commissurotomy have increased. Predictors of outcome of repeat PTMC in either subgroup of patients may be different. Aims and objectives Aim was to assess and compare the immediate results of PTMC in patients who had undergone a prior PTMC or surgical commissurotomy. Methods and results This is a single center, prospective, open label study. Of 70 patients in study, 44 (62.85%) patients had prior history of PTMC and 26 (37.15%) had prior surgical commissurotomy (closed/open). Average time from the initial procedure was 8.88 ± 5.36 years overall, 6.75 ± 3.38 for patients with prior PTMC and 16.73 ± 3.67 for patients with prior surgical commissurotomy. Prior PTMC group had 75% female, patients with prior surgical commissurotomy were older (44 ± 7 vs 33.57 ± 9.1 years, p = 0.001), had higher NYHA class (III/IV in100% vs 86.36%, p = 0.006.), higher atrial fibrillation (73.1% vs 25% p < 0.0001) and higher Wilkins' score (>8 in 88.46% vs 68.18%, p = 0.05). Successful PTMC was lower (65.4% vs 84.1%) in patients with prior surgical commissurotomy, though statistically not significant (p = 0.07). After PTMC, mitral valve area, PA systolic pressure, LA mean pressure and trans-mitral gradient were similar. Post procedure complications were not different in both the groups. Conclusion PTMC for mitral restenosis in patients with prior surgical valvotomy is as effective as in patients with prior PTMC despite older age, higher NYHA class, higher Wilkins score and atrial fibrillation and can be considered in all patients with restenosis irrespective of the type of past procedures done.
Sharma, Kamal H.; Jain, Sharad; Shukla, Anand; Bohora, Shomu; Roy, Bhavesh; Gandhi, Gaurav D.; Ashwal, A.J.
A test rig has been developed to investigate the function of prosthetic heart valves under pulsatile flow conditions. The rig uses a servo-controlled pump to produce a physiological flow waveform through the valve. The pressure difference across the valve and flow through the valves are measured to assess the valve function. The mean pressure difference, root mean square (RMS) forward flow and regurgitant volumes are calculated on a computer. In the initial study, seven popular mechanical prostheses (sizes 29 and 27 mm) were evaluated in the mitral position under five different flow conditions. The mean pressure difference was dependent on the position of the downstream pressure tapping, the orientation of the valve and the time interval used to average the signals. The orientation of some valves also affected the regurgitant volumes. These variations (10-25%) were similar in size to the differences measured between individual valves. Test conditions have to be specified very carefully for accurate comparison of valve function to be made. PMID:2937603
Fisher, J; Jack, G R; Wheatley, D J
Background. Tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is common. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of TR after OHT, to examine the correlation between its development and various variables, and to determine its outcomes. Methods. All 163?OHT patients who were followed up between 1988 and 2009 for a minimal period of 12 months were divided into those with no TR/mild TR and those with at least mild-moderate TR, as assessed by doppler echocardiography. These groups were compared regarding preoperative hemodynamic variables, surgical technique employed, number of endomyocardial biopsies, number of acute cellular rejections, incidence of graft vasculopathy, and clinical outcomes. Results. At the end of the followup (average 8.2 years) significant TR was evident in 14.1% of the patients. The development of late TR was found by univariate, but not multivariate, analysis to be significantly correlated with the biatrial surgical technique (P < 0.01) and the presence of graft vasculopathy (P < 0.001). TR development was found to be correlated with the need for tricuspid valve surgery but not with an increased mortality. Conclusions. The development of TR after OHT may be related to the biatrial anastomosis technique and to graft vasculopathy.
Berger, Yaniv; Har Zahav, Yedael; Kassif, Yigal; Kogan, Alexander; Kuperstein, Rafael; Freimark, Dov; Lavee, Jacob
To assess the accuracy of echocardiography in determining the cause of aortic regurgitation M mode and cross sectional echocardiography were compared with angiography in 43 patients with predominant aortic regurgitation. Each patient had all three investigations performed during the same admission to hospital. In each instance, the cause of aortic regurgitation was confirmed at surgery or necropsy. Seventeen patients had rheumatic aortic valve disease, 13 bacterial endocarditis with a perforated or partially destroyed cusp, five a bicuspid aortic valve (four with a history of endocarditis), and eight aortic regurgitation secondary to aortic root dilatation or aneurysm. Overall sensitivity of echocardiography and aortography was 84% in determining the cause of aortic regurgitation. Thus, rheumatic valve disease and endocarditis appear to be the most common causes of severe aortic regurgitation in this hospital based population. Furthermore, echocardiography is a sensitive non-invasive technique for determining the cause of aortic regurgitation and allows differentiation of valvular from root causes of aortic regurgitation. Images
DePace, N L; Nestico, P F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Goel, I P; Glazier-Laskey, E E; Ross, J
Mitral valve (MV) edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a surgical procedure for the correction of mitral valve regurgitation by suturing the free edge of the leaflets. The leaflets are often sutured at three different positions: central, lateral and commissural portions. To study the effects of position of suture on left ventricular (LV) fluid mechanics under mitral valve ETER, a parametric model of MV-LV system during diastole was developed. The distribution and development of vortex and atrio-ventricular pressure under different suture position were investigated. Results show that the MV sutured at central and lateral in ETER creates two vortex rings around two jets, compared with single vortex ring around one jet of the MV sutured at commissure. Smaller total orifices lead to a higher pressure difference across the atrio-ventricular leaflets in diastole. The central suture generates smaller wall shear stresses than the lateral suture, while the commissural suture generated the minimum wall shear stresses in ETER. PMID:24211894
Du, Dongxing; Jiang, Song; Wang, Ze; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming
We report a case of acute thrombosis of bioprosthetic mitral valve in a 59 year–old Korean female, who underwent a mitral valve replacement with a 25 mm Carpentier - Edwards PERIMOUNT Plus bioprosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Inc.; Irvine, CA, USA) and a mini-Maze procedure for correction of mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF). On the 10th postoperative day, the patient began to complain of increasing dyspnea and general malaise. Her symptoms worsened and developed into pulmonary edema. Echocardiography revealed a mean diastolic pressure gradient (MDPG) of 10 mmHg across the mitral valve and pressure-half time (PHT) of 166 msec. Due to progressive decompensated heart failure, the patient underwent a repeat sternotomy to replace the bioprosthetic mitral valve. Intraoperatively, we found a thrombosis around the bioprosthetic mitral valve. We excised the bioprosthetic mitral valve and replaced it with a 27 mm ATS mechanical valve (ATS medical, Inc.; Minneapolis, MN, USA). We experienced a rare case that required an early reoperation for a thrombosis of the bioprosthetic valve.
Cardiac injury after blunt trauma is common but underreported. Common cardiac trauma after the blunt chest injury (BCI) is cardiac contusion; it is very rare to have cardiac valve injury. The mitral valve injury during chest trauma occurs when extreme pressure is applied at early systole during the isovolumic contraction between the closure of the mitral valve and the opening of the aortic valve. Traumatic mitral valve injury can involve valve leaflet, chordae tendineae, or papillary muscles. For the diagnosis of mitral valve injury, a high index of suspicion is required, as in polytrauma patients, other obvious severe injuries will divert the attention of the treating physician. Clinical picture of patients with mitral valve injury may vary from none to cardiogenic shock. The echocardiogram is the main diagnostic modality of mitral valve injuries. Patient's clinical condition will dictate the timing and type of surgery or medical therapy. We report a case of mitral valve and pericardial injury in a polytrauma patient, successfully treated in our intensive care unit.
Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunissa, Firdous; Abdel Sattar, Mohamed
Starr-Edwards ball valves removed more than 15 years after implantation were retrospectively investigated macroscopically. Eight patients required re-operation. Valve models used in the initial operations were a non-cloth-covered valve in 2 patients and a cloth-covered valve in 6. Two patients had replacement of an aortic ball valve (model 1260 and model 2320) and 6 underwent mitral valve replacement (model 6120 in one, model 6320 in 5). The mean time to re-operation was 23.0 +/- 4.8 years after implantation. Cloth wear causing significant hemolysis was observed in all cloth-covered valves, regardless of valve position. Autologous tissue growth was noted on the orifice ring and struts in both aortic and mitral prostheses. Thrombus formation was not found in any of the valves. Ball variance in silicone rubber balls was mild in the non-cloth-covered valves, even in the aortic position. The most significant problem with the cloth-covered ball valve was cloth wear. Cloth wear should always be considered when 15 years or more have passed since valve implantation. Significant hemolysis, elevation of lactate dehydrogenase values, and echocardiographic detection of transvalvular regurgitation are diagnostic of cloth wear, and are indications for replacement of a cloth-covered ball valve. PMID:17130320
Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Arinaga, Koichi; Yokokura, Yoshinori; Yokokura, Hiroko; Egawa, Noriko
Biologic valves can sometimes have a small closure or leakage backflow jet originating from the central coaptation point. This is physiologic regurgitation that usually only requires monitoring, and not treatment. Another non-central transvalvular leakage is occasionally seen in both porcine and pericardial valves and originates from the base of the stent post. Typically, it spontaneously decreases or even disappears by the end of the surgery, after administration of protamine. This leak, however, needs to be distinguished from abnormal paravalvular leakages, especially if the regurgitation is relatively large, as this may require an extra cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) run. In our case with stented bovine pericardial valves, detailed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination immediately after CPB showed oblique and turbulent flow, which originated from the base of the stent post and flowed toward the anterior mitral leaflet. An extra CPB run, assessment of the cause of the leakage, and restoration if necessary, might have been required if the leakage did not improve or was exacerbated, because contact of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the oblique flow is associated with the risks of infective endocarditis and hemolysis. Detailed TEE examination accurately delineated the site of the leak, which was subsequently found to originate from the site between the anterior stent post and the sewing ring. The leakage in this case was classified as non-paravalvular, non-central leakage within the sewing ring. Accurate diagnosis of the leakage by intra-operative TEE led to the decision to administer protamine and to adopt a wait-and-watch approach.
A disc valve of new design was used successfully for the replacement of the mitral valve in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease. This valve would appear to have the following advantages over the mitral ball valve prosthesis: • Lower left atrial pressure after replacement. • Elimination of the hazard of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with mitral valve replacement. • Decreased incidence of thromboembolization. • Abolition of possibility of ventricular septal irritation. Despite the better outlook for this valve compared with the ball valve for mitral valve substitution, the mitral valve should always be repaired whenever feasible. Repair is possible in the majority of patients. ImagesFigure 1.
Kay, Jerome Harold; Tsuji, Harold K.; Redington, John V.; Kawashima, Yasunaru; Kagawa, Yuzuru; Yamada, Takashi; Caponegro, Peter; Mendez, Adolfo
Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well.
Kim, Darae; Hun, Sin Sang; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik; Ju, Hyun Chul; Sohn, Jang Won
Mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation (MR) is currently recommended based on the degree of MR and left ventricular (LV) function. The present study examines predictors of reverse remodeling after repair for degenerative disease. We retrospectively identified 439 patients who underwent repair for myxomatous mitral valve degeneration and had both pre- and postoperative echocardiographic data available. Patients were categorized based on left atrial (LA) diameter and LV diameter standards of the American Society of Echocardiography. The outcome of interest was the degree of reverse remodeling on all heart dimensions at follow-up. Mean age was 57 ± 12 years, and 37% of patients were women. Mean preoperative LV end-diastolic diameter was 5.8 ± 0.7 cm, LV end-systolic diameter 3.5 ± 0.6 cm, LA 4.7 ± 0.7 cm, and median ejection fraction 60%. Median observation time was 81 months, and time to postoperative echocardiography was 38 months. Overall, 95% of patients had normal LV diastolic dimensions postoperatively, 93% normal LV systolic dimensions, and 37% normal LA dimensions. A Cox regression analysis showed that moderate (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 3.4) or severe preoperative LA dilatation (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.4), abnormal preoperative LV end-systolic dimensions (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), and age in years (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03) were predictive of less reverse remodeling on follow-up. In conclusion, preoperative LV end-systolic dimensions and LA dilatation substantially affect the likelihood of successful LA remodeling and normalization of all heart dimensions after mitral valve repair for MR. These findings support early operation for MR before the increase in heart dimensions is nonreversible. PMID:24444780
Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V; McGurk, Siobhan; Khalpey, Zain; Rawn, James D; Schmitto, Jan D; Wollersheim, Laurens W; Maloney, Ann M; Cohn, Lawrence H
Subvalvular apparatus preservation is an important concept in mitral valve replacement (MVR) surgery that is performed to remedy mitral regurgitation. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of papillary muscle repositioning (PMR) on clinical outcomes and echocardiographic left ventricular function in rheumatic mitral stenosis patients who had normal left ventricular systolic function. We prospectively assigned 115 patients who were scheduled for MVR surgery with mechanical prosthesis to either PMR or MVR-only groups. Functional class and echocardiographic variables were evaluated at baseline and at early and late postoperative follow-up examinations. All values were compared between the 2 groups. The PMR group consisted of 48 patients and the MVR-only group of 67 patients. The 2 groups' baseline characteristics and surgery-related factors (including perioperative mortality) were similar. During the 18-month follow-up, all echocardiographic variables showed a consistent improvement in the PMR group; the mean left ventricular ejection fraction deteriorated significantly in the MVR-only group. Comparison during follow-up of the magnitude of longitudinal changes revealed that decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and in left ventricular sphericity indices, and increases in left ventricular ejection fractions, were significantly higher in the PMR group than in the MVR-only group. This study suggests that, in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and preserved left ventricular systolic function, the addition of papillary muscle repositioning to valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis improves left ventricular dimensions, ejection fraction, and sphericity index at the 18-month follow-up with no substantial undesirable effect on the surgery-related factors. PMID:24512397
Lafci, Gokhan; Cagli, Kerim; Cicek, Omer Faruk; Korkmaz, Kemal; Turak, Osman; Uzun, Alper; Yalcinkaya, Adnan; Diken, Adem; Gunertem, Eren; Cagli, Kumral
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is common after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has been applied recently for evaluation of LA function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether left atrial longitudinal strain measured by STE is a predictor for the development of POAF following mitral valve surgery for severe mitral regurgitation. We studied 53 patients undergoing mitral valve surgery in sinus rhythm at the time of surgery. Echocardiography with evaluation of LA strain by STE was performed. Detection of POAF was based on documentation of AF episodes by continuous telemetry throughout hospitalization. Patients who did not develop POAF were taken as group 1 and those who had POAF constituted group 2. The echocardiographic and clinical predictors of POAF were investigated. POAF occurred in 28.3% of subjects. Mean age, LAVi and BNP were found higher in group 2 while peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) (13.9 ± 3.8% vs. 24.8 ± 7.3%; P < 0.001), peak atrial contraction strain (PACS) (7.6 ± 1.95% vs. 11.3 ± 3.5%; P < 0.001) were significantly lower. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, PALS and LAVi were independent predictor of POAF development. LA longitudinal strain was found to predict POAF in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. It could be used to better identify patients at greater risk of developing POAF, and thus to guide in risk stratification and to take appropriate intensive prophylactic therapy. PMID:23600893
Candan, Ozkan; Ozdemir, Nihal; Aung, Soe Moe; Dogan, Cem; Karabay, Can Yucel; Gecmen, Cetin; Omaygenç, Onur; Güler, Ahmet
We evaluated the long-term outcome of mitral valve replacement with a Harken caged-disc prosthesis for up to 11 years (range, 50 to 130 months; mean, 81 months) in 170 patients whose mean age was 55 years. The early (30-day) mortality was 11.2% (19 out of 170 patients). Late follow-up information was obtained for 144 (95%) of the 151 survivors. The actuarial survival was 57% at 5 years and 40% at 10 years. Overall mortality was associated with advanced age, male sex, an ischemic origin for the mitral valve disease, and nonuse of warfarin anticoagulation. Late deaths (n=59) were valve-related in 46%, cardiac but non-valve-related in 44%, and noncardiac in 10% of the cases. One thromboembolic event or more occurred in 41 patients (incidence, 5.7% per patient year), 14 of whom died (24% of the late deaths). All four patients who were not on warfarin, aspirin, or other antithrombotic therapy experienced thromboemboli. This complication was correlated with the nonuse of warfarin-type anticoagulation, with mitral regurgitation, and with late cardiac death. Mechanical prosthetic failure resulted in reoperation or death in 7.6% of the late survivors (1.5% per patient year). In 75 patients with normally functioning prostheses, the disc-to-sewing ring ratio was established by means of cinefluoroscopy (0.93 ± 0.04, mean ± 25D). Because of the high proportion of cardiac valve-related deaths (46%), the high incidence of late mortality due to thromboembolic events (24%), and the 7.6% incidence of reoperation or death resulting from mechanical valve failure, close follow-up with cinefluoroscopy and continued warfarin anticoagulation (alone or in combination with dipyridamole) are essential after mitral valve replacement with the Harken caged-disc prosthesis. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:411-417) Images
Gray, Richard J.; Czer, Lawrence S.C.; Chaux, Aurelio; Sethna, Dhun; Derobertis, Michele; Raymond, Marjorie; Matloff, Jack M.
Aim: Long standing mitral valve disease is usually associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Perioperative pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for right ventricular (RV) failure and a cause for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor-sildenafil citrate is widely used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension. There is a lack of evidence of effects of oral sildenafil on secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral valve disease. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary hypertension and incidence of RV failure in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients scheduled for mitral valve replacement with severe pulmonary hypertension (RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ?60 mmHg) on preoperative transthoracic echo were randomly treated with oral sildenafil 25 mg (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20) eight hourly for 24 h before surgery. Hemodynamic variables were measured 20 min after insertion of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) under anesthesia (T1), 20 min at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T2) and after 1,2, and 6 h (T3, T4, T5, respectively) during the postoperative period. Results: Systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in sildenafil group at all times. Ventilation time and postoperative recovery room stay were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil produces significant pulmonary vasodilatory effect as compared with placebo in mitral valve replacement patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. It also reduces ventilation time and intensive care unit (ICU) stay time as compared with placebo. It is concluded that sildenafil is effective in reducing pulmonary hypertension when administered preoperatively in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery.
Gandhi, Hemang; Shah, Bipin; Patel, Ramesh; Toshani, Rajesh; Pujara, Jigisha; Kothari, Jignesh; Shastri, Naman
We report a case of mitral valve replacement in a patient who had previously undergone transcatheter aortic valve implantation. A transseptal approach was used to avoid displacing the aortic prosthesis. Because of the small mitral annulus, a bioprosthetic aortic valve was used in reverse position for mitral valve replacement. The procedure did not interfere with the existing prosthesis, and a follow-up echocardiogram showed that both prosthetic valves were functioning well. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mitral valve replacement in a patient who had a preceding transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We believe that the transseptal approach is promising for mitral valve replacement in such patients. Moreover, using a bioprosthetic aortic valve in reverse position is an option for mitral valve replacement when the mitral annulus is too small for placement of a standard bioprosthetic mitral valve.
Flannery, Laura D.; Lowery, Robert C.; Sun, Xiumei; Satler, Lowell; Corso, Paul; Pichard, Augusto; Wang, Zuyue
Following an episode of rheumatic carditis, severe mitral incompetence developed in a 9-year-old girl. A mitral annuloplasty succeeded for a short time in ameliorating her symptoms of cardiac failure. However, mitral incompetence recurred and was accompanied by severe anemia and hemosiderinuria. Distortion of erythrocytes was evident on a peripheral blood smear. A second mitral annuloplasty resulted in resolution of the hemolytic anemia. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2
O'Regan, S.; Newman, A. J.
Thirty-five consecutives patients with classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis underwent echocardiography to evaluate the motion of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Adequate echocardiograms were obtained in 31 patients. All 31 patients showed normal valve motion and a normal EF slope. If meticulous technique was not observed, a falsely low value for the EF slope was obtained and a normal slope was found when the method was improved. This study shows that echocardiographic abnormalities of the anterior mitral valve leaflet rarely, if ever, occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, provided that careful attention to recording method is observed. PMID:1166980
Davia, J E; Cheitlin, M D; de Castro, C M; Lawless, O; Niemi, L
Background Mitral valve stenosis is a common manifestation of chronic rheumatic heart disease. The presence of spontaneous echo contrast in the left atrium and left atrial appendage has been reported to be an independent predictor of thrombo-embolic risk in patients with mitral stenosis. The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate various clinical and echocardiographic variables to predict the spontaneous echo contrast in these patients. Methodology This is a bicentric retrospective study which includes 159 cases of symptomatic mitral stenosis from January 2011 to June 2012. All of the patients had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Patients who had significant mitral regurgitation (> Grade I), significant aortic valve disease, previous mitral valvulotomy and anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy were excluded from the study. Our study population was divided into two groups based on the presence (Group I) or absence (Group II) of spontaneous echo contrast. Result Left atrial spontaneous contrast was present in 34.6% of cases. Patients in this group have more frequent atrial fibrillation (P = 0.001), larger left atrial area (P = 0.027) and diameter (P=0.023), smaller mitral valve area (P = 0.025), and higher mean transmitral diastolic gradient (p = 0.003) as compared to patients without spontaneous echo contrast. There were no significant differences in the mean age (p = 0.38), duration of symptoms (p = 0.4) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.7) between patients with and without spontaneous echo contrast. On multivariate analysis, only mitral valve area and transmitral diastolic gradient (OR: 18.753, 1.21, CI [1,838-191,332], [1,064-1,376], p: 0.013, 0.004, respectively) were found to be independently associated to the presence of spontaneous echo contrast. Conclusion Patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm have a higher risk of developing spontaneous echo contrast. These patients might benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. The long-term outcomes can be ascertained in a study over a longer period and with periodic follow-up.
Terminal warm blood cardioplegia has had a profound impact on cardiac surgery, especially in coronary artery bypass surgery, but there have been few studies on its use in mitral valve replacement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether terminal warm blood cardioplegia offers any advantages in mitral valve replacement. Forty patients with mitral valve disease were prospectively randomized
Chareonkiat Rergkliang; Apirak Chetpaophan; Voravit Chittithavorn; Prasert Vasinanukorn; Vorapong Chowchuvech
Prosthetic valve thrombosis is a rare but dreaded complication of mechanical heart valves. In this clinical picture, we present an elderly female who developed mechanical mitral valve thrombosis several years after mitral valve replacement. We have provided fluoroscopy as well as intraoperative images of mitral valve thrombosis and have briefly discussed the diagnosis, and management of this complication. PMID:24748585
Hussain, Nasir; Rehman, Atiq; Cheema, Faisal H
Background The Pediatric Heart Network is conducting a large international randomized trial to compare aortic root growth and other cardiovascular outcomes in 608 subjects with Marfan syndrome randomized to receive atenolol or losartan for 3 years. The authors report here the echocardiographic methods and baseline echocardiographic characteristics of the randomized subjects, describe the interobserver agreement of aortic measurements, and identify factors influencing agreement. Methods Individuals aged 6 months to 25 years who met the original Ghent criteria and had body surface area–adjusted maximum aortic root diameter (ROOTmax) Z scores > 3 were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measure for the trial is the change over time in ROOTmax Z score. A detailed echocardiographic protocol was established and implemented across 22 centers, with an extensive training and quality review process. Results Interobserver agreement for the aortic measurements was excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.921 to 0.989. Lower interobserver percentage error in ROOTmax measurements was independently associated (model R2 = 0.15) with better image quality (P = .002) and later study reading date (P < .001). Echocardiographic characteristics of the randomized subjects did not differ by treatment arm. Subjects with ROOTmax Z scores ? 4.5 (36%) were more likely to have mitral valve prolapse and dilation of the main pulmonary artery and left ventricle, but there were no differences in aortic regurgitation, aortic stiffness indices, mitral regurgitation, or left ventricular function compared with subjects with ROOTmax Z scores < 4.5. Conclusions The echocardiographic methodology, training, and quality review process resulted in a robust evaluation of aortic root dimensions, with excellent reproducibility.
Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Levine, Jami C.; Chen, Shan; Bradley, Timothy J.; Pearson, Gail D.; Colan, Steven D.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Campbell, M. Jay; Cohen, Meryl S.; Backer, Julie De; Guey, Lin T.; Heydarian, Haleh; Lai, Wyman W.; Lewin, Mark B.; Marcus, Edward; Mart, Christopher R.; Pignatelli, Ricardo H.; Printz, Beth F.; Sharkey, Angela M.; Shirali, Girish S.; Srivastava, Shubhika; Lacro, Ronald V.
The report is a discussion of previously published and newly analyzed results concerning the association between heart diseases and alterations in the force-frequency relation (FFR). The optimum stimulation frequency of the FFR is measured and compared in isolated left ventricular myocardium from nonfailing hearts with atrial septal defect, coronary artery disease (without and with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and from
L. A. Mulieri; B. J. Leavitt; R. K. Wright; N. R. Alpert
The occurrence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia in the absence of a known underlying cause led to the diagnosis of Evans syndrome in a 9-month-old male. Subsequently, a similar diagnosis was made in two siblings (a 3-year-old boy and a 1-day-old girl). The 9-month-old had a chronic course with exacerbations. He was treated with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and colchiccine with a variable response. He died of congestive heart failure at the age of 8 years. The brother's disease course was one of remission and exacerbation. With time, remissions were prolonged and paralleled an improvement in joint hypermobility. The sister died of sepsis after a chronic course with severe exacerbattions. Only two families with Evans syndrome have been reported in the English medical literature. In one report (in a Saudi Arab family), the disease was associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
Ahmed, Fathelrahman E.; AlBakrah, Mohameed S.
Introduction: Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP) is the most common valvular abnormalityin the young and is correlated with increased frequency of cardiac dysrhythmias and sudden death.The aim of this study was to compare frequency of “early repolarization” in electrocardiogram(ECG) between MVP patients and healthy adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we compared ECG presentations of early repolarizationincluding notch in descending arm of QRS and J-point and/or ST segment changes in 100 patientswith MVP with 100 healthy individuals. MVP patients were referred to cardiology clinic withsymptoms of palpitation, chest pain or anxiety. Results: The mean age in patients with MVP was significantly less than healthy subjects (29.5 ±9.3 years versus 31.0 ± 6.9 years in control group, P= 0.1967). We detected early repolarizationas a prevalent sign in ECG of patients which was a notch in descending arm of QRS and/or STsegment or J-point elevation seen in 74% of patients ( 51% in inferior leads and 23% in I and aVLleads) , whilst the same findings were seen in 8 men (8%) in control group (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: Early repolarization in ECG presented as a notch in descending arm of QRS and/or ST segment or J-point elevation is more frequent in in young patients with MVP syndrome.
Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Alizadehasl, Azin; Totonchi, Ziae
Introduction: Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP) is the most common valvular abnormalityin the young and is correlated with increased frequency of cardiac dysrhythmias and sudden death.The aim of this study was to compare frequency of "early repolarization" in electrocardiogram(ECG) between MVP patients and healthy adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we compared ECG presentations of early repolarizationincluding notch in descending arm of QRS and J-point and/or ST segment changes in 100 patientswith MVP with 100 healthy individuals. MVP patients were referred to cardiology clinic withsymptoms of palpitation, chest pain or anxiety. Results: The mean age in patients with MVP was significantly less than healthy subjects (29.5 ±9.3 years versus 31.0 ± 6.9 years in control group, P= 0.1967). We detected early repolarizationas a prevalent sign in ECG of patients which was a notch in descending arm of QRS and/or STsegment or J-point elevation seen in 74% of patients ( 51% in inferior leads and 23% in I and aVLleads) , whilst the same findings were seen in 8 men (8%) in control group (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: Early repolarization in ECG presented as a notch in descending arm of QRS and/or ST segment or J-point elevation is more frequent in in young patients with MVP syndrome. PMID:24753827
Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Alizadehasl, Azin; Totonchi, Ziae
Robotic mitral valve surgery is the most common robotic cardiac procedure performed today. Benefits include smaller, less invasive incisions resulting in less pain, shorter length of hospital stay, improved cosmesis, quicker return to preoperative level of functional activity, and decreased blood transfusion requirements. The history and evolution of robotic mitral valve surgery is detailed in this article. Our institution has performed over 800 robotic mitral valve surgeries, and our technique and outcomes are described. Outcomes and operative times are similar to that for sternotomy and minimally invasive approaches to mitral valve surgery. The benefits and limitations of robotic mitral valve surgery are compared with conventional approaches, and future directions are also discussed.
Bush, Bryan; Nifong, L. Wiley; Alwair, Hazaim
Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) is an important cardiovascular problem in the adult population. The knowledge of the physiology involved, prompt recognition and diagnosis are of paramount importance for the primary care physician who is in the front line of patient care. This article is the first of a series of two that will discuss valvular problems in the adults in concise and practical form. Each topic will be presented using the following format: description, etiology, pathophysiology, natural history, essential of diagnosis and management. In this first article we will discuss mitral valve disorders including mitral valve prolapse (MVP). PMID:16599069
Ortega Gil, Jorge; Rodríguez Castro, José M
Liquefaction necrosis of the mitral annulus is a rare form of peri-annular calcification that the cardiologist must be able to differentiate from other cardiac masses. It classically looks like a round or semilunar hyperdense mass with a denser peripheral rim, located mainly in the posterior mitral annulus. The case we report here was diagnosed in a 78-year-old female patient who presented with an embolic cerebral vascular accident, which raises the question of its etiopathogenic responsibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 42:382-383, 2014. PMID:24420234
Mallisho, Maram; Hwang, Inyong; Alsafwah, Shadwan F
Background This study was aimed to evaluate the merit in clinical and hemodynamic performance of two commonly used tilting disc heart\\u000a valve prostheses at our center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Between October 1994 and December 1997, 100 patients who received either Sorin Biomedica (n=50; group I) or Medtronic Hall\\u000a (N=50; group II) 27 size mitral valve prostheses were included in the study. The two groups
V Kothari; AK Agarwal; SK Agarwal; AK Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary regurgitation is a common and clinically important residual lesion after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phase contrast velocity mapping is widely used for measurement of pulmonary regurgitant fraction. Breath-hold acquisitions, usually acquired during held expiration, are more convenient than the non-breath-hold approach, but we hypothesized that breath-holding might affect the amount of pulmonary regurgitation.
Bengt Johansson; Sonya V Babu-Narayan; Philip J Kilner
The importance of transmission factor identification is of great epidemiological significance. The bee-eater (Merops apiaster) is a widely distributed insectivorous bird, locally abundant mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of southern Europe, northern Africa and western Asia but recently has been seen breeding in central Europe and Great Britain. Bee-eaters predominantly eat insects, especially bees, wasps and hornets. On the other hand, Nosema ceranae is a Microsporidia recently described as a parasite in Apis mellifera honeybees in Europe. Due to the short time since its description scarce epidemiological data are available. In this study we investigate the role of the regurgitated pellets of the European bee-eater as fomites of infective spores of N. ceranae. Spore detection in regurgitated pellets of M. apiaster is described [phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods]. Eighteen days after collection N. ceranae spores still remain viable and their infectivity is shown after artificial infection of Nosema-free 8-day-old adult bees. The epidemiological consequences of the presence of Nosema spores in this fomites are discussed. PMID:18218034
Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Botías, Cristina; García-Palencia, Pilar; Meana, Aránzazu
Purpose: Patient-specific shape analysis of the mitral valve from real-time 3D ultrasound (rt-3DUS) has broad application to the assessment and surgical treatment of mitral valve disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that continuous medial representation (cm-rep) is an accurate valve shape representation that can be used for statistical shape modeling over the cardiac cycle from rt-3DUS images. Methods: Transesophageal rt-3DUS data acquired from 15 subjects with a range of mitral valve pathology were analyzed. User-initialized segmentation with level sets and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization delineated the mitral leaflets at each time point in the rt-3DUS data series. A deformable cm-rep was fitted to each segmented image of the mitral leaflets in the time series, producing a 4D parametric representation of valve shape in a single cardiac cycle. Model fitting accuracy was evaluated by the Dice overlap, and shape interpolation and principal component analysis (PCA) of 4D valve shape were performed. Results: Of the 289 3D images analyzed, the average Dice overlap between each fitted cm-rep and its target segmentation was 0.880+/-0.018 (max=0.912, min=0.819). The results of PCA represented variability in valve morphology and localized leaflet thickness across subjects. Conclusion: Deformable medial modeling accurately captures valve geometry in rt-3DUS images over the entire cardiac cycle and enables statistical shape analysis of the mitral valve.
Pouch, Alison M.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H., III; Gorman, Robert C.; Sehgal, Chandra M.
Aims Transcatheter treatment of heart valve disease is well established today. However, for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), no effective catheter-based approach is available. Herein, we report the first human case description of transcatheter treatment of severe TR in a 79-year-old patient with venous congestion and associated non-cardiac diseases. In this patient, surgical treatment had been declined and pharmacological therapy had been ineffective. After ex vivo and animal studies, the treatment of TR was performed by percutaneous caval valve implantation. Methods and results In a transcatheter approach through the right femoral vein, a custom-made self-expanding heart valve was implanted into the inferior vena cava (IVC). The device was anchored in the IVC at the cavoatrial junction with the level of the valve aligned immediately above the hepatic inflow and protruding into the right atrium. After deployment, excellent valve function was observed resulting in a marked reduction in caval pressure and an abolition of the ventricular wave in the IVC. Sequential echocardiographic exams over a follow-up period of 8 weeks confirmed continuous device function without paravalvular leakage or remaining venous regurgitation. The patient experienced improved physical capacity and was able to resume off-bed activities. There was no recurrence of right heart failure during follow-up and a partial reduction of ascites. The patient was discharged from hospital into a rehabilitation programme. Conclusion Transcatheter treatment of severe TR by caval valve implantation is feasible resulting in an immediate abolition of IVC regurgitation and mid-term clinical improvement. Thus, in selected non-surgical patients, caval valve implantation may become a therapeutic option to treat venous regurgitation and improve associated non-cardiac diseases. Further confirmatory experience with longer follow-up is required to evaluate the long-term clinical benefit of the procedure as well as potential deleterious effects.
Lauten, Alexander; Ferrari, Markus; Hekmat, Khosro; Pfeifer, Ruediger; Dannberg, Gudrun; Ragoschke-Schumm, Andreas; Figulla, Hans R.
Background and aim of the study Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) was used to examine the geometric changes that occur in the mitral annulus immediately after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods A total of 35 patients undergoing elective surgical AVR under cardiopulmonary bypass was enrolled in the study. Intraoperative RT-3D TEE was used prospectively to acquire volumetric echocardiographic datasets immediately before and after AVR. The 3D echocardiographic data were analyzed offline using TomTec® Mitral Valve Assessment software to assess changes in specific mitral annular geometric parameters. Results Datasets were successfully acquired and analyzed for all patients. A significant reduction was noted in the mitral annular area (-16.3%, p <0.001), circumference (-8.9% p <0.001) and the anteroposterior (-6.3%, p = 0.019) and anterolateral-posteromedial (-10.5%, p <0.001) diameters. A greater reduction was noted in the anterior annulus length compared to the posterior annulus length (10.5% versus 62%, p <0.05) after AVR. No significant change was seen in the non-planarity angle, coaptation depth, and closure line length. During the period of data acquisition before and after AVR, no significant change was noted in the central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. Conclusion The mitral annulus undergoes significant geometric changes immediately after AVR Notably, a 16.3% reduction was observed in the mitral annular area. The anterior annulus underwent a greater reduction in length compared to the posterior annulus, which suggested the existence of a mechanical compression by the prosthetic valve.
Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Chen, Tzong-Huei; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal
Background We hypothesized that annuloplasty ring implantation alters mitral annular strains in a normal beating ovine heart preparation. Methods and Results Sheep had 16 radiopaque markers sewn equally spaced around the mitral annulus. Edwards Cosgrove partial flexible band (COS, n=12), St. Jude complete rigid saddle-shaped annuloplasty ring (RSA, n=10), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHY, n=11), IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=11), and GeoForm (GEO, n=12) annuloplasty rings were implanted in a releasable fashion. Four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with the ring inserted (Ring) and after ring release (Control). From marker coordinates, a functional spatio-temporal representation of each annulus was generated through a best fit using 16 piecewise cubic Hermitian splines. Absolute total mitral annular strains were calculated from the relative change in length of the tangent vector to the annular curve as strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole. In addition, average Green-Lagrange strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole along the annulus were calculated. Absolute total mitral annular ring strains were smallest for COS and greatest for ETL. Strains for RSA, PHY and GEO were similar. Except for COS in the septal mitral annular segment, all rings induced compressive strains along the entire annulus with greatest values occurring at the lateral mitral annular segment. Conclusions In healthy, beating ovine hearts, annuloplasty rings (COS; RSA, PHY, ETL and GEO) induce compressive strains that are: 1.) Predominate in the lateral annular region; 2.) Smallest for flexible partial bands (COS) and greatest for an asymmetric rigid ring type with intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (ETL). However, the ring type with the most drastic intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (GEO) introduced strains similar to physiologically shaped rings (RSA and PHY) indicating that rings effects on annular strain profiles cannot be estimated from the degree of septal-lateral downsizing.
Bothe, Wolfgang; Rausch, Manuel K.; Kvitting, John P.; Echtner, Dominique K.; Walther, Mario; Ingels, Neil B.; Kuhl, Ellen; Miller, D. Craig
Background. This study was designed to better define the merits of the bileaflet and tilting-disc valves.Methods. We prospectively randomized 156 patients (mean age, 59 years) to receive either the St. Jude (n = 80) or the Medtronic Hall (n = 76) mitral valve prosthesis between September 1986 and December 1997. The two groups were not significantly different with respect to
Andrew C Fiore; Hendrick B Barner; Marc T Swartz; Lawrence R McBride; Arthur J Labovitz; Kathy J Vaca; Jan St. Vrain; Gary L Grunkemeier; George C Kaiser
Currently, there is a growing interest in minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and despite early criticisms, it has become the preferred method of mitral valve repair and replacement in many institutions worldwide with excellent results. The interest in performing cardiac valve opera tions through minimal incisions was stimulated by Port Access technology and has evolved to include robotically assisted video-enhanced valve
Harry W. Donias; Hratch L. Karamanoukian; Giuseppe DAncona; Eddie L. Hoover
Cardiovascular disease in Marfan's syndrome presenting in childhood affects the mitral valve more often than the aortic valve or the aorta, as in adults. Early evaluation of the cardiovascular system is necessary for any child in whom Marfan's syndrome is suspected. Images Figure
Marlow, N; Gregg, J E; Qureshi, S A
Our experience with ball valve replacement of the mitral valve during the past decade is presented in terms that allow comparison with other techniques. The use of such prostheses is characterized by ease of implantation, with an overall operative mortality of 11 per cent for isolated mitral replacement and 13 per cent for multiple valve replacement. The operative mortality for isolated mitral valve replacement during 1969 and thus far in 1970 has been nil. The late mortality was 13 per cent for isolated mitral replacement and 20 per cent for multiple valve replacement. Forty-three per cent of the total late deaths were clearly unrelated to the prosthetic device itself. The overall incidence of late infection and leak is less than 1 per cent and the immediate haemodynamic benefit is not altered by loss of structural integrity of the prosthesis. The most serious problem after mitral valve replacement with the ball valve prosthesis is that of thromboembolic complications. While thrombotic stenosis of the prosthesis is a rarity, embolic episodes, usually cerebral in type, have been noted in 63 per cent of the patients surviving mitral valve replacement with the earliest model ball valve from August 1960 to February 1966. Improvements in valve design have resulted in a remarkable decrease in this incidence as examined by actuarial techniques and taking into account the duration of follow-up. The extension of the cloth sewing margins to the orifice of the valve while maintaining a metallic orifice and metallic cage (Model 6120) resulted in a drop of the thromboembolic rate to 17 per cent from April 1965 to April 1969. The development of the totally cloth-covered prosthesis has further improved these results, with only one thromboembolic complication after isolated mitral valve replacement with the Model 6310 valve in a series of 66 consecutive patients. In clinical practice this has resulted in the avoidance of the use of anticoagulant therapy in patients in whom for a variety of reasons this carries an increased hazard. With further follow-up it may be possible to discontinue the routine use of anticoagulants. Images
Background and aim: It is not known why some reflux episodes evoke symptoms and others do not. We investigated the determinants of perception of gastro-oesophageal reflux.Methods: In 32 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux, 24 hour ambulatory pH and impedance monitoring was performed after cessation of acid suppressive therapy. In the 20 patients who had at least one symptomatic
A J Bredenoord; B L A M Weusten; W L Curvers; R Timmer; A J P M Smout
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is one subtype of mitral valve (MV) disease and is often characterized by enlarged leaflets that are thickened and have disrupted collagen architecture. The increased surface area of myxomatous leaflets with MVP leads to mitral regurgitation, and there is need for percutaneous treatment options that avoid open-chest surgery. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is one potential therapy in which resistive heating can be used to reduce leaflet size via collagen contracture. One challenge of using RF ablation to percutaneously treat MVP is maintaining contact between the RF ablation catheter tip and a functioning MV leaflet. To meet this challenge, we have developed a RF ablation catheter with a cryogenic anchor for attachment to leaflets in order to apply RF ablation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the dual-energy catheter in vitro by examining changes in leaflet biaxial compliance, thermal distribution with infrared (IR) imaging, and cryogenic anchor strength. We report that 1250 J of RF energy with cryo-anchoring reduced the determinant of the deformation gradient tensor at systolic loading by 23%. IR imaging revealed distinct regions of cryo-anchoring and tissue ablation, demonstrating that the two modalities do not counteract one another. Finally, cryogenic anchor strength to the leaflet was reduced but still robust during the application of RF energy. These results indicate that a catheter having combined RF ablation and cryo-anchoring provides a novel percutaneous treatment strategy for MVP and may also be useful for other percutaneous procedures where anchored ablation would provide more precise spatial control. PMID:22532322
Boronyak, Steven M; Merryman, W David
A method is proposed for comparing the orifice size and the morphology of stenotic mitral valves, removed intact at the time of replacement, with the preoperative two dimensional echocardiographic cross-sections. The excised mitral valve apparatus is suspended on a specially constructed mounting. To avoid shrinkage the orifice is stabilised with an airfilled balloon. A radiography is taken directing the x-ray beam perpendicular to the valve orifice. In 40 of 51 patients this method provided the means of relating the echocardiographic cross-sections to the morphology of the valve. Planimetry of the valve area compared favourably with the postoperatively determined orifice size. Agreement was found in 34 of 40 patients in orifice shape between preoperative echocardiograms and x-rays of th excised valve. The relation between intraoperative estimation of size of the valve, using dilators with known diameters, and the postoperative results was less favourable. Areas of calcification were identified on echocardiography as dense conglomerate echoes. In 30 patients (75%) the localisation of calcium deposits and in 67% the degree of calcification was in agreement with the x-rays of the valve taken after operation. In addition to determination of the area, two dimensional echocardiography allows detailed studies of the stenotic valves, and is of particular importance for planning operative treatment. Images
Schweizer, P; Bardos, P; Krebs, W; Erbel, R; Minale, C; Imm, S; Messmer, B J; Effert, S
Penetrating chest trauma can produce a wide range of lesions to cardiac structures. Some patients develop signs and symptoms of residual sequelae. We describe the case of an 11-year-old boy with severe tricuspid regurgitation caused by the thorn of a palm tree. A De Vega annuloplasty of the tricuspid valve and a bidirectional Glenn procedure were successfully performed 7 years after the episode. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough investigation of possible valvular heart disease in patients who suffered from chest trauma. PMID:19699934
Lugones, Ignacio; Daneri, Mariana López; Conejeros, Willy M; Grippo, Maria; Schlichter, Andres J
Significant aortic regurgitation after TAVI results in lack of symptomatic and prognostic benefit from the procedure and generally requires intervention. While most of the regurgitations can be successfully targeted with standard techniques, occasional patients have restrictive calcification resistant to post-dilatation and significant regurgitation persists. We present a case of refractory aortic regurgitation successfully treated with percutaneous paravalvular leak closure. An 81-year-old man with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent a transfemoral CoreValve TAVI in December 2009. He had significant aortic regurgitation refractory to medical and interventional therapy including balloon post-dilatation, valve repositioning and valve-in-valve reimplantation. Aortic regurgitation remained severe and therefore in early 2013, we proceeded with an attempted percutaneous closure of the residual paraprosthetic leak. Using 6-French femoral access and a Terumo wire, the defect was successfully crossed with a 4-French Multipurpose catheter and an 8 mm Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 device (St. Jude Medical) was deployed through this catheter, resulting in abolition of aortic regurgitation on aortography and TOE, with associated excellent clinical response. Refractory paravalvular aortic regurgitation post CoreValve implantation can be successfully treated using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 device. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24130146
Poliacikova, Petra; Hildick-Smith, David
Introduction It is well known that mitral stenosis (MS) is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) of varying degrees. The hemodynamic derangement is associated with structural changes in the pulmonary vessels and parenchyma and also functional derangements. This article analyzes the pulmonary function derangements in 25 patients with isolated/predominant mitral stenosis of varying severity. Aims The aim of the study was to correlate the pulmonary function test (PFT) derangements (done by simple methods) with: a) patient demographics and clinical profile, b) severity of the mitral stenosis, and c) severity of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and d) to evaluate its significance in preoperative assessment. Subjects and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 patients with mitral stenosis who were selected for mitral valve (MV) surgery. The patients were evaluated for clinical class, echocardiographic severity of mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension, and with simple methods of assessment of pulmonary function with spirometry and blood gas analysis. The diagnosis and classification were made on standardized criteria. The associations and correlations of parameters, and the difference in groups of severity were analyzed statistically with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), using nonparametric measures. Results The spirometric parameters showed significant correlation with increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (FC): forced vital capacity (FVC, r = ?0.4*, p = 0.04), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = ?0.5*, p = 0.01), FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.44*, p = 0.02), and with pulmonary venous congestion (PVC): FVC (r = ?0.41*, p = 0.04) and FEV1 (r = ?0.41*, p = 0.04). Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) correlated only with FEV1 (r = ?0.461*, p = 0.02) and peripheral saturation of oxygen (SPO2, r = ?0.401*, p = 0.04). There was no linear correlation to duration of symptoms, mitral valve orifice area, or pulmonary hypertension, except for MV gradient with PCO2 (r = 0.594**, p = 0.002). The decreased oxygenation status correlated significantly with FC, CTR, PVC, and with deranged spirometry (r = 0.495*, p = 0.02). Conclusions PFT derangements are seen in all grades of severity of MS and correlate well with the functional class, though no significant linear correlation with grades of severity of stenosis or pulmonary hypertension. Even the early or mild derangements in pulmonary function such as small airway obstruction in the less severe cases of normal or mild PH can be detected by simple and inexpensive methods when the conventional parameters are normal. The supplementary data from baseline arterial blood gas analysis is informative and relevant. This reclassified pulmonary function status might be prognostically predictive.
Rajan, Rajesh; Faybushevich, Alexander Georgevich
The mitral valve apparatus is a complex three–dimensional functional unit that is critical to unidirectional heart pump function. This review details the normal anatomy, histology and function of the main mitral valve apparatus components 1) mitral annulus, 2) mitral valve leaflets, 3) chordae tendineae and 4) papillary muscles. 2 and 3 dimensional Echocardiography is ideally suited to examine the mitral valve apparatus and has provided insights into the mechanism of mitral valve disease. An overview of standardized image acquisition and interpretation is provided. Understanding normal mitral valve apparatus function is essential to comprehend alterations in mitral valve disease and the rationale for repair strategies.
Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Levine, Robert A.
Objective Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in isolated severe mitral stenosis (MS) patients have prognostic significance. Study aim was to assess RV function in these subjects by strain and strain rate analysis, pre and post-balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). Methods Twenty five patients with isolated severe MS in sinus rhythm were assessed for RV function by two dimensional (2D) longitudinal strain & strain rate imaging before and after BMV and compared with that from twelve healthy age matched controls. Results Patients with severe MS had significantly lower global RV systolic strain; segmental strain at basal, mid, apical septum and basal RV free wall; but similar strain at mid and apical RV free wall as compared to controls. The systolic strain rate was significantly lower only at mid septum. In addition, they had higher estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and RV myocardial performance index; lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), peak systolic velocity at lateral tricuspid annulus, isovolumic acceleration and fractional area change (FAC). Global RV systolic strain as well as, segmental strain at basal, mid and apical septum showed a statistically significant rise after BMV. TAPSE and FAC also increased significantly post BMV. Conclusions RV systolic function is impaired in patients with severe MS and can be assessed by global and segmental RV strain before the appearance of clinical signs of systemic venous congestion. Impaired global and segmental RV strain values in these patients are primarily due to increased after load and improve after BMV with reduction in RV afterload.
Kumar, Vipin; Jose, V. Jacob; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Jose, John
Disorders of the mitral valve are second most frequent, cumulating 14 percent of total number of deaths caused by Valvular Heart Disease each year in the United States and require elaborate clinical management. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the valve is an important step in the clinical workflow according to experts as knowledge about mitral morphology and dynamics is crucial for interventional planning. Traditionally this involves examination and metric analysis of 2D images comprising potential errors being intrinsic to the method. Recent commercial solutions are limited to specific anatomic components, pathologies and a single phase of cardiac 4D acquisitions only. This paper introduces a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of the mitral valve based on a 4D model estimated from ultrasound data. A physiological model of the mitral valve, covering the complete anatomy and eventual shape variations, is generated utilizing parametric spline surfaces constrained by topological and geometrical prior knowledge. The 4D model's parameters are estimated for each patient using the latest discriminative learning and incremental searching techniques. Precise evaluation of the anatomy using model-based dynamic measurements and advanced visualization are enabled through the proposed approach in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible manner. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated through experiments and an initial validation based on clinical research results. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time such a patient specific 4D mitral valve model is proposed, covering all of the relevant anatomies and enabling to model the common pathologies at once.
Voigt, Ingmar; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Houle, Helene; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin
Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596
Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho
Objectives To define the effects of annuloplasty rings (ARs) on the dynamic motion of anterior and posterior mitral leaflets (AML, PML). Methods Sheep had radiopaque markers inserted: 8 around the mitral annulus, four along the central meridian (from edge to annulus) of the AML (#A1–#A4) and one on the PML edge (#P1). True-sized Edwards Cosgrove (COS, n=12), St Jude RSAR (n=12), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHYSIO, n=12), Edwards IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=10) or Edwards GeoForm (GEO, n=12) ARs were implanted in a releasable fashion. Under acute open-chest conditions, 4-D marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with the ARs inserted (COS, RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL, GEO) and after release (COS-CONTROL, RSAR-CONTROL, PHYSIO-CONTROL, ETL-CONTROL, GEO-CONTROL). AML and PML excursions were calculated as the difference between minimum and maximum angles between the central mitral annular septal-lateral chord and the anterior mitral leaflet edge markers (?1exc – ?4exc) and PML edge marker (?1exc) during the cardiac cycle. Results Relative to CONTROL, 1.) RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL and GEO increased excursion of the AML annular (?4exc: 13±6° vs. 16±7°*, 16±7° vs. 23±10°*, 12±4° vs. 18±9°*, 15±1° vs. 20±9°*, respectively) and belly region (?2exc: 41±10° vs. 45±10°*, 42±8° vs. 45±6°, n.s., 33±13° vs. 42±14°*, 39±6° vs. 44±6°*, respectively, ?3exc: 24±9° vs. 29±11°*, 28±10° vs. 33±10°*, 16±9° vs. 21±12°*, 25±7° vs. 29±9°*, respectively), but not of the AML edge (?1exc: 42±8° vs. 44±8°, 43±8° vs. 41±6°, 42±11 vs. 46±10°, 39±9° vs. 38±8°, respectively, all n.s.). COS did not affect AML excursion (?1exc: 40±8° vs. 37±8°, ?2exc: 43±9° vs. 41±9°, ?3exc: 27±11° vs. 27±10°, ?4exc: 18±8° vs. 17±7°,, all n.s.). 2.) PML excursion (?1exc) was reduced with GEO (53±5° vs. 43±6°*), but unchanged with COS, RSAR, PHYSIO or ETL (53±13° vs. 52±15°, 50±13° vs. 49±10°, 55±5° vs. 55±7°, 52±8° vs. 58±6°, respectively, all n.s). *=p<0.05 Conclusions RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL and GEO rings, but not COS, increase AML excursion of the AML annular and belly region suggesting higher anterior mitral leaflet bending stresses with rigid rings, which potentially could be deleterious with respect to repair durability. The decreased PML excursion observed with GEO could impair LV filling. Clinical studies are needed to validate these findings in patients.
Bothe, Wolfgang; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Swanson, Julia C.; Goktepe, Serdar; Vo, Kathy N.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig
Objectives Utilizing three-dimensional echocardiography in conjunction with novel geometric modeling and rendering techniques, we have developed a high resolution, quantitative, three-dimensional methodology for imaging the human mitral valve. Background Leaflet and annular geometry are important determinants of mitral valve stress. Repair techniques which optimize valvular geometry will reduce stress and potentially increase repair durability. The development of such procedures will require image processing methodologies that provide a quantitative description of three-dimensional valvular geometry. Methods Ten normal adults underwent mitral valve imaging utilizing real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. Using specially designed image analysis software, multiple valvular geometric parameters, including two- and three-dimensional leaflet curvature, leaflet surface area, annular height, intercommissural width, septolateral annular diameter and annular area were determined for each subject. Image rendering techniques that allow for the clear and concise presentation of this detailed information are also presented. Results While three-dimensional annular and leaflet geometry were found to be highly conserved between normal human subjects in general, substantial intra- and inter-subject regional geometry heterogeneity was observed in the mid-posterior leaflet, the region most commonly involved in leaflet flail in subjects with myxomatous disease. Conclusions The image processing and graphical rendering techniques that we have developed can be used to provide a complete description of three-dimensional mitral valve geometry in human subjects. Widespread application of these techniques to normal subjects and patients with mitral valve disease will provide insight into the geometric basis of both valvular pathology and repair durability.
Ryan, Liam P.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; John-Sutton, Martin St.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.
Background- Multiple echocardiographic parameters have been identified to predict the severity of aortic regurgitation (AR) with variable reliability. This study was performed to identify which echocardiographic parameters best predict the severity of AR in a cohort of patients with congenital heart disease, using cardiovascular MRI quantification as a reference standard. Methods and Results- The study involved 2 phases. In phase 1, predictive models were developed on the basis of multivariable analysis of various morphometric and Doppler variables obtained from 174 echocardiograms that best predicted the severity of AR as defined by paired cardiovascular MRI examinations. A nonlinear estimate of regurgitation fraction, using the variables parasternal vena contracta-derived area divided by body surface area and abdominal aorta Doppler retrograde velocity-time integral divided by antegrade velocity-time integral, was identified through multivariable analysis as the best predictive model for AR fraction. In phase 2, the predictive models were prospectively tested on 43 echocardiographic examinations for which a paired cardiovascular MRI was performed. The agreement between the observed and predicted AR fraction was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. For the 30 studies of the validation data set that had adequate quality images of both the parasternal vena contracta width and the abdominal aorta flow profile, the predicted AR values had a mean bias±SD of 0.4±7.3% (P=0.80). Conclusions- A model using the 2 variab