The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method for calculating volume flow through the regurgitant orifice has attracted significant attention. A number of in vitro studies and clinical studies in adults suggest that the method is accurate. However, when applying the method to children it must be noted that the absolute regurgitation volume is small, and the range of body sizes is wide. This study investigated the accuracy of the PISA method for quantitative assessment of the severity of mitral regurgitation in children. Twenty children aged 7 months to 12 years (average 4.7 years) with mitral regurgitation but without interventricular shunt or aortic stenosis were selected for this study. Underlying cardiac diseases included atrioventricular septal defects in nine, isolated mitral regurgitation in five, and association with other heart defects in six. The PISA radius (r) and the duration of regurgitation (T) were measured on color M-mode recordings, with the M line passing through the center of the PISA. Assuming that the PISA is a hemisphere, maximal regurgitant flow rate (MFR: ml/s) was calculated as MFR = 2pi x r2 x V (r = maximal radius, V = aliasing velocity), and regurgitant stroke volume (RSVpisa) as RSVpisa = 2pi x MSR x V x T (MSR = mean square of the PISA radius during regurgitation). As a validating standard, total stroke volume (TSV) using two-dimensional echocardiography determined by the area-length volumetry method and forward stroke volume (FSV) by the pulsed Doppler method were measured, and regurgitant stroke volume (RSVD: RSVD = TSV - FSV) and regurgitant fraction (RF: RF = RSVD/TSV) were calculated. A linear correlation was found between MFR, RSVpisa, and RSVD (X) (MFR = 4.2X + 54.0, r = 0.84. RSVpisa = 1. 0X + 9.8, r = 0.90), and both RSVpisa and MFR divided by body surface area (BSA: m2) revealed a significant correlation with regurgitant fraction (X) by nonlinear regression analysis (RSVpisa/BSA = 26.2 x X/(1 - X) + 16.8, r = 0.85. MFR/BSA = 121.8 x X/(1 - X) + 92.2, r = 0.79). It is concluded that maximal regurgitant flow rate, regurgitant stroke volume, and regurgitant fraction can be accurately predicted in children using the PISA method by Doppler echocardiography. PMID:8781084
Aotsuka, H; Tobita, K; Hamada, H; Uchishiba, M; Tateno, S; Matsuo, K; Fujiwara, T; Niwa, K
Any structural or functional impairment of the mitral valve (MV) apparatus that exhausts MV tissue redundancy available for leaflet coaptation will result in mitral regurgitation (MR). The mechanism responsible for MV malcoaptation and MR can be dysfunction or structural change of the left ventricle, the papillary muscles, the chordae tendineae, the mitral annulus, and the MV leaflets. The rationale for MV treatment depends on the MR mechanism and therefore it is essential to identify and understand normal and abnormal MV and MV apparatus function. PMID:25151282
Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Handschumacher, Mark D; Levine, Robert A
Isolated annular dilatation is an extremely uncommon cause of congenital mitral regurgitation. We report a case of a 5-year-old child with idiopathic isolated annular dilatation causing severe congenital mitral regurgitation. PMID:23129915
Malik, Lalitaditya; Gupta, Anubhav; Nath, Ranjit Kumar; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most-common valvular heart disease in the western world. From an etiologic point of view, MR can be either organic (mainly degenerative in western countries) or functional (secondary to left ventricular remodeling in the context of ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy). Degenerative and functional MR are completely different disease entities that pose specific decision-making problems and
Francesco Maisano; Giovanni La Canna; Ottavio Alfieri; Michele De Bonis
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH. PMID:24383034
Marak, Creticus P.; Joy, Parijat S.; Gupta, Pragya; Guddati, Achuta K.
Structured Abstract Objectives We developed and tested a novel transcatheter circumferential annuloplasty technique to reduce mitral regurgitation in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy. Background Catheter-based annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation exploits the proximity of the coronary sinus to the mitral annulus, but is limited by anatomic variants and coronary artery entrapment. Methods The procedure, “cerclage annuloplasty,” is guided by MRI roadmaps fused with live X-ray. A coronary sinus guidewire traverses a short segment of basal septal myocardium to reenter the right heart where it is exchanged for a suture. Tension is applied interactively during imaging and secured with a locking device. Results We found two feasible suture pathways from the great cardiac vein across the interventricular septum to create cerclage. Right-ventricular septal reentry required shorter fluoroscopy times than right atrial reentry, which entailed a longer intramyocardial traversal but did not cross the tricuspid valve. Graded tension progressively reduced septal-lateral annular diameter but not end-systolic elastance or regional myocardial function. A simple arch-like device protected entrapped coronary arteries from compression even during supra-therapeutic tension. Cerclage reduced mitral regurgitation fraction (from 22.8 ± 12.7% to 7.2 ± 4.4%, p=0.04) by slice-tracking velocity-encoded MRI. Flexible cerclage reduced annular size but preserved annular motion. Cerclage also displaced the posterior annulus towards the papillary muscles. Cerclage introduced reciprocal constraint to the left ventricular outflow tract and mitral annulus that enhanced leaflet coaptation. A sample of human coronary venograms and CT angiograms suggested that most have suitable venous anatomy for cerclage. Conclusions Transcatheter mitral cerclage annuloplasty acutely reduces mitral regurgitation in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy. Entrapped coronary arteries can be protected. MRI provided insight into the mechanism of cerclage action. PMID:19660696
Kim, June-Hong; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Sonmez, Merdim; Sampath, Smita; Saikus, Christina E.; Kim, Ann H.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Derbyshire, J. Andrew; Schenke, William H.; Wright, Victor J.; Berry, Colin; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.
Valve replacement in patients with mitral valve regurgitation is indicated when symptoms occur or left ventricular function becomes impaired. Using different surgical techniques, mitral valve reconstruction has lead to earlier interventions with good clinical results. In order to determine the possibility of a mitral valve reconstruction, echocardiographic parameters are necessary. With transoesophageal echocardiography a segmental analysis of the entire mitral valve can be performed; mitral valve motion abnormalities and severity and direction of the regurgitation jet can be judged. From this analysis clues for underlying pathology can be derived as well as the eligibility of a successful mitral valve reconstruction. This article focuses on transoesophageal examination with segmental analysis in patients with mitral valve regurgitation.
Hokken, R.B.; ten Cate, F.J.; van Herwerden, L.A.
Background Undersized mitral annuloplasty (MA) is the preferred surgical treatment for chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR). However, the preferred shape of undersized MA is unclear. Methods A previously described finite element (FE) model of the LV with mitral valve based on magnetic resonance images of a sheep with CIMR after postero-lateral MI was used. Saddle shape (Edwards Physio II) and asymmetric (IMR ETlogix) MA rings were digitized and meshed. Virtual annuloplasty was performed using virtual sutures to attach the MA ring. LV diastole and systole were performed before and after virtual MA of each type. Results Both types of MA reduced the septo-lateral dimension of the mitral annulus and abolished mitral regurgitation. The asymmetric MA was associated with lower virtual suture force in the P2 region but higher force in P1 and P3 regions. Although both types of MA reduced fiber stress at the LV base, fiber stress reduction after asymmetric MA was slightly greater. Neither type of MA affected fiber stress at the LV equator or apex. Although both types of MA increased leaflet curvature and reduced leaflet stress, stress reduction with saddle shape MA was slightly greater. Both MA types reduced stress on the mitral chordae. Conclusions The effects of saddle shaped and asymmetric MA rings are similar. FE simulations are a powerful tool that may reduce the need for animal and clinical trials. PMID:22245588
Wong, Vincent M.; Wenk, Jonathan F.; Zhang, Zhihong; Cheng, Guangming; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Burger, Mike; Saloner, David A.; Wallace, Arthur W.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Ge, Liang
The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified. PMID:22457188
Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis
Chordal reconstruction of the mitral valve using CV4 or CV5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (GoreTex, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) sutures was performed in seven patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) to ascertain its efficacy. The MR had been caused by prolapse of the anterior leaflet in three patients, the posterior leaflet in two, and both leaflets in two; five of the patients had an
Hajime Maeta; Setsuro Imawaki; Yasushi Shiraishi; Ichiro Arioka; Satoshi Tanaka
Background To determine sensitivity and specificity of E wave velocity in patients with severe chronic organic mitral regurgitation (MR) and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and to evaluate prevalence of A wave dominance in patients with severe MR. Methods We compared 35 patients with quantified severe, chronic, quantified, organic MR due to flail/prolapsed leaflets who had reparative surgery with 35 age-matched control subjects. Exclusion criteria: EF < 60%, atrial fibrillation, and more than mild aortic regurgitation. Results Mean [standard deviation (SD)] age [70 (8) years vs. 69 (8) years; p = 0.94] and mean (SD) EF [66% (6%) vs. 65% (4%); p = 0.43] were not different between the two groups. Mean (SD) E wave velocity was greater in case patients than control subjects [1.2 (0.3) m/sec vs. 0.7 (0.15) m/sec; p < 0.001]. However, E wave velocity of 1.2 m/sec had a sensitivity of only 57% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41-7 and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90-100%) in identifying severe MR. E wave velocity of 0.9 m/sec had a more optimal combined sensitivity (89%; 95% CI, 74-95%) and specificity (86%; 95% CI, 71-94%). A wave dominance was seen in 18% of case patients and 66% of control subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusion E wave velocity of 1.2 m/sec is specific not sensitive for severe organic MR; E wave velocity of 0.9 m/sec has better sensitivity and specificity. A wave dominance pattern alone cannot exclude patients with severe organic MR. Our findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive echocardiographic exam rather than relying on a few Doppler parameters in diagnosing MR. PMID:24459563
Quader, Nishath; Katta, Prasanth; Najib, Mohammad Q.
Basic mechanism of ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is augmented leaflet tethering because of the out ward displacement of the papillary muscle by the left ventricular dilation. In 30% of ischemic MR, subvalvular procedure is necessary to eliminate MR. We propose subvalvular procedure aiming at a comprehensive remodeling of the entire mitral complex. This remodeling procedure consists of 3 major concepts; undersized mitral annuloplasty, division and reconstruction of secondary chords, and bilateral papillary muscle relocation. Subvalvular procedure under beating heart is effective to decide the length of artificial chord or papillary muscle relocation. PMID:22111340
Miyagi, Naoto; Arai, Hirokuni
Calciphylaxis is uncommon and typically seen in patients with end-stage renal disease. It has been defined as a vasculopathic disorder characterised by cutaneous ischaemia and necrosis due to calcification, intimal fibroplasia and thrombosis of pannicular arterioles. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage III who developed calciphylaxis leading to mitral valve calcification, chordae tendineae rupture and acute mitral regurgitation. Although an alternative explanation can typically be found for non-uraemic calciphylaxis, her evaluation did not reveal any usual non-uraemic causes including elevated calcium-phosphorus product, hyperparathyroidism, or evidence of connective tissue disease. Her wounds improved with sodium thiosulfate, pamidronate, penicillin and hyperbaric oxygen therapies but she ultimately decompensated with the onset of acute mitral regurgitation attributed to rupture of a previously calcified chordae tendineae. This case highlights an unusual case of calciphylaxis without clear precipitant as well as a novel manifestation of the disease. PMID:24789150
Gallimore, Grant Gardner; Curtis, Blair; Smith, Andria; Benca, Michael
A new era in the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation is emerging with new devices that can be placed percutaneously or minimally invasively without cardiopulmonary bypass. These devices are categorized into three groups: annuloplasty, edge-to-edge repair, and ventricular reshaping. Percutaneous annuloplasty devices, implanted via the coronary sinus, mimic surgical annuloplasty by reducing the mitral annular anterior-posterior (or septal-lateral) dimension. Several devices, such as the PTMA, CARILLON, Monarch, and PS3 systems, are in clinical trials. Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair devices mimic the surgical Alfieri edge-to-edge repair technique, creating a double-orifice mitral valve; of these, MitraClip is in clinical trials. Ventricular reshaping devices treat both mitral annular dilatation and papillary muscle displacement (and thus leaflet tethering). The surgical Coapsys device is currently in clinical trials, and its percutaneous "interventional" version, iCoapsys, is being prepared for a clinical trial. Numerous issues need to be addressed before these devices can become standard therapies for functional mitral regurgitation. Device safety and efficacy must be demonstrated in carefully designed clinical trials with the goal of achieving outcomes equal to or better than those of surgical repair. PMID:18414987
Objectives To assess patterns and functional consequences of mitral apparatus infarction after acute MI (AMI). Background The mitral apparatus contains two myocardial components – papillary muscles and the adjacent LV wall. Delayed-enhancement CMR (DE-CMR) enables in-vivo study of inter-relationships and potential contributions of LV wall and papillary muscle infarction (PMI) to mitral regurgitation (MR). Methods Multimodality imaging was performed: CMR was used to assess mitral geometry and infarct pattern, including 3D DE-CMR for PMI. Echocardiography (echo) was used to measure MR. Imaging occurred 27±8 days post-AMI (CMR, echo within 1 day). Results 153 patients with first AMI were studied. PMI was present in 30% (n=46; 72% posteromedial, 39% anterolateral). When stratified by angiographic culprit vessel, PMI occurred in 65% of patients with left circumflex, 48% with right coronary, and only 14% of patients with left anterior descending infarctions (p<0.001). Patients with PMI had more advanced remodeling as measured by LV size and mitral annular diameter (p<0.05). Increased extent of PMI was accompanied by a stepwise increase in mean infarct transmurality within regional LV segments underlying each papillary muscle (p<0.001). Prevalence of lateral wall infarction was 3.0 fold higher among patients with, compared to those without, PMI (65% vs. 22%, p<0.001). Infarct distribution also impacted MR, with greater MR among patients with lateral wall infarction (p=0.002). Conversely, MR severity did not differ based on presence (p=0.19) or extent (p=0.12) of PMI, or by angiographic culprit vessel. In multivariable analysis, lateral wall infarct size (OR=1.20[CI=1.05–1.39], p=0.01) was independently associated with substantial (?moderate) MR even after controlling for mitral annular (OR=1.22[1.04–1.43], p=0.01) and LV end-diastolic diameter (OR=1.11 [0.99–1.23], p=0.056). Conclusions PMI is common post-AMI, affecting nearly one-third of patients. PMI extent parallels adjacent LV wall injury, with lateral infarction – rather than PMI - associated with increased severity of post-AMI MR. PMID:23489536
Chinitz, Jason S.; Chen, Debbie; Goyal, Parag; Wilson, Sean; Islam, Fahmida; Nguyen, Thanh; Wang, Yi; Hurtado-Rua, Sandra; Simprini, Lauren; Cham, Matthew; Levine, Robert A.; Devereux, Richard B.; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.
Early surgical repair of severe mitral valve regurgitation in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients is associated with better long-term outcomes than watchful waiting. This article describes an asymptomatic, 23-year-old man whose significant cardiac murmur (later confirmed to be mitral regurgitation) was found during a routine examination for a prescription refill of an antiviral drug. PMID:25343433
BACKGROUND: Ischemic mitral regurgitation often complicates severe ischemic heart disease and adversely affects the prognosis in these patients. There is wide variation in the clinical spectrum of ischemic mitral regurgitation due to varying location and chronicity of ischemia and anomalies in annular and ventricular remodeling. As a result, there is lack of consensus in treating these patients. Treatment has to
Chittoor B Sai-Sudhakar; Rashmi Vandse; Todd A Armen; Katherine M Bickle; Nadia S Nathan
A 22-year-old male patient with penetrating cardiac injury was admitted to general surgery, where he underwent an immediate, life saving operation. Subsequent cardiological evaluation established the presence of a well tolerated mitral regurgitation without the need for urgent cardiac surgical intervention. One month later the patient was re-admitted in cardiac failure. Transesophageal echocardiography suggested the detachment of the posterior leaflet, which was not previously demonstrated by transthoracic echocardiography. Emergency surgery confirmed the diagnosis and the mitral valve was successfully repaired. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case history suggests that transesophageal echocardiography is mandatory after penetrating cardiac injury even in the case of good clinical condition and negative transthoracic echocardiographic findings. In the presence of valvular injury, early surgical intervention is recommended. PMID:7655693
Rywik, T; Sitkowski, W; Cichocki, J; Rajecka, A; Suwalski, K
Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an alternative to surgical therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high operative risk, but it is associated with specific complications. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who underwent the procedure without complications; however, 45 days after the procedure, he was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of heart failure secondary to severe mitral regurgitation. Necropsy findings showed prosthesis malposition and perforation of the anterior mitral leaflet caused by the contact of the stent of the CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN). We discuss TAVR complications, specifically regarding low positioning of the prosthetic valve. PMID:24999172
Cozzarin, Alberto; Cianciulli, Tomás F; Guidoin, Robert; Zhang, Ze; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; García Escudero, Alejandro; Estrada, Jorge E
Infants with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) may present with heart failure, mitral regurgitation,\\u000a and dilated cardiomyopathy. Reestablishment of a two coronary artery system markedly improves the morbidity and mortality.\\u000a However, the mitral regurgitation may continue to deteriorate despite surgical correlation of the ALCAPA because of previous\\u000a ischemic damage to the papillary muscles and chordae. Surgical
M. C. Yam; S. Menahem
Background Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) occurs in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease even after mitral valve surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze surgical results of TR after previous successful mitral valve surgery. Methods From September 1996 to September 2008, 45 patients with TR after previous mitral valve replacement underwent second operation for TR. In those, 43 patients (95.6%) had right heart failure symptoms (edema of lower extremities, ascites, hepatic congestion, etc.) and 40 patients (88.9%) had atrial fibrillation. Twenty-six patients (57.8%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III, and 19 (42.2%) in class IV. Previous operations included: 41 for mechanical mitral valve replacement (91.1%), 4 for bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (8.9%), and 7 for tricuspid annuloplasty (15.6%). Results The tricuspid valves were repaired with Kay's (7 cases, 15.6%) or De Vega technique (4 cases, 8.9%). Tricuspid valve replacement was performed in 34 cases (75.6%). One patient (2.2%) died. Postoperative low cardiac output (LCO) occurred in 5 patients and treated successfully. Postoperative echocardiography showed obvious reduction of right atrium and ventricle. The anterioposterior diameter of the right ventricle decreased to 25.5 ± 7.1 mm from 33.7 ± 6.2 mm preoperatively (P < 0. 05). Conclusion TR after mitral valve replacement in rheumatic heart disease is a serious clinical problem. If it occurs or progresses late after mitral valve surgery, tricuspid valve annuloplasty or replacement may be performed with satisfactory results. Due to the serious consequence of untreated TR, aggressive treatment of existing TR during mitral valve surgery is recommended. PMID:22490269
Background: Conventional Doppler measurements, including mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow, are used to estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). However, these parameters have limitations in predicting LVEDP among patients with mitral regurgitation. This study sought to establish whether the correlation between measurements derived from tissue Doppler echocardiography and LVEDP remains valid in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation. Methods: Thirty patients (mean age: 57.37 ± 13.29 years) with severe mitral regurgitation and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of 46.0 ± 14.95 were enrolled; 16 (53.4%) patients were defined to have EF < 50% and 14 (46.6%) patients had EF ? 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and Doppler tissue imaging indices were obtained, and LVEDP was measured invasively through cardiac catheterization. Results: The majority of the standard Doppler and Doppler tissue imaging indices were not significantly correlated with LVEDP in the univariate analysis. In the multiple linear regression, however, early (E) transmitral velocity to annular E? (E/E?) ratio (? = 1.09, p value < 0.01), E wave velocity to propagation velocity (E/Vp) ratio (? = 7.87, p value < 0.01), and isovolumic relaxation time (? = 0.21, p value = 0.01) were shown as independent predictors of LVEDP (R2 = 91.7%). Conclusion: The ratio of E/Vp and E/E? ratio and also the isovolumic relaxation time could be applied properly to estimate LVEDP in mitral regurgitation patients even in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation. PMID:23074579
Badkoubeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Jenab, Yaser; Zoroufian, Arezou; Salarifar, Mojtaba
Severe primary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a progressive condition which engenders significant mortality and morbidity if left untreated. The optimal timing of surgery in patients with MR of degenerative origin continues to be debated, especially for those who are asymptomatic. Apart from symptoms, current authoritative guidelines recommend intervention when there is incipient left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension or new onset atrial fibrillation. This review focuses on the asymptomatic subject with severe MR, and examines contemporary clinical decision-making and management strategies, including the 2012 European guidelines on valvular heart disease. We discuss the rationale for risk stratifying the asymptomatic individual, and highlight current and novel diagnostic tools that may have a useful role, with an emphasis on echocardiographic imaging. PMID:23346284
Dolor-Torres, Maria Consolacion
Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation (MR) affects a large portion of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. Significant MR develops in one quarter to one third of patients who suffer from ischemic heart disease and doubles ...
Sabourin, Nicaulas A. (Nicaulas Alexandre), 1978-
Background Three?dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D?TTE) with dedicated software permits quantification of mitral annulus dynamics and papillary muscle motion throughout the cardiac cycle. Methods and Results Mitral apparatus 3D?TTE was acquired in controls (n=42), patients with left ventricle dysfunction and functional mitral regurgitation (LVD?FMR; n=43) or without FMR (LVD?noMR, n=35). Annulus in both normal and LVD?noMR subjects displayed saddle shape accentuation in early?systole (ratio of height to intercommissural diameter, 10.6±3.7 to 13.5±4.0 in normal and 9.1±4.3 to 12.6±3.6 in LVD?noMR; P<0.001 for diastole to early?systole motion, P=NS between those groups). In contrast, saddle shape was unchanged from diastole in FMR patients (10.0±6.4 to 8.0±5.2; P=NS, P<0.05 compared to both other groups). Papillary tips moved symmetrically towards to the midanterior annulus in control and LVD?noMR subjects, maintaining constant ratio of the distances between both tips to midannulus (PtAR) throughout systole. In LVD?FMR patients midsystolic posterior papillary tip to anterior annulus distance was increased, resulting in higher PtAR (P=0.05 compared to both other groups). Mechanisms of early? and midsystolic FMR differed between different etiologies of LV dysfunction. In patients with anterior MI and global dysfunction annular function and dilatation were the dominant parameters, while papillary muscle motion was the predominant determinant of FMR in patients with inferior MI. Conclusions Inadequate early?systolic annular contraction and saddle?shape accentuation in patients with impaired LV contribute to early–mitral incompetency. Asymmetric papillary tip movement towards the midanterior annulus is a major determinant of mid? and late?systolic functional mitral regurgitation. PMID:23727698
Topilsky, Yan; Vaturi, Ori; Watanabe, Nozomi; Bichara, Valentina; Nkomo, Vuyisile T.; Michelena, Hector; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Mankad, Sunil V.; Park, Soon; Capps, Mary Ann; Suri, Rakesh; Pislaru, Sorin V.; Maalouf, Joseph; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice
The validity and reproducibility of echocardiographic methods used to quantify mitral regurgitation (MR) in children with congenital heart disease are unknown. We evaluated the usefulness of methods used to quantify MR in children enrolled in a multicenter trial of enalapril 6 months after surgical repair of an atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). MR severity in this trial was assessed using body surface area (BSA)-adjusted vena contracta lateral (i-VCW(lat)) and anterior-posterior (i-VCW(ap)) dimensions and cross-sectional area (i-VCA), regurgitant volume/BSA, regurgitant fraction, and qualitative MR grade. For each method, association with left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDVz) and end-diastolic dimension (LVEDDz) z-scores and interobserver agreement were assessed. In 149 children (median age 1 year), i-VCW(lat), i-VCW(ap), and i-VCA were best associated with LVEDVz (r (2) = 0.54, r (2) = 0.24, and r (2) = 0.46, respectively; p < 0.001 for all) and showed the highest interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.62, 0.73, and 0.68, respectively). Qualitative MR grade was also associated with LVEDVz (r (2) = 0.31, p < 0.001) and showed modest interobserver agreement (kappa 0.56). Regurgitant volume/BSA and regurgitant fraction were associated with LVEDVz (r (2) = 0.45 and r (2) = 0.45, p < 0.001 for both) but showed poor interobserver agreement [ICC = 0.28 (n = 91) and ICC = 0.17 (n = 76), respectively], and their values were negative in 75% of subjects. In conclusion, echocardiographic assessment of MR severity after AVSD remains challenging. Among the quantitative methods used in this trial, i-VCW and i-VCA performed the best but offered little advantage compared with qualitative MR grade. The utility of regurgitant volume and fraction was severely limited by poor interobserver agreement and frequently negative values. PMID:21909774
Prakash, Ashwin; Lacro, Ronald V; Sleeper, Lynn A; Minich, L Luann; Colan, Steven D; McCrindle, Brian; Covitz, Wesley; Golding, Fraser; Hlavacek, Anthony M; Levine, Jami C; Cohen, Meryl S
Background Detecting and quantifying the severity of mitral regurgitation is essential for risk stratification and clinical decision-making regarding timing of surgery. Our objective was to assess specific visual parameters by cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the determination of the severity of mitral regurgitation and to compare it to previously validated imaging modalities: echocardiography and cardiac ventriculography. Methods The study population consisted of 68 patients who underwent a cardiac MRI followed by an echocardiogram within a median time of 2.0 days and 49 of these patients who had a cardiac catheterization, median time of 2.0 days. The inter-rater agreement statistic (Kappa) was used to evaluate the agreement. Results There was moderate agreement between cine MRI and Doppler echocardiography in assessing mitral regurgitation severity, with a kappa value of 0.47, confidence interval (CI) 0.29–0.65. There was also fair agreement between cine MRI and cardiac catheterization with a kappa value of 0.36, CI of 0.17–0.55. Conclusion Cine MRI offers a reasonable alternative to both Doppler echocardiography and, to a lesser extent, cardiac catheterization for visually assessing the severity of mitral regurgitation with specific visual parameters during routine clinical cardiac MRI. PMID:22815751
Heitner, John; Bhumireddy, Geetha P.; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Weinsaft, Jonathan; Haq, Salman A.; Klem, Igor; Kim, Raymond J.; Jollis, James G.
Objective: To compare the cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor enoximone (EN) or a combination of dobutamine (DOB) and nitroglycerin (NTG) before and after mitral valve repair or replacement.Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study.Setting: University hospital.Participants: Twenty patients with mitral regurgitation and pulmonary venous hypertension scheduled for elective mitral valve surgery.Interventions: Patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of
Thomas Hachenberg; Thomas Möllhoff; Dietmar Hoist; Dieter Hammel; Thomas Brüssel
Significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) can contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery for mitral stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the severity of preoperative functional TR and late adverse outcomes in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement (MVR). The study group comprised 68 patients (54 women, 14 men; mean age 45 +/-10 years) with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) who had undergone MVR without tricuspid valve surgery between 4 and 13 years (mean 8.1 +/-2.6 years) before their last clinical examination. All patients underwent a complete preoperative and late postoperative color-Doppler echocardiographic examination. The severity of TR was assessed echocardiographically by using color-Doppler flow images and flow direction in the inferior vena cava or hepatic veins. Patients were classified into 2 groups; 42 with mild (62%) and 26 with significant (38%) TR. Patients with significant TR showed longer preoperative symptomatic period and more atrial fibrillation than those with mild TR. All patients had medical treatment. Functional capacity and NYHA class of the patients in both groups improved significantly after MVR. Freedom from symptomatic heart failure (functional class III or IV) was higher (86% vs 54%) and the need for hospitalization was significantly lower for the mild TR group. Significant preoperative functional TR diagnosed by echocardiography was associated with an adverse outcome. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of concomitant tricuspid valve repair on the late outcome of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery in order to prevent significant late morbidity. PMID:17626989
Boyaci, Ayca; Gokce, V; Topaloglu, Serkan; Korkmaz, Sule; Goksel, Siber
Background Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is common in patients with mitral valve disease; however, there are no straightforward, rapidly determinably criteria available for deciding whether TR repair should be performed during mitral valve replacement. The aim of our retrospective study was to identify a simple and fast criterion for determining whether TR repair should be performed in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Methods We reviewed the records of patients who underwent mitral valve replacement with or without (control) TR repair (DeVega or Kay procedure) from January 2005 to December 2008. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative echocardiographic measurements included right ventricular and atrial diameter, interventricular septum size, TR severity, ejection fraction, and pulmonary artery pressure. Results A total of 89 patients were included (control, n = 50; DeVega, n = 27; Kay, n = 12). Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between groups. Cardiac variables were similar between the DeVega and Kay groups. Right atrium and ventricular diameter and ejection fraction were significantly decreased postoperatively both in the control and operation (DeVega + Kay) group (P < 0.05). Pulmonary artery pressure was significantly decreased postoperatively in-operation groups (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that surgical intervention for TR should be considered during mitral valve replacement if any of the following preoperative criteria are met: right atrial transverse diameter > 57 mm; right ventricular end-diastolic diameter > 55 mm; pulmonary artery pressure > 58 mmHg. Conclusions Our findings suggest echocardiography may be used as a rapid and simple means of determining which patients require TR repair during mitral valve replacement. PMID:22443513
Mitral effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) using the flow convergence (FC) method is used to quantify the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). However, it is challenging and prone to interobserver variability in complex valvular pathology. We hypothesized that real-time three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D TEE) derived anatomic regurgitant orifice area (AROA) can be a reasonable adjunct, irrespective of valvular geometry. Our goals were to 1) to determine the regurgitant orifice morphology and distance suitable for FC measurement using 3D computational flow dynamics and finite element analysis (FEA), and (2) to measure AROA from RT3D TEE and compare it with 2D FC derived EROA measurements. We studied 61 patients. EROA was calculated from 2D TEE images using the 2D-FC technique, and AROA was obtained from zoomed RT3DE TEE acquisitions using prototype software. 3D computational fluid dynamics by FEA were applied to 3D TEE images to determine the effects of mitral valve (MV) orifice geometry on FC pattern. 3D FEA analysis revealed that a central regurgitant orifice is suitable for FC measurements at an optimal distance from the orifice but complex MV orifice resulting in eccentric jets yielded nonaxisymmetric isovelocity contours close to the orifice where the assumptions underlying FC are problematic. EROA and AROA measurements correlated well (r = 0.81) with a nonsignificant bias. However, in patients with eccentric MR, the bias was larger than in central MR. Intermeasurement variability was higher for the 2D FC technique than for RT3DE-based measurements. With its superior reproducibility, 3D analysis of the AROA is a useful alternative to quantify MR when 2D FC measurements are challenging. PMID:21666109
Chandra, Sonal; Salgo, Ivan S.; Sugeng, Lissa; Weinert, Lynn; Settlemier, Scott H.; Mor-Avi, Victor
Little information is available on the prevalence and determinants of valvular regurgitation in the general population. This study sought to assess the prevalence and clinical determinants of mitral (MR), tricuspid (TR), and aortic (AR) regurgitation in a population-based cohort. Color Doppler echocardiography was performed in 1,696 men and 1,893 women (aged 54 ± 10 years) attending a routine examination at
Jagmeet P Singh; Jane C Evans; Daniel Levy; Martin G Larson; Lisa A Freed; Deborah L Fuller; Birgitta Lehman; Emelia J Benjamin
We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptomatic mitral regurgitation caused by a left-to-right shunt via anastomoses consisting of microfistulae, most likely of inflammatory origin, between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. The three arteries responsible for fistulous formation, including the internal mammary, thyrocervical, and lateral thoracic arteries, were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization using superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) particles combined with metallic coils. No complications have been identified following treatment with SAP-MS particles. This approach significantly reduced the patient's mitral regurgitation and she has remained asymptomatic for more than 4 years.
Iwazawa, Jin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Nissay Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nakamura, Kenji; Hamuro, Masao; Nango, Mineyoshi; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nishida, Norifumi [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)
Herein, we report a case of a 39-year-old woman with an 18-month history of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe functional mitral regurgitation and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%. Despite optimal medical therapy, she was in New York Heart Association heart failure class IV, with dyspnea on minimal exertion. The patient underwent minimally invasive mitral valve repair with placement of a papillary muscle sling, which improved her symptoms. PMID:23422810
Benjo, Alexandre M; Macedo, Franscisco Y B; Santana, Orlando; Lamelas, Joseph
Increasing life expectancy and comorbid conditions, like obesity, especially in industrialized countries, have led to Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) becoming a major epidemic. Mitral valve disease currently accounts for nearly 10% of Valvular Heart Disease in industrialized countries worldwide. It is a known fact that, left untreated, degenerative mitral valve disease not only shortens an individual's life, but is also associated with increased morbidity. Despite current guidelines, there is often marked delay in appropriately sending patients for consideration of surgical intervention-interventions that when performed well can dramatically restore patients to a more normal lifespan. The critical question is really not what the severity of the mitral regurgitation is, but what the effect of the mitral regurgitation is on the heart. Modern day echocardiography utilizing Transthoracic Echo, Stress Echo, and Transesophageal Echo, can provide the clinician and the surgeon with six key factors that when taken together provide clear direction as to the proper timing for consideration for mitral valve repair. Thinking of these in an integrative fashion, the clinician and the surgeon can more appropriately time proper surgical intervention in primary degenerative mitral regurgitation. PMID:24349982
Martin, Randolph P
Increasing life expectancy and comorbid conditions, like obesity, especially in industrialized countries, have led to Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) becoming a major epidemic. Mitral valve disease currently accounts for nearly 10% of Valvular Heart Disease in industrialized countries worldwide. It is a known fact that, left untreated, degenerative mitral valve disease not only shortens an individual’s life, but is also associated with increased morbidity. Despite current guidelines, there is often marked delay in appropriately sending patients for consideration of surgical intervention—interventions that when performed well can dramatically restore patients to a more normal lifespan. The critical question is really not what the severity of the mitral regurgitation is, but what the effect of the mitral regurgitation is on the heart. Modern day echocardiography utilizing Transthoracic Echo, Stress Echo, and Transesophageal Echo, can provide the clinician and the surgeon with six key factors that when taken together provide clear direction as to the proper timing for consideration for mitral valve repair. Thinking of these in an integrative fashion, the clinician and the surgeon can more appropriately time proper surgical intervention in primary degenerative mitral regurgitation. PMID:24349982
Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) represents a common complication after myocardial infarction. The valve is anatomically normal and the incompetence is the result of papillary muscles displacement and annular dilatation, causing leaflets tethering. Functionally the leaflets present a restricted systolic motion due to tethering forces that displaces the coaptation surface toward the left ventricle apex. The patients present poor left ventricular function at the time of surgery and the severity of the mitral regurgitation increases the risk of mortality. Currently there is general agreement to treat surgically severe IMR nevertheless strong evidences for patient with moderate insufficiency remains poor and proper treatment debated. The most effective surgical approach for the treatment of IMR remains debated. Some authors demonstrated that coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) alone is beneficial in patients with IMR. Conversely, in most patients, moderate IMR will persist or worsen after CABG alone which translate in higher long-term mortality as a function of residual mitral regurgitation severity. A probable reason for this unclear surgical management of functional MR is due to the contemporary suboptimal results of reparative techniques. The standard surgical treatment of chronic IMR is CABG associated with undersized annuloplasty using complete ring. Though, the recurrence of mitral regurgitation remains high (> 30%) because of continous left ventricle remodeling. To get better long term results, in the last decade, several subvalvular procedures in adjunct to mitral anuloplasty have been developed. Among them, surgical papillary muscle relocation represents the most appreciated option capable to restore normal left ventricle geometry. In the next future new preoperative predictors of increased mitral regurgitation recurrence are certainly needed to find an individual time period of treatment in each patient with moderate IMR.
Fattouch, Khalil; Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Murana, Giacomo; Moscarelli, Marco; Speziale, Giuseppe
Objective Management of intermediate degrees of mitral regurgitation (MR) during aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis remains controversial. We sought to evaluate the degree of reduction of MR in patients undergoing AVR, as well as the relationship between the pre-operative gradient across the aortic valve and the degree of reduction in MR. Methods We retrospectively analyzed demographic, intraoperative, and echocardiographic data on 802 patients that underwent AVR or aortic root replacement between January 2010 and March 2011. 578 patients underwent AVR or aortic root replacement without intervention on the mitral valve. We excluded 88 patients with severe aortic insufficiency, 3 patients that underwent ventricular assist device placement, 4 patients that underwent prior mitral valve replacement, and 21 patients with incomplete data yielding 462 patients for analysis. MR was graded for each patient and the degree of change in MR for each patient was determined by subtracting the grade of pre-operative MR from the degree of post-operative MR. Results Of the 462 patients, 289 patients had at least mild MR. On average, MR was downgraded by 0.24 degrees per patient for this cohort of 289 patients. Of the 56 patients with at least moderate MR, MR was downgraded 0.54 degrees per patient. Of 62 patients that underwent AVR only, had at least mild MR, and no evidence of structural mitral valve disease, downgrading of MR was 0.24 degrees per patient. Linear regression analysis revealed no relationship between reduction in MR and pre-operative gradient across the aortic valve. Conclusions Reduction in MR after relief of aortic outflow tract obstruction is modest at best. Further, the magnitude of the pre-operative gradient across the aortic valve has little influence on the degree of reduction in MR. These observations argue in favor of performing a prospective evaluation of the clinical benefits of addressing moderate MR at the time of aortic valve intervention. PMID:23245347
Kaczorowski, David J.; MacArthur, John W.; Howard, Jessica; Kobrin, Dale; Fairman, Alex; Woo, Y. Joseph
We describe a case of revascularization for anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), later successfully converted to an indigenous left ventricular assist device (LVAD) functionally resulted in the spontaneous resolution of MR and satisfactory recovery of LV function. PMID:23804922
Makhija, Zeena; Awasthy, Neeraj; Mohera, Anil; Sharma, Rajesh; Kaushal, Sunil
Changes in the geometric and intravalvular relationships between subunits of the ovine mitral valve were measured before and after acute posterior wall myocardial infarction in three dimensions by means of sonomicrometry array localization. In 13 sheep, nine sonomicrometer transducers were attached around the mitral anulus and to the tip and base of each papillary muscle. Five additional transducers were placed
Robert C Gorman; James S McCaughan; Mark B Ratcliffe; Krishanu B Gupta; James T Streicher; Victor A Ferrari; Martin G St. John-Sutton; Daniel K Bogen; L. Henry Edmunds
Abstract Objectives: Ischemic mitral regurgitation results from annular dilatation, leaflet tethering and leaflet flattening. Undersized annuloplasty corrects annular dilatation but worsens leaflet tethering and flattening. This exacerbation of abnormal leaflet geometry may contribute to poor repair results for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Using a sheep model of IMR, we hypothesized that posterior leaflet augmentation and less-extreme annular undersizing would relieve tethering and increase leaflet curvature. Methods: Eight weeks after posterolateral infarct, 10 sheep with ?2+ IMR underwent either a 24-mm planar ring annuloplasty (n = 5) or a 30-mm planar ring annuloplasty with concomitant posterior leaflet augmentation (n = 5). Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography allowed measurement of indices of leaflet curvature and tethering before and after annuloplasty. Results: Comparing pre- and post-repair values in the P1, P2, and P3 leaflet regions, undersized 24-mm ring annuloplasty made no significant difference to mean septolateral curvature (0.23–0.26, 0.33–0.29, and 0.27–0.37 cm?1, respectively), whereas leaflet augmentation in combination with a 30-mm ring annuloplasty increased septolateral curvature (P1 0.30–1.02, P2 0.31–1.23, and P3 0.35–0.84 cm?1, p-values ? 0.05). The mean tethering angle formed between the annular plane and the posterior leaflet increased in all three posterior regions for the 24-mm ring group (P1 12–23°, P2 26–31°, and P3 16–25°), but decreased in all regions for the group undergoing leaflet augmentation (P1 +5 to ?6°, P2 +13 to ?13°, P3 +16-15°, all p-values ? 0.05). Conclusions: Undersized annuloplasty exacerbates leaflet tethering. Posterior leaflet augmentation with less severe annular reduction increases leaflet curvature and decreases tethering; this technique more completely addresses the pathogenic mechanism of IMR and may improve repair durability. PMID:21546260
Robb, J. Daniel; Minakawa, Masahito; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; Shuto, Takashi; Jassar, Arminder S.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.
The early mitral filling velocity (E)/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') ratio is increasingly being used as a simplified approach to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. The validity of applying this Doppler parameter to patients with severe mitral regurgitation is unknown. We retrospectively identified 20 patients in sinus rhythm who had LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) invasively measured within 72 hours of a full echocardiogram including diastolic parameters. We observed a poor correlation between E/E' ratio and LVEDP in these patients (r = -0.07, P = not significant). Previously described E/E' cut-off values did not accurately identify patients with low, intermediate, and high LVEDP. Of the diastolic parameters measured, the most significant correlation with LVEDP was found with mitral deceleration time (r = -0.66, P = .002) and systolic/diastolic peak velocity ratio (r = -0.52, P = .02). We conclude that E/E' ratio is not reliable in predicting LV filling pressure in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation, and that in these cases mitral deceleration time or systolic/diastolic peak velocity ratio may be better indicators of LVEDP. PMID:16423674
Olson, Jeffrey J; Costa, Salvatore P; Young, Christine E; Palac, Robert T
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.
Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.
Surgicel, an absorbable haemostat, is widely used in cardiovascular surgery. An 81-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with ischaemic mitral regurgitation, underwent mitral valve plasty and coronary artery bypass grafting. On postoperative day two, her superior vena cava (SVC) pressure gradually rose to 38 mmHg and she developed low output syndrome. Emergent surgery revealed that the cause of SVC syndrome was external compression from a haematoma at the posterior surface of the SVC, which formed around the Surgicel. PMID:24387601
Previous studies relating Doppler parameters and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) typically exclude patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of chronic MR on the Doppler estimation of PCWP. PCWP and mitral Doppler profiles were obtained in 88 patients (mean age 55 +/- 8 years) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 23% +/- 5%). Patients were classified by severity of MR. Patients with severe MR had greater left atrial areas, LV end-diastolic volumes, and mean PCWPs and lower ejection fractions (each P <.01). In patients with mild MR, multiple echocardiographic parameters correlated with PCWP; however, with worsening MR, only deceleration time strongly related to PCWP. From stepwise multivariate analysis, deceleration time was the best independent predictor of PCWP overall, and it was the only predictor in patients with moderate or severe MR. Doppler-derived early mitral deceleration time reliably predicts PCWP in patients with severe LV dysfunction irrespective of degree of MR.
Temporelli, P. L.; Scapellato, F.; Corra, U.; Eleuteri, E.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Giannuzzi, P.
Background Mitral regurgitation is the most common indication for re-operation in children following repair of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). We hypothesized that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy would decrease the severity of mitral regurgitation and limit left ventricular volume overload in children following AVSD repair. Methods The Pediatric Heart Network designed a placebo-controlled randomized trial of enalapril in this population. The primary aim was to test the effect of enalapril on the change in left ventricular end-diastolic dimension body surface area-adjusted Z-score. Prior to the launch of the trial, a feasibility study was performed to estimate the number of patients with at least moderate mitral regurgitation following AVSD repair. Trial Experience Seventeen months after the start of the study, 349 patients were screened, 8 were trial eligible and only 5 were enrolled. The study was subsequently terminated due to low patient accrual. Several factors led to the problems with patient accrual including: 1) the use of criteria to assess disease severity in the feasibility study that were not identical to those used in the trial; 2) failure to achieve equipoise for the study among clinicians and referring physicians; 3) reliance on methodology developed in adult populations with different disease mechanisms; 4) absence of adequate data to define the natural history of the disease process under study. Progress in the treatment of children with cardiovascular disease will depend on the future of multi-center collaborative clinical trials. The lessons learned from this study may contribute to improvements in this research. PMID:21315203
Li, Jennifer S.; Colan, Steven D.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Newburger, Jane W.; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Atz, Andrew M.; Cohen, Meryl S.; Golding, Fraser; Klein, Gloria L.; Lacro, Ronald V.; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Richmond, Marc E.; Minich, L. LuAnn
Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) generally accompanies infero-basal myocardial infarction (MI), with leaflet tethering by displaced papillary muscles (PMs). MR is also reported with antero-apical MI without global dilatation or inferior wall-motion abnormalities. We hypothesized that anteroapical MI extending to the inferior apex displaces the PMs, tethering the mitral leaflets to cause MR. Methods and Results Retrospective study: Consecutive anteroapical MI patients were studied. Moderate-severe MR occurred in 9% of 234 pts with only anteroapical MI versus 17% of 242 with inferoapical extension (p<0.001). EF was only mildly different (41±4% vs 46±5%, p<0.01). Human mechanistic study: Sixty anteroapical MI patients (20 with only two apical segments involved and 40 with involvement of all 4 apical segments, 20 with MR and 20 without MR), were compared to 20 normal controls. Those with MR (moderate) had higher systolic PM-to-annulus tethering length (TL) (p<0.01). MR grade correlated most strongly with TL (r=0.70) and its diminished systolic shortening (r=?0.65). Animal study: 9 sheep with LAD ligation were analyzed. Four sheep that developed MR had inferoapical MI extension with TL increasing over 1.5 months (2.1±0.4 to 2.9±0.4 cm, p<0.001), versus no significant increase in 5 sheep without MR (2.0±0.4 to 2.1±0.3 cm, p=NS). In MR sheep, the normal decrease in TL from diastole to systole was eliminated (p<0.01). Conclusions Anteroapical MI with inferoapical extension can mechanically displace PMs, causing MR despite the absence of basal and mid-inferior wall motion abnormalities. This suggests the possibility of repositioning treatments for this condition. PMID:21444880
Yosefy, Chaim; Beeri, Ronen; Guerrero, J. Luis; Vaturi, Mordehay; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Levine, Robert A.
Background In asymptomatic patients with severe isolated mitral regurgitation (MR), identifying the onset of early left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can guide the timing of surgical intervention. We hypothesized that changes in LV transmural myocardial strain represent an early marker of LV dysfunction in an ovine chronic MR model. Methods and Results Sheep were randomized to control (CTRL, n=8) or experimental (EXP, n=12) groups. In EXP, a 3.5- or 4.8-mm hole was created in the posterior mitral leaflet to generate “pure” MR. Transmural beadsets were inserted into the lateral and anterior LV wall to radiographically measure 3-dimensional transmural strains during systole and diastolic filling, at 1 and 12 weeks postoperatively. MR grade was higher in EXP than CTRL at 1 and 12 weeks (3.0 [2–4] versus 0.5 [0–2]; 3.0 [1–4] versus 0.5 [0–1], respectively, both P<0.001). At 12 weeks, LV mass index was greater in EXP than CTRL (201±18 versus 173±17 g/m2; P<0.01). LVEDVI increased in EXP from 1 to 12 weeks (P=0.015). Between the 1 and 12 week values, the change in BNP (?4.5±4.4 versus ?3.0±3.6 pmol/L), PRSW (9±13 versus 23±18 mm Hg), tau (?3±11 versus ?4±7 ms), and systolic strains was similar between EXP and CTRL. The changes in longitudinal diastolic filling strains between 1 and 12 weeks, however, were greater in EXP versus CTRL in the subendocardium (lateral: ?0.08±0.05 versus 0.02±0.14; anterior: ?0.10±0.05 versus ?0.02±0.07, both P<0.01). Conclusions Twelve weeks of ovine “pure” MR caused LV remodeling with early changes in LV function detected by alterations in transmural myocardial strain, but not by changes in BNP, PRSW, or tau. PMID:18824764
Carlhäll, Carl J.; Nguyen, Tom C.; Itoh, Akinobu; Ennis, Daniel B.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Liang, David; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig
The pacing-induced heart failure model provides an opportunity to assess the structural and functional determinants of mitral regurgitation (MR) in dilated cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to evaluate MR to better understand the multitude of factors contributing to its development. Heart failure was induced by rapid ventricular pacing (230 beats/min) in 40 mongrel dogs. Left ventricular (LV) size and MR were evaluated echocardiographically. LV contractility was analyzed using a conductance catheter. MR increased to mild in 12 animals (regurgitant orifice area, 0.06+/-0.05 cm(2)), moderate in 15 (0.14+/-0.07 cm(2)), and severe in 13 (0.34+/-0.16 cm(2)). The grade of MR had an inverse relationships with E(max) (the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, p<0.01) and dE/dt (the slope of the maximum rate of change of pressure-end-diastolic volume [V(ED)] relationship, p<0.01) and positive relationships with V(ED) and end-diastolic cross-sectional areas and lengths (p<0.05) by univariate analysis. The dE/dt had an independently significant (p<0.01) relationship by multivariable logistic regression. Many factors influence the development of MR and because of its similarity to the clinical situation, this model can be used to investigate MR and heart failure, as well as new surgical therapies. PMID:12520157
Takagaki, Masami; McCarthy, Patrick M; Goormastic, Marlene; Ochiai, Yoshie; Doi, Kazuyoshi; Kopcak, Michael W; Tabata, Tomotsugu; Cardon, Lisa A; Thomas, James D; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), the most frequent cause of severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation, often warrants surgical or interventional valve repair. The severity of mitral regurgitation positively correlates with the development of heart failure and death. Even in patients who are asymptomatic, severe mitral regurgitation causes higher rates of death, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Repair procedures for mitral regurgitation have progressed to include leaflet repair, chordal transfer, ring or band annuloplasty, and new percutaneous procedures. In planning for mitral valve repair, detection and localization of mitral valve abnormalities are important. The causes of mitral regurgitation include degenerative mitral valve (eg, prolapsed leaflet, myxomatous degeneration, and Barlow disease [excessive degenerated tissues with elongated chordae]). Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is helpful for depicting mitral valve abnormalities. It allows complete visualization of cardiac anatomic features, including the coronary arteries, paravalvular structures, and cardiac wall motion. This review addresses the role of cardiac CT in depicting anatomic features of the mitral valve, provides a practical method for localizing the exact site of MVP, and discusses the CT findings of various causes of mitral regurgitation. The first step in reconstructing CT images for MVP is to select the best cardiac phase for depicting the anatomic features of the mitral valve. Additional views of the mitral valve then show the specific mitral valve abnormality. This article provides technical tips for demonstrating MVP with CT, as well as imaging results for various causes of MVP and intraoperative findings. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014. PMID:25310416
Koo, Hyun Jung; Yang, Dong Hyun; Oh, Sang Young; Kang, Joon-Won; Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Jae Won; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lim, Tae-Hwan
Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously-developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg\\/ml) and relaxation (?=40-150 ms) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0-0.8 cm 2). Improvements in forward stroke volume
M. S. Firstenberg; N. L. Greenberg; N. G. Smedira; P. M. McCarthy; M. J. Garcia; J. D. Thomas
We describe a case of successful percutaneous closure of a moderate-sized paravalvular leak using the Amplatzer septal occluder device in a patient with excessive surgical risk. We were able to successfully close the paravalvular leak without interfering with normal prosthetic valve leaflet function. In patients with severe periprosthetic mitral regurgitation refractory to aggressive medical therapy who are not candidates for surgical intervention, use of the Amplatzer septal occluder device offers an attractive percutaneous treatment option. PMID:17268052
Momplaisir, Thierry; Matthews, Ray V
Objective: Severe mitral regurgitation is a frequent complication of end-stage cardiomyopathy that contributes to heart failure and predicts a poor survival. We studied the intermediate-term outcome of mitral reconstruction in 48 patients who had cardiomyopathy with severe mitral regurgitation and were operated on between June 1993 and June 1997. Methods: Ages ranged from 33 to 79 years (63 ± 6 years)
Steven F. Bolling; Francis D. Pagani; G. Michael Deeb; David S. Bach
While many investigators have measured the turbulent stresses associated with forward flow through tilting disk heart valves, only recently has attention been given to the regurgitant jets formed as fluid is squeezed through the gap between the occluder and housing of a closed valve. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of gap width on the turbulent stresses of the regurgitant jets through a Björk-Shiley monostrut tilting disk heart valve seated in the mitral position of a Penn State artificial heart. A 2 component laser-Doppler velocimetry system with a temporal resolution of 1 ms was used to measure the instantaneous velocities in the regurgitant jets in the major and minor orifices around the mitral valve. The gap width was controlled through temperature variation by taking advantage of the large difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the Delrin occluder and the Stellite housing of Björk-Shiley monostrut valves. The turbulent shear stress and mean (ensemble averaged) velocity were incorporated into a model of red blood cell damage to assess the potential for hemolytic damage at each gap width investigated. The results revealed that the minor orifice tends to form stronger jets during regurgitant flow than the major orifice, indicating that the gap width is not uniform around the circumference of the valve. Based on the results of a red blood cell damage model, the hemolytic potential of the mitral valve decreases as the gap width increases. This investigation also established that the hemolytic potential of the regurgitant phase of valve operation is comparable to, if not greater than, the hemolytic potential of forward flow, consistent with experimental data on hemolysis. PMID:9288873
Maymir, J C; Deutsch, S; Meyer, R S; Geselowitz, D B; Tarbell, J M
This study was intended to evaluate the diagnostic value of three dimensional proximal isovelocity surface area (3D PISA) derived effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) and the accuracy of automatic 3D PISA detection in a population resembling clinical practice. Quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR) remains challenging and 3D PISA EROA is a novel diagnostic tool with promising results. However its' usefulness compared to guideline endorsed parameters has not been shown. In 93 consecutive patients examined in routine practice conventional parameters and 3D-datasets for offline 3D PISA evaluation were recorded. EROA was determined from the largest (peak) PISA and also averaged over systole for meanEROA. Results of 3D PISA calculation were compared with a combination of expert grading by two examiners and two scores for MR grading. In receiver operator characteristic-analysis the meanEROA as determined by 3D PISA had the best diagnostic value (AUC = 0.907 CI 0.832-0.983) as compared to peakEROA (AUC 0.840 CI 0.739-0.941), vena contracta width (AUC 0.831 CI 0.745-0.918) and 2D PISA (AUC 0.747 CI 0.644-0.850). A meanEROA of 0.15 cm(2) had a sensitivity of 88.2 % and a specificity of 81.4 % for distinguishing severe from non-severe MR. Semiautomatic 3D PISA detection correlated very well with manually corrected values (r = 0.955). Semiautomatic 3D PISA measurement is feasible in a clinical population and has better diagnostic value compared to 2D PISA. Calculation of mean EROA throughout systole further improves diagnostic value compared to conventional parameters. PMID:25037470
Schmidt, Frank P; Gniewosz, Theresa; Jabs, Alexander; Münzel, Thomas; Hink, Ulrich; Lancellotti, Patrizio; von Bardeleben, Ralph-Stephan
Objective Non-ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is primarily caused by myxomatous mitral valve (MV) disease leading to adaptive remodeling, enlargement, and dysfunction of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of plasma markers and several cardiac key genes in a novel porcine model of non-ischemic MR. Methods and results Twenty-eight production pigs (Sus scrofa) were randomized to experimental MR or sham surgery controls. MR was induced by external suture(s) through the posterior MV leaflet and quantified using echocardiography. The experimental group was subdivided into mild MR (mMR, MR=20–50%, n=10) and moderate/severe MR (sMR, MR >50%, n=6) and compared with controls (CON, MR ?10%, n=12). Eight weeks postoperatively, follow-up examinations were performed followed by killing. Circulating concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP), l-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were measured. MV, anterior papillary muscle, and left ventricular free wall tissues were collected to quantify mRNA expression of eNOS (NOS3), iNOS (NOS2), MMP9, MMP14, ANP (NPPA), BNP (NPPB), and TGFB1, 2, and 3 and five microRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR. Pigs with sMR displayed markedly increased plasma proANP and SDMA concentrations compared with both controls and mMR (P<0.05). The expression of all genes examined differed significantly between the three localizations in the heart. miR-21 and miR-133a were differently expressed among the experimental groups (P<0.05). Conclusions Plasma proANP and SDMA levels and tissue expression of miR-21 and miR-133a are associated with severity of chronic MR in an experimental porcine model. PMID:24029364
Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Zois, Nora E; Ravn, Nathja; Goetze, Jens P; Cremer, Signe E; Teerlink, Tom; Leifsson, Pall S; Honge, Jesper L; Hasenkam, J Michael; Olsen, Lisbeth H
Geometric differences of the mitral valve tenting between anterior and inferior myocardial infarction with significant ischemic mitral regurgitation: quantitation by novel software system with transthoracic real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.
We sought to investigate the 3-dimensional geometric differences of mitral leaflet tenting in ischemic mitral regurgitation, comparing inferior and anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography, we obtained transthoracic volumetric images for patients with significant ischemic mitral regurgitation (9 inferior and 7 anterior). With our novel software system, 3-dimensional images of the leaflets were reconstructed for quantitation. Mitral leaflet configuration was then represented in contour in which the degree of the tenting could be observed. Calculated percent of tethered leaflet area (>5-mm tenting from the annular level) was compared in inferior and anterior MI. Percent of tethered leaflet area was significantly smaller in inferior than anterior MI, reflecting the localized leaflet tenting in inferior MI (16.7 +/- 18.8% vs 38.9 +/- 9.7%, P = .01). In anterior MI, mitral valve leaflets were widely tethered toward the left ventricle, in contrast with inferior MI showing localized tenting of the leaflet. PMID:16423672
Watanabe, Nozomi; Ogasawara, Yasuo; Yamaura, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Katsunori; Wada, Nozomi; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Toyota, Eiji; Akasaka, Takashi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi
Pulmonary hypertension has been associated with mitral insufficiency caused by chronic degenerative valve disease in dogs. Our aim was to search for associations between left atrial to aortic root ratio, end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices, and changes in the right ventricular to right atrial pressure gradient as estimated by the peak velocity of tricuspid regurgitation in dogs with chronic degenerative valve disease and different classes of heart failure. Dogs, for which follow-up was available were evaluated for changes in the right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient over time. Three hundred and forty-four dogs were studied; 51 in the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council class la, 75 in class 1b, 113 in class 2, 97 in class 3a, and 8 in class 3b. The mean values for right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient, end-systolic volume index, end-diastolic volume index, and left atrial to aortic ratio were 49.2 +/- 17.1 mmHg, 149.12 +/- 60.8 and 37.7 +/- 21.6 ml/m2, and 1.9 +/- 0.5, respectively. A weak positive correlation was found between the right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient and the left atrial to aorta ratio (r = 0.242, P < 0.0001), end-diastolic volume index (r = 0.242, P < 0.0001), and end-systolic volume index (r = 0.129, P < 0.001). Follow up was available for 49 dogs. Of these, 18 had an increased, 12 a decreased, and 19 a stable right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient despite therapy. The equivalence point between the sensitivity and specificity curves of about 80% in the coincident point corresponded to a right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient of 48 mmHg. Our results suggest an association between the progressive nature of chronic degenerative mitral valve disease and pulmonary hypertension. It is of clinical interest that, with a right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient pressure gradient at or above 48 mmHg, pulmonary hypertension does not appear to improve despite therapy targeted at lowering the left atrial load. PMID:19507386
Chiavegato, David; Borgarelli, Michele; D'Agnolo, Gino; Santilli, Roberto A
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare the changes and correlations between pulmonary venous flow variables and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP) under different loading conditions in animals with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) and without MR. METHODS: A total of 85 hemodynamic conditions were studied in 22 sheep, 12 without MR as control (NO-MR group) and 10 with MR (MR group). We obtained pulmonary venous flow systolic velocity (Sv) and diastolic velocity (Dv), Sv and Dv time integrals, their ratios (Sv/Dv and Sv/Dv time integral), mLAP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and MR stroke volume. We also measured left atrial a, x, v, and y pressures and calculated the difference between v and y pressures. RESULTS: Average MR stroke volume was 10.6 +/- 4.3 mL/beat. There were good correlations between Sv (r = -0.64 and r = -0.59, P <.01), Sv/Dv (r = -0.62 and r = -0.74, P <.01), and mLAP in the MR and NO-MR groups, respectively. Correlations were also observed between Dv time integral (r = 0.61 and r = 0.57, P <.01) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in the MR and NO-MR groups. In velocity variables, Sv (r = -0.79, P <.001) was the best predictor of mLAP in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of Sv = 0 in predicting mLAP 15 mm Hg or greater were 86% and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary venous flow variables correlated well with mLAP under altered loading conditions in the MR and NO-MR groups. They may be applied clinically as substitutes for invasively acquired indexes of mLAP to assess left atrial and left ventricular functional status.
Yang, Hua; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Kim, Yong Jin; Popovic, Zoran B.; Pu, Min; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Eto, Yoko; Sitges, Marta; Zetts, Arthur D.; Thomas, James D.
Previous echocardiographic techniques for quantifying valvular regurgitation are limited by factors including uncertainties for orifice location and a hemispheric convergence assumption that often results in over- and underestimation of flow rate and regurgitant orifice area. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, these factors were eliminated, allowing a more accurate assessment of regurgitation. A model was developed to allow automated quantification of regurgitant orifice diameter based on the centerline velocity data available from color M-mode echocardiography. The model, validated using in vitro unsteady flow data, demonstrated improved accuracy for orifice diameter (y=0.95x + 0.38, r=0.96) and volume (y=1.18x - 4.72, r=0.93).
Deserranno, D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.
Although alteration in pulmonary venous flow has been reported to relate to mitral regurgitant severity, it is also known to vary with left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction. There are few data relating pulmonary venous flow to quantitative indexes of mitral regurgitation (MR). The object of this study was to assess quantitatively the accuracy of pulmonary venous flow for predicting MR severity by using transesophageal echocardiographic measurement in patients with variable LV dysfunction. This study consisted of 73 patients undergoing heart surgery with mild to severe MR. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA), regurgitant stroke volume (RSV), and regurgitant fraction (RF) were obtained by quantitative transesophageal echocardiography and proximal isovelocity surface area. Both left and right upper pulmonary venous flow velocities were recorded and their patterns classified by the ratio of systolic to diastolic velocity: normal (>/=1), blunted (<1), and systolic reversal (<0). Twenty-three percent of patients had discordant patterns between the left and right veins. When the most abnormal patterns either in the left or right vein were used for analysis, the ratio of peak systolic to diastolic flow velocity was negatively correlated with ROA (r = -0.74, P <.001), RSV (r = -0.70, P <.001), and RF (r = -0.66, P <.001) calculated by the Doppler thermodilution method; values were r = -0.70, r = -0.67, and r = -0.57, respectively (all P <.001), for indexes calculated by the proximal isovelocity surface area method. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversed pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a large ROA (>0.3 cm(2)) were 69%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the normal pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a small ROA (<0.3 cm(2)) were 60%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. However, the blunted pattern had low sensitivity (22%), specificity (61%), and predictive values (30%) for detecting ROA of greater than 0.3 cm(2) with significant overlap with the reversed and normal patterns. Among patients with the blunted pattern, the correlation between the systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was worse in those with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%, r = 0.23, P >.05) than in those with normal LV function (r = -0.57, P <.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the peak systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was independently correlated with RF (P <.001) and effective stroke volume (P <.01), with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.71 (P <.001). In conclusion, reversed pulmonary venous flow in systole is a highly specific and reliable marker of moderately severe or severe MR with an ROA greater than 0.3 cm(2), whereas the normal pattern accurately predicts mild to moderate MR. Blunted pulmonary venous flow can be seen in all grades of MR with low predictive value for severity of MR, especially in the presence of LV dysfunction. The blunted pulmonary venous flow pattern must therefore be interpreted cautiously in clinical practice as a marker for severity of MR.
Pu, M.; Griffin, B. P.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Stewart, W. J.; Fan, X.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Thomas, J. D.
We report a case of a staged surgical and endovascular management in a 62-year-old woman with aortic coarctation associated with aortic valve stenosis and mitral regurgitation. The patient was admitted for severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve incompetence. During hospitalization and preoperative imaging, a previously undiagnosed aortic coarctation was discovered. The patient underwent a 2-stage approach that combined a Bentall procedure and mitral valve replacement in the first stage, followed by correction of the aortic coarctation by percutaneous placement of an Advanta V12 large-diameter stent graft (Atrium, Mijdrecht, The Netherlands) which to our knowledge has not been used in an adult patient with this combination of additional cardiac comorbidities. A staged approach combining surgical treatment first and endovascular placement of an Advanta V12 stent graft in the second stage can be effective and safe in adult patients with coarctation of the aorta and additional cardiac comorbidities. PMID:24332897
Novosel, Luka; Perkov, Dražen; Dobrota, Savko; ?ori?, Vedran; Štern Padovan, Ranka
Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg/ml) and relaxation (tau: 40-150 msec) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0 to 0.8 cm2). Improvements in forward stroke volume (fSV) were determined for the permutations of reduced MRa. For all conditions, LV end-diastolic pressure and volumes ranged from 7.3-24.2 mmHg and 64.8-174.3 ml, respectively. Overall, fSV ranged from 36.0-89.4 (mean: 64.2 +/- 12.8) ml, improved between 6.4 and 35.3% (mean: 15.6 +/- 8.1%), and was best predicted by (r=0.97, p<0.01) %delta(fSV)[correction of fVS]=34[MRa initial] - 46[MRa final] -0.5[elastance]. Reduced MRa, independent of relaxation and minimally influence by contractility, yield improved fSVs. PMID:14640110
Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Smedira, N G; McCarthy, P M; Garcia, M J; Thomas, J D
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a common and critical condition in patients with heart failure (HF); however, the prevalence and clinical outcome of FMR in Japanese real-world clinical practice remain unclear. Within a single hospital-based cohort in the Shinken Database 2004-2011, which comprised all new patients (n = 17,517) who visited the Cardiovascular Institute, we followed symptomatic HF patients. A total of 1,701 patients were included: 104 FMR patients (who had moderate to severe FMR) and 1,597 non-FMR patients (who had none or mild FMR). FMR patients had lower rates of hypertension and dyslipidemia, but higher rates of dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. FMR patients had higher levels of brain natriuretic peptide and lower left ventricular function. Use of cardiovascular drugs was more common among FMR patients. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that the incidences of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and admission for HF were significantly higher in FMR patients. The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed that significant FMR was associated with higher incidences of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) 2.179, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.266-3.751; P = 0.005], cardiovascular death (HR 2.371, 95 % CI 1.157-4.858; P = 0.018), and admission for HF (HR 1.819, 95 % CI 1.133-2.920; P = 0.013). FMR was common in Japanese symptomatic HF patients and was associated with adverse long-term outcomes. Establishing optimal therapeutic strategies for FMR is warranted. PMID:24275908
Kaneko, Hidehiro; Suzuki, Shinya; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Otsuka, Takayuki; Takai, Hideaki; Oikawa, Yuji; Yajima, Junji; Koike, Akira; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Sagara, Koichi; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi
There is uncertainty and debate regarding whether ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is a secondary epiphenomenon resulting from left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or confers an independent effect on exercise capacity and outcomes. We tested whether ischemic MR negatively affects exercise capacity and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with inferior wall motion abnormality independent of LV dysfunction. Clinical follow-up over 5 years was obtained in 77 patients (64 ± 10 years old, LV ejection fraction 54 ± 11%) with at least mild ischemic MR from CAD and evidence of inferior wall motion abnormality who had exercise stress testing with perfusion imaging within 24 hours of echocardiography. Patients with active heart failure, ischemia, intrinsic valve disease, pulmonary and vascular diseases were excluded. Exercise capacity (METs, peak double product) was tested for relation to MR (vena contracta [VC] and jet area), LV size and function, and pulmonary pressures. Cox proportional hazards analysis assessed whether MR predicted cardiovascular events including hospitalization for heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, and myocardial infarction and cardiovascular and total mortalities. Univariate correlation identified MR with VC (r = -0.674, p <0.0001) and MR jet area (r = -0.575, p <0.0001) as determinants of decreased functional capacity evaluated by METs, with VC the stronger predictor. MR VC >2 mm (moderate ischemic MR) and age were independent predictors of cardiovascular events and death (hazard ratio 6.72 for MR, p = 0.04). In conclusion, in patients with CAD and LV inferior wall motion abnormality, MR negatively affects exercise capacity and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This effect appears independent of degree of LV dysfunction. PMID:21943932
Szymanski, Catherine; Levine, Robert A; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Zheng, Hui; Handschumacher, Mark D; Tawakol, Ahmed; Hung, Judy
A 35-year-old female, mother of 4 children was admitted to the hospital for coronary angiography before scheduled surgical correction of severe mitral insufficiency. During angiography anomalous ostium of left main artery from pulmonary trunk was found. The patient underwent mitral ring correction, implantation of LIMA-LAD graft and ligation of left coronary artery during open heart surgery. PMID:21936347
Wa?czura, Piotr; Or?owski, Maciej; Stecko, Wojciech; Weglarz, Maciej; Skoczy?ski, Kamil; Romanek, Janusz; Kukla, Piotr; Ku?niar, Jerzy
Unusual vanishing interstitial lymphatic "pearls" in a patient presenting with extensive interstitial and mediastinal MDCT features of acute cardiogenic failure related to bradycardia and mitral regurgitation.
Thoracic multidetector computed tomography-MDCT-was simultaneously performed during emergency abdominal CT in a patient presenting with abdominal pain and acute cardiogenic edema related to sick sinus syndrome and mitral prolapse with regurgitation. A constellation of severe but completely reversible interstitial and mediastinal features was found comprising pleural effusions, diffuse alveolar ground glass, thickening of the bronchial walls and septal lines, hazy infiltration of the mediastinal fat, and enlarged lymphatic nodes. Multiple atypical hypodense nodular "pearls" were also found. These oval shape or fusiform pearls were distributed along the thickened septal lines and disappeared completely after treatment. The hypothesis of transient lymphatic ectasia or lakes is proposed for these never previously described abnormalities. PMID:24845053
Coulier, Bruno; El Khoury, Elie; Deprez, Fabrice C; Ghaye, Benoît; Van den Broeck, Stephane; Tourmous, Hussein
We report a 71-year-old man who had severe coronary and cerebral vascular disease with moderate mitral regurgitation (MR). Left ventricular reconstruction and mitral valve surgery were considered for poor left ventricular function and dilatation with MR. However, low blood pressure during cardiac arrest was risk for stroke due to severe stenosis of bilateral vertebral arteries. The myocardial viability of the anterior wall and inferior wall was confirmed by thallium-201 rest-redistribution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Therefore, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) was selected for the patient. Only three Lima sutures were used for keeping the optimal heart position. Coronary anastomoses were done in sequence right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA)-#4 posterior descending (PD), left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-#9-#14 (sequential), RITA-#8 left anterior descending (LAD). No neurological complication occurred postoperatively. Left ventricular function and MR gradually improved. Final ejection fraction (EF) is 51% and MR is trivial. This case demonstrated improvement of MR by only revascularization according to preoperative viability assessment. PMID:19764492
Yanase, Yohsuke; Nakamura, M; Uehara, M; Tabuchi, M; Baba, T; Kanki, K; Hashimoto, A; Higami, T
Background: Quantifying regurgitant volumes is important for treatment of patients with valvular aortic regurgitation. Simple, reliable methods to quantify aortic regurgitation have been sought both in the catheterization laboratory and the echocardiography laboratory. Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the applicability of a new automated cardiac flow measurement method with color Doppler velocity data for quantifying retrograde
Satoshi Aida; Takahiro Shiota; Hiroyuki Tsujino; David J. Sahn
Purpose: Precise 3D modeling of the mitral valve has the potential to improve our understanding of valve morphology, particularly in the setting of mitral regurgitation (MR). Toward this goal, the authors have developed a user-initialized algorithm for reconstructing valve geometry from transesophageal 3D ultrasound (3D US) image data. Methods: Semi-automated image analysis was performed on transesophageal 3D US images obtained from 14 subjects with MR ranging from trace to severe. Image analysis of the mitral valve at midsystole had two stages: user-initialized segmentation and 3D deformable modeling with continuous medial representation (cm-rep). Semi-automated segmentation began with user-identification of valve location in 2D projection images generated from 3D US data. The mitral leaflets were then automatically segmented in 3D using the level set method. Second, a bileaflet deformable medial model was fitted to the binary valve segmentation by Bayesian optimization. The resulting cm-rep provided a visual reconstruction of the mitral valve, from which localized measurements of valve morphology were automatically derived. The features extracted from the fitted cm-rep included annular area, annular circumference, annular height, intercommissural width, septolateral length, total tenting volume, and percent anterior tenting volume. These measurements were compared to those obtained by expert manual tracing. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) measurements were compared to qualitative assessments of MR severity. The accuracy of valve shape representation with cm-rep was evaluated in terms of the Dice overlap between the fitted cm-rep and its target segmentation. Results: The morphological features and anatomic ROA derived from semi-automated image analysis were consistent with manual tracing of 3D US image data and with qualitative assessments of MR severity made on clinical radiology. The fitted cm-reps accurately captured valve shape and demonstrated patient-specific differences in valve morphology among subjects with varying degrees of MR severity. Minimal variation in the Dice overlap and morphological measurements was observed when different cm-rep templates were used to initialize model fitting. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the use of deformable medial modeling for semi-automated 3D reconstruction of mitral valve geometry using transesophageal 3D US. The proposed algorithm provides a parametric geometrical representation of the mitral leaflets, which can be used to evaluate valve morphology in clinical ultrasound images. PMID:22320803
M. Pouch, Alison; A. Yushkevich, Paul; M. Jackson, Benjamin; S. Jassar, Arminder; Vergnat, Mathieu; H. Gorman, Joseph; C. Gorman, Robert; M. Sehgal, Chandra
Mitral valve repair is the preferred surgical treatment for mitral regurgitation. Cardiac surgeons must increasingly pursue high-quality mitral valve repair, which ensures excellent long-term outcomes. Intraoperative assessment of a competency of the repaired mitral valve before closure of the atrium is an important step in accomplishing successful mitral valve repair. Saline test is the most simple and popular method to evaluate the repaired valve. In addition, an "Ink test" can provide confirmation of the surface of coaptation, which is often insufficient in the assessment of saline test. There are sometimes differences between the findings of the leakage test in an arrested heart and the echocardiographic findings after surgery. Assessment of the mitral valve in an arrested heart may not accurately reflect its function in a contractile heart. Assessment of the valve on the beating heart induced by antegrade or retrograde coronary artery perfusion can provide a more physiological assessment of the repaired valve. Perfusion techniques during beating heart surgery mainly include antegrade coronary artery perfusion without aortic cross-clamping, and retrograde coronary artery perfusion via the coronary sinus with aortic cross-clamping. It is the most important point for the former approach to avoid air embolism with such precaution as CO2 insufflation, left ventricular venting, and transesophageal echocardiography, and for the latter approach to maintain high perfusion flow rate of coronary sinus and adequate venting. Leakage test during mitral valve repair increasingly takes an important role in successful mitral valve reconstruction. PMID:25156036
Watanabe, Taiju; Arai, Hirokuni
Congenital mitral valve regurgitation is a rare disease that is found in infancy and childhood, and sometimes in elderly people. In the case presented, mitral regurgitation that was tolerated well until the sixth decade of life is reported. A 62-year-old male suffering from dyspnea was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation with suspicion of agenesis of the posterior leaflet with a long, mobile anterior leaflet. A transesophageal echocardiogram and surgical evaluation verified agenesis of the posterior mitral valve. The patient was successfully treated using mitral valve replacement, and no complications occurred. PMID:24384183
Ozkan, Hakan; Tiryakioglu, Osman; Cetinkaya, Ahmet Seckin; Uyanik, Elif Ceylan; Bozat, Tahsin
Few cases of diastolic mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) have been reported in the world literature. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman admitted for syncope, with a permanent pacemaker following complete heart block. Echocardiography revealed that the timing of the diastolic TR (and noted MR) coincided with the second phase of the pulmonic insufficiency (PI) jet. The respirometer revealed that the diastolic TR and the second phase of the PI are highly sensitive to respiration (attenuated with inspiration and exacerbated with expiration). The uniqueness of this case is the rare occurrence of the exacerbation of PI as the result of diastolic TR. PMID:25041155
Fan, Dali; Makaryus, John N; Wassef, Bishoy; Suma, Valentin; Masry, Mina; Makaryus, Amgad N
Background—Aortic valve stenosis (with or without aortic regurgitation and without associated mitral stenosis) in adults in the Western world has been considered in recent years to most commonly be the result of degenerative or atherosclerotic disease. Methods and Results—We examined operatively excised, stenotic aortic valves from 932 patients aged 26 to 91 years (meanSD, 7012), and none had associated mitral
William C. Roberts; Jong M. Ko
Uncontrollable severe mitral regurgitation is a frequent complication of end-stage cardiomyopathy, significantly contributing to heart failure in these patients, and predicts a poor survival. Although elimination of mitral valve regurgitation could be most beneficial in this group, corrective mitral valve surgery has not been routinely undertaken in these very ill patients because of the presumed prohibitive operative mortality. We studied
Steven F. Bolling; G. Michael Deeb; Louis A. Brunsting; David S. Bach
Background Remodeling of the mitral annulus may contribute to progression of mitral regurgitation (MR). In patients with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation short term treatment with a ?-blockers has been shown to increase left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volume and this could deleteriously increase mitral valve annular dimensions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of a short duration of ?-blocker treatment on mitral annular dimensions and dynamics in patients with mitral regurgitation due to primary degenerative valve disease. Methods and Results Twenty-five patients with moderate to severe degenerative MR and normal left ventricular systolic function were studied in a double blind crossover experiment using a ?1-selective adrenergic blocker and placebo administered for 14±3days. Cardiac magnetic resonance images were acquired after each treatment period to quantify mitral annular dimensions. At end diastole (ED) there was no change in annular area (1659±331 vs 1632±299mm2, P<0.19), annular perimeter (154.3±16.4 vs 152±13.9mm, P<0.13), septal-lateral dimension(38.0±5mm vs 39.0±4.5mm, P<0.15), nor annular height (9.8±3.8 vs 9.5±2.5mm, P<0.53). ?-blockade resulted in significant ED decreases in commissure-commissure (CC) dimension (48.9 ± 4.6mm vs 47.2 ± 4.0mm P<0.01) and eccentricity (1.3 ± 0.2 vs 1.2 ± 0.1 P<0.01). At end systole (ES), ß-blockade conferred a small, but significant decrease in annular perimeter (161.0±19.3 vs 156.8±16.9mm, P<0.04) and eccentricity (1.2±0.1 vs 1.1±0.1 P<0.02) and the SL dimension significantly increased (41.5±5.7 vs 43.0±5.3mm, P<0.03). CC, annular area, and annular height at ES were not significantly different. Conclusions Despite significant increases in LVEDV and LVESV, short-term ?-blocker treatment of patients with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation reduced or preserved all mitral annular dimensions, except SL at ES. PMID:20847190
Ennis, Daniel B.; Rudd-Barnard, Gabriel R.; Li, Bo; Foncesca, Carissa G.; Young, Alistair A.; Cowan, Brett R.; Stewart, Ralph A.H.
Osteosarcoma is a rare cardiac malignant tumor. This case of cardiac osteosarcoma presented with atrial fibrillation. Initial echocardiogram demonstrated mitral valve echodensity and mitral valve regurgitation. Surgery and histopathological examination identified the tumor as an osteosarcoma. Tumor grade appeared to be prognostically important in cardiac sarcoma, with poor prognosis in high-grade tumors.
Farhoud, Mahmoud; Bakdash, Husam
Mitral regurgitation MR is a frequent complication of end-stage heart failure. Historically, these patients were either managed medically or with mitral valve replacement, both associated with poor outcomes. Mitral valve repair via an 'undersized' annuloplasty repair is safe and effectively corrects MR in heart-failure patients. All of the observed changes contribute to reverse remodeling and restoration of the normal left-ventricular
Iva A. Smolens; Francis D. Pagani; Steven F. BollingU
A case of leaflet fracture and embolization of a mitral prosthetic valve is described. A 54-year-old man had received mitral\\u000a valve replacement with an Edwards-Duromedics 29M prosthetic valve, at 10 years ago. Emergency mitral valve replacement was\\u000a performed because the patient had severe congestive left heart failure with severe acute mitral regurgitation caused by a\\u000a fracture in one of the
Kenichi Sudo; Naru Sasagawa; Hirofumi Ide; Masao Nunokawa; Tatsuo Fujiki; Kunihiko Tonari
BACKGROUND: Although long-term durability data exist, little data are available concerning the hemodynamic performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve in the mitral position. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who were implanted with mitral PERIMOUNT valves at seven international centers between January 1996 and February 1997 consented to participate in a short-term echocardiography follow-up. Echocardiographs were collected at a mean of 600+/-133 days after implantation (range, 110 to 889 days); all underwent blinded core lab analysis. RESULTS: At follow-up, peak gradients were 9.09+/-3.43 mm Hg (mean, 4.36+/-1.79 mm Hg) and varied inversely with valve size (p < 0.05). The effective orifice areas were 2.5+/-0.6 cm2 and tended to increase with valve size (p = 0.08). Trace mitral regurgitation (MR) was common (n = 48), 9 patients had mild MR, 1 had moderate MR, none had severe MR. All MR was central (n = 55) or indeterminate (n = 3). No paravalvular leaks were observed. Mitral regurgitation flow areas were 3.4+/-2.8 cm2 and were without significant volumes. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, these mitral valves are associated with trace, although physiologically insignificant, central MR. Despite known echocardiographic limitations, the PERIMOUNT mitral valves exhibit similar hemodynamics to other prosthetic valves.
Firstenberg, M. S.; Morehead, A. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Smedira, N. G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Marchand, M. A.
Mitral regurgitation is a wide spread problem. For successful surgical treatment quantification of the mitral annulus, especially its diameter, is essential. Time resolved 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is suitable for this task. Yet, manual measurement in four dimensions is extremely time consuming, which confirms the need for automatic quantification methods. The method we propose is capable of automatically detecting the cardiac cycle (systole or diastole) for each time step and measuring the mitral annulus diameter. This is done using total variation noise filtering, the graph cut segmentation algorithm and morphological operators. An evaluation took place using expert measurements on 4D TEE data of 13 patients. The cardiac cycle was detected correctly on 78% of all images and the mitral annulus diameter was measured with an average error of 3.08 mm. Its full automatic processing makes the method easy to use in the clinical workflow and it provides the surgeon with helpful information.
Graser, Bastian; Hien, Maximilian; Rauch, Helmut; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias
The presence of congenital mitral valve arcade with concomitant anomalous coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of a 5-month-old female patient with both ALCAPA and severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve arcade.
Lowell S. Su; Harold M. Burkhart; Patrick W. O’Leary; Joseph A. Dearani
The presence of congenital mitral valve arcade with concomitant anomalous coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of a 5-month-old female patient with both ALCAPA and severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve arcade. PMID:22115268
Su, Lowell S; Burkhart, Harold M; O'Leary, Patrick W; Dearani, Joseph A
Quantitative analysis of 3D mitral complex geometry is crucial for a better understanding of its dysfunction. This work aims to characterize the geometry of the mitral complex and utilize a support-vector-machine-based classifier from geometric parameters to support the diagnosis of congenital mitral regurgitation (MR). The method has the following steps: (1) description of the 3D geometry of the mitral complex and establishment of its local reference coordinate system, (2) calculation of geometric parameters and (3) analysis and classification of these parameters. With a control group of 20 normal young children (11 boys, 9 girls, mean age 5.96 ± 3.12 years) and with the normal structure of mitral apparatus, 20 patients (9 boys, 11 girls, mean age 5.59 ± 3.30 years) suffering from severe congenital MR are studied in this study. The average classification accuracy is up to 90.0% of the present population, with the possibility of exploring quantitative association between the mitral complex geometry and the mechanism of congenital MR. PMID:22735308
Song, Wei; Yang, Xin; Sun, Kun
A patient with rheumatic mitral stenosis and previous cerebral embolism had a myocardial infarction during cardiac catheterisation. She later developed severe mitral regurgitation one year after open valvotomy and at valve replacement was found to have a papillary tumour of the mitral valve. Unexplained low cardiac output occurred four days after operation. Postmortem examination showed thrombotic occlusion of the xenograft prosthesis, a complication not previously seen with tissue valves. Both of these rare events were suggested by the patient's clinical course and could have been diagnosed with cross sectional echocardiography. Images PMID:3970791
James, S E; McKay, R; Ross, D N
Alterations in mitral valve mechanics are classical indicators of valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis. Computational modeling is a powerful technique to quantify these alterations, to explore mitral valve physiology and pathology, and to classify the impact of novel treatment strategies. The selection of the appropriate constitutive model and the choice of its material parameters are paramount to the success of these models. However, the in vivo parameters values for these models are unknown. Here we identify the in vivo material parameters for three common hyperelastic models for mitral valve tissue, an isotropic one and two anisotropic ones, using an inverse finite element approach. We demonstrate that the two anisotropic models provide an excellent fit to the in vivo data, with local displacement errors in the sub-millimeter range. In a complementary sensitivity analysis, we show that the identified parameter values are highly sensitive to prestrain, with some parameters varying up to four orders of magnitude. For the coupled anisotropic model, the stiffness varied from 119,021kPa at 0% prestrain via 36kPa at 30% prestrain to 9kPa at 60% prestrain. These results may, at least in part, explain the discrepancy between previously reported ex vivo and in vivo measurements of mitral leaflet stiffness. We believe that our study provides valuable guidelines for modeling mitral valve mechanics, selecting appropriate constitutive models, and choosing physiologically meaningful parameter values. Future studies will be necessary to experimentally and computationally investigate prestrain, to verify its existence, to quantify its magnitude, and to clarify its role in mitral valve mechanics. PMID:23263365
Rausch, Manuel K.; Famaey, Nele; Shultz, Tyler O’Brien; Bothe, Wolfgang; Miller, D. Craig
Ischemic mitral regurgitation is mitral insuffciency caused by myocardial infarction. Recent studies suggest that mitral leaflets have the potential to grow and reduce the degree of regurgitation. Leaflet growth has been associated with papillary muscle displacement, but role of annular dilation in leaflet growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that chronic leaflet stretch, induced by papillary muscle tethering and annular dilation, triggers chronic leaflet growth. To decipher the mechanisms that drive the growth process, we further quantified regional and directional variations of growth. Five adult sheep underwent coronary snare and marker placement on the left ventricle, papillary muscles, mitral annulus, and mitral leaflet. After eight days, we tightened the snares to create inferior myocardial infarction. We recorded marker coordinates at baseline, acutely (immediately post infarction), and chronically (five weeks post infarction). From these coordinates, we calculated acute and chronic changes in ventricular, papillary muscle, and annular geometry along with acute and chronic leaflet strains. Chronic left ventricular dilation of 17.15% (p<0.001) induced chronic posterior papillary muscle displacement of 13.49mm (p=0.07). Chronic mitral annular area, commissural and septal-lateral distances increased by 32.50% (p=0.010), 14.11% (p=0.007), and 10.84% (p=0.010). Chronic area, circumferential, and radial growth were 15.57%, 5.91%, and 3.58%, with non-significant regional variations (p=0.868). Our study demonstrates that mechanical stretch, induced by annular dilation and papillary muscle tethering, triggers mitral leaflet growth. Understanding the mechanisms of leaflet adaptation may open new avenues to pharmacologically or surgically manipulate mechanotransduction pathways to augment mitral leaflet area and reduce the degree of regurgitation. PMID:23159489
Rausch, Manuel K.; Tibayan, Frederick A.; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen
BACKGROUND: Paravalvular jets, documented by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, have prompted immediate valve explantation by others, yet the significance of these jets is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients had intraoperative transesophageal two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography, performed to assess the number and area of regurgitant jets after valve replacement, before and after protamine. Patients were grouped by first time versus redo operation, valve position and type. RESULTS: Before protamine, 55 jets were identified (2.04+/-1.4 per patient) versus 29 jets after (1.07+/-1.2 per patient, p = 0.0002). Total jet area improved from 2.0+/-2.2 cm2 to 0.86+/-1.7 cm2 with protamine (p<0.0001). In all patients jet area decreased (average decrease, 70.7%+/-27.0%). First time and redo operations had similar improvements in jet number and area (both p>0.6). Furthermore, mitral and mechanical valves each had more jets and overall greater jet area when compared to aortic and tissue valves, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Following valve replacement, multiple jets are detected by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. They are more common and larger in the mitral position and with mechanical valves. Improvement occurs with reversal of anticoagulation.
Morehead, A. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J.; Armstrong, G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.
Background Resectional techniques are the established method of posterior mitral valve leaflet repair for degenerative disease; however, use of neochordae in a robotically assisted approach is gaining acceptance because of its versatility for difficult multi-segment disease. The purposes of this study were to compare the versatility, safety, and effectiveness of neochordal vs. resectional techniques for robotic posterior mitral leaflet repair. Methods From 12/2007 to 7/2010, 334 patients underwent robotic posterior mitral leaflet repair for degenerative disease by a resectional (n=248) or neochordal (n=86) technique. Outcomes were compared unadjusted and after propensity score matching. Results Neochordae were more likely to be used than resection in patients with two (28% vs. 13%, P=.002) or three (3.7% vs. 0.87%, P=.08) diseased posterior leaflet segments. Three resection patients (0.98%) but no neochordal patient required reoperation for hemodynamically significant systolic anterior motion (SAM). Residual mitral regurgitation (MR) at hospital discharge was similar for matched neochordal vs. resection patients (P=.14) (MR 0+, 82% vs. 89%; MR 1+, 14% vs. 8.2%; MR 2+, 2.3% vs. 2.6%; one neochordal patient had 4+ MR and was reoperated). Among matched patients, postoperative mortality and morbidity were similarly low. Conclusion Compared with a resectional technique, robotic posterior mitral leaflet repair with neochordae is associated with shorter operative times and no occurrence of SAM. The versatility, effectiveness, and safety of this repair make it a good choice for patients with advanced multi-segment disease. PMID:23103008
Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Pattakos, Gregory; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Planinc, Mislav; Williams, Sarah J.; Blackstone, Eugene H.
The mitral clipping technique is emerging as a promising new treatment option for severe mitral regurgitation. The device was designed and assessed in intermediate risk populations, which is in contrast to the real world, where most patients are deemed to be at very high risk for open heart surgery. The cardiac anatomy of these patients often challenges the freedom grades of the current mitral clip device. In this case presentation, we describe a novel technique overcoming extreme atrial dilation in a patient with severe mitral regurgitation despite previous implantation of two mitral clips. Based on a low/anterior trans-septal puncture, this procedure relied on a counter clock-wise 90° turn of the steerable sheath and alignment of the clip delivery system to the mitral valve, thereby gaining additional longitudinal freedom. This resulted in the successful implantation of two additional clips with achievement of a mild to moderate mitral regurgitation without relevant gradient and dramatic and sustained clinical improvement of the patient. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24167092
Tiroch, Klaus; Vorpahl, Marc; Seyfarth, Melchior
Mitral valve (MV) dysfunction is the second-most common clinically significant form of valvular defect in adults. MV regurgitation occurs with the increasing frequency of degenerative changes of the aging process. Moreover, other causes of clinically significant MV regurgitation include cardiac ischemia, infective endocarditis and rhematic disease more frequently in less developed countries. Recent evidence suggests that the best outcomes after repair of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are achieved in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, who are selected for surgery soon after diagnosis on the basis of echocardiography. This review will focus on the surgical management of mitral insufficiency according to its aetiology today and will give insight to some of the perspectives that lay in the future. PMID:24672698
Madesis, Athanasios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kesisis, George; Tsiouda, Theodora; Beleveslis, Thomas; Koletas, Alexander; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos
In patients with left atrial myxoma, mitral valve regurgitation is often encountered. However, preoperative assessment of the mitral valve is difficult in cases with giant left atrial myxoma occupying the left atrial cavity. We experienced a patient with giant left atrial myxoma who underwent tumor excision and mitral valve repair. A 40-year-old woman was transferred to the emergency room due to respiratory failure. On admission, her hemodynamic status was unstable and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was immediately started. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed, which showed giant left atrial tumor with the pedicle on the atrial septum with mitral valve regurgitation, but the severity of regurgitation was unclear. After excision of left atrial myxoma with atrial septum, the mitral valve was examined. The anterior leaflet( A3 scallop) prolapse due to a torn chordae was found. The mitral valve was repaired with leaflet resection and prosthetic ring annuloplasty. Postoperative course was uneventful and postoperative echocardiography showed no residual mitral valve regurgitation. The mitral valve should be carefully inspected intraoperatively after resection of left atrial myxoma, especially when the tumor is gigantic. PMID:25201370
Iizuka, Hirofumi; Aoki, Atushi; Omoto, Tadashi; Maruta, Kazuto; Sakurai, Sigeru; Kawaura, Hiromasa
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common cardiac valvular disease in the United States. Approximately 4 million people have severe MR and roughly 250,000 new diagnoses of MR are made each year. Mitral valve surgery is the only treatment that prevents progression of heart failure and provides sustained symptomatic relief. Mitral valve repair is preferred over replacement for the treatment of MR because of freedom from anticoagulation, reduced long-term morbidity, reduced perioperative mortality, improved survival, and better preservation of left ventricular function compared with valve replacement. A large proportion of patients in need of valve repair or replacement do not undergo such procedures because of a perceived unacceptable perioperative risk. Percutaneous catheter-based methods for valvular pathology that parallel surgical principles for valve repair have been developed over the last few years and have been proposed as an alternate measure in high-risk patients. The MitraClip (Abbott Labs) device is one such therapy and is the subject of this review. PMID:25098200
Doshi, Jay V; Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Jalaj; Paudel, Rajiv; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Doshi, Tina V; Gotsis, William; Frishman, William H
Approximately one third of all patients undergoing open-heart surgery for repair of ischemic mitral regurgitation present with residual and recurrent mitral valve leakage upon follow up. A fundamental quantitative understanding of mitral valve remodeling following myocardial infarction may hold the key to improved medical devices and better treatment outcomes. Here we quantify mitral annular strains and curvature in nine sheep 5 ± 1 weeks after controlled inferior myocardial infarction of the left ventricle. We complement our marker-based mechanical analysis of the remodeling mitral valve by common clinical measures of annular geometry before and after the infarct. After 5 ± 1 weeks, the mitral annulus dilated in septal-lateral direction by 15.2% (p=0.003) and in commissure-commissure direction by 14.2% (p<0.001). The septal annulus dilated by 10.4% (p=0.013) and the lateral annulus dilated by 18.4% (p<0.001). Remarkably, in animals with large degree of mitral regurgitation and annular remodeling, the annulus dilated asymmetrically with larger distortions toward the lateral-posterior segment. Strain analysis revealed average tensile strains of 25% over most of the annulus with exception for the lateral-posterior segment, where tensile strains were 50% and higher. Annular dilation and peak strains were closely correlated to the degree of mitral regurgitation. A complementary relative curvature analysis revealed a homogenous curvature decrease associated with significant annular circularization. All curvature profiles displayed distinct points of peak curvature disturbing the overall homogenous pattern. These hinge points may be the mechanistic origin for the asymmetric annular deformation following inferior myocardial infarction. In the future, this new insight into the mechanism of asymmetric annular dilation may support improved device designs and possibly aid surgeons in reconstructing healthy annular geometry during mitral valve repair. PMID:23636575
Rausch, Manuel K.; Tibayan, Frederick A.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left ventricular function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) without significant mitral regurgitation using two-dimensional strain imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 58 asymptomatic young subjects (mean [± SD] age 19.7±1.6 years; 72% male) with MVP were compared with 60 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. MVP was diagnosed by billowing one or both mitral leaflets >2 mm above the mitral annulus in the long-axis parasternal view. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain and strain rate were determined using speckle tracking with a grey-scale frame rate of 50 fps to 85 fps. There were no significant differences in the global systolic left ventricular function of the subjects with MVP compared with the control group. In the MVP group, most of the global myocardial systolic deformation indexes were not reduced. Only the global circumferential strain showed a decrease in the prolapse subjects. Regional, longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were decreased only in septal segments. A decrease in the rotation of the same septal segments at the basal level was also observed. CONCLUSION: Regional septal myocardial deformation indexes decrease in subjects with MVP. These changes may be the first sign indicating the deterioration of left ventricular systolic function as well as the existence of primary cardiomyopathy in asymptomatic young subjects with MVP. PMID:23592928
Malev, Eduard; Zemtsovsky, Eduard; Pshepiy, Asiyet; Timofeev, Eugeny; Reeva, Svetlana; Prokudina, Maria
Valvular heart disease is the common cardiac manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with a tendency for mitral valve regurgitation. In this study we report a case of mitral valve replacement for mitral stenosis caused by Libman-Sacks endocarditis in the setting of SLE. In addition, we provide a systematic review of the literature on mitral valve surgery in the presence of Libman-Sacks endocarditis because its challenge on surgical options continues. Surgical decision depends on structural involvement of mitral valve and presence of active lupus nephritis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Review of the literature has also shown that outcome is good in most SLE patients who have undergone valvular surgery, but association of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with SLE has negative impact on the outcome.
Hekmat, Manouchehr; Ghorbani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Hamid; Majidi, Masoud; Beheshti, Mahmood
Following the revision of the therapeutic guideline of ACC/AHA in (Circulation 114:450-527, 2006), the incidence of mitral valve repair in asymptomatic patients with moderate or severe mitral valve regurgitation has increased. For mitral valve repair, the quality and outcomes as well as lower invasive procedure are important to obtain the confidence of cardiologists and ensure request of early phase operation from cardiologists. With recent innovations of technologies and the development of revolutionary techniques, minimally invasive surgery of the mitral valve (MIS-MV) has become a widespread surgical option of mitral valve repair. It is vital, however, that careful preoperative assessment, and planning of the approach and perfusion strategy are put in place to perform MIS-MV safely. PMID:24722958
Kudo, Mikihiko; Yozu, Ryohei
Mitral valve aneurysms (MVAs) are rarely encountered in echocardiography laboratories. Although they are commonly associated with endocarditis of the aortic valve, various mechanisms have been suggested for the etiopathogenesis of MVAs associated with non-infectious conditions. 5,887 patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively for MVA. Mitral valve aneurysm is defined as a localized saccular bulging of the mitral leaflet towards the left atrium with systolic expansion and diastolic collapse. The color flow Doppler image of a perforation was described as a high-velocity turbulent jet traversing a valve leaflet in systole. We found that 12 of 5,887 patients (0.204 %) had MVA in TEE examinations. The mean age of patients with MVA was 53 years (range 21-80 years), including four females and eight males. Nine patients presented with symptoms of endocarditis. On TEE, aneurysms were located in the anterior mitral leaflet in 11 patients, and in the posterior mitral leaflet in one patient. Eight patients had severe, three had moderate, and one had trace mitral regurgitation. Of the nine patients with perforated leaflets, eight patients had severe and one patient had moderate mitral regurgitation. Aortic regurgitation was present in nine patients, being severe in three, moderate in two, mild in two, and trace in two patients. Two patients without severe mitral regurgitation were followed-up conservatively, while nine patients underwent surgery. Two patients died from septic shock, one in the postoperative period and the other one prior to surgery. Although MVAs occur during the course of aortic valve endocarditis and, in particular, due to aortic regurgitation jet, it should be borne in mind that they may develop as an isolated valvular pathology and may be misdiagnosed as chordal rupture, other cardiac masses, or vegetation. Thus, MVAs may not be so infrequent as they are thought; they may justify to be considered in the differential diagnosis of masses seen on the mitral valve on echocardiographic examination. PMID:24420419
Guler, Ahmet; Karabay, Can Y; Gursoy, Ozan M; Guler, Yeliz; Candan, Ozkan; Akgun, Taylan; Bulut, Mustafa; Pala, Selcuk; Izgi, Akin I; Esen, Ali M; Kirma, Cevat; Ozkan, Mehmet
Anomalous coronary arteries may course in close proximity to the mitral annulus, which increases the risk of iatrogenic occlusion due to annular suture placement. We report a mitral valve repair in a 55-year-old male with severe mitral regurgitation and an anomalous retro-aortic left coronary artery, originating from the right coronary sinus, coursing in close proximity to the anterior mitral annulus. To minimize iatrogenic occlusion risk an open annuloplasty ring was used with good long-term results. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12374 (J Card Surg 2014;29:782-784). PMID:24862914
Bakker, Robbert C; Bouma, Wobbe; Hamer, Inez J Wijdh-den; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A
Located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, the mitral valve controls flow between these two cardiac chambers. Mitral valve dysfunction is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction and its dynamics are little known. A simple non-linear rotational spring model is developed and implemented to capture the dynamics of the mitral valve. A measured pressure difference curve was used as the input into the model, which represents an applied torque to the anatomical valve chords. A range of mechanical model hysteresis states were investigated to find a model that best matches reported animal data of chord movement during a heartbeat. The study is limited by the use of one dataset found in the literature due to the highly invasive nature of getting this data. However, results clearly highlight fundamental physiological issues, such as the damping and chord stiffness changing within one cardiac cycle, that would be directly represented in any mitral valve model and affect behaviour in dysfunction. Very good correlation was achieved between modeled and experimental valve angle with 1-10% absolute error in the best case, indicating good promise for future simulation of cardiac valvular dysfunction, such as mitral regurgitation or stenosis. In particular, the model provides a pathway to capturing these dysfunctions in terms of modeled stiffness or elastance that can be directly related to anatomical, structural defects and dysfunction. PMID:22119761
Moorhead, K T; Paeme, S; Chase, J G; Kolh, P; Pierard, L; Hann, C E; Dauby, P C; Desaive, T
The variability of the interpretation by two individuals of a combined echocardiographic and Doppler method of calculating output was studied in 30 normal adults. In each subject three separate cardiac cycles were recorded to calculate maximal mitral valve orifice, the ratio of mean to maximal mitral valve leaflet separation, and the mean flow velocity through the mitral valve. The recordings were digitised twice by two independent observers. Estimates of cardiac output ranged from 3.2 to 8.11 1/min. Analysis of variance showed that interobserver and intraobserver variability for these measurements was 5.8% and 6.1% respectively. It is concluded that the reproducibility for interpreting this non-invasive method is adequate for clinical use in adults with cardiac outputs within the normal range. PMID:3707784
Nicolosi, G L; Pungercic, E; Cervesato, E; Modena, L; Zanuttini, D
Mitral valve prolapse without proper monitoring might lead to a severe mitral valve failure which eventually leads to a sudden death. Additional information on the mitral valve leaflet condition against the backflow volume would be an added advantage to the medical practitioner for their decision on the patients' treatment. A study on two dimensional echocardiography images has been conducted and the correlations between the backflow volume of the mitral regurgitation and mitral valve leaflet Young modulus have been obtained. Echocardiogram images were analyzed on the aspect of backflow volume percentage and mitral valve leaflet dimensions on different rates of backflow volume. Young modulus values for the mitral valve leaflet were obtained by using the principle of elastic deflection and deformation on the mitral valve leaflet. The results show that the backflow volume increased with the decrease of the mitral valve leaflet Young modulus which also indicate the condition of the mitral valve leaflet approaching failure at high backflow volumes. Mitral valve leaflet Young modulus values obtained in this study agreed with the healthy mitral valve leaflet Young modulus from the literature. This is an initial overview of the trend on the prediction of the behaviour between the fluid and the structure of the blood and the mitral valve which is extendable to a larger system of prediction on the mitral valve leaflet condition based on the available echocardiogram images.
Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Osman, Kahar; Adib, M. Azrul Hisham M.
The shape of the mitral valve annulus is used in diagnostic and modeling applications, yet methods to accurately and reproducibly delineate the annulus are limited. This paper presents a mitral annulus segmentation algorithm ...
Schneider, Robert J.
Introduction: High sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) is increased in acute and chronic rheumatic fever (RF), but is unknown whether serum levels of hs-CRP is correlated with late restenosis of mitral valve (MV) after Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). The aim of this study is to determine relationship between hs-CRP and MV restenosis 48-36 months after performing PTMC. Methods: A total of 50 patients who had undergone PTMC due to rheumatic etiology (41 female, 9 male; mean age 46 ± 11, range 27-71), all followed up on an out patients basis 36 months after PTMC, were included in the study. The hs-CRP was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results: No association was found between hs-CRP level and mean transmitral valve gradient 36 months after PTMC, MV area by planimetry, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, mitral regurgitation grade, left atrial diameter, atrial fibrillation (AF) rhythm and Wilkins score. Conclusion: Our study have shown that there is no association between hs-CRP and MV restenosis in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) who underwent PTMC. Therefore, it has been postulated that inflammation is not a cause of post PTMC restenosis. PMID:25320668
Ostovan, Mohammadali; Aslani, Amir; Abounajmi, Shahima; Razazi, Vida
Surgery for degenerative mitral regurgitation has become complex. Preservation of annulo-ventricular continuity through the chordae tendineae is an important determinant of operative survival, postoperative left ventricular function, long-term survival, and quality of life. Some cardiologists believe that NYHA I function is never achieved after conventional mitral replacement with chordal transection. Valve repair is the procedure of choice but when valve replacement is inevitable every effort should be made to preserve the posterior leaflet and its chordal attachments. Valve replacement with preservation of the subvalvar apparatus provides a functional outcome similar to that after valve repair but usually leads to life long anti-coagulation. Images PMID:8705754
Accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT) is a rare congenital anomaly of endocardial cushion. Usually, it arises from the anterior mitral leaflet and causes the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We report here the first and a rarest presentation of the AMVT in a 19-year old female patient diagnosed to have double outlet right ventricle, ventricular septal defect (VSD), infundibular stenosis and congenital mitral stenosis (MS). She presented with a history of shortness of breath and chest pain over 3 years. Diagnosis was made by chest X-ray, transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography, which was confirmed by cardiac catheterization, and angiography. A successful closure of the VSD with excision of the right ventricular bundle and excision of the AMVT was done. Post-operative course was uneventful and an echocardiogram before the discharge showed no residual shunt, no right ventricular outflow gradient or mitral regurgitation, and the gradient across the mitral valve was 5/3 mmHg. We emphasize that, although AMVT commonly produces left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, it should be considered a rare but an important cause of congenital MS. PMID:22108926
Rao, Nageswar; Gajjar, Trushar; Desai, Neelam
Accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT) is a rare congenital anomaly of endocardial cushion. Usually, it arises from the anterior mitral leaflet and causes the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We report here the first and a rarest presentation of the AMVT in a 19-year old female patient diagnosed to have double outlet right ventricle, ventricular septal defect (VSD), infundibular stenosis and congenital mitral stenosis (MS). She presented with a history of shortness of breath and chest pain over 3 years. Diagnosis was made by chest X-ray, transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography, which was confirmed by cardiac catheterization, and angiography. A successful closure of the VSD with excision of the right ventricular bundle and excision of the AMVT was done. Post-operative course was uneventful and an echocardiogram before the discharge showed no residual shunt, no right ventricular outflow gradient or mitral regurgitation, and the gradient across the mitral valve was 5/3 mmHg. We emphasize that, although AMVT commonly produces left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, it should be considered a rare but an important cause of congenital MS. PMID:22108926
Rao, Nageswar; Gajjar, Trushar; Desai, Neelam
Between February, 1985, and August, 1987, 76 patients with mitral stenosis underwent percutaneous transarterial mitral balloon valvuloplasty (MVP). There were 58 females and 18 males aged from 15 to 69 years (mean 39 +/- 11). In 31 patients the mitral valve was pliable (40%) and in 45 patients (60%) the valve was nonpliable. Calcified mitral stenosis was found in 24 patients (31%). Transseptal catheterization was used to place one or two 0.035" (350 cm long) exchange wires into the ascending aorta in order to be snared, retrieved and exteriorized, each one through a femoral artery. Over these wires, the balloon dilation catheters were advanced through the femoral artery, retrogradely, across the mitral valve, for mitral dilation. Single (25 mm in diameter, trefoil 3 x 12 mm, bifoil 2 x 19 mm) and double (18 and 15 mm, 18 and 18 mm, 18 and 20 mm) balloons were used in 24 and 52 patients respectively. Transarterial mitral valvuloplasty produced immediate improvement of mitral valve area (MVA = 1.1 +/- 0.3 to 2.4 +/- 0.4 cm2, p less than 0.001), mitral valve gradient (19 +/- 4 to 8 +/- 6 mmHg, p less than 0.001), echocardiographic left atrial diameter (LAD = 58 +/- 6 to 54 +/- 5 mm, p greater than 0.05) and echo-MVA (0.9 +/- 0.4 to 2.1 +/- 0.7, p less than 0.001). In three patients no MVA enlargement was achieved. A significant mitral regurgitation was produced in two patients. A stroke occurred in three patients (3.9%), one of these patients subsequently died (1.3%), one recovered and one remained hemiplegic. No atrial septal defect was found after valvuloplasty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3378724
Babic, U U; Pejcic, P; Djurisic, Z; Vucinic, M; Grujicic, S N
BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.
Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the early outcomes of robotic mitral valve (MV) repair using standard open techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 100 patients with severe mitral regurgitation due to leaflet prolapse who underwent robot-assisted MV repair using conventional open-repair techniques between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009, at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.9 years; 77 patients (77%) were male. Fifty-nine patients (59%) had posterior leaflet prolapse, 38 (38%) had bileaflet disease, and 3 (3%) had isolated anterior leaflet prolapse. Median cross-clamp and bypass times decreased significantly during the course of the study (P<.001). Median postoperative ventilation time was 0 hours for the last 25 patients, with most patients extubated in the operating room. No deaths occurred. Reexploration for postoperative bleeding occurred in 1 patient (1%); 3 patients (3%) required percutaneous coronary intervention. Median hospital stay was 3 days. One patient (1%) underwent mitral reoperation for annuloplasty band dehiscence. Residual regurgitation was mild or less in all patients at dismissal and 1 month postoperatively. Significant reverse remodeling occurred by 1 month, including decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (–7.2 mm; P<.001) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (–61.0 mL;P<.001). CONCLUSION: Robot-assisted MV repair using proven, conventional open-repair techniques is reproducible and safe and hastens recovery for all categories of leaflet prolapse. One month after surgery, significant regression in left ventricular size and volume is evident. PMID:21757782
Suri, Rakesh M.; Burkhart, Harold M.; Rehfeldt, Kent H.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Daly, Richard C.; Williamson, Eric E.; Li, Zhuo; Schaff, Hartzell V.
Although commonly detected by transthoracic echocardiography, tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has been somehow neglected, and recent data have emerged on the need for careful examination of the tricuspid valve. Functional or secondary TR is the most frequent etiology of tricuspid valve pathology in western countries and is related to tricuspid annular dilation and leaflet tethering. The prognostic role of TR associated with organic left-sided valvular heart disease is well known. However, the value of functional TR in outcome stratification of patients with advanced left ventricular dysfunction is less clear. Surgical tricuspid repair has been avoided for years, because of the misconception that TR should disappear once the primary left-sided problem is treated; this results in a large number of untreated patients with functional TR. Over the past few years, many investigators have reported evidence in favor of a more aggressive surgical approach to functional TR. Consequently, interest has been growing in the pathophysiology and treatment of functional TR. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of TR incorporating a description of valve anatomy, etiological factors, pathophysiology, epidemiological data, natural history, clinical evaluation, along with a discussion of the important role in prognostic stratification and a summary of management guidelines. PMID:25174595
Bellavia, Diego; Pentiricci, Samuele; Senni, Michele; Gavazzi, Antonello
Background Patients with diabetes mellitus show a negative outcome in percutaneous coronary intervention, aortic valve replacement and cardiac surgery. The impact of diabetes on patients undergoing treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) using the MitraClip system is not known. We therefore sought to assess whether percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results We included 58 patients with severe and moderate-to-severe MR in an open-label observational single-center study. Ninteen patients were under oral medication or insulin therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. MitraClip devices were successfully implanted in all patients with diabetes and in 97.4% (n?=?38) of patients without diabetes (p?=?0.672). Periprocedural major cardiac adverse and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurred in 5.1% (n?=?2) of patients without diabetes whereas patients with diabetes did not show any MACCE (p?=?0.448). 30-day mortality was 1.7% (n?=?1) with no case of death in the diabetes group. Short-term follow up of three months showed a significant improvement of NYHA class and quality of life evaluated by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in both groups, with no changes in the 6-minute walk test. Conclusions Mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Trial Registration MitraClip Registry NCT02033811 PMID:25375257
Balzer, Jan; van Hall, Silke; Rammos, Christos; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush
A combined robotic-assisted left atrial ablation and mitral valve repair was done through a 5-cm right anterior mini-thoracotomy. The patient was a 54-year-old man with severe mitral regurgitation and a 10-month history of persistent atrial fibrillation. The patient underwent off-pump, beating heart epicardial peripulmonary vein microwave ablation using the FLEX 10 catheter (AFx Inc, Fremont, CA), followed by supplemental on-pump
Gil Bolotin; Alan P. Kypson; L. Wiley Nifong; W. Randolph Chitwood
Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water) establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ?100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ?900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have major implications for worm survival under immunological or pharmacological pressure. PMID:25121497
Skelly, Patrick J; Da'dara, Akram A; Li, Xiao-Hong; Castro-Borges, William; Wilson, R Alan
Objectives. This study assessed the clinical utility of mitral annulus velocity in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function.Background. Mitral inflow velocity recorded by Doppler echocardiography has been widely used to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function but is affected by other factors. The mitral annulus velocity profile during diastole may provide additional information about left ventricular diastolic function.Methods. Mitral annulus
Dae-Won Sohn; In-Ho Chai; Dong-Jun Lee; Hee-Chan Kim; Hyo-Soo Kim; Byung-Hee Oh; Myoung-Mook Lee; Young-Bae Park; Yun-Shik Choi; Jung-Don Seo; Young-Woo Lee
Background Robotic telemanipulators have evolved to assist the challenges of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MVS). A systematic review was performed to provide a synopsis of the literature, focusing on clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Method Structured searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were performed in August 2013. All original studies except case-reports were included in qualitative review. Studies with ?50 patients were presented quantitatively. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the search results, 27 studies were included in qualitative review, 16 of which had ?50 patients. All studies were observational in nature, and thus the quality of evidence was rated low to medium. Patients generally had good left ventricular performance, were relatively asymptomatic, and mean patient age ranged from 52.6-58.4 years. Rates of intraoperative outcomes ranged from: 0.0-9.1% for conversion to non-robotic surgery, 106±22 to 188.5±53.8 min for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and 79±16 to 140±40 min for cross-clamp (XC) time. Rates of short-term postoperative outcomes ranged from: 0.0-3.0% for mortality, 0.0-3.2% for myocardial infarction (MI), 0.0-3.0% for permanent stroke, 1.6-15% for pleural effusion, 0.0-5.0% for reoperations for bleeding, 0.0-0.3% for infection, and 1.1-6% for prolonged ventilation (>48 hours), 1.5-5.4% for early repair failure, 12.3±6.7 to 36.6±24.7 hours for intensive care length of stay, 3.1±0.3 to 6.3±3.9 days for hospital length of stay (HLOS) and 81.7-97.6% had no or trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) before discharge. Conclusions All subtypes of mitral valve prolapse are repairable with robotic techniques. CPB and XC times are long, and novel techniques such as the Cor-Knot, Nitinol clips or running sutures may reduce the time required. The overall rates of early postoperative mortality and morbidity are low. Improvements in postoperative quality of life (QoL) and expeditious return to work offset the increase in equipment and intraoperative cost. Evidence for long-term outcomes is as yet limited. PMID:24349971
Seco, Michael; Cao, Christopher; Modi, Paul; Bannon, Paul G.; Wilson, Michael K.; Vallely, Michael P.; Phan, Kevin; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich
Rheumatic heart disease is still a major cause of mitral valve dysfunction in developing countries. We present our early results of rheumatic mitral valve repair. From August 2009 through July 2011, 60 patients (24 male and 36 female) with rheumatic disease underwent mitral repair. The mean age was 51.1 ± 13.8 years (range, 16–77 yr). Forty-nine patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Repair procedures included chordal and papillary muscle splitting, secondary chordal division, mitral ring annuloplasty (n=58), commissurotomy (n=36), chordal replacement (n=9), posterior leaflet extension (n=4), annular decalcification (n=2), and quadrangular resection (n=2). Secondary procedures included tricuspid ring annuloplasty, left atrial ablation, obliteration of left atrial appendage, aortic valve replacement, and left atrial reduction. The early (30-d) mortality rate was 1.7%. The mean follow-up time was 14.9 ± 5 months (range, 4–26 mo). Follow-up echocardiography revealed trivial or no mitral regurgitation (MR) in 35.5% and mild (1+) MR in 49.1% of patients. Only 1 patient presented with severe (3+) MR. The mean MR grade decreased from 3.2 ± 0.9 to 0.3 ± 0.4 postoperatively (P=0.001). Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and left atrial diameter significantly decreased postoperatively (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). The mean gradient over the mitral valve decreased significantly from 11 ± 5.9 mmHg to 3.5 ± 1.8 mmHg (P=0.001). Because current techniques of mitral repair can effectively correct valve dysfunction in most patients with rheumatic disease, the number of repair procedures should be increased in developing countries to prevent complications of mechanical valve placement. PMID:23678214
Bakir, Ihsan; Onan, Burak; Onan, Ismihan Selen; Gul, Mehmet; Uslu, Nevzat
In spite of two decades of research, the precise relationship of anatomic mitral valve prolapse (floppy valve) to the neuroendocrine disorder (MVP syndrome) remains unclear. In all likelihood they are two separate genetic disorders which travel together in some fashion. Mitral valve prolapse is a common disorder but progressive mitral regurgitation usually occurs late in life and in only a few patients. Other complications such as bacterial endocarditis, stroke, and sudden death are far less common but can occur at younger ages. The neuroendocrine syndrome in civilian life is mainly seen in young females (interestingly the peak incidence years correspond to peak female sex hormone output) but can be seen in males when subjected to unusual stress such as military service. More recent echocardiographic studies have questioned whether all prolapsing valves are truly abnormal. It has been shown that echographic prolapse can be produced in normal subjects by reducing venous return and impaired venous return may be present in some patients with the MVP syndrome. However, clicks and murmurs are apparently not heard when normal valves prolapse. It is our opinion that the presence of a click or typical murmur requires some anatomic abnormality of the mitral valve. One wonders if minimal valve abnormality (noted and dismissed by Davies) is the valve abnormality present in many young females with MVP syndrome, and that it may remain a mild abnormality throughout life. Recent psychiatric studies suggest that MVP is present in 30% of patients with Panic Disorder. It is not clear that this psychiatric syndrome is the same thing as the MVP syndrome. In Devereux's study, anxiety proneness was no different in the MVP cohort than in relatives without MVP. It is possible that diagnostic mixing of two similar but separate disorders has occurred, as has been the case since World War I. Perhaps the most important question is whether young patients with MVP syndrome and no echocardiographic criteria for "floppiness" will develop progressive mitral regurgitation or other complications in later life. In other words, how often is MVP syndrome in a young individual without echocardiographic evidence of a floppy valve a precourser to eventual progressive mitral regurgitation? Are there two different populations? Because of the long course of the disorder, several more years of observation (and, it is hoped, prospective longitudinal study) will be required to answer this question. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3303618
Lewis, R. P.; Wooley, C. F.; Kolibash, A. J.; Boudoulas, H.
Mitral regurgitant indexes were measured by roentgen videodensitometry in anesthetized dogs without thoracotomy before, during and after extrasystolic potentiation of ventricular contraction while the atria and ventricles were driven in normal temporal sequence simultaneously or in such a way as to induce atrial fibrillation. Small amounts of mitral reflux were observed with simultaneous atrial and ventricular driving and with atrial fibrillation in the control measurements before initiation of extrasystolic potentiation. Reflux became negligible during extrasystolic potentiation and increased beyond control levels after termination of extrasystolic potentiation.
Vandenberg, R. A.; Williams, J. C. P.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood , E. H.
Transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve replacement is increasingly being performed as operator and center experience in transcatheter valve replacement technology and techniques have accrued. Complications, such as valve embolization and paravalvular regurgitation, still occur and relate to valve deployment. The use of novel imaging techniques, such as 3D echocardiography, allows for better differentiation of cardiac structures and appropriate positioning of the transcatheter valve using well-visualized anatomical landmarks. Here the authors describe in images and video the use of 3D echocardiography for deployment of a mitral valve-in-valve. PMID:25134981
Lerakis, Stamatios; Hayek, Salim S; Thourani, Vinod; Babaliaros, Vasilis
Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart disease seen in college and university health services. It underlies most arrhythmia and many chest complaints. Activity and exercise restrictions are usually unnecessary. (Author/CJ)
Bergy, Gordon G.
Reoperations for mitral prosthetic paravalvular leaks presenting with heart failure or hemolysis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transcatheter options offer an attractive alternative, though the method is under evolution and outcome is varied. This report gives procedural details of transcatheter closure of mitral paravalvular leak with Amplatzer septal occluder device. PMID:17055089
Sivakumar, Kothandam; Shahani, Jagdish
Objective: The objective was to assess mitral valve replacement in a minimally invasive fashion by means of port-access technology. Methods: Fifteen dogs, 28 ± 3 kg (mean ± standard deviation), were studied with the port-access mitral valve replacement system (Heartport, Inc., Redwood City, Calif.). Eleven dogs underwent acute studies and were sacrificed immediately after the procedure. Four dogs were allowed
Mario F. Pompili; John H. Stevens; Thoms A. Burdon; Lawrence C. Siegel; William S. Peters; Greg H. Ribakove; Bruce A. Reitz
This study is aimed at refining our understanding of the role of vortex formation at mitral mechanical heart valve (MHV) closure and its association with the high intensity transient signals (HITS) seen in echocardiographic studies with MHV recipients. Previously reported numerical results described a twofold process leading to formation of gas-filled microbubbles in-vitro: (1) nucleation and (2) growth of micron size bubbles. The growth itself consists of two processes: (a) diffusion and (b) sudden pressure drop due to valve closure. The role of diffusion has already been shown to govern the initial growth of nuclei. Pressure drop at mitral MHV closure may be attributed to other phenomena such as squeezed flow, water hammer and primarily, vortex cavitation. Mathematical analysis of vortex formation at mitral MHV closure revealed that a closing velocity of approximately 12 m/s can induce a strong regurgitant vortex which in return can instigate a local pressure drop of about 0.9 atm. A 2D experimental model of regurgitant flows was used to substantiate the impact of vortices. At simulated flow and pressure conditions, a regurgitant vortex was observed to drastically enlarge micron size hydrogen bubbles at its core. PMID:17404890
Rambod, Edmond; Beizai, Masoud; Sahn, David J; Gharib, Morteza
A 35 year-old male with Marfan's syndrome was referred with a fortuitous echographic finding of an abdominal aorta flap. Transthoracic echocardiography showed moderate aortic regurgitation and an aneurysm in the sinus of Valsalva. Computed tomography demonstrated an aneurysm in the sinus of Valsalva 60 mm in size and a DeBakey type IIIb dissection extending from the left subclavian artery to the right common iliac artery. An aortic valve-sparing operation (reimplantation), total aortic arch replacement and the elephant trunk method were used in this patient. An aortic valve-sparing operation is preferable because the patient is young, and has no need for anticoagulant therapy after surgery. The extent of the aortic reconstruction, including the intact aortic arch, was appropriate to prohibit future dilatation of the aortic arch and retrograde dissection from a DeBakey type IIIb dissection. PMID:16408474
Shimizu, Kazuteru; Setozaki, Shuji; Yuasa, Sadatoshi; Soeda, Takeshi; Matsuda, Mitsuhiko
SUMMARY The remodeling that occurs after a posterolateral myocardial infarction can alter mitral valve function by creating conformational abnormalities in the mitral annulus and in the posteromedial papillary muscle, leading to mitral regurgitation (MR). It is generally assumed that this remodeling is caused by a volume load and is mediated by an increase in diastolic wall stress. Thus, mitral regurgitation can be both the cause and effect of an abnormal cardiac stress environment. Computational modeling of ischemic MR and its surgical correction is attractive because it enables an examination of whether a given intervention addresses the correction of regurgitation (fluid-flow) at the cost of abnormal tissue stress. This is significant because the negative effects of an increased wall stress due to the intervention will only be evident over time. However, a meaningful fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart is not trivial; it requires a careful characterization of the in-vivo cardiac geometry, tissue parameterization though inverse analysis, a robust coupled solver that handles collapsing Lagrangian interfaces, automatic grid-generation algorithms that are capable of accurately discretizing the cardiac geometry, innovations in image analysis, competent and efficient constitutive models and an understanding of the spatial organization of tissue microstructure. In this manuscript, we profile our work toward a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart by reviewing our early work, presenting our current work and laying out our future work in four broad categories: data collection, geometry, fluid-structure interaction and validation. PMID:20454531
Einstein, Daniel R.; Del Pin, Facundo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.
Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827
Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.
Percutaneous mitral valve repair using the MitraClip device has become a therapeutic alternative for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic mitral regurgitation. The procedure involves transseptal puncture and results in a new atrial septal defect (ASD) after withdrawal of the 22Fr guiding catheter. The functional effect of the new ASD is not defined. In 28 patients with symptomatic mitral regurgitation undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair using the MitraClip device, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was used to measure by direct en face imaging the area of the new ASD. Analysis of the velocity-time integral (VTI) across the ASD after withdrawal of the guiding catheter allowed calculation of the shunt volume. Diastolic VTI of the mitral flow was determined before and after withdrawal of the guiding catheter to determine left ventricular inflow changes. Invasive left atrial pressure measurements were obtained during withdrawal of the guiding catheter. Regurgitant volume was reduced from 86±21 ml/beat before intervention to 43±22 ml/beat after intervention. The new ASD had an area of 0.19 cm2, 44% of the area of the 22Fr guiding catheter. Considering the VTI across the septal defect of 72±26 cm/s, the left-to-right atrial shunt volume was calculated to be 14±6 ml/beat. The diastolic forward flow across the mitral valve was reduced by 13±6 ml/beat immediately after withdrawal of the MitraClip guiding catheter. Mean left atrial pressure was reduced from 17±8 mm Hg with the guiding catheter still in the left atrium to 15±8 mm Hg after withdrawal of the guiding catheter. In conclusion, the creation of a new ASD as consequence of the large-diameter MitraClip guiding catheter results in volume and pressure relief of the left atrium. This contributes to the immediate hemodynamic changes implemented by the MitraClip procedure. PMID:24513477
Hoffmann, Rainer; Altiok, Ertunc; Reith, Sebastian; Brehmer, Kathrin; Almalla, Mohammad
Objectives. The first objective was to develop a quantitative method for tracking the three-dimensional geometry of the mitral valve. The second was to determine the complex interrelationships of various components of the mitral valve in vivo. Methods and results. Sixteen sonomicrometry transducers were placed around the mitral valve anulus, at the tips and bases of both papillary muscles, at the
Joseph H. Gorman; Krishanu B. Gupta; James T. Streicher; Robert C. Gorman; Benjamin M. Jackson; Mark B. Ratcliffe; Daniel K. Bogen; L. Henry Edmunds
... from flowing back into the atria. For more information, go to the Health Topics How the Heart Works article. This article contains animations that show how your heart pumps blood and how your heart's electrical system works. Mitral Valve Prolapse In MVP, when the ...
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the morphology of congenitally bicuspid aortic valves causing pure valve regurgitation. DESIGN--A case series collected over five years. SETTING--An academic hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS--One hundred and forty eight excised congenitally bicuspid aortic valves. The morphological findings were correlated with sex, age, clinical history, and data on haemodynamic function before operation. Pure valve regurgitation was defined as grade 3-4\\/4
A S Sadee; A E Becker; H A Verheul; B Bouma; G Hoedemaker
BACKGROUND Dextrocardia situs inversus refers to the heart being a mirror image situated on the right side of the body. Distorted cardiac anatomy provides technical difficulties during fluoroscopy-guided transcatheter procedures. This is even more difficult in the case with percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). Mitral valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure to correct an uncomplicated mitral stenosis by dilating the valve using a balloon. Here, we describe a case of a 25 years-old male with situs inversus and dextrocardia. CASE REPORT A 25 years-old man, having situs inversus and suffering from mitral stenosis was referred to hospital for PTMC. His initial examination findings were unremarkable and an electrocardiographic (ECG), trans-esophageal and transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation were performed. Mitral valve (MV) was dome shape and severely stenotic with mild mitral regurgitation (MR). Left ventricularejection Fraction (LVEF) was about 40%, Femoral arterial and venous punctures were made on the left side; the left femoral artery and vein were cannulated with a 5F arterial and 6F venous sheaths, respectively. Then special maneuvers were done to solve the mitral valve stenosis. At the end of the procedure, no MR was documented by checking LV angiogram and there were no signs of mitral stenosis (MS). CONCLUSION Mirror-image dextrocardia, as in our case, has been estimated to occur with a prevalence of 1:10,000. However, there are only a few case reports in the literature on PTMC in similar settings. This might be due to the fact that many of these patients undergo surgical commissurotomy due to the technical difficulties involved in a percutaneous procedure in general. Trans-septal catheterization is considered a technical challenge in anatomically malpositioned hearts, as it is fraught with a higher risk of cardiac perforation. Despite the challenging anatomy, PTMC has been demonstrated to be a safe and feasible option for MS in patients with unusual cardiac anatomy. PMID:22577444
Tavassoli, Aliakbar; Emami, Mahmood; Mousavizadeh, Mostafa; Emami Meybodi, Tohid
Computational models for the heart's mitral valve (MV) exhibit several uncertainties that may be reduced by further developing these models using ground-truth data-sets. This study generated a ground-truth data-set by quantifying the effects of isolated mitral annular flattening, symmetric annular dilatation, symmetric papillary muscle (PM) displacement and asymmetric PM displacement on leaflet coaptation, mitral regurgitation (MR) and anterior leaflet strain. MVs were mounted in an in vitro left heart simulator and tested under pulsatile haemodynamics. Mitral leaflet coaptation length, coaptation depth, tenting area, MR volume, MR jet direction and anterior leaflet strain in the radial and circumferential directions were successfully quantified at increasing levels of geometric distortion. From these data, increase in the levels of isolated PM displacement resulted in the greatest mean change in coaptation depth (70% increase), tenting area (150% increase) and radial leaflet strain (37% increase) while annular dilatation resulted in the largest mean change in coaptation length (50% decrease) and regurgitation volume (134% increase). Regurgitant jets were centrally located for symmetric annular dilatation and symmetric PM displacement. Asymmetric PM displacement resulted in asymmetrically directed jets. Peak changes in anterior leaflet strain in the circumferential direction were smaller and exhibited non-significant differences across the tested conditions. When used together, this ground-truth data-set may be used to parametrically evaluate and develop modelling assumptions for both the MV leaflets and subvalvular apparatus. This novel data may improve MV computational models and provide a platform for the development of future surgical planning tools. PMID:24059354
Siefert, Andrew William; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre Michel; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Kunzelman, Karyn Susanne; Yoganathan, Ajit Prithivaraj
Percutaneous cardiac valve interventions have significantly extended the therapeutic options for patients with diseased cardiac valves. Technical miniaturization and major advancements in cardiac imaging techniques are the cornerstones of this successful development. Regarding mitral valve interventions periprocedural echocardiography in particular is of uttermost importance. This review describes the state of the art echocardiographic imaging techniques focusing on the clinically established mitral valve interventions: MitraClip® implantation, percutaneous closure of periprosthetic leaks and mitral balloon valvuloplasty. PMID:23838846
Kreidel, F; Alessandrini, H; Frerker, C; Thielsen, T; Schäfer, U; Kuck, K H
Left ventricular performance was assessed in 20 symptom free patients and 10 with symptoms, all with isolated aortic regurgitation, by measuring the echocardiographic peak velocity of circumferential fibre shortening (echo peak Vcf) at rest and during graded bicycle ergometer exercise in the supine position. The normal left ventricular response during such exercise was first determined in 20 healthy controls. On the basis of their resting and exercise echo peak Vcf, the 30 patients with aortic regurgitation could be separated into three groups: Group 1 comprised 11 symptom free patients with a normal resting echo peak Vcf which increased normally with exercise; group 2 comprised nine symptom free patients with a normal resting echo peak Vcf but with a subnormal response to exercise; group 3 consisted of 10 patients with symptoms with a depressed resting echo peak Vcf which remained subnormal with exercise. Subsequent cardiac catheterisation disclosed normal ejection fractions in patients in group 1, borderline ejection fractions in those in group 2, and reduced ejection fractions in those in group 3. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular performance during supine isotonic exercise may provide a simple noninvasive method for the early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in symptom free patients with aortic regurgitation. PMID:7295433
Paulsen, W; Boughner, D R; Persaud, J; Devries, L
OBJECTIVETo measure the health related quality of life (QoL) following mitral valve replacement in childhood.DESIGNCross sectional study.SETTINGTertiary referral centre.METHODS19 patients, median age (range) 14.4 (9.7–25.4) years, were studied at a median of 7.6 (0.5–11.2) years after their most recent mitral valve replacement. General health status was measured using age specific validated questionnaires. Ten children aged between 9–15 years completed the
C van Doorn; R Yates; A Tunstill; M Elliott
Alterations in mitral valve mechanics are classical indicators of valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis. Computational modeling is a powerful technique to quantify these alterations, to explore mitral valve physiology and pathology, and to classify the impact of novel treatment strategies. The selection of the appropriate constitutive model and the choice of its material parameters are paramount to the success of these models. However, the in vivo parameters values for these models are unknown. Here, we identify the in vivo material parameters for three common hyperelastic models for mitral valve tissue, an isotropic one and two anisotropic ones, using an inverse finite element approach. We demonstrate that the two anisotropic models provide an excellent fit to the in vivo data, with local displacement errors in the sub-millimeter range. In a complementary sensitivity analysis, we show that the identified parameter values are highly sensitive to prestrain, with some parameters varying up to four orders of magnitude. For the coupled anisotropic model, the stiffness varied from 119,021 kPa at 0 % prestrain via 36 kPa at 30 % prestrain to 9 kPa at 60 % prestrain. These results may, at least in part, explain the discrepancy between previously reported ex vivo and in vivo measurements of mitral leaflet stiffness. We believe that our study provides valuable guidelines for modeling mitral valve mechanics, selecting appropriate constitutive models, and choosing physiologically meaningful parameter values. Future studies will be necessary to experimentally and computationally investigate prestrain, to verify its existence, to quantify its magnitude, and to clarify its role in mitral valve mechanics. PMID:23263365
Rausch, Manuel K; Famaey, Nele; Shultz, Tyler O'Brien; Bothe, Wolfgang; Miller, D Craig; Kuhl, Ellen
Sixty-eight patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation proven by right ventriculography were examined using pulsed and continuous wave Doppler echocardiography and color Doppler flow imaging. Among the 68 patients, there was no tricuspid regurgitant murmur in 16 (24%) in whom laminar regurgitant flow signals were demonstrated by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. The area in which laminar flow was detected ranged from 8 to 46 mm2 (mean 19.5 +/- 9.8 mm2). The peak velocities in patients without regurgitant murmurs as measured by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 m/sec (mean: 1.61 +/- 0.21 m/sec). Laminar regurgitant flow signals were obtained in six; and turbulent regurgitant flow signals in 46 of 52 patients with tricuspid regurgitant murmurs, and their peak velocities ranged from 1.7 to 5.1 m/sec (2.80 +/- 0.78 m/sec). The peak velocities of the regurgitant flow signals in patients without tricuspid regurgitant murmurs were significantly lower than those in patients with regurgitant murmurs (p less than 0.01). In six patients with laminar regurgitant flow signals and regurgitant murmurs, the areas of laminar flow signals ranged from 3 to 12 mm2 (mean 7.0 +/- 3.5 mm2) and were smaller than those of patients without regurgitant murmurs (p less than 0.001). A characteristic candle flame pattern of regurgitant flow signals was observed in all patients without murmurs. Thus, the absence of a tricuspid regurgitant murmur results from laminar regurgitant flow signals of low velocity and this is characterized by a candle flame pattern using color Doppler flow imaging. PMID:2810038
Yoshida, K; Yoshikawa, J; Akasaka, T; Shakudo, M; Takao, S; Shiratori, K; Okumachi, F; Koizumi, K; Kato, H; Fukaya, T
Valvular lesions following blunt thoracic trauma are uncommon. Tricuspid valve regurgitation occurs very rarely. We report a successful tricuspid valve reconstruction for rupture of the chordae tendineae in a young man nine years after a motor vehicle accident. The value of echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis and quantification of this valve lesion is stressed. PMID:1395792
Kleikamp, G; Schnepper, U; Körtke, H; Breymann, T; Körfer, R
Mitral valve annuloplasty is a common surgical technique used in the repair of a leaking valve by implanting an annuloplasty device. To enhance repair durability, these devices are designed to increase leaflet coaptation, while preserving the native annular shape and motion; however, the precise impact of device implantation on annular deformation, strain, and curvature is unknown. Here we quantify how three frequently used devices significantly impair native annular dynamics. In controlled in vivo experiments, we surgically implanted eleven flexible-incomplete, eleven semi-rigid-complete, and twelve rigid-complete devices around the mitral annuli of 34 sheep, each tagged with 16 equally-spaced tantalum markers. We recorded four-dimensional marker coordinates using biplane videofluoroscopy, first with device and then without, which were used to create mathematical models using piecewise cubic splines. Clinical metrics (characteristic anatomical distances) revealed significant global reduction in annular dynamics upon device implantation. Mechanical metrics (strain and curvature fields) explained this reduction via a local loss of anterior dilation and posterior contraction. Overall, all three devices unfavorably reduced annular dynamics. The flexible-incomplete device, however, preserved native annular dynamics to a larger extent than the complete devices. Heterogeneous strain and curvature profiles suggest the need for heterogeneous support, which may spawn more rational design of annuloplasty devices using design concepts of functionally graded materials. PMID:22037916
Rausch, Manuel K.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Swanson, Julia C.; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen
Background: Symptomatically ‘silent’ gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) may be underdiagnosed. Objective: To determine the prevalence of untreated GORD without heartburn and/or regurgitation in primary care. Methods: Patients were included if they had frequent upper gastrointestinal symptoms and had not taken a proton pump inhibitor in the previous 2 months (Diamond study: NCT00291746). GORD was diagnosed based on the presence of reflux oesophagitis, pathological oesophageal acid exposure, and/or a positive symptom–acid association probability. Patients completed the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) and were interviewed by physicians using a prespecified symptom checklist. Results: GORD was diagnosed in 197 of 336 patients investigated. Heartburn and/or regurgitation were reported in 84.3% of patients with GORD during the physician interviews and in 93.4% of patients with GORD when using the RDQ. Of patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation not identified at physician interview, 58.1% (18/31) reported them at a ‘troublesome’ frequency and severity on the RDQ. Nine patients with GORD did not report heartburn or regurgitation either at interview or on the RDQ. Conclusions: Structured patient-completed questionnaires may help to identify patients with GORD not identified during physician interview. In a small proportion of consulting patients, heartburn and regurgitation may not be present in those with GORD.
Wernersson, Borje; Ohlsson, Lis; Dent, John
Between February 1985 and May 1987, 72 patients with mitral stenosis (MS) underwent percutaneous transluminal mitral valvuloplasty (PTMV). The retrograde transarterial double-balloon technique was used on 54/72 patients (75%); 16 males, 38 females; mean age: 39 +/- 11 years. Transseptal catheterization was used to place two 0.035", 350-cm exchange wires into the ascending aorta in order to be snared, retrieved, and exteriorized, each through a femoral artery. Over these wires, the balloon dilation catheters were advanced through the femoral artery, retrogradely, across the mitral valve, for PTMV. The transmitral mean gradient fell [18 +/- 4 to 9 +/- 5 mmHg (P less than 0.001)]; the cardiac output increased [5.1 +/- 0.8 6.1 +/- 0.8 L/min (P less than 0.001)]; the hemodynamically calculated valve area increased [1.2 +/- 0.2 to 2.3 +/- 0.6 cm2 (P less than 0.001)]; and the short axis two-dimensional echocardiographic valve area increased [1.1 +/- 0.3 to 2.2 +/- 0.7 (P less than 0.001)]. PTMV was unsuccessful in two patients (4%), due to the inability to maintain the inflated balloons in the mitral position. Significant complications were encountered in two patients: two strokes (3.7%) and one mortality from the stroke (1.4%). Significant mitral regurgitation occurred in two patients (3.7%); no post-PTMV hemodynamically significant atrial septal defects were detected. Follow-up (mean time: 11 +/- 6 months) of 43 patients showed a persistent improvement in echocardiographic findings in 27 (63%) and hemodynamically measured mitral valve area in the 16 patients in which cardiac catheterization was repeated. The retrograde, transarterial double-balloon technique can successfully accomplish PTMV with good results and an acceptable low morbidity and mortality. PMID:3396065
Babic, U U; Dorros, G; Pejcic, P; Djurisic, Z; Vucinic, M; Lewin, R F; Grujicic, S N
We describe a very rare case of human brucella multivalvular endocarditis. Patient presented in a state of cardiogenic shock with low urine output and a history of breathlessness. Patient was diagnosed to have brucellosis 2 months back by blood cultures and agglutination tests and was receiving doxycycline and rifampicin therapy. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation, moderate mitral regurgitation, severe left ventricular dysfunction and a mobile vegetation attached to the aortic valve. Patient was scheduled for emergency surgery; while preparing for surgery hemodynamic monitoring, non-invasive ventilation and inotropic supports were started. During surgery, the aortic valve was found perforated and the aortomitral continuity was disrupted. Aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair were performed. Hemofiltration was used during cardiopulmonary bypass. Weaning from bypass was achieved with the help of inodilators, dual chamber pacing and intra-aortic balloon pump. PMID:24107698
Kandasamy, Ashok; Ramalingam, Senthil Kumar; Reddy, Bhaktavatsala Deva; Krupananda, Harshavardhan
Objectives. We report the clinical course and unique hemodynamic findings after placement of a supraannular mitral valve prosthesis.Background. Children with symptomatic mitral valve disease whose annulus is too small for the smallest prosthesis are difficult to manage. One option is valve replacement with a prosthesis positioned entirely within the left atrium (LA).Methods. We reviewed 17 patients (median age 10 months)
Ian Adatia; Phillip M Moore; Richard A Jonas; Steven D Colan; James E Lock; John F Keane
Objective Mitral annular/leaflet calcification (MALC) is frequently observed in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS). However, the impact of MALC on mitral valve function has not been established. We aimed to investigate whether MALC reduces mitral annular area and restricts leaflet opening, resulting in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Methods Real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal images of the mitral valve were acquired in 101 patients with degenerative AS and 26 control participants. The outer and inner borders of the mitral annular area (MAA) and the maximal leaflet opening angle were measured at early diastole. The mitral valve area (MVA) was calculated as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the velocity time integral of the transmitral flow velocity. Results Although the outer MAA was significantly larger in patients with AS compared to control participants (8.2±1.3 vs 7.3±0.9?cm2, p<0.001), the inner MAA was significantly smaller (4.5±1.1 vs 5.9±0.9?cm2, p<0.001), resulting in an average decrease of 45% in the effective MAA. The maximal anterior and posterior leaflet opening angle was also significantly smaller in patients with AS (64±10 vs 72±8°, p<0.001, 71±12 vs 87±7°, p<0.001). Thus, MVA was significantly smaller in patients with AS (2.5±1.0 vs 3.8±0.8?cm2, p<0.001). Twenty-four (24%) patients with AS showed MVA <1.5?cm2. Multivariate regression analysis including parameters for mitral valve geometry revealed that a decrease in effective MAA and a reduced posterior leaflet opening angle were independent predictors for MVA. Conclusions Calcific extension to the mitral valve in patients with AS reduced effective MAA and the leaflet opening, resulting in a significant non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in one-fourth of the patients. PMID:25332828
Iwataki, Mai; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otani, Kyoko; Kuwaki, Hiroshi; Yoshitani, Hidetoshi; Abe, Haruhiko; Lang, Roberto M; Levine, Robert A; Otsuji, Yutaka
Cardiac auscultation, listening to the heart using a stethoscope, often constitutes the first step in detection of common heart problems. Unfortunately, primary care physicians, who perform this initial screening, often ...
Leeds, Daniel Demeny
The dialysis patient is prone to elevations in the calcium phosphorus product and hyperparathyroidism, which contributes to valvular and vascular calcification. We present the case of a young lady on chronic dialysis that developed mitral calcification complicated by severe mitral stenosis, caseous calcification and retinal embolization. She subsequently required mitral valve replacement. PMID:24015751
Sequeira, Adrian; Morris, Liam; Patel, Brijesh; Duvall, Lucas; Gali, Deepa; Menendez, Denisse; Alexander, Guy
BACKGROUND: Following a pulmonary resection, some patients suffer from persistent coughing, which may have a relationship with acid regurgitation. Since few physiological studies have been reported regarding this issue, we conducted the present observational study. METHODS: Persistent cough after pulmonary resection (CAP) was defined as non-productive coughing that occurred after a pulmonary resection in patients with stable chest X-ray results
Noriyoshi Sawabata; Shin-ichi Takeda; Toshiteru Tokunaga; Masayoshi Inoue; Hajime Maeda
Mitral valve regurgitation together with aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Europe and North America. Mechanical and biological prostheses available for mitral valve replacement have significant limitations such as the need of a long-term anticoagulation therapy and failure by calcifications. Both types are unable to remodel, self-repair, and adapt to the changing hemodynamic conditions. Moreover, they are mostly designed for the aortic position and do not reproduce the native annular-ventricular continuity, resulting in suboptimal hemodynamics, limited durability, and gradually decreasing ventricular pumping efficiency. A tissue-engineered heart valve specifically designed for the mitral position has the potential to overcome the limitations of the commercially available substitutes. For this purpose, we developed the TexMi, a living textile-reinforced mitral valve, which recapitulates the key elements of the native one: annulus, asymmetric leaflets (anterior and posterior), and chordae tendineae to maintain the native annular-ventricular continuity. The tissue-engineered valve is based on a composite scaffold consisting of the fibrin gel as a cell carrier and a textile tubular structure with the twofold task of defining the gross three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the valve and conferring mechanical stability. The TexMi valves were molded with ovine umbilical vein cells and stimulated under dynamic conditions for 21 days in a custom-made bioreactor. Histological and immunohistological stainings showed remarkable tissue development with abundant aligned collagen fibers and elastin deposition. No cell-mediated tissue contraction occurred. This study presents the proof-of-principle for the realization of a tissue-engineered mitral valve with a simple and reliable injection molding process readily adaptable to the patient's anatomy and pathological situation by producing a patient-specific rapid prototyped mold. PMID:24665896
Moreira, Ricardo; Gesche, Valentine N; Hurtado-Aguilar, Luis G; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Mela, Petra
Mitral valve regurgitation together with aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Europe and North America. Mechanical and biological prostheses available for mitral valve replacement have significant limitations such as the need of a long-term anticoagulation therapy and failure by calcifications. Both types are unable to remodel, self-repair, and adapt to the changing hemodynamic conditions. Moreover, they are mostly designed for the aortic position and do not reproduce the native annular-ventricular continuity, resulting in suboptimal hemodynamics, limited durability, and gradually decreasing ventricular pumping efficiency. A tissue-engineered heart valve specifically designed for the mitral position has the potential to overcome the limitations of the commercially available substitutes. For this purpose, we developed the TexMi, a living textile-reinforced mitral valve, which recapitulates the key elements of the native one: annulus, asymmetric leaflets (anterior and posterior), and chordae tendineae to maintain the native annular-ventricular continuity. The tissue-engineered valve is based on a composite scaffold consisting of the fibrin gel as a cell carrier and a textile tubular structure with the twofold task of defining the gross three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the valve and conferring mechanical stability. The TexMi valves were molded with ovine umbilical vein cells and stimulated under dynamic conditions for 21 days in a custom-made bioreactor. Histological and immunohistological stainings showed remarkable tissue development with abundant aligned collagen fibers and elastin deposition. No cell-mediated tissue contraction occurred. This study presents the proof-of-principle for the realization of a tissue-engineered mitral valve with a simple and reliable injection molding process readily adaptable to the patient's anatomy and pathological situation by producing a patient-specific rapid prototyped mold. PMID:24665896
Moreira, Ricardo; Gesche, Valentine N.; Hurtado-Aguilar, Luis G.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia
A three year old girl with severe congenital mitral stenosis was successfully treated by percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Cardiac catheterisation and cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography indicated that the orifice of the mitral valve had doubled in area. A small atrial septal defect was found at follow up cardiac catheterisation and angiography. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a reasonable alternative to surgical treatment for typical congenital mitral stenosis even in young children. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3593619
Alday, L E; Juaneda, E
The loop technique is useful for multiple chordal reconstructions in mitral valve repair. Although it is easy to anchor the loop to the tip of the prolapsed leaflet, take-down of the anchored loop is not easy. The devised loop-in-loop technique makes intraoperative adjustment of the neochordae quick and easy. This article describes a straightforward and reproducible method for secure anchoring and, if necessary, take-down of neochordae using the loop-in-loop technique for mitral valve repair. PMID:24887864
Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Masuda, Munetaka
by generating models from three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) . The advantages of generating models from the automatically segmented meshes to expert manual tracings for both a normal and diseased mitral valve, and found with model generation from 3DUS is that a limited number of methods exist that are able to accurately
Objective: The purpose of this study is to test the association between joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and panic disorder (PD) and to determine whether mitral valve prolapse (MVP) modifies or accounts in part for the association. Method: A total of 115 subjects are included in this study in three groups. Group I (n=42): panic disorder patients with MVP. Group II
Demet Gulpek; Erhan Bayraktar; Sebnem Pirildar Akbay; Kazým Capaci; Meral Kayikcioglu; Emil Aliyev; Cahide Soydas
Mitral valve flow imaging is inherently difficult due to valve plane motion and high blood flow velocities, which can range from 200 cm/s to 700 cm/s under regurgitant conditions. As such, insufficient temporal resolution has hampered imaging of mitral valve flows using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A novel phase contrast MRI technique, phase contrast using phase train imaging (PCPTI), has been developed to address the high temporal resolution needs for imaging mitral valve flows. The PCPTI sequence provides the highest temporal resolution to-date (6 ms) for measuring in-plane and through-plane flow patterns, with each velocity component acquired in a separate breathhold. Tested on healthy human volunteers, comparison to a conventional retrogated PC-FLASH cine sequence showed reasonable agreement. Results from a more rigorous validation using digital particle image velocimetry technique will be presented. The technique will be demonstrated in vitro using a physiological flow phantom and a St. Jude Medical Masters Series prosthetic valve.
Voorhees, Abram; Bohmann, Katja; McGorty, Kelly Anne; Wei, Timothy; Chen, Qun
OBJECTIVE--To assess the outcome after attempted percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in patients with severe mitral stenosis between February 1986 and June 1992. DESIGN--Clinical state, mitral valve area, and restenosis at follow up were analysed. Mitral valve area as determined by the Gorlin formula, planimetry, and Doppler methods was compared before and after dilatation and at follow up. SETTING--University hospital. PATIENTS--176 patients had serial clinical and Doppler echocardiographic follow up and 44 of them also underwent recatheterisation. RESULT--At follow up 93% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or class II. Mitral valve area (planimetry) increased from 0.97(0.24) cm2 before to 1.86(0.39) cm2 after dilatation (p = 0.0001) and then decreased to 1.72(0.39) cm2 at follow up (p < 0.001); mitral valve area (Doppler) increased from 1.01 (0.24) to 1.89 (0.42) cm2 (p = 0.0001) and then decreased to 1.78(0.40) cm2 (p < 0.05). The overall restenosis rate was 15% and over 90% of the patients were free from cardiovascular events. Age, valvar calcification, echocardiographic score, and mitral valve area after dilatation were found to be determinant predictors of restenosis. In patients who underwent recatheterisation, mitral valve area by the Gorlin method at follow up was comparable with that by planimetry and Doppler methods whereas a significant discrepancy between the three methods was noted immediately after dilatation. CONCLUSION--Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve provided sustained anatomical and functional improvement in over 80% of patients at late follow up. Older age, heavy calcification, high echocardiographic score, and suboptimal immediate results are significant predictors of restenosis. Doppler echocardiographic examination is the procedure of choice for follow up evaluation. PMID:8011410
Ruiz, C. E.; Zhang, H. P.; Gamra, H.; Allen, J. W.; Lau, F. Y.
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.
Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Asher, Craig R.; Hail, Melanie; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Starling, Randall C.; Young, James B.; Thomas, James D.
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that color M-mode (CMM) images could be used to solve the Euler equation, yielding regional pressure gradients along the scanline, which could then be integrated to yield the unsteady Bernoulli equation and estimate noninvasively both the convective and inertial components of the transmitral pressure difference. BACKGROUND: Pulsed and continuous wave Doppler velocity measurements are routinely used clinically to assess severity of stenotic and regurgitant valves. However, only the convective component of the pressure gradient is measured, thereby neglecting the contribution of inertial forces, which may be significant, particularly for nonstenotic valves. Color M-mode provides a spatiotemporal representation of flow across the mitral valve. METHODS: In eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, high-fidelity left atrial and ventricular pressure measurements were obtained synchronously with transmitral CMM digital recordings. The instantaneous diastolic transmitral pressure difference was computed from the M-mode spatiotemporal velocity distribution using the unsteady flow form of the Bernoulli equation and was compared to the catheter measurements. RESULTS: From 56 beats in 16 hemodynamic stages, inclusion of the inertial term ([deltapI]max = 1.78+/-1.30 mm Hg) in the noninvasive pressure difference calculation significantly increased the temporal correlation with catheter-based measurement (r = 0.35+/-0.24 vs. 0.81+/-0.15, p< 0.0001). It also allowed an accurate approximation of the peak pressure difference ([deltapc+I]max = 0.95 [delta(p)cathh]max + 0.24, r = 0.96, p<0.001, error = 0.08+/-0.54 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Inertial forces are significant components of the maximal pressure drop across the normal mitral valve. These can be accurately estimated noninvasively using CMM recordings of transmitral flow, which should improve the understanding of diastolic filling and function of the heart.
Firstenberg, M. S.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.
Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to deficient activity of ?-glucuronidase (GUSB) and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes and multisystemic disease with cardiavascular manifestations. The goal here was to determine the pathogenesis of mitral valve (MV) disease in MPS VII dogs. Untreated MPS VII dogs had a marked reduction in the histochemical signal for structurally-intact collagen in the MV at 6 months of age, when mitral regurgitation had developed. Electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils were of normal diameter, but failed to align into large parallel arrays. mRNA analysis demonstrated a modest reduction in the expression of genes that encode collagen or collagen-associated proteins such as the proteoglycan decorin which helps collagen fibrils assemble, and a marked increase for genes that encode proteases such as cathepsins. Indeed, enzyme activity for cathepsin B (CtsB) was 19-fold normal. MPS VII dogs that received neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector had an improved signal for structurally-intact collagen, and reduced CtsB activity relative to that seen in untreated MPS VII dogs. We conclude that MR in untreated MPS VII dogs was likely due to abnormalities in MV collagen structure. This could be due to upregulation of enzymes that degrade collagen or collagen-associated proteins, to the accumulation of GAGs that compete with proteoglycans such as decorin for binding to collagen, or to other causes. Further delineation of the etiology of abnormal collagen structure may lead to treatments that improve biomechanical properties of the MV and other tissues. PMID:23856419
Bigg, Paul W.; Baldo, Guilherme; Sleeper, Meg M.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Bai, Hanqing; Rokkam, Venkata R.P.; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Giugliani, Roberto; Casal, Margret L.; Haskins, Mark E.; Ponder, Katherine P.
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in dogs. It is characterized by chronic progressive degenerative lesions of the mitral valve. The valve leaflets become thickened and prolapse into the left atrium resulting in mitral regurgitation (MR). MMVD is most prevalent in small to medium sized dog breeds, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) in particular. The onset of MMVD is highly age dependent, and at the age of 10 years, nearly all CKCS are affected. The incidence of a similar disease in humans-mitral valve prolapse-is 1-5%. By defining CKCSs with an early onset of MMVD as cases and old dogs with no or mild signs of MMVD as controls, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify loci associated with development of MMVD. We have identified a 1.58 Mb region on CFA13 (P(genome) = 4.0 × 10(-5)) and a 1.68 Mb region on CFA14 (P(genome) = 7.9 × 10(-4)) associated with development of MMVD. This confirms the power of using the dog as a model to uncover potential candidate regions involved in the molecular mechanisms behind complex traits. PMID:21846748
Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier; Häggström, Jens; Höglund, Katja; Ljungvall, Ingrid; Falk, Torkel; Wess, Gerhard; Stephenson, Hannah; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Chetboul, Valérie; Gouni, Vassiliki; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Cirera, Susanna; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete
This thesis develops two methods for simulating, in the finite element setting, the material behavior of heart mitral valve leaflet tissue. First, a mixed pressure-displacement formulation is used to implement the constitutive ...
Weinberg, Eli, 1979-
Coarctation of the aorta is frequently associated with left ventricular inflow tract abnormalities that may be difficult to detect even at cardiac catheterization. This study involved patients with coarctation who underwent comprehensive two-dimensional echocardiographic investigations emphasizing visualization of the mitral valve and its apparatus. Of the 56 patients studied, 23 had completely normal study results, while in 33 (59%) results showed abnormalities of the mitral complex. The latter were divided into two groups: those having major mitral abnormalities (n = 12) and those with minor anomalies of the valve and apparatus (n = 21). The first group included patients with a supravalve stenosing ring, congenital mitral stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, and parachute mitral valve. Minor anomalies were classified as abnormalities of the papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, or combinations of both. No mitral malformations were found in a control group of patients. We conclude that two-dimensional echocardiography is a sensitive and accurate noninvasive method for assessing either significant or subtle forms of left ventricular inflow disease in patients with aortic coarctation. Its use is recommended for the acute medical and surgical management of these patients as well as for their long-term follow-up evaluation. PMID:6705168
Celano, V; Pieroni, D R; Morera, J A; Roland, J M; Gingell, R L
Background The effect of aortic valve replacement on three-dimensional (3D) mitral annular geometry has not been well-described. Emerging transcatheter approaches for aortic valve replacement employ fundamentally different mechanical techniques for achieving fixation and seal of the prosthetic valve than standard surgical aortic valve replacement. This study compares the immediate impact of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and standard surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) on mitral annular anatomy. Methods Real-time 3D echocardiography was performed in patients undergoing TAVR using the Edwards Sapien® valve (n=10) or AVR (n=10) for severe aortic stenosis. Mitral annular geometric indexes were measured using Tomtec EchoView to assess regional and global annular geometry. Results Mixed between-within ANOVA showed no differences between TAVR and AVR groups in any of the mitral annular geometric indices pre-operatively. However, post-operative analysis did demonstrate an effect of AVR on geometry. Patients undergoing open AVR had significant decrease in annular height, septolateral diameter, mitral valve transverse diameter and mitral annular area after valve replacement (P?.006). Similar changes were not noted in the TAVR group. Conclusions TAVR preserves mitral annular geometry better than AVR. Thus, TAVR may be a more physiological approach to aortic replacement. PMID:23245440
Vergnat, Mathieu; Levack, Melissa M.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Cheung, Albert T.; Weiss, Stuart J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.
Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.
McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.
A precise pre-procedural evaluation of mitral valve (MV) pathology is essential for planning the surgical strategy for severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and preparing for the intraoperative procedure. In the present case, a 38-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo MV replacement due to severe MR. She had a history of undergoing percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty due to rheumatic mitral stenosis during a previous pregnancy. A preoperative transthoracic echocardiography suggested a tear in the mid tip of the anterior mitral leaflet. However, the "en face" view of the MV in the left atrial perspective using intraoperative real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D-TEE) provided a different diagnosis: a torn cleft in the P2-scallop of the posterior mitral leaflet (PML) with rupture of the chordae. Thus, surgical planning was changed intraoperatively to MV repair (MVRep) consisting of patch closure of the PML, commissurotomy, and lifting annuloplasty. The present case shows that intraoperative RT 3D-TEE provides more precise and reliable spatial information of MV for MVRep and facilitates critical surgical decision-making. PMID:24567819
Jung, Hyun Ju; Yu, Ga-Yon; Seok, Jung-Ho; Oh, Chungsik; Kim, Seong-Hyop; Yoon, Tae-Gyoon
We describe a case of percutaneous balloon valvoplasty of a stenotic Ionescu-Shiley mitral bioprosthesis with the help of an original emboli-protecting device. The procedure reduced diastolic gradient from 29 to 9 mmHg. The calculated area of the orifice increased from 0.7 to 1.7 cm2. At 10 months follow-up examination there was no change of hemodynamic parameters. PMID:2010248
Babic, U U; Grujicic, S; Vucinic, M
Interest in developing durable mitral valve repair methods is growing, underscoring the need to better understand the native mitral valve mechanics. In this study, the authors investigate the dynamic deformation of the mitral valve strut chordae-to-anterior leaflet transition zone using a novel stretch mapping method and report the complex mechanics of this region for the first time. Eight structurally normal porcine mitral valves were studied in a pulsatile left heart simulator under physiological hemodynamic conditions -120 mm peak transvalvular pressure, 5 l/min cardiac output at 70 bpm. The chordal insertion region was marked with a structured array of 31 miniature markers, and their motions throughout the cardiac cycle were tracked using two high speed cameras. 3D marker coordinates were calculated using direct linear transformation, and a second order continuous surface was fit to the marker cloud at each time frame. Average areal stretch, principal stretch magnitudes and directions, and stretch rates were computed, and temporal changes in each parameter were mapped over the insertion region. Stretch distribution was heterogeneous over the entire strut chordae insertion region, with the highest magnitudes along the edges of the chordal insertion region and the least along the axis of the strut chordae. At early systole, radial stretch was predominant, but by mid systole, significant stretch was observed in both radial and circumferential directions. The compressive stretches measured during systole indicate a strong coupling between the two principal directions, explaining the small magnitude of the systolic areal stretch. This study for the first time provides the dynamic kinematics of the strut chordae insertion region in the functioning mitral valve. A heterogeneous stretch pattern was measured, with the mechanics of this region governed by the complex underlying collagen architecture. The insertion region seemed to be under stretch during both systole and diastole, indicating a transfer of forces from the leaflets to the chordae and vice versa throughout the cardiac cycle, and demonstrating its role in optimal valve function. PMID:20670053
Padala, Muralidhar; Sacks, Michael S; Liou, Shasan W; Balachandran, Kartik; He, Zhaoming; Yoganathan, Ajit P
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is not optimally suited for recognizing which valve segments are involved in type II mitral valve dysfunction. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic value of TEE and 3-dimensional image reconstruction (3DIR) in the assessment of Carpentier type II mitral valve lesions. In 74 patients (mean age 59+/-13 years) with mitral regurgitation due to type II valve dysfunction, TEE and 3DIR were performed and analyzed by 2 experts before surgical repair. Leaflet scallops and commissures were displayed in short-axis en face and long-axis views. Echocardiographic results were surgically validated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated, broken down by valve segments and Barlow's disease. Interobserver variability was also determined. Compared with TEE, 3DIR was superior with respect to sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy, although not always significantly (p<0.05). Specificity was higher for P2 lesions. The clearest advantage of 3DIR over TEE was higher sensitivity in commissural and bileaflet defects (p<0.05). Interobserver agreement on 3DIR was stronger than on TEE results (kappa values 0.52 vs 0.82, p<0.0001). There were 16 disagreements (23%) on TEE but only 5 (7%) on 3DIR readings. In conclusion, the more complex the lesion, the more valuable 3DIR is compared with TEE. Before repair, 3DIR is beneficial for the evaluation and classification of the specific pathology in type II mitral valve dysfunction. PMID:16828601
Müller, Silvana; Müller, Ludwig; Laufer, Günther; Alber, Hannes; Dichtl, Wolfgang; Frick, Matthias; Pachinger, Otmar; Bartel, Thomas
Objective Successful mitral valve replacement in young children is limited by the lack of small prosthetic valves. Supra-annular prosthesis implantation can facilitate mitral valve replacement with a larger prosthesis in children with a small annulus, but little is known about its effect on the outcomes of mitral valve replacement in young children. Methods One hundred eighteen children underwent mitral valve replacement at 5 years of age or younger from 1976–2006. Mitral valve replacement was supra-annular in 37 (32%) patients. Results Survival was 74% ± 4% at 1 year and 56% ± 5% at 10 years but improved over time (10-year survival of 83% ± 7% from 1994–2006). Factors associated with worse survival included earlier mitral valve replacement date, age less than 1 year, complete atrioventricular canal, and additional procedures at mitral valve replacement, but not supra-annular mitral valve replacement. As survival improved during our more recent experience, the risks of supra-annular mitral valve replacement became apparent; survival was worse among patients with a supra-annular prosthesis after 1991. A pacemaker was placed in 18 (15%) patients within 1 month of mitral valve replacement and was less likely in patients who had undergone supra-annular mitral valve replacement. Among early survivors, freedom from redo mitral valve replacement was 72% ± 5% at 5 years and 45% ± 7% at 10 years. Twenty-one patients with a supra-annular prosthesis underwent redo mitral valve replacement. The second prosthesis was annular in 15 of these patients and upsized in all but 1, but 5 required pacemaker placement for heart block. Conclusions Supra-annular mitral valve replacement was associated with worse survival than annular mitral valve replacement in our recent experience. Patients with supra-annular mitral valve replacement were less likely to have operative complete heart block but remained at risk when the prosthesis was subsequently replaced. PMID:18954636
Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet; Pigula, Frank A.; Berul, Charles I.; Lock, James E.; del Nido, Pedro J.; McElhinney, Doff B.
Background Mitral stenosis, one of the grave consequences of rheumatic heart disease, was generally considered to take decades to evolve. However, several studies from the developing countries have shown that mitral stenosis follows a different course from that seen in the developed countries. This study reports the prevalence, severity and common complications of mitral stenosis in the first and early second decades of life among children referred to a tertiary center for intervention. Methods Medical records of 365 patients aged less than 16 and diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease were reviewed. Mitral stenosis was graded as severe (mitral valve area?1.0 cm2), moderate (mitral valve area 1.0-1.5 cm2) and mild (mitral valve area?>?1.5 cm2). Results Mean age at diagnosis was 10.1?±?2.5 (range 3–15) years. Of the 365 patients, 126 (34.5%) were found to have mitral stenosis by echocardiographic criteria. Among children between 6–10 years, the prevalence of mitral stenosis was 26.5%. Mean mitral valve area (n?=?126) was 1.1?±?0.5 cm2 (range 0.4-2.0 cm2). Pure mitral stenosis was present in 35 children. Overall, multi-valvular involvement was present in 330 (90.4%). NYHA functional class was II in 76% and class III or IV in 22%. Only 25% of patients remember having symptoms of acute rheumatic fever. Complications at the time of referral include 16 cases of atrial fibrillation, 8 cases of spontaneous echo contrast in the left atrium, 2 cases of left atrial thrombus, 4 cases of thrombo-embolic events, 2 cases of septic emboli and 3 cases of airway compression by a giant left atrium. Conclusion Rheumatic mitral stenosis is common in the first and early second decades of life in Ethiopia. The course appeared to be accelerated resulting in complications and disability early in life. Echocardiography-based screening programs are needed to estimate the prevalence and to provide support for strengthening primary and secondary prevention programs. PMID:24180350
Objective Analyse 2-year outcomes after MitraClip therapy and identify predictors of outcome. Methods Consecutive patients (n=74) undergoing MitraClip therapy were included in the MitraSWISS registry and followed prospectively. Results A reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR) to ? mild was achieved in 32 (43%) patients and to moderate in 31 (42%) patients; 16/63 (25%) patients with initially successful treatment developed recurrent moderate to severe or severe MR during the first year and only 1 patient did so during the second year. At 2?years, moderate or less MR was more frequently present in patients with a transmitral mean gradient <3?mm?Hg at baseline (73% vs 23%, p?0.01) and in patients with a left atrial volume index (LAVI) <50?mL/m2 at baseline (86% vs 52%, p=0.03). More than mild MR post MitraClip, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide ?5000?ng/L at baseline, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were associated with reduced survival. Conclusions A mean transmitral gradient <3?mm?Hg at baseline, an LAVI <50?mL/m2, the absence of COPD and CKD, and reduction of MR to less than moderate were associated with favourable outcome. Given a suitable anatomy, such patients may be excellent candidates for MitraClip therapy. Between 1 and 2?years follow-up, clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were stable, suggesting favourable, long-term durability of the device.
Toggweiler, Stefan; Zuber, Michel; Surder, Daniel; Biaggi, Patric; Gstrein, Christine; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pasotti, Elena; Gaemperli, Oliver; Faletra, Francesco; Petrova-Slater, Iveta; Grunenfelder, Jurg; Jamshidi, Peiman; Corti, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Luscher, Thomas F; Erne, Paul
Background. In order to minimize surgical trauma, video-assisted mitral valve operation has been started using the Port-Access technique with the addition of a three-dimensional visualization system (Vista Cardiothoracic Systems Inc, Westborough, MA) and a voice-controlled camera-holding robotic arm (Aesop; Computer Motion Inc, Goleta, CA).Methods. Port-Access mitral valve replacement or repair (PAMVR) was undertaken using an endovascular cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system.
Hermann Reichenspurner; Dieter H Boehm; Helmut Gulbins; Costas Schulze; Stephen Wildhirt; Armin Welz; Christian Detter; Bruno Reichart
Formation of channel-like pores in a plant membrane was induced within seconds after application of an aqueous solution containing regurgitant of the insect larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Gated pore currents recorded on the tonoplast of the Charophyte Chara corallina displayed conductances up to several hundred pS. A voltage-dependent gating reaction supports the assumption that pore-forming molecules have amphipathic properties. Regurgitant samples
Hinrich Lühring; Van Dy Nguyen; Lilian Schmidt; Ursula S. R. Röse
Mitral valve reconstruction is a widespread surgical method to repair incompetent mitral valves. During reconstructive surgery the judgement of mitral valve geometry and subvalvular apparatus is mandatory in order to choose for the appropriate repair strategy. To date, intraoperative analysis of mitral valve is merely based on visual assessment and inaccurate sizer devices, which do not allow for any accurate and standardized measurement of the complex three-dimensional anatomy. We propose a new intraoperative computer-assisted method for mitral valve measurements using a pointing instrument together with an optical tracking system. Sixteen anatomical points were defined on the mitral apparatus. The feasibility and the reproducibility of the measurements have been tested on a rapid prototyping (RP) heart model and a freshly exercised porcine heart. Four heart surgeons repeated the measurements three times on each heart. Morphologically important distances between the measured points are calculated. We achieved an interexpert variability mean of 2.28 +/- 1:13 mm for the 3D-printed heart and 2.45 +/- 0:75 mm for the porcine heart. The overall time to perform a complete measurement is 1-2 minutes, which makes the method viable for virtual annuloplasty during an intervention.
Engelhardt, Sandy; De Simone, Raffaele; Wald, Diana; Zimmermann, Norbert; Al Maisary, Sameer; Beller, Carsten J.; Karck, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo
Three patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis were treated with percutaneous mitral valvotomy. A Brockenbrough catheter was advanced transseptally into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle over a long guide wire. An angle wire loop retriever was advanced through a 10 Fr straight catheter via the femoral artery into the left ventricle. The retriever was used to catch the flexible end of the long guide wire. This end of the long guide wire was then drawn out of the right femoral artery by the retriever through the straight catheter. The straight catheter was left in the descending aorta; the Brockenbrough catheter was removed and a 7 Fr balloon catheter was introduced percutaneously over the long guide wire through the femoral vein. This balloon catheter was used for interatrial septal dilatation and right femoral venous dilatation. In two patients this catheter was replaced over the long guide wire with a 9 Fr Schneider-Medintag Grüntzig catheter (3 X 12 mm diameter when inflated) and in the other by a Mansfield (18 mm diameter when inflated). The procedure was well tolerated in these three patients and there were no complications. Haemodynamic function improved, there was appreciable decrease in dyspnoea, and exercise tolerance was increased. This procedure has several advantages: the balloon is more easily positioned through the mitral valve; the stability of the balloon during inflation is improved by traction at both ends of the long guide wire; and there is the option of rapidly exchanging one balloon for a larger one over the long guide wire. This technique seems to be less arrhythmogenic and results in less blood loss because manual compression of the femoral vessels after the procedure is easier. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3620253
Commeau, P; Grollier, G; Huret, B; Foucault, J P; Potier, J C
We describe a case of mitral valve aneurysm associated with concomitant aortic valve endocarditis. Aneurysms appear as a localized saccular bulge of the anterior leaflet into the left atrium and thus are often misdiagnosed as mitral valve prolapse, myxomatous mitral valve, or atrial myxoma. The presentation and management of mitral valve aneurysms are the subject of this case report.? PMID:21447085
Ruparelia, Neil; Lawrence, David; Elkington, Andrew
Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is a condition in which heart's mitral valve does not close tightly, which allows blood to leak back into the left atrium. Restoring the dimension of the mitral-valve annulus by percutaneous intervention surgery is a common choice to treat MR. Currently, this kind of open heart annuloplasty surgery is being performed through sternotomy with cardiomyopathy bypass. In order to reduce trauma to the patient and also to eliminate bypass surgery, robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure, which requires small keyhole incisions, has a great potential. To perform this surgery through MIS procedure, an accurate computer controlled catheter with wide-range force feedback capabilities is required. There are three types of tissues at the site of operation: mitral leaflet, mitral annulus and left atrium. The maximum allowable applied force to these three types of tissue is totally different. For instance, leaflet tissue is the most sensitive one with the lowest allowable force capacity. For this application, therefore, a wide-range force sensing is highly required. Most of the sensors that have been developed for use in MIS applications have a limited range of sensing. Therefore, they need to be calibrated for different types of tissue. The present work, reports on the design, modeling and simulation of a novel wide-range optical force sensor for measurement of contact pressure between catheter tip and heart tissue. The proposed sensor offers a wide input range with a high resolution and sensitivity over this range. Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technology, this sensor can be microfabricated and integrated with commercially available catheters.
Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Sokhanvar, Saeed; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad
Mitral valve (MV) edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a surgical procedure for the correction of mitral valve regurgitation by suturing the free edge of the leaflets. The leaflets are often sutured at three different positions: central, lateral and commissural portions. To study the effects of position of suture on left ventricular (LV) fluid mechanics under mitral valve ETER, a parametric model of MV-LV system during diastole was developed. The distribution and development of vortex and atrio-ventricular pressure under different suture position were investigated. Results show that the MV sutured at central and lateral in ETER creates two vortex rings around two jets, compared with single vortex ring around one jet of the MV sutured at commissure. Smaller total orifices lead to a higher pressure difference across the atrio-ventricular leaflets in diastole. The central suture generates smaller wall shear stresses than the lateral suture, while the commissural suture generated the minimum wall shear stresses in ETER. PMID:24211894
Du, Dongxing; Jiang, Song; Wang, Ze; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming
The coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment of percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices for the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation. Characterization of the mechanical response of the CS is an important step towards an understanding of tissue-device interaction in PTMA intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of the porcine CS using the pressure-inflation test and constitutively model the wall behavior using a four fiber family strain energy function (SEF). The results showed that the CS exhibited an S-shaped pressure-radius response and could be dilated up to 88% at a pressure of 80mmHg. Excellent results from model fitting indicated that the four fiber family SEF could capture the experimental data well and could be used in future numerical simulations of tissue-device interaction. In addition, a histological study was performed to identify the micro-structure of the CS wall. We found a high content of striated myocardial fibers (SMFs) surrounding the CS wall, which was also mainly composed of SMFs, while the content of smooth muscle cells was very low. Elastin and collagen fibers were highly concentrated in the luminal and outer layers and sparsely distributed in the medial layer of the CS wall. These structural and mechanical properties of the CS should be taken into consideration in future PTMA device designs. PMID:20621635
Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei
Linear contrast echo configuration on the pulmonary valve M-mode echogram was assessed in 28 patients with pulmonary hypertension, in 10 with pulmonary regurgitation, and in 10 normal subjects. Contrast echo parallel lines filling the total systolic phase of the pulmonary valve were recorded in normal subjects. Contrast echo lines stopping in early systole around the pulmonary valve mid-systolic notch were seen in all the patients with pulmonary hypertension in relation to changes with the pulmonary flow. Contrast echo lines reversing the early diastole and crossing the pulmonary valve echogram during diastole were detected in all the patients with pulmonary regurgitation, consistent with the reversed flow across the valve. The use of contrast echocardiography to diagnose both pulmonary hypertension and regurgitation may provide further useful information, particularly when the orientation and time of appearance of the contrast echo lines are related to the systolic and/or diastolic phases of the pulmonary valve M-mode echogram. Images PMID:7295432
Gullace, G; Savoia, M T; Ravizza, P; Locatelli, V; Addamiano, P; Ranzi, C
Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well. PMID:23837121
Kim, Darae; Hun, Sin Sang; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik; Ju, Hyun Chul; Sohn, Jang Won
Background Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) has become a standard technique to perform mitral valve surgery in many cardiac centers. However, there remains a question regarding when MIMVS should not be performed due to an increased surgical risk. Consequently, expert surgeons were surveyed regarding their opinions on patient factors, mitral valve pathology and surgical skills in MIMVS. Methods Surgeons experienced in MIMVS were identified through an electronic search of the literature. A link to an online survey platform was sent to all surgeons, as well as two follow-up reminders. Survey responses were then submitted to a central database and analyzed. Results The survey was completed by 20 surgeons. Overall results were not uniform with regard to contraindications to performing MIMVS. Some respondents do not consider left atrial enlargement (95% of surgeons), complexity of surgery (75%), age (70%), aortic calcification (70%), EuroSCORE (60%), left ventricular ejection fraction (55%), or obesity (50%) to be contraindication to surgery. Ninety percent of respondents believe more than 20 cases are required to gain familiarity with the procedure, while 85% believe at least one MIMVS case needs to be performed per week to maintain proficiency. Eighty percent recommend establishment of multi-institutional databases and standardized surgical mentoring courses, while 75% believe MIMVS should be incorporated into current training programs for trainees. Conclusions These results suggest that MIMVS has been accepted as a treatment option for patients with mitral valve pathologies according the expert panel. Initial training and continuing practice is recommended to maintain proficiency, as well as further research and formalization of training programs. PMID:24349974
Borger, Michael; Byrne, John G.; Chitwood, W. Randolph; Cohn, Lawrence; Galloway, Aubrey; Garbade, Jens; Glauber, Mattia; Greco, Ernesto; Hargrove, Clark W.; Holzhey, David M.; Krakor, Ralf; Loulmet, Didier; Mishra, Yugal; Modi, Paul; Murphy, Douglas; Nifong, L. Wiley; Okamoto, Kazuma; Seeburger, Joerg; Tian, David H.; Vollroth, Marcel; Yan, Tristan D.
Background While in adults with sickle cell disease an elevation of tricuspid regurgitation velocity is associated with increased mortality, the importance of this finding in children has not been established. The role of intravascular hemolysis in the development of this complication is controversial. Design and Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, multi-center study of 160 individuals aged 3–20 years with hemoglobin SS, performing baseline and follow-up determinations of clinical markers, six-minute walk distance less than tricuspid regurgitation velocity and E/Etdi ratio by echocardiography. Results At baseline, 14.1% had tricuspid regurgitation velocity of 2.60 m/sec or over, which suggests elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and 7.7% had increased E/Etdi, which suggests elevated left ventricular filling pressure. Over a median of 22 months, baseline elevation in tricuspid regurgitation velocity was associated with an estimated 4.4-fold increase in the odds of a 10% or more decline in age-standardized six-minute-walk distance (P=0.015). During this interval, baseline values above the median for a hemolytic component derived from four markers of hemolysis were associated with a 9.0-fold increase in the odds of the new onset of elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity (P=0.008) and baseline E/Etdi elevation was associated with an estimated 6.1-fold increase in the odds (P=0.039). In pathway analysis, higher baseline hemolytic component and E/Etdi predicted elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity at both baseline and follow up, and these elevations in turn predicted decline in six-minute-walk distance. Conclusions Further studies should define the long-term risks of elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity in childhood and identify potential interventions to prevent increased pulmonary artery pressure and preserve function. PMID:20884713
Gordeuk, Victor R.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Campbell, Andrew D.; Rana, Sohail R; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Ensing, Gregory; Prchal, Josef T.; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Castro, Oswaldo L.
Aim: Long standing mitral valve disease is usually associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Perioperative pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for right ventricular (RV) failure and a cause for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor-sildenafil citrate is widely used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension. There is a lack of evidence of effects of oral sildenafil on secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral valve disease. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary hypertension and incidence of RV failure in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients scheduled for mitral valve replacement with severe pulmonary hypertension (RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ?60 mmHg) on preoperative transthoracic echo were randomly treated with oral sildenafil 25 mg (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20) eight hourly for 24 h before surgery. Hemodynamic variables were measured 20 min after insertion of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) under anesthesia (T1), 20 min at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T2) and after 1,2, and 6 h (T3, T4, T5, respectively) during the postoperative period. Results: Systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in sildenafil group at all times. Ventilation time and postoperative recovery room stay were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil produces significant pulmonary vasodilatory effect as compared with placebo in mitral valve replacement patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. It also reduces ventilation time and intensive care unit (ICU) stay time as compared with placebo. It is concluded that sildenafil is effective in reducing pulmonary hypertension when administered preoperatively in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. PMID:24987174
Gandhi, Hemang; Shah, Bipin; Patel, Ramesh; Toshani, Rajesh; Pujara, Jigisha; Kothari, Jignesh; Shastri, Naman
Significant progress has been achieved in cardiac surgery in the last 50 years. Mitral valve surgery (especially for the relief of mitral stenosis) has paralleled the innovations and trends of cardiac surgery and often has served as the benchmark of the latest procedures and techniques. A chronological survey of mitral valve surgery is presented, with emphasis on parallels to cardiac surgery in general and with highlights of key figures and events that have conclusively altered the surgeon's approach to and success with cardiac dysfunction. A few surgeons promulgated the idea of cardiac surgery in the late 19th century, but mitral valve surgeries were not performed in earnest until Souttar's and Cutler's initial attempts in the 1920s and were not successful on large groups of patients until Bailey and Harken made independent breakthroughs in the 1940s, finally laying to rest the idea of the "inviolable heart." Cardiopulmonary bypass provided cardiac surgeons with the time to implant mechanical and bioprosthetic valves for palliative benefit to patients. The "perfect" valve has yet to be found, but the Starr-Edwards mechanical valve since its inception in 1961 has been one of the most successful and widely used prosthetic valves. Gradual improvement in surgical technique and growing knowledge of valve function enabled the re-emergence of mitral valve repair in the 1980s as the preferred surgical method of treating mitral stenosis. In the last 10 years, mitral valve balloon dilation has provided a nonsurgical technique for relief of stenosis and represents the broader trend towards interventional techniques. Images PMID:8969024
Khan, M N
We evaluated the long-term outcome of mitral valve replacement with a Harken caged-disc prosthesis for up to 11 years (range, 50 to 130 months; mean, 81 months) in 170 patients whose mean age was 55 years. The early (30-day) mortality was 11.2% (19 out of 170 patients). Late follow-up information was obtained for 144 (95%) of the 151 survivors. The actuarial survival was 57% at 5 years and 40% at 10 years. Overall mortality was associated with advanced age, male sex, an ischemic origin for the mitral valve disease, and nonuse of warfarin anticoagulation. Late deaths (n=59) were valve-related in 46%, cardiac but non-valve-related in 44%, and noncardiac in 10% of the cases. One thromboembolic event or more occurred in 41 patients (incidence, 5.7% per patient year), 14 of whom died (24% of the late deaths). All four patients who were not on warfarin, aspirin, or other antithrombotic therapy experienced thromboemboli. This complication was correlated with the nonuse of warfarin-type anticoagulation, with mitral regurgitation, and with late cardiac death. Mechanical prosthetic failure resulted in reoperation or death in 7.6% of the late survivors (1.5% per patient year). In 75 patients with normally functioning prostheses, the disc-to-sewing ring ratio was established by means of cinefluoroscopy (0.93 ± 0.04, mean ± 25D). Because of the high proportion of cardiac valve-related deaths (46%), the high incidence of late mortality due to thromboembolic events (24%), and the 7.6% incidence of reoperation or death resulting from mechanical valve failure, close follow-up with cinefluoroscopy and continued warfarin anticoagulation (alone or in combination with dipyridamole) are essential after mitral valve replacement with the Harken caged-disc prosthesis. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:411-417) Images PMID:15227298
Gray, Richard J.; Czer, Lawrence S.C.; Chaux, Aurelio; Sethna, Dhun; Derobertis, Michele; Raymond, Marjorie; Matloff, Jack M.
Background: Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis contributes to significant morbidity in pregnancy. Surgical commissurotomy has been performed during pregnancy in patients with severe mitral stenosis for several decades, but the efficacy and safety of percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) in this subset has not been clearly defined.Study Design: In 1996 and 1997, 40 pregnant women aged 24 ± 5 years underwent
Anup Gupta; Yash Y Lokhandwala; Purnima R Satoskar; Vinita S Salvi
A 61-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred for echocardiography to evaluate recently detected systolic murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed an echodense obstructive mass in the left ventricular outflow tract of unclear origin. Subsequent transesophageal echo suggested an intracardiac calcified tumor and recommended surgical excision. Contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) confirmed a well-defined lobulated mass adherent to the anterior mitral valve leaflet, the non-enhanced scout view revealed marked hyper-attenuation confirming diffuse calcification. Caseous calcification was diagnosed and surgery was deferred. Caseous calcification is typically benign and most commonly involves the posterior mitral annulus. Our patient displayed an atypical location of exuberant mitral annular calcification. PMID:24282757
Plank, Fabian; Al-Hassan, Donya; Nguyen, Giang; Raju, Rekha; Wheeler, Miriam; Thompson, Chris; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon
Objective: To examine the results of root replacement with aortic valve-sparing in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or severe aortic regurgitation (AR). Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 102 patients (mean age 47±17.5 years) underwent aortic valve-sparing procedures for ascending aortic aneurysm or dissection. Patients were assigned to three different groups according to the aortic valve pathology: BAV (n=11), tricuspid
Catalin Constantin Badiu; Walter Eichinger; Sabine Bleiziffer; Grit Hermes; Ina Hettich; Markus Krane; Robert Bauernschmitt; Rüdiger Lange
Regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. A modified nasogastric tube has been designed with an integral balloon which is inflated in the stomach and impacted, by gentle traction, at the gastro-oesophageal junction, to prevent gastro-oesophageal reflux. Preliminary studies demonstrate its effectiveness in improving the competence of the gastro-oesophageal sphincter. Images Fig. 1a Fig. 1b Fig. 2 PMID:3605997
Lahiri, S. K.
Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042
Background We hypothesized that annuloplasty ring implantation alters mitral annular strains in a normal beating ovine heart preparation. Methods and Results Sheep had 16 radiopaque markers sewn equally spaced around the mitral annulus. Edwards Cosgrove partial flexible band (COS, n=12), St. Jude complete rigid saddle-shaped annuloplasty ring (RSA, n=10), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHY, n=11), IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=11), and GeoForm (GEO, n=12) annuloplasty rings were implanted in a releasable fashion. Four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with the ring inserted (Ring) and after ring release (Control). From marker coordinates, a functional spatio-temporal representation of each annulus was generated through a best fit using 16 piecewise cubic Hermitian splines. Absolute total mitral annular strains were calculated from the relative change in length of the tangent vector to the annular curve as strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole. In addition, average Green-Lagrange strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole along the annulus were calculated. Absolute total mitral annular ring strains were smallest for COS and greatest for ETL. Strains for RSA, PHY and GEO were similar. Except for COS in the septal mitral annular segment, all rings induced compressive strains along the entire annulus with greatest values occurring at the lateral mitral annular segment. Conclusions In healthy, beating ovine hearts, annuloplasty rings (COS; RSA, PHY, ETL and GEO) induce compressive strains that are: 1.) Predominate in the lateral annular region; 2.) Smallest for flexible partial bands (COS) and greatest for an asymmetric rigid ring type with intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (ETL). However, the ring type with the most drastic intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (GEO) introduced strains similar to physiologically shaped rings (RSA and PHY) indicating that rings effects on annular strain profiles cannot be estimated from the degree of septal-lateral downsizing. PMID:22965988
Bothe, Wolfgang; Rausch, Manuel K.; Kvitting, John P.; Echtner, Dominique K.; Walther, Mario; Ingels, Neil B.; Kuhl, Ellen; Miller, D. Craig
Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is an extremely rare event, therefore, long-term anticoagulation can be avoided. There is limited experience in the diagnosis and treatment of such a situation. We present the case of a patient with a porcine mitral bioprosthesis who presented with acute pulmonary edema, likely secondary to obstructive valve thrombosis. A favorable outcome was observed after conservative anticoagulant treatment. PMID:24887839
Alshehri, Halia Z; Ismail, Magdi; Ibrahim, Mohamed F
Background. Aortic atresia has been implicated as a risk factor for decreased survival after stage 1 palliation. Prior studies evaluating the association of anatomic sub- types and mortality report conflicting results. Our objec- tive was to determine if mitral valve patency with aortic atresia is associated with increased mortality in hypo- plastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Methods. All patients (n
Jenifer A. Glatz; Raymond T. Fedderly; Nancy S. Ghanayem; James S. Tweddell
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is one subtype of mitral valve (MV) disease and is often characterized by enlarged leaflets that are thickened and have disrupted collagen architecture. The increased surface area of myxomatous leaflets with MVP leads to mitral regurgitation, and there is need for percutaneous treatment options that avoid open-chest surgery. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is one potential therapy in which resistive heating can be used to reduce leaflet size via collagen contracture. One challenge of using RF ablation to percutaneously treat MVP is maintaining contact between the RF ablation catheter tip and a functioning MV leaflet. To meet this challenge, we have developed a RF ablation catheter with a cryogenic anchor for attachment to leaflets in order to apply RF ablation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the dual-energy catheter in vitro by examining changes in leaflet biaxial compliance, thermal distribution with infrared (IR) imaging, and cryogenic anchor strength. We report that 1250 J of RF energy with cryo-anchoring reduced the determinant of the deformation gradient tensor at systolic loading by 23%. IR imaging revealed distinct regions of cryo-anchoring and tissue ablation, demonstrating that the two modalities do not counteract one another. Finally, cryogenic anchor strength to the leaflet was reduced but still robust during the application of RF energy. These results indicate that a catheter having combined RF ablation and cryo-anchoring provides a novel percutaneous treatment strategy for MVP and may also be useful for other percutaneous procedures where anchored ablation would provide more precise spatial control. PMID:22532322
Boronyak, Steven M; Merryman, W David
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates changes in pulmonary functions before and after mitral valve replacement (MVR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with rheumatic mitral lesions who had undergone MVR were divided into three groups, based on New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. They were evaluated for changes in pulmonary functions, preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months to find any improvements after MVR. RESULTS: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rates were universally found to be decreased preoperatively. Total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity (DLCO) were significantly reduced preoperatively in NYHA Class III and IV. The pulmonary functions further declined at 1 week after surgery. Except for FVC in NYHA Class IV (32.3% improvement, P < 0.05), the changes were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary functions deteriorate immediately after surgery and then recover gradually over a period of 3 months. However, they remain below the predicted values. PMID:19727357
Saxena, Pankaj; Luthra, Suvitesh; Dhaliwal, Rajinder Singh; Rana, Surinder Singh; Behera, Digambar
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is common in women. Other clinical features such as flexibility and hyperlaxity are often associated with MVP, as there is a common biochemical and histological basis for collagen tissue characteristics, range of joint motion, and mitral leaflet excursion. Objective: To confirm whether adult women with MVP are more flexible and hypermobile than those without. Methods: Data from 125 women (mean age 50 years), 31 of them with MVP, were retrospectively analysed with regard to clinical and kinanthropometric aspects. Passive joint motion was evaluated in 20 body movements using Flexitest and three laxity tests. Flexitest individual movements (0 to 4) and overall Flexindex scores were obtained in all subjects by the same investigator. Results: Women with MVP were lighter, less endomorphic and mesomorphic, and more linear. The Flexindex was significantly higher in the women with MVP, both absolute (48 (1.6) v 41 (1.3); p<0.01) and centile for age (67 v 42; p<0.01) values. In 13 out of 20 movements, the Flexitest scores were significantly higher for the women with MVP. Signs of hyperlaxity were about five times more common in these women: 74% v 16% (p<0.01). Scores of 0 and 1 in elbow extension, absence of hyperlaxity, and a Flexindex centile below 65 were almost never found in women with MVP. Conclusion: Flexitest, alone or combined with hyperlaxity tests, may be useful in the assessment of adult women with MVP. PMID:16183767
Araujo, C; Chaves, C
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has long been neglected based on the false belief that it is substantially rare in prevalence and is not so important in determining prognosis. Recent consecutive publications refuted this concept surrounding TR, and now we are contemplating this entity from different point of view. In this review, we mainly focus on isolated form of severe TR. In our daily clinical practice, however, patients with problems in more than one valve are more frequently encountered. Hence, we briefly touch on the results of severe TR surgery with or without left side valve operations here and there, as well. PMID:23560135
Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Sohn, Dae-Won
The mitral valve apparatus is a complex three–dimensional functional unit that is critical to unidirectional heart pump function. This review details the normal anatomy, histology and function of the main mitral valve apparatus components 1) mitral annulus, 2) mitral valve leaflets, 3) chordae tendineae and 4) papillary muscles. 2 and 3 dimensional Echocardiography is ideally suited to examine the mitral valve apparatus and has provided insights into the mechanism of mitral valve disease. An overview of standardized image acquisition and interpretation is provided. Understanding normal mitral valve apparatus function is essential to comprehend alterations in mitral valve disease and the rationale for repair strategies. PMID:23743068
Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Levine, Robert A.
Increased recognition of advantages, over the last decade, of minimizing surgical trauma by operating through smaller incisions and its direct impact on reduced postoperative pain, quicker recovery, improved cosmesis and earlier return to work has spurred the minimally invasive cardiac surgical revolution. This transition began in the early 1990s with advancements in endoscopic instruments, video & fiberoptic technology and improvements in perfusion systems for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) via peripheral cannulation. Society of Thoracic Surgeons data documents that 20% of all mitral valve surgeries are performed using minimally invasive techniques, with half being robotically assisted. This article reviews the current status of robotically assisted mitral valve surgery, its advantages and technical modifications for optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:24251030
Mandal, Kaushik; Alwair, Hazaim; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, W Randolph
Increased recognition of advantages, over the last decade, of minimizing surgical trauma by operating through smaller incisions and its direct impact on reduced postoperative pain, quicker recovery, improved cosmesis and earlier return to work has spurred the minimally invasive cardiac surgical revolution. This transition began in the early 1990s with advancements in endoscopic instruments, video & fiberoptic technology and improvements in perfusion systems for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) via peripheral cannulation. Society of Thoracic Surgeons data documents that 20% of all mitral valve surgeries are performed using minimally invasive techniques, with half being robotically assisted. This article reviews the current status of robotically assisted mitral valve surgery, its advantages and technical modifications for optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:24251030
Alwair, Hazaim; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, W Randolph
Objective Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in isolated severe mitral stenosis (MS) patients have prognostic significance. Study aim was to assess RV function in these subjects by strain and strain rate analysis, pre and post-balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). Methods Twenty five patients with isolated severe MS in sinus rhythm were assessed for RV function by two dimensional (2D) longitudinal strain & strain rate imaging before and after BMV and compared with that from twelve healthy age matched controls. Results Patients with severe MS had significantly lower global RV systolic strain; segmental strain at basal, mid, apical septum and basal RV free wall; but similar strain at mid and apical RV free wall as compared to controls. The systolic strain rate was significantly lower only at mid septum. In addition, they had higher estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and RV myocardial performance index; lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), peak systolic velocity at lateral tricuspid annulus, isovolumic acceleration and fractional area change (FAC). Global RV systolic strain as well as, segmental strain at basal, mid and apical septum showed a statistically significant rise after BMV. TAPSE and FAC also increased significantly post BMV. Conclusions RV systolic function is impaired in patients with severe MS and can be assessed by global and segmental RV strain before the appearance of clinical signs of systemic venous congestion. Impaired global and segmental RV strain values in these patients are primarily due to increased after load and improve after BMV with reduction in RV afterload. PMID:24814111
Kumar, Vipin; Jose, V. Jacob; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Jose, John
Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596
Sa, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araujo e Sa, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo Cesar; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho
Lipomatous hamartoma of cardiac valves is a very rare entity, with only three reported cases in children. We describe the case of a 9-year-old girl with a mass in the mitral valve, which was detected in an echocardiogram performed for heart murmur investigation. At surgery, a white round-shaped tumour was removed and histopathological examination revealed a lipomatous hamartoma. PMID:24044592
Francisco, Andreia; Gouveia, Rosa; Anjos, Rui
Disorders of the mitral valve are second most frequent, cumulating 14 percent of total number of deaths caused by Valvular Heart Disease each year in the United States and require elaborate clinical management. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the valve is an important step in the clinical workflow according to experts as knowledge about mitral morphology and dynamics is crucial for interventional planning. Traditionally this involves examination and metric analysis of 2D images comprising potential errors being intrinsic to the method. Recent commercial solutions are limited to specific anatomic components, pathologies and a single phase of cardiac 4D acquisitions only. This paper introduces a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of the mitral valve based on a 4D model estimated from ultrasound data. A physiological model of the mitral valve, covering the complete anatomy and eventual shape variations, is generated utilizing parametric spline surfaces constrained by topological and geometrical prior knowledge. The 4D model's parameters are estimated for each patient using the latest discriminative learning and incremental searching techniques. Precise evaluation of the anatomy using model-based dynamic measurements and advanced visualization are enabled through the proposed approach in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible manner. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated through experiments and an initial validation based on clinical research results. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time such a patient specific 4D mitral valve model is proposed, covering all of the relevant anatomies and enabling to model the common pathologies at once.
Voigt, Ingmar; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Houle, Helene; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a very common clinical condition that refers to a systolic billowing of one or both mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium. Improvements of echocardiographic techniques and new insights in mitral valve anatomy and physiology have rendered the diagnosis of this condition more accurate and reliable. MVP can be sporadic or familial, demonstrating autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance. Three different loci on chromosomes 16, 11 and 13 have been found to be linked to MVP, but no specific gene has been described. Another locus on chromosome X was found to cosegregate with a rare form of MVP called 'X-linked myxomatous valvular dystrophy'. MVP is more frequent in patients with connective tissue disorders including Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos and osteogenesis imperfecta. The purpose of this review is to describe previous studies on the genetics and prevalence of MVP. The report warrants the need for further genetically based studies on this common, albeit not fully understood, clinical entity. PMID:17850623
Grau, J B; Pirelli, L; Yu, P-J; Galloway, A C; Ostrer, H
In recent years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an established treatment option for selected high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Favorable results with regard to both hemodynamics and clinical outcome have been achieved with transcatheter valves. Aortic regurgitation (AR) remains a major concern after TAVI. Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice to assess AR in these patients due to its wide accessibility and low cost. Mostly mild residual AR has been observed in up to 70% of patients. However, as even a mild degree of AR has been associated with a decreased survival up to two years after TAVI, accurate evaluation and classification of AR is important. AR in transcatheter valves can be divided into three types according to different pathophysiological mechanisms. Besides the well-known transvalvular and paravalvular forms of regurgitation, a third form termed supra-skirtal has recently been observed. A thorough understanding of AR in transcatheter valves may allow to improve device design and implantation techniques to overcome this complication. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the three types of AR after TAVI focussing on the different pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:24282741
Stahli, Barbara E.; Maier, Willibald; Corti, Roberto; Luscher, Thomas F.; Jenni, Rolf
The conservative surgery approach for restoring the functionality of heart valves has predominated during the last two decades, particularly for the mitral valve. In vitro pulsatile testing is a key methodology for the investigation of heart valve hemodynamics, and particularly for the ideation, validation and optimization of novel techniques in heart valve surgery. Traditionally, however, pulsatile mock loops have been developed for the study of aortic valve substitutes, and scarce attention has been paid in replicating the mitral flow patterns with due hemodynamic fidelity. In this work we provide detailed analytical expressions to produce beat-rate dependent, physiologic-like mitral flow patterns for in vitro applications. The approach we propose is based on a biomechanical analysis of the factors which govern hemodynamic changes in the mitral flow pattern, namely in terms of E and A wave contours and E/A peaks ratio, when switching from rest to mild exercise conditions. The patterns from the model we obtained were in good agreement with clinical literature data in terms of i) gradual superimposition of the E and A wave, which yielded a single peak at 96 bpm; ii) decrease in the E/A ratio with increasing heart rate; iii) amount of flow delivered by each of the two waves. The proposed method provides a physiologically representative, beat-rate dependent analytical expression of the mitral flow pattern, which can be used in in vitro hydrodynamic investigations to accurately replicate the changes that the flow waves experience when the heart rate shifts from rest to mild exercise conditions. PMID:21186468
Vismara, Riccardo; Fiore, Gianfranco B
Two-dimensional Color Doppler flow imaging is a new non-invasive technique which allows real-time visualization of intracardiac blood flow and provides informations about its direction, velocity and presence of turbulence. As a consequence the identification of jets configuration across stenotic valve orifices is now possible by Color flow imaging. This non invasive tool may be particularly helpful in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease in whom distortion of mitral valve apparatus is often present, determining a non uniform and variable appearance of jets. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe our initial experience with color flow imaging in the visualization of transtenotic mitral jets in order to characterize different spatial configurations. We studied 45 patients with clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of mitral stenosis. The mean age of these patients was 59 years (range from 36 to 72 years), 34 were women and 11 men. The different types of transmitral jets were characterized by real time and frame by frame analysis. The following characteristics of transmitral jets have been evaluated: A) appearance ("Candle flame", "Mushroom", "Scimitar"-shaped, "Double-jets"); B) direction (centrally directed or eccentric); C) extension into the left ventricle (basal, mid-ventricular and apical); D) persistence of turbulent flow during diastole (early-, mid-, late diastole). Mitral valve area was calculated from the velocity tracings obtained by continuous wave Doppler, applying the pressure half-time method. Color flow imaging of good quality for analysis was obtained in 41 of 45 patients (91%). In the other 4 patients the quality of color flow images was suboptimal however the direction and configuration of the jets could still be visualised.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3436493
Moro, E; Nicolosi, G L; Pignoni, P; Pavan, D; Dall'Aglio, V; D'Angelo, G; Lestuzzi, C; Zanuttini, D
Clinical and morphologic observations are described in four patients who had severe aortic regurgitation from severe systemic hypertension unassociated with aortic dissection; each patient underwent aortic valve replacement. Although aortic regurgitation of minimal or mild degree is well recognized to occur in patients with systemic hypertension, severe degrees of aortic regurgitation are rare in such patients; aortic valve replacement in such patients has not previously been reported. Why these four patient had such severe aortic regurgitation was not determined. Although systemic hypertension is rarely a cause, it nevertheless must be added to the list of causes of severe pure aortic regurgitation. PMID:7058757
Waller, B F; Zoltick, J M; Rosen, J H; Katz, N M; Gomes, M N; Fletcher, R D; Wallace, R B; Roberts, W C
Literature has been limited in regard to the mechanisms of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with paramembranous (perimembranous) ventricular septal defect (VSD). Most observations have noted tricuspid valve clefts or dysplasia. We describe another mechanism for production of TR in association with paramembranous VSD. In 8 patients, we found significant TR produced by the VSD jet pushing the tricuspid anterior leaflet forward to open the tricuspid valve orifice. In these patients, a moderate paramembranous VSD extended slightly below the septal tricuspid leaflet with only partial obstruction of the VSD jet. All patients had restrictive VSD with low right ventricular pressure. This mechanism to produce TR was best defined by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, but current higher resolution imaging should allow correct diagnosis. We believe that when this mechanism for TR is found in association with a moderate VSD, surgical VSD closure is warranted. PMID:11944015
Hagler, Donald J; Squarcia, Umberto; Cabalka, Allison K; Connolly, Heidi M; O'Leary, Patrick W
Comprehensive visual and quantitative analysis of in vivo human mitral valve morphology is central to the diagnosis and surgical treatment of mitral valve disease. Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) is a practical, highly informative imaging modality for examining the mitral valve in a clinical setting. To facilitate visual and quantitative 3D TEE image analysis, we describe a fully automated method for segmenting the mitral leaflets in 3D TEE image data. The algorithm integrates complementary probabilistic segmentation and shape modeling techniques (multi-atlas joint label fusion and deformable modeling with continuous medial representation) to automatically generate 3D geometric models of the mitral leaflets from 3D TEE image data. These models are unique in that they establish a shape-based coordinate system on the valves of different subjects and represent the leaflets volumetrically, as structures with locally varying thickness. In this work, expert image analysis is the gold standard for evaluating automatic segmentation. Without any user interaction, we demonstrate that the automatic segmentation method accurately captures patient-specific leaflet geometry at both systole and diastole in 3D TEE data acquired from a mixed population of subjects with normal valve morphology and mitral valve disease. PMID:24184435
Pouch, A M; Wang, H; Takabe, M; Jackson, B M; Gorman, J H; Gorman, R C; Yushkevich, P A; Sehgal, C M
The Duromedics bileaflet pyrolitic carbon mechanical prosthesis was introduced by Hemex in 1982 and subsequently acquired by Baxter. This communication documents a case of sudden leaflet fracture of a Duromedics mitral valve 48 months after implantation, which was managed successfully by replacement with a St. Jude Medical mechanical prosthesis. The patient presented in acute distress with paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and pulmonary edema. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to diagnose the leaflet fracture. The fracture had occurred transversely, with the fragments embolizing bilaterally to the iliofemoral arteries. These were removed at a subsequent operation. Cases of such fractures of the Duromedics prosthesis have been reported, with cavitation damage being the postulated mechanism. PMID:9205987
Baumgartner, F J; Munro, A I; Jamieson, W R
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the early and late outcome following mitral valve replacement (MVR) with mechanical prostheses in children. Patients and methods: Between 1981 and 2000, 44 consecutive children (mean age 6.8 ^ 4.7 years, 2 months-16 years) underwent mechanical MVR in Southampton. Twenty-three children were less than 5-years-old and nine were infants. Disease aetiology
Christos Alexiou; Maria Galogavrou; Qiang Chen; Angus McDonald; Anthony P. Salmon; Barry K. Keeton; Marcus P. Haw; James L. Monro
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the early and late outcome following mitral valve replacement (MVR) with mechanical prostheses in children. Patients and methods: Between 1981 and 2000, 44 consecutive children (mean age 6.8±4.7 years, 2 months–16 years) underwent mechanical MVR in Southampton. Twenty-three children were less than 5-years-old and nine were infants. Disease aetiology was congenital
Christos Alexiou; Maria Galogavrou; Qiang Chen; Angus McDonald; Anthony P. Salmon; Barry K. Keeton; Marcus P. Haw; James L. Monro
This retrospective study reports the survival time [onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) to death from any cause] of 21 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and CHF treated with a combination of furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, benazepril, or enalapril), pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine. Baseline echocardiographic data: end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices (ESVI and EDVI), left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao), and regurgitant fraction (RF) are reported. Median survival time (MST) was 430 d. Initial dosage of furosemide (P = 0.0081) and LA/Ao (P = 0.042) were negatively associated with survival. Baseline echocardiographic indices (mean ± standard deviation) were 40.24 ± 16.76 for ESVI, 161.48 ± 44.49 mL/m2 for EDVI, 2.11 ± 0.75 for LA/Ao, and 64.71 ± 16.85% for RF. Combining furosemide, ACEI, pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine may result in long survival times in dogs with MR and CHF. Severity of MR at onset of CHF is at least moderate. PMID:22547843
de Madron, Eric; King, Jonathan N.; Strehlau, Gunther; White, Regina Valle
The Doppler-derived mean mitral valve gradient (DeltaP(M)) based on the simplified Bernoulli equation requires computerized integration of the Doppler signal and evaluation by a technician with the use of special equipment. We have noted empirically that the DeltaP(M) can be derived by the equation DeltaP(M) = (P(P) - P(T)) / 3 + P(T). Peak (P(P)) and trough (P(T)) pressures are derived from the simplified Bernoulli equation (P = 4V(2)). This equation can be used by the experienced observer to calculate the mean mitral valve gradient without specialized equipment. The purpose of this study is to validate the above empirically derived equation in patients with mitral stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed 41 consecutive studies done at our institution from October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998, in which mean mitral valve gradient was assessed. Each study was reviewed and the DeltaP(M), P(P), and P(T) were measured for 3 beats by using the software package on an HP Sonos 2500. DeltaP(M) was also calculated with our formula. A linear regression model was used to compare the results of the measured versus the calculated DeltaP(M). The following sub-categories were also evaluated: transthoracic studies (TTE), transesophageal studies (TEE), native valve gradients (NV), prosthetic valve gradients (PV), sinus rhythm (SR), and atrial fibrillation (AF). The results of the regression analysis of the entire population of mean versus calculated DeltaP(M) are n = 41, r = 0.99, P <.001, and standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.67. The regression results for the subgroups are as follows: TTE: n = 30, r = 0.99, P <.001, SEE = 0.51; TEE: n = 11, r = 0.99, P <.001, SEE = 59; NV: n = 26, r = 0.99, P <.001, SEE = 0.59; PV: n = 15, r = 0.98, P <.001, SEE = 0.84; SR: n = 23, r = 0.99, P <.001, SEE = 0.58; and AF: n = 18, r = 0.98, P <.001, SEE = 0.82. In conclusion, the simple formula that we have derived is an accurate method for calculation of mean mitral valve gradient, and it is accurate over multiple subgroups. Furthermore, the formula allows visual verification of mean mitral gradient without specialized software. PMID:11696836
Devlin, M; Jacobs, L E; Oliner, C M; Owen, A N; Ioli, A; Abbrescia, V D; Kotler, M N
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification (MAC). Since most cardiologists are unfamiliar with CCMA, it is commonly misdiagnosed as an abscess, tumor or infective vegetation on the mitral valve. In most cases, conservative management for this lesion is sufficient. In this review, we will discuss the various aspects of this condition and illustrate the gross and histologic pathology as well as various imaging modalities (Ultrasound, Computed tomography, Cardiac Magnetic resonance) to assess this unusual cardiac mass. PMID:24038099
Elgendy, Islam Y; Conti, C Richard
Minimum incision techniques in cardiac surgery have been on the rise after their inclusion in videothoracoscopy. Video-assisted minimally invasive cardiac surgery is considered by many centers in the world to be the approach of choice for treatment of mitral and aortic valve diseases. The aim of this is study is to report a case of valve repair in a patient with mitral restenosis after surgical repair 12 years before. Through a minimally invasive and totally endoscopic procedure, it was possible to successfully perform a mitral commissurotomy with only videoscopic support, and without any incisions larger than those needed to introduce the trocars for instrumentation. PMID:19082332
Fortunato Júnior, Jeronimo Antonio; Branco Filho, Alcides D; Branco, Anibal; Martins, André Luiz M; Pereira, Marcelo
Severe tricuspid regurgitation resulting from a flail leaflet is a rare cause of neonatal cyanosis. We report a neonate with profound cyanosis and severe tricuspid regurgitation caused by a rupture of the papillary muscle supporting the anterior leaflet, without other structural heart defects. Ductal patency could not be established. The repair of the tricuspid valve was performed after initial stabilization by using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:25207251
Min, Jooncheol; Kim, Eung Re; Yang, Chan Kyu; Kim, Woong-Han; Jang, Woo Sung; Cho, Sungkyu
A case of congenital solitary tricuspid regurgitation was reported. The patient was a 43-year-old male. The echocardiogram and ventriculography showed severe tricuspid regurgitation. The tricuspid valve was hypoplastic in each leaflet and chordae without torn chordae and papillary muscles. A tricuspid valve replacement was performed using St. Jude Medical 33 mm valve. As of June 1993 nine patients with this disease undergoing surgery were reported around the world. PMID:8057029
Chiku, N; Hasegawa, T; Shindou, S; Shiono, M; Yagi, S; Sezai, Y
cardiomyopathy cases. In both conditions, the recoil force was found to be smaller than in the normal case. These observations are consistent with the previously reported results for dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral steno
Mitral cells express low-voltage activated Cav3.3 channels on their distal apical tuft dendrites (McKay et al., 2006; Johnston and Delaney, 2010). They also discharge Na(+)-dependent dendritic action potentials and release glutamate from these dendrites. Around resting membrane potentials, between -65 and -50 mV, Cav3.x channels are a primary determinant of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)]. In this study using C57 mice, we present evidence that subthreshold Cav3.x-mediated Ca(2+) influx modulates action potential evoked transmitter release and directly drives asynchronous release from distal tuft dendrites. Presynaptic hyperpolarization and selective block of Cav3.x channels with Z941 (Tringham et al., 2012) reduce mitral-to-mitral EPSP amplitude, increase the coefficient of variation of EPSPs, and increase paired-pulse ratios, consistent with a reduced probability of transmitter release. Both hyperpolarization and Cav3.x channel blockade reduce steady-state cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] in the tuft dendrite without reducing action potential evoked Ca(2+) influx, suggesting that background [Ca(2+)] modulates evoked release. We demonstrate that Cav3.x-mediated Ca(2+) influx from even one mitral cell at membrane potentials between -65 and -50 mV is sufficient to produce feedback inhibition from periglomerular neurons. Deinactivation of Cav3.x channels by hyperpolarization increases T-type Ca(2+) influx upon repolarization and increases feedback inhibition to produce subthreshold modulation of the mitral-periglomerular reciprocal circuit. PMID:25319700
Fekete, Adam; Johnston, Jamie; Delaney, Kerry R
Mitral cells are the primary output cell from the olfactory bulb conveying olfactory sensory information to higher cortical areas. Gene-targeted deletion of the Shaker potassium channel Kv1.3 alters voltage-dependence and inactivation kinetics of mitral cell current properties, which contribute to the "Super-smeller" phenotype observed in Kv1.3-null mice. The goal of the current study was to determine if morphology and density are influenced by mitral cell excitability, olfactory environment, and stage of development. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-null (KO) mice were exposed to a single odorant (peppermint or citralva) for 30 days. Under unstimulated conditions, postnatal day 20 KO mice had more mitral cells than their WT counterparts, but no difference in cell size. Odor-enrichment with peppermint, an olfactory and trigeminal stimulus, decreased the number of mitral cells in three month and one year old mice of both genotypes. Mitral cell density was most sensitive to odor-stimulation in three month WT mice. Enrichment at the same age with citralva, a purely olfactory stimulus, decreased cell density regardless of genotype. There were no significant changes in cell body shape in response to citralva exposure, but the cell area was greater in WT mice and selectively greater in the ventral region of the OB in KO mice. This suggests that trigeminal or olfactory stimulation may modify mitral cell area and density while not impacting cell body shape. Mitral cell density can therefore be modulated by the voltage and sensory environment to alter information processing or olfactory perception. PMID:23485739
Johnson, Melissa Cavallin; Biju, K C; Hoffman, Joshua; Fadool, Debra Ann
Mitral cells are the primary output cell from the olfactory bulb conveying olfactory sensory information to higher cortical areas. Gene-targeted deletion of the Shaker potassium channel Kv1.3 alters voltage-dependence and inactivation kinetics of mitral cell current properties, which contribute to the “Super-smeller” phenotype observed in Kv1.3-null mice. The goal of the current study was to determine if morphology and density are influenced by mitral cell excitability, olfactory environment, and stage of development. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-null (KO) mice were exposed to a single odorant (peppermint or citralva) for 30 days. Under unstimulated conditions, postnatal day 20 KO mice had more mitral cells than their WT counterparts, but no difference in cell size. Odor-enrichment with peppermint, an olfactory and trigeminal stimulus, decreased the number of mitral cells in three month and one year old mice of both genotypes. Mitral cell density was most sensitive to odor-stimulation in three month WT mice. Enrichment at the same age with citralva, a purely olfactory stimulus, decreased cell density regardless of genotype. There were no significant changes in cell body shape in response to citralva exposure, but the cell area was greater in WT mice and selectively greater in the ventral region of the OB in KO mice. This suggests that trigeminal or olfactory stimulation may modify mitral cell area and density while not impacting cell body shape. Mitral cell density can therefore be modulated by the voltage and sensory environment to alter information processing or olfactory perception. PMID:23485739
Johnson, Melissa Cavallin; Biju, K.C.; Hoffman, Joshua; Fadool, Debra Ann
Background Surgical ablation has emerged as an acceptable treatment modality for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undertaking concomitant cardiac surgery. However, the efficacy of surgical ablation in patient populations undergoing mitral valve surgery is not well established. The present meta-analysis aims to establish the current randomized evidence on clinical outcomes of surgical ablation versus no ablative treatment in patients with AF undergoing mitral valve surgery. Methods Electronic searches were performed using six databases from their inception to September 2013, identifying all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical ablation versus no ablation in AF patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Data were extracted and analyzed according to predefined clinical endpoints. Results Nine relevant RCTs were identified for inclusion in the present analysis. The number of patients in sinus rhythm (SR) was significantly improved in the surgical ablation group compared to the non-ablation group at discharge. This effect on SR remained at all follow-up periods until >1 year. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between surgical ablation and no ablation in terms of 30-day mortality, all-cause mortality, pacemaker implantation, stroke, thromboembolism, cardiac tamponade, reoperation for bleeding and myocardial infarction. Conclusions Results from the present meta-analysis demonstrate that the addition of surgical ablation for AF leads to a significantly higher rate of sinus rhythm in mitral valve surgical patients, with no increase in the rates of mortality, pacemaker implantation, stroke and thromboembolism. Further research should be directed at correlating different surgical ablation subtypes to cardiac and cerebrovascular events at long-term follow-up. PMID:24516793
Phan, Kevin; Xie, Ashleigh; Tian, David H.; Shaikhrezai, Kasra
Background As the physiologic results of valve surgery have improved dramatically in recent years, the cosmetic effect of the procedure gains increased attention, and various alternatives to the standard median sternotomy have been developed for mitral valve surgery. We report a new minimally invasive and cosmetic approach for mitral valve replacement. Methods From December 2003 to December 2009, the right vertical infra-axillary incision (RVIAI) was employed to perform mitral valve replacement in 256 patients. 62.9% patients had replaced mechanical valve, others were bioprosthetic valve, at the same time 28.1% patients received tricuspid valvuloplasty. Results There were one hospital death in this series due to multiple organ failure, one reoperation for bleeding and one incision infection. Mean follow-up duration was 42.8 months (range, 3 to 72), and follow-up rate was 94%. There were no paravalvular leaks or late death during the follow up. Conclusions The RVIAI can be performed with favorable cosmetic and clinical results. It provides a good alternative to standard median sternotomy for MVR in selected patients. PMID:21054893
The seven pillars of governance established by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom provide a useful framework for the process of introducing new procedures to a hospital. Drawing from local experience, the author present guidance for institutions considering establishing a minimal access mitral valve program. The seven pillars of governance apply to the practice of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, based on the principle of patient-centred practice. The author delineate the benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in terms of: "clinical effectiveness", including reduced length of hospital stay, "risk management effectiveness", including conversion to sternotomy and aortic dissection, "patient experience" including improved cosmesis and quicker recovery, and the effectiveness of communication, resources and strategies in the implementation of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Finally, the author have identified seven learning curves experienced by surgeons involved in introducing a minimal access mitral valve program. The learning curves are defined as: techniques of mitral valve repair, Transoesophageal Echocardiography-guided cannulation, incisions, instruments, visualization, aortic occlusion and cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. From local experience, the author provide advice on how to reduce the learning curves, such as practising with the specialised instruments and visualization techniques during sternotomy cases. Underpinning the NHS pillars are the principles of systems awareness, teamwork, communication, ownership and leadership, all of which are paramount to performing any surgery but more so with minimal access surgery, as will be highlighted throughout this paper. PMID:24349981
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms appear to be rare. They occur most frequently in the right sinus of Valsalva (52%) and the noncoronary sinus (33%). More of these aneurysms originate from the right coronary cusp than from the noncoronary cusp. Surgical intervention is usually recommended when symptoms become evident. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a congenital, ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm that originated from the noncoronary cusp. Moderate aortic regurgitation was associated with this lesion. Simple, direct patch closure of the ruptured aneurysm resolved the patient's left-to-right shunt and was associated with decreased aortic regurgitation to a degree that valve replacement was not necessary. Only trace residual aortic regurgitation was evident after 3 months, and the patient remained free of symptoms after 6 months. Our observations support the idea that substantial runoff blood flow in the immediate supra-annular region can be responsible for aortic regurgitation in the absence of a notable structural defect in the aortic valve, and that restoring physiologic flow in this region and equalizing aortic-cusp closure pressure can largely or completely resolve aortic insufficiency. Accordingly, valve replacement may not be necessary in all cases of ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysms with associated aortic valve regurgitation. PMID:24082388
Nascimbene, Angelo; Joggerst, Steven; Reddy, Kota J.; Cervera, Roberto D.; Ott, David A.; Wilson, James M.; Stainback, Raymond F.
DNA-based gut content analysis has become an important tool for unravelling feeding interactions in invertebrate communities under natural conditions. It usually implies killing of the consumer and extracting the DNA from its food, using either the whole animal or its dissected gut. This post-mortem approach, however, is not suitable for investigating the diet of rare or protected species and also prohibits tracking individual dietary preferences as each consumer can provide trophic information only once. Moreover, removing large numbers of consumers from a habitat for analysis might critically change population densities and affect species interactions. Here, we present DNA-based analysis of invertebrate regurgitates, a novel approach to overcome these limitations. Conducting feeding experiments where adult Poecilus cupreus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were fed with larvae of Amphimallon solstitiale (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), we show that detection success in regurgitates compared to samples prepared from whole beetles was similar or significantly enhanced for small/medium and large prey DNA fragments, respectively. Prey DNA detection success remained high in regurgitates stored in ethanol for 21 months at room temperature prior to DNA extraction. We conclude that in those invertebrates where regurgitates can be obtained, examination of food DNA in regurgitates offers many advantages over conventional post-mortem gut content analysis. PMID:22443278
Waldner, Thomas; Traugott, Michael
Here we present a detailed statistical analysis of the discharge characteristics of mitral cells of the main olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Neurons were recorded from the mitral cell layer, and antidromically identified by stimuli applied to the lateral olfactory tract. All mitral cells displayed repeated, prolonged bursts of action potentials typically lasting >100 sec and separated by similarly long intervals; about half were completely silent between bursts. No such bursting was observed in nonmitral cells recorded in close proximity to mitral cells. Bursts were asynchronous among even adjacent mitral cells. The intraburst activity of most mitral cells showed strong entrainment to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm; similar entrainment was seen in some, but not all nonmitral cells. All mitral cells displayed a peak of excitability at ~25 msec after spikes, as reflected by a peak in the interspike interval distribution and in the corresponding hazard function. About half also showed a peak at about 6 msec, reflecting the common occurrence of doublet spikes. Nonmitral cells showed no such doublet spikes. Bursts typically increased in intensity over the first 20-30 sec of a burst, during which time doublets were rare or absent. After 20-30 sec (in cells that exhibited doublets), doublets occurred frequently for as long as the burst persisted, in trains of up to 10 doublets. The last doublet was followed by an extended relative refractory period the duration of which was independent of train length. In cells that were excited by application of a particular odor, responsiveness was apparently greater during silent periods between bursts than during bursts. Conversely in cells that were inhibited by a particular odor, responsiveness was only apparent when cells were active. Extensive raw (event timing) data from the cells, together with details of those analyses, are provided as supplementary material, freely available for secondary use by others. PMID:25281614
Leng, Gareth; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tsuji, Chiharu; Sabatier, Nancy; Ludwig, Mike
Mitral valve repair for ischaemic mitral incompetence has a 10% rate of failure at ten year follow-up. Progressive annular dilation could play an important role. We have implanted the enCorSQTM mitral valve repair system. This system can be downsized during follow-up with the appropriate activation via the lead passed through the left atrium suture line, in order to restore mitral leaflet coaptation. PMID:22761123
Caradonna, Eugenio; Testa, Nicola; De Filippo, Carlo Maria; Calvo, Eugenio; Di Giannuario, Giovanna; Spatuzza, Paola; Rossi, Marco; Alessandrini, Francesco
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging technology used to treat high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. During TAVI with the CoreValve ReValving System, a balloon is used for the reduction of paravalvular regurgitation. However, in this paper, we describe the "balloon withdrawal" technique through which the positioning of a second valve can be avoided in case of initial malpositioning. The result of the technique was rather encouraging, and minimal paravalvular aortic regurgitation was recorded after echocardiographic assessment. PMID:23549494
Vavuranakis, Manolis; Kariori, Maria; Vrachatis, Dimitrios; Aznaouridis, Constantinos; Kalogeras, Konstantinos; Moldovan, Carmen; Stefanadis, Christodoulos
In patients with symptoms of heart failure after mitral valve replacement, identification of a stenosed prosthesis may be difficult. Twelve such patients were evaluated, presenting at a mean of 8.4 years after mitral valve replacement (four mechanical, eight porcine). Transvalvular pressure gradients were obtained using both indirect (pulmonary capillary wedge) and direct (transseptal catheterization) measurements of left atrial pressure. In all 12 patients, the diastolic gradient across the prosthetic valve was overestimated when pulmonary wedge rather than transseptal measurements were used. Calculated mitral valve prosthetic area was underestimated by the pulmonary wedge determinations. These findings may be caused by either the phase delay of the pulmonary wedge V wave relative to the transseptal V wave, resulting in a higher diastolic mean left atrial pressure, or the faulty wedge determinations in the setting of pulmonary hypertension, or both. In patients being considered for repeat mitral valve replacement because of prosthetic valve stenosis, transseptal catheterization allows for more accurate determination of prosthetic valve area and more accurately defines the need for repeat mitral valve surgery. PMID:3998319
Schoenfeld, M H; Palacios, I F; Hutter, A M; Jacoby, S S; Block, P C
Twenty two patients (four men, 18 women, mean age 56 years, range 21 to 88 years) with a history of rheumatic mitral stenosis were studied by cross sectional echocardiography before and after balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. The appearance of the mitral valve on the pre-dilatation echocardiogram was scored for leaflet mobility, leaflet thickening, subvalvar thickening, and calcification. Mitral
G T Wilkins; A E Weyman; V M Abascal; P C Block; I F Palacios
Off-pump, intracardiac, beating heart surgery has the potential to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping but it requires extensive image guidance as well as the development of specialized instrumentation. Previously, developments in image guidance and instrumentation were validated on either a static phantom or in vivo through porcine models. This paper describes the design and development of a surgical phantom for simulating off-pump mitral valve replacement inside the closed beating heart. The phantom allows surgical access to the mitral annulus while mimicking the pressure inside the beating heart. An image guidance system using tracked ultrasound, magnetic instrument tracking and preoperative models previously developed for off-pump mitral valve replacement is applied to the phantom. Pressure measurements and ultrasound images confirm the phantom closely mimics conditions inside the beating heart.
McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Campbell, Gordon; Peters, Terry M.
In the recent years minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) has become a well-established and increasingly used option for managing patients with a mitral valve pathology. Nonetheless, whether the purported benefits of MIMVS translate into clinically important outcomes remains controversial. Therefore, in this paper we provide an overview of MIMVS and discuss results, morbidity, mortality, and quality of life following mitral minimally invasive procedures. MIMVS has been proven to be a feasible alternative to the conventional full sternotomy approach with low perioperative morbidity and short-term mortality. Reported benefits of MIMVS include also decreased postoperative pain, improved postoperative respiratory function, reduced surgical trauma, and greater patient satisfaction. Finally, compared to standard surgery, MIMVS demonstrated comparable efficacy across a range of long-term efficacy measures such as freedom from reoperation and long-term survival. PMID:23606959
Luca, Fabiana; van Garsse, Leen; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Parise, Orlando; La Meir, Mark; Puntrello, Calogero; Rubino, Gaspare; Carella, Rocco; Lorusso, Roberto; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G.; Gelsomino, Sandro
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to review the utility of ECG-gated MDCT in evaluating postsurgical findings in aortic and mitral valves. Normal and pathologic findings after aortic and mitral valve corrective surgery are shown in correlation with the findings of the traditionally used imaging modalities echocardiography and fluoroscopy to assist in accurate noninvasive anatomic and dynamic evaluation of postsurgical valvular abnormalities. CONCLUSION. Because of its superior spatial and adequate temporal resolution, ECG-gated MDCT has emerged as a robust diagnostic tool in the evaluation and treatment of patients with postsurgical valvular abnormalities. PMID:25415724
Ghersin, Eduard; Martinez, Claudia A; Singh, Vikas; Fishman, Joel E; Macon, Conrad J; Runco Therrien, Jennifer E; Litmanovich, Diana E
Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (mini-MVS) has evolved into a safe and efficient surgical option for many patients. The overall complication rate is reduced, patient satisfaction increased, and hospital costs are lower with this approach, while providing safe and durable surgery. The repair/replacement of mitral valves via a minimally invasive technique represents a significant recent paradigm shift in cardiac surgery. The rapid development and refinement of minimally invasive valve surgery has enabled the repair of complex valves and, most importantly, has yielded similar results to those provided by standard surgical approaches. PMID:22066352
Schmitto, Jan D; Mokashi, Suyog A; Cohn, Lawrence H
Background. The purpose of this clinical study was to obtain further evidence of the underlying mechanism causing the echocardiographically detected phenomenon of single beat regurgitation in a new bileaflet heart valve. As part of a prospective multicenter trial at our institu- tion, 63 patients received the Advantage bileaflet me- chanical heart valve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minne- sota) in aortic position. During
Walter B. Eichinger; Ina M. Wagner; Sabine Bleiziffer; Friederike von Canal; Ralf Günzinger; Daniel J. Ruzicka; Ulrich Busch; Robert Bauernschmitt; Ruediger Lange
Although an increased left ventricular (LV) diastolic diameter (DD) and a decreased ejection fraction have been used as markers for the surgical replacement of an insufficient aortic valve, these signals may be observed when irreversible myocardium damage has already occurred. The aim of this study was to determine whether change in LV geometry predicts systolic dysfunction in experimental aortic regurgitation. Male Wistar rats underwent surgical acute aorta regurgitation (aorta regurgitation group; n = 23) or a sham operation (sham group; n = 12). After the procedure, serial transthoracic echocardiograms were performed at 1, 4, 8, and 16 wk. At the end of protocol, the LV, lungs, and liver were dissected and weighed. During the follow-up, no animal developed overt heart failure. There was a correlation between the LV sphericity index and reduced fractional shortening (P < 0.001) over time. A multiple regression model showed that the LVDD-sphericity index association at 8 wk was a better predictor of decreased fractional shortening at week 16 (R(2) = 0.50; P < 0.001) than was the LVDD alone (R(2) = 0.39; P = 0.001). LV geometry associated with increased LVDD improved the prediction of systolic dysfunction in experimental aortic regurgitation. PMID:24699853
Roscani, Meliza Goi; Polegato, Bertha Fulan; Minamoto, Suzana Erico Tanni; Lousada, Ana Paula Mena; Minicucci, Marcos; Azevedo, Paula; Matsubara, Luiz Shiguero; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian
1. Electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings of reactions of the oesophagus, vertebral and costal fibres of the diaphragm and from the reticulum-one of the cranial divisions of the stomach were made during the regurgitation of rumination in sheep. 2. E.m.g.s indicated that a contraction of the caudal thoracic oesophagus developed over a period of about 2 sec before, and ceased at the time of, the more forceful inspiratory effort associated with regurgitation. 3. This contraction was confined to the caudal region of the thoracic oesophagus in which it was characteristically more prolonged and intense in its most caudal part within 15-25 mm of the hiatus oesophageus. It is interpreted to contribute to development or intensification of a caudal thoracic oesophageal sphincter. 4. The more forceful inspiratory effort at the time of regurgitation was due to costal fibres of the diaphragm. Although active normally during inspiration the vertebral fibres of the hiatus oesophageus do not contribute to this more forceful inspiration. This may facilitate regurgitation of digesta. Similarly, inactivity of vertebral but not costal fibres detected during primary oesophageal contractions (of swallowing) may make for easier passage of digesta into the stomach. PMID:490367
Titchen, D A
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) in the Artificial Valve Endocarditis Reduction Trial (AVERT) cohort. BACKGROUND The initial AVERT cohort consisted of 807 patients randomized to receive either a Silzone-coated prosthetic valve or a conventional prosthetic valve; early clinical reports showed higher rates of valve explant caused by PVR
Victor G. Dávila-Román; Alan D. Waggoner; Elizabeth D. Kennard; Richard Holubkov; W. R. Eric Jamieson; Lars Englberger; Thierry P. Carrel; Hartzell V. Schaff
A 50-year-old man was diagnosed as having absent pulmonary valve syndrome with aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary arteries. He also had a large subaortic ventricular septal defect and severe aortic regurgitation. He underwent successful intracardiac repair and aortic valve replacement. This case is presented in view of its rarity and controversies in the surgical management.
Pankaj Goel; Sethurathinam Rajan; V. M Kurian; Raibhan Yadav; Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that usually\\u000a presents as dilated cardiomyopathy in infancy. From 1984 to 2005, 13 (five males and eight females, 0.13%) out of 9,950 patients\\u000a with congenital heart disease were identified as ALCAPA at our institute. Corrective surgery was performed at a median age
Hsin-Hui Chiu; Jou-Kou Wang; Chun-An Chen; Sheunn-Nan Chiu; Ming-Tai Lin; Hung-Chi Lue; Chung-I Chang; Ing-Su Chiu; Mei-Hwan Wu
To evaluate the utility of echo-Doppler (ED; PW, CW and color), 67 patients affected by pure mitral stenosis (20 M, 47 F, mean age 52 years) were submitted to ED examination. Right and left cardiac catheterization were performed in 20 patients within 24 hours before ED. Mitral area obtained by Doppler method (Hatle's formula) correlated highly with both echo-2 dimensional and hemodynamic area (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001; r = 0.95, p less than 0.001 respectively). It was possible to calculate systolic pulmonary pressure, in patients with tricuspid incompetence, (43.9 +/- 14.9 mmHg, range 25-80) which correlated significantly (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001) with hemodynamic data (40.2 +/- 12.7 mmHg, range 20-70). The left atrial-left ventricular pressure gradient was 15.6 +/- 6.9 mmHg, range 6-32; the mean pressure gradient was 8.4 +/- 3.7 mmHg, range 3-17; the pressure half time 170.2 +/- 62.3 ms, range 83-330. We observed different types of direction of transmitral jets: centrally directed (n = 34); forward antero-lateral wall (n = 28); toward interventricular septum (n = 5). The transmitral jets presented 4 different appearances: scimitar-shaped (n = 28); candle flame (n = 24); mushroom (n = 9); double-jets (n = 6). No correlation was observed between the different types of transmitral jets (direction and appearance) and the parameters obtained by Doppler (PW and CW): velocities, pressure half-time, gradients. Thus, Doppler echocardiography permits a complete anatomic and functional evaluation of patients with pure mitral stenosis. We have not observed any correlation between the hemodynamic data and the different types of transmitral jets visualized by color Doppler. PMID:2208198
Tartarini, G; Balbarini, A; Baglini, R; Di Marco, S; Mengozzi, G; Passaglia, C; Mariotti, R; Mariani, M
Summary Twenty-seven patients with echocardiographic evidence of primary mitral valve prolapse (MVP) were tested for the presence of joint hypermobility using the criteria of Beighton and Horan. In the examined group, joint hypermobility was found in 14 patients (52%). This occurrence was statistically significant. In patients with simultaneous occurrence of MVP and articular hypermobility we have found a number of pathologic
M. Ondrašík; I. Rybár; V. Rus; V. Bošák
Robotic surgery is a growing subspecialty in cardiac surgery. Custodiol HTK cardioplegia offers long-term myocardial protection, decreased metabolism, and eliminates multiple cardioplegia dosing. This article reviews the technique, strategy, and considerations for use of Custodiol HTK for myocardial protection in robotic mitral valve surgery. PMID:23930386
Patel, Nirav; DeLaney, Ed; Turi, Gerard; Stapleton, Thomas
The first case of overt hemolytic anemia following mitral valve replacement with a porcine heterograft is reported. Cardiac catheterization failed to reveal a paravalvular leak or valvular incompetence to account for the hemolysis. Red cell traumatization by the Dacron-covered Stellite ring and stent is suggested as the cause of hemolysis with the porcine heterograft. PMID:567264
Myers, T J; Hild, D H; Rinaldi, M J
Background The presence of chronic kidney disease is a significant independent risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the mechanisms and mediators underlying this interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that chronic cardiac volume overload leads to de novo renal dysfunction by co-activating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the kidney. We also examined the therapeutic potential of renal denervation and RAS inhibition to suppress renal injury in CHF. Methods and Results Sprague-Dawley rats underwent aortic regurgitation (AR) and were treated for 6 months with either vehicle, olmesartan [an angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blocker], or hydralazine. At 6 months, albuminuria and glomerular podocyte injury were significantly increased in AR rats. These changes were associated with increased urinary angiotensinogen excretion, kidney AngII and norepinephrine (NE) levels, as well as enhanced angiotensinogen and angiotensin type 1a receptor gene expression, and oxidative stress in renal cortical tissues. AR rats with renal denervation had decreased albuminuria and glomerular podocyte injury, which were associated with reduced kidney NE, angiotensinogen, AngII and oxidative stress. Renal denervation combined with olmesartan prevented podocyte injury and albuminuria induced by AR. Conclusions In this chronic cardiac volume overload animal model, activation of the SNS augments kidney RAS and oxidative stress, which act as crucial cardio-renal mediators. Renal denervation and olmesartan prevent the onset and progression of renal injury, providing new insight into the treatment of cardio-renal syndrome. PMID:22328542
Rafiq, Kazi; Noma, Takahisa; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Arai, Yoshie; Nabi, A.H.M. Nurun; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Nagai, Yukiko; Nakano, Daisuke; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kitada, Kento; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Masakazu; Nishiyama, Akira
Background Annuloplasty ring or band implantation during surgical mitral valve repair perturbs mitral annular dimensions, dynamics and shape, which have been associated with changes in anterior mitral leaflet (AML) strain patterns and suboptimal long-term repair durability. We hypothesized that rigid rings with non-physiological 3-D shapes, but not saddle-shaped rigid rings or flexible bands, increase AML strains. Methods and Results Sheep had 23 radiopaque markers inserted: 7 along the anterior mitral annulus and 16 equally spaced on the AML. True-sized Edwards Cosgrove flexible, partial band (COS, n=12), rigid, complete St. Jude saddle-shaped annuloplasty ring (RSAR, n=12), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHYSIO, n=12), Edwards IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=11) and Edwards GeoForm (GEO, n=12) annuloplasty rings were implanted in a releasable fashion. Under acute open-chest conditions, four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy along with hemodynamic parameters with the ring inserted and after release. Marker coordinates were triangulated and the largest maximum principal AML strains were determined during isovolumetric relaxation (IVR). No relevant changes in hemodynamics occurred. Compared to the respective Control state, strains increased significantly with RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL and GEO (0.14±0.05 vs. 0.16±0.05, p=0.024, 0.15±0.03 vs. 0.18±0.04, p=0.020, 0.11±0.05 vs. 0.14±0.05, p=0.042 and 0.13±0.05 vs. 0.16±0.05, p=0.009), but not with COS (0.15±0.05 vs. 0.15±0.04,p=0.973). Conclusions Regardless of 3-D shape, rigid, complete annuloplasty rings, but not a flexible, partial band, increased AML strains in the normal beating ovine heart. Clinical studies are needed to determine if annuloplasty rings affect AML strains in patients, and, if so, whether ring-induced perturbations in leaflet strain states are linked to repair failure. PMID:21911823
Bothe, Wolfgang; Kuhl, Ellen; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Rausch, Manuel K.; Göktepe, Serdar; Swanson, Julia C.; Farahmandnia, Saideh; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig
Surgeons need a robust interventional system capable of providing reliable, real-time information regarding the position and orientation of the surgical targets and tools to compensate for the lack of direct vision and to enhance manipulation of intracardiac targets during minimally-invasive, off-pump cardiac interventions. In this paper, we describe a novel method for creating dynamic, pre-operative, subject-specific cardiac models containing the surgical targets and surrounding anatomy, and how they are used to augment the intra-operative virtual environment for guidance of valvular interventions. The accuracy of these pre-operative models was established by comparing the target registration error between the mitral valve annulus characterized in the pre-operative images and their equivalent structures manually extracted from 3D US data. On average, the mitral valve annulus was extracted with a 3.1 mm error across all cardiac phases. In addition, we also propose a method for registering the pre-operative models into the intra-operative virtual environment. PMID:18044557
Linte, Cristian A; Wierzbicki, Marcin; Moore, John; Little, Stephen H; Guiraudon, Gérard M; Peters, Terry M
Assessment of mitral annular dynamics during diastole by Doppler tissue imaging: Comparison with mitral Doppler inflow in subjects without heart disease and in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal pattern and magnitude of mitral annular velocities in diastole by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) and to assess whether this is altered in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Mitral annulus velocities were measured by DTI. Peak and time-velocity integral were measured from the DTI tracings and the timing of the velocities
Leonardo Rodriguez; Mario Garcia; Miguel Ares; Brian P. Griffin; Satoshi Nakatani; James D. Thomas
Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a fibrous, degenerative calcification of the mitral valve. The relationship between MAC and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is not well defined. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional study to determine which CVD risk factors are independently associated with MAC in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods MESA includes 6,814 women and men ages 45–84 years old without apparent CVD in 4 ethnic groups (12% Chinese, 38% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, and 28% African-American). MAC was defined by presence of calcium in the mitral annulus by cardiac computed tomography at enrollment. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships between MAC and CVD risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of MAC was 9%. The prevalence of MAC was highest in Caucasians (12%), followed by Hispanics (10%), African Americans (7%) and was lowest in Chinese (5%). Characteristics associated with MAC included age (p<0.01), female gender (p<0.01), increased body mass index (BMI) (p=0.03), and former smoking status (p<0.008). The MAC group had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and family history of heart attack (all p<0.001). After adjusting for all variables, age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, and increased BMI remained strongly associated with MAC. Conclusions Age, female gender, DM, and increased BMI were significantly associated with MAC. Prevalence of MAC was strongly associated with female gender and increasing age in all ethnicities. PMID:20926076
Kanjanauthai, Somsupha; Nasir, Khurram; Katz, Ronit; Rivera, Juan J.; Takasu, Junichiro; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Eng, John; Budoff, Matthew J.
Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining “mitral valve” with the following terms: ‘minimally invasive’, ‘reoperation’, and ‘alternative approach’. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed “mini” thoracotomy or “port access”. The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and efficacy of these procedures has never been compared to open reoperations in a randomized trial, although published case series and comparisons to historical cohorts suggest that they are an effective and feasible alternative. Ongoing follow-up on current series will further define these procedures and provide valuable clinical outcome data. PMID:24251029
Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi
A time-saving method was developed to label red blood cells in vitro with /sup 99m/Tc while avoiding centrifugation. After tin incubation, extracellular tin was oxidized by sodium hypochlorite, and EDTA was added for stabilizing the complex prior to /sup 99m/Tc incubation. Labeling yields were 95%, and in vivo decay showed a high stability with a mean biologic half-life of eleven hours. The first-passage radionuclide technique for determination of cardiac output using the above-mentioned tracer was evaluated by using the left ventricle as area-of-interest with individual background correction after complete mixing of the tracer. This technique showed a high level of agreement with invasive methods. By combining this method for measurement of the forward stroke volume with the multigated equilibrium principle for determination of the total left ventricular stroke volume using similar background corrections, an exact evaluation of regurgitation fractions was obtained. In patients with aortic and mitral valve disease the noninvasive radionuclide technique gave similar but probably more accurate results as compared with contrast aortography and ventriculography. The radionuclide technique may be suitable for monitoring and selecting patients for surgical treatment.
This study evaluated pulsed TDI variables including the isovolumic time interval and duration of the major wave in a population of large healthy dogs. Longitudinal myocardial motion at the septal mitral annulus was evaluated with pulsed TDI in 45 healthy adult dogs. Maximal myocardial velocities, isovolumic time intervals, and duration of the myocardial waves were measured. The correlation between time intervals and velocity variables was also investigated. The mean maximal systolic velocity was 6.92 ± 1.78 cm/sec, the mean early diastolic velocity (Em) was 6.58 ± 1.81 cm/sec, the mean late diastolic velocity (Am) was 5.10 ± 2.00 cm/sec, the mean isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) was 53.61 ± 95.13 msec, and the mean isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was 26.74 ± 57.24 msec. The early diastolic mitral inflow velocity (E)/Em ratio was 10.94 ± 3.27 while the Em/Am ratio was 1.40 ± 0.40. There was a negative correlation between Am duration and Am amplitude, and a positive correlation between the IVRT and Em/Am ratio (p < 0.05). The normal LV parameter using pulsed TDI method could be used as the reference range for identifying myocardial dysfunction in dogs. PMID:23388437
Choi, Jihye; Kim, Hyunwook
Objective: Mitral valve disease tends to be treated with anterolateral minithoracotomy (ALMT) rather than median sternotomy (MS), as ALMT uses progressively smaller incisions to promote better cosmetic outcomes. This meta-analysis quantifies the effects of ALMT on surgical parameters and post-operative outcomes compared with MS. Methods: One randomized controlled study and four case-control studies, published in English from January 1996 to January 2013, were identified and evaluated. Results: ALMT showed a significantly longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (P=0.001) and aortic cross-clamp time (P=0.05) compared with MS. However, the benefits of ALMT were evident as demonstrated by a shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.00001). According to operative complications, the onset of new arrhythmias following ALMT decreased significantly as compared with MS (P=0.05); however, the incidence of peri-operative mortality (P=0.62), re-operation for bleeding (P=0.37), neurologic events (P=0.77), myocardial infarction (P=0.84), gastrointestinal complications (P=0.89), and renal insufficiency (P=0.67) were similar to these of MS. Long-term follow-up data were also examined, and revealed equivalent survival and freedom from mitral valve events. Conclusions: Current clinical data suggest that ALMT is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional approach and is associated with better short-term outcomes and a trend towards longer survival. PMID:24903989
Ding, Chao; Jiang, Da-ming; Tao, Kai-yu; Duan, Qun-jun; Li, Jie; Kong, Min-jian; Shen, Zhong-hua; Dong, Ai-qiang
The rapid motion of the heart presents a significant challenge to the surgeon during intracardiac beating heart procedures. We present a 3D ultrasound-guided motion compensation system that assists the surgeon by synchronizing instrument motion with the heart. The system utilizes the fact that certain intracardiac structures, like the mitral valve annulus, have trajectories that are largely constrained to translation along one axis. This allows the development of a real-time 3D ultrasound tissue tracker that we integrate with a 1 degree-of-freedom (DOF) actuated surgical instrument and predictive filter to devise a motion tracking system adapted to mitral valve annuloplasty. In vivo experiments demonstrate that the system provides highly accurate tracking (1.0 mm error) with 70% less error than manual tracking attempts. PMID:23973122
Yuen, Shelten G.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Howe, Robert D.
Mitral valve prolapse was identified as a separate nosological entity by Barlow in 1963. A characteristic of this cardiac anomaly is blood reflux into the left atrium during the systole owing to the lack of adhesion between valve flaps. The presence of symptoms linked to neuroendocrine dysfunctions or to the autonomic nervous system lead to the onset of the pathology known as mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVPs). It is usually diagnosed by chance in asymptomatic patients during routine tests. MVPs includes complex alterations to the neurovegetative system and a high clinical incidence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, like anxiety and panic attacks. A neuroendocrine mechanism thought to underlie panic attacks was recently proposed based on a biological model. In general, the cardiovascular anomaly manifested by patients with MVPs could be defined in neuroendocrine-constitutional terms. PMID:11048469
Parlapiano, C; Paoletti, V; Alessandri, N; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Califano, F; Borgia, M C
We present a rare case of probable caseous calcification of the mitral. This pathology is more frequently detected in asymptomatic women older than 70 years. To recognize this image is important because echocardiography is the easiest way to elucidate this diagnosis, and more importantly because this structure could be easily misdiagnosed as tumors, thrombus and vegetations, which are much more common. Normally, it has a benign evolution, and the correct diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions. PMID:24136767
França, Lucas Arraes de; Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Oliveira, Wércules Antônio Alves de; Azevedo, Rudyney Eduardo Uchôa de; Cordovil, Adriana; Lira-Filho, Edgar Bezerra de; Fischer, Claudio Henrique; Morhy, Samira Saady
Background: To treat advanced heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, surgical ventricular restoration with mitral reconstruction was conducted and evaluated. Methods: In 95 patients (81 men, mean age: 54 years), New York Heart Association class III\\/IV was 44\\/51, and 33 patients (36%) were inotropic dependent preoperatively. Mitral regurgitation (?2+) was noted in all patients. All patients underwent left ventriculoplasty
Hisayoshi Suma; Hiroaki Tanabe; Tokuhisa Uejima; Shinya Suzuki; Taiko Horii; Tadashi Isomura
Background: To treat advanced heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, surgical ventricular restoration with mitral reconstruction was conducted and evaluated. Methods: In 95 patients (81 men, mean age: 54 years), New York Heart Association class III\\/IV was 44\\/51, and 33 patients (36%) were inotropic dependent preoperatively. Mitral regurgitation (2+) was noted in all patients. All patients underwent left ventriculoplasty
Hisayoshi Suma; Hiroaki Tanabe; Tokuhisa Uejima; Shinya Suzuki; Taiko Horii; Tadashi Isomura
To test the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) performance in aortic regurgitation (AR) can be more completely characterized by measurement of LV volumes in addition to ejection fraction (EF), 27 asymptomatic patients (Group 1), and 22 symptomatic patients (Group 2), and 10 control subjects were studied at rest and during upright bicycle exercise using the first-pass technique and a multicrystal scintillation camera. LV end-diastolic volume was measured by the area-length method. In the control group end-diastolic volume increased 14%, end-systolic volume decreased 22%, and EF increased 22% with exercise. In contrast, in Group 1 patients with AR, end-diastolic volume was elevated at rest and during exercise. The 18% decrease in end-diastolic volume during exercise was significantly different from the control response (p less than 0.01). End-systolic volume was also elevated at rest and during exercise, but the 30% decrease during exercise was a response not significantly different from the control. Although mean EF increased 15% in these patients, EF at peak exercise was significantly lower than that in the controls. In Group 2 patients with AR, resting EF was reduced, the EF response to exercise was abnormal, and end-diastolic and end-systolic volume responses to exercise were significantly different from those in Group 1: end-diastolic volume did not change and end-systolic volume increased. In contrast to the fairly uniform volume responses among all Group 1 patients, there were 2 subgroups based on volume changes within Group 2: 7 of 22 had a decrease in end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume during exercise and 8 of 22 showed an increase in end-diastolic and end-systolic volume during exercise. In conclusion, LV volumes at rest and exercise give more information about LV functional reserve in symptomatic patients with AR than do EF responses alone, and may be useful in separating symptomatic patients who show a normal end-systolic volume response to exercise from those in whom worsening failure develops during exercise. PMID:6846166
Johnson, L L; Powers, E R; Tzall, W R; Feder, J; Sciacca, R R; Cannon, P J
OBJECTIVE--To examine the value of transarterial balloon dilatation of the mitral valve for treatment of patients with mitral stenosis over a period of five years. DESIGN--Analysis of patients' functional state, and haemodynamic and echocardiographic variables, before and immediately after the procedure and during a follow up of up to five years. SETTING--A cardiovascular centre in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. PATIENTS--Two hundred and ninety four patients who underwent percutaneous transarterial dilatation of the mitral valve between February 1985 and February 1990. RESULTS--Mean mitral valve area was enlarged by 109%. Complications included death (0.7%), severe mitral insufficiency (2.3%), mild mitral insufficiency (9.9%), cerebral embolism (2%), and injury to the femoral artery (2%). Two more patients died at two and 11 months after the procedure. Late cardiac surgery was needed in eight patients (mitral insufficiency in three, restenosis in three, thrombus in one, and endocarditis in one. Restenosis occurred in seven patients. Four of these underwent repeat dilatation and three had surgery. Improvement of symptoms was seen in 94% of patients during the follow up. CONCLUSION--Transarterial balloon dilatation of the mitral valve gave good results with acceptable morbidity and mortality and had some advantages over the anterograde approach. Images PMID:1540441
Babic, U U; Grujicic, S; Popovic, Z; Djurisic, Z; Pejcic, P; Vucinic, M
Mitral annular descent has been described as an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, which is independent of endocardial definition. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is a new technique that calculates and displays color-coded cardiac tissue velocities on-line. To evaluate mitral annular descent velocity as a rapid index of global LV function, we performed tissue Doppler imaging studies in 55
Vijay K. Gulati; William E. Katz; William P. Follansbee; John Gorcsan
Background: Percutaneous mitral valve (MV) dilatation is performed with either a single balloon (SB) or double balloon (DB) technique. The aim of this study was to compare the two balloon system results using the finite element (FE) method. Methods and Results: An established FE model of the MV was modified by fusing the MV leaflet edges at commissure level to simulate a stenotic valve (orifice area=180mm2). A FE model of a 30mm SB (low-pressure, elastomeric balloon) and an 18mm DB system (high-pressure, non-elastic balloon) was created. Both SB and DB simulations resulted in splitting of the commissures and subsequent stenosis dilatation (final MV area=610mm2 and 560mm2 respectively). Stresses induced by the two balloon systems varied across the valve. At the end of inflation, SB showed higher stresses in the central part of the leaflets and at the commissures compared to DB simulation, which demonstrated a more uniform stress distribution. The higher stresses in the SB analysis were due to the mismatch of the round balloon shape with the oval mitral orifice. The commissural split was not easily accomplished with the SB due to its high compliance. The high pressure applied to the DB guaranteed the commissural split even when high forces were required to break the commissure welds. Conclusions: The FE model demonstrated that MV dilatation can be accomplished by both SB and DB techniques. However, the DB method resulted in higher probability of splitting of the fused commissures and less damage caused to the MV leaflets by overstretching.
Schievano, Silvia; Kunzelman, Karyn; Nicosia, Mark; Cochran, R. P.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Khambadkone, Sachin; Bonheoffer, Philipp
Within the olfactory system, information flow from the periphery onto output mitral cells (MCs) of the olfactory bulb (OB) has been thought to be mediated by direct synaptic inputs from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Here, we performed patch-clamp measurements in rat and mouse OB slices to investigate mechanisms of OSN signaling onto MCs, including the assumption of a direct path, using electrical and optogenetic stimulation methods that selectively activated OSNs. We found that MCs are in fact not typically activated by direct OSN inputs and instead require a multistep, diffuse mechanism involving another glutamatergic cell type, the tufted cells. The preference for a multistep mechanism reflects the fact that signals arising from direct OSN inputs are drastically shunted by connexin 36-mediated gap junctions on MCs, but not tufted cells. An OB circuit with tufted cells intermediate between OSNs and MCs suggests that considerable processing of olfactory information occurs before its reaching MCs. PMID:22378870
Gire, David H; Franks, Kevin M; Zak, Joseph D; Tanaka, Kenji F; Whitesell, Jennifer D; Mulligan, Abigail A; Hen, René; Schoppa, Nathan E
Background Conventional reoperative mitral valve surgery by median sternotomy has several difficulties. We performed mitral valve replacement (MVR) under ventricular fibrillation (VF) through right mini-thoracotomy with three-dimensional videoscope for avoiding the problems. Methods Between 2006 and 2011, we performed 257 cases of MVR, in which 125 cases underwent isolated MVR. Ten cases of patients underwent reoperative MVR under VF through thoracotomy with three-dimensional videoscope (Group I), and 27 cases of patients underwent reoperative conventional MVR through median sternotomy (Group II). We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes and compared Group I with Group II. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower (50.5?±?19.8% vs 64.4?±?12.0%; p?=?0.046), and significantly higher Euro SCORE was found in Group I (4.8?±?2.0 vs 3.8?±?2.4; p?=?0.037). Results Although Group I required cooling and rewarming time, average operative times was significantly shorter in Group I (262?±?46 min vs 300?±?57 min; p?=?0.044), and cardiopulmonary bypass times and average VF times in Group I and aortic cross-clamp times in Group II were equivalent. There was no significant difference in the average of postoperative maximum creatine kinase (CK)-MB. In-hospital mortality was 0/10 (0%) and 1/27 (3.7%), and postoperative paravalvular leakage occurred in 0/10 (0%) and 1/27 (3.7%), and stroke occurred in 1/10 (10%) and 1/27 (3.7%) for Groups I and II. Two patients underwent reoperation for bleeding in Group II. Intensive care unit stay in Group I was significantly shorter than in Group II (1.8?±?0.6 days vs 3.0?±?1.7 days; p?=?0.025). Conclusions The higher risk of preoperative background in Group I had no effect on the operation. Mitral valve surgery under VF through right mini-thoracotomy can be an alternative procedure for reoperation after conventional various cardiothoracic surgeries. PMID:23587412
BACKGROUND: The definition and incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) in the mitral position are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of PPM on late survival and functional status after mitral valve replacement with a mechanical valve. METHODS: Between 1992 and 2005, 714 patients (mean [± SD] age 60±10 years) underwent valve replacement with either St Jude (St Jude Medical Inc, USA) (n=295) or Carbomedics (Sulzer Carbomedics Inc, USA) (n=419) valves. There were 52 concomitant procedures (50 tricuspid annuloplasties, 25 foramen oval closures and 20 radiofrequency mazes). The mean clinical follow-up period was 4.4±3.3 years. The severity of PPM was established with cut-off values for an indexed effective orifice area (EOAi) of lower than 1.2 cm2/m2, lower than 1.3 cm2/m2 and lower than 1.4 cm2/m2. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to determine predictors of outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPM was 3.7%, 10.1% and 23.5% when considering values of lower than 1.2 cm2/m2, lower than 1.3 cm2/m2 and lower than 1.4 cm2/m2, respectively. When considering functional improvement, patients with an EOAi of 1.4 cm2/m2 or greater had a better outcome than those with an EOAi of lower than 1.4 cm2/m2 (OR 1.98; P=0.03). When building a Cox-proportional hazard model, PPM with an EOAi of less than 1.3 cm2/m2 was an independent predictive factor for midterm survival (HR 2.24, P=0.007). Other factors affecting survival were age (HR 1.039), preoperative New York Heart Association class (HR 1.96) and body surface area (HR 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients undergoing mitral valve replacement with mechanical prostheses, PPM defined as an EOAi of lower than 1.3 cm2/m2 significantly decreased midterm survival. This level of PPM was observed in 10.2% of patients. Patients with an EOAi of 1.4 cm2/m2 or greater had greater improvement of their functional status. PMID:21165362
Bouchard, Denis; Eynden, Frederic Vanden; Demers, Philippe; Perrault, Louis P; Carrier, Michel; Cartier, Raymond; Basmadjian, Arsene J; Pellerin, Michel
Blood viscosity varies during the course of artificial heart implants and is affected by pathological conditions. To gauge the potential effect of changing viscosity on valve performance, leakage rates were measured across a closed Medtronic-Hall valve with water, water/glycerol and fresh whole bovine blood for aortic and pulmonary pressure ranges. As might be expected from the low Reynolds numbers (< 140), losses across the valve were found to be primarily viscous. For the two Newtonian fluids, leakage was slightly less than linearly proportional to pressure. This is comparable with empirical data for orifice flow, which predicts three fifths power dependence on pressure. For blood, however, the greater than linear dependence on pressure found suggests that the pseudoplasticity (shear-thinning behavior) of blood is important. These data provide evidence that the viscous and non-Newtonian properties of blood must be taken into account in modelling prosthetic valve performance and may affect the test methods and flow regulation strategies for prosthetic blood pumps. PMID:8314639
Pantalos, G M; Sharp, M K
In the current study, we describe an adult patient with torrential aortic regurgitation due to an aortic dissection flap interfering with aortic cusp motion, in whom a transesophageal echocardiogram with the probe positioned in the upper esophagus and transpharyngeal ultrasound examination demonstrated prominent reversed flow throughout diastole in the left subclavian, left vertebral, left common carotid, and left internal carotid arteries. Another unique finding was the demonstration of aortic valve leaflets held in the fully opened position in diastole by the dissection flap as it prolapsed into the left ventricular outflow tract, dramatically documenting the mechanism of torrential aortic regurgitation in this patient. PMID:15104551
Khanna, Deepak; Sinha, Ashish; Nanda, Navin C; Gupta, Ritesh; Sidhu, Maninder; Vengala, Srinivas; Dod, Harvinder S; Ilgenli, T Fikret
Purpose: The common finding of thrombi between the bifoil balloons when they were extracted after mitral dilation prompted us to look for evidence of minor brain embolisms using the sensitive technique of BMRI (brain magnetic resonance T2-weighted imaging). Methods: BMRI was performed within 48 hr before and after a percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy (PMBC) in each of the 63 patients in this study. Results: There was evidence (hyperintensity foci: HI) of a previous asymptomatic brain embolism in 38 of 63 patients before PMBC and a new HI appeared in 18 of 63 patients after the procedure. New HI signals were found exclusively in the white matter in 8 of 18 patients and in only 3 of 18 were HI signs larger than 1 cm. One patient, with an HI signal >1 cm in the thalamus and another <1 cm in the brain stem, presented diplopia accompanied by other minor clinical signs. The differences in HI rate among four subgroups (1, older vs younger than 43 years; 2, sinus rhythm vs atrial fibrillation; 3, echo score <8 vs >8; 4, patients from western countries vs the others) were not statistically significant, probably because the number of patients in each subgroup was low. Patients in atrial fibrillation had slightly more (not significant) HI before PMBC (15/20, 75%) than patients in sinus rhythm (23/43, 53%), but after PMBC their HI frequencies were similar (atrial fibrillation: 5/20, 25%; sinus rhythm: 13/43, 30%). Conclusion: Brain microembolism is frequent during PMBC, but is often anatomically limited and free from clinical signs in most cases. Brain embolism seems to be related mainly to the procedure itself and not the features of the patient.
Rocha, Paulo [Department of Physiology, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Universite Rene Descartes, 9 av Charles de Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne, Billancourt (France); Qanadli, Salah D. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Universite Rene Descartes, 9 av Charles de Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne, Billancourt (France); Strumza, Pierre [Department of Anesthesiology, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Universite Rene Descartes, 9 av Charles de Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne, Billancourt (France); Kacher, Safia; Aberkane, Linda; Aubry, Pierre; Rigaud, Michel [Department of Cardiology, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Universite Rene Descartes, 9 av Charles de Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne, Billancourt (France); Lacombe, Pascal [Department of Radiology, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Universite Rene Descartes, 9 av Charles de Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne, Billancourt (France); Raffestin, Bernadette [Department of Physiology, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Universite Rene Descartes, 9 av Charles de Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne, Billancourt (France)
In aortic insufficiency (AI) the inhibition of the stimulated Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) by Captopril (C) reduced afterload and leads consequently to a diminished regurgitation fraction (RF). In 17 patients (pts) with pure severe AI RF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEFE) and heart rate were determined before (1) and 1 hr after (2) administration of 25 mg of C.Long term dosis was 3 x 25 mg of C and follow up time was 3-11 months (medium:6). The values were determined by gated radionuclide ventriculography using red blood cells labeled in vivo with 15 mCi Tc-99mROI's were selected over both ventricles in enddiastolic and endsystolic frames. Ventricular boundaries were defined by a fourier phase image overlay. RF was calculated by the background corrected count rate ratio of left and right ventricular ROI. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPs,BPd), plasma levels of angiotensin I,II(A1,A2) and the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were determined before and 1 hr after C administration. After C there is a decrease in RF which persists in the long term follow period in up to to now 8 pts. The authors conclude: inhibition of ACE reduces significantly aortic regurgitation in patients with AI and has thus a beneficial effect on left ventricular performance. This effect persists in long term treatment and therefore seems beneficial to delay the point of operation.
Kropp, J.; Heck, I.; Reske, S.N.; Biersack, H.J.; Mattern, H.; Winkler, C.; Polikl, M.
We introduce a simple, less invasive surgical technique for treating neoaortic valve regurgitation (neoAR) after the Norwood procedure, with the aim of delaying reoperation for neoAR. A 31-month-old girl, with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, previously underwent 4 median sternotomies and was admitted to our hospital for a fenestrated Fontan operation. She presented with moderate neoAR, originating from a tricuspid neoaortic valve (neoAV), with the regurgitation oriented from the centre. Her neoAV annulus was dilated to twice its normal size. With the aim of delaying future neoAV intervention and minimizing the surgical invasiveness, we performed extra-aortic commissuroplasties on the 2 commissures that could be approached from the front during the Fontan operation, without inducing cardiac arrest. We used direct echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography to confirm the feasibility before applying this procedure. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and the postoperative echocardiography did not reveal any residual neoAR 5 months postoperatively. We believe that this technique is a useful surgical option for patients with moderate neoAR oriented from its centre and well-balanced tricuspid native pulmonary valves, and it might help to delay future neoAV interventions, with minimal surgical risk. PMID:24813901
Sugimoto, Ai; Ota, Noritaka; Murata, Masaya; Sakamoto, Kisaburo
Clinical evidence for an abnormally of extracardiac connective tissue was sought in 21 patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse and was compared to that in 21 matched controls. The incidence of rheumatic and orthopaedic complaints and the prevalence of hypermobile joints, Marfanoid habitus, and skeletal deformity were compared in the 2 groups. Skin thickness and elasticity were measured, and the mean values in the 2 groups were compared. hypermobile joints were significantly commoner in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Easy bruising was reported significantly more commonly by patients with mitral prolapse; the incidence of other rheumatic complaints was similar in the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in skin thickness, skin elasticity, and the prevalence of either skeletal deformity or Marfanoid habitus between patients with mitral valve prolapse and controls. The results support previous evidence of an association between mitral valve prolapse and benign hypermobility of the joints, but emphasise that many patients with mitral valve prolapse have no clinically apparent connective tissue abnormality outside the heart. It remains uncertain whether the valve lesion in these patients represents a tissue-specific abnormality of mitral valve collagen or the only clinical expression of a minor systemic connective tissue abnormality. PMID:7114917
Pitcher, D; Grahame, R
Diet composition of slow worms (Anguis fragilis) from a Danish population was recorded from May to September 2006. Slow worms were maintained in cool conditions (at 8°C) for a maximum of 126 h, which made approximately half of the animals regurgitate. The method worked equally well on juveniles and adults. The regurgitations revealed that the slow worms preyed on small snails,
Iben Lindegaard Pedersen; Jan Kjærgaard Jensen; Søren Toft
Patients with mitral stenosis have usually blunted pulmonary venous (PV) flow, because of decreased mitral valve area and diastolic dysfunction. The authors compared changes in Doppler PV velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) against hemodynamics parameters before and after mitral balloon valvotomy to observe relevance of PV velocities and endsystolic left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relationship. In 25 patients (aged 35 +/- 17 years) with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm, changes in LA pressure and volumes were compared with PV velocities before and after valvotomy. Mitral valve area, mitral gradients, and deceleration time were obtained. Mitral valve area and mitral gradients changed from 1 +/- 0.2 cm2 and 14.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg to 1.9 +/- 0.3 cm2 and 6.3 +/- 1.7 mmHg, respectively (p<0.001). AR peak reverse flow velocity and AR duration decreased from 29 +/- 13 cm/s and 110 =/- 30 msec to 19 +/- 6 cm/s and 80 +/- 29 msec respectively (p<0.001). Transmitral Doppler E wave deceleration time decreased from 327 +/- 85 to 209 +/- 61 s and cardiac output increased from 4.2 +/- 1.0 to 5.2 +/- 1.1 L/minute (p<0.001). The changes in LA pressure were correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.57, p<0.05). The changes in endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship were also correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.52, p<0.05). Endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship decreased after mitral balloon valvotomy, as a result of a large decrease in pressure. PV systolic/diastolic (S/D) waves ratio reflects endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship and may be used as another indicator of successful valvotomy.
Yalcin, Fatih; El-Amrousy, Mahmoud; Muderrisoglu, Haldun; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Flachskampf, Frank; Tuzcu, Murat; Garcia, Mario G.; Thomas, James D.
Aortic Stenosis; Mitral Valve Replacement; Aortic Valve Replacement; Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction; Aortic Insufficiency; Mitral Insufficiency; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; Tricuspid Regurgitation With Pacemaker/Defibrillator Leads
Color Doppler images of aortic regurgitation (AR) flow acceleration, flow convergence (FC), and the vena contracta (VC) have been reported to be useful for evaluating severity of AR. However, clinical application of these methods has been limited because of the difficulty in clearly imaging the FC and VC. This study aimed to explore new windows for imaging the FC and VC to evaluate AR volumes in patients and to validate this in animals with chronic AR. Forty patients with AR and 17 hemodynamic states in 4 sheep with strictly quantified AR volumes were evaluated. A Toshiba SSH 380A with a 3.75-MHz transducer was used to image the FC and VC. After routine echo Doppler imaging, patients were repositioned in the right lateral decubitus position, and the FC and VC were imaged from high right parasternal windows. In only 15 of the 40 patients was it possible to image clearly and measure accurately the FC and VC from conventional (left decubitus) apical or parasternal views. In contrast, 31 of 40 patients had clearly imaged FC regions and VCs using the new windows. In patients, AR volumes derived from the FC and VC methods combined with continuous velocity agreed well with each other (r = 0.97, mean difference = -7.9 ml +/- 9.9 ml/beat). In chronic animal model studies, AR volumes derived from both the VC and the FC agreed well with the electromagnetically derived AR volumes (r = 0.92, mean difference = -1.3 +/- 4.0 ml/beat). By imaging from high right parasternal windows in the right decubitus position, complementary use of the FC and VC methods can provide clinically valuable information about AR volumes.
Shiota, T.; Jones, M.; Agler, D. A.; McDonald, R. W.; Marcella, C. P.; Qin, J. X.; Zetts, A. D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Sun, J. P.; Sahn, D. J.; Thomas, J. D.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or are unsuitable candidates for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have previously undergone mitral valve surgery due to the potential interference between the mitral prosthetic valve or ring and the TAVI device. In this case report, we present a patient with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and previous mechanical mitral valve replacement who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve.
Moon, Sung Woo; Ko, Young-Guk; Hong, Geu-Ru; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Kwak, Young-Ran
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus is a rare form of chronic degenerative process in the mitral valve fibrous ring with a mass-like appearance that has to be in the differential of the radiologist and cardiologist. We present the case of an 82-year-old woman in whom a tumor-like calcified mass in the posterior side of the mitral valve annulus was detected at echocardiography, and the diagnosis of caseous calcification was confirmed on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The diagnostic features of this rare cardiac mass are described. PMID:24349713
Limeme, Manel; Zaghouani, Houneida; Mootemri, Feriel; Majdoub, Senda; Amara, Habib; Bakir, Dejla; Kraiem, Chakib
Percutaneous Transseptal Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) has replaced surgical commissurotomy as a treatment of choice in selected patients of rheumatic mitral stenosis. Various randomized trials have shown PTMC to be equal or superior to surgical commissurotomy in terms of hemodynamic improvement as well as long term survival. Systemic embolism is one of the dreaded complications of PTMC, which is reported in 0.5–5% of cases and involves cerebral circulation in 1% of cases. Most of the time, periprocedural embolism during PTMC is caused by the mobilization of preexisting thrombus in the left atrial appendage. We report an unusual case of acute stroke due embolization of mitral valve tissue during PTMC.
Shetkar, Sudhir S.; Parakh, Neeraj; Singh, Birdevender; Mishra, N.K.; Ray, Ruma; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Yadav, Rakesh; Goswami, Kewal C.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or are unsuitable candidates for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have previously undergone mitral valve surgery due to the potential interference between the mitral prosthetic valve or ring and the TAVI device. In this case report, we present a patient with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and previous mechanical mitral valve replacement who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve. PMID:25278988
Moon, Sung Woo; Ko, Young-Guk; Hong, Geu-Ru; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Kwak, Young-Ran; Hong, Myeong-Ki
Mechanical complications of ventricular assist devices (VADs) are rare but serious. The authors describe two cases of different mechanical complications of VADs that can affect the mitral valve. Attention should be paid to the position of the inflow/outflow cannula after off-loading of the ventricle, especially in acute heart failure and normal atrial dimensions. Complete off-loading of the left ventricle in the presence of a bioprosthetic mitral valve might cause fusion of the valve leaflets leading to mitral stenosis, which will call for another intervention. PMID:25360402
Mufti, Hani N.; Elghobary, Tamer; Murray, Shawn K.; Baskett, Roger J. F.
We have examined biopsies of the lingula of the upper lobe of the left lung from 85 patients undergoing mitral valvotomy and have correlated the presence of vascular changes and fibrosis of the lung tissue with pulmonary vascular resistance, the degree and type of mitral stenosis, and the duration of pulmonary symptoms. Factors which significantly affected the prognosis were high pulmonary artery pressures, high vascular resistance, and narrowing of the pulmonary arteries; but, above all, pulmonary fibrosis. The prognosis for patients with mitral incompetence was less favourable than for those without incompetence, especially if there was increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension with axis deviation in the electrocardiogram. PMID:5654072
Nicks, Rowan; McGovern, V. J.
185 Stones have been recorded in the stomachs, regurgitation pellets or faeces of at least six Spheniscus demersus (stones in one of 247 stomach samples, Rand 1960), Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri (Moore & Wakelin 1997). It has been speculated that ingested stones may provide ballast for deep diving
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus is an infrequent echocardiographic finding. The differential diagnosis includes other entities like tumors, abscess or thrombus. Both cardiac CT and cardiac MRI may be useful for its definitive diagnosis. PMID:24780164
Capín, Esmeralda; León, Diego; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Corros, Cecilia; García-Campos, Ana; de la Hera, Jesús; Martín, María
The myxomatous mitral valve is the most common form of valvular heart disease. The pathologic presentation of myxomatous mitral valve disease varies between valve thickness, degree of leaflet prolapse and the presence or absence of flail leaflets. Recent molecular biology studies have confirmed that the myxomatous changes in mitral valve prolapse equals a cartilage phenotype, which is regulated by the Lrp5 receptor. Clinically, echocardiography defines the valve pathology to determine the surgical approach to valve repair or replacement. Furthermore, the timing of surgical valve repair is controversial and is the subject of a current multicenter trial. The results will resolve the timing of whether watchful waiting versus early surgical valve repair decreases morbidity and mortality of this disease process. This review will summarize the current understanding of the cellular and hemodynamic mechanisms of myxomatous mitral valve disease, which may have future implications in the targeted therapy of this disease process. PMID:24575776
Rajamannan, Nalini M
Different techniques have been developed for the common goal to minimize surgical trauma for mitral valve surgery. This article focuses on Port-Access (Heartport, Inc, Redwood City, CA) mitral valve replacement or repair (PAMVR) with emphasis on three-dimensional video and robotic assistance. PAMVR was undertaken using a small right anterior minithoracotomy using an endovascular cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system. A three-dimensional minicamera
H Reichenspurner; D Boehm; B Reichart
Spectral analysis of sounds produced in vitro by mitral valve prostheses placed in a specially designed flow simulator has been carried out using a short-time Fourier representation of the recorded signal. Time variations of power spectra are displayed as a three-dimensional plot. Sounds produced by three types of valves, namely ball and cage, tilting disk and porcine valves, were analysed. Each valve type produced a characteristic spectrogram, and, for a given valve, spectrograms were reproducible to within a margin of 5 dB. The simulator may be used to detect structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of prosthetic heart valves. In addition to quantifying the noise level of mechanical valves, the system may be used for quality control purposes to identify faulty valves. PMID:1818227
Picard, D; Charara, J; Guidoin, R; Haggag, Y; Poussart, D; Walker, D; How, T
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most commonly diagnosed cardiovascular disease in the dog accounting for more than 70% of all cardiovascular disease in dogs. As are most canine diseases with genetic underpinnings, risk of MMVD is greatly increased in a subset of breeds. What is uncommon is that the vast majority of the breeds at elevated risk for MMVD are small or toy breeds with average adult weights under 9 kg. These breeds appear to have little in common other than their diminutive size. In the following review we propose a number of mechanisms by which relatively unrelated small breeds may have developed a predisposition for chronic valvular disorders. Although factors such as age are key in the expression of MMVD, taking a comprehensive look at the commonalities, as well as the differences, between the susceptible breeds may assist in finding the causal variants responsible for MMVD and translating them to improved treatments for both dogs and humans. PMID:22356836
Parker, Heidi G.; Kilroy-Glynn, Paul
We report that intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow into lightly fixed mitral cells revealed dye-coupling between mitral cells and between mitral and granule cells in the form of discrete, radially oriented cell clusters. Dye-coupling was observed in animals as early as postnatal day 10 (P10) and at least until P30. In P10 rats, a mean of 2.5 dye-coupled mitral cells
Mark A. Paternostro; Christian K. H. Reyher; Peter C. Brunjes
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is closely related to cardiovascular disorders including coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, and stroke. The clinical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, are the same for MAC and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory marker, in patients with MAC. The study group consisted of 117 patients with MAC. Age and sex-matched control group was composed of 38 patients who were admitted to echocardiography laboratory due to suspicion of organic heart disease and eventually found to be free of MAC. We measured hematological indices in patients and control individuals. NLR ratio was significantly higher in patients with MAC than in control individuals (3.3 ± 1.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.4, respectively; P < 0.001), and NLR ratio was positively correlated with MAC (P < 0.001, r = 0.58). Red cell distribution width was also significantly higher in patients with MAC than in control individuals (16.2 ± 3.3 vs. 13.4 ± 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). We have shown that NLR was significantly elevated in patients with MAC and it was correlated with MAC. PMID:24561537
Varol, Ercan; Aksoy, Fatih; Ozaydin, Mehmet; Erdogan, Dogan; Dogan, Abdullah
Objective. This study was conducted to determine whether Doppler recording of superior vena cava flow velocities can differentiate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from constrictive pericarditis in patients with a respiratory variation of ?25% in mitral inflow E velocity.Background. Although respiratory variation (?25%) in mitral E velocity is the main diagnostic criterion for constrictive pericarditis by Doppler echocardiography, it can also
Smonporn Boonyaratavej; Jae K Oh; A. Jamil Tajik; Christopher P Appleton; James B Seward
Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) is an effective means of palliating mitral stenosis, but it sometimes leads to adverse clinical outcomes and exhorbitant in-hospital costs. Because echocardiographic score is known to be predictive of clinical outcome in patients undergoing PBMV, we examined whether it could also be used to predict in-hospital cost. Preprocedure echocardiographic scores, baseline clinical characteristics, and total
Mark J. Eisenberg; Raj Ballal; Paul A. Heidenreich; Kimberly J. Brown; Brian P. Griffin; Paul N. Casale; E. Murat Tuzcu
Objective. To investigate the biomechanical characteristics of the cornea in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and the prevalence of keratoconus (KC) in MVP. Materials and Methods. Fifty-two patients with MVP, 39 patients with KC, and 45 control individuals were recruited in this study. All the participants underwent ophthalmologic examination, corneal analysis with the Sirius system (CSO), and the corneal biomechanical evaluation with Reichert ocular response analyzer (ORA). Results. KC was found in six eyes of four patients (5.7%) and suspect KC in eight eyes of five patients (7.7%) in the MVP group. KC was found in one eye of one patient (1.1%) in the control group (P = 0.035). A significant difference occurred in the mean CH and CRF between the MVP and control groups (P = 0.006 and P = 0.009, resp.). All corneal biomechanical and topographical parameters except IOPcc were significantly different between the KC-MVP groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions. KC prevalence is higher than control individuals in MVP patients and the biomechanical properties of the cornea are altered in patients with MVP. These findings should be considered when the MVP patients are evaluated before refractive surgery. PMID:24864193
Kalkan Akcay, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Uysal, Betul Seher; Kosekahya, Pinar; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Caglayan, Mehtap; Koseoglu, Cemal; Yulek, Fatma
Summary Although echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) is associated with increased mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD), its rate of increase and predictive markers of its progression are unknown. We evaluated 55 subjects (median age: 38 years, range: 20 – 65 years) with at least 2 measurable TRVs, followed for a median of 4.5 years (range: 1.0 – 10.5 years) in a single-centre, prospective study. Thirty-one subjects (56%) showed an increase in TRV, while 24 subjects (44%) showed no change or a decrease in TRV. A linear mixed effects model indicated an overall rate of increase in the TRV of 0.02 m/s per year (p = 0.023). The model showed that treatment with hydroxycarbamide was associated with an initial TRV that was 0.20 m/s lower than no such treatment (p = 0.033), while treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and inhibitors/ angiotensin receptor blockers was associated with an increase in the TRV (p = 0.006). In summary, although some patients have clinically meaningful increases, the overall rate of TRV increase is slow. Treatment with hydroxycarbamide may decrease the progression of TRV. Additional studies are required to determine the optimal frequency of screening echocardiography and the effect of therapeutic interventions on the progression of TRV in SCD. PMID:23829561
Desai, Payal C.; May, Ryan C.; Jones, Susan K.; Strayhorn, Dell; Caughey, Melissa; Hinderliter, Alan; Ataga, Kenneth I.
Although echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) is associated with increased mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD), its rate of increase and predictive markers of its progression are unknown. We evaluated 55 subjects (median age: 38 years, range: 20-65 years) with at least two measurable TRVs, followed for a median of 4·5 years (range: 1·0-10·5 years) in a single-centre, prospective study. Thirty-one subjects (56%) showed an increase in TRV, while 24 subjects (44%) showed no change or a decrease in TRV. A linear mixed effects model indicated an overall rate of increase in the TRV of 0·02 m/s per year (P = 0·023). The model showed that treatment with hydroxycarbamide was associated with an initial TRV that was 0·20 m/s lower than no such treatment (P = 0·033), while treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers was associated with an increase in the TRV (P = 0·006). In summary, although some patients have clinically meaningful increases, the overall rate of TRV increase is slow. Treatment with hydroxycarbamide may decrease the progression of TRV. Additional studies are required to determine the optimal frequency of screening echocardiography and the effect of therapeutic interventions on the progression of TRV in SCD. PMID:23829561
Desai, Payal C; May, Ryan C; Jones, Susan K; Strayhorn, Dell; Caughey, Melissa; Hinderliter, Alan; Ataga, Kenneth I
Chronic pulmonary complications, including pulmonary hypertension (PH), are common in sickle cell disease (SCD), especially in adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The underlying pathophysiology is complex and variable, involving multiple biological systems. Recent emphasis has been placed on the pleotropic biological factor nitric oxide (NO). An elevated tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) appears to have limitations in specificity in SCA, but may indicate the presence of PH, a diagnosis confirmed by right heart catheterization. TRV has been used in recent clinical trials to identify or define subjects with PH for enrollment into PH-specific interventions; these include sildenafil, which enhances NO-induced vasorelaxation. Results from a controlled trial show no benefit and an unexpected increase in adverse events, emphasizing the biological complexities of SCA. Management remains principally supportive, includes recognition and treatment of comorbidities, and may incorporate individualized PH-specific strategies (despite recent trials) based on appropriate diagnostic testing. Ultimately, therapy is likely to be multimodal and tailored to the processes identified to be the most contributory in a given individual. Based on the relative prevalence of the conditions, routine screening for asthma in children with SCD and by Doppler echocardiography to measure TRV as an initial screen for PH in adults with SCA may be warranted. Data are limited regarding the clinical utility of screening in other forms of SCD and the pediatric population. This article offers an individual perspective on practical and challenging clinical considerations. PMID:22160068
Hassell, Kathryn L
Few data are available that address the prognostic implications of the response of the left ventricle (LV) to exercise in asymptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) who have normal resting LV function. Thirty-one such patients were contacted two to seven years after rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Eleven had had significant cardiovascular events. Event-free survival at forty-eight months was 64%. Ten of eleven events occurred in 21 patients with decline in ejection fraction (EF), but the magnitude of decline did not further separate the group with regard to prognosis. Eight events (73% of total events) occurred in the 11 patients (35% of total patients) with an EF during exercise of 0.55 or less. The short and intermediate outlook for asymptomatic patients with AR and normal resting LV function is good regardless of the response of the EF to exercise, but an exercise EF less than or equal to 0.55 does identify a relatively high-risk subset for deterioration beyond twenty-four months.
Lindsay, J. Jr.; Silverman, A.; Van Voorhees, L.B.; Nolan, N.G.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the value of echo score with that of Doppler subvalvar flow broadening in deciding the type of mitral stenosis surgery. PATIENTS: 30 patients, mean age 47 years, with severe stenosis undergoing surgery were divided into two groups according to type of surgery: open heart commissurotomy (group 1, n = 12), or prosthesis (group 2, n = 18). A control group of 10 patients with prosthesis served as reference, representing mild stenosis without subvalvar connection. METHODS: For echo, the score proposed by Wilkins for cross sectional imaging was used. For Doppler, the flow diameters were measured in cm by an independent examiner from the long axis view in early diastole at two levels: (1) at the level of the stenosis (origin flow diameter), and (2) 1.5 cm downstream from the stenosis in the left ventricle (subvalvar flow diameter) with calculation of a Doppler ratio relating these two measurements, expressed as a percentage of broadening. Diagnostic value was compared for both procedures. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age, mitral valve areas, or haemodynamics for the two groups. Mean values (SD) were: echo score: group 1, 9.83 (1.26) v group 2, 10.8 (8.1), NS; Doppler ratio %: group 1, 44 (24) v group 2, 12 (21) (P < 0.001); control group: 69 (15). The per cent diagnostic value for an open heart commissurotomy of respective cut off points was: Doppler ratio > 25% (range 71% to 87%); echo score < 10 (range 50% to 75%). CONCLUSIONS: The new Doppler ratio diagnostic value agreed better with surgical management, repair or prosthesis, in this study. Thus, it appears to better reflect the subvalvar involvement and changes in kinetics than the echo score alone. This easy Doppler method might become a routine examination for follow up of patients with open heart commissurotomy, to avoid performing repeated transoesophageal echocardiography. Images PMID:8665342
Veyrat, C.; Pellerin, D.; Sainte Beuve, D.; Larrazet, F.; Kalmanson, D.; Witchitz, S.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) was reported to be a common disorder occurring in 5% to 15% of the general population and to be frequently associated with serious complications. The reported high prevalence and complication rates of MVP have been challenged recently by the findings of the Framingham Heart Study, which was conducted in a Caucasian population; the findings in other ethnic groups remain uncertain. The prevalence of MVP was studied in a true population sample comprising 972 Canadians of South Asian (n=336), European (n=322) and Chinese (n=314) descent. MVP was diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiography. The prevalence of MVP for the entire study cohort was 2.7% and did not differ significantly between the three ethnic groups evaluated (2.7% in South Asian, 3.1% in European and 2.2% in Chinese [P=0.79]). Age, sex, history of cardiac risk factors, blood pressure, abnormalities on electrocardiography, left atrial size, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and volumes, and left ventricular ejection fraction were similar in subjects with and without MVP. There was a trend toward lower body mass index in subjects with MVP compared to those without MVP (24.5+/-5.5 kg/m(2) versus 26.0+/-4.3 kg/m(2), respectively, P=0.10). The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, including history of angina, previous myocardial infarction, previous cardiac surgery and previous stroke, was similar in subjects with MVP (7.7%) and in those without MVP (6.7%) (P=0.84). The authors concluded that MVP has a much lower prevalence than previously estimated and the prevalence of MVP is similar among different ethnic groups. From a population perspective, the prevalence of serious cardiovascular complications associated with MVP is low. PMID:15100753
Theal, Michael; Sleik, Khalid; Anand, Sonia; Yi, Qilong; Yusuf, Salim; Lonn, Eva
Purpose To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, a late effect of cancer therapy not previously identified in aging survivors of childhood cancer, and associations with chest-directed radiation therapy (RT) and measures of current cardiac function, lung function, and exercise capacity. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional evaluation of 498 survivors at a median age of 38.0 years (range, 20.0 to 59.0 years) and a median of 27.3 years (range, 12.2 to 46.0 years) from primary cancer diagnosis was performed. Abnormal tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was defined as more than 2.8 m/s by Doppler echocardiography. Results Increased TRV was identified in 25.2% of survivors who received chest-directed RT and 30.8% of those who received more than 30 Gy. In multivariable models, increased TRV was associated with increasing dose of RT (1 to 19.9 Gy: odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% CI, 0.63 to 6.96; 20 to 29.9 Gy: OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.59 to 7.54; ? 30 Gy: OR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.77 to 11.64 compared with no RT; P for trend < .001), body mass index more than 40 kg/m2 (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.46 to 10.39), and aortic valve regurgitation (OR, 5.85; 95% CI, 2.05 to 16.74). Survivors with a TRV more than 2.8 m/s had increased odds (OR, 5.20; 95% CI, 2.5 to 11.0) of severe functional limitation on a 6-minute walk compared with survivors with a TRV ? 2.8 m/s. Conclusion A substantial number of adult survivors of childhood cancer who received chest-directed RT have an increased TRV and may have pulmonary hypertension as a result of both direct lung injury and cardiac dysfunction. Longitudinal follow-up and confirmation by cardiac catheterization are warranted. PMID:23295810
Armstrong, Gregory T.; Joshi, Vijaya M.; Zhu, Liang; Srivastava, Deokumar; Zhang, Nan; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stokes, Dennis C.; Krasin, Matthew T.; Fowler, James A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Green, Daniel M.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has been long known for causing susceptibility for ventricular arrhythmogenesis, and this risk was evaluated by various methods, mostly by using QT interval related measurements on surface electrocardiogram. T wave peak to end (Tp-e) interval is a relatively new marker for ventricular arrhythmogenesis and repolarization heterogeneity. Prolongation of this interval represents a period of potential vulnerability to re-entrant ventricular arrhythmias. However, there is no information available assessing the Tp-e interval and related calculations in patients with MVP. The aim of this study was to assess ventricular repolarization in patients with MVP by using QT, corrected QT (QTc) and Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT ratio, and Tp-e/QTc ratio. Electrocardiogram of consecutive 72 patients, who were followed by outpatient clinic because of mitral valve prolapse, were obtained and scanned. Electrocardiograms of age and sex matched 60 healthy control individuals were also gained for comparison. QT, QTc, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc were calculated. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. QT (405.1±64.3 vs. 362.1±39.1; p<0.001), QTc (457.6±44.4 vs. 428.3±44.7; p<0.001), Tp-e (100.2±22.1 vs. 74.6±10.2; p<0.001) and Tp-e/QT (0.24 vs. 0.20; p<0.001) and Tp-e/QTc (0.21 vs. 0.17; p<0.001) were significantly worse in MVP group. Our study revealed that Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio were increased in MVP patients. Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio might be a useful marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to ventricular arrhythmias in patients with MVP. PMID:25232403
Yontar, Osman Can; Karaagac, Kemal; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Tutuncu, Ahmet; Demir, Mehmet; Melek, Mehmet
Analysis of a time-lapse film of cultured human mitral valve endothelium containing autochthonous lymphocytes reveals details of a pattern of interaction suggesting a previously undescribed type of cellular surveillance. Highly mobile lymphocytes rapidly approach individual endothelial cells, slowly circumnavigate the nuclear region, and rapidly move away to repeat this behavior on adjacent cells during the 1-month culture period. PMID:7216236
Algard, F T; Van Netten, J P; Montessori, G A; Tan, W C
Numerous studies have reported increased cardiac vagal activity in well endurance-trained athletes. However, no clear data exist regarding the cardiac autonomic activity in athletes with common cardiovascular findings, such as mild mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and transient benign arrhythmias. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the cardiac autonomic outflow by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis
N. Koutlianos; E. Kouidi; A. Deligiannis
Understanding the mechanics of the mitral valve is crucial in terms of designing and evaluating medical devices and techniques for mitral valve repair. In the current study we characterize the in vivo strains of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. On cardiopulmonary bypass, we sew miniature markers onto the leaflets of 57 sheep. During the cardiac cycle, the coordinates of these markers are recorded via biplane fluoroscopy. From the resulting four-dimensional data sets, we calculate areal, maximum principal, circumferential, and radial leaflet strains and display their profiles on the averaged leaflet geometry. Average peak areal strains are 13.8±6.3%, maximum principal strains are 13.0±4.7%, circumferential strains are 5.0±2.7%, and radial strains are 7.8±4.3%. Maximum principal strains are largest in the belly region, where they are aligned with the radial direction during diastole switching into the circumferential direction during systole. Circumferential strains are concentrated at the distal portion of the belly region close to the free edge of the leaflet, while radial strains are highest in the center of the leaflet, stretching from the posterior to the anterior commissure. In summary, leaflet strains display significant temporal, regional, and directional variations with largest values inside the belly region and toward the free edge. Characterizing strain distribution profiles might be of particular clinical significance when optimizing mitral valve repair techniques in terms of forces on suture lines and on medical devices. PMID:21306716
Rausch, Manuel K.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Göktepe, Serdar; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen
Marker Instrument ShaftA 0 200 400 600 800 1000 -5 0 5 10 Time (msec) Position(mm) Target MCI B Fig. 2. (A) MCI hardware proto- type. (B) MCI tracking recorded mitral valve annulus motion. inside the heart
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is generally associated with rheumatic valve disease and atrial septal defects (ASD) in young adults. Surgical correction of both disorders fails to convert to sinus rhythm or prevent further episodes of paroxysmal or chronic AF in most patients. The role and efficacy of combining mitral valve surgery or ASD correction with AF surgery in this setting has
Néstor Sandoval; Victor M. Velasco; Hernando Orjuela; Victor Caicedo; Hernando Santos; Fernando Rosas; Juan R. Correa; Iván Melgarejo; Carlos A. Morillo
Clinical evidence for an abnormally of extracardiac connective tissue was sought in 21 patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse and was compared to that in 21 matched controls. The incidence of rheumatic and orthopaedic complaints and the prevalence of hypermobile joints, Marfanoid habitus, and skeletal deformity were compared in the 2 groups. Skin thickness and elasticity were measured, and the
D Pitcher; R Grahame
Mitral valve prolapse was sought clinically and with phonocardiography and M mode and sector echocardiography in 15 women aged 22-57 years with joint hypermobility syndrome. The type III:III + I collagen ratio was measured in skin biopsy specimens and was found to be raised in seven of 10 patients sampled. Thirteen patients had increased aortic wall compliance measured by the
C E Handler; A Child; N D Light; D E Dorrance
SUMMARY The present study addresses constitutive modelling and implementation of transversely isotropic hyper- elastic material models for the analysis of the mitral valve. This valve separates the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Two convex strain energy potentials are employed in derivation of stress tensors and elasticity tensors. The plane stress and incompressibility conditions are accounted for directly.
V. Prot; B. Skallerud; G. A. Holzapfel
Background: There is considerable controversy concerning the correct management of gravid patients with cardiac valve prostheses. Case Report: We describe the uneventful course of pregnancy and delivery in a pregnant patient with a mechanical heart valve receiving anticoagulation treatment. A 35-year-old primigravida received anticoagulation throughout pregnancy because of mitral valve replacement at the age of 16 due to rheumatic disease.
Konstantinos Stefanidis; Dimitris Papoutsis; George Daskalakis; Dimitris Loutradis; Aris Antsaklis
to beating-heart intracardiac procedures is robotic assistance. Here the robot controller tracks the motionAn Active Motion Compensation Instrument for Beating Heart Mitral Valve Surgery Daniel T. Kettler recoveries with fewer complications [2, 3, 4]. While beating-heart surgery has clear benefits and has been
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common human phenotype, yet little is known about the pathogenesis of this condition. MVP can occur in the context of genetic syndromes, including Marfan syndrome (MFS), an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Fibrillin-1 contributes to the regulated activation of the cytokine TGF-?, and enhanced signaling is a consequence of fibrillin-1 deficiency. We thus hypothesized that increased TGF-? signaling may contribute to the multisystem pathogenesis of MFS, including the development of myxomatous changes of the atrioventricular valves. Mitral valves from fibrillin-1–deficient mice exhibited postnatally acquired alterations in architecture that correlated both temporally and spatially with increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and excess TGF-? activation and signaling. In addition, TGF-? antagonism in vivo rescued the valve phenotype, suggesting a cause and effect relationship. Expression analyses identified increased expression of numerous TGF-?–related genes that regulate cell proliferation and survival and plausibly contribute to myxomatous valve disease. These studies validate a novel, genetically engineered murine model of myxomatous changes of the mitral valve and provide critical insight into the pathogenetic mechanism of such changes in MFS and perhaps more common nonsyndromic variants of mitral valve disease. PMID:15546004
Ng, Connie M.; Cheng, Alan; Myers, Loretha A.; Martinez-Murillo, Francisco; Jie, Chunfa; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Hausladen, Jennifer M.W.; Mecham, Robert P.; Judge, Daniel P.; Dietz, Harry C.
Background: Mitral stenosis is the most important and common cardiac complication seen during pregnancy. Conception is discouraged in cases where pulmonary hypertension develops during the course of mitral stenosis. Successful general and regional anaesthetic interventions have been reported in some cases of severe pulmonary hypertension. Case Reports: We present our experiences with anaesthetic management in two pregnant patients with pulmonary hypertension due to mitral valve stenosis. Conclusion: We preferred to continue spinal anaesthesia because gradually increasing the local anaesthetic dose during the procedure may minimise probable undesirable haemodynamic changes, such as hypotension and tachycardia.
Celik, Mine; Dostbil, Aysenur; Alici, Hac? Ahmet; Sevimli, Serdar; Aksoy, Aysenur; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Kursad, Husnu
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is widely distributed in the brain as a sulfated octapeptide (CCK-8S). In the olfactory bulb, CCK-8S is concentrated in two laminae: an infraglomerular band in the external plexiform layer, and an inframitral band in the internal plexiform layer (IPL), corresponding to somata and terminals of superficial tufted cells with intrabulbar projections linking duplicate glomerular maps of olfactory receptors. The physiological role of CCK in this circuit is unknown. We made patch clamp recordings of CCK effects on mitral cell spike activity in mouse olfactory bulb slices, and applied immunohistochemistry to localize CCKB receptors. In cell-attached recordings, mitral cells responded to 300 nM –1 µM CCK-8S by spike excitation, suppression, or mixed excitation-suppression. Antagonists of GABAA and ionotropic glutamate receptors blocked suppression, but excitation persisted. Whole-cell recordings revealed that excitation was mediated by a slow inward current, and suppression by spike inactivation or inhibitory synaptic input. Similar responses were elicited by the CCKB receptor-selective agonist CCK-4 (1 µM). Excitation was less frequent but still occurred when CCKB receptors were blocked by LY225910, or disrupted in CCKB knockout mice, and was also observed in CCKA knockouts. CCKB receptor immunoreactivity was detected on mitral and superficial tufted cells, colocalized with Tbx21, and was absent from granule cells and the IPL. Our data indicate that CCK excites mitral cells postsynaptically, via both CCKA and CCKB receptors. We hypothesize that extrasynaptic CCK released from tufted cell terminals in the IPL may diffuse to and directly excite mitral cell bodies, creating a positive feedback loop that can amplify output from pairs of glomeruli receiving sensory inputs encoded by the same olfactory receptor. Dynamic plasticity of intrabulbar projections suggests that this could be an experience-dependent amplification mechanism for tuning and optimizing olfactory bulb signal processing in different odor environments. PMID:23691163
Ma, Jie; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Lowe, Graeme
Summary Background Caseous calcification of mitral annulus is rather rare echocardiographic finding with prevalence of 0.6% in pts. with proven mitral annular calcification and 0.06% to 0.07% in large series of subjects in all ages. Echocardiographic images of caseous calcification are often heterogenous due to calcium and lipid deposits, and the masses show hyperechogenic and hypoechogenic areas. However the appearance of caseous calcification can imitate that of abscess, tumors and cysts, surgical treatment may not be needed when there is no obstruction. Case Report 76-year old obese (BMI 32 kg/m2), female patient with history of hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes type 2 and hyperlipidemia presented with no symptoms of mitral valve dysfunction and had no abnormalities on physical exam. Transesophageal echocardiography identified well-organized, composite, immobile lesion (22×15 mm) localized in the posterior part of the mitral annulus, with markedly calcified margins, and no significant impact on the valve function. In computed tomography (CT) lesion was described as calcified (24×22×17.5 mm), connected with posterior leaflet and posterior part of the mitral annulus, reducing posterior leaflet mobility. CT brought the suggestion of caseous mitral annular calcification. Coming to a conclusion, bearing in mind no mitral valve dysfunction at that time, patient was offered conservative treatment. Conclusions Although caseous mitral annular calcification is typically an incidental finding, accurate recognition is needed to avoid mistaking the lesion for a tumor or abscess, which may result in unnecessary cardiac surgery. However this entity is diagnosed on cardiac MRI, multi-modality imaging, especially non-contrast CT, allows for the confident, prospective diagnosis. PMID:24791181
Mo?e?ska, Olga; Sypu?a, S?awomir; Celi?ska-Spoder, Ma?gorzata; Walecki, Jerzy; Kosior, Dariusz A.
We report case of 58-year-old male patient with severe mitral insufficiency in whom in preoperative angiography anomalous left anterior descending coronary artery arising from pulmonary artery was revealed. Patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement, ligation and bypass of left anterior descending artery. Eighteen months after surgery control exercise echocardiography and angiography were performed to evaluate coronary flow, valve prosthesis and left ventricle function. PMID:23080096
Hendzel, Piotr; Suwalski, Grzegorz; Gryszko, Leszek; Sza?a?ski, Przemys?aw; Go?owicz, Jaros?aw; Gierak, Ewa
A mitral prosthesis, when implanted, can distort the aortic annulus, forcing to downsize the aortic prosthesis. Changing the sequence of tying the sutures (the aortic prosthesis first, then the mitral prosthesis) allows to insert an aortic true-sized prosthesis. In case of associated tricuspid valve surgery, the aortic prosthesis protrudes over the anteroseptal commissure area. The sutures on the tricuspid annulus can be passed before the aortic prosthesis is secured in place. PMID:25312523
Calafiore, Antonio Maria; Iaco, Angela Lorena; Shah, Aijaz; Di Mauro, Michele
Treatment of mitral valve (MV) diseases requires comprehensive clinical evaluation and therapy personalization to optimize outcomes. Finite-element models (FEMs) of MV physiology have been proposed to study the biomechanical impact of MV repair, but their translation into the clinics remains challenging. As a step towards this goal, we present an integrated framework for finite-element modeling of the MV closure based on patient-specific anatomies and boundary conditions. Starting from temporal medical images, we estimate a comprehensive model of the MV apparatus dynamics, including papillary tips, using a machine-learning approach. A detailed model of the open MV at end-diastole is then computed, which is finally closed according to a FEM of MV biomechanics. The motion of the mitral annulus and papillary tips are constrained from the image data for increased accuracy. A sensitivity analysis of our system shows that chordae rest length and boundary conditions have a significant influence upon the simulation results. We quantitatively test the generalization of our framework on 25 consecutive patients. Comparisons between the simulated closed valve and ground truth show encouraging results (average point-to-mesh distance: 1.49 ± 0.62 mm) but also the need for personalization of tissue properties, as illustrated in three patients. Finally, the predictive power of our model is tested on one patient who underwent MitralClip by comparing the simulated intervention with the real outcome in terms of MV closure, yielding promising prediction. By providing an integrated way to perform MV simulation, our framework may constitute a surrogate tool for model validation and therapy planning. PMID:22766456
Mansi, Tommaso; Voigt, Ingmar; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zheng, Xudong; Mengue, Etienne Assoumou; Hackl, Michael; Ionasec, Razvan I; Noack, Thilo; Seeburger, Joerg; Comaniciu, Dorin
Congenital tricuspid valve disease (Ebstein’s anomaly, tricuspid valve dysplasia) with severe tricuspid regurgitation and cardiomegaly is associated with poor prognosis. Fetal echocardiography can accurately measure right atrial enlargement, which is associated with a poor prognosis in the fetus with tricuspid valve disease. Fetal lung volumetric assessments have been used in an attempt to predict viability of fetuses using ultrasonogram and
A. T. Nathan; B. S. Marino; T. Dominguez; S. Tabbutt; S. Nicolson; D. D. Donaghue; T. L. Spray; J. Rychik
OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to explore the full range of tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity (TRV) at rest and with exercise in disease free individuals. Additionally we examined the relationship of stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and TRV to exercise capacity.BACKGROUNDDoppler evaluation of TRV can be used to estimate pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Most studies have assumed
Eduardo Bossone; Melvyn Rubenfire; David S Bach; Mark Ricciardi; William F Armstrong
Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography has been conceived as one of the most promising methods for the diagnosis of valvular heart disease, and recently has become an integral clinical tool thanks to the development of high quality real-time transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). In particular, for mitral valve diseases, this new approach has proven to be the most unique, powerful, and convincing method for understanding the complicated anatomy of the mitral valve and its dynamism. The method has been useful for surgical management, including robotic mitral valve repair. Moreover, this method has become indispensable for nonsurgical mitral procedures such as edge to edge mitral repair and transcatheter closure of paravaluvular leaks. In addition, color Doppler 3D echo has been valuable to identify the location of the regurgitant orifice and the severity of the mitral regurgitation. For aortic and tricuspid valve diseases, this method may not be quite as valuable as for the mitral valve. However, the necessity of 3D echo is recognized for certain situations even for these valves, such as for evaluating the aortic annulus for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. It is now clear that this method, especially with the continued development of real-time 3D TEE technology, will enhance the diagnosis and management of patients with these valvular heart diseases. PMID:25378966
A 64-year-old woman with dizziness and blurry vision underwent an evaluation for a possible stroke with a head-neck CT scan and a transthoracic echocardiogram. The head-neck CT scan was unremarkable, but the echocardiogram was notable for a 2.0 × 2.3?cm heterogeneous echodensity attached to the mitral valve. After a transesophageal echocardiogram and chest CT scan, the mass was determined to be a caseous mitral annular calcification, CMAC. This entity is a rare variant of MAC with an estimated prevalence of 0.068%. Echocardiographic techniques can distinguish CMAC from other intracardiac masses such as tumor, cyst, or abscess. CMAC is associated with cerebrovascular accidents; however, optimal treatment is controversial given the rarity of this clinical finding. Management strategies should be tailored based on the patient's presentation, risk factors, and overall clinical circumstances. PMID:25028589
Shapera, Emanuel A; Karimi, Afshin; Castellanos, Luis R
The current study presents a finite element model of mitral leaflet tissue, which incorporates the anisotropic material response and approximates the layered structure. First, continuum mechanics and the theory of layered composites are used to develop an analytical representation of membrane stress in the leaflet material. This is done with an existing anisotropic constitutive law from literature. Then, the concept is implemented in a finite element (FE) model by overlapping and merging two layers of transversely isotropic membrane elements in LS-DYNA, which homogenizes the response. The FE model is then used to simulate various biaxial extension tests and out-of-plane pressure loading. Both the analytical and FE model show good agreement with experimental biaxial extension data, and show good mutual agreement. This confirms that the layered composite approximation presented in the current study is able to capture the exponential stiffening seen in both the circumferential and radial directions of mitral leaflets. PMID:22971896
Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Guccione, Julius M.
We measured pulmonary and systemic flows in 22 patients with mitral stenosis and in 7 controls. In patients with mitral stenosis, pulmonary flow index averaged 2.33 +/- 0.41 l/min/m2 and systemic flow index averaged 2.15 +/- 0.60 l/min/m2, p = 0.045. There was a strong correlation between the difference in pulmonary and systemic flow indexes and the difference in mean left and right atrial pressure (r = 0.749, p = 0.00008). After a successful dilatation in 17 patients, there was a significant drop in the difference between pulmonary and systemic flow indexes (0.26 +/- 0.41 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.37 l/min/m2, p = 0.048). We conclude that chronic elevation of left atrial pressure leads to a left to right shunt probably through bronchial veins. PMID:1889049
Babic, U U; Popovic, Z; Grujicic, S; Pejcic, P; Djurisic, Z; Vucinic, M
Percutaneous transseptal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) is the treatment of choice in rheumatic mitral stenosis. The reuse of sterilised PTMC balloon catheters is widely practised to bring down the procedure cost and have proven safety and efficacy. The reused balloons may deform and are prone to rupture causing fatal complications like embolism either of the torn balloon material or air. We report a first case of Accura balloon rupture during PTMC to the best of our knowledge. Fortunately, there was no complication in our patient. Thus, during the balloon preparation it should be examined for any deformity or tear and air should be removed completely to prevent fatal outcome. The repeated use of the hardware should be limited and an informed consent regarding the possible complications of the reused hardware should be taken. PMID:23704459
Singla, Vivek; Patra, Soumya; Patil, Shivanand; Ramalingam, Rangaraj
Summary Analysis of a time-lapse film of cultured human mitral valve endothelium containing autochthonous lymphocytes reveals details\\u000a of a pattern of interaction suggesting a previously undescribed type of cellular surveillance. Highly mobile lymphocytes rapidly\\u000a approach individual endothelial cells, slowly circumnavigate the nuclear region, and rapidly move away to repeat this behavior\\u000a on adjacent cells during the 1-month culture period.
F. T. Algard; J. P. Van Netten; G. A. Montessori; W. C. Tan
The present study addresses the effect of muscle activation contributions to mitral valve leaflet response during systole.\\u000a State-of-art passive hyperelastic material modeling is employed in combination with a simple active stress part. Fiber families\\u000a are assumed in the leaflets: one defined by the collagen and one defined by muscle activation. The active part is either assumed\\u000a to be orthogonal to
B. Skallerud; V. Prot; I. S. Nordrum
The implantation of an improperly sized annuloplasty ring may result in an incompetent valve after surgical mitral valve repair. Consequently, the procedure of ring size selection is considered critical. Although a plethora of sizing strategies are described, the opinions on how to select the appropriate ring size differ widely and often appear arbitrary (ie, without scientific justification). These inconsistencies raise the question where, with respect to ring sizing, science stops and voodoo begins. PMID:23481703
Bothe, Wolfgang; Miller, D Craig; Doenst, Torsten
Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) and mitral dysplasia were diagnosed in an asymptomatic eight-week-old rottweiler. Clinical and pathological findings were compatible with a fixed and dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. Gross and microscopic pathological findings were consistent with the most severe form of SAS, described previously in Newfoundland dogs over six months of age. These observations demonstrate that very young asymptomatic puppies may suffer a severe complex form of SAS. PMID:9816571
Fernández del Palacio, M J; Bayón, A; Bernal, L J; Cerón, J J; Navarro, J A
This study is aimed at refining our understanding of the role of vortex formation at mitral mechanical heart valve (MHV) closure\\u000a and its association with the high intensity transient signals (HITS) seen in echocardiographic studies with MHV recipients.\\u000a Previously reported numerical results described a twofold process leading to formation of gas-filled microbubbles in-vitro: (1) nucleation and (2) growth of micron
Edmond Rambod; Masoud Beizai; David J. Sahn; Morteza Gharib
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is caused by heterozygous mutations in either SMAD4 or BMPR1A. Individuals with JPS due to mutations in SMAD4 are at greater risk to manifest signs of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is caused by either mutations in SMAD4 or other genes that modulate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) signaling. Additional genes in the TGF? network include FBN1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2, mutations of which cause either Marfan syndrome (MFS) or Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), respectively. As SMAD4, FBN1, and TGFBR1/2 map to different regions of the genome, disorders associated with mutations in these genes are not expected to co-segregate in a family. We report an individual whose family history was positive for aortopathy, mitral valve dysfunction, and JPS. Mutation analysis of SMAD4 implicates this gene for these phenotypes in this family. Although SMAD4 is among several genes in the TGF? network, and although prior single case reports have described large vessel aneurysms in HHT, this is the first description of aortic and mitral disease presenting with JPS. This observation suggests that, in addition to HHT, individuals with SMAD4 mutations may be at risk for aortic dilation and mitral valve dysfunction. We emphasize the importance of comprehensive review of the medical history prior to molecular testing, especially in an asymptomatic patient. PMID:21465659
Andrabi, Sara; Bekheirnia, Mir Reza; Robbins-Furman, Patricia; Lewis, Richard Alan; Prior, Thomas W; Potocki, Lorraine
The aim of the study is to investigate the association between the severity of rheumatic mitral valvular disease (RMVD) and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). A total of 227 patients were enrolled in the study and divided into 3 groups. Patients in group 1 had rheumatic mitral stenosis (RMS), those in group 2 had RMVD without stenosis, and those in group 3 served as the control group. Group 1 was further divided into 2 groups, severe mitral stenosis (MS) and mild to moderate MS. The NLR was significantly higher in patients with severe MS when compared to those with mild to moderate MS (P = .002) while lymphocyte count was lower (P = .034). Using a cutoff level of 2.56, the NLR predicted severe RMS with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 74%. In conclusion, as an inexpensive, simple, and accessible marker of inflammation, the NLR may be useful in predicting the presence and severity of MS in patients with RMVD. PMID:24335245
Polat, Nihat; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Yuksel, Murat; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Aydin, Mesut; Acet, Halit; Akil, Mehmet Ata; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Kaya, Hasan; Ertas, Faruk; Cil, Habib
Myxomatous dystrophy of the cardiac valves is a heterogeneous group of disorders, including syndromic diseases such as Marfan syndrome and isolated valvular diseases. Mitral valve prolapse, the most common form of this disease, is presumed to affect approximately 2% to 3% of the population and remains one of the most common causes of valvular surgery. During the past years, important effort has been made to better understand the pathophysiological basis of mitral valve prolapse. Autosomal-dominant transmission is the usual inheritance with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. Three loci have been mapped to chromosomes 16p11-p12, 11p15.4 and 13q31-32, but the underlying genetic defects are not currently known. An X-linked recessive form has been originally described by Monteleone and Fagan in 1969. Starting from one large French family and three smaller other families in which MVP was transmitted with an X-linked pattern, we have been able to identify three filamin A mutations p.Gly288Arg and p.Val711Asp and a 1,944-bp genomic deletion coding for exons 16 to 19. In this review, we describe the genetic, echocardiographic and functional aspects of the filamin-A-related myxomatous mitral valve dystrophy. PMID:21773876
Lardeux, Aurélie; Kyndt, Florence; Lecointe, Simon; Marec, Hervé Le; Merot, Jean; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent
Cardiac valves are subjected to high repetitive mechanical stresses, particularly at the hinge points of the cusps and leaflets due to the over 40 millions cardiac cycles per year. These delicate structures can suffer cumulative lesions, complicated by the deposition of calcium phosphate mineral, which may lead to clinically important disease. Near Infrared Raman Spectroscopy gives important information about biological tissues composition and it is being used for diagnosis of some pathologies. The aim of this work was to detect trough the use of the Raman Spectroscopy technique the mitral annular calcification. A Ti:sapphire laser operating at the near infrared wavelength of 785 nm was used for the excitation of the valve samples and the Raman radiation was detected by an optical spectrometer with a CCD liquid nitrogen cooled detector. In all, ten samples of normal and pathologic tissues were studied. They were approximately squared with the lateral size of 5 mm. It was observed that the Raman spectrum of the calcified mitral valve showed different behavior, when compared to normal tissues. Results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the deposition of the calcium phosphate mineral over the mitral valve.
Rocha, Rick; Otero, E. P.; Costa, M. S.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.; Pomerarantzeff, P. M.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.
The relation between global left ventricular pumping characteristics and local cardiac muscle fiber mechanics is represented by a mathematical model of left ventricular mechanics in which the mitral valve papillary muscle system is incorporated. The wall of the left ventricle is simulated by a thick-walled cylinder. Transmural differences in fiber orientation are incorporated by changing the direction of material anisotropy across the wall. The cylinder is free to twist. The upper end of the cylinder is covered by a thin, flexible sheet, representing the base of the left ventricle. The mitral valve is incorporated in this sheet. The tips of the mitral leaflets are connected by chordae tendineae to the papillary muscles which are attached to the bottom of the cylinder. Canine cardiac cycles were simulated for various end-diastolic values of left ventricular volume (25-120 ml, control 60 ml), left atrial pressure (0-2.7 kPa, control 0.22 kPa) and aortic pressure (5-11 kPa, control 11 kPa). In this wide range of preload and afterload mechanical loading of the muscle fibers appeared to be distributed quite evenly (SD: +/- 5% of control value) over all muscular structures of the left ventricle, including the papillary muscles. PMID:2722896
Arts, T; Reneman, R S
This study assesses whether aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) are associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 1065 patients underwent both echocardiography and carotid artery ultrasound scanning. AVS and MAC were defined as focal areas of increased echogenicity and thickening of the aortic leaflets or mitral valve annulus. Carotid artery atherosclerosis was defined as presence/absence of any atherosclerotic plaque or presence/absence of plaque >50 %. Of 1065 patients (65 ± 9 years; 38 % female) who comprised the study population, 642 (60 %) had at least one atherosclerotic plaque. AVS, but not mitral valve sclerosis; was associated with the presence of carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.9; P = 0.005) and the degree of carotid atherosclerosis (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.9; P = 0.01) in a multivariate model including age, gender, previous ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes, family cardiovascular history, left ventricular size, mass, and ejection fraction, and left atrial size. AVS is a significant predictor of carotid atherosclerosis, independently of other cardiovascular clinical and echocardiographic risk factors. PMID:24196525
Rossi, Andrea; Faggiano, Pompilio; Amado, Alexandra E; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Bonapace, Stefano; Franceschini, Lorenzo; Dini, Frank L; Ghio, Stefano; Agricola, Eustachio; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Vassanelli, Corrado
Objectives This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following balloon dilation (BD) for pulmonary stenosis (PS) and to investigate its impact on ventricular volume and function, and exercise tolerance. Background Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty relieves PS but can cause late PR. The sequelae of isolated PR are not well understood. Methods Patients were at least 7 years of age and 5 years removed from BD, and had no other form of congenital heart disease or significant residual PS. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and exercise testing were performed prospectively to quantify PR fraction, ventricular volumes and function, and exercise capacity. Results Forty-one patients underwent testing a median of 13.1 years after BD. The median PR fraction was 10%; 14 patients (34%) had PR fraction >15%; 7 (17%) had PR >30%. PR fraction was associated with age at dilation (ln-transformed, R = ?0.47, p = 0.002) and balloon:annulus ratio (R = 0.57, p < 0.001). The mean right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume z-score was 1.8 ± 1.9; RV dilation (z-score ?2) was present in 14/35 patients (40%). PR fraction correlated closely with indexed RV end-diastolic volume (R = 0.79, p < 0.001) and modestly with RV ejection fraction (R = 0.50, p < 0.001). Overall, peak oxygen consumption (Vo2) (% predicted) was below average (92 ± 17%, p = 0.006). Patients with PR fraction >15% had significantly lower peak Vo2 than those with less PR (85 ± 17% vs. 96 ± 16%, p = 0.03). Conclusions Mild PR and RV dilation are common in the long term following BD. A PR fraction >15% is associated with lower peak Vo2, suggesting that isolated PR and consequent RV dilation are related to impaired exercise cardiopulmonary function. PMID:20202522
Harrild, David M.; Powell, Andrew J.; Tran, Trang X.; Geva, Tal; Lock, James E.; Rhodes, Jonathan; McElhinney, Doff B.
Percutaneous approaches to mitral valve repair are an attractive alternative to surgical repair or replacement. Radiofrequency ablation has the potential to approximate surgical leaflet resection by using resistive heating to reduce leaflet size, and cryogenic temperatures on a percutaneous catheter can potentially be used to reversibly adhere to moving mitral valve leaflets for reliable application of radiofrequency energy. We tested a combined cryo-anchoring and radiofrequency ablation catheter using excised porcine mitral valves placed in a left heart flow loop capable of reproducing physiologic pressure and flow waveforms. Transmitral flow and pressure were monitored during the cryo-anchoring procedure and compared to baseline flow conditions, and the extent of radiofrequency energy delivery to the mitral valve was assessed post-treatment. Long term durability of radiofrequency ablation treatment was assessed using statically treated leaflets placed in a stretch bioreactor for four weeks. Transmitral flow and pressure waveforms were largely unaltered during cryo-anchoring. Parameter fitting to mechanical data from leaflets treated with radiofrequency ablation and cryo-anchoring revealed significant mechanical differences from untreated leaflets, demonstrating successful ablation of mitral valves in a hemodynamic environment. Picrosirius red staining showed clear differences in morphology and collagen birefringence between treated and untreated leaflets. The durability study indicated that statically treated leaflets did not significantly change size or mechanics over four weeks. A cryo-anchoring and radiofrequency ablation catheter can adhere to and ablate mitral valve leaflets in a physiologic hemodynamic environment, providing a possible percutaneous alternative to surgical leaflet resection of mitral valve tissue. PMID:24495753
Boronyak, Steven M; Merryman, W David
Background. Upon inital repair, most patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) present with severely im- paired ventricular function and mitral regurgitation. In this study, both parameters were investigated at long- term in patients in whom either coronary transfer or subclavian artery anastomosis was applied. Methods. Records of 56 patients with ALCAPA, oper-
Rüdiger Lange; Manfred Vogt; Julie Cleuziou; Andrea Menzel; Klaus Holper; John Hess; Christian Schreiber
OBJECTIVES Post-cardiac surgery vasoplegia is a common complication of cardiac surgery, characterized by profound loss of systemic vascular resistance. This results in severe hypotension, high cardiac output and metabolic acidosis reflecting inadequate tissue perfusion. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this syndrome remain unknown. We hypothesized that this vasoplegia reflects endothelial dysfunction, either as pre-existing condition or as a consequence of the surgical procedure. METHODS To examine these mechanisms, six established and distinct markers of endothelial cell activation were measured pre- and perioperatively in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Arterial (radial artery) and myocardial venous blood samples (coronary sinus) were collected simultaneously over the reperfused heart at various time points during the first hour after reperfusion. Additional samples were collected at baseline (brachial vein) and 1 day post-reperfusion (radial artery). Post-cardiac surgery vasoplegia was defined as a mean arterial blood pressure of <60 mmHg, with a cardiac index of ?2.2 l/min/m2 treated with continuous intravenous administration of norepinephrine. RESULTS No myocardial release of endothelial cell activation markers was observed upon reperfusion in patients with vasoplegia (n = 15; mean age 71 years, 73% male). In contrast, in patients without vasoplegia (n = 24; mean age 64 years, 54% male), reperfusion was characterized by a myocardial release of three endothelial cell activation markers. Myocardial von Willebrand Factor propeptide, osteoprotegerin and interleukin-8 were increased 107% (P < 0.001), 106% (P = 0.02) and 116% (P = 0.009), respectively, compared with arterial levels upon reperfusion. Similar systemic levels of all markers were found upon reperfusion in both groups, except for 120% increased soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels in vasoplegia patients (P = 0.03). Remarkably, postoperative vasoplegia was identified with baseline von Willebrand Factor propeptide levels with a cut-off value of 11.9 nM as well as with baseline sP-selectin levels with a cut-off value of 64.4 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS Pre-existing endothelial cell activation, reflected by higher baseline von Willebrand Factor propeptide and sP-selectin levels, is a predisposing factor for post-cardiac surgery vasoplegia. The pre-existing endothelial cell activation may have resulted in desensibilization of endothelium in patients who develop vasoplegic syndrome, resulting in no myocardial release of endothelial cell activation markers upon reperfusion. PMID:23736659
Kortekaas, Kirsten A.; Lindeman, Jan H.N.; Reinders, Marlies E.J.; Palmen, Meindert; Klautz, Robert J.M.; de Groot, Philip G.; Roest, Mark
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the magnitude of the association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and vascular events in a multiethnic cohort. BACKGROUND MAC is common in the elderly, and is associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. Its impact on the risk of cardiovascular events is controversial. METHODS The study cohort consisted of 1,955 subjects, aged ?40 years, and free of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS). MAC was assessed by transthoracic 2D echocardiography. The association between MAC and MI, IS, and vascular death (VD) was examined by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. The effect of MAC thickness was also analyzed. RESULTS The mean age of the cohort was 68.0 ± 9.7 years and the majority of subjects were Hispanics (56.8%). 519 subjects (26.6%) had MAC. Of 498 patients with MAC thickness measurement available, 253 (13.1%) had mild to moderate MAC (1–4mm) and 245 (12.7%) severe MAC (?4mm). During a mean follow-up of 7.4 ± 2.5 years, MI occurred in 100 (5.1%) subjects, IS in 104 (5.3%) subjects, and VD in 155 (8.0%) subjects. After adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, MAC was associated with an increased risk of MI (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–2.69: p=0.011) and VD (adjusted HR 1.53; 95%CI 1.09–2.15: p=0.015), but not IS (adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 0.87–2.05: p=0.18). Further analysis revealed that the impact of MAC was related to its thickness, with MAC >4mm being a strong and independent predictor of MI (adjusted HR 1.89: 95%CI 1.13–3.17: p=0.008) and VD (adjusted HR 1.81: 95%CI 1.21–2.72: p=0.002), and showing borderline association with IS (adjusted HR 1.59: 95%CI 0.95–2.67: p=0.084). CONCLUSIONS In this multiethnic cohort, MAC was a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events, especially MI and VD. The risk increase was directly related to MAC severity. PMID:19356491
Kohsaka, Shun; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.
We investigated the degree of mitral valve coaptation with a custom quantitation software system using transthoracic three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. With real-time 3D echocardiography, we obtained transthoracic volumetric images in 20 healthy subjects and 20 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. With our novel software system, the surface area of mitral valve tenting in the onset of mitral leaflet closure [O] and the timing of maximum closure of mitral leaflet [M] were reconstructed for quantitative measurement. The coaptation index was calculated by the following formula: [(3D tenting surface area in O-3D tenting surface area in M)/3D tenting surface area in O]. The coaptation index in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy was significantly smaller than that in healthy subjects (11% +/- 4.1% vs. 18% +/- 8.0%, P = .004). The custom quantitation software system with 3D echocardiography allowed us to assess the degree of mitral valve coaptation. PMID:17628419
Tsukiji, Miwako; Watanabe, Nozomi; Yamaura, Yasuko; Okahashi, Noriko; Obase, Kikuko; Neishi, Yoji; Toyota, Eiji; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Okura, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Yasuo; Yoshida, Kiyoshi
Mitral and tufted cells, the two classes of principal neurons in the mammalian main olfactory bulb, exhibit morphological differences but remain widely viewed as functionally equivalent. Results from several recent studies, however, suggest that these two cell classes may encode complementary olfactory information in their distinct patterns of afferent-evoked activity. To understand how these differences in activity arise, we have performed the first systematic comparison of synaptic and intrinsic properties between mitral and tufted cells. Consistent with previous studies, we found that tufted cells fire with higher probability and rates and shorter latencies than mitral cells in response to physiological afferent stimulation. This stronger response of tufted cells could be partially attributed to synaptic differences, as tufted cells received stronger afferent-evoked excitation than mitral cells. However, differences in intrinsic excitability also contributed to the differences between mitral and tufted cell activity. Compared to mitral cells, tufted cells exhibited twofold greater excitability and peak instantaneous firing rates. These differences in excitability probably arise from differential expression of voltage-gated potassium currents, as tufted cells exhibited faster action potential repolarization and afterhyperpolarizations than mitral cells. Surprisingly, mitral and tufted cells also showed firing mode differences. While both cell classes exhibited regular firing and irregular stuttering of action potential clusters, tufted cells demonstrated a greater propensity to stutter than mitral cells. Collectively, stronger afferent-evoked excitation, greater intrinsic excitability and more irregular firing in tufted cells can combine to drive distinct responses of mitral and tufted cells to afferent-evoked input. PMID:24614745
Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathaniel N
A 46-year-old woman with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia was referred due to aortic regurgitation. The patient was introduced selective low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL)apheresis 20 years ago. Echocardiogram revealed severe aortic regurgitation, and computed tomography revealed thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. We considered 2 staged operations were necessitated. Firstly, aortic valve replacement was performed. Emergent coronary artery bypass grafting was also done because intraoperative myocardial ischemia was strongly suspected from left ventricular hypokinesis. One year later, replacement of thoracoabdominal aorta was performed. Post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged at post-operative day 21. The patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia must be strictly followed up because systemic atherosclerosis frequently exacerbates despite selective LDL apheresis. PMID:23381364
Tomonaga, Kotaro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Uchida, Tetsuro; Kim, Cholsu; Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Ryota; Ohba, Ei-Ichi; Hayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Ken; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki
Arteriovenous (AV) fistulas with high blood flow rate are necessary for adequate hemodialysis, but they can also cause significant hemodynamic changes, including raised cardiac output, left ventricular hypertrophy and occasionally overt cardiac failure (Basile et al., Nephrol Dial Transplant, 23, 2008, 282; Unger et al., Am J Transplant, 4, 2004, 2038). We now report a case of rapid and dramatic improvement in symptomatic right heart failure due to severe tricuspid regurgitation following ligation of an arteriovenous fistula. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed before and after the ligation of fistula showed striking improvement in both the tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular dimensions, with minimal impact on left ventricular mass, size, and function. PMID:24118598
Rao, Nitesh; Worthley, Matthew; Disney, Patrick; Faull, Randall
The purpose of this study was to determine analytically the hemodynamic factors that affect the closing velocity of the disc of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (BSCC) prosthetic mitral valves. The motion of the BSCC disk was modelled by Newton's second law written in the form of a second order differential equation which expressed the instantaneous angle of the disc with respect to the valve ring as a function of the instantaneous pressure drop across the mitral valve, delta P(t), and the angle of the pressure gradient vector acting upon the disc during closure. The disc closes in response to the negative pressure drop created by the crossover of left atrial and left ventricular (LV) pressures. The rate of closure depends on the rate of development of the pressure drop across the valve, d delta P/dt, which is largely dependent upon the rate of change of left ventricular pressure during isovolumic contraction, LV dP/dt. The closure rate is also strongly dependent on the initial angle of the pressure drop vector with respect to the disc. The disc was predicted to reach its highest velocity at the moment of impact, based on the Runge-Kutta solution. Modelling suggests that a high LV dP/dt during valve closure or distorted LV geometry, causing the angle between the fully open disc and the pressure drop vector to shift, will cause the valve to have a high velocity at the moment of impact and may produce high impact loads. PMID:8581208
Blick, E F; Wieting, D W; Inderbitzen, R; Schreck, S; Stein, P D
Automatic acoustic classification and diagnosis of mitral valve disease remain outstanding biomedical problems. Although considerable attention has been given to the evolution of signal processing techniques, the mechanics of the first heart sound generation has been largely overlooked. In this study, the haemodynamic determinants of the first heart sound were examined in a computational model. Specifically, the relationship of the transvalvular pressure and its maximum derivative to the time-frequency content of the acoustic pressure was examined. To model the transient vibrations of the mitral valve apparatus bathed in a blood medium, a dynamic, non-linear, fluid-coupled finite element model of the mitral valve leaflets and chordae tendinae was constructed. It was found that the root mean squared (RMS) acoustic pressure varied linearly (r2= 0.99) from 0.010 to 0.259 mmHg, following an increase in maximum dP/dt from 415 to 12470 mm Hg s(-1). Over that same range, peak frequency varied non-linearly from 59.6 to 88.1 Hz. An increase in left-ventricular pressure at coaptation from 22.5 to 58.5mm Hg resulted in a linear (r2= 0.91) rise in RMS acoustic pressure from 0.017 to 1.41mm Hg. This rise in transmitral pressure was accompanied by a non-linear rise in peak frequency from 63.5 to 74.1 Hz. The relationship between the transvalvular pressure and its derivative and the time-frequency content of the first heart sound has been examined comprehensively in a computational model for the first time. Results suggest that classification schemes should embed both of these variables for more accurate classification. PMID:15587476
Einstein, D R; Kunzelman, K S; Reinhall, P G; Cochran, R P; Nicosia, M A
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification and a common echocardiographic finding. CCMA discovery is mostly incidental, considered as benign tumor and may be unrelated to patient symptoms. Multimodality imaging may have an additional value for the diagnosis of CCMA. We report the cases of two CCMA revealed by acute pulmonary oedema and stroke, respectively. The aims of this presentation are: to illustrate the variety of cardiac symptoms that led to the diagnosis of CCMA; and to highlight the usefulness of thoracic multisliced computed tomography for the diagnosis of CCMA. PMID:23806861
Cetran, L; Corneloup, O; Dijos, M; Montaudon, M; Roudaut, R; Coste, P; Laurent, F; Gerbaud, E
We present an unusual case of acute myocardial infarction by embolic obstruction of both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries in a 14-year-old girl. Echocardiography showed mobile lesions on the mitral valve and into the left ventricular outflow tract with poor left ventricular function, eventually suggesting endocarditis. Successful surgery comprised mitral valve plasty after complete resection of the tumoral lesion, in association with coronary artery embolectomy. Histologic examination revealed a malignant spindle cell sarcoma treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We emphasize here the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in children by a rare cardiac tumor. PMID:25282213
Martens, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; François, Katrien; Bove, Thierry
Carpentier-Edwards (C\\/E) high profile supra-annular porcine bioprostheses were implanted in 163 patients between September 1982–February 1987 in the mitral position due to rheumatic disease. The patients' ages ranged between 15 and 58 years (mean: 36.5 ± 11.5). One hundred-two of the patients (62.5%) were female. The hospital mortality was 9.8% (16\\/163). The total cumulative follow-up period was 1093 patient-years (p-y)
B. Yamak; E. Sener; U. Kiziltepe; B. Mavitas; O. Tasdemir; K. Bayazit
A 64-year-old man presented with cardiac tamponade 2 weeks after mitral valve surgery. The patient was anticoagulated for persistent atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. A pericardial catheter was placed. Five days after presentation the patient was started on intravenous heparin infusion. The patient had abdominal pain and hypotension develop. A splenic hematoma was diagnosed and a splenectomy was performed. Pathology showed multiple fibrin thrombi in the spleen. The heparin-associated antibodies were detected. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a potentially fatal condition in patients requiring heparin after cardiac surgery. Evaluation for heparin-associated antibodies in these patients may be warranted before heparin therapy. PMID:17307485
Mitchell, Christina; Riley, Catherine A; Vahid, Bobbak
Newton's second law of motion for rotating bodies and potential flow theory is used to mathematically model the closing process of a pivoting disc prosthetic heart valve in mitral position. The model predicts closure to be dependent upon disc curvature, eccentricity, mass, diameter, density, opening angle and fluid properties. Experiments using two commercially available prostheses are shown to give good correlation with the theory for large opening angles. Divergence between theory and experiment occur at small opening angles because of the limitation of the potential flow assumption. PMID:3988784
Reif, T H; Huffstutler, M C
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have been reported to play an important role in protecting plants from attack by herbivores. However, little is known about their role in tea. Here, we investigated the effect of PPOs on interactions between tea plants and the tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua, one of the most important insect pests of tea. Jasmonic acid (JA) treatment resulted in increases in PPO activity, and the effect of JA was dose dependent. Ectropis obliqua caterpillars grew and developed more slowly on JA-treated tea plants than on control plants, and larval weight gains depended on the JA dosage. Artificial diet complemented with PPOs reduced the growth and survival rate of E. obliqua caterpillars, and there was a negative relationship between PPO level and larval growth and survival. Unlike mechanical wounding, which is an effective inducer of tea plant PPO activity, wounding plus the herbivore regurgitant or herbivore infestation suppressed the wound-induced PPO activities, especially at 4 days after treatment. These results suggest that PPOs are an important anti-herbivore factor in tea plants, defending them against E. obliqua larvae, and that E. obliqua larvae have evolved to elude the tea plant's defense by inhibiting the production of PPOs. PMID:23702702
Yang, Zi-Wei; Duan, Xiao-Na; Jin, Shan; Li, Xi-Wang; Chen, Zong-Mao; Ren, Bing-Zhong; Sun, Xiao-Ling
A high tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) signifies a risk for or established pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is a serious complication in thalassemia patients. The underlying pathophysiology in thalassemia subgroups and potential biomarkers for early detection and monitoring are not well defined, in particular as they relate to spleen removal. To better understand some of these unresolved aspects, we examined 76 thalassemia patients (35 non-transfused), 25 splenectomized non-thalassemia patients (15 with hereditary spherocytosis), and 12 healthy controls. An elevated TRV (>2.5 m/s) was found in 25/76 (33 %) of the patients, confined to non-transfused or those with a late start of transfusions, including patients with hemoglobin H-constant spring, a finding not previously described. These non or late-transfused patients (76 % splenectomized) had significantly increased platelet activation (sCD40L), high platelet count, endothelial activation (endothelin-1), and hemolysis (LDH, plasma-free Hb), while hypercoagulable and inflammatory markers were not significantly increased. The same markers were increased in the seven patients with confirmed PH on cardiac catheterization, suggesting their possible role for screening patients at risk for PH. A combination of hemolysis and absence of spleen is necessary for developing a high TRV, as neither chronic hemolysis in the non-splenectomized thalassemia patients nor splenectomy without hemolysis, in the non-thalassemia patients, resulted in an increase in TRV. PMID:24577514
Singer, Sylvia T; Kuypers, Frans; Fineman, Jeffery; Gildengorin, Ginny; Larkin, Sandra; Sweeters, Nancy; Rosenfeld, Howard; Kurio, Gregory; Higa, Annie; Jeng, Michael; Huang, James; Vichinsky, Elliott P
Introduction: Natriuretic peptides are secreted from the heart in response to increased wall stress. Their levels are expected to be increased in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) due to high left atrium (LA) pressure and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) if successful is pursued by a rapid decrease in LA pressure and subsequent decrease in pulmonary artery pressure. The concurrent changes in natriuretic peptide levels could be affected with heart rhythm. Methods: Forty five patients with severe rheumatic MS undergoing PTMC were enrolled. We evaluated the serum NT-Pro BNP levels before and 24 hours after PTMC. BNP levels were also measured from the blood samples obtained from LA before and 20 minutes after the procedure. Changes in biomarkers were assessed based on heart rhythm and success of the procedure. Results: While serum NT-Pro BNP levels showed significant decrease 24 hours after the procedure (P= 0.04), BNP levels taken 20 minutes after PTMC from LA were similar to their baseline concentrations (P= 0.26). NT-Pro BNP levels decreased 51.7±182.86 pg/ml for sinus rhythm (SR) and 123.4±520 pg/ml for atrial fibrillation (AF) (P= 0.68). Conclusion: Immediate changes in BNP levels did not predict the success of procedure probably due to the additional balloon inflation attempts in LA in several patients and half-life of BNP. BNP levels obtained later may be of more value considering the half-life of this marker. Heart rhythm was not found to influence the changes in biomarker levels. BNP and NT-pro BNP changes were not found to predict success of the procedure. PMID:25320665
Pourafkari, Leili; Seyedhosseini, Seyedrazi; Kazemi, Babak; Esmaili, Heydarali; Aslanabadi, Naser
Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm may play an important role in measuring the true symptomatic/asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and improve the management of anti-arrhythmic and anti-thrombotic therapies. Forty-seven patients with mitral valve disease and longstanding persistent AF (LSPAF) underwent a left atrial maze procedure with bipolar radiofrequency and valve surgery. The follow-up data recorded by an implanted loop recorder were analysed after 3, 6 and 12 months. On discharge, 40 (85.1%) patients were in stable sinus rhythm, as documented by in-office electrocardiography (ECG), 4 (8.5%) were in pacemaker rhythm and 3 (6.4%) were in AF. One (2.1%) patient died after 7 months. On 12-month follow-up examination, 30 (65.2%) patients had an AF burden <0.5% and were classified as responders. Three (6.5%) of the 16 non-responders had atrial flutter and 13 (27.7%) had documented AF recurrences with an AF burden >0.5%. Two (4.3%) patients with AF recurrences were completely asymptomatic. Among the symptomatic events stored by the patients, only 27.6% was confirmed as genuine AF recurrences according to the concomitant ECG recorded by the implanted loop recorder. A concomitant bipolar maze procedure during mitral valve surgery is effective in treating AF, as proved by detailed 1-year continuous monitoring. PMID:22514258
Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexandr; Zheleznev, Sergey; Romanov, Alexander; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Pivkin, Alexey; Corbucci, Giorgio; Karaskov, Alexander
Human mitral valves (32 floppy and 17 rheumatic) obtained at surgery were analysed and compared with 35 normal (autopsy) valves. Total amounts of collagen, proteoglycan and elastin were increased approx. 3-fold in floppy and rheumatic valves. The water content of rheumatic cusps was lower than normal. The most significant changes in floppy valves were the 59% increase in mean value of the proteoglycan content, a large increase in the ease of extractability of proteoglycans from 26.7 to 57.2% of the total and a 62% increase in mean value of the elastin content in the anterior cusps. Normal human mitral valve cusps contained a mean proportion of 29.3 (and chordae 26.6) type III collagen (as % of total types III + I collagen), the values increasing significantly to 33.2 and 36.3% respectively in chronic rheumatic disease. The ratio observed in floppy valves depended on the extent of secondary surface fibrosis, which could be demonstrated histologically; in valve cusps with considerable secondary fibrosis, the percentage of type III increased significantly (to 34.4%), whereas it decreased significantly (to 25.2%) when fibrosis was negligible. It is concluded that the ratio of collagen types in floppy valves reflects the extent of secondary fibrosis rather than the pathogenesis of the disrupted collagen in the central core of the valve. PMID:3446179
Lis, Y; Burleigh, M C; Parker, D J; Child, A H; Hogg, J; Davies, M J
During the course of both canine and human aging, the mitral valve remodels in generally predictable ways. The connection between these aging changes and the morbidity and mortality that accompany pathologic conditions has not been made clear. By exploring work that has investigated the specific valvular changes in both age and disease, with respect to the cells and the extracellular matrix found within the mitral valve, heretofore unexplored connections between age and myxomatous valve disease can be found. This review addresses several studies that have been conducted to explore such age and disease related changes in extracellular matrix, valvular endothelial and interstitial cells, and valve innervation, and also reviews attempts to correlate aging and myxomatous disease. Such connections can highlight avenues for future research and help provide insight as to when an individual diverts from an aging pattern into a diseased pathway. Recognizing these patterns and opportunities could result in earlier intervention and the hope of reduced morbidity and mortality for patients. PMID:22364720
Connell, Patrick S.; Han, Richard I.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) effects more often young women. Symptomatology of MVP varies, symptoms are often nagging and some complications are of importance (mitral insufficiency and arrhythmias). Main objective of investigation was: estimation of the frequency and symptomatology of MVP during pregnancy. A group of 120 women in II/III of pregnancy were admitted to the maternity ward, where echocardiography and a survey have been performed. Two criteria were considered as the classical MVP: displacement toward the left atrium at > 2 mm and the thickness of valve > or = 5 mm. In case when the first criterion was fulfilled, the diagnosis was MVP non classic, in the second case MVP named non classic 2. Classical MVP was diagnosed in 10 patients--8.3% of the examined group. The group of 22 patients--18.3% was diagnosed MVP named non classic 2. MVP during pregnancy is frequent, it accounts for 8.3%. Varies symptomatology was characteristic for all the groups MVP. The most frequent complaints were: dizziness, palpitation, and faintness. There were observed statistically more often in the group with MVP. Women with MVP are not protected by pregnancy. PMID:16789507
Kucharczyk-Petryka, Ewa; Mamcarz, Artur; Braksator, Wojciech; Sawicki, W?odzimierz; D?uzniewski, Miros?aw
On the basis of its primary circuit it has been postulated that the olfactory bulb (OB) is analogous to the retina in mammals. In retina, repeated exposure to the same visual stimulus results in a neural representation that remains relatively stable over time, even as the meaning of that stimulus to the animal changes. Stability of stimulus representation at early stages of processing allows for unbiased interpretation of incoming stimuli by higher order cortical centers. The alternative is that early stimulus representation is shaped by previously derived meaning, which could allow more efficient sampling of odor space providing a simplified yet biased interpretation of incoming stimuli. This study helps place the olfactory system on this continuum of subjective versus objective early sensory representation. Here we show that odor responses of the output cells of the OB, mitral cells, change transiently during a go–no-go odor discrimination task. The response changes occur in a manner that increases the ability of the circuit to convey information necessary to discriminate among closely related odors. Remarkably, a switch between which of the two odors is rewarded causes mitral cells to switch the polarity of their divergent responses. Taken together these results redefine the function of the OB as a transiently modifiable (active) filter, shaping early odor representations in behaviorally meaningful ways. PMID:18959481
Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego
An incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material for solid finite element analysis of a porcine mitral valve response is described. The material model implementation is checked in single element tests and compared with a membrane implementation in an out-of-plane loading test to study how the layered structures modify the stress response for a simple geometry. Three different collagen layer arrangements are used in finite element analysis of the mitral valve. When the leaflets are arranged in two layers with the collagen on the ventricular side, the stress in the fibre direction through the thickness in the central part of the anterior leaflet is homogenized and the peak stress is reduced. A simulation using membrane elements is also carried out for comparison with the solid finite element results. Compared to echocardiographic measurements, the finite element models bulge too much in the left atrium. This may be due to evidence of active muscle fibres in some parts of the anterior leaflet, whereas our constitutive modelling is based on passive material.
Prot, V.; Skallerud, B.
Left ventricular to right atrial communications are rare types of ventricular septal defects usually of congenital origin. A case of an iatrogenic shunt between the left ventricle and the right atrium as a rare complication of mitral valve replacement is reported. PMID:17622397
Uslu, Nevzat; Kayacioglu, Ilyas; Ates, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet
In the olfactory bulb, apoptotic cell-death induced by sensory deprivation is restricted to interneurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers, and to a lesser extent in the external plexiform layer, whereas mitral cells do not typically undergo apoptosis. With the goal to understand whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates mitral cell survival, we performed unilateral-naris occlusion on mice at postnatal day one (P1) and examined the subsequent BDNF immunoreactive (BDNF-ir) profile of the olfactory bulb at P20, P30, and P40. Ipsilateral to the naris occlusion, there was a significant increase in the number of BDNF-ir mitral cells per unit area that was independent of the duration of the sensory deprivation induced by occlusion. The number of BDNF-ir juxtaglomerular cells per unit area, however, was clearly diminished. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of primarily pro-BDNF in the olfactory bulb. These data provide evidence for a neurotrophic role of proBDNF in the olfactory system of mice and suggest that proBDNF may act to protect mitral cells from the effects of apoptotic changes induced by odor sensory deprivation. PMID:18834927
Biju, K.C.; Mast, Thomas Gerald; Fadool, Debra Ann
Twenty two patients (four men, 18 women, mean age 56 years, range 21 to 88 years) with a history of rheumatic mitral stenosis were studied by cross sectional echocardiography before and after balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. The appearance of the mitral valve on the pre-dilatation echocardiogram was scored for leaflet mobility, leaflet thickening, subvalvar thickening, and calcification. Mitral valve area, left atrial volume, transmitral pressure difference, pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, cardiac rhythm, New York Heart Association functional class, age, and sex were also studied. Because there was some increase in valve area in almost all patients the results were classified as optimal or suboptimal (final valve area less than 1.0 cm2, final left atrial pressure greater than 10 mm Hg, or final valve area less than 25% greater than the initial area). The best multiple logistic regression fit was found with the total echocardiographic score alone. A high score (advanced leaflet deformity) was associated with a suboptimal outcome while a low score (a mobile valve with limited thickening) was associated with an optimal outcome. No other haemodynamic or clinical variables emerged as predictors of outcome in this analysis. Examination of pre-dilatation and post-dilatation echocardiograms showed that balloon dilatation reliably resulted in cleavage of the commissural plane and thus an increase in valve area. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 PMID:3190958
Wilkins, G T; Weyman, A E; Abascal, V M; Block, P C; Palacios, I F
Cardiobacterium valvarum is a relatively novel agent of infective endocarditis. We describe the first case of infective endocarditis due to this pathogen in the Asian Pacific. This case is unique in its involvement of the mitral valve as well as its clinical resolution exclusively resulting from treatment with antibiotics without resorting to valve replacement/explantation. PMID:23576538
Isais, Florante Santos; Lee, Cheng Chuan
Mitral Cells of the Olfactory Bulb Perform Metabolic Sensing and Are Disrupted by Obesity in Neuroscience, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America, 2 Department of Biological Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America, 3
Fadool, Debra Ann
OBJECTIVES Anatomical repair seems an ideal method for the surgical treatment of the anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in infancy. The medium-term outcome has been investigated for infants with ALCAPA following the restoration of a dual-coronary arterial circulation. METHODS Between April 1995 and July 2012, 23 infants with a median age of 4 months underwent surgical repair of ALCAPA in our department. Direct implantation of the anomalous coronary artery into the ascending aorta was feasible in 16 patients. A trap door flap method was used in 5 cases and a tubular extension technique in 2. No infant underwent mitral valve repair at the time of ALCAPA surgery. Left ventricular function and the degree of mitral valve regurgitation were assessed during a 10-year follow-up. RESULTS Four patients died in the early postoperative period, without independent predictors associated with this mortality. During follow-up, improvement in myocardial function occurred in all patients both early and late. There was only one improvement in severe mitral valve regurgitation. Subsequently, 2 children needed mitral valve replacement. There were no early or late reoperations of the reimplanted coronary arteries. CONCLUSIONS Aortic reimplantation is an effective surgical treatment for ALCAPA in infants burdened with a low risk of reoperation due to coronary artery stenosis. There was good potential for myocardial recovery within the first year after surgery. Restoration of the anatomical coronary circulation did not improve mitral valve function in infants with severe preoperative mitral incompetence. PMID:23442939
Kazmierczak, Piotr A.; Ostrowska, Katarzyna; Dryzek, Pawel; Moll, Jadwiga A.; Moll, Jacek J.
of cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction location, right ventricular function, mitral regurgitation, preimplantation.1), age, and sex were used for multivariable analyses. Cardiomyopathy cause interaction and subanalyses
regurgitation (17) and acute ischemic The Effects of Dynamic Saddle Annulus and Leaflet Length on Transmitral parameter in the diagnosis of functional disorders such as mitral valve prolapse, functional mitral
Background Mechanical heart valve replacement has an inherent risk of thromboembolic events (TEs). Current guidelines recommend an international normalized ratio (INR) of at least 2.5 after mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low INR (2.0–2.5) on thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical MVR on warfarin therapy. Methods One hundred and thirty-five patients who underwent mechanical MVR were enrolled in this study. The end points of this study were defined as TEs (valve thrombosis, transient ischemic attack, stroke) and bleeding (all minor and major bleeding) complications. Patients were followed up for a mean of 39.6 months and the mean INR of the patients was calculated. After data collection, patients were divided into 3 groups according to their mean INR, as follows: group 1 (n?=?34), INR <2.0; group 2 (n?=?49), INR 2.0–2.5; and group 3 (n?=?52), INR >2.5. Results A total of 22 events (10 [7.4%] thromboembolic and 12 [8.8%] bleeding events) occurred in the follow-up period. The mean INR was an independent risk factor for the development of TEs. Mean INR and neurological dysfunction were independent risk factors for the development of bleeding events. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the log mean INR and all bleeding events, and a negative correlation was found between the log mean INR and all TEs. The total number of events was significantly lower in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3 (P?=?0.036). Conclusions This study showed that a target INRs of 2.0–2.5 are acceptable for preventing TEs and safe in terms of bleeding complications in patients with mechanical MVR. PMID:24885719
Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a life-threatening complication. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been studied as inflammatory biomarkers in atherosclerosis, but data regarding valvular disease are lacking. The study population included patients with mitral PVT (n = 152) versus control subjects (n = 164) with functional mitral prosthesis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed to diagnose PVT. NLR and PLR were calculated using complete blood count. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also analyzed. Neutrophil and platelet levels did not differ between the groups (4.9 ± 2.0 vs 4.7 ± 1.5, p = 0.84 and 254.8 ± 89.7 vs 241.5 ± 62.8 p = 0.36, respectively), but lymphocyte levels were significantly lower in patients with PVT than the controls (1.8 ± 0.7 vs 2.2 ± 0.6, p <0.001). NLR, PLR, and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with PVT than in controls (3.2 ± 2.1 vs 2.2 ± 0.8, p <0.001; 163 ± 77.5 vs 114.9 ± 37.3, p <0.001; and 1.97 ± 3.02 vs 1.02 ± 1.22, p = 0.01, respectively). A positive correlation was observed between NLR and PLR (r = 528, p <0.001). NLR level of >2.23, measured on admission, yielded an area under the curve value of 0.659 (95% confidence interval 0.582 to 0.736, sensitivity 66%, specificity 60%, p <0.001) and PLR level of >117.78 yielded an area under the curve value of 0.707 (95% confidence interval 0.636 to 0.777, sensitivity 70%, specificity 58%, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that increased PLR and inadequate anticoagulation were independent predictors of thrombosis in patients with PVT. In conclusion, patients with PVT had increased NLR, PLR, and CRP levels compared with subjects with normofunctional prosthesis, and increased PLR was an independent predictor of mitral PVT. PMID:24411287
Gürsoy, Ozan Mustafa; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Kalçik, Macit; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Yesin, Mahmut; Gündüz, Sabahattin; Astarcio?lu, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Mehmet
We hypothesize that the formation of the closing vortex and subsequent b-datum regurgitation jet in bileaflet mechanical heart valves is governed by the magnitude of the driving mean aortic pressure (MAP), and that this sensitivity does impact the blood damage index (BDI) corresponding to platelet activation and lysis. High spatial resolution time resolved (1 kHz) as well as phase locked particle image velocimetry techniques captured the dynamic leaflet closure and regurgitation jet of a model 25 mm St. Jude Medical BMHV. Cell trajectories were estimated using Lagrangian particle tracking analysis while the leaflet kinematics was quantified by tracking the leaflet tip-position throughout closure. The non-principal as well as principal shear stress loading histories along each cell trajectory revealed BDI for platelet activation and lysis as a function of cell initial position, release time-point, and blood pressure. Results show that the leaflet closing time reduces by roughly 10 ms, in response to an increase in MAP by 40 mmHg. We report that higher MAP leads to a stronger b-datum vortex and jet formation. Platelet activation BDI lowers with a higher MAP due to reduction in exposure times despite an increase in principal shear stress experienced. Platelet lysis BDI however increases with higher MAP. Maximum BDI may occur for cells initially in the b-datum zone during the onset of leaflet closure. Our results provide a better understanding of BDI of the regurgitant b-datum jet and sheds light on the potential importance of blood damage testing under hypertensive conditions. PMID:23975384
Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad
The case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent minimal invasive mitral and tricuspid valve repair and a concomitant CryoMaze is described. During creation of the last lesion of the right-sided maze procedure, dissection of the ascending aorta occurred that necessitated emergency sternotomy, replacement of the ascending aorta, and aortocoronary bypass grafting to the right coronary artery (RCA) because of detachment of the RCA from the aortic annulus. Repair of this complication was successful; nevertheless, the patient died 5 days after the operation because of multiorgan failure. The cause of this complication can only be speculated, but a relation to the CyroMaze is obvious. Because of the restricted incision with impaired vision especially in the area of the right atrial appendage, the cryoprobe could have come into contact with the orifice of the RCA during the last lesion, with subsequent detachment of the RCA from the aorta, which could subsequently have caused dissection. PMID:23274873
Fleck, Tatjana; Dworschak, Martin; Wisser, Wilfried
Effective myocardial protection and perfusion strategies during minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (Mini-MV) have evolved over the last decade. Our institutional approach for right-sided Mini-MV has been standardized over the last 15 years in more than 4,500 cases. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is usually instituted by right-sided femoral arterial and venous cannulation with additional cannulation of the right jugular vein in patients with a body weight greater than 75 kg or when a concomitant tricuspid valve (TV) procedure and/or atrial septal defect closure is performed. A single dosage of crystalloid-based cardioplegia [Custodial- histidine-trypthophan-ketoglutarate (Custodial-HTK)] administered via the aortic root in combination with moderate hypothermia (34-35 °C) has become the standard of care for induction and maintenance of myocardial protection at our institution. The present article highlights and discusses the principal techniques of myocardial protection for Mini-MV. PMID:24349985
Garbade, Jens; Davierwala, Piroze; Seeburger, Joerg; Pfannmueller, Bettina; Misfeld, Martin; Borger, Michael A; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm
The purpose of this report is to review the results of mitral valve replacement since a first report in the Annals of Surgery in 1961, in order to determine the relative importance of new valve designs versus other surgical variables. The continued use of the silastic ball valve in its 1966 configuration (Model 6120), by providing a comparative data base for other new prosthetic valves, allows this analysis. For a valid comparison with the tilting disc (Bjork-Shiley) and the porcine (Hancock and Carpentier-Edwards) valves, only results with the silastic ball valves implanted during comparable time frames should be used. (Formula: see text) Thus, there are no significant differences in the results obtained with the silastic ball valve in time frames comparable to other contemporary valves introduced in the early 1970s. Improved results, therefore, must be non-prosthetic valve related. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. PMID:4037910
Cobanoglu, A; Grunkemeier, G L; Aru, G M; McKinley, C L; Starr, A
A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with aortic stenoinsufficiency with periannular abscess, which involved the aortic root of noncoronary sinus (NCS) that invaded down to the central fibrous body, whole membranous septum, mitral valve (MV), and tricuspid valve (TV). The open complete debridement was executed from the aortic annulus at NCS down to the central fibrous body and annulus of the MV and the TV, followed by the left ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with implantation of a mechanical aortic valve by using a leaflet of the half-folded elliptical bovine pericardial patch. Another leaflet of this patch was used for the repair of the right atrial wall with a defect and the TV.
Oh, Hyun Kong; Kim, Nan Yeol; Kang, Min-Woong; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Lim, Seung Pyung; Choi, Jae Sung; Na, Myung Hoon
A lesion of the circumflex artery (RCX) is one of the potential complications of mitral valve (MV) surgery. An intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) should be performed for early detection of potential myocardial damage. We report on an emergency PCI after minimally invasive mitral valve replacement in a redo operation. The patient had previously a mechanical aortic valve replacement. A TEE was performed at the end of the redo operation and showed significant signs of segmental myocardial lateral wall dysfunction. A coronary angiogram was performed immediately and a balloon angioplasty and implantation of two stents in the circumflex artery was necessary. In cases of suspected distortion of the RCX, a coronary angiography must be performed without delay to prevent myocardial necrosis. PMID:25181921
Folkmann, Sandra; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Garbade, Jens
The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity of the LV/RV for mitral insufficiency. One hundred and sixty patients underwent MUGA studies as part of their diagnostic evaluation. Phase analysis was performed. In the amplitude image, the LV/RV was measured. Patients were divided into 11 clinical groups based on chart review after adequate follow-up. The groups were compared by Duncan's Multiple Comparsion Test. Patients with mitral insufficiency (N = 12, mean LV/RV = 2.36), those with idiopathic myocardiopathy (8, 2.29) and those with normal hearts having lung disease on chest x-ray (22, 1.78) formed a group which at the p < .05 level were not different from one another. Patients with idiopathic myocardiography, normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray, normal hearts with lung disease (23, 1.71) formed a second group which partially overlapped with both the first and third groups. The third group consisted of normal hearts with lung disease, normal hearts not taking adriamycin (18, 1.53), normal hearts taking adriamycin (22, 1.50), congestive heart failure (19, 1.50), arteriosclerotic heart disease, normal hearts (15, 1.29), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The LV/RV is not specific for mitral insufficiency. Idiopathic myocardiography, and normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray (metastases, cancer of the lung, infiltrates, fibrosis, and/or COPD) cannot be differentiated on a statistical basis. The mitral insufficiency group had the greatest values of LV/RV. It appears that decreased RV amplitude seen with diseases causing strain on the right ventricle will result in elevated LV/RV ratios.
Preston, D.F.; Reinsel, M.S.; Martin, N.L.; Robinson, R.G.
Hemangiomas of the heart are extremely rare. The prognosis is quite variable, because this benign tumor may grow, involute, or stop growing; therefore, resection is usually the treatment of choice. In patients with tumors of the left atrium, percutaneous balloon mitral valvulotomy is generally contraindicated. Yet for patients with moderate-to-severe mitral valve stenosis, balloon valvulotomy is an established therapy. Herein, we present the case of a 73-year-old woman who was referred to our department in 1995 with severe mitral valve stenosis. Echocardiography showed a valve orifice area of 0.9 cm2, according to Gorlin's formula, and a mean pressure gradient of 11 mmHg. Surgical therapy was declined by the patient. There were no signs of coronary artery disease. The injection of contrast medium into the left coronary artery showed a hemangioma at the posterior wall of the left atrium. Magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis. Despite the increased risk posed by the hemangioma, we performed successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvulotomy with an Inoue balloon. We saw the patient in 2001, and again in 2008 when she was 86 years of age. She was in excellent condition, with no signs of relevant dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the size of the hemangioma to be stable. By use of echocardiography, we were able to confirm a good long-term result of the balloon valvulotomy. In this patient, a nonsurgical approach was adequate because of the lack of growth of the hemangioma in the left atrium. PMID:20200640
van Buuren, Frank; Langer, Christoph; Faber, Lothar; Butz, Thomas; Schmidt, Henning Karl; Esdorn, Hermann; Bogunovic, Nikola; Mellwig, Klaus Peter; Scholtz, Werner; Horstkotte, Dieter
Percutaneous closure of paravalvular leaks has emerged as an alternative to repeated surgeries. Different percutaneous techniques and various devices have been used, off-label, for paravalvular leak closure. For mitral leaks, antegrade transseptal, retrograde transfemoral, and retrograde transapical techniques have been developed. In the antegrade transseptal approach, an arteriovenous guidewire loop is often created to advance the delivery sheath. In retrograde transfemoral closure, the wire in the left atrium is usually snared after transseptal puncture, to pull it from the femoral vein. The delivery sheath and closure device will subsequently be deployed from the left atrium. Each of these procedures takes time, is costly, and increases the risk of complications. We present the cases of 3 patients in whom we closed mitral paravalvular leaks by means of a retrograde transfemoral approach, with use of an Amplatzer™ Duct Occluder II device and without the construction of an arteriovenous wire loop. We think that this approach can be very useful in a specific group of patients—reducing costs, fluoroscopy times, and complications related to transseptal puncture and construction of an arteriovenous wire loop. In our institution, this reported technique is routinely used for mitral paravalvular leak closure. PMID:24808777
Kilic, Teoman; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan
The growth mechanism of microbubbles at mitral MHV closure has been experimentally studied. In the heart, some of the tiny bubbles grow explosively and form larger and persistent bubbles. An experimental set-up was designed to allow the passage of micron-size bubbles through an 80 micron-wide slot, simulating a typical gap between the housing ring and the occluders in MHV. The bubbles were generated using an air-liquid dispenser and were delivered to the system via a 250 micron-diameter hypedermic needle positioned vertically near the slot. A solenoid valve was used to deliver a 10cc volume of liquid in 25ms time through the slot. High-speed imaging was used to study the impact of flow through the slot on bubble growth. The velocity of liquid through the slot was assessed to be in the range of 12-15 m/s. Our observations confirmed the rapid and drastic growth of microbubbles following their passage through the narrow slot, due to pressure drop. Vortices, which were induced by flow separation on the downstream of the slot, caused the grown bubbles to shatter and form more stable bubbles.
Rambod, Edmond; Beizaie, Masoud; Shusser, Michael; Gharib, Morteza
Pressure half time has been assumed to be a relatively flow-independent measure of orifice area, but it may also be influenced by atrial and ventricular factors. Pressure half time and peak left ventricular inflow velocity were measured by continuous wave Doppler ultrasound in 164 patients with normally functioning Carpentier-Edwards, Björk-Shiley, and Starr-Edwards mitral prostheses. Pressure half time was shorter in the Björk-Shiley than in the other value types and peak transmitral velocity was highest in the Starr-Edwards prostheses. These differences, however, were partly explained by coexistent differences in transmitral flow. Filling time accounted for 19% and stroke volume for 15% of the variance in pressure half time compared with only 5.6% for prosthetic design and 0.4% for annulus diameter when each of these variables was considered alone. The design of the prosthesis explained 18% of the variance in peak transmitral velocity, while cardiac output and annulus diameter did not contribute significantly. With Doppler ultrasound it is impossible to define reliable normal ranges for prosthetic function independently of atrial and ventricular function. Formulas for orifice area based on peak transmitral velocity and flow seem more likely to reflect the behaviour of normally functioning prostheses than those based on pressure half time. Images PMID:2183860
Chambers, J; Jackson, G; Jewitt, D
With the use of endovascular techniques and indwelling catheters, potential complications can include embolization of fragments or components of various systems. The authors describe the surgical retrieval of a guidewire introducer from the right common carotid artery (CCA). A 64-year-old man was found to have a foreign body within the right CCA on CT angiography after he had presented with a transient ischemic attack. He had undergone a complex mitral valve repair several months before presenting to the authors' facility. That procedure involved a femoral artery cutdown and the insertion of an endovascular aortic balloon for cardiac bypass. As in most endovascular procedures, guidewire introducers were probably used to facilitate the introduction of the guidewire into the system during the procedure. Although rare, iatrogenic embolization of the introducer probably occurred during use of the guidewire. The guidewire introducer was successfully retrieved without complication by using a standard carotid cutdown approach. It is extraordinarily unusual for an extracorporeal part of an implantable system to embolize to the carotid circulation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only reported case of an embolized guidewire introducer and the use of a carotid exposure to retrieve an intraluminal foreign body. This case demonstrates that a carotid cutdown approach can be used successfully for the retrieval of intraluminal extracranial carotid artery foreign bodies. PMID:24926651
Meyers, Joshua E; Sorkin, Grant C; Shakir, Hakeem J; Snyder, Kenneth V
Surgical repair of the mitral valve is preferred in most cases over valve replacement, but replacement is often performed instead due to the technical difficulty of repair. A surgical planning system based on patient-specific medical images that allows surgeons to simulate and compare potential repair strategies could greatly improve surgical outcomes. In such a surgical simulator, the mathematical model of mechanics used to close the valve must be able to compute the closed state quickly and to handle the complex boundary conditions imposed by the chords that tether the valve leaflets. We have developed a system for generating a triangulated mesh of the valve surface from volumetric image data of the opened valve. We then compute the closed position of the mesh using a mass-spring model of dynamics. The triangulated mesh is produced by fitting an isosurface to the volumetric image data, and boundary conditions, including the valve annulus and chord endpoints, are identified in the image data using a graphical user interface. In the mass-spring model, triangle sides are treated as linear springs, and sides shared by two triangles are treated as bending springs. Chords are treated as nonlinear springs, and self-collisions are detected and resolved. Equations of motion are solved using implicit numerical integration. Accuracy was assessed by comparison of model results with an image of the same valve taken in the closed state. The model exhibited rapid valve closure and was able to reproduce important features of the closed valve.
Hammer, Peter E.; Perrin, Douglas P.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Howe, Robert D.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). Evidence to date suggests that these disorders display defects in synaptic organization and plasticity. A hallmark of the pathology in RTT has been identified as decreased dendritic arborization, which has been interpreted to represent abnormal dendritic formation and pruning during development. Our previous studies revealed that olfactory axons display defective pathfinding and targeting in the setting of Mecp2 mutation. In the present work, we use Mecp2 mutant mouse models and the olfactory system to investigate dendritic development. Here, we demonstrate that mitral cell dendritic development proceeds normally in mutant mice, resulting in typical dendritic morphology at early postnatal ages. We also failed to detect abnormalities in dendritic inputs at symptomatic stages when glomeruli from mutant mice appear smaller in area than the wild type (WT) (6 weeks postnatally). Collectively, these findings suggest that the initial defects in glomeruli impairment seen with Mecp2 mutation do not result from abnormal dendritic development. Our results using the olfactory system indicate that dendritic abnormalities are not an early feature in the abnormalities incurred by Mecp2 mutation. PMID:22138506
Palmer, A M; Degano, A L; Park, M J; Ramamurthy, S; Ronnett, G V