Science.gov

Sample records for mixed galaxy mergers

  1. Witnessing Gas Mixing in the Metal Distribution during a Galaxy Merger.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    I will present direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of gas being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. In focusing on the emission line gas, this is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances, while in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region. This nearby system involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies.

  2. WHERE DO WET, DRY, AND MIXED GALAXY MERGERS OCCUR? A STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTS OF CLOSE GALAXY PAIRS IN THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lihwai; Cooper, Michael C.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Jian, Hung-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong; Koo, David C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Croton, Darren J.; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-08-01

    We study the environments of wet, dry, and mixed galaxy mergers at 0.75 < z < 1.2 using close pairs in the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. We find that the typical environment of dry and mixed merger candidates is denser than that of wet mergers, mostly due to the color-density relation. While the galaxy companion rate (N{sub c}) is observed to increase with overdensity, using N-body simulations, we find that the fraction of pairs that will eventually merge decreases with the local density, predominantly because interlopers are more common in dense environments. After taking into account the merger probability of pairs as a function of local density, we find only marginal environment dependence of the galaxy merger rate for wet mergers. On the other hand, the dry and mixed merger rates increase rapidly with local density due to the increased population of red galaxies in dense environments, implying that the dry and mixed mergers are most effective in overdense regions. We also find that the environment distribution of K+A galaxies is similar to that of wet mergers alone and of wet+mixed mergers, suggesting a possible connection between K+A galaxies and wet and/or wet+mixed mergers. Based on our results, we therefore expect that the properties, including structures and masses, of red-sequence galaxies should be different between those in underdense regions and those in overdense regions since the dry mergers are significantly more important in dense environments. We conclude that, as early as z {approx} 1, high-density regions are the preferred environment in which dry mergers occur, and that present-day red-sequence galaxies in overdense environments have, on average, undergone 1.2 {+-} 0.3 dry mergers since this time, accounting for (38 {+-} 10)% of their mass accretion in the last 8 billion years. The main uncertainty in this finding is the conversion from the pair fraction to the galaxy merger rate, which is possibly as large as a factor of 2. Our findings

  3. Induced population gradients in galaxy merger remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical models to investigate the nature of induced population gradients in merger remnants. As noted by White, we find that the population mixing in stellar-dynamical mergers is rather moderate, leading to metallicity gradients in the remnant that are closely tied to gradients in the progenitor galaxies. Furthermore, the resultant metallicity gradients are poorly fitted by power laws, showing significant nonlinearities within an effective radius. If constant metallicity bulges are added to the progenitor disks, the strong relation between final and initial metallicity gradients is diluted, but the final gradients are still not well fitted by power laws. Detailed studies of the shape of the metallicity gradients in elliptical galaxies should help determine the degree to which stellar-dynamical mergers have contributed to the population of present-day ellipticals. We also consider the effects of centrally concentrated starbursts on metallicity gradients. Using simple models for metallicity enhancement, we find that addition of a metal-rich starburst population can reproduce the magnitude and shape of metallicity gradients observed in elliptical galaxies. However, even in such cases the metallicity gradients in the merger remnant should steepen significantly beyond an effective radius. Modelling such merger-induced starbursts with population synthesis techniques, we find that if the starburst is characterized by solar metallicity, it should be detectable as a bluing of the nuclear regions for several Gyr. However, if the starburst is metal-rich, the reddening effects of higher metallicity makes the broad-band signature of the starburst much more difficult to detect.

  4. Orbital dynamics in galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Loren

    In the favored vacuum energy + cold dark matter (ACDM) cosmology, galaxies form through a hierarchical merging process. Mergers between comparable-mass sys tems are qualitatively different from the ongoing accretion of small objects by much larger ones, in that they can radically transform the nature of the merging objects, e.g. through violent relaxation of the stars and dark matter, triggered starbursts, and quasar activity. This thesis covers two phenomena unique to major galaxy mergers: the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and triple systems, and the transformation of the stellar orbit structure through violent relaxation, triggered gas inflow, and star formation. In a major merger, the SMBHs can spiral in and form a bound binary in less than a Hubble time. If the binary lifetime exceeds the typical time between mergers, then triple black hole (BH) systems may form. We study the statistics of close triple-SMBH encounters in galactic nuclei by computing a series of three-body orbits with physically-motivated initial conditions appropriate for giant elliptical galaxies. Our simulations include a smooth background potential consisting of a stellar bulge plus a dark matter halo, drag forces due to gravitational radiation and dynamical friction on the stars and dark matter, and a simple model of the time evolution of the inner density profile under heating and mass ejection by the SMBHs. We find that the binary pair coalesces as a result of repeated close encounters in ~85% of our runs. In about 40% of the runs the lightest BH is left wandering through the galactic halo or escapes the galaxy altogether. The triple systems typically scour out cores with mass deficits ~1-2 times their total mass. The high coalescence rate and prevalence of very high-eccentricity orbits could provide interesting signals for the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Our study of remnant orbit structure involved 42 disk-disk mergers at various gas fractions

  5. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  6. Intermediate-age globular clusters in four galaxy merger remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Trancho, Gelys; Miller, Bryan W.; Schweizer, François; Burdett, Daniel P.; Palamara, David

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of combining Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry with ground-based K{sub s} -band photometry from the Gemini imagers NIRI and FLAMINGOS-I to study the globular cluster (GC) populations in four early-type galaxies that are candidate remnants of recent mergers (NGC 1700, NGC 2865, NGC 4382, and NGC 7727). These galaxies were chosen based on their blue colors and fine structure, such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We fit the combined VIK{sub s} GC data with simple toy models of mixed cluster populations that contain three subpopulations of different age and metallicity. The fits, done via chi-squared mapping of the parameter space, yield clear evidence for the presence of intermediate-age clusters in each galaxy. We find that the ages of ∼1-2 Gyr for these GC subpopulations are consistent with the previously estimated merger ages for the host galaxies.

  7. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. DYNAMICAL MODELING OF GALAXY MERGERS USING IDENTIKIT

    SciTech Connect

    Privon, G. C.; Evans, A. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Hibbard, J. E.; Yun, M. S.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.

    2013-07-10

    We present dynamical models of four interacting systems: NGC 5257/8, The Mice, the Antennae, and NGC 2623. The parameter space of the encounters are constrained using the Identikit model-matching and visualization tool. Identikit utilizes hybrid N-body and test particle simulations to enable rapid exploration of the parameter space of galaxy mergers. The Identikit-derived matches of these systems are reproduced with self-consistent collisionless simulations which show very similar results. The models generally reproduce the observed morphology and H I kinematics of the tidal tails in these systems with reasonable properties inferred for the progenitor galaxies. The models presented here are the first to appear in the literature for NGC 5257/8 and NGC 2623, and The Mice and the Antennae are compared with previously published models. Based on the assumed mass model and our derived initial conditions, the models indicate that the four systems are currently being viewed 175-260 Myr after first passage and cover a wide range of merger stages. In some instances there are mismatches between the models and the data (e.g., in the length of a tail); these are likely due to our adoption of a single mass model for all galaxies. Despite the use of a single mass model, these results demonstrate the utility of Identikit in constraining the parameter space for galaxy mergers when applied to real data.

  9. GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION IN GALAXY MERGERS: A STABILITY CRITERION

    SciTech Connect

    Escala, Andres; Becerra, Fernando; Del Valle, Luciano; Castillo, Esteban

    2013-01-20

    We study the gravitational stability of gaseous streams in the complex environment of a galaxy merger, because mergers are known to be places of ongoing massive cluster formation and bursts of star formation. We find an analytic stability parameter for the case of gaseous streams orbiting around the merger remnant. We test our stability criterion using hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers and obtain satisfactory results. We find that our criterion successfully predicts the streams that will be gravitationally unstable to fragmentation into clumps.

  10. MOST SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES ARE MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.; Tacconi, L. J.; Davies, R. I.; Genzel, R.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Smail, I.; Chapman, S. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Omont, A.

    2010-11-20

    We analyze subarcsecond resolution interferometric CO line data for 12 submillimeter-luminous (S{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} {>=} 5 mJy) galaxies with redshifts between 1 and 3, presenting new data for 4 of them. Morphologically and kinematically, most of the 12 systems appear to be major mergers. Five of them are well-resolved binary systems, and seven are compact or poorly resolved. Of the four binary systems for which mass measurements for both separate components can be made, all have mass ratios of 1:3 or closer. Furthermore, comparison of the ratio of compact to binary systems with that observed in local ULIRGs indicates that at least a significant fraction of the compact submillimeter-luminous galaxies (SMGs) must also be late-stage mergers. In addition, the dynamical and gas masses we derive are most consistent with the lower end of the range of stellar masses published for these systems, favoring cosmological models in which SMGs result from mergers. These results all point to the same conclusion that most of the bright SMGs with L{sub IR} {approx}> 5 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun} are likely major mergers.

  11. Galaxy Merger Identification in the CANDELS GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Erin M.; Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed a catalog of 7,628 galaxies at 0galaxy mergers and interactions. Mergers are believed to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Developing methods to robustly and efficiently identify mergers becomes vital as we look to higher redshifts. We explored merger identification based on visual morphology classification and preliminary attempts with automated methods. Using multiple detailed visual morphology classifications for each galaxy conducted by the CANDELS structure and morphology team, we created selection criteria to identify mergers from this visual classification catalog. We chose galaxies with high interaction classification and evidence of merger signatures (i.e. tidal features, double nuclei) to generate a catalog of 1051 galaxies we are confident are mergers. This represents a conservative sample of possible mergers. For comparison, we also tested automated merger identification techniques previously used for lower redshift (z<1) galaxies. This is one of the first large investigations of galaxy mergers at z>1. O’Leary was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  12. HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

  13. Galaxy mergers and gravitational lens statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rix, Hans-Walter; Maoz, Dan; Turner, Edwin L.; Fukugita, Masataka

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the impact of hierarchical galaxy merging on the statistics of gravitational lensing of distant sources. Since no definite theoretical predictions for the merging history of luminous galaxies exist, we adopt a parameterized prescription, which allows us to adjust the expected number of pieces comprising a typical present galaxy at z approximately 0.65. The existence of global parameter relations for elliptical galaxies and constraints on the evolution of the phase space density in dissipationless mergers, allow us to limit the possible evolution of galaxy lens properties under merging. We draw two lessons from implementing this lens evolution into statistical lens calculations: (1) The total optical depth to multiple imaging (e.g., of quasars) is quite insensitive to merging. (2) Merging leads to a smaller mean separation of observed multiple images. Because merging does not reduce drastically the expected lensing frequency, it cannot make lambda-dominated cosmologies compatible with the existing lensing observations. A comparison with the data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot Survey shows that models with little or no evolution of the lens population are statistically favored over strong merging scenarios. A specific merging scenario proposed to Toomre can be rejected (95% level) by such a comparison. Some versions of the scenario proposed by Broadhurst, Ellis, & Glazebrook are statistically acceptable.

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at http://data.galaxyzoo.org/mergers.html. Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced star formation is triggered very soon after closest approach.

  15. Stellar velocity dispersion in dissipative galaxy mergers with star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stickley, Nathaniel R.; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    In order to better understand stellar dynamics in merging systems, such as NGC 6240, we examine the evolution of central stellar velocity dispersion (σ{sub *}) in dissipative galaxy mergers using a suite of binary disk merger simulations that include feedback from stellar formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that σ{sub *} undergoes the same general stages of evolution that were observed in our previous dissipationless simulations: coherent oscillation, then phase mixing, followed by dynamical equilibrium. We also find that measurements of σ{sub *} that are based only upon the youngest stars in simulations consistently yield lower values than measurements based upon the total stellar population. This finding appears to be consistent with the so-called 'σ{sub *} discrepancy', observed in real galaxies. We note that quasar-level AGN activity is much more likely to occur when σ{sub *} is near its equilibrium value rather than during periods of extreme σ{sub *}. Finally, we provide estimates of the scatter inherent in measuring σ{sub *} in ongoing mergers.

  16. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (∼72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler–Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  17. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (˜72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler–Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  18. Minor mergers: fundamental but unexplored drivers of galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata

    We use the SDSS Stripe 82 to study the stellar-mass growth that is triggered by minor mergers in local disk galaxies. Since major mergers destroy disks and create spheroids, morphologically disturbed spirals are likely remnants of minor mergers (since the disk remains intact). Disturbed spirals exhibit enhanced specific star formation rates (SSFRs), with the enhancement increasing in galaxies with `later' morphological type (that have larger gas reservoirs and smaller bulges). By combining the SSFR enhancements with the fraction of time spirals in various morphological classes spend in this `enhanced' mode, we estimate that ~40% of the star formation activity in local spirals is directly triggered by minor mergers. Combining our results with the star formation in local early-type galaxies - which is almost completely driven by minor mergers - suggests that around half the star formation activity at the present day is likely to be triggered by the minor-merger process.

  19. MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS IN THE COSMOS FIELD-MASS-DEPENDENT MERGER RATE EVOLUTION SINCE z = 1

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C. Kevin; Zhao, Yinghe; Gao, Y.; Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Drory, N.

    2012-03-10

    We present results of a statistical study of the cosmic evolution of the mass-dependent major-merger rate since z = 1. A stellar mass limited sample of close major-merger pairs (the CPAIR sample) was selected from the archive of the COSMOS survey. Pair fractions at different redshifts derived using the CPAIR sample and a local K-band-selected pair sample show no significant variations with stellar mass. The pair fraction exhibits moderately strong cosmic evolution, with the best-fitting function of f{sub pair} = 10{sup -1.88({+-}0.03)}(1 + z){sup 2.2({+-}0.2)}. The best-fitting function for the merger rate is R{sub mg} (Gyr{sup -1}) = 0.053 Multiplication-Sign (M{sub star}/10{sup 10.7} M{sub Sun} ){sup 0.3}(1 + z){sup 2.2}/(1 + z/8). This rate implies that galaxies of M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11.5} M{sub Sun} have undergone {approx}0.5-1.5 major mergers since z = 1. Our results show that, for massive galaxies (M{sub star} {>=} 10{sup 10.5} M{sub Sun }) at z {<=} 1, major mergers involving star-forming galaxies (i.e., wet and mixed mergers) can account for the formation of both ellipticals and red quiescent galaxies (RQGs). On the other hand, major mergers cannot be responsible for the formation of most low mass ellipticals and RQGs of M{sub star} {approx}< 10{sup 10.3} M{sub Sun }. Our quantitative estimates indicate that major mergers have significant impact on the stellar mass assembly of the most massive galaxies (M{sub star} {>=} 10{sup 11.3} M{sub Sun }), but for less massive galaxies the stellar mass assembly is dominated by the star formation. Comparison with the mass-dependent (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRG) rates suggests that the frequency of major-merger events is comparable to or higher than that of (U)LIRGs.

  20. The Merger-Free Co-Evolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2016-06-01

    Calm, "secular" accretion and evolutionary processes, once thought to be relegated to the sidelines of galaxy evolution, are now understood to play a significant role in the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies. Most galaxies are formed and evolve via a mix of secular-driven evolution and more violent processes like strong disk instabilities and galaxy mergers; this makes isolating the effects of secular evolution in galaxies very difficult. Massive pure disk galaxies, lacking the classical or "pseudo" bulge components that arise naturally from mergers and disk instabilities (respectively), are a unique opportunity to study galaxy evolution in the absence of violent processes. Previous studies have disagreed on whether the black hole-galaxy mass correlation is driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions or something more fundamental. Here we present new evidence using a statistically significant sample of AGN hosted in bulgeless disk galaxies at z < 0.2 to constrain black hole-galaxy co-evolution in the absence of mergers.

  1. The nature of the evolution of galaxies by mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1993-01-01

    The merger theory for the formation of elliptical galaxies is examined by conducting a dynamical study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies on the basis of the collisional theory, using galaxy models without halos. The expected merger rates obtained on the basis of the collisional theory fall about a magnitude below the observational value in the present epoch. In the light of current observational evidence and the results obtained, a marked regularity in the formation of ellipticals is indicated, followed by secular evolution by mergers.

  2. The Effect of Mergers on Galaxy Cluster Mass Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John A.; Thorsen, Tessa; Hinds, Andre

    2015-08-01

    At vertices within the filamentary structure that describes the universal matter distribution, clusters of galaxies grow hierarchically through merging with other clusters. As such, the most massive galaxy clusters should have experienced many such mergers in their histories. Though we cannot see them evolve over time, these mergers leave lasting, measurable effects in the cluster galaxies' phase space. By simulating several different galaxy cluster mergers here, we examine how the cluster galaxies kinematics are altered as a result of these mergers. Further, we also examine the effect of our line of sight viewing angle with respect to the merger axis. In projecting the 6-dimensional galaxy phase space onto a 3-dimensional plane, we are able to simulate how these clusters might actually appear to optical redshift surveys. We find that for those optical cluster statistics which are most often used as a proxy for the cluster mass (variants of σv), the uncertainty due to an inprecise or unknown line of sight may alter the derived cluster masses moreso than the kinematic disturbance of the merger itself. Finally, by examining these, and several other clustering statistics, we find that significant events (such as pericentric crossings) are identifiable over a range of merger initial conditions and from many different lines of sight.

  3. Radio Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters: Feedback, Merger Signatures, and Signposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Randall, Scott W.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Ashby, Matthew; Brodwin, Mark; Bulbul, Esra; Clarke, Tracy E.; Golden-Marx, Emmet; Johnson, Ryan; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Wing, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Extended, double-lobed radio sources are often located in rich galaxy clusters. I will present results of an optical and X-ray analysis of two nearby clusters with such radio sources - one of the clusters is relaxed (A2029) and one of the clusters is undergoing a merger (A98). Because of their association with clusters, extended radio sources can be used to locate clusters at a wide range of distances. The number of spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters with is very low compared to the number of well-studied low-redshift clusters. In the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) survey, we use bent, double-lobed radio sources as signposts to efficiently locate high-redshift clusters. Using a Spitzer Snapshot Survey of our sample of 653 bent, double-lobed radio sources (selected from the FIRST survey and with galaxy hosts too faint to be detected in the SDSS), we have the potential to identify approximately 400 new clusters and groups with redshifts. I will present results from the Spitzer observations regarding the efficiency of the method for finding new clusters. These newly identified clusters will be used to study galaxy formation and evolution, as well as the effect that feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) has on galaxies and their environments.

  4. Gas Accretion and Mergers in Massive Galaxies at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conselice, C. J.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Mortlock, Alice; Bluck, Asa F. L.

    2013-07-01

    Galaxy assembly is an unsolved problem, with ΛCDM theoretical models unable to easily account for among other things, the abundances of massive galaxies, and the observed merger history. We show here how the problem of galaxy formation can be addressed in an empirical way without recourse to models. We discuss how galaxy assembly occurs at 1.5 < z < 3 examining the role of major and minor mergers, and gas accretion from the intergalactic medium in forming massive galaxies with log M* > 11 found within the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS). We find that major mergers, minor mergers and gas accretion are roughly equally important in the galaxy formation process during this epoch, with 64% of the mass assembled through merging and 36% through accreted gas which is later converted to stars, while 58% of all new star formation during this epoch arises from gas accretion. We also discuss how the total gas accretion rate is measured as Ṁ = 90+/-40 M⊙ yr-1 at this epoch, a value close to those found in some hydrodynamical simulations.

  5. The relative role of galaxy mergers and cosmic flows in feeding black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellovary, Jillian; Brooks, Alyson; Volonteri, Marta; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James

    2013-12-20

    Using a set of zoomed-in cosmological simulations of high-redshift progenitors of massive galaxies, we isolate and trace the history of gas that is accreted by central supermassive black holes. We determine the origins of the accreted gas, in terms of whether it entered the galaxy during a merger event or was smoothly accreted. Furthermore, we designate whether the smoothly accreted gas is accreted via a cold flow or is shocked upon entry into the halo. For moderate-mass (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}) black holes at z ∼ 4, there is a preference to accrete cold flow gas as opposed to gas of shocked or merger origin. However, this result is a consequence of the fact that the entire galaxy has a higher fraction of gas from cold flows. In general, each black hole tends to accrete the same fractions of smooth- and merger-accreted gas as is contained in its host galaxy, suggesting that once gas enters a halo it becomes well-mixed, and its origins are erased. We find that the angular momentum of the gas upon halo entry is a more important factor; black holes preferentially accrete gas that had low angular momentum when it entered the galaxy, regardless of whether it was accreted smoothly or through mergers.

  6. Angular momenta, dynamical masses, and mergers of brightest cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J.; Sharp, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} < M {sub dyn} < 10{sup 11.9} M {sub ☉}) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ {sub Re} parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS{sup 3D} criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ {sub Re} = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M {sub dyn} ∼ 11.5 M {sub ☉}, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G – M {sub 20} selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging.

  7. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx < 1.1 10(exp 22)/sq cm) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (< 40 counts per nucleus; (sub -10) keV approx < 1.2 10(exp -13) erg/s/sq cm) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  8. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lintott, Chris J.; Oh, Kyuseok; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-07-10

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N{sub H} {approx}< 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40 counts per nucleus; f{sub 2-10keV} {approx}< 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  9. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schwainski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10(sup 11) solar mass that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) less than or approximately 1.1 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (less than 40 counts per nucleus; f(sub 2-10 keV) less than or approximately 1.2 x 10(exp -13) ergs per second per square centimeter) to separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  10. Using Morphology to Identify Galaxy Mergers at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancato, Kirsten; Kartaltepe, J. S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a set of 22,003 galaxies in three of the five CANDELS fields: COSMOS, UDS, and GOODS-S, in order to determine how well automated image statistics did with classifying galaxy morphology and mergers at high redshifts (z > 1). For each galaxy in our set, we have multi-wavelength data, photometric redshifts from SED fitting, visual classifications from the CANDELS structure and morphology group, and automated image statistics. The redshifts of our sample range from z = .01 to 4 with = 1.33. We constructed a conservative set of 1,914 galaxies that we believe to be mergers and interactions. Of this set of merging galaxies, 1,343 were at a redshift greater than z = 1. We also identified a conservative set of 535 spheroids and a set of 2,902 disks. Several different quantitative methods were then used to attempt an automated classification of these visually classified samples. Of the different image statistics, we found M20 and Gini to be the most successful at picking out high redshift mergers and morphological characteristics. Blancato was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  11. Growth of Supermassive Black Holes, Galaxy Mergers, and Binary SMBHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komossa, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy mergers are the sites of major black hole growth. They power luminous quasars, and form supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) at their centers. Coalescing binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe. Studying the early and advanced stages galaxy merging, and the onset of accretion onto one or both BHs, informs us about feedback processes, and the origin of the scaling relations between SMBHs and their host galaxies. During gas-rich and gas-poor mergers, the initial conditions are set which later determine the amplitude of GW recoil. Identification of the compact SMBBHs, at parsec and sub-parsec scales, provides us with important constraints on the interaction processes that govern the shrinkage of the binary beyond "the final parsec". Here, I give an overview of the status of observations, important open questions, and future surveys, with an emphasis on SMBBHs.

  12. The AGN Contribution to Galaxy Merger Infrared Luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Lee; Hayward, Christopher C.; Smith, Howard; Ashby, Matthew; Hung, Chao-Ling; Martinez-Galarza, Rafael; Weiner, Aaron; Zezas, Andreas; Lanz, Lauranne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of AGN activity to the infrared luminosity of interacting galaxies by analyzing dust radiative transfer calculations of a hydrodynamically simulated merger, created with the code GADGET-2. We focus on emission in the mid-IR to far-IR wavelength ranges, and trace the luminosity density of an interacting gas-rich galaxy pair throughout its evolution. We find that the AGN contribution to IR luminosity is greatest during and immediately after coalescence of the galaxies' central black holes. This period lasts roughly 80 Myr, during which time the increased influx of gas to the center of the merger increases the total luminosity by a factor of a thousand or more due to both increased star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion. We compare different interstellar medium models used to describe sub-resolution gas and dust clouds in the radiative transfer calculations by studying the color evolution of our merger in the Herschel Space Observatory photometric filter bands, and compare the results to Herschel observations. We conclude that using infrared luminosity as a simple surrogate for SFR can overestimate the true rate, due to the contribution of AGN or other dust heating mechanisms. This conclusion has an especially significant impact in assessing the star formation activity in high-redshift galaxies for which luminosity (the best measured property) may not accurately measure the SFR, and in cases where the molecular gas content can differ from that of local systems. Further work will extend this analysis to simulations of mergers between late-type galaxies. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851, by the Smithsonian Institution and by NASA grant NNX14AJ6IG.

  13. THE ROLE OF DRY MERGERS FOR THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ruszkowski, M.; Springel, V. E-mail: volker@map-garching.mpg.de

    2009-05-10

    Using a resimulation technique, we perform high-resolution cosmological simulations of dry mergers in a massive (10{sup 15} M {sub sun}) galaxy cluster identified in the Millennium Run. Our initial conditions include well resolved compound galaxy models consisting of dark matter halos and stellar bulges that are used to replace the most massive cluster progenitor halos at redshift z = 3, allowing us to follow the subsequent dry merger processes that build up the cluster galaxies in a self-consistent cosmological setting. By construction, our galaxy models obey the stellar mass-size relation initially. Also, we study both galaxy models with adiabatically contracted and uncompressed halos. We demonstrate that the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) evolves away from the Kormendy relation as defined by the smaller mass galaxies (i.e., the relation bends). This is accompanied by a significantly faster dark matter mass growth within the half-light radius of the BCG compared to the increase in the stellar mass inside the same radius. As a result of the comparatively large number of mergers the BCG experiences, its total mass-to-light ratio becomes significantly higher than in typical elliptical galaxies. We also show that the mixing processes between dark matter and stars lead to a small but numerically robust tilt in the fundamental plane and that the BCG lies on the tilted plane. Our model is consistent with the observed steepening of the logarithmic mass-to-light gradient as a function of the stellar mass. As we have not included effects from gas dynamics or star formation, these trends are exclusively due to N-body and stellar dynamical effects. Surprisingly, we find only tentative weak distortion in the Faber-Jackson relation that depends on the aperture size, unlike expected based on studies of isolated merger simulations. This may be due to differences in the distribution of galaxy orbits, which is given in our approach directly by the cosmological context while it has

  14. Satellite dwarf galaxies in a hierarchical universe: the prevalence of dwarf-dwarf major mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Alis; Wetzel, Andrew; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2014-10-20

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ∼10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased toward larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger fraction doubles for dwarf galaxies outside of the host virial radius, so the most distant dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are the most likely to have experienced a recent major merger. We discuss the implications of these results on observable dwarf merger remnants, their star formation histories, the gas content of mergers, and massive black holes in dwarf galaxies.

  15. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Debattista, V. P.; Corsini, E. M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Historically, galaxy bulges were thought to be single-component objects at the center of galaxies. However, this picture is now questioned since different bulge types with different formation paths, namely classical and pseudobulges, have been found coexisting within the same galaxy. Aims: We study the incidence and nature of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. Methods: We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterized. Results: We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). Thus, we demonstrate the high incidence of composite bulges (70%) in barred galaxies. We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We denote as secular-built those composite bulges that are made up of structures associated with secular processes, such as pseudobulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built bulges are those where structures with different formation paths coexist within the same galaxy, i.e., a classical bulge coexisting with a secular-built structure (pseudobulge, central disk, or B/P). Three bulges of this kind were found in the sample. We notice the importance of detecting kinematic structures such as σ-drops to identify composite bulges. A high percentage (~80%) of galaxies were found to host σ-drops or σ-plateaus in our sample, revealing their high incidence in barred galaxies. Conclusions: The high frequency of composite bulges in barred galaxies points toward

  16. Evidence for Evolution in the Galaxy Merger Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Barbara E.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Burkey, Jordan M.; Keel, William C.

    1993-12-01

    We use a set of four deep Cycle 1+2 fields with the HST Wide-Field Camera to constrain the rate of galaxy merging between the current epoch and approximately z=0.7. These fields were selected around weak radio sources not in rich or poor clusters so as to not bias these studies. Since most mergers occur between members of bound pairs, the merger rate is given by (half) the rate of disappearance of galaxy pairs. Using an objective criterion for pair membership, we find that more than 34% of galaxies in the magnitude range I=18-22 mag belong to pairs, while careful study of nearby comparison samples shows that only 7% of local galaxies belong to pairs. Hence, about 13% of the galaxy population has disappeared to merging in the cosmic epoch corresponding to this magnitude interval (or 0.1<= z<=0.7). This pair fraction is a lower limit, since correction for pairs in which one member falls below our detection threshold would raise the fraction of pair members with I=18---22 mag to about 50%. (we do not include physical system of higher multiplicity in these values). Hence, the number of galaxy pairs has dropped significantly between z ~ 0.7 and the current epoch. When using the best available I-band field galaxy redshift distributions, the HST pair-fraction grows with redshift as ~ (1+z)(3.0-3.5) , quite consistent with the expected evolution in the merger-rate from the decrease in comoving volume (~ (1+z)(3) ). This result has very significant implications for the interpretation of the ground-based galaxy counts (it explains the disappearance of faint blue galaxies), the cosmological evolution of faint radio sources and quasars (explains why these should indeed evolve as ~ (1+z)(3) ), the statistics of QSO companions, the galaxy content in distant clusters, and the merging history of a ``typical" galaxy. This work was supported by STScI grants GO-2405.*-87A and GO-3545.*-91A (to WCK and RAW) and in part through EPSCoR grant EHR-9108761 (to WCK).

  17. Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers. Bulge-disc structural coupling resulting from major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querejeta, M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Borlaff, A.; Rodríguez-Pérez, C.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Observations reveal a strong structural coupling between bulge and disc in S0 galaxies, which seems difficult to explain if they have formed from supposedly catastrophic events such as major mergers. Aims: We face this question by quantifying the bulge-disc coupling in dissipative simulations of major and minor mergers that result in realistic S0s. Methods: We have studied the dissipative N-body binary merger simulations from the GalMer database that give rise to realistic, relaxed E/S0 and S0 remnants (67 major and 29 minor mergers). We simulate surface brightness profiles of these S0-like remnants in the K band, mimicking typical observational conditions, to perform bulge-disc decompositions analogous to those carried out in real S0s. Additional components have been included when needed. The global bulge-disc structure of these remnants has been compared with real data. Results: The S0-like remnants distribute in the B/T - re - hd parameter space consistently with real bright S0s, where B/T is the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio, re is the bulge effective radius, and hd is the disc scalelength. Major mergers can rebuild a bulge-disc coupling in the remnants after having destroyed the structures of the progenitors, whereas minor mergers directly preserve them. Remnants exhibit B/T and re/hd spanning a wide range of values, and their distribution is consistent with observations. Many remnants have bulge Sérsic indices ranging 1 mergers (and in particular, major events) can result in S0 remnants with realistically coupled bulge-disc structures in less than ~3 Gyr. The bulge-disc coupling and the presence of pseudobulges in real S0s cannot be used as an argument against the possible major-merger origin of these galaxies. Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Sussing merger trees: the impact of halo merger trees on galaxy properties in a semi-analytic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Thomas, Peter A.; Pearce, Frazer R.; Behroozi, Peter; Han, Jiaxin; Helly, John; Jung, Intae; Knebe, Alexander; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Onions, Julian; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Schneider, Aurel; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Tweed, Dylan

    2014-12-01

    A halo merger tree forms the essential backbone of a semi-analytic model for galaxy formation and evolution. Recent studies have pointed out that extracting merger trees from numerical simulations of structure formation is non-trivial; different tree building algorithms can give differing merger histories. These differences should be carefully understood before merger trees are used as input for models of galaxy formation. We investigate the impact of different halo merger trees on a semi-analytic model. We find that the z = 0 galaxy properties in our model show differences between trees when using a common parameter set. The star formation history of the universe and the properties of satellite galaxies can show marked differences between trees with different construction methods. Independently calibrating the semi-analytic model for each tree can reduce the discrepancies between the z = 0 global galaxy properties, at the cost of increasing the differences in the evolutionary histories of galaxies. Furthermore, the underlying physics implied can vary, resulting in key quantities such as the supernova feedback efficiency differing by factors of 2. Such a change alters the regimes where star formation is primarily suppressed by supernovae. Therefore, halo merger trees extracted from a common halo catalogue using different, but reliable, algorithms can result in a difference in the semi-analytic model. Given the uncertainties in galaxy formation physics, however, these differences may not necessarily be viewed as significant.

  19. A numerical simulation of galaxy subcluster mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Loken, Chris

    1993-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a 3-D numerical simulation of two merging subclusters of galaxies. By self-consistently modelling the intracluster gas and dark matter dynamics, we hope to gain insight as to how the dynamics of both relate to such observables as the cluster x-ray emission, radio source morphology, and velocity dispersions.

  20. Sussing Merger Trees: The Impact of Halo Merger Trees on Galaxy Properties in a Semi-Analytic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    Halo merger trees are essential backbones of a semi-analytic model for galaxy formation and evolution. Recent studies have pointed out that extracting merger trees from numerical simulations of structure formation using different tree building algorithms can give differing merger histories. To understand the uncertainties developed from these differences in galaxy formation models, we investigate the impact of different halo merger trees on galaxy properties in a semi-analytic model. We find that the galaxy properties in our model differ between trees when using a common parameter set. The star formation history and the number density of galaxies show marked differences between trees with different construction algorithms. The semi-analytic model can be calibrated for each tree to reduce the discrepancies between the z=0 global galaxy properties, at the cost of increasing the differences in the evolutionary histories of galaxies. The calibration is carries out by adjusting key quantities such as the supernova feedback efficiency differing by factor of 2. Such a change affects the regimes where star formation is primarily suppressed by supernovae. Therefore, halo merger trees extracted from a common halo catalogue using different, but reliable, algorithms can result in a difference in the semi-analytic model. Given the uncertainties in galaxy formation physics, however, these differences may not be viewed as significant.

  1. FORMATION OF DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES VIA MERGERS OF DISKY DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Lokas, Ewa L.; Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Mayer, Lucio; Knebe, Alexander

    2011-10-10

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate whether binary mergers between rotationally supported dwarfs can lead to the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Our simulation campaign is based on a hybrid approach combining cosmological simulations and controlled numerical experiments. We select merger events from a Constrained Local Universe simulation of the Local Group (LG) and record the properties of the interacting dwarf-sized halos. This information is subsequently used to seed controlled experiments of binary encounters between dwarf galaxies consisting of exponential stellar disks embedded in cosmologically motivated dark matter halos. These simulations are designed to reproduce eight cosmological merger events, with initial masses of the interacting systems in the range {approx}(5-60) x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, occurring quite early in the history of the LG, more than 10 Gyr ago. We compute the properties of the merger remnants as a distant observer would and demonstrate that at least three of the simulated encounters produce systems with kinematic and structural properties akin to those of the classic dSphs in the LG. Tracing the history of the remnants in the cosmological simulation to z = 0, we find that two dSph-like objects remain isolated at distances {approx}> 800 kpc from either the Milky Way or M31. These systems constitute plausible counterparts of the remote dSphs Cetus and Tucana which reside in the LG outskirts, far from the tidal influence of the primary galaxies. We conclude that merging of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of dSphs in the LG and similar environments.

  2. The Influence of Cluster Mergers on Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Bouy, H.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Richard, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.

    2016-06-01

    The rich environment of galaxy clusters is understood to have a profound effect on the evolution of constituent galaxies. However, even clusters of a similar mass and at fixed redshift are not homogeneous, displaying a range in structural complexity. Here we concentrate on the effect of cluster merging, the most massive dynamic process in the Universe. Two spectacular cluster mergers at z~0.3 are explored: the archetypal Bullet cluster (1E0657-558; Rawle et al. 2012), and the HST Frontier Field, Pandora's cluster (Abell 2744; Rawle et al. 2014, 2016). We present detailed analysis of their total star formation, derived from multi-wavelength observations of both dusty and unobscured activity from Herschel, Spitzer, WISE and GALEX. Examination of the morphologies of individual cluster galaxies reveals striking evidence for transformation and enhanced star formation, triggered by the merger-induced shock front. This includes several galaxies identified as having "jellyfish" morphologies caused by the passing shock. We discuss the implications, and preview future work exploring a large sample of clusters covering a range of dynamic states and redshifts.

  3. Merger Histories of Galaxy Halos and Implications for Disk Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2008-05-16

    The authors study the merger histories of galaxy dark matter halos using a high resolution {Lambda}CDM N-body simulation. The merger trees follow {approx} 17,000 halos with masses M{sub 0} = (10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13})h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and track accretion events involving objects as small as m {approx_equal} 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}. They find that mass assembly is remarkably self-similar in m/M{sub 0}, and dominated by mergers that are {approx}10% of the final halo mass. While very large mergers, m {approx}> 0.4 M{sub 0}, are quite rare, sizeable accretion events, m {approx} 0.1 M{sub 0}, are common. Over the last {approx} 10 Gyr, an overwhelming majority ({approx} 95%) of Milky Way-sized halos with M{sub 0} = 10{sup 12} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} have accreted at least one object with greater total mass than the Milky Way disk (m > 5 x 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}), and approximately 70% have accreted an object with more than twice that mass (m > 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}). The results raise serious concerns about the survival of thin-disk dominated galaxies within the current paradigm for galaxy formation in a {Lambda}CDM universe. in order to achieve a {approx} 70% disk-dominated fraction in Milky Way-sized {Lambda}CDM halos, mergers involving m {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} objects must not destroy disks. Considering that most thick disks and bulges contain old stellar populations, the situation is even more restrictive: these mergers must not heat disks or drive gas into their centers to create young bulges.

  4. Dynamical analysis of galaxy cluster merger Abell 2146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. A.; Canning, R. E. A.; King, L. J.; Lee, B. E.; Russell, H. R.; Baum, S. A.; Clowe, D. I.; Coleman, J. E.; Donahue, M.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Sanders, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a dynamical analysis of the merging galaxy cluster system Abell 2146 using spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope. As revealed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the system is undergoing a major merger and has a gas structure indicative of a recent first core passage. The system presents two large shock fronts, making it unique amongst these rare systems. The hot gas structure indicates that the merger axis must be close to the plane of the sky and that the two merging clusters are relatively close in mass, from the observation of two shock fronts. Using 63 spectroscopically determined cluster members, we apply various statistical tests to establish the presence of two distinct massive structures. With the caveat that the system has recently undergone a major merger, the virial mass estimate is M_vir= 8.5^{+4.3}_{-4.7} × 10^{14} M_{⊙} for the whole system, consistent with the mass determination in a previous study using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal. The newly calculated redshift for the system is z = 0.2323. A two-body dynamical model gives an angle of 13°-19° between the merger axis and the plane of the sky, and a time-scale after first core passage of ≈0.24-0.28 Gyr.

  5. The Driving Mechanism of Starbursts in Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, Romain; Chapon, Damien; Bournaud, Frédéric

    2010-09-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of a major merger of disk galaxies, and study the interstellar medium (ISM) dynamics and star formation (SF) properties. High spatial and mass resolutions of 12 pc and 4 × 104 M sun allow us to resolve cold and turbulent gas clouds embedded in a warmer diffuse phase. We compare lower-resolution models, where the multiphase ISM is not resolved and is modeled as a relatively homogeneous and stable medium. While merger-driven bursts of SF are generally attributed to large-scale gas inflows toward the nuclear regions, we show that once a realistic ISM is resolved, the dominant process is actually gas fragmentation into massive and dense clouds and rapid SF therein. As a consequence, SF is more efficient by a factor of up to ~10 and is also somewhat more extended, while the gas density probability distribution function rapidly evolves toward very high densities. We thus propose that the actual mechanism of starburst triggering in galaxy collisions can only be captured at high spatial resolution and when the cooling of gas is modeled down to less than 103 K. Not only does our model reproduce the properties of the Antennae system, but it also explains the "starburst mode" recently revealed in high-redshift mergers compared to quiescent disks.

  6. THE DRIVING MECHANISM OF STARBURSTS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Teyssier, Romain; Chapon, Damien; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-09-10

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of a major merger of disk galaxies, and study the interstellar medium (ISM) dynamics and star formation (SF) properties. High spatial and mass resolutions of 12 pc and 4 x 10{sup 4} M {sub sun} allow us to resolve cold and turbulent gas clouds embedded in a warmer diffuse phase. We compare lower-resolution models, where the multiphase ISM is not resolved and is modeled as a relatively homogeneous and stable medium. While merger-driven bursts of SF are generally attributed to large-scale gas inflows toward the nuclear regions, we show that once a realistic ISM is resolved, the dominant process is actually gas fragmentation into massive and dense clouds and rapid SF therein. As a consequence, SF is more efficient by a factor of up to {approx}10 and is also somewhat more extended, while the gas density probability distribution function rapidly evolves toward very high densities. We thus propose that the actual mechanism of starburst triggering in galaxy collisions can only be captured at high spatial resolution and when the cooling of gas is modeled down to less than 10{sup 3} K. Not only does our model reproduce the properties of the Antennae system, but it also explains the 'starburst mode' recently revealed in high-redshift mergers compared to quiescent disks.

  7. Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers. Antitruncated stellar discs resulting from major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borlaff, Alejandro; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Rodríguez-Pérez, Cristina; Querejeta, Miguel; Tapia, Trinidad; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús; Beckman, John

    2014-10-01

    Context. Lenticular galaxies (S0s) are more likely to host antitruncated (Type III) stellar discs than galaxies of later Hubble types. Major mergers are popularly considered too violent to make these breaks. Aims: We have investigated whether major mergers can result into S0-like remnants with realistic antitruncated stellar discs or not. Methods: We have analysed 67 relaxed S0 and E/S0 remnants resulting from dissipative N-body simulations of major mergers from the GalMer database. We have simulated realistic R-band surface brightness profiles of the remnants to identify those with antitruncated stellar discs. Their inner and outer discs and the breaks have been quantitatively characterized to compare with real data. Results: Nearly 70% of our S0-like remnants are antitruncated, meaning that major mergers that result in S0s have a high probability of producing Type III stellar discs. Our remnants lie on top of the extrapolations of the observational trends (towards brighter magnitudes and higher break radii) in several photometric diagrams, because of the higher luminosities and sizes of the simulations compared to observational samples. In scale-free photometric diagrams, simulations and observations overlap and the remnants reproduce the observational trends, so the physical mechanism after antitruncations is highly scalable. We have found novel photometric scaling relations between the characteristic parameters of the antitruncations in real S0s, which are also reproduced by our simulations. We show that the trends in all the photometric planes can be derived from three basic scaling relations that real and simulated Type III S0s fulfill: hi ∝ RbrkIII, ho ∝ RbrkIII, and μbrkIII ∝ RbrkIII, where hi and ho are the scalelengths of the inner and outer discs, and μbrkIII and RbrkIII are the surface brightness and radius of the breaks. Bars and antitruncations in real S0s are structurally unrelated phenomena according to the studied photometric planes

  8. Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers: The Formation of Red Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springel, Volker; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-02-01

    We use hydrodynamical simulations to study the color transformations induced by star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) during major mergers of spiral galaxies. Our modeling accounts for radiative cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback. Moreover, we include a treatment of accretion onto supermassive black holes embedded in the nuclei of the merging galaxies. We assume that a small fraction of the bolometric luminosity of an accreting black hole couples thermally to surrounding gas, providing a feedback mechanism that regulates its growth. The encounter and coalescence of the galaxies triggers nuclear gas inflow, which fuels both a powerful starburst and strong black hole accretion. Comparing simulations with and without black holes, we show that AGN feedback can quench star formation and accretion on a short timescale, particularly in large galaxies where the black holes can drive powerful winds once they become sufficiently massive. The color evolution of the remnant differs markedly between mergers with and without central black holes. Without AGNs, gas-rich mergers lead to elliptical galaxies that remain blue owing to residual star formation, even after more than 7 Gyr have elapsed. In contrast, mergers with black holes produce elliptical galaxies that redden much faster, an effect that is more pronounced in massive remnants where a nearly complete termination of star formation occurs, allowing them to redden to u-r~=2.3 in less than 1 Gyr. AGN feedback may thus be required to explain the population of extremely red massive early-type galaxies, and it appears to be an important driver in generating the observed bimodal color distribution of galaxies in the local universe.

  9. Feedback in simulations of disc-galaxy major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. J.; Jonsson, Patrik; Primack, Joel R.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2006-12-01

    Using hydrodynamic simulations of disc-galaxy major mergers, we investigate the star formation history and remnant properties when various parametrizations of a simple stellar feedback model are implemented. The simulations include radiative cooling, a density-dependent star formation recipe and a model for feedback from massive stars. The feedback model stores supernova feedback energy within individual gas particles and dissipates this energy on a time-scale specified by two free parameters; τfb, which sets the dissipative time-scale, and n, which sets the effective equation of state in star-forming regions. Via this model, feedback energy can provide pressure support to regions of gas that are thermally cold. Using a self-consistent disc galaxy, modelled after a local Sbc spiral, in both isolated and major-merger simulations, we investigate parametrizations of the feedback model that are selected with respect to the quiescent disc stability. These models produce a range of star formation histories for discs evolved in isolation, or during a major merger, yet all are consistent with the star formation relation found by Kennicutt. We suggest that this result is produced by the adopted recipe for star formation and is not a byproduct of the feedback model. All major mergers produce a population of new stars that is highly centrally concentrated, demonstrating a distinct break in the r1/4 surface density profile, consistent with previous findings. The half-mass radius and one-dimensional velocity dispersion are affected by the feedback model used. In tests with up to an order of magnitude higher resolution, the star formation history is nearly identical, suggesting that we have achieved a numerically converged star formation history. Finally, we compare our results to those of previous simulations of star formation in disc-galaxy major mergers, addressing the effects of star formation normalization, the version of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) employed and

  10. Galaxy pairs in deep HST images: Evidence for evolution in the galaxy merger rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkey, Jordan M.; Keel, William C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Franklin, Barbara E.

    1994-01-01

    We use four deep serendipitous fields observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera to constrain the rate of galaxy merging between the current epoch and z approximately equals 0.7. Since most mergers occur between members of bound pairs, the merger rate is given to a good approximation by (half) the rate of disappearance of galaxies in pairs. An objective criterion for pair membership shows that 34% +/- 9% of our HST galaxies with I = 18-22 belong to pairs, compared to 7% locally. This means that about 13% of the galaxy population has disappeared due to merging in the cosmic epoch corresponding to this magnitude interval (or 0.1 approximately less than z approximately less than 0.7). Our pair fraction is a lower limit: correction for pair members falling below our detection threshold might raise the fraction to approximately 50%. Since we address only two-galaxy merging, these values do not include physical systems of higher multiplicity. Incorporating I-band field-galaxy redshift distributions, the pair fraction grows with redshift as alpha(1 + z)(exp 3.5 +/- 0.5) and the merger rate as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 0.5). This may have significant implications for the interpretation of galaxy counts (disappearance of faint blue galaxies), the cosmological evolution of faint radio sources and quasars (which evolve approximately as (1 + z)(exp 3), the similarity in the power law is necessary but not sufficient evidence for a causal relation), statistics of QSO companions, the galaxy content in distant clusters, and the merging history of a 'typical' galaxy.

  11. Feeding a Leviathan: The Growth of Massive Red Galaxies Through Minor Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, Tomer

    Observations of massive red galaxies have demonstrated gradual evolution since z = 2, with stellar mass doubling and size quintupling in the last ten billion years. One possible mode for mass and size growth in such galaxies is through minor mergers, which are expected to increase the size of galaxies by the square of the growth in mass. In this thesis we present an analysis of the importance of minor mergers to the evolution of massive red galaxies in the nearby universe. We acquire and process large samples of galaxy observations to study minor mergers before, during and after the interaction takes place. We show that stellar tidal features are found around nearly all nearby ellipticals, suggesting that minor mergers are common. We calculate the implied mass evolution and show that it is in agreement with observations. We then study the faint outskirts of Luminous Red Galaxies by stacking more than 40,000 images and find that their color gradients are consistent with minor mergers and low mass galaxy accretion. In addition, we utilize statistical background subtraction techniques to measure the projected radial distribution of satellite galaxies around massive red galaxies. Our analysis shows that the most probable channel for mass growth in such galaxies is through mergers with significantly lower mass galaxies. Finally, the distribution of satellites around massive red galaxies is consistent with the minor merger model and suggests that most of the stellar mass in these halos is already locked in the central galaxy itself. In conclusion, we find that minor mergers likely play a significant role in the evolution of massive galaxies, even in the nearby universe.

  12. Scaling Relations in Dissipationless Spiral-Like Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, H.; Velázquez, H.; Cruz, F.

    2009-06-01

    We determine both representations of the Fundamental Plane [FP; R e vprop σ a 0langIrang-b e and R e vprop (σ2 0langIrang-1 e)λ] and the luminosity-effective phase-space density (L vprop f -γ e ) scaling relation for N-body remnants of binary mergers of spiral-like galaxies. The main set of merger simulations involves a mass ratio of the progenitors in the range of about 1:1 to 1:5, harboring or not a bulge-like component, and are constructed using a cosmological motivated model. Equal-mass mergers are also considered. Remnants lead to average values for the scaling indices of langarang ≈ 1.6, langbrang ≈ 0.6, langλrang ≈ 0.7, and langγrang ≈ 0.65. These values are consistent with those of K-band observations of ellipticals: langarang ≈ 1.5, langbrang ≈ 0.8, langλrang ≈ 0.7, and langγrang ≈ 0.60. The b index is, however, not well reproduced. This study does not allow us to establish a conclusive preference for models with or without a bulge as progenitors. Our results indicate that the L-f e and FP scalings might be determined to a large extent by dissipationless processes, a result that appears to be in contradiction to other dissipationless results.

  13. THE ROLE OF MERGER STAGE ON GALAXY RADIO SPECTRA IN LOCAL INFRARED-BRIGHT STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Eric J.

    2013-11-01

    An investigation of the steep, high-frequency (i.e., ν ∼ 12 GHz) radio spectra among a sample of 31 local infrared-bright starburst galaxies is carried out in light of their Hubble-Space-Telescope-based merger classifications. Radio data covering as many as 10 individual bands allow for spectral indices to be measured over three frequency bins between 0.15 and 32.5 GHz. Sources having the flattest spectral indices measured at ∼2 and 4 GHz, arising from large free-free optical depths among the densest starbursts, appear to be in ongoing through post-stage mergers. The spectral indices measured at higher frequencies (i.e., ∼12 GHz) are steepest for sources associated with ongoing mergers in which their nuclei are distinct, but share a common stellar envelope and/or exhibit tidal tails. These results hold after excluding potential active galactic nuclei based on their low 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon equivalent widths. Consequently, the low-, mid-, and high-frequency spectral indices each appear to be sensitive to the exact merger stage. It is additionally shown that ongoing mergers, whose progenitors are still separated and share a common envelope and/or exhibit tidal tails, also exhibit excess radio emission relative to what is expected given the far-infrared/radio correlation, suggesting that there may be a significant amount of radio emission that is not associated with ongoing star formation. The combination of these observations, along with high-resolution radio morphologies, leads to a picture in which the steep high-frequency radio spectral indices and excess radio emission arise from radio continuum bridges and tidal tails that are not associated with star formation, similar to what is observed for so-called 'taffy' galaxies. This scenario may also explain the seemingly low far-infrared/radio ratios measured for many high-z submillimeter galaxies, a number of which are merger-driven starbursts.

  14. Highlights of the Merging Cluster Collaboration's Analysis of 26 Radio Relic Galaxy Cluster Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William; Golovich, Nathan; Wittman, David M.; Bradac, Marusa; Brüggen, Marcus; Bullock, James; Elbert, Oliver; Jee, James; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Kim, Stacy; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Merten, Julian; Ng, Karen; Annika, Peter; Rocha, Miguel E.; Sobral, David; Stroe, Andra; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Merging Cluster Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Merging galaxy clusters are now recognized as multifaceted probes providing unique insight into the properties of dark matter, the environmental impact of plasma shocks on galaxy evolution, and the physics of high energy particle acceleration. The Merging Cluster Collaboration has used the diffuse radio emission associated with the synchrotron radiation of relativistic particles accelerated by shocks generated during major cluster mergers (i.e. radio relics) to identify a homogenous sample of 26 galaxy cluster mergers. We have confirmed theoretical expectations that radio relics are predominantly associated with mergers occurring near the plane of the sky and at a relatively common merger phase; making them ideal probes of self-interacting dark matter, and eliminating much of the dominant uncertainty when relating the observed star formation rates to the event of the major cluster merger. We will highlight a number of the discovered common traits of this sample as well as detailed measurements of individual mergers.

  15. A Slow Merger History of Field Galaxies since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin; Fukugita, Masataka; Ellis, Richard S.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Conselice, Christopher J.

    2004-02-01

    Using deep infrared observations conducted with the CISCO imager on the Subaru Telescope, we investigate the field-corrected pair fraction and the implied merger rate of galaxies in redshift survey fields with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. In the redshift interval, 0.5galaxies. At z~1, we estimate this to be 2×109+/-0.2 Msolar galaxy-1 Gyr-1. Although uncertainties remain, our results suggest that the growth of galaxies via the accretion of preexisting fragments remains as significant a phenomenon in the redshift range studied as that estimated from ongoing star formation in independent surveys. Based on data acquired at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  16. When galaxy clusters collide: the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, A.

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the 'Sausage' relic. Halpha mapping of the cluster provides the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous galaxies in! close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is a fundamental driver in the evolution of cluster galaxies from gas rich spirals to gas-poor ellipticals.

  17. A computational study of radio relics in galaxy cluster mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Dane Patrick

    Radio relics are extended regions of synchrotron radio emission that have been found in the outskirts of a few dozen galaxy clusters. Relics are often associated with clusters undergoing merger activity. They are not associated optically with a particular member of the cluster and are thought to arise from relativistic electron populations in the intra-cluster medium. The radio phoenix model, where shockwaves from merger activity re-energize a fossil radio plasma through adiabatic compression of the plasma, is one possible method of relic formation. This thesis uses gravitational N-body + SPH simulations with added synchrotron physics to present the largest computational study of radio relics in the radio phoenix model to date, totaling over 50,000 CPU-hours of computation and 4.7 TB of data. I have created a simulation data set of cluster mergers, with 25 different combinations of cluster mass, impact parameter, kinetic energies, cluster concentrations, and cluster-subcluster mass ratios. Using these simulations, I will discuss how high mass ratio collisions of 7:1 (cluster:subcluster mass) are most effective at reviving emission and creating a relic. I also show how this model predicts that clusters with total masses on the order of 6.25 x 10. 14 solar masses are most efficient at creating relics. By varyingthe magnetic pressure in the simulations, I demonstrate how relic formation is relatively insensitive to a wide range of magnetic field strengths. I also examine the great steepening of the spectral index of relics at even moderate (z ~ 0.4) redshifts predicted by the simulations, with the implications for future low-frequency telescope arrays. Finally, I present specific merger simulations for the clusters Abell 85 and 2443. The relic emission in Abell 85 is shown to be well predicted by the radio phoenix model, while the possible merger of Abell 2443 with its subcluster ZwCl 2224.2+1651 is shown to be unlikely as the cause of the relic in that system.

  18. On the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies via Mergers in Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranu, Dan; Dubinski, John; Yee, Howard K. C.

    2015-08-01

    Giant elliptical galaxies have long been thought to form through gas-rich "major" mergers of two roughly equal-mass spiral galaxies. However, ellipticals are often found at the centers of groups and are likely to have undergone several significant mergers since z=2. We test the hypothesis that ellipticals form through multiple, mainly minor and dry mergers in groups, using hundreds of N-body simulations of mergers in groups of three to twenty-five spirals (Taranu et al. 2013).Realistic mock observations of the central merger remnants show that they have similar surface brightness profiles to local ellipticals. The size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity relations have modest (~0.1 dex) scatter, with similar slopes; however, most remnants are too large and have too low dispersions for their luminosities. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, but most are slow rotators with v/σ << 0.5.Ellipticals also follow a tight "fundamental plane" scaling relation between size R, mean surface brightness μ and velocity dispersion σ: R ∝ σ^a μ^b. This relation has small (<0.06 dex) scatter and significantly different coefficients from the expected scaling (a "tilt"). The remnants lie on a similar fundamental plane, with even smaller scatter (0.02 dex) and a tilt in the correct sense - albeit weaker than observed. This tilt is caused by variable dark matter fractions within the effective radius, such that massive merger remnants have larger central dark matter fractions than their lower-mass counterparts (Taranu et al. 2015).These results suggest that massive ellipticals can originate from multiple, mainly minor and dry mergers of spirals at z<2, producing tight scaling relations in the process. However, significant gas dissipation and/or more compact progenitor spirals may be needed to produce lower-mass, rapidly-rotating ellipticals. I will also show preliminary results from simulations with more realistic progenitor galaxies (including

  19. Achieving convergence in galaxy formation models by augmenting N-body merger trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Andrew J.; Cannella, Chris; Cole, Shaun

    2016-08-01

    Accurate modeling of galaxy formation in a hierarchical, cold dark matter universe requires the use of sufficiently high-resolution merger trees to obtain convergence in the predicted properties of galaxies. When semi-analytic galaxy formation models are applied to cosmological N-body simulation merger trees, it is often the case that those trees have insufficient resolution to give converged galaxy properties. We demonstrate a method to augment the resolution of N-body merger trees by grafting in branches of Monte Carlo merger trees with higher resolution, but which are consistent with the pre-existing branches in the N-body tree. We show that this approach leads to converged galaxy properties.

  20. Late-stage galaxy mergers in cosmos to z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, C. N.; Silverman, J. D.; Salvato, M.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Sanders, D.; Lee, N.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Civano, F.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Le Fèvre, O.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, C. T.; Sheth, K.

    2014-12-01

    The role of major mergers in galaxy and black hole formation is not well-constrained. To help address this, we develop an automated method to identify late-stage galaxy mergers before coalescence of the galactic cores. The resulting sample of mergers is distinct from those obtained using pair-finding and morphological indicators. Our method relies on median-filtering of high-resolution images to distinguish two concentrated galaxy nuclei at small separations. This method does not rely on low surface brightness features to identify mergers, and is therefore reliable to high redshift. Using mock images, we derive statistical contamination and incompleteness corrections for the fraction of late-stage mergers. The mock images show that our method returns an uncontaminated (<10%) sample of mergers with projected separations between 2.2 and 8 kpc out to z∼1. We apply our new method to a magnitude-limited (m{sub FW} {sub 814}<23) sample of 44,164 galaxies from the COSMOS HST/ACS catalog. Using a mass-complete sample with logM{sub ∗}/M{sub ⊙}>10.6 and 0.25mergers. Correcting for incompleteness and contamination, the fractional merger rate increases strongly with redshift as r{sub merge}∝(1+z){sup 3.8±0.9}, in agreement both with earlier studies and with dark matter halo merger rates. Separating the sample into star-forming and quiescent galaxies shows that the merger rate for star-forming galaxies increases strongly with redshift, (1+z){sup 4.5±1.3}, while the merger rate for quiescent galaxies is consistent with no evolution, (1+z){sup 1.1±1.2}. The merger rate also becomes steeper with decreasing stellar mass. Limiting our sample to galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts from zCOSMOS, we find that the star formation rates and X-ray selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in likely late-stage mergers are higher by factors of ∼2 relative to those of a control sample. Combining our sample with more

  1. From discs to bulges: effect of mergers on the morphology of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rahul; Macciò, Andrea V.; Fontanot, Fabio; Moster, Benjamin P.; Karman, Wouter; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-10-01

    We study the effect of mergers on the morphology of galaxies by means of the simulated merger tree approach first proposed by Moster et al. This method combines N-body cosmological simulations and semi-analytic techniques to extract realistic initial conditions for galaxy mergers. These are then evolved using high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, which include dark matter, stars, cold gas in the disc and hot gas in the halo. We show that the satellite mass accretion is not as effective as previously thought, as there is substantial stellar stripping before the final merger. The fraction of stellar disc mass transferred to the bulge is quite low, even in the case of a major merger, mainly due to the dispersion of part of the stellar disc mass into the halo. We confirm the findings of Hopkins et al., that a gas-rich disc is able to survive major mergers more efficiently. The enhanced star formation associated with the merger is not localized to the bulge of galaxy, but a substantial fraction takes place in the disc too. The inclusion of the hot gas reservoir in the galaxy model contributes to reducing the efficiency of bulge formation. Overall, our findings suggest that mergers are not as efficient as previously thought in transforming discs into bulges. This possibly alleviates some of the tensions between observations of bulgeless galaxies and the hierarchical scenario for structure formation.

  2. A 3D Bubble Merger Model for RTI Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present a model for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The model predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The 3-D model differs from the 2-D merger model in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the model to three dimensions, the model contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The model also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  3. Formation of Cool Cores in Galaxy Clusters via Hierarchical Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Bryan, Greg

    2004-05-01

    We present a new scenario for the formation of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters, based on results from recent high spatial dynamic range, adaptive mesh Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations of large-scale structure formation. We find that cores of cool gas, material that would be identified as a classical cooling flow on the basis of its X-ray luminosity excess and temperature profile, are built from the accretion of discrete stable subclusters. Any ``cooling flow'' present is overwhelmed by the velocity field within the cluster; the bulk flow of gas through the cluster typically has speeds up to about 2000 km s-1, and significant rotation is frequently present in the cluster core. The inclusion of consistent initial cosmological conditions for the cluster within its surrounding supercluster environment is crucial when the evolution of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters is simulated. This new model for the hierarchical assembly of cool gas naturally explains the high frequency of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters, despite the fact that a majority of these clusters show evidence of substructure that is believed to arise from recent merger activity. Furthermore, our simulations generate complex cluster cores in concordance with recent X-ray observations of cool fronts, cool ``bullets,'' and filaments in a number of galaxy clusters. Our simulations were computed with a coupled N-body, Eulerian, adaptive mesh refinement, hydrodynamics cosmology code that properly treats the effects of shocks and radiative cooling by the gas. We employ up to seven levels of refinement to attain a peak resolution of 15.6 kpc within a volume 256 Mpc on a side and assume a standard ΛCDM cosmology.

  4. Subcluster mergers and galaxy infall in A2151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Christina M.; Davis, David S.; Beers, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained a 12.5 ks image of the Hercules Cluster, A2151, with the ROSAT PSPC. Comparison of the optical and X-ray emission coincides with the highest-density peak in the distribution, and is bimodal. The northern subclummp, distinct in position and velocity, has no detectable X-ray gas. The eastern subclump, apparent in the optical contour map, is indistinguishable from the clump in velocity space, but is clearly visible in the X-ray image. X-ray spectra derived from the central peak of emission yield a best-fit temperature of 1.6 keV. The emission coincident with the eastern clump of galaxies is cooler, 0.8 keV, and is outside the 90% confidence intervals of the central peak temperature. We suggest that the eastern and central subclusters have recently undergone a merger event. The lack of X-ray emission to the north suggests that those galaxies do not form a physically distinct structure (i.e., they are not located within a distinct gravitational potential), but rather that they are falling into the cluster core along the filament defined by the Hercules Supercluster.

  5. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN GALAXY MERGERS AND STARBURST: EVIDENCE FROM THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Wentao; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Major mergers and interactions between gas-rich galaxies with comparable masses are thought to be the main triggers of starburst. In this work, we study, for a large stellar mass range, the interaction rate of the starburst galaxies in the local universe. We focus independently on central and satellite star forming galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Here the starburst galaxies are selected in the star formation rate (SFR) stellar mass plane with SFRs five times larger than the median value found for ''star forming'' galaxies of the same stellar mass. Through visual inspection of their images together with close companions determined using spectroscopic redshifts, we find that ∼50% of the ''starburst'' populations show evident merger features, i.e., tidal tails, bridges between galaxies, double cores, and close companions. In contrast, in the control sample we selected from the normal star forming galaxies, only ∼19% of galaxies are associated with evident mergers. The interaction rates may increase by ∼5% for the starburst sample and 2% for the control sample if close companions determined using photometric redshifts are considered. The contrast of the merger rate between the two samples strengthens the hypothesis that mergers and interactions are indeed the main causes of starburst.

  6. Swift Coalescence of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Mergers of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far, theoretical models and simulations, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts, have been unable to directly predict the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave (GW) searches. Here, we present the first multi-scale ΛCDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z∼ 3, all the way to the final coalescence driven by GW emission. The two SMBHs, with masses ∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ , settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and extremely dense due to the dissipative nature of the merger and the intrinsic compactness of galaxies at high redshift. Such properties naturally allow a very efficient hardening of the SMBH binary. The SMBH merger occurs in only ∼10 Myr after the galactic cores have merged, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the Hubble time.

  7. Galaxy Mergers Drive Shocks: An Integral Field Study of GOALS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, J. A.; Kewley, L. J.; Dopita, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an integral field spectroscopic study of radiative shocks in 27 nearby ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) from the Great Observatory All-sky LIRG Survey, a subset of the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. Our analysis of the resolved spectroscopic data from the Wide Field Spectrograph focuses on determining the detailed properties of the emission-line gas, including a careful treatment of multicomponent emission-line profiles. The resulting information obtained from the spectral fits is used to map the kinematics of the gas, sources of ionizing radiation, and feedback present in each system. The resulting properties are tracked as a function of merger stage. Using emission-line flux ratios and velocity dispersions, we find evidence for widespread, extended shock excitation in many local U/LIRGs. These low-velocity shocks become an increasingly important component of the optical emission lines as a merger progresses. We find that shocks may account for as much as half of the Hα luminosity in the latest-stage mergers in our sample. We discuss some possible implications of our result and consider the presence of active galactic nuclei and their effects on the spectra in our sample.

  8. Decoding Mode-mixing in Black-hole Merger Ringdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal extraction of information from gravitational-wave observations of binary black-hole coalescences requires detailed knowledge of the waveforms. Current approaches for representing waveform information are based on spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition. Higher-order harmonic modes carrying a few percent of the total power output near merger can supply information critical to determining intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the binary. One obstacle to constructing a full multi-mode template of merger waveforms is the apparently complicated behavior of some of these modes; instead of settling down to a simple quasinormal frequency with decaying amplitude, some |m| = modes show periodic bumps characteristic of mode-mixing. We analyze the strongest of these modes the anomalous (3, 2) harmonic mode measured in a set of binary black-hole merger waveform simulations, and show that to leading order, they are due to a mismatch between the spherical harmonic basis used for extraction in 3D numerical relativity simulations, and the spheroidal harmonics adapted to the perturbation theory of Kerr black holes. Other causes of mode-mixing arising from gauge ambiguities and physical properties of the quasinormal ringdown modes are also considered and found to be small for the waveforms studied here.

  9. Cooking a `Sausage': the impact of merger shocks in cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David; Harwood, Jeremy; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Rumsey, Clare; Intema, Huib; Röttgering, Huub; Brüggen, Marcus; Saunders, Richard; Hardcastle, Martin; Hoeft, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to important astrophysical phenomena such as the segregation of dark and luminous matter and the formation of cluster-wide traveling shocks and also drive galaxy evolution. The observable effects of shock waves can be seen at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. Despite the great interest in relics, candidates with simple geometry, undisturbed morphology and high surface brightness are scarce. The `Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We use a unique combination of facilities (INT, WHT, Keck, Subaru, CFHT, GMRT, WSRT, AMI) to obtain the first cluster-wide, multi-wavelength, multi-method analysis aimed at giving a complete picture of a merging cluster with relics. Using the radio data, we derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Using spectral modeling, we test acceleration and electron energy-loss mechanisms and resolve the discrepancy between the Mach number calculated from the radio and X-rays. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area and line-of-sight mixing are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the `Sausage' relic. The radio analysis is complemented by Hα mapping of the cluster volume, aimed at providing the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous Hα emitting galaxies in close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, mostly star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction

  10. Merger signatures in the galaxy cluster A98

    SciTech Connect

    Paterno-Mahler, R.; Blanton, E. L.; Randall, S. W.; Bulbul, E.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Jones, C.; Murray, S.; Johnson, R. E. E-mail: eblanton@bu.edu E-mail: ebulbul@head.cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: cjones@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: rjohnson@gettysburg.edu

    2014-08-20

    We present results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of Abell 98 (A98), a galaxy cluster with three major components: a relatively bright subcluster to the north (A98N), a disturbed subcluster to the south (A98S), and a fainter subcluster to the far south (A98SS). We find evidence for surface brightness and temperature asymmetries in A98N consistent with a shock-heated region to the south, which could be created by an early stage merger between A98N and A98S. Deeper observations are required to confirm this result. We also find that A98S has an asymmetric core temperature structure, likely due to a separate ongoing merger. Evidence for this is also seen in optical data. A98S hosts a wide-angle tail radio source powered by a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find evidence for a cavity in the intracluster medium that has been evacuated by one of the radio lobes, suggesting that AGN feedback is operating in this system. Examples of cavities in non-cool core clusters are relatively rare. The three subclusters lie along a line in projection, suggesting the presence of a large-scale filament. We observe emission along the filament between A98N and A98S, and a surface brightness profile shows emission consistent with the overlap of the subcluster extended gas halos. We find the temperature of this region is consistent with the temperature of the gas at similar radii outside this bridge region. Lastly, we examine the cluster dynamics using optical data. We conclude A98N and A98S are likely bound to one another with a 67% probability, while A98S and A98SS are not bound at a high level of significance.

  11. Formation of Slowly Rotating Elliptical Galaxies in Major Mergers. A Resolution Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Emsellem, E.; Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T. A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Weijmans, A.; Young, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    We study resolution effects in numerical simulations of gas-rich (20% of the total baryonic mass) major mergers, and show that the formation of slowly-rotating elliptical galaxies requires a resolution that is beyond the present-day standards to be properly modelled. Our findings show that a high-enough resolution is required to accurately model the global properties of merger remnants and the evolution of their angular momentum. The role of wet mergers of spiral galaxies in the formation of slow-rotating ellipticals may therefore have been underestimated.

  12. Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; Madau, P.; Colpi, M.; Quinn, T.; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.

    2008-03-24

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.

  13. Rapid formation of supermassive black hole binaries in galaxy mergers with gas.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Madau, P; Colpi, M; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J

    2007-06-29

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that after the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink because of stellar or gas dynamical processes, and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas because of the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years after the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent, nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than 1 million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars. PMID:17556550

  14. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations based on semi-analytic galaxy merger trees: method and Milky Way-like galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new approach to study galaxy evolution in a cosmological context. We combine cosmological merger trees and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation to provide the initial conditions for multimerger hydrodynamic simulations. In this way, we exploit the advantages of merger simulations (high resolution and inclusion of the gas physics) and semi-analytic models (cosmological background and low computational cost), and integrate them to create a novel tool. This approach allows us to study the evolution of various galaxy properties, including the treatment of the hot gaseous halo from which gas cools and accretes on to the central disc, which has been neglected in many previous studies. This method shows several advantages over other methods. As only the particles in the regions of interest are included, the run time is much shorter than in traditional cosmological simulations, leading to greater computational efficiency. Using cosmological simulations, we show that multiple mergers are expected to be more common than sequences of isolated mergers, and therefore studies of galaxy mergers should take this into account. In this pilot study, we present our method and illustrate the results of simulating 10 Milky Way-like galaxies since z = 1. We find good agreement with observations for the total stellar masses, star formation rates, cold gas fractions and disc scalelength parameters. We expect that this novel numerical approach will be very useful for pursuing a number of questions pertaining to the transformation of galaxy internal structure through cosmic time.

  15. Can galaxy growth be sustained through HI-rich minor mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, M. D.; van Driel, W.; Minchin, R.

    2016-05-01

    Local galaxies with specific star-formation rates (star-formation rate per unit mass; sSFR ~ 0.2-10 Gyr-1) that are as high as distant galaxies (z ≈ 1-3), are very rich in Hi. Those with low stellar masses, M⋆ = 108-9 M⊙, for example, have MHI/M⋆ ≈ 5-30. Using continuity arguments, whereby the specific merger rate is hypothesized to be proportional to the specific star-formation rate, along with Hi gas mass measurements for local galaxies with high sSFR, we estimate that moderate-mass galaxies, M⋆ = 109-10.5 M⊙, can acquire enough gas through minor mergers (stellar mass ratios ~4-100) to sustain their star formation rates at z ~ 2. The relative fraction of the gas accreted through minor mergers declines with increasing stellar mass, and for the most massive galaxies considered, M⋆ = 1010.5-11 M⊙, this accretion rate is insufficient to sustain their star formation. We checked our minor merger hypothesis at z = 0 using the same methodology, but now with relations for local normal galaxies, and find that minor mergers cannot account for their specific growth rates, in agreement with observations of Hi-rich satellites around nearby spirals. We discuss a number of attractive features, such as a natural downsizing effect, in using minor mergers with extended Hi disks to support star formation at high redshift. The answer to the question posed by the title, "Can galaxy growth be sustained through Hi-rich minor mergers?", is "maybe", but only for relatively low-mass galaxies and at high redshift.

  16. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  17. Gas-Rich Mergers in LCDM: Disk Survivability and the Baryonic Assembly of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; /New York City Coll. Tech.

    2009-08-03

    We use N-body simulations and observationally-normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M > 0.3) experienced by Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshift. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed late-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Secondly, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is substantial. Approximately 30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas in major mergers. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers is even higher, {approx} 50%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass deposition is almost unavoidable, and provides a limit on

  18. GAS-RICH MERGERS IN LCDM: DISK SURVIVABILITY AND THE BARYONIC ASSEMBLY OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.

    2009-09-01

    We use N-body simulations and observationally normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M>0.3) experienced by the Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshifts. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed early-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} M{sub sun}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high-baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Second, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas-poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is significant. Approximately {approx}20%-30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas or stars via major mergers since z = 2, with most of this accretion in the form of cold gas. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} (M {sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub sun}), the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers since z = 2 is even higher, {approx}40%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass

  19. The Most Bound Halo Particle–Galaxy Correspondence Model: Comparison between Models with Different Merger Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2016-06-01

    We develop a galaxy assignment scheme that populates dark matter halos with galaxies by tracing the most bound member particles (MBPs) of simulated halos. Several merger timescale models based on analytic calculations and numerical simulations are adopted as the survival times of mock satellite galaxies. We build mock galaxy samples from halo merger data of the Horizon Run 4 N-body simulation from z = 12–0. We compare group properties and two-point correlation functions (2pCFs) of mock galaxies with those of volume-limited SDSS galaxies, with r-band absolute magnitudes of {{ M }}r-5{log}h\\lt -21 and ‑20 at z = 0. It is found that the MBP-galaxy correspondence scheme reproduces the observed population of SDSS galaxies in massive galaxy groups (M\\gt {10}14 {h}-1 {M}ȯ ) and the small-scale 2pCF ({r}{{p}}\\lt 10 {h}-1 {Mpc}) quite well for the majority of the merger timescale models adopted. The new scheme outperforms the previous subhalo-galaxy correspondence scheme by more than 2σ.

  20. Simulating multiple merger pathways to the central kinematics of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Christopher E.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Novak, G. S.; Primack, Joel R.

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional integral field surveys such as ATLAS3D are producing rich observational data sets yielding insights into galaxy formation. These new kinematic observations have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanisms leading to a spectrum of fast rotators and slow rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamical simulations, sampling idealized galaxy merger scenarios constructed from model spiral galaxies. Idealized and controlled simulations of this sort complement the more `realistic' cosmological simulations by isolating and analysing the effects of specific parameters, as we do in this paper. We recreate minor and major binary mergers, binary merger trees with multiple progenitors, and multiple sequential mergers. Within each of these categories of formation history, we correlate progenitor gas fraction, mass ratio, orbital pericentre, orbital ellipticity, and spin with remnant kinematic properties. We create kinematic profiles of these 95 simulations comparable to ATLAS3D data. By constructing remnant profiles of the projected specific angular momentum (λ _R= < R|V|rangle / < R √{V^2+σ ^2}rangle), triaxiality, and measuring the incidences of kinematic twists and kinematically decoupled cores, we distinguish between varying formation scenarios. We find that binary mergers nearly always form fast rotators. Slow rotators can be formed from zero initial angular momentum configurations and gas-poor mergers, but are not as round as the ATLAS3D galaxies. Remnants of binary merger trees are triaxial slow rotators. Sequential mergers form round slow rotators that most resemble the ATLAS3D rotators.

  1. SHINING LIGHT ON MERGING GALAXIES. I. THE ONGOING MERGER OF A QUASAR WITH A 'GREEN VALLEY' GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, Robert L.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Rosario, David; Tripp, Todd M.

    2011-07-01

    Serendipitous observations of a pair z = 0.37 interacting galaxies (one hosting a quasar) show a massive gaseous bridge of material connecting the two objects. This bridge is photoionized by the quasar (QSO), revealing gas along the entire projected 38 h{sup -1}{sub 70} kpc sightline connecting the two galaxies. The emission lines that result give an unprecedented opportunity to study the merger process at this redshift. We determine the kinematics, ionization parameter (log U {approx} -2.5 {+-} 0.03), column density (N{sub H,perpendicular} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}), metallicity ([M/H] {approx} - 0.20 {+-} 0.15), and mass ({approx}10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) of the gaseous bridge. We simultaneously constrain properties of the QSO host (M{sub DM} > 8.8 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) and its companion galaxy (M{sub DM} > 2.1 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}; M{sub *} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}; stellar burst age = 300-800 Myr; SFR {approx}6 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}; and metallicity 12 + log (O/H) = 8.64 {+-} 0.2). The general properties of this system match the standard paradigm of a galaxy-galaxy merger caught between first and second passages while one of the galaxies hosts an active quasar. The companion galaxy lies in the so-called green valley, with a stellar population consistent with a recent starburst triggered during the first passage of the merger and has no discernible active galactic nucleus activity. In addition to providing case studies of quasars associated with galaxy mergers, quasar/galaxy pairs with QSO-photoionized tidal bridges such as this one offer unique insights into the galaxy properties while also distinguishing an important and inadequately understood phase of galaxy evolution.

  2. Studying the Role of Mergers in Black Hole - Galaxy Co-evolution via a Morphological Analysis of Redshift 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Meredith; Urry, C. Megan

    2016-06-01

    We study the role of mergers in the quenching of star formation in galaxies at the dominant epoch of their evolution, by examining their color-mass distributions for different morphology types. We use HST ACS data from the CANDELS/GOODS North and South fields for galaxies in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.3 and use GALFIT to fit them with sersic profiles, enabling us to classify each as bulge-dominated (early type) or disk-dominated (late type). We find that spirals and ellipticals have distinct color-mass distributions, similar to studies at z=0, in that each have quenching modes of differing time scales. The smooth decay to the red sequence for the disky galaxies corresponds to a slow exhaustion of gas, while the lack of elliptical galaxies in the `green valley' indicates a faster quenching time for galaxies that underwent a major merger. We compare the inactive galaxies to the AGN hosts and find that the AGN phase lasts well into the red sequence for both types of host galaxy, spanning the full color space. The results suggest that the AGN trigger mechanism, as well as the significance of AGN feedback, is dependent on the merger history of the host galaxy.

  3. Evidence for Tidal Interactions and Mergers as the Origin of Galaxy Morphology Evolution in Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, R.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of a morphological study based on NIR images of 25 galaxies, with different levels of nuclear activity (star formation or AGN), in eight compact groups (CGs) of galaxies. We independently perform two different analyses: a study of the deviations of the isophotal levels from pure ellipses and a study of morphological asymmetries. The results yielded by the two analyses are highly consistent. For the first time, it is possible to show that deviations from pure ellipses are produced by inhomogeneous stellar mass distributions related to galaxy interactions and mergers. We find evidence of mass asymmetries in 74% of the galaxies in our sample. In 59% of these cases, the asymmetries come in pairs and are consistent with tidal effects produced by the proximity of companion galaxies. The symmetric galaxies are generally small in size or mass and inactive, and have an early-type morphology. They may have already lost their gas and least-attached envelope of stars to their more massive companions. In 20% of the galaxies we find evidence for cannibalism: a big galaxy swallowing a smaller companion. In 36% of the early-type galaxies the color gradient is positive (blue nucleus) or flat. Summing up these results, as much as 52% of the galaxies in our sample could show evidence of an ongoing or past merger. Our observations also suggest that galaxies in CGs merge more frequently under ``dry'' conditions (that is, once they have lost most of their gas). The high frequency of interacting and merging galaxies observed in our study is consistent with the bias of our sample toward CGs of type B, which represent the most active phase in the evolution of the groups. In these groups we also find a strong correlation between asymmetries and nuclear activity in early-type galaxies. This correlation allows us to identify tidal interactions and mergers as the cause of galaxy morphology transformation in CGs.

  4. Growth and activity of black holes in galaxy mergers with varying mass ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Dotti, Massimo; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    We study supermassive black holes (BHs) in merging galaxies, using a suite of hydrodynamical simulations with very high spatial (˜10 pc) and temporal (˜1 Myr) resolution, where we vary the initial mass ratio, the orbital configuration, and the gas fraction. (i) We address the question of when and why, during a merger, increased BH accretion occurs, quantifying gas inflows and BH accretion rates. (ii) We also quantify the relative effectiveness in inducing active galactic nuclei activity of merger-related versus secular-related causes, by studying different stages of the encounter: the stochastic (or early) stage, the (proper) merger stage, and the remnant (or late) stage. (iii) We assess which galaxy mergers preferentially enhance BH accretion, finding that the initial mass ratio is the most important factor. (iv) We study the evolution of the BH masses, finding that the BH mass contrast tends to decrease in minor mergers and to increase in major mergers. This effect hints at the existence of a preferential range of mass ratios for BHs in the final pairing stages. (v) In both merging and dynamically quiescent galaxies, the gas accreted by the BH is not necessarily the gas with low angular momentum, but the gas that loses angular momentum.

  5. GALAXY MERGERS AS A SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS, NEUTRINOS, AND GAMMA RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2014-07-20

    We investigate the shock acceleration of particles in massive galaxy mergers or collisions, and show that cosmic rays (CRs) can be accelerated up to the second knee energy ∼0.1-1 EeV and possibly beyond, with a hard spectral index of Γ ≈ 2. Such CRs lose their energy via hadronuclear interactions within a dynamical timescale of the merger shock, producing gamma rays and neutrinos as a by-product. If ∼10% of the shock dissipated energy goes into CR acceleration, some local merging galaxies will produce gamma-ray counterparts detectable by the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Also, based on the concordance cosmology, where a good fraction of the massive galaxies experience a major merger in a cosmological timescale, the neutrino counterparts can constitute ∼20%-60% of the isotropic background detected by IceCube.

  6. Tracing of the chemical evolution of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 3377 using a merger scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykytyuk, T.

    2015-05-01

    Mergers are thought to play a significant role in the formation of galaxies in clusters. The chemical evolution of the halo of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 3377, a member of the Leo cluster, is considered in the framework of such a merger scenario. An open chemical evolution model is set up to calculate the metallicity distributions of pre-merging fragments. The model assumes that pristine gas was accreted onto the fragments during their whole evolution before their merger. The metallicity distribution resulting from the overlay of a variable number of fragments is then compared to observational data for NGC 3377. It was found that the observed metallicity distribution function of this elliptical galaxy is reproduced by merging at least five fragments from two different groups, namely low-and high-metallicity fragments.

  7. Major galaxy mergers and the growth of supermassive black holes in quasars.

    PubMed

    Treister, Ezequiel; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Sanders, David B; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2010-04-30

    Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z congruent with 3 and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represents two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Much of the mass growth of the SMBH occurs during the heavily obscured phase. These observations provide additional evidence for a causal link between gas-rich galaxy mergers, accretion onto the nuclear SMBH, and coeval star formation. PMID:20339033

  8. Formation of slowly rotating early-type galaxies via major mergers: a resolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Emsellem, E.; Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T. A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P.-A.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Young, L. M.

    2010-08-01

    We study resolution effects in numerical simulations of gas-rich and gas-poor major mergers, and show that the formation of slowly rotating elliptical galaxies often requires a resolution that is beyond the present-day standards to be properly modelled. Our sample of equal-mass merger models encompasses various masses and spatial resolutions, ranging from about 200 pc and 105 particles per component (stars, gas and dark matter), i.e. a gas mass resolution of ~105Msolar, typical of some recently published major merger simulations, to up to 32 pc and ~103Msolar in simulations using 2.4 × 107 collisionless particles and 1.2 × 107 gas particles, among the highest resolutions reached so far for gas-rich major merger of massive disc galaxies. We find that the formation of fast-rotating early-type galaxies, that are flattened by a significant residual rotation, is overall correctly reproduced at all such resolutions. However, the formation of slow-rotating early-type galaxies, which have a low-residual angular momentum and are supported mostly by anisotropic velocity dispersions, is strongly resolution-dependent. The evacuation of angular momentum from the main stellar body is largely missed at standard resolution, and systems that should be slow rotators are then found to be fast rotators. The effect is most important for gas-rich mergers, but is also witnessed in mergers with an absent or modest gas component (0-10 per cent in mass). The effect is robust with respect to our initial conditions and interaction orbits, and originates in the physical treatment of the relaxation process during the coalescence of the galaxies. Our findings show that a high-enough resolution is required to accurately model the global properties of merger remnants and the evolution of their angular momentum. The role of gas-rich mergers of spiral galaxies in the formation of slow-rotating ellipticals may therefore have been underestimated. Moreover, the effect of gas in a galaxy merger is not

  9. Evolution of the major merger galaxy pair fraction at z < 1

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Lin, L.; Chou, R. C. Y.; Huang, S.; Lin, J. H.; Chang, K. H.; Foucaud, S.; De Propris, R.

    2014-11-10

    We present a study of the largest available sample of near-infrared selected (i.e., stellar mass selected) dynamically close pairs of galaxies at low redshifts (z < 0.3). We combine this sample with new estimates of the major merger pair fraction for stellar mass selected galaxies at z < 0.8, from the Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1). We construct our low-redshift K-band selected sample using photometry from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the K band (∼2.2 μm). Combined with all available spectroscopy, our K-band selected sample contains ∼250, 000 galaxies and is >90% spectroscopically complete. The depth and large volume of this sample allow us to investigate the low-redshift pair fraction and merger rate of galaxies over a wide range in K-band luminosity. We find the major merger pair fraction to be flat at ∼2% as a function of K-band luminosity for galaxies in the range 10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in contrast to recent results from studies in the local group that find a substantially higher low-mass pair fraction. This low-redshift major merger pair fraction is ∼40%-50% higher than previous estimates drawn from K-band samples, which were based on 2MASS photometry alone. Combining with the RCS1 sample, we find a much flatter evolution (m = 0.7 ± 0.1) in the relation f {sub pair}∝(1 + z) {sup m} than indicated in many previous studies. These results indicate that a typical L ∼ L* galaxy has undergone ∼0.2-0.8 major mergers since z = 1 (depending on the assumptions of merger timescale and percentage of pairs that actually merge).

  10. Mergers in galaxy groups. I. Structure and properties of elliptical remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Taranu, Dan S.; Dubinski, John; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-11-20

    We present collisionless simulations of dry mergers in groups of 3 to 25 galaxies to test the hypothesis that elliptical galaxies form at the centers of such groups. Mock observations of the central remnants confirm their similarity to ellipticals, despite having no dissipational component. We vary the profile of the original spiral's bulge and find that ellipticals formed from spirals with exponential bulges have too low Sersic indices. Mergers of spirals with de Vaucouleurs (classical) bulges produce remnants with larger Sersic indices correlated with luminosity, as with Sloan Digital Sky Survey ellipticals. Exponential bulge mergers are better fits to faint ellipticals, whereas classical bulge mergers better match luminous ellipticals. Similarly, luminous ellipticals are better reproduced by remnants undergoing many (>5) mergers, and fainter ellipticals by those with fewer mergers. The remnants follow tight size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity (Faber-Jackson) relations (<0.12 dex scatter), demonstrating that stochastic merging can produce tight scaling relations if the merging galaxies also follow tight scaling relations. The slopes of the size-luminosity and Faber-Jackson relations are close to observations but slightly shallower in the former case. Both relations' intercepts are offset—remnants are too large but have too low dispersions at fixed luminosity. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, although most are slow rotators and few are very fast rotators (v/σ > 0.5). These findings contrast with previous studies concluding that dissipation is necessary to produce ellipticals from binary mergers of spirals. Multiple, mostly minor and dry mergers can produce bright ellipticals, whereas significant dissipation could be required to produce faint, rapidly rotating ellipticals.

  11. Toward the Distribution of Orbital Parameters of Nearby Major Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi Karvani, Seyed Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis project our goal is to measure the initial conditions of a sample of ~20 local disk-disk major galaxy mergers. Measuring the orbital parameters is possible by findingthe most similar galaxy merger simulation to the morphology and kinematics of the data.We have developed an automated modeling method based on the Identikit software package,which also estimates the uncertainty of the measured initial conditions. We tested our modeling method using an independent set of GADGET simulations, and we acquired reliable results onprograde merger systems. We observed the Hα kinematics of our sample using SparsePak IFU on the WIYN telescope at KPNO, and DIS on the 3.5m telescope at APO. For the few merger systems in our sample with archival HI data available, we compare the use of HI vs Hα as the kinematic tracer. This work lays the ground-work for the analysis of larger statistical samples of mergers from on-going IFU galaxy survey such as MaNGA.

  12. The remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II.

    PubMed

    Amorisco, N C; Evans, N W; van de Ven, G

    2014-03-20

    Driven by gravity, massive structures like galaxies and clusters of galaxies are believed to grow continuously through hierarchical merging and accretion of smaller systems. Observational evidence of accretion events is provided by the coherent stellar streams crossing the outer haloes of massive galaxies, such as the Milky Way or Andromeda. At similar mass scales, around 10(11) solar masses in stars, further evidence of merging activity is also ample. Mergers of lower-mass galaxies are expected within the hierarchical process of galaxy formation, but have hitherto not been seen for galaxies with less than about 10(9) solar masses in stars. Here we report the kinematic detection of a stellar stream in one of the satellite galaxies of Andromeda, the dwarf spheroidal Andromeda II, which has a mass of only 10(7) solar masses in stars. The properties of the stream show that we are observing the remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies. This had a drastic influence on the dynamics of the remnant, which is now rotating around its projected major axis. The stellar stream in Andromeda II illustrates the scale-free character of the formation of galaxies, down to the lowest galactic mass scales. PMID:24572352

  13. DISCOVERY OF A DISSOCIATIVE GALAXY CLUSTER MERGER WITH LARGE PHYSICAL SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, William A.; Wittman, David; Jee, M. James; Gee, Perry; Tyson, J. Anthony; Schmidt, Samuel; Thorman, Paul; Bradac, Marusa; Lemaux, Brian; Hughes, John P.; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Margoniner, Vera E.

    2012-03-10

    We present DLSCL J0916.2+2951 (z = 0.53), a newly discovered major cluster merger in which the collisional cluster gas has become dissociated from the collisionless galaxies and dark matter (DM). We identified the cluster using optical and weak-lensing observations as part of the Deep Lens Survey. Our follow-up observations with Keck, Subaru, Hubble Space Telescope, and Chandra show that the cluster is a dissociative merger and constrain the DM self-interaction cross-section {sigma}{sub DM} m{sup -1}{sub DM} {approx}< 7 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The system is observed at least 0.7 {+-} 0.2 Gyr since first pass-through, thus providing a picture of cluster mergers 2-5 times further progressed than similar systems observed to date. This improved temporal leverage has implications for our understanding of merging clusters and their impact on galaxy evolution.

  14. Constraining Self-Interacting Dark Matter: Insights from Equal Mass Mergers of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeonchi Kim, Stacy; Peter, Annika

    2016-01-01

    While the ΛCDM model has been wildly successful at explaining structure on large scales, it fails to do so on small scales---dark matter halos of scales comparable to that of galaxy clusters and smaller are more cored and less numerous than ΛCDM predicts. One potential solution challenges the canonical assumption that dark matter is collisionless and instead assumes that it is collisional, or self-interacting. The most stringent upper limits on the dark matter self-interaction cross section have come from observations of merging galaxy clusters. Self-interactions cause the merging dark matter halos to evolve differently from the galaxies, which are effectively collisionless. It has been hypothesized that this leads to an spatial offset between the peaks in the dark matter and galaxy distributions. We show that in equal mass mergers offsets do not develop except under a narrow range of merger conditions. Mergers with observable offsets have an infall velocity comparable to the escape velocity from a halo---promoting the explusion of significant mass and the formation of tails---and is head-on. We discuss other observable signatures of self-interactions that may better constrain the dark matter self-interaction cross-section in equal mass cluster mergers.

  15. Environmentally driven star formation during a super galaxy group merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Jonathan; Tran, Kim-Vy; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2016-01-01

    We find evidence for outside-in growth of galaxies within a merging super galaxy group at a redshift of z~0.37. We utilize Hubble Space Telescope imaging in rest-frame UV and visual to measure color gradients across the super group and internally within 138 individual galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed members. The group members show enhanced star formation at intermediate environmental densities. The high resolution imaging shows that the group galaxies have bluer disks, i.e. most of the new stars are forming in the disk which supports outside-in growth. These disk-dominated galaxies will likely fade to become S0 members.

  16. Heavily obscured quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 2 are discs, not major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Urry, C. Megan; Treister, Ezequiel; Glikman, Eilat

    2012-09-01

    We explore the nature of heavily obscured quasar host galaxies at z˜ 2 using deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/infrared imaging of 28 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) to investigate the role of major mergers in driving black hole growth. The high levels of obscuration of the quasars selected for this study act as a natural coronagraph, blocking the quasar light and allowing a clear view of the underlying host galaxy. The sample of heavily obscured quasars represents a significant fraction of the cosmic mass accretion on supermassive black holes as the quasars have inferred bolometric luminosities around the break of the quasar luminosity function. We find that only a small fraction (4 per cent, at most 11-25 per cent) of the quasar host galaxies are major mergers. Fits to their surface brightness profiles indicate that 90 per cent of the host galaxies are either disc dominated, or have a significant disc. This disc-like host morphology, and the corresponding weakness of bulges, is evidence against major mergers and suggests that secular processes are the predominant driver of massive black hole growth. Finally, we suggest that the coincidence of mergers and active galactic nucleus activity is luminosity dependent, with only the most luminous quasars being triggered mostly by major mergers. a MUSYC catalogue ID, see Cardamone et al. (2010). Objects with X-ray detections are marked with *. b See images shown in Fig. 1. c The ratio of the host luminosity to the point source luminosity, reported only when GALFIT requires an unresolved object to yield a physical fit. This may be due to an AGN point source (in the case of the X-ray-detected DOGs) or an unresolved bulge or central concentration, i.e. a central bulge. d See Fig. 2.

  17. Gravitational waves and stalled satellites from massive galaxy mergers at z ≤ 1

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Pretorius, Frans; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-07-10

    We present a model for merger-driven evolution of the mass function for massive galaxies and their central supermassive black holes at late times. We discuss the current observational evidence in favor of merger-driven massive galaxy evolution during this epoch, and demonstrate that the observed evolution of the mass function can be reproduced by evolving an initial mass function under the assumption of negligible star formation. We calculate the stochastic gravitational wave signal from the resulting black hole binary mergers in the low redshift universe (z ≤ 1) implied by this model, and find that this population has a signal-to-noise ratio 2 × to 5 × larger than previous estimates for pulsar timing arrays, with a (2σ, 3σ) lower limit within this model of h{sub c}(f = 1 yr{sup –1}) = (1.1 × 10{sup –15}, 6.8 × 10{sup –16}). The strength of this signal is sufficient to make it detectable with high probability under conservative assumptions within the next several years. A principle reason that this result is larger than previous estimates is our use of a recent recalibration of the black hole-stellar mass correlation for the brightest cluster galaxies, which increases our estimate by a factor of ∼2 relative to past results. For cases where a galaxy merger fails to lead to a black hole merger, we estimate the probability for a given number of satellite black holes to remain within a massive host galaxy, and interpret the result in light of ULX observations. We find that in rare cases, wandering supermassive black holes may be bright enough to appear as ULXs.

  18. Star Formation and Dense Gas in Galaxy Mergers from the VIXENS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderman, Amanda L.; VIXENS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present our λ= 3 mm IRAM and NRO single dish line survey for a sample of 15 interacting galaxies in the VIRUS-P Investigation of the eXtreme ENvironments of Starbursts (VIXENS) survey. Our sample of merging galaxies range from early to late interaction stages (close pairs to merger remnants, respectively). A variety of molecular lines are detected including dense gas tracers HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, CN (and others) as well as 12CO and 13CO. We compare the dense gas fractions with 12CO and 13CO as well as star formation efficiencies defined by infrared-to-dense gas tracer luminosity ratio and discuss trends with interaction stage. We also investigate relations between star formation and dense gas content in our merger sample and compare them to non-interacting star forming galaxies and Galactic star forming regions in the Milky Way.

  19. Towards a complete history of galaxy assembly: Major merger fractions at 2 ≤ z ≤ 6 in the CANDELS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Kenneth James; Conselice, Chris; Mundy, Carl Joseph; CANDELS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in studying the growth of the first galaxies through studies of the luminosity functions, star-formation rates and stellar masses. However, there are still very few observational constraints on the merger rates of galaxies during this formative period. Such measurements are vital in understanding the importance of mergers in the early lives of today’s most massive galaxies and what role they played (if any) in the creation of the first quiescent galaxies already seen at z ˜ 4. We present new results on the major merger rates (mass ratios from 1:1 to 1:4) of galaxies at 2 ≤ z ≤ 6 in the CANDELS HST survey. By using PDF analysis of photometric close pairs we are able to compute accurate merger fractions for both mass and number density selected samples over the first few billion years of galaxy formation. We present the evolution of the merger fraction as well as the estimated merger rates, exploring their evolution with respect to semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations. In conjunction with similar analysis being applied to wide-area surveys at z ≤ 3 (Mundy et al. in prep), this work represents the first consistent study of major mergers over the bulk of cosmic history. In addition to the evolution of the merger rate itself, we explore the effect of mergers on star-formation rates at high redshift through comparison of the properties of galaxies in merging systems to similar galaxies in isolated environments.

  20. Gaseous merger signatures in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jodie Rachelle

    Two samples of early type galaxies are examined through very high spatial resolution studies of the surface brightnesses, colors sensitive to small admixtures of youthful stellar populations to probe the recent and possible future star formation histories of these galaxies and the spatial distributions of stellar populations. The two samples of early type galaxies are a test sample which have stellar surface brightness profiles with a central spike in light above a smoothly increasing profile and a control sample of galaxies which do not have the central light spike. This study used the Hubble Space Telescope in the Near-Ultraviolet, the Ultraviolet, and the V bands. The high spatial resolution of [Special characters omitted.] per pixel and the spectral sensitivity (< S/N > [Special characters omitted.] 10) allow us to examine to high accuracy the spatial distribution of light in each band, the total integrated colors of the galaxies and the color changes with radius within each galaxy, and the structure and colors of the detected central components. Bright ( M V of -10.5 to -13.5 mag) and compact (r c of 1-16 pc) central components are detected through fits to the surface brightness profiles. Total galaxy colors, which are unaffected by the central components, as well as the radial distributions of color in the NUV - VU - V plane are consistent with multiple generations and multiple structures of stellar populations in this sample of early type galaxies. Many of the compact central component colors are individually also consistent with multigenerational stellar populations. The detections in this work of multiple spatial and temporal compositions of stellar populations in early-type galaxies, multiple generation compact stellar components coincident with the centers of some early-type galaxies lends support towards the formation of some early-type galaxies through recent (0.5 to 5 Gyr ago) gas-rich processes such as the hierarchical merging of gas-rich disk

  1. Radio active galactic nuclei in galaxy clusters: Feedback, merger signatures, and cluster tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno-Mahler, Rachel Beth

    Galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally-bound structures in the universe, are composed of 50-1000s of galaxies, hot X-ray emitting gas, and dark matter. They grow in size over time through cluster and group mergers. The merger history of a cluster can be imprinted on the hot gas, known as the intracluster medium (ICM). Merger signatures include shocks, cold fronts, and sloshing of the ICM, which can form spiral structures. Some clusters host double-lobed radio sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN). First, I will present a study of the galaxy cluster Abell 2029, which is very relaxed on large scales and has one of the largest continuous sloshing spirals yet observed in the X-ray, extending outward approximately 400 kpc. The sloshing gas interacts with the southern lobe of the radio galaxy, causing it to bend. Energy injection from the AGN is insufficient to offset cooling. The sloshing spiral may be an important additional mechanism in preventing large amounts of gas from cooling to very low temperatures. Next, I will present a study of Abell 98, a triple system currently undergoing a merger. I will discuss the merger history, and show that it is causing a shock. The central subcluster hosts a double-lobed AGN, which is evacuating a cavity in the ICM. Understanding the physical processes that affect the ICM is important for determining the mass of clusters, which in turn affects our calculations of cosmological parameters. To further constrain these parameters, as well as models of galaxy evolution, it is important to use a large sample of galaxy clusters over a range of masses and redshifts. Bent, double-lobed radio sources can potentially act as tracers of galaxy clusters over wide ranges of these parameters. I examine how efficient bent radio sources are at tracing high-redshift (z>0.7) clusters. Out of 646 sources in our high-redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) sample, 282 are candidate new, distant clusters of galaxies based on

  2. A CO-rich merger shaping a powerful and hyperluminous infrared radio galaxy at z = 2: the Dragonfly Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Mao, M. Y.; Stroe, A.; Pentericci, L.; Villar-Martín, M.; Norris, R. P.; Miley, G.; De Breuck, C.; van Moorsel, G. A.; Lehnert, M. D.; Carilli, C. L.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Seymour, N.; Sadler, E. M.; Ekers, R. D.; Drouart, G.; Feain, I.; Colina, L.; Stevens, J.; Holt, J.

    2015-07-01

    In the low-redshift Universe, the most powerful radio sources are often associated with gas-rich galaxy mergers or interactions. We here present evidence for an advanced, gas-rich (`wet') merger associated with a powerful radio galaxy at a redshift of z ˜ 2. This radio galaxy, MRC 0152-209, is the most infrared-luminous high-redshift radio galaxy known in the Southern hemisphere. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we obtained high-resolution CO(1-0) data of cold molecular gas, which we complement with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging and William Herschel Telescope long-slit spectroscopy. We find that, while roughly MH2 ˜ 2 × 1010 M⊙ of molecular gas coincides with the central host galaxy, another MH2 ˜ 3 × 1010 M⊙ is spread across a total extent of ˜60 kpc. Most of this widespread CO(1-0) appears to follow prominent tidal features visible in the rest-frame near-UV HST/WFPC2 imaging. Lyα emission shows an excess over He II, but a deficiency over LIR, which is likely the result of photoionization by enhanced but very obscured star formation that was triggered by the merger. In terms of feedback, the radio source is aligned with widespread CO(1-0) emission, which suggests that there is a physical link between the propagating radio jets and the presence of cold molecular gas on scales of the galaxy's halo. Its optical appearance, combined with the transformational stage at which we witness the evolution of MRC 0152-209, leads us to adopt the name `Dragonfly Galaxy'.

  3. A parsec-resolution simulation of the Antennae galaxies: formation of star clusters during the merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Florent; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamical simulation of an Antennae-like galaxy merger at parsec resolution, including a multicomponent model for stellar feedback and reaching numerical convergence in the global star formation rate for the first time. We analyse the properties of the dense stellar objects formed during the different stages of the interaction. Each galactic encounter triggers a starburst activity, but the varying physical conditions change the triggering mechanism of each starburst. During the first two pericentre passages, the starburst is spatially extended and forms many star clusters. However, the starburst associated with the third, final passage is more centrally concentrated: stars form almost exclusively in the galactic nucleus and no new star cluster is formed. The maximum mass of stars clusters in this merger is more than 30 times higher than those in a simulation of an isolated Milky Way-like galaxy. Antennae-like mergers are therefore a formation channel of young massive clusters possibly leading to globular clusters. Monitoring the evolution of a few clusters reveals the diversity of formation scenarios including the gathering and merger of gas clumps, the monolithic formation and the hierarchical formation in sub-structures inside a single cloud. Two stellar objects formed in the simulation yield the same properties as ultracompact dwarf galaxies. They share the same formation scenario than the most massive clusters, but have a larger radius either since birth, or get it after a violent interaction with the galactic centre. The diversity of environments across space and time in a galaxy merger can account for the diversity of the stellar objects formed, both in terms of mass and size.

  4. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}ȯ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}ȯ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  5. Far-infrared properties of Markarian galaxies with multiple nuclei - Warm dust emission in mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Boroson, Todd A.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of coadded IRAS data is performed on 187 Markarian galaxies where distinguishing morphological characteristics or multiple optical nuclei are present. The far-IR properties of Markarian galaxies are compared to the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, and a much higher median dust temperature is found in the multiple nucleus galaxies, suggesting that more far-IR luminosity results from active star formation. Both optical/UV and far-IR selection techniques are necessary to extract complete samples of AGNs since the far-IR two-color plane can miss up to 50 percent of the galaxies. A systematic increase in the contribution of warm dust emission due to active star formation and AGNs is found in a statistical comparison of merger candidates and other galaxy samples. The assumed nature of precursor galaxies determines the assumed enhancement of far-IR luminosity caused by galaxy collisions. A model is presented which describes the properties of the Markarian galaxies in terms of enhanced OB star formation and different grain size distributions. The results of the investigation are shown to be consistent with a 'subdued' interpretation of merging galaxies with high luminosities.

  6. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars; Hayward, Christopher C.; Brassington, Nicola

    2014-04-10

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  7. Dark influences II. Gas and star formation in minor mergers of dwarf galaxies with dark satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, T. K.; Helmi, A.; Sales, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    Context. It has been proposed that mergers induce starbursts and lead to important morphological changes in galaxies. Most studies so far have focused on large galaxies, but dwarfs might also experience such events, since the halo mass function is scale-free in the concordance cosmological model. Notably, because of their low mass, most of their interactions will be with dark satellites. Aims: In this paper we follow the evolution of gas-rich disky dwarf galaxies as they experience a minor merger with a dark satellite. We aim to characterize the effects of such an interaction on the dwarf's star formation, morphology, and kinematical properties. Methods: We performed a suite of carefully set-up hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies that include dark matter, gas, and stars merging with a satellite consisting solely of dark matter. For the host system we vary the gas fraction, disk size and thickness, halo mass, and concentration, while we explore different masses, concentrations, and orbits for the satellite. Results: We find that the interactions cause strong starbursts of both short and long duration in the dwarfs. Their star formation rates increase by factors of a few to 10 or more. They are strongest for systems with extended gas disks and high gas fractions merging with a high-concentration satellite on a planar, radial orbit. In contrast to analogous simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies, many of the systems experience strong morphological changes and become spheroidal even in the presence of significant amounts of gas. Conclusions: The simulated systems compare remarkably well with the observational properties of a large selection of irregular dwarf galaxies and blue compact dwarfs. This implies that mergers with dark satellites might well be happening but not be fully evident, and may thus play a role in the diversity of the dwarf galaxy population.

  8. The stellar mass assembly of galaxies in the Illustris simulation: growth by mergers and the spatial distribution of accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sales, Laura V.; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Zhu, Qirong; Wellons, Sarah; Nelson, Dylan; Torrey, Paul; Springel, Volker; Ma, Chung-Pei; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-05-01

    We use the Illustris simulation to study the relative contributions of in situ star formation and stellar accretion to the build-up of galaxies over an unprecedentedly wide range of masses (M* = 109-1012 M⊙), galaxy types, environments, and assembly histories. We find that the `two-phase' picture of galaxy formation predicted by some models is a good approximation only for the most massive galaxies in our simulation - namely, the stellar mass growth of galaxies below a few times 1011 M⊙ is dominated by in situ star formation at all redshifts. The fraction of the total stellar mass of galaxies at z = 0 contributed by accreted stars shows a strong dependence on galaxy stellar mass, ranging from about 10 per cent for Milky Way-sized galaxies to over 80 per cent for M* ≈ 1012 M⊙ objects, yet with a large galaxy-to-galaxy variation. At a fixed stellar mass, elliptical galaxies and those formed at the centres of younger haloes exhibit larger fractions of ex situ stars than disc-like galaxies and those formed in older haloes. On average, ˜50 per cent of the ex situ stellar mass comes from major mergers (stellar mass ratio μ > 1/4), ˜20 per cent from minor mergers (1/10 < μ < 1/4), ˜20 per cent from very minor mergers (μ < 1/10), and ˜10 per cent from stars that were stripped from surviving galaxies (e.g. flybys or ongoing mergers). These components are spatially segregated, with in situ stars dominating the innermost regions of galaxies, and ex situ stars being deposited at larger galactocentric distances in order of decreasing merger mass ratio.

  9. The Origin of Prolate Rotation in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies Formed by Mergers of Disky Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrová, Ivana; Łokas, Ewa L.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the discovery of prolate rotation of stars in Andromeda II (And II), a dwarf spheroidal companion of M31, we study its origin via mergers of disky dwarf galaxies. We simulate merger events between two identical dwarfs changing the initial inclination of their disks with respect to the orbit and the amount of orbital angular momentum. On radial orbits, the amount of prolate rotation in the merger remnants correlates strongly with the inclination of the disks and is well understood as due to the conservation of the angular momentum component of the disks along the merger axis. For non-radial orbits, prolate rotation may still be produced if the orbital angular momentum is initially not much larger than the intrinsic angular momentum of the disks. The orbital structure of the remnants with significant rotation is dominated by box orbits in the center and long-axis tubes in the outer parts. The frequency analysis of stellar orbits in the plane perpendicular to the major axis reveals the presence of two families roughly corresponding to inner and outer long-axis tubes. The fraction of inner tubes is largest in the remnant forming from disks that are initially oriented most vertically, and is responsible for the boxy shape of the galaxy. We conclude that prolate rotation results from mergers with a variety of initial conditions and no fine tuning is necessary to reproduce this feature. We compare the properties of our merger remnants to those of dwarfs resulting from the tidal stirring scenario and the data for And II.

  10. Galaxy mergers on a moving mesh: a comparison with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Christopher C.; Torrey, Paul; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Galaxy mergers have been investigated for decades using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), but recent work highlighting inaccuracies inherent in the traditional SPH technique calls into question the reliability of previous studies. We explore this issue by comparing a suite of GADGET-3 SPH simulations of idealized (i.e. non-cosmological) isolated discs and galaxy mergers with otherwise identical calculations performed using the moving-mesh code AREPO. When black hole (BH) accretion and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback are not included, the star formation histories (SFHs) obtained from the two codes agree well. When BHs are included, the code- and resolution-dependent variations in the SFHs are more significant, but the agreement is still good, and the stellar mass formed over the course of a simulation is robust to variations in the numerical method. During a merger, the gas morphology and phase structure are initially similar prior to the starburst phase. However, once a hot gaseous halo has formed from shock heating and AGN feedback (when included), the agreement is less good. In particular, during the post-starburst phase, the SPH simulations feature more prominent hot gaseous haloes and spurious clumps, whereas with AREPO, gas clumps and filaments are less apparent and the hot halo gas can cool more efficiently. We discuss the origin of these differences and explain why the SPH technique yields trustworthy results for some applications (such as the idealized isolated disc and galaxy merger simulations presented here) but not others (e.g. gas flows on to galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations).

  11. Evidence for Multiple Mergers among Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Remnants of Compact Groups?

    PubMed

    Borne; Bushouse; Lucas; Colina

    2000-02-01

    In a large sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a significant subsample that shows evidence for multiple mergers. The evidence is seen among two classes of ULIRGs: (1) those with multiple remnant nuclei in their core, sometimes accompanied by a complex system of tidal tails, and (2) those that are in fact dense groupings of interacting (soon-to-merge) galaxies. We conservatively estimate that, in the redshift range 0.05galaxies (see Hickson). An evolutionary progression is consistent with the results: from compact groups to pairs to ULIRGs to elliptical galaxies. The last step follows the blowout of gas and dust from the ULIRG. PMID:10622759

  12. Flash Galaxy Cluster Merger, Simulated using the Flash Code, Mass Ratio 1:1

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Since structure in the universe forms in a bottom-up fashion, with smaller structures merging to form larger ones, modeling the merging process in detail is crucial to our understanding of cosmology. At the current epoch, we observe clusters of galaxies undergoing mergers. It is seen that the two major components of galaxy clusters, the hot intracluster gas and the dark matter, behave very differently during the course of a merger. Using the N-body and hydrodynamics capabilities in the FLASH code, we have simulated a suite of representative galaxy cluster mergers, including the dynamics of both the dark matter, which is collisionless, and the gas, which has the properties of a fluid. 3-D visualizations such as these demonstrate clearly the different behavior of these two components over time. Credits: Science: John Zuhone (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Visualization: Jonathan Gallagher (Flash Center, University of Chicago)

 This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Academic Strategic Alliance Program (ASAP).

  13. Flash Galaxy Cluster Merger, Simulated using the Flash Code, Mass Ratio 1:1

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Since structure in the universe forms in a bottom-up fashion, with smaller structures merging to form larger ones, modeling the merging process in detail is crucial to our understanding of cosmology. At the current epoch, we observe clusters of galaxies undergoing mergers. It is seen that the two major components of galaxy clusters, the hot intracluster gas and the dark matter, behave very differently during the course of a merger. Using the N-body and hydrodynamics capabilities in the FLASH code, we have simulated a suite of representative galaxy cluster mergers, including the dynamics of both the dark matter, which is collisionless, and the gas, which has the properties of a fluid. 3-D visualizations such as these demonstrate clearly the different behavior of these two components over time. Credits: Science: John Zuhone (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Visualization: Jonathan Gallagher (Flash Center, University of Chicago)

 This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Academic Strategic Alliance Program (ASAP).

  14. Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

  15. A weak lensing comparability study of galaxy mergers that host AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, D.; Courbin, F.

    2015-07-01

    We compared the total mass density profiles of three different types of galaxies using weak gravitational lensing: (i) 29 galaxies that host quasars at bar{z}˜ 0.32 that are in a post-starburst quasar (PSQ) phase with high star formation indicating recent merger activity, (ii) 22 large elliptical galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS) sample that do not host a quasar at bar{z}˜ 0.23, and (iii) 17 galaxies that host moderately luminous quasars at bar{z}˜ 0.36 powered by disc instabilities, but with no intense star formation. In an initial test we found no evidence for a connection between the merger state of a galaxy and the profile of the halo, with the PSQ profile comparable to that of the other two samples and consistent with the Leauthaud et al. study of moderately luminous quasars in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). Given the compatibility of the two quasar samples, we combined these and found no evidence for any connection between black hole activity and the dark matter halo. All three mass profiles remained compatible with isothermality given the present data.

  16. Chemical and luminosity evolution, and counts of galaxies in a merger model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    A merger model is applied to the chemical and luminosity evolution of galaxies. Two aspects are focused on. The first is the problem of abundance ratios as a function of metallicity. The second is related to the luminosity evolution of galaxies. In relation to the former, we calculate the evolution of several chemical elements exploring a broad space of possible star formation rates, including those derived using phenomenological arguments from a multiple merger galaxy formation scenario. We are able to reproduce the observed plateau in the ratio of the abundances of oxygen to iron versus metallicity as a direct consequence of one of the merging SFR used; we have utilized a standard Type II supernovae nucleosynthesis scenario coupled with a reasonable binary model for Type Ia supernovae and its consequent nucleosynthetic yields. Following the consequent luminosity effects in a straightforward way enables the estimation of the evolution of bolometric luminosity. We have used our recently developed code for photometric evolution of galaxies to make a preliminary computation of the number-magnitude relationship, assuming a standard picture of galaxy evolution, in the B and K bands.

  17. Shape asymmetry: a morphological indicator for automatic detection of galaxies in the post-coalescence merger stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, M. M.; Wild, V.; Walcher, C. J.; Johansson, P. H.; Villforth, C.; Rowlands, K.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Hewlett, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new morphological indicator designed for automated recognition of galaxies with faint asymmetric tidal features suggestive of an ongoing or past merger. We use the new indicator, together with pre-existing diagnostics of galaxy structure to study the role of galaxy mergers in inducing (post-) starburst spectral signatures in local galaxies, and investigate whether (post-) starburst galaxies play a role in the build-up of the `red sequence'. Our morphological and structural analysis of an evolutionary sample of 335 (post-) starburst galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 with starburst ages 0 < tSB < 0.6 Gyr, shows that 45 per cent of galaxies with young starbursts (tSB < 0.1 Gyr) show signatures of an ongoing or past merger. This fraction declines with starburst age, and we find a good agreement between automated and visual classifications. The majority of the oldest (post-) starburst galaxies in our sample (tSB ˜ 0.6 Gyr) have structural properties characteristic of early-type discs and are not as highly concentrated as the fully quenched galaxies commonly found on the `red sequence' in the present day Universe. This suggests that, if (post-) starburst galaxies are a transition phase between active star-formation and quiescence, they do not attain the structure of presently quenched galaxies within the first 0.6 Gyr after the starburst.

  18. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. XI. The Merger Rate to Redshift 1 from Kinematic Pairs.

    PubMed

    Carlberg; Cohen; Patton; Blandford; Hogg; Yee; Morris; Lin; Hall; Sawicki; Wirth; Cowie; Hu; Songaila

    2000-03-20

    The rate of mass accumulation due to galaxy merging depends on the mass, density, and velocity distribution of galaxies in the near neighborhood of a host galaxy. The fractional luminosity in kinematic pairs combines all of these effects in a single estimator that is relatively insensitive to population evolution. Here we use a k-corrected and evolution-compensated volume-limited sample having an R-band absolute magnitude of Mk,eRGalaxy Redshift Survey and 3000 from the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology field galaxy survey to measure the rate and redshift evolution of merging. The combined sample has an approximately constant comoving number and luminosity density from redshift 0.1 to 1.1 (OmegaM=0.2, OmegaLambda=0.8); hence, any merger evolution will be dominated by correlation and velocity evolution, not density evolution. We identify kinematic pairs with projected separations less than either 50 or 100 h-1 kpc and rest-frame velocity differences of less than 1000 km s-1. The fractional luminosity in pairs is modeled as fL&parl0;Deltav,rp,Mk,er&parr0;&parl0;1+z&parr0;mL, where &sqbl0;fL,mL&sqbr0; are &sqbl0;0.14+/-0.07,0+/-1.4&sqbr0; and &sqbl0;0.37+/-0.7,0.1+/-0.5&sqbr0; for rpmerger rate, we use the data to derive a conversion factor to a physical space pair density, a merger probability, and a mean in-spiral time. The resulting mass accretion rate per galaxy (M1,M2>/=0.2M*) is 0.02+/-0.01&parl0;1+z&parr0;0.1+/-0.5M* Gyr-1. Present-day high-luminosity galaxies therefore have accreted approximately 0.15M* of their mass over the approximately 7 Gyr to redshift 1. Since merging is likely only weakly dependent on the host mass, the fractional effect, deltaM&solm0;M approximately 0.15M*&solm0;M, is dramatic for lower mass

  19. Major cluster mergers and the location of the brightest cluster galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Hugo; Robichaud, Fidèle; Barai, Paramita

    2014-05-10

    Using a large N-body cosmological simulation combined with a subgrid treatment of galaxy formation, merging, and tidal destruction, we study the formation and evolution of the galaxy and cluster population in a comoving volume (100 Mpc){sup 3} in a ΛCDM universe. At z = 0, our computational volume contains 1788 clusters with mass M {sub cl} > 1.1 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, including 18 massive clusters with M {sub cl} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}. It also contains 1, 088, 797 galaxies with mass M {sub gal} ≥ 2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and luminosity L > 9.5 × 10{sup 5} L {sub ☉}. For each cluster, we identified the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We then computed two separate statistics: the fraction f {sub BNC} of clusters in which the BCG is not the closest galaxy to the center of the cluster in projection, and the ratio Δv/σ, where Δv is the difference in radial velocity between the BCG and the whole cluster and σ is the radial velocity dispersion of the cluster. We found that f {sub BNC} increases from 0.05 for low-mass clusters (M {sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}) to 0.5 for high-mass clusters (M {sub cl} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}) with very little dependence on cluster redshift. Most of this result turns out to be a projection effect and when we consider three-dimensional distances instead of projected distances, f {sub BNC} increases only to 0.2 at high-cluster mass. The values of Δv/σ vary from 0 to 1.8, with median values in the range 0.03-0.15 when considering all clusters, and 0.12-0.31 when considering only massive clusters. These results are consistent with previous observational studies and indicate that the central galaxy paradigm, which states that the BCG should be at rest at the center of the cluster, is usually valid, but exceptions are too common to be ignored. We built merger trees for the 18 most massive clusters in the simulation. Analysis of these trees reveal that 16 of these clusters have experienced 1 or several major or semi

  20. THE INTERGALACTIC STELLAR POPULATION FROM MERGERS OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Garcia, A. Cesar; Stanghellini, Letizia; Manchado, Arturo

    2010-02-20

    We present simulations of dry-merger encounters between pairs of elliptical galaxies with dark matter halos. The aim of these simulations is to study the intergalactic (IG) stellar populations produced in both parabolic and hyperbolic encounters. We model progenitor galaxies with total-to-luminous mass ratios M{sub T} /M{sub L}= 3 and 11. The initial mass of the colliding galaxies are chosen so that M{sub 1}/M{sub 2} = 1 and 10. The model galaxies are populated by particles representing stars, as in Stanghellini et al., and dark matter. Merger remnants resulting from these encounters display a population of unbounded particles, both dark and luminous. The number of particles becoming unbounded depends on orbital configuration, with hyperbolic encounters producing a larger luminous intracluster population than parabolic encounters. Furthermore, in simulations with identical orbital parameters, a lower M{sub T} /M{sub L} of the colliding galaxies produces a larger fraction of unbounded luminous particles. For each modeled collision, the fraction of unbounded to initial stellar mass is the same in all mass bins considered, similarly to what we found previously by modeling encounters of galaxies without dark halos. The fraction of IG to total luminosity resulting from our simulations is {approx}4% and {approx}6% for dark-to-bright mass ratios of 10 and 2, respectively. These unbounded-to-total luminous fractions are down from the 17% that we had previously found in the case of no dark halos. Our results are in broad agreement with IG light observed in groups of galaxies, while the results of our previous models without dark halos better encompass observed intracluster populations. We suggest a possible formation scenario of IG stars.

  1. Comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with gasoline and ramses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Jared M.; Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code gasoline, and the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of subgrid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they fly by within 10 kpc at the first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star formation. We also note quantitative discrepancies that are model dependent: our ramses simulations show less star formation and black hole growth, and a smoother gas distribution with larger clumps and filaments than our gasoline simulations. We attribute these differences primarily to the subgrid models for black hole fueling, feedback, and gas thermodynamics. The main conclusion is that differences exist quantitatively between codes, and this should be kept in mind when making comparisons with observations. However, both codes capture the same dynamical behaviors in terms of triggering black hole accretion, star formation, and black hole dynamics, which is reassuring.

  2. Offset active galactic nuclei as tracers of galaxy mergers and supermassive black hole growth

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-10

    Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18,314 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km s{sup –1} < |Δv| < 410 km s{sup –1}. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4%-8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric luminosity, from 0.7% to 6% over the luminosity range 43 < log (L{sub bol}) [erg s{sup –1}] <46. If these candidates are shown to be bona fide offset AGNs, then this would be direct observational evidence that galaxy mergers preferentially trigger high-luminosity AGNs. Finally, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset AGN candidates increases from 1.9% at z = 0.1 to 32% at z = 0.7, in step with the growth in the galaxy merger fraction over the same redshift range.

  3. PREDICTING MERGER-INDUCED GAS MOTIONS IN ΛCDM GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.; Avestruz, Camille; Rudd, Douglas H.; Nelson, Kaylea

    2013-11-10

    In the hierarchical structure formation model, clusters of galaxies form through a sequence of mergers and continuous mass accretion, which generate significant random gas motions especially in their outskirts where material is actively accreting. Non-thermal pressure provided by the internal gas motions affects the thermodynamic structure of the X-ray emitting intracluster plasma and introduces biases in the physical interpretation of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect observations. However, we know very little about the nature of gas motions in galaxy clusters. The ASTRO-H X-ray mission, scheduled to launch in 2015, will have a calorimeter capable of measuring gas motions in galaxy clusters at the level of ∼< 100 km s{sup –1}. In this work, we predict the level of merger-induced gas motions expected in the ΛCDM model using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. We show that the gas velocity dispersion is larger in more massive clusters, but exhibits a large scatter. We show that systems with large gas motions are morphologically disturbed, while early forming, relaxed groups show a smaller level of gas motions. By analyzing mock ASTRO-H observations of simulated clusters, we show that such observations can accurately measure the gas velocity dispersion out to the outskirts of nearby relaxed galaxy clusters. ASTRO-H analysis of merging clusters, on the other hand, requires multi-component spectral fitting and enables unique studies of substructures in galaxy clusters by measuring both the peculiar velocities and the velocity dispersion of gas within individual sub-clusters.

  4. Galaxy Formation through Winds, Infall and Merger: Learning from Galactic Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.

    2010-06-01

    Here we show how we can dig the information on the prominent processes in galaxy evolution out of stellar records. Two studies are presented. First, the observed indication that the elemental abundance gradient evolves with cosmic time in the Milky Way disk is shown to be evidence of large-scale winds that once enriched the whole disk, which set up the steep abundance gradient in the inner disk several Gyr ago. Secondly, we show that evidence of a major merger in the SMC is imprinted in its age-metallicity relation as a dip in [Fe/H]. Our theoretical models predict that the major merger with a mass ratio of 1:1 to 1:4 occurred at ~7.5 Gyr ago in the SMC.

  5. CSS Object Found in Galaxy Merger 1015+364 at 2.3 and 8.5 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, Antonio J.; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Other people involved

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ongoing galaxy merger 1015+364 at 2.3 and 8.5 Hz with the Very Long Baseline Array to determine the state of evolution of the merger's resident supermassive black holes. During the merger of two massive galaxies, we expect that the two supermassive black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. In our observations we detected a highly compact radio source with an extent of 21.14 parsecs. For each of two detected radio components, we measured their flux density and spectral index. By looking at their spectra, we concluded our radio detection to be a Compact Steep-Spectrum object (CSS), indicating a young radio object less than a few thousand years in age. This result hints at a connection between the recent merger and the ignition of the central radio source.

  6. Early formation of massive, compact, spheroidal galaxies with classical profiles by violent disc instability or mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Tweed, Dylan; Primack, Joel

    2015-03-01

    We address the formation of massive stellar spheroids between redshifts z = 4 and 1 using a suite of adaptive mesh refinement hydrocosmological simulations. The spheroids form as bulges, and the spheroid mass growth is partly driven by violent disc instability (VDI) and partly by mergers. A kinematic decomposition to disc and spheroid yields that the mass fraction in the spheroid is between 50 and 90 per cent and is roughly constant in time, consistent with a cosmological steady state of VDI discs that are continuously fed from the cosmic web. The density profile of the spheroid is typically `classical', with a Sérsic index n = 4.5 ± 1, independent of whether it grew by mergers or VDI and independent of the feedback strength. The disc is characterized by n = 1.5 ± 0.5, and the whole galaxy by n = 3 ± 1. The high-redshift spheroids are compact due to the dissipative inflow of gas and the high universal density. The stellar surface density within the effective radius of each galaxy as it evolves remains roughly constant in time after its first growth. For galaxies of a fixed stellar mass, the surface density is higher at higher redshifts.

  7. Gap formation and its consequence in the evolution of SMBHs binaries in galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Valle, L.; Escala, A.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies a massive gaseous disk with a SMBH binary will be formed in the nuclear region of the remnant, we study the interaction between an unequal mass binary and an isothermal circumbinary disk. We focus our study in the transport of angular momentum from the binary to the disk and how this transport can result on the formation of a cavity or gap in the gaseous disk. We propose that, for comparable mass binaries, this exchange of angular momentum is driven by the gravitational interaction of the binary and a strong non-axisymmetric density perturbation that is formed in the disk as response to the presence of the gravitational field of the binary. We compare the efficiency of this gravitational torque on extract angular momentum from the binary with the efficiency of redistribution of the extracted angular momentum in the disk to derive a gap-opening criterion. We run a set of SPH simulations of binaries embedded in isothermal gaseous disks to test our gap-opening criterion. We find that our gap-opening criterion successfully predicts in which simulations a gap will form on the disk. We also run simulations of merging galaxies and we apply our criterion to the more real SMBHB-Disk systems that are formed in situ in these simulations. We find that, in the conditions of our galaxy mergers simulations, the formation of a circumbinary gap is unlikely.

  8. The distribution of dark and luminous matter in the unique galaxy cluster merger Abell 2146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lindsay J.; Clowe, Douglas I.; Coleman, Joseph E.; Russell, Helen R.; Santana, Rebecca; White, Jacob A.; Canning, Rebecca E. A.; Deering, Nicole J.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Lee, Brandyn E.; Li, Baojiu; McNamara, Brian R.

    2016-06-01

    Abell 2146 (z = 0.232) consists of two galaxy clusters undergoing a major merger. The system was discovered in previous work, where two large shock fronts were detected using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, consistent with a merger close to the plane of the sky, caught soon after first core passage. A weak gravitational lensing analysis of the total gravitating mass in the system, using the distorted shapes of distant galaxies seen with Advanced Camera for Surveys - Wide Field Channel on Hubble Space Telescope, is presented. The highest peak in the reconstruction of the projected mass is centred on the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in Abell 2146-A. The mass associated with Abell 2146-B is more extended. Bootstrapped noise mass reconstructions show the mass peak in Abell 2146-A to be consistently centred on the BCG. Previous work showed that BCG-A appears to lag behind an X-ray cool core; although the peak of the mass reconstruction is centred on the BCG, it is also consistent with the X-ray peak given the resolution of the weak lensing mass map. The best-fitting mass model with two components centred on the BCGs yields M200 = 1.1^{+0.3}_{-0.4} × 1015 and 3^{+1}_{-2} × 1014 M⊙ for Abell 2146-A and Abell 2146-B, respectively, assuming a mass concentration parameter of c = 3.5 for each cluster. From the weak lensing analysis, Abell 2146-A is the primary halo component, and the origin of the apparent discrepancy with the X-ray analysis where Abell 2146-B is the primary halo is being assessed using simulations of the merger.

  9. Major Mergers with Small Galaxies: The Discovery of a Magellanic-type Galaxy at z = 0.12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Frank, Matthias J.; Pasquali, Anna; Rich, R. Michael; Rabitz, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We report on the serendipitous discovery of a star-forming galaxy at redshift z = 0.116 with morphological features that indicate an ongoing merger. This object exhibits two clearly separated components with significantly different colors, plus a possible tidal stream. Follow-up spectroscopy of the bluer component revealed a low star-forming activity of 0.09 M⊙ yr-1 and a high metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.6. Based on comparison with mass-star formation-rate and mass-metallicity relations, and on fitting of spectral energy distributions, we obtain a stellar mass of 3 × 109 M⊙, which renders this object comparable to the Large Magellanic Cloud. Thus our finding provides a further piece of evidence of a major merger already acting on small, dwarf-galaxy-like scales. Based on data obtained at the WIYN facility and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in Germany, the United States, and Italy. LBT Corporation partners are: LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing Heidelberg University, the Max-Planck Society, and the Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam. The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia.

  10. 3D spectroscopy of merger Seyfert galaxy Mrk 334: nuclear starburst, superwind and the circumnuclear cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Moiseev, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    We are presenting new results on kinematics and structure of the Mrk 334 Seyfert galaxy. Panoramic (3D) spectroscopy is performed at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences using the integral-field Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS) and scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The deep images have revealed that Mrk 334 is observed during the final stage of its merging with a massive companion. A possible mass ratio ranges from 1/5 to 1/3. The merger has triggered mass redistribution in the disc resulting in an intensification of nuclear activity and in a burst of star formation in the inner region of the galaxy. The circumnuclear starburst is so intense that its contribution to the gas ionization exceeds that contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). We interpret the nuclear gas outflow with velocities of ~200kms-1 as a galactic superwind that accompanies the violent star formation. This suggestion is consistent with the asymmetric X-ray brightness distribution in Mrk 334. The trajectory of the fragments of the disrupted satellite in the vicinity of the main galaxy nucleus can be traced. In the galaxy disc, a cavern is found that is filled with a low-density ionized gas. We consider this region to be the place where the remnants of the companion have recently penetrated through the gaseous disc of the main galaxy.

  11. The influence of the merger history of dwarf galaxies in a reionized universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, Robbert; Vandenbroucke, Bert; De Rijcke, Sven; Koleva, Mina

    2015-08-01

    In the ΛCDM model, cosmic structure forms in a hierarchical fashion. According to this paradigm, even low-mass dwarf galaxies grow via smooth accretion and mergers. Given the low masses of dwarf galaxies and their even smaller progenitors, the UV background is expected to have a significant influence on their gas content and, consequently, their star formation histories. Generally, cosmological simulations predict that most dwarf systems with circular velocities below ~30 km/s should not be able to form significant amounts of stars or contain gas and be, in effect, "dark" galaxies (Sawala et al. 2013, 2014; Hopkins et al. 2014; Shen et al. 2014). This is in contradiction with the recent discovery of low-mass yet gas-rich dwarf galaxies, such as Leo P (Skillman et al. 2013), Pisces A (Tollerud et al. 2014), and SECCO 1 (Bellazzini et al. 2015). Moreover, Tollerud et al. (2014) point out that most isolated dark-matter halos down to circular velocities of ~15 km/s contain neutral gas, in contradiction with the predictions of current simulations.Based on a suite of simulations of the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies we show that, by reducing the first peak of star formation by including Pop-III stars in the simulations, the resulting dwarf galaxies have severely suppressed SFRs and can hold on to their gas reservoirs. Moreover, we show that the majority of the zero-metallicity stars are ejected during mergers, resulting in an extended, low-metallicity stellar halo. This results in a marked difference between a galaxy's "total" star-formation history and the one read from the stars in the center of the galaxy at z=0. This mechanism leads to the formation of realistic low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs with a broad range of SFHs and which adhere to the observed scaling relations, such as the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation.In short, the simulations presented here are for the first time able to reproduce the observed properties of low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs such as DDO 210

  12. Turbulent mixing of chemical elements in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liubin

    Chemical elements synthesized in stars are released into the interstellar medium (ISM) from discrete and localized events such as supernova (SN) explosions and stellar winds. The efficiency of transport and mixing of the new nucleosynthesis products in the ISM determines the degree of chemical inhomogeneity in the galaxy, which is observable in objects of the same age, such as coeval stars and the ISM today. It also has implications for the transition from metal-poor to normal star formation in high-redshift galaxies. We develop a physical mixing model for chemical homogenization in the turbulent ISM of galaxies using modern theories and methods for passive scalar turbulence. A turbulent velocity field stretches, compresses and folds tracers into structures of smaller and smaller scales that can be homogenized faster by microscopic diffusivity, the only physical process that truly mixes. From a model that incorporates this physical process, an evolution equation for the probability distribution of the tracer concentration is derived. Including the processes of new metal release, infall of low metallicity gas and incorporation of metals into new stars in the equation, we establish a new approach to investigate chemical inhomogeneity in galaxies: a kinetic equation for the metallicity probability distribution function, containing all the 1-point statistical information of the metallicity fluctuations. Motivated by a recent interpretation of ultraviolet properties of high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies, we apply this approach to study mixing of primordial gas in these galaxies and find that primordial gas can survive for ~ 100 Myr in the presence of continuous metal sources and turbulent mixing if the unlikely efficient mixing in SN shells is excluded. Recent observations show that the Galaxy has been extremely homogeneous during most of its history. In an attempt to understand the homogeneity using our approach, we find that standard chemical evolution models without

  13. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. IV. A Method to Determine the Average Mass Ratio of Mergers That Built Massive Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Song; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Li, Zhao-Yu; Barth, Aaron J.

    2016-04-01

    Many recent observations and numerical simulations suggest that nearby massive, early-type galaxies (ETGs) were formed through a “two-phase” process. In the proposed second phase, the extended stellar envelope was accumulated through many dry mergers. However, details of the past merger history of present-day ellipticals, such as the typical merger mass ratio, are difficult to constrain observationally. Within the context and assumptions of the two-phase formation scenario, we propose a straightforward method, using photometric data alone, to estimate the average mass ratio of mergers that contributed to the build-up of massive elliptical galaxies. We study a sample of nearby massive elliptical galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using two-dimensional analysis to decompose their light distribution into an inner, denser component plus an extended, outer envelope, each having a different optical color. The combination of these two substructures accurately recovers the negative color gradient exhibited by the galaxy as whole. The color difference between the two components (< {{Δ }}(B{--}V)> ≃ 0.10 mag; < {{Δ }}(B{--}R)> ≃ 0.14 mag), based on the slope of the M*–color relation for nearby ETGs, can be translated into an estimate of the average mass ratio of the mergers. The rough estimate, 1:5 to 1:10, is consistent with the expectation of the two-phase formation scenario, suggesting that minor mergers were largely responsible for building up the outer stellar envelopes of present-day massive ellipticals. With the help of accurate photometry, large sample sizes and more choices of colors promised by ongoing and future surveys, the approach proposed here can provide more insights into the growth of massive galaxies during the last few Gyr.

  14. Merger traces in the spatial distribution of stellar populations in the Fornax dSph galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino, Andrés; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive and detailed study of the stellar populations of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We analyse their spatial distributions along the main body of the galaxy, obtaining their surface density maps, together with their radial density profiles. Results are based on the largest and most complete catalogue of stars in Fornax, with more than 3.5 × 105 stars covering the main body of the galaxy up to V ˜ 24. We find a differentiated structure in Fornax depending on the stellar ages. Old stars (≳10 Gyr) follow an elliptical distribution well fitted by King profiles with relatively large core radius (rc = 760 ± 60 pc). On another hand, young populations (≲3 Gyr) concentrate in the central region of the galaxy (rc = 210 ± 10 pc), and are better fitted by Sérsic profiles with 0.8 < n < 1.2, indicating some discy shape. These stars show strong asymmetries and substructures not aligned with the main optical axes of Fornax. This together with the observed differences between metallicity and age distribution maps strongly suggests accretion of material with different angular momentum. These results lead us to propose a scenario in which Fornax has suffered a major merger at z ˜ 1.

  15. Multi-wavelength Observations of the Dissociative Merger in the Galaxy Cluster CIZA J0107.7+5408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. W.; Clarke, T. E.; van Weeren, R. J.; Intema, H. T.; Dawson, W. A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Blanton, E. L.; Bulbul, E.; Giacintucci, S.

    2016-06-01

    We present results based on X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the massive galaxy cluster CIZA J0107.7+5408. We find that this system is a post-core-passage, dissociative, binary merger, with the optical galaxy density peaks of each subcluster leading their associated X-ray emission peaks. This separation occurs because the diffuse gas experiences ram pressure forces, while the effectively collisionless galaxies (and presumably their associated dark matter (DM) halos) do not. This system contains double-peaked diffuse radio emission, possibly a double radio relic with the relics lying along the merger axis and also leading the X-ray cores. We find evidence for a temperature peak associated with the SW relic, likely created by the same merger shock that is powering the relic radio emission in this region. Thus, this system is a relatively rare, clean example of a dissociative binary merger, which can in principle be used to place constraints on the self-interaction cross-section of DM. Low-frequency radio observations reveal ultra-steep spectrum diffuse radio emission that is not correlated with the X-ray, optical, or high-frequency radio emission. We suggest that these sources are radio phoenixes, which are preexisting non-thermal particle populations that have been re-energized through adiabatic compression by the same merger shocks that power the radio relics. Finally, we place upper limits on inverse Compton emission from the SW radio relic.

  16. Effects of Mergers and Dynamical State on Galaxy Clusters in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Katherine L.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties, which result in large bias and scatter in the hydrostatic mass estimate. In this work, we analyze a sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 high-resolution hydrodynamic cosmological simulation to examine the effects of dynamical state on non-thermal pressure. We use the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, an Eulerian grid-based adaptive refinement mesh code, which is well suited for modeling shock heating of gas and generation of bulk and turbulent motions from cosmic accretion. We examine the effects of cluster mergers on the hydrostatic mass bias and the evolution of non-thermal pressure. We find that during a major merger about a third of the total pressure support in the system is in non-thermal pressure from random gas motions, which leads to a ~30% bias in the hydrostatic mass estimate. Even after the clusters relax, we find a residual 10% bias due to the residual non-thermal pressure sustained by continuous gas accretion and minor mergers in cluster outskirts. However, when the non-thermal pressure support is accounted for in the mass estimates of relaxed clusters, we are able to recover the true mass to within a few percent. Moreover, by accounting for the additional pressure contribution from gas accelerations, we find that the bias in the HSE can be reduced by about half for our whole cluster sample. We also characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate. We find a universal, redshift-independent fitting formula for describing the fractional pressure support due to bulk motions. Within the relation, we find that the mass accretion rate has a systematic effect on the amount of non-thermal pressure in clusters

  17. Creation of cosmic structure in the complex galaxy cluster merger Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, J.; Coe, D.; Dupke, R.; Massey, R.; Zitrin, A.; Cypriano, E. S.; Okabe, N.; Frye, B.; Braglia, F. G.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Rhodes, J.; Meneghetti, M.; Moustakas, L. A.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Krick, J.; Bregman, J. N.

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed strong-lensing, weak-lensing and X-ray analysis of Abell 2744 (z= 0.308), one of the most actively merging galaxy clusters known. It appears to have unleashed 'dark', 'ghost', 'bullet' and 'stripped' substructures, each ˜1014 M⊙. The phenomenology is complex and will present a challenge for numerical simulations to reproduce. With new, multiband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, we identify 34 strongly lensed images of 11 galaxies around the massive Southern 'core'. Combining this with weak-lensing data from HST, VLT and Subaru, we produce the most detailed mass map of this cluster to date. We also perform an independent analysis of archival Chandra X-ray imaging. Our analyses support a recent claim that the Southern core and Northwestern substructure are post-merger and exhibit morphology similar to the Bullet Cluster viewed from an angle. From the separation between X-ray emitting gas and lensing mass in the Southern core, we derive a new and independent constraint on the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter particles σ/m < 3 ± 1 cm2 g-1. In the Northwestern substructure, the gas, dark matter and galaxy components have become separated by much larger distances. Most curiously, the 'ghost' clump (primarily gas) leads the 'dark' clump (primarily dark matter) by more than 150 kpc. We propose an enhanced 'ram-pressure slingshot' scenario which may have yielded this reversal of components with such a large separation, but needs further confirmation by follow-up observations and numerical simulations. A secondary merger involves a second 'bullet' clump in the North and an extremely 'stripped' clump to the West. The latter appears to exhibit the largest separation between dark matter and X-ray emitting baryons detected to date in our sky.

  18. AKARI observations of dust processing in merger galaxies: NGC2782 and NGC7727

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Mori, Tamami; Wu, Ronin; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2015-08-01

    Dust grains are the major reservoir of heavy elements and play significant roles in the thermal balance and chemistry in the interstellar medium. Where dust grains are formed and how they evolve in the ISM are one of the key issues for the understanding of the material evolution in the Universe. Although theoretical studies have been made, very little is so far known observationally about the lifecycle of dust grains in the ISM and that associated with Galactic scale events. The lifecycle of very small carbonaceous grains that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or PAH-like atomic groups are of particular interest because they emit distinct band emission in the near- to mid-infrared region and they are thought to be most vulnerable to environmental conditions. PAHs may be formed in carbon-rich stars, while recent AKARI observations suggest that they may be formed by fragmentation of large carbonaceous grains in shocks in a supernova remnant or a galactic wind (Onaka et al. 2010, A&A, 514, 15; Seok et al. 2012, ApJ, 744, 160).Here we report results of AKARI observations of two mergers. NGC2782 (Arp 215) and NGC7727 (Arp 222). NGC2782 is a merger of 200Myr old. It shows a very long western tail of HI gas by a tidal interaction and the eastern tail that consists mainly of stellar components without an appreciable amount of gas and is thought to be a relic of the colliding low-mass galaxy whose gas component has been stripped off Smith 1994, AJ, 107, 1695. We found significant emission at the 7 μm band of the IRC onboard AKARI, which must come from PAH 6.2 and 7.7 μm bands, in the eastern tail. Based on dust model fitting, we found a low abundance of ~10nm size dust despite of the presence of PAHs, suggesting that PAHs may be formed from fragmentation of ~10nm carbonaceous dust grains. NGC7727 is a 1.2Gyr old merger and shows a SED similar to the NGC2782 tail in the northern tail of the merger event product, suggesting also the formation of PAHs from

  19. Evolution of blue E/S0 galaxies from z ~ 1: merger remnants or disk-rebuilding galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Tresse, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Maier, C.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Studying outliers from the bimodal distribution of galaxies in the color-mass space, such as morphological early-type galaxies residing in the blue cloud (blue E/S0s), can help for better understanding the physical mechanisms that lead galaxy migrations in this space. Aims: In this paper we try to bring new clues to studying the evolution of the properties of a significant sample of blue E/S0 galaxies in the COSMOS field. Methods: We define blue E/S0 galaxies as objects having a clear early-type morphology on the HST/ACS images (according to our automated classification scheme galSVM) but with a blue rest-frame color (defined by using the SED best-fit template on the COSMOS primary photometric catalogs). Combining these two measurements with spectroscopic redshifts from the zCOSMOS 10k release, we isolated 210 IAB < 22 blue early-type galaxies with M_*/M_⊙ > 1010 in three redshift bins (0.2 < z < 0.55, 0.55 < z < 0.8, 0.8 < z < 1.4) and studied the evolution of their properties (number density, SFR, morphology, size). Results: The threshold mass (Mt), defined at z = 0 in previous studies as the mass below which the population of blue early-type galaxies starts to be abundant relative to passive E/S0s, evolves from log (M_*/M_⊙) ~ 10.1 ± 0.35 at z ~ 0.3 to log (M_*/M_⊙) ~ 10.9 ± 0.35 at z ~ 1. Interestingly, it follows the evolution of the crossover mass between the early and late type populations (bimodality mass) indicating that the abundance of blue E/S0 is another measure of the downsizing effect in the build-up of the red sequence. There seems to be a turn-over mass in the nature of blue E/S0 galaxies. Above log (M_*/M_⊙) ~ 10.8 blue E/S0 resemble to merger remnants probably migrating to the red sequence on a time scale of ˜3 Gyr. Below this mass, they seem to be closer to normal late-type galaxies, as if they were the result of minor mergers that triggered the central star formation and built a central bulge component or were (re)building a

  20. TESTING A PREDICTION OF THE MERGER ORIGIN OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: A CORRELATION BETWEEN STELLAR POPULATIONS AND ASYMMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gyory, Zsuzsanna; Bell, Eric F. E-mail: ericbell@umich.ed

    2010-11-20

    One of the key predictions of the merger hypothesis for the origin of early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies is that tidally induced asymmetric structure should correlate with signatures of a relatively young stellar population. Such a signature was found by Schweizer and Seitzer at roughly 4{sigma} confidence. In this paper, we revisit this issue with a nearly ten-fold larger sample of 0.01 < z < 0.03 galaxies selected from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We parameterize tidal structure using a repeatable algorithmic measure of asymmetry, and correlate this with color offset from the early-type galaxy color-magnitude relation. We recover the color offset-asymmetry correlation; furthermore, we demonstrate observationally for the first time that this effect is driven by a highly significant trend toward younger ages at higher asymmetry values. We present a simple model for the evolution of early-type galaxies through gas-rich major and minor mergers that reproduces their observed buildup from z = 1 to the present day and the distribution of present-day colors and ages. We show using this model that if both stellar populations and asymmetry were ideal 'clocks' measuring the time since last major or minor gas-rich interaction, then we would expect a rather tight correlation between age and asymmetry. We suggest that the source of extra scatter is natural diversity in progenitor star formation history, gas content, and merger mass ratio, but quantitative confirmation of this conjecture will require sophisticated modeling. We conclude that the asymmetry-age correlation is in basic accord with the merger hypothesis, and indicates that an important fraction of the early-type galaxy population is affected by major or minor mergers at cosmologically recent times.

  1. X-Ray Emission from a Merger Remnant, NGC 7252 (the ``Atoms-for-Peace'' Galaxy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tomida, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    We observed a nearby merger remnant NGC 7252 with the X-ray satellite ASCA and detected X-ray emission with the X-ray flux of (1.8+/-0.3)×10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-10 keV band. This corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 8.1×1040 ergs s-1. The X-ray emission is well described with a two-component model: a soft component with kT=0.72+/-0.13 keV and a hard component with kT>5.1 keV. Although NGC 7252 is referred to as a dynamically young protoelliptical, the 0.5-4 keV luminosity of the soft component is about 2×1040 ergs s-1, which is low for an early-type galaxy. The ratio of LX/LFIR suggests that the soft component originated from the hot gas due to star formation. Its low luminosity can be explained by the gas ejection from the galaxy as galaxy winds. Our observation reveals the existence of hard X-ray emission with the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5.6×1040 ergs s-1. This may indicate the existence of nuclear activity or an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 7252.

  2. Simulating the Galaxy Cluster “El Gordo” and Identifying the Merger Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2015-11-01

    The observational features of the massive galaxy cluster “El Gordo” (ACT-CL J0102-4915), such as the X-ray emission, the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect, and the surface mass density distribution, indicate that they are caused by an exceptional ongoing high-speed collision of two galaxy clusters, similar to the well-known Bullet Cluster. We perform a series of hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the merging scenario and identify the initial conditions for the collision in ACT-CL J0102-4915. By surveying the parameter space of the various physical quantities that describe the two colliding clusters, including their total mass (M), mass ratio (ξ), gas fractions ({f}{{b}}), initial relative velocity (V), and impact parameter (P), we find an off-axis merger with P˜ 800 {h}70-1 {kpc}, V˜ 2500 {km} {{{s}}}-1, M˜ 3× {10}15 {M}⊙ , and ξ =3.6 that can lead to most of the main observational features of ACT-CL J0102-4915. Those features include the morphology of the X-ray emission with a remarkable wake-like substructure trailing after the secondary cluster, the X-ray luminosity and the temperature distributions, and also the SZ temperature decrement. The initial relative velocity required for the merger is extremely high and rare compared to that inferred from currently available Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological simulations, which raises a potential challenge to the ΛCDM model, in addition to the case of the Bullet Cluster.

  3. Simulating the Galaxy Cluster “El Gordo” and Identifying the Merger Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2015-11-01

    The observational features of the massive galaxy cluster “El Gordo” (ACT-CL J0102–4915), such as the X-ray emission, the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect, and the surface mass density distribution, indicate that they are caused by an exceptional ongoing high-speed collision of two galaxy clusters, similar to the well-known Bullet Cluster. We perform a series of hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the merging scenario and identify the initial conditions for the collision in ACT-CL J0102–4915. By surveying the parameter space of the various physical quantities that describe the two colliding clusters, including their total mass (M), mass ratio (ξ), gas fractions ({f}{{b}}), initial relative velocity (V), and impact parameter (P), we find an off-axis merger with P∼ 800 {h}70-1 {kpc}, V∼ 2500 {km} {{{s}}}-1, M∼ 3× {10}15 {M}ȯ , and ξ =3.6 that can lead to most of the main observational features of ACT-CL J0102–4915. Those features include the morphology of the X-ray emission with a remarkable wake-like substructure trailing after the secondary cluster, the X-ray luminosity and the temperature distributions, and also the SZ temperature decrement. The initial relative velocity required for the merger is extremely high and rare compared to that inferred from currently available Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological simulations, which raises a potential challenge to the ΛCDM model, in addition to the case of the Bullet Cluster.

  4. The growth of the galaxy cluster Abell 85: mergers, shocks, stripping and seeding of clumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinohe, Y.; Werner, N.; Simionescu, A.; Allen, S. W.; Canning, R. E. A.; Ehlert, S.; Mernier, F.; Takahashi, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of deep Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 85, which is currently undergoing at least two mergers, and in addition shows evidence for gas sloshing which extends out to r ≈ 600 kpc. One of the two infalling subclusters, to the south of the main cluster centre, has a dense, X-ray bright cool core and a tail extending to the south-east. The northern edge of this tail is strikingly smooth and sharp (narrower than the Coulomb mean free path of the ambient gas) over a length of 200 kpc, while towards the south-west the boundary of the tail is blurred and bent, indicating a difference in the plasma transport properties between these two edges. The thermodynamic structure of the tail strongly supports an overall north-westward motion. We propose, that a sloshing-induced tangential, ambient, coherent gas flow is bending the tail eastwards. The brightest galaxy of this subcluster is at the leading edge of the dense core, and is trailed by the tail of stripped gas, suggesting that the cool core of the subcluster has been almost completely destroyed by the time it reached its current radius of r ≈ 500 kpc. The surface-brightness excess, likely associated with gas stripped from the infalling southern subcluster, extends towards the south-east out to at least r500 of the main cluster, indicating that the stripping of infalling subclusters may seed gas inhomogeneities. The second merging subcluster appears to be a diffuse non-cool-core system. Its merger is likely supersonic with a Mach number of ≈1.4.

  5. Forming Disk Galaxies in Wet Major Mergers. I. Three Fiducial Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.; Peschken, N.; Lambert, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Using three fiducial N-body+SPH simulations, we follow the merging of two disk galaxies that each have a hot gaseous halo component, and examine whether the merger remnant can be a spiral galaxy. The stellar progenitor disks are destroyed by violent relaxation during the merging and most of their stars form a classical bulge, while the remaining stars, as well as stars born during the merging times, form a thick disk and its bar. A new stellar disk forms subsequently and gradually in the remnant from the gas accreted mainly from the halo. It is vertically thin and well extended in its equatorial plane. A bar starts forming before the disk is fully in place, which is contrary to what is assumed in idealized simulations of isolated bar-forming galaxies, and has morphological features such as ansae and boxy/peanut bulges. Stars of different ages populate different parts of the box/peanut. A disky pseudobulge also forms, so that by the end of the simulation all three types of bulges coexist. The oldest stars are found in the classical bulge, followed by those of the thick disk, then by those in the thin disk. The youngest stars are in the spiral arms and the disky pseudobulge. The disk surface density profiles are of type II (exponential with downbending); the circular velocity curves are flat and show that the disks are submaximum in these examples: two clearly so and one near-borderline between maximum and submaximum. On average, only roughly between 10% and 20% of the stellar mass is in the classical bulge of the final models, i.e., much less than in previous simulations.

  6. The Impact of Galaxy Cluster Mergers on Cosmological Parameter Estimation from Surveys of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Ricker, Paul M.; Randall, Scott W.

    2008-06-01

    Sensitive surveys of the cosmic microwave background will detect thousands of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Two SZ observables, the central or maximum and integrated Comptonization parameters ymax and Y, relate in a simple way to the total cluster mass, which allows the construction of mass functions (MFs) that can be used to estimate cosmological parameters such as ΩM, σ8, and the dark energy parameter w. However, clusters form from the mergers of smaller structures, events that can disrupt the equilibrium of intracluster gas on which SZ- M relations rely. From a set of N-body/hydrodynamical simulations of binary cluster mergers, we calculate the evolution of Y and ymax over the course of merger events and find that both parameters are transiently "boosted," primarily during the first core passage. We then use a semianalytic technique developed by Randall et al. to estimate the effect of merger boosts on the distribution functions YF and yF of Y and ymax, respectively, via cluster merger histories determined from extended Press-Schechter (PS) merger trees. We find that boosts do not induce an overall systematic effect on YFs, and the values of ΩM, σ8, and w were returned to within 2% of values expected from the nonboosted YFs. The boosted yFs are significantly biased, however, causing ΩM to be underestimated by 15%-45%, σ8 to be overestimated by 10%-25%, and w to be pushed to more negative values by 25%-45%. We confirm that the integrated SZ effect, Y, is far more robust to mergers than ymax, as previously reported by Motl et al. and similarly found for the X-ray equivalent YX, and we conclude that Y is the superior choice for constraining cosmological parameters.

  7. Long-term Evolution of Massive Black Hole Binaries. IV. Mergers of Galaxies with Collisionally Relaxed Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualandris, Alessia; Merritt, David

    2012-01-01

    We simulate mergers between galaxies containing collisionally relaxed nuclei around massive black holes (MBHs). Our galaxies contain four mass groups, representative of old stellar populations; a primary goal is to understand the distribution of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) after the merger. Mergers are followed using direct-summation N-body simulations, assuming a mass ratio of 1:3 and two different orbits. Evolution of the binary MBH is followed until its separation has shrunk by a factor of 20 below the hard-binary separation. During the galaxy merger, large cores are carved out in the stellar distribution, with radii several times the influence radius of the massive binary. Much of the pre-existing mass segregation is erased during this phase. We follow the evolution of the merged galaxies for approximately three central relaxation times after coalescence of the massive binary; both standard and top-heavy mass functions are considered. The cores that were formed in the stellar distribution persist, and the distribution of the stellar-mass BHs evolves against this essentially fixed background. Even after one central relaxation time, these models look very different from the relaxed, multi-mass models that are often assumed to describe the distribution of stars and stellar remnants near a massive BH. While the stellar BHs do form a cusp on roughly a relaxation timescale, the BH density can be much smaller than in those models. We discuss the implications of our results for the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral problem and for the existence of Bahcall-Wolf cusps.

  8. THE ROLE OF STARBURST-ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS COMPOSITES IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY MERGERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B. E-mail: kewley@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the fraction of starbursts, starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) composites, Seyferts, and low-ionization narrow emission-line region galaxies (LINERs) as a function of infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}) and merger progress for approx500 infrared (IR)-selected galaxies. Using the new optical classifications afforded by the extremely large data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the fraction of LINERs in IR-selected samples is rare (<5%) compared with other spectral types. The lack of strong IR emission in LINERs is consistent with recent optical studies suggesting that LINERs contain AGN with lower accretion rates than in Seyfert galaxies. Most previously classified IR-luminous LINERs are classified as starburst-AGN composite galaxies in the new scheme. Starburst-AGN composites appear to 'bridge' the spectral evolution from starburst to AGN in ULIRGs. The relative strength of the AGN versus starburst activity shows a significant increase at high IR luminosity. In ULIRGs (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}), starburst-AGN composite galaxies dominate at early-intermediate stages of the merger, and AGN galaxies dominate during the final merger stages. Our results are consistent with models for IR-luminous galaxies where mergers of gas-rich spirals fuel both starburst and AGN, and where the AGN becomes increasingly dominant during the final merger stages of the most luminous IR objects.

  9. Evidence for major mergers of galaxies at 2 ≲ z < 4 in the VVDS and VUDS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Wang, P.-W.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Tresse, L.; Bardelli, S.; Contini, T.; Charlot, S.; Cucciati, O.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Salvato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The mass assembly of galaxies can proceed through different physical processes. Here we report on the spectroscopic identification of close physical pairs of galaxies at redshifts 2 ≲ z< 4 and discuss the impact of major mergers in building galaxies at these early cosmological times. Aims: We aim to identify and characterize close physical pairs of galaxies destined to merge and use their properties to infer the contribution of merging processes to the early mass assembly of galaxies. Methods: We searched for galaxy pairs with a transverse separation rp ≤ 25h-1 kpc and a velocity difference Δv ≤ 500 km s-1 using early data from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) that comprise a sample of 1111 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts measurements at redshifts 1.8 ≤ z ≤ 4 in the COSMOS, ECDFS, and VVDS-02h fields, combined with VVDS data. We analysed their spectra and associated visible and near-infrared photometry to assess the main properties of merging galaxies that have an average stellar mass M⋆ = 2.3 × 1010 M⊙ at these redshifts. Results: Using the 12 physical pairs found in our sample we obtain a first robust measurement of the major merger fraction at these redshifts, fMM = 19.4-6+9%. These pairs are expected to merge within 1 Gyr on average each producing a more massive galaxy by the time the cosmic star formation peaks at z ~ 1 - 2. Using the pairs' merging time scales, we derive a merging rate of RMM = 0.17-0.05+0.08 Gyr-1. From the average mass ratio between galaxies in the pairs, the stellar mass of the resulting galaxy after merging will be ~60% higher than the most massive galaxy in the pair before merging. We conclude that major merging of galaxy pairs is on-going at 2 ≲ z< 4 and is significantly contributing to the major mass assembly phase of galaxies at this early epoch. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Programmes 070.A-9007, 177.A-0837, and 185.A

  10. A 2163: Merger events in the hottest Abell galaxy cluster. I. Dynamical analysis from optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurogordato, S.; Cappi, A.; Ferrari, C.; Benoist, C.; Mars, G.; Soucail, G.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Bourdin, H.; Sauvageot, J.-L.

    2008-04-01

    Context: A 2163 is among the richest and most distant Abell clusters, presenting outstanding properties in different wavelength domains. X-ray observations have revealed a distorted gas morphology and strong features have been detected in the temperature map, suggesting that merging processes are important in this cluster. However, the merging scenario is not yet well-defined. Aims: We have undertaken a complementary optical analysis, aiming to understand the dynamics of the system, to constrain the merging scenario and to test its effect on the properties of galaxies. Methods: We present a detailed optical analysis of A 2163 based on new multicolor wide-field imaging and medium-to-high resolution spectroscopy of several hundred galaxies. Results: The projected galaxy density distribution shows strong subclustering with two dominant structures: a main central component (A), and a northern component (B), visible both in optical and in X-ray, with two other substructures detected at high significance in the optical. At magnitudes fainter than R=19, the galaxy distribution shows a clear elongation approximately with the east-west axis extending over 4~h70-1 Mpc, while a nearly perpendicular bridge of galaxies along the north-south axis appears to connect (B) to (A). The (A) component shows a bimodal morphology, and the positions of its two density peaks depend on galaxy luminosity: at magnitudes fainter than R = 19, the axis joining the peaks shows a counterclockwise rotation (from NE/SW to E-W) centered on the position of the X-ray maximum. Our final spectroscopic catalog of 512 objects includes 476 new galaxy redshifts. We have identified 361 galaxies as cluster members; among them, 326 have high precision redshift measurements, which allow us to perform a detailed dynamical analysis of unprecedented accuracy. The cluster mean redshift and velocity dispersion are respectively z= 0.2005 ± 0.0003 and 1434 ± 60 km s-1. We spectroscopically confirm that the northern

  11. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 μm Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field. II. The Role of Mergers in Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C. T.; McCracken, H. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Trump, J.; Baldassare, V. F.; Fiorenza, S. L.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the morphological properties of a large sample of 1503 70 μm selected galaxies in the COSMOS field spanning the redshift range 0.01 < z < 3.5 with a median redshift of 0.5 and an infrared luminosity range of 108 < L IR(8 - 1000 μm)< 1014 L sun with a median luminosity of 1011.4 L sun. In general, these galaxies are massive, with a stellar mass range of 1010-1012 M sun, and luminous, with -25 < M K < -20. We find a strong correlation between the fraction of major mergers and L IR, with the fraction at the highest luminosity (L IR > 1012 L sun) being up to ~50%. We also find that the fraction of spirals drops dramatically with L IR. Minor mergers likely play a role in boosting the infrared luminosity for sources with low luminosities (L IR < 1011.5 L sun). The precise fraction of mergers in any given L IR bin varies by redshift due to sources at z > 1 being difficult to classify and subject to the effects of bandpass shifting; therefore, these numbers can only be considered lower limits. At z < 1, where the morphological classifications are most robust, major mergers clearly dominate the ULIRG population (~50%-80%) and are important for the LIRG population (~25%-40%). At z > 1, the fraction of major mergers is lower, but is at least 30%-40% for ULIRGs. In a comparison of our visual classifications with several automated classification techniques we find general agreement; however, the fraction of identified mergers is underestimated due to automated classification methods being sensitive to only certain timescales of a major merger. Although the general morphological trends agree with what has been observed for local (U)LIRGs, the fraction of major mergers is slightly lower than seen locally. This is in part due to the difficulty of identifying merger signatures at high redshift. The distribution of the U - V color of the galaxies in our sample peaks in the green valley (langU - Vrang = 1.1) with a large spread at bluer and redder colors and with the

  12. Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, K. A.

    Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.

  13. Cosmic Evolution of Star Formation Enhancement in Close Major-merger Galaxy Pairs Since z = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. K.; Shupe, D. L.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Elbaz, D.; Franceschini, A.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lu, N.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Schulz, B.; Scoville, N.; Vaccari, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Zemcov, M.

    2012-11-01

    The infrared (IR) emission of "M * galaxies" (1010.4 <= M star <= 1011.0 M ⊙) in galaxy pairs, derived using data obtained in Herschel (PEP/HerMES) and Spitzer (S-COSMOS) surveys, is compared to that of single-disk galaxies in well-matched control samples to study the cosmic evolution of the star formation enhancement induced by galaxy-galaxy interaction. Both the mean IR spectral energy distribution and mean IR luminosity of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in SFG+SFG (S+S) pairs in the redshift bin of 0.6 < z < 1 are consistent with no star formation enhancement. SFGs in S+S pairs in a lower redshift bin of 0.2 < z < 0.6 show marginal evidence for a weak star formation enhancement. Together with the significant and strong sSFR enhancement shown by SFGs in a local sample of S+S pairs (obtained using previously published Spitzer observations), our results reveal a trend for the star formation enhancement in S+S pairs to decrease with increasing redshift. Between z = 0 and z = 1, this decline of interaction-induced star formation enhancement occurs in parallel with the dramatic increase (by a factor of ~10) of the sSFR of single SFGs, both of which can be explained by the higher gas fraction in higher-z disks. SFGs in mixed pairs (S+E pairs) do not show any significant star formation enhancement at any redshift. The difference between SFGs in S+S pairs and in S+E pairs suggests a modulation of the sSFR by the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the dark matter halos hosting these pairs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF STAR FORMATION ENHANCEMENT IN CLOSE MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS SINCE z = 1

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C. K.; Shupe, D. L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Bethermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Conley, A.; Franceschini, A.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Pozzi, F.; and others

    2012-11-20

    The infrared (IR) emission of 'M {sub *} galaxies' (10{sup 10.4} {<=} M {sub star} {<=} 10{sup 11.0} M {sub Sun }) in galaxy pairs, derived using data obtained in Herschel (PEP/HerMES) and Spitzer (S-COSMOS) surveys, is compared to that of single-disk galaxies in well-matched control samples to study the cosmic evolution of the star formation enhancement induced by galaxy-galaxy interaction. Both the mean IR spectral energy distribution and mean IR luminosity of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in SFG+SFG (S+S) pairs in the redshift bin of 0.6 < z < 1 are consistent with no star formation enhancement. SFGs in S+S pairs in a lower redshift bin of 0.2 < z < 0.6 show marginal evidence for a weak star formation enhancement. Together with the significant and strong sSFR enhancement shown by SFGs in a local sample of S+S pairs (obtained using previously published Spitzer observations), our results reveal a trend for the star formation enhancement in S+S pairs to decrease with increasing redshift. Between z = 0 and z = 1, this decline of interaction-induced star formation enhancement occurs in parallel with the dramatic increase (by a factor of {approx}10) of the sSFR of single SFGs, both of which can be explained by the higher gas fraction in higher-z disks. SFGs in mixed pairs (S+E pairs) do not show any significant star formation enhancement at any redshift. The difference between SFGs in S+S pairs and in S+E pairs suggests a modulation of the sSFR by the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the dark matter halos hosting these pairs.

  15. FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN LUMINOUS GALAXY MERGERS: EVIDENCE FOR QUASAR FEEDBACK FROM HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H. E-mail: marcio@astro.umd.edu; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than –50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (∼145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ∼–1000 km s{sup –1} are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ∼–200 km s{sup –1}. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L{sub AGN}/L{sub ☉}) ≥ 11.8 ± 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  16. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; deJong, J. A.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H.; Polisensky, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 micron silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than-50 km/s, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (approx. 145 deg.) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km/s is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of approx. -1000 km/s are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically approx.-200 km/s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L(sub AGN)/L(sub solar)) => 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  17. Spectroscopy of the short-hard GRB 130603B. The host galaxy and environment of a compact object merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thöne, C. C.; Rowlinson, A.; García-Benito, R.; Levan, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Goldoni, P.; Schulze, S.; Zafar, T.; Wiersema, K.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Melandri, A.; D'Avanzo, P.; Oates, S.; D'Elia, V.; De Pasquale, M.; Krühler, T.; van der Horst, A. J.; Xu, D.; Watson, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Kaper, L.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Greiss, S.; Hammer, F.; Hartoog, O. E.; Hellmich, S.; Heuser, C.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Mottola, S.; Sparre, M.; Sollerman, J.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Vestergaard, M.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are thought to be related to the violent merger of compact objects, such as neutron stars or black holes, which makes them promising sources of gravitational waves. The detection of a "kilonova"-likesignature associated to the Swift-detected GRB 130603B has suggested that this event is the result of a compact object merger. Aims: Our knowledge on SGRB has been, until now, mostly based on the absence of supernova signatures and the analysis of the host galaxies to which they cannot always be securely associated. Further progress has been significantly hampered by the faintness and rapid fading of their optical counterparts (afterglows), which has so far precluded spectroscopy of such events. Afterglow spectroscopy is the key tool to firmly determine the distance at which the burst was produced, crucial to understand its physics, and study its local environment. Methods: Here we present the first spectra of a prototypical SGRB afterglow in which both absorption and emission features are clearly detected. Together with multi-wavelength photometry we study the host and environment of GRB 130603B. Results: From these spectra we determine the redshift of the burst to be z = 0.3565 ± 0.0002, measure rich dynamics both in absorption and emission, and a substantial line of sight extinction of AV = 0.86 ± 0.15 mag. The GRB was located at the edge of a disrupted arm of a moderately star forming galaxy with near-solar metallicity. Unlike for most long GRBs (LGRBs), NHX/AV is consistent with the Galactic ratio, indicating that the explosion site differs from those found in LGRBs. Conclusions: The merger is not associated with the most star-forming region of the galaxy; however, it did occur in a dense region, implying a rapid merger or a low natal kick velocity for the compact object binary. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Observable signatures of a black hole ejected by gravitational-radiation recoil in a galaxy merger.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-07-27

    According to recent simulations, the coalescence of two spinning black holes (BHs) could lead to a BH remnant with recoil speeds of up to thousands of km s(-1). Here we examine the circumstances resulting from a gas-rich galaxy merger under which the ejected BH would carry an accretion disk and be observable. As the initial BH binary emits gravitational radiation and its orbit tightens, a hole is opened in the disk which delays the consumption of gas prior to the eventual BH ejection. The punctured disk remains bound to the ejected BH within the region where the gas orbital velocity is larger than the ejection speed. For a approximately 10(7) M[middle dot in circle] BH the ejected disk has a characteristic size of tens of thousands of Schwarzschild radii and an accretion lifetime of approximately 10(7) yr. During that time, the ejected BH could traverse a considerable distance and appear as an off-center quasar with a feedback trail along the path it left behind. PMID:17678347

  19. Purely Dry Mergers do not Explain the Observed Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Nipoti, Carlo; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that the observed size evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) can be explained as a combination of dry mergers and progenitor bias, at least since z ~ 1. In this paper we carry out a new test of the dry-merger scenario based on recent lensing measurements of the evolution of the mass density profile of ETGs. We construct a theoretical model for the joint evolution of the size and mass density profile slope γ' driven by dry mergers occurring at rates given by cosmological simulations. Such dry-merger model predicts a strong decrease of γ' with cosmic time, inconsistent with the almost constant γ' inferred from observations in the redshift range 0 < z < 1. We then show with a simple toy model that a modest amount of cold gas in the mergers—consistent with the upper limits on recent star formation in ETGs—is sufficient to reconcile the model with measurements of γ'. By fitting for the amount of gas accreted during mergers, we find that models with dissipation are consistent with observations of the evolution in both size and density slope, if ~4% of the total final stellar mass arises from the gas accreted since z ~ 1. Purely dry merger models are ruled out at >99% CL. We thus suggest a scenario where the outer regions of massive ETGs grow by accretion of stars and dark matter, while small amounts of dissipation and nuclear star formation conspire to keep the mass density profile constant and approximately isothermal.

  20. Unveiling the hearts of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxy mergers with laser guide star adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne M.

    2013-03-01

    Gas-rich galaxies across cosmic time exhibit one or both of two phenomena: ongoing star formation and an active galactic nucleus indicating current black hole accretion. These two processes are important mechanisms through which galaxies evolve and grow, but their effects are difficult to disentangle. Both will use up some available gas, and both are capable of producing winds strong enough to eject remaining gas from the galaxy. One must look at high spatial resolutions in order to separate the dynamical effects of star formation going on near the nucleus of a galaxy from the black hole growth going on in the nucleus. We present high spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of fifteen nearby luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. These systems are extremely bright in the infrared exactly because they host powerful starbursts and active nuclei, which in turn heat the surrounding dust. Our data provide resolved stellar and gaseous kinematics of the central kiloparsec of each of these systems by removing atmospheric blurring with adaptive optics, an observing technique that measures the turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere and then uses a deformable mirror to correct the resulting distortions. Our kinematic maps reveal nuclear disks of gas and stars with radii ˜ a few hundred parsecs surrounding the central black holes. Because the stellar and gas kinematics match well, we conclude that the stars are forming in situ from the gas in the disks. These disks may be the progenitors of kinematically decoupled cores seen in many isolated elliptical galaxies, and may have a significant effect on the merger rate of binary black holes. Additionally, these disks may be used to measure black hole masses which, when combined with host galaxy properties and placed on scaling relations, indicate that black holes grow as or more quickly than their host galaxies during a merger. This suggests that a sudden burst of black hole growth at in the final stages of the merger

  1. AGN and Starbursts in Dusty Galaxy Mergers: Insights from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.

    2014-07-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is combining imaging and spectroscopic data from the Herschel, Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes augmented with extensive ground-based observations in a multiwavelength study of approximately 180 Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and 20 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) that comprise a statistically complete subset of the 60μm-selected IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. The objects span the full range of galaxy environments (giant isolated spirals, wide and close pairs, minor and major mergers, merger remnants) and nuclear activity types (Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst/HII), with proportions that depend strongly on the total infrared luminosity. I will review the science motivations and present highlights of recent results selected from over 25 peer-reviewed journal articles published recently by the GOALS Team. Statistical investigations include detection of high-ionization Fe K emission indicative of deeply embedded AGN, comparison of UV and far-IR properties, investigations of the fraction of extended emission as a function of wavelength derived from mid-IR spectroscopy, mid-IR spectral diagnostics and spectral energy distributions revealing the relative contributions of AGN and starbursts to powering the bolometric luminosity, and quantitative structure analyses that delineate the evolution of stellar bars and nuclear stellar cusps during the merger process. Multiwavelength dissections of individual systems have unveiled large populations of young star clusters and heavily obscured AGN in early-stage (II Zw 96), intermediate-stage (Mrk 266, Mrk 273), and late-stage (NGC 2623, IC 883) mergers. A recently published study that matches numerical simulations to the observed morphology and gas kinematics in mergers has placed four systems on a timeline spanning 175-260 million years after their first passages, and modeling of additional (U)LIRGs is underway. A very

  2. K+A GALAXIES AS THE AFTERMATH OF GAS-RICH MERGERS: SIMULATING THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES AS SEEN BY SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Hernquist, Lars; Jonsson, Patrik; Cox, Thomas J.

    2011-11-10

    Models of poststarburst (or 'K+A') galaxies are constructed by combining fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers with radiative transfer calculations of dust attenuation. Spectral line catalogs are generated automatically from moderate-resolution optical spectra calculated as a function of merger progress in each of a large suite of simulations. The mass, gas fraction, orbital parameters, and mass ratio of the merging galaxies are varied systematically, showing that the lifetime and properties of the K+A phase are strong functions of the merger scenario. K+A durations are generally {approx}<0.1-0.3 Gyr, significantly shorter than the commonly assumed 1 Gyr, which is obtained only in rare cases, owing to a wide variation in star formation histories resulting from different orbital and progenitor configurations. Combined with empirical merger rates, the model lifetimes predict rapidly rising K+A fractions as a function of redshift that are consistent with results of large spectroscopic surveys, resolving tension between the observed K+A abundance and that predicted when one assumes the K+A duration is the lifetime of A stars ({approx}1 Gyr). These simulated spectra are spatially resolved on scales of about 1 kpc, and indicate that a centrally concentrated starburst causes the Balmer absorption strengths to increase toward the central few kiloparsecs of the remnant. The effects of dust attenuation, viewing angle, and aperture bias on our models are analyzed. In some cases, the K+A features are longer-lived and more pronounced when active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback removes dust from the center, uncovering the young stars formed during the burst. In this picture, the K+A phase begins during or shortly after the bright starburst/AGN phase in violent mergers, and thus offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of quasar and star formation feedback on the gas reservoir and evolution of the remnant. Analytic fitting formulae are

  3. The Role of Major Gas-rich Mergers on the Evolution of Galaxies from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Shi, Yong

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of exploring the fast evolutionary path from the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies to the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the local universe, we select a local advanced merging infrared luminous and ultraluminous galaxy (adv-merger (U)LIRGs) sample and perform careful dust extinction corrections to investigate their positions in the star formation rate–M *, u ‑ r, and NUV ‑ r color–mass diagrams. The sample consists of 89 (U)LIRGs at the late merger stage, obtained from cross-correlating the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey and 1 Jy ULIRGs samples with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 database. Our results show that 74 % +/- 5 % of adv-merger (U)LIRGs are localized above the 1σ line of the local star-forming galaxy main sequence. We also find that all adv-merger (U)LIRGs are more massive than and as blue as the blue cloud galaxies after corrections for Galactic and internal dust extinctions, with 95 % +/- 2 % and 81 % +/- 4 % of them outside the blue cloud on the u ‑ r and NUV ‑ r color–mass diagrams, respectively. These results, combined with the short timescale for exhausting the molecular gas reservoir in adv-merger (U)LIRGs (3× {10}7 to 3× {10}8 years), imply that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the starting point of the fast evolutionary track previously proposed by several groups. While the number density of adv-merger (U)LIRGs is only ∼ 0.1 % of the blue cloud star-forming galaxies in the local universe, this evolutionary track may play a more important role at high redshift.

  4. NGC 404: A REJUVENATED LENTICULAR GALAXY ON A MERGER-INDUCED, BLUEWARD EXCURSION INTO THE GREEN VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Thilker, David A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Schiminovich, David; Gil de Paz, Armando; Wyder, Ted; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Small, Todd; Rich, R. Michael; Yi, Sukyoung; Neff, Susan

    2010-05-01

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion ((1-4) x R {sub 25}) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's H I ring (formed by a merger event according to del RIo et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals resolved upper main-sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles, and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate (SFR) surface density ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) is {approx}2.2 x 10{sup -5} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the H I ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5 x 10{sup -3} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy color-magnitude diagram, the presence of the star-forming H I ring places NGC 404 in the green valley separating the red and blue sequences. The rejuvenated lenticular galaxy has experienced a merger-induced, disk-building excursion away from the red sequence toward bluer colors, where it may evolve quiescently or (if appropriately triggered) experience a burst capable of placing it on the blue/star-forming sequence for up to {approx}1 Gyr. The green valley galaxy population is heterogeneous, with most systems transitioning from blue to red but others evolving in the opposite sense due to acquisition of fresh gas through various channels.

  5. Circumnuclear Star Clusters in the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240, Observed with Keck Adaptive Optics and HST

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L K; Max, C E; Schneider, G

    2007-02-12

    We discuss images of the central {approx} 10 kpc (in projection) of the galaxy merger NGC 6240 at H and K{prime} bands, taken with the NIRC2 narrow camera on Keck II using natural guide star adaptive optics. We detect 28 star clusters in the NIRC2 images, of which only 7 can be seen in the similar-spatial-resolution, archival WFPC2 Planetary Camera data at either B or I bands. Combining the NIRC2 narrow camera pointings with wider NICMOS NIC2 images taken with the F110W, F160W, and F222M filters, we identify a total of 32 clusters that are detected in at least one of these 5 infrared ({lambda}{sub c} > 1 {micro}m) bandpasses. By comparing to instantaneous burst, stellar population synthesis models (Bruzual & Charlot 2003), we estimate that most of the clusters are consistent with being {approx} 15 Myr old and have photometric masses ranging from 7 x 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 4 x 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}}. The total contribution to the star formation rate (SFR) from these clusters is approximately 10M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, or {approx} 10% of the total SFR in the nuclear region. We use these newly discovered clusters to estimate the extinction toward NGC 6240's double nuclei, and find values of A{sub v} as high as 14 magnitudes along some sightlines, with an average extinction of A{sub v} {approx} 7 mag toward sightlines within {approx} 3-inches of the double nuclei.

  6. Hydrodynamics of galaxy mergers with supermassive black holes: is there a last parsec problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Damien; Mayer, Lucio; Teyssier, Romain

    2013-03-01

    We study the formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and the shrinking of the separation of the two holes to sub-parsec scales starting from a realistic major merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies with mass comparable to our Milky Way. The simulations, carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code RAMSES, are capable of resolving separations as small as 0.1 pc. The collision of the two galaxies produces a gravoturbulent rotating nuclear disc with mass (˜109 M⊙) and size (˜60 pc) in excellent agreement with previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with particle splitting that used a similar set-up (Mayer et al. 2007) but were limited to separations of a few parsecs. The AMR results confirm that the two black holes sink rapidly as a result of dynamical friction on to the gaseous background, reaching a separation of 1 pc in less than 107 yr. We show that the dynamical friction wake is well resolved by our model and we find good agreement with analytical predictions of the drag force as a function of the Mach number. Below 1 pc, black hole pairing slows down significantly, as the relative velocity between the sinking SMBH becomes highly subsonic and the mass contained within their orbit falls below the mass of the binary itself, rendering dynamical friction ineffective. In this final stage, the black holes have not opened a gap as the gaseous background is highly pressurized in the centre. Non-axisymmetric gas torques do not arise to restart sinking in absence of efficient dynamical friction, at variance with previous calculations using idealized equilibrium nuclear disc models. We believe that the rather `hot' equation of state we used to model the multiphase turbulent interstellar medium in the nuclear region is playing an important role in preventing efficient SMBH sinking inside the central parsec. We conclude with a discussion of the way forward to address sinking in gaseous backgrounds at sub-parsec scales approaching

  7. The Dragonfly Galaxy. II. ALMA unveils a triple merger and gas exchange in a hyper-luminous radio galaxy at z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; De Breuck, C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Vernet, J.; Gullberg, B.; Villar-Martín, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Drouart, G.; Ivison, R.; Seymour, N.; Wylezalek, D.; Barthel, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Dragonfly Galaxy (MRC 0152-209), at redshift z ~ 2, is one of the most vigorously star-forming radio galaxies in the Universe. What triggered its activity? We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of cold molecular CO(6-5) gas and dust, which reveal that this is likely a gas-rich triple merger. It consists of a close double nucleus (separation ~4 kpc) and a weak CO-emitter at ~10 kpc distance, all of which have counterparts in HST/NICMOS imagery. The hyper-luminous starburst and powerful radio-AGN were triggered at this precoalescent stage of the merger. The CO(6-5) traces dense molecular gas in the central region, and complements existing CO(1-0) data, which reveal more widespread tidal debris of cold gas. We also find ~1010 M⊙ of molecular gas with enhanced excitation at the highest velocities. At least 20-50% of this high-excitation, high-velocity gas shows kinematics that suggests it is being displaced and redistributed within the merger, although with line-of-sight velocities of |v| < 500 km s-1, this gas will probably not escape the system. The processes that drive the redistribution of cold gas are likely related to either the gravitational interaction between two kpc-scale discs, or starburst/AGN-driven outflows. We estimate that the rate at which the molecular gas is redistributed is at least [Ṁentity!#x2009!]~ 1200 ± 500 M⊙ yr-1, and could perhaps even approach the star formation rate of ~3000 ± 800 M⊙ yr-1. The fact that the gas depletion and gas redistribution timescales are similar implies that dynamical processes can be important in the evolution of massive high-z galaxies.

  8. Utility of galaxy catalogs for following up gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers with wide-field telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Chad; Mandel, Ilya; Vousden, Will E-mail: imandel@star.sr.bham.ac.uk

    2014-03-20

    The first detections of gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers with advanced LIGO and Virgo observatories are anticipated in the next five years. These detections could pave the way for multi-messenger gravitational-wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) astronomy if GW triggers are successfully followed up with targeted EM observations. However, GW sky localization is relatively poor, with expected localization areas of ∼10-100 deg{sup 2}; this presents a challenge for following up GW signals from compact binary mergers. Even for wide-field instruments, tens or hundreds of pointings may be required. Prioritizing pointings based on the relative probability of successful imaging is important since it may not be possible to tile the entire gravitational-wave localization region in a timely fashion. Galaxy catalogs were effective at narrowing down regions of the sky to search in initial attempts at joint GW/EM observations. The relatively limited range of initial GW instruments meant that few galaxies were present per pointing and galaxy catalogs were complete within the search volume. The next generation of GW detectors will have a 10-fold increase in range thereby increasing the expected number of galaxies per unit solid angle by a factor of ∼1000. As an additional complication, catalogs will be highly incomplete. Nevertheless, galaxy catalogs can still play an important role in prioritizing pointings for the next era of GW searches. We show how to quantify the advantages of using galaxy catalogs to prioritize wide-field follow-ups as a function of only two parameters: the three-dimensional volume within the field of view of a telescope after accounting for the GW distance measurement uncertainty, and the fraction of the GW sky localization uncertainty region that can be covered with telescope pointings. We find that the use of galaxy catalogs can improve the probability of successful imaging by ∼10% to ∼300% relative to follow-up strategies that

  9. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ˜ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (˜1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  10. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ∼ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (∼1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  11. MCG+08-22-082: A Double Core and Boxy Appearance Dwarf Lenticular Galaxy Suspected to be a Merger Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Mina; Paudel, Sanjaya; Lee, Youngdae; Kim, Sang Chul

    2016-06-01

    We present a study on the dwarf lenticular galaxy MCG+08-22-082 (U141), located in the Ursa Major cluster, blue-centered, double-cored, and having a boxy appearance. Using publicly available data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we perform an analysis of the structural and stellar population properties of the galaxy and the cores. We find that the light profile of U141 follows an exponential law. U141 has a brightness of {M}r=-16.01 mag, and an effective radius of {R}e=1.7 {{kpc}}. The boxiness parameter {a}4/a is mostly between 0 and ‑0.05 in the inner parts, reaching an extreme of about ‑0.1. Double cores are seen at the center of U141; each of these cores has a stellar mass of ∼106 M⊙ and the separation between them is ∼300 pc. Optical spectroscopy of these cores shows prominent emission in Hα, suggesting ongoing star-forming activities. We interpret these morphological properties and speculate that U141 is a merger remnant of two disk galaxies. Thus, we might have discovered an intermediate stage of merging, providing possible evidence of double cores in the center of the galaxy.

  12. How fast can a galaxy ``mix''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandrup, Henry E.

    1990-11-01

    Time-dependent solutions to the gravitational N-body problem are unstable in the sense that small initial perturbations tend to be amplified exponentially. This fact, well known from numerical simulations, was ``explained'' by Gurzadyan and Savvidy, who argued that this instability implies that an N-body system will tend to ``mix'' on a time scale τGS ~ N1/3tD, where tD is a typical crossing time. It is shown here that the prediction of Gurzadyan and Savvidy of a ``mixing'' is right, but that, allowing correctly for the large scale bulk forces present in a self-gravitating system, one anticipates that the effects of this ``mixing'' should be manifest already on a much shorter time scale ~tD. It is argued that the result of this ``coarse-grained'' mixing on a time scale ~tD should be consistent, at least broadly, with the expected outcome of an epoch of ``violent relaxation''. It is also emphasized that this time scale τ must be interpreted in an appropriate ``average'' sense since, as has been observed, e.g., by R.H. Miller, there exist (admittedly special) perturbations which can be amplified on time scales as short as N-1/2tD.

  13. Halo Wide Binaries and Moving Clusters as Probes of the Dynamical and Merger History of our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christine; Poveda, Arcadio; Hernández-Alcántara, A.

    2007-08-01

    Wide or fragile pairs are sensitive probes of the galactic potential, and they have been used to provide information about the galactic tidal field, the density of GMC and the amount of dark matter present in both the disk and the halo. Halo wide binaries and moving clusters, since they are likely to be the remains of past mergers or of dissolved clusters, can provide information on the dynamical and merger history of our Galaxy. Such remnants should continue to show similar motions over times of the order of their ages. We have looked for phase space groupings among the low metallicity stars of Beers et al. (2000) and of Schuster et al. (2004) and have identified a number of candidate moving clusters. In several of the moving clusters from the data of Schuster et al. we found a wide CPM binary already identified in the catalogue of wide binaries among high-velocity and metal-poor stars of Allen et al. (2000). Spectroscopic follow-up studies of these stars would confirm the physical reality of the group, as well as allow us to distinguish whether their progenitors are dissolved clusters or accreted systems. The proper motions of the Beers et al. stars are too small to appear in the CPM binary searches so far conducted, but the members of the moving groups we have identified are prime candidates for such searches.

  14. Galaxy Mergers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Star Formation and Hot Gas Outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-06-22

    In hierarchical structure formation, merging of galaxies is frequent and known to dramatically affect their properties. To comprehend these interactions high-resolution simulations are indispensable because of the nonlinear coupling between pc and Mpc scales. To this end, we present the first adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation of two merging, low mass, initially gas-rich galaxies (1.8 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} each), including star formation and feedback. With galaxies resolved by {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7} total computational elements, we achieve unprecedented resolution of the multiphase interstellar medium, finding a widespread starburst in the merging galaxies via shock-induced star formation. The high dynamic range of AMR also allows us to follow the interplay between the galaxies and their embedding medium depicting how galactic outflows and a hot metal-rich halo form. These results demonstrate that AMR provides a powerful tool in understanding interacting galaxies.

  15. Big Bangs in Galaxy Clusters: Using X-ray Temperature Maps to Trace Merger Histories in Clusters with Radio Halos/Relics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Datta, Abhirup; Hallman, Eric J.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters are assembled through large and small mergers which are the most energetic events ("bangs") since the Big Bang. Cluster mergers "stir" the intracluster medium (ICM) creating shocks and turbulence which are illuminated by ~Mpc-sized radio features called relics and halos. These shocks heat the ICM and are detected in x-rays via thermal emission. Disturbed morphologies in x-ray surface brightness and temperatures are direct evidence for cluster mergers. In the radio, relics (in the outskirts of the clusters) and halos (located near the cluster core) are also clear signposts of recent mergers. Our recent ENZO cosmological simulations suggest that around a merger event, radio emission peaks very sharply (and briefly) while the x-ray emission rises and decays slowly. Hence, a sample of galaxy clusters that shows both luminous x-ray emission and radio relics/halos are good candidates for very recent mergers. We are in the early stages of analyzing a unique sample of 48 galaxy clusters with (i) known radio relics and/or halos and (ii) significant archival x-ray observations (>50 ksec) from Chandra and/or XMM. We have developed a new x-ray data analysis pipeline, implemented on parallel processor supercomputers, to create x-ray surface brightness, high fidelity temperature, and pressure maps of these clusters in order to study merging activity. The temperature maps are made using three different map-making techniques: Weighted Voronoi Tessellation, Adaptive Circular Binning, and Contour Binning. In this talk, we will show preliminary results for several clusters, including Abell 2744 and the Bullet cluster. This work is supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX15AE17G.

  16. Mergers and Star Formation: The Environment and Stellar Mass Growth of the Progenitors of Ultra-massive Galaxies since z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Marchesini, Danilo; De Lucia, Gabriella; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Labbé, Ivo; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The growth of galaxies is a key problem in understanding the structure and evolution of the universe. Galaxies grow their stellar mass by a combination of star formation and mergers, with a relative importance that is redshift dependent. Theoretical models predict quantitatively different contributions from the two channels; measuring these from the data is a crucial constraint. Exploiting the UltraVISTA catalog and a unique sample of progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies selected with an abundance matching approach, we quantify the role of the two mechanisms from z = 2 to 0. We also compare our results to two independent incarnations of semi-analytic models. At all redshifts, progenitors are found in a variety of environments, ranging from being isolated to having 5-10 companions with mass ratio at least 1:10 within a projected radius of 500 kpc. In models, progenitors have a systematically larger number of companions, entailing a larger mass growth for mergers than in observations, at all redshifts. Generally, in both observations and models, the inferred and the expected mass growth roughly agree, within the uncertainties. Overall, our analysis confirms the model predictions, showing how the growth history of massive galaxies is dominated by in situ star formation at z ˜ 2, both star formation and mergers at 1 < z < 2, and by mergers alone at z < 1. Nonetheless, detailed comparisons still point out tensions between the expected mass growth and our results, which might be due to either an incorrect progenitors-descendants selection, uncertainties on star-formation rate and mass estimates, or the adopted assumptions on merger rates.

  17. The three-dimensional geometry and merger history of the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0358.8-2955

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Ebeling, Harald; Richard, Johan

    2013-02-01

    We present results of a combined X-ray/optical analysis of the dynamics of the massive cluster MACS J0358.8-2955 (z = 0.428) based on observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck-I telescope on Mauna Kea. MACS J0358.8-2955 is found to be one of the most X-ray luminous clusters known at z > 0.3, featuring LX, bol( < r500) = 4.24 × 1045 erg s-1, kT = 9.55+ 0.58- 0.37 keV, M3Dgas( < r500) = (9.18 ± 1.45) × 1013 M⊙ and M3Dtot( < r500) = (1.12 ± 0.18) × 1015 M⊙. The system's high velocity dispersion of 1440+ 130- 110 km s- 1 (890 km s-1 when the correct relativistic equation is used), however, is inflated by infall along the line of sight, as the result of a complex merger of at least three subclusters. One collision proceeds close to head-on, while the second features a significant impact parameter. The temperature variations in the intracluster gas, two tentative cold fronts, the radial velocities measured for cluster galaxies and the small offsets between collisional and non-collisional cluster components all suggest that both merger events are observed close to core passage and along the axes that are greatly inclined with respect to the plane of the sky. A strong-lensing analysis of the system anchored upon three triple-image systems (two of which have spectroscopic redshifts) yields independent constraints on the mass distribution. For a gas fraction of 8.2 per cent, the resulting strong-lensing mass profile is in good agreement with our X-ray estimates, and the details of the mass distribution are fully consistent with our interpretation of the 3D merger history of this complex system. Underlining yet again the power of X-ray selection, our analysis also resolves earlier confusion about the contribution of the partly superimposed foreground cluster A 3192 (z = 0.168). Based on very faint X-ray emission detected by our Chandra observation and 16 concordant redshifts we identify A 3192 as two groups of galaxies

  18. X-ray Observation of an Ongoing Merger at the Galaxy Cluster Abell 3653

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Turgay; Hudaverdi, Murat

    2016-07-01

    We present structural analysis results of A3653 based on XMM-Newton and Chandra archival data. The X-ray emission is elongated SE to NW, which gives an impression of a binary system. The cluster central plasma has an average temperature of 4.6 keV and 0.2 solar abundance values. There is NW cool clump with 3.2 keV temperature. Both XMM-Newton and Chandra observations show temperature fluctuations, which can be interpreted as recent merger. There are cool regions coinciding with the binary like structures with 4.4 keV and 3.2 keV temperature values, respectively. There is a ˜6.5 keV hot region between SE and NW clumps, which is probably shock heated by a recent dynamical activities. Our analysis results suggest A3653 is clearly not a relaxed system and has an ongoing merger along SE to NW direction.

  19. THE FIRST GALAXIES: CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT, MIXING, AND STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Bromm, Volker

    2010-06-10

    Using three-dimensional cosmological simulations, we study the assembly process of one of the first galaxies, with a total mass of {approx}10{sup 8} M {sub sun}, collapsing at z {approx_equal} 10. Our main goal is to trace the transport of the heavy chemical elements produced and dispersed by a pair-instability supernova exploding in one of the minihalo progenitors. To this extent, we incorporate an efficient algorithm into our smoothed particle hydrodynamics code that approximately models turbulent mixing as a diffusion process. We study this mixing with and without the radiative feedback from Population III (Pop III) stars that subsequently form in neighboring minihalos. Our simulations allow us to constrain the initial conditions for second-generation star formation, within the first galaxy itself, and inside of minihalos that virialize after the supernova explosion. We find that most minihalos remain unscathed by ionizing radiation or the supernova remnant, while some are substantially photoheated and enriched to supercritical levels, likely resulting in the formation of low-mass Pop III or even Population II (Pop II) stars. At the center of the newly formed galaxy, {approx}10{sup 5} M {sub sun} of cold, dense gas uniformly enriched to {approx}10{sup -3} Z {sub sun} is in a state of collapse, suggesting that a cluster of Pop II stars will form. The first galaxies, as may be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope, would therefore already contain stellar populations familiar from lower redshifts.

  20. The Merger History, AGN and Dwarf Galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hill, A. R.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Charlton, J. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Walker, L. M.; Eracleous, M.; Maybhate, A.; Gronwall, C.; English, J.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  1. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M.; Maybhate, A.; English, J.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  2. PRESENT-DAY DESCENDANTS OF z = 3 Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II HALO MERGER TREES

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Soler, Jean P.; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold

    2012-06-20

    Using the Millennium-II Simulation dark matter sub-halo merger histories, we created mock catalogs of Ly{alpha}-emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 3.1 to study the properties of their descendants. Several models were created by selecting the sub-halos to match the number density and typical dark matter mass determined from observations of these galaxies. We used mass-based and age-based selection criteria to study their effects on descendant populations at z {approx_equal} 2, 1, and 0. For the models that best represent LAEs at z = 3.1, the z = 0 descendants have a median dark matter halo mass of 10{sup 12.7} M{sub Sun }, with a wide scatter in masses (50% between 10{sup 11.8} and 10{sup 13.7} M{sub Sun }). Our study differentiated between central and satellite sub-halos and found that {approx}55% of z = 0 descendants are central sub-halos with M{sub Median} {approx} 10{sup 12}. This confirms that central z = 0 descendants of z = 3.1 LAEs have halo masses typical of L*-type galaxies. The satellite sub-halos reside in group/cluster environments with dark matter masses around 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. The median descendant mass is robust to various methods of age determination, but it could vary by a factor of five due to current observational uncertainties in the clustering of LAEs used to determine their typical z = 3.1 dark matter mass.

  3. NGC 3801 caught in the act: a post-merger star-forming early-type galaxy with AGN-jet feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hota, Ananda; Rey, Soo-Chang; Kang, Yongbeom; Kim, Suk; Matsushita, Satoki; Chung, Jiwon

    2012-05-01

    In the current models of galaxy formation and evolution, AGN feedback is crucial to reproduce galaxy luminosity function, colour-magnitude relation and M•-σ relation. However, whether AGN feedback can indeed expel and heat up significant amount of cool molecular gas and consequently quench star formation is yet to be demonstrated observationally. Only in four cases so far (Cen A, NGC 3801, NGC 6764 and Mrk 6), X-ray observations have found evidences of jet-driven shocks heating the ISM. We chose the least explored galaxy NGC 3801, and present the first ultraviolet imaging and stellar population analysis of this galaxy from GALEX data. We find this merger-remnant early-type galaxy to have an intriguing spiral wisp of young star-forming regions (age ranging from 100 to 500 Myr). Taking clues from dust/PAH, H I and CO emission images, we interpret NGC 3801 to have a kinematically decoupled core or an extremely warped gas disc. From the HST data, we also show evidence of ionized gas outflow similar to that observed in H I and molecular gas (CO) data, which may have caused the decline of star formation leading to the red optical colour of the galaxy. However, from these panchromatic data, we interpret that the expanding shock shells from the young (˜2.4 Myr) radio jets are yet to reach the outer gaseous regions of the galaxy. It seems we observe this galaxy at a rare stage of its evolutionary sequence where post-merger star formation has already declined and new powerful jet feedback is about to affect the gaseous star-forming outer disc within the next 10 Myr, to further transform it into a red-and-dead early-type galaxy.

  4. Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S

    2010-08-26

    Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk. PMID:20740009

  5. Massive black hole binaries in gas-rich galaxy mergers; multiple regimes of orbital decay and interplay with gas inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Lucio

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers and circumnuclear discs in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we highlight for the first time the existence of a clear transition, for unequal mass BHs, between the regime in which the orbital decay is dominated by the conventional dynamical friction wake and one in which global disc torques associated with density waves launched by the secondary BH as well as co-orbital torques arising from gas gravitationally captured by the BH dominate and lead to faster decay. The new regime intervenes at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization driven dynamical friction. It bears some resemblance with planet migration in protoplanetary discs. While the orbital timescale is reasonably matched by the migration rate for the Type-I regime, the dominant negative torque arises near the co-rotation resonance, which is qualitatively similar to what is found in the so-called Type-III migration, the fastest migration regime identified so far for planets. This fast decay rate brings the BHs to separations of order 10-1 pc, the resolution limit of our simulations, in less than ˜107 yr in a smooth disc, while the decay timescale can increase to >108 yr in clumpy discs due to gravitational scattering with molecular clouds. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations will slow down the orbital decay subsequently. How fast the binary BH can reach the separation at which gravitational waves take over will be determined by the nature of the interaction with the circumbinary disc and the complex torques exerted the gas flowing through the edge of such disc, the subject of many recent studies. We also present a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for rapid orbital decay of massive BH binaries and those required for prominent

  6. NGC 1614 - An IR-luminous merger but not (yet?) an active galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.; Standord, S. A.; Unger, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    New observations of the merging galaxy NGC 1614 are described. The system has a nuclear region of QSO-like luminosity, but shows no direct evidence for an active nucleus. It is heavily and unevenly reddened across its nucleus, while infrared imaging also shows a 'ridge' of dust. The inner spiral structure of the galaxy has normal rotation for an inclined disk, as indicated by the H-alpha emission. A linear 'tail' to the S and extended arms to the E have more positive velocities, and probably are the remains of an interacting companion and the tidal plume(s) caused by the collision. The only H I seen in emission appears to coincide with bright knots of H-alpha and forbidden O III emission of the base of the tail. The lack of direct evidence for an active nucleus indicates that if NGC 1614 is a precursor to a Seyfert-like system the AGN has not yet turned on.

  7. GALAXY DISKS DO NOT NEED TO SURVIVE IN THE {Lambda}CDM PARADIGM: THE GALAXY MERGER RATE OUT TO z {approx} 1.5 FROM MORPHO-KINEMATIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.; Wang, J. L.; Yang, Y. B.; Hopkins, P. F.; Athanassoula, E.

    2012-07-10

    About two-thirds of present-day, large galaxies are spirals such as the Milky Way or Andromeda, but the way their thin rotating disks formed remains uncertain. Observations have revealed that half of their progenitors, six billion years ago, had peculiar morphologies and/or kinematics, which exclude them from the Hubble sequence. Major mergers, i.e., fusions between galaxies of similar mass, are found to be the likeliest driver for such strong peculiarities. However, thin disks are fragile and easily destroyed by such violent collisions, which creates a critical tension between the observed fraction of thin disks and their survival within the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Here, we show that the observed high occurrence of mergers among their progenitors is only apparent and is resolved when using morpho-kinematic observations that are sensitive to all the phases of the merging process. This provides an original way of narrowing down observational estimates of the galaxy merger rate and leads to a perfect match with predictions by state-of-the-art {Lambda}CDM semi-empirical models with no particular fine-tuning needed. These results imply that half of local thin disks do not survive but are actually rebuilt after a gas-rich major merger occurring in the past nine billion years, i.e., two-thirds of the lifetime of the universe. This emphasizes the need to study how thin disks can form in halos with a more active merger history than previously considered and to investigate what is the origin of the gas reservoir from which local disks would reform.

  8. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-11-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After ˜10 Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of 0.39 pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass ˜ 105 M⊙. We also test that binary dynamics is robust against the details of the SNa feedback employed in the simulations, while gas dynamics is not. We finally highlight the importance of the SNa time-scale on our results.

  9. DETECTION OF A METHANOL MEGAMASER IN A MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Baan, Willem A.; Qiao, Hai-Hua; Li, Juan; An, Tao; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.

    2015-02-10

    We have detected emission from both the 4{sub −1}→3{sub 0} E (36.2 GHz) class I and 7{sub −2}→8{sub −1} E (37.7 GHz) class II methanol transitions toward the center of the closest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The emission in both methanol transitions shows narrow spectral features and has luminosities approximately 8 orders of magnitude stronger than those observed from typical class I methanol masers observed in Galactic star formation regions. The emission is also orders of magnitude stronger than the expected intensity of thermal emission from these transitions and based on these findings we suggest that the emission from the two transitions are masers. These observations provide the first detection of a methanol megamaser in the 36.2 and 37.7 GHz transitions and represent only the second detection of a methanol megamaser, following the recent report of an 84 GHz methanol megamaser in NGC 1068. We find that the methanol megamasers are significantly offset from the nuclear region and arise toward regions where there is Hα emission, suggesting that they are associated with starburst activity. The high degree of correlation between the spatial distribution of the 36.2 GHz methanol and X-ray plume emission suggests that the production of strong extragalactic class I methanol masers is related to galactic-outflow-driven shocks and perhaps cosmic rays. In contrast to OH and H{sub 2}O megamasers which originate close to the nucleus, methanol megamasers provide a new probe of feedback (e.g., outflows) processes on larger scales and of star formation beyond the circumnuclear starburst regions of active galaxies.

  10. Electron and proton acceleration efficiency by merger shocks in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazza, F.; Eckert, D.; Brüggen, M.; Huber, B.

    2015-08-01

    Radio relics in galaxy clusters are associated with powerful shocks that (re)accelerate relativistic electrons. It is widely believed that the acceleration proceeds via diffusive shock acceleration. In the framework of thermal leakage, the ratio of the energy in relativistic electrons to the energy in relativistic protons should be smaller than Ke/p ˜ 10-2. The relativistic protons interact with the thermal gas to produce γ-rays in hadronic interactions. Combining observations of radio relics with upper limits from γ-ray observatories can constrain the ratio Ke/p. In this work, we selected 10 galaxy clusters that contain double radio relics, and derive new upper limits from the stacking of γ-ray observations by Fermi. We modelled the propagation of shocks using a semi-analytical model, where we assumed a simple geometry for shocks and that cosmic ray protons are trapped in the intracluster medium. Our analysis shows that diffusive shock acceleration has difficulties in matching simultaneously the observed radio emission and the constraints imposed by Fermi, unless the magnetic field in relics is unrealistically large ( ≫ 10 μG). In all investigated cases (also including realistic variations of our basic model and the effect of re-acceleration), the mean emission of the sample is of the order of the stacking limit by Fermi, or larger. These findings put tension on the commonly adopted model for the powering of radio relics, and imply that the relative acceleration efficiency of electrons and protons is at odds with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration, requiring Ke/p ≥ 10 - 10-2.

  11. SMM J04135+10277: A CANDIDATE EARLY-STAGE ''WET-DRY'' MERGER OF TWO MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z = 2.8

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.

    2013-03-10

    We report interferometric imaging of CO(J = 3{yields}2) emission toward the z = 2.846 submillimeter-selected galaxy SMM J04135+10277, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). SMM J04135+10277 was previously thought to be a gas-rich, submillimeter-selected quasar, with the highest molecular gas mass among high-z quasars reported in the literature. Our maps at {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign improved linear resolution relative to earlier observations spatially resolve the emission on {approx}1.''7 scales, corresponding to a (lensing-corrected) source radius of {approx}5.2 kpc. They also reveal that the molecular gas reservoir, and thus, likely the submillimeter emission, is not associated with the host galaxy of the quasar, but with an optically faint gas-rich galaxy at 5.''2, or 41.5 kpc projected distance from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The obscured gas-rich galaxy has a dynamical mass of M{sub dyn} sin{sup 2} i = 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, corresponding to a gas mass fraction of {approx_equal}21%. Assuming a typical M{sub BH}/M{sub *} ratio for z {approx}> 2 quasars, the two galaxies in this system have an approximate mass ratio of {approx}1.9. Our findings suggest that this quasar-starburst galaxy pair could represent an early stage of a rare major, gas-rich/gas-poor ({sup w}et-dry{sup )} merger of two massive galaxies at z = 2.8, rather than a single, gas-rich AGN host galaxy. Such systems could play an important role in the early buildup of present-day massive galaxies through a submillimeter-luminous starburst phase, and may remain hidden in larger numbers among rest-frame far-infrared-selected quasar samples at low and high redshift.

  12. Submillimeter Galaxies at z ~ 2: Evidence for Major Mergers and Constraints on Lifetimes, IMF, and CO-H2 Conversion Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Smail, I.; Neri, R.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Cox, P.; Omont, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Greve, T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genel, S.; Lutz, D.; Swinbank, A. M.; Shapley, A. E.; Erb, D. K.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Baker, A. J.

    2008-06-01

    We report subarcsecond resolution IRAM PdBI millimeter CO interferometry of four z ~ 2 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), and sensitive CO(3-2) flux limits toward three z ~ 2 UV/optically selected star-forming galaxies. The new data reveal for the first time spatially resolved CO gas kinematics in the observed SMGs. Two of the SMGs show double or multiple morphologies, with complex, disturbed gas motions. The other two SMGs exhibit CO velocity gradients of ~500 km s-1 across <=0.2'' (1.6 kpc) diameter regions, suggesting that the star-forming gas is in compact, rotating disks. Our data provide compelling evidence that these SMGs represent extreme, short-lived "maximum" star-forming events in highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies. The resulting high-mass surface and volume densities of SMGs are similar to those of compact quiescent galaxies in the same redshift range and much higher than those in local spheroids. From the ratio of the comoving volume densities of SMGs and quiescent galaxies in the same mass and redshift ranges, and from the comparison of gas exhaustion timescales and stellar ages, we estimate that the SMG phase duration is about 100 Myr. Our analysis of SMGs and optically/UV selected high-redshift star-forming galaxies supports a "universal" Chabrier IMF as being valid over the star-forming history of these galaxies. We find that the 12CO luminosity to total gas mass conversion factors at z ~ 2-3 are probably similar to those assumed at z ~ 0. The implied gas fractions in our sample galaxies range from 20% to 50%. Based on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  13. ALMA observations of the Antennae galaxies. I. A new window on a prototypical merger

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Brogan, Crystal; Evans, Aaron; Hibbard, John; Leroy, Adam; Remijan, Anthony; Sheth, Kartik; Chandar, Rupali; Johnson, Kelsey; Privon, George

    2014-11-10

    We present the highest spatial resolution (≈0.''5) CO (3-2) observations to date of the 'overlap' region in the merging Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39), taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We report on the discovery of a long (3 kpc), thin (aspect ratio 30/1), filament of CO gas that breaks up into roughly 10 individual knots. Each individual knot has a low internal velocity dispersion (≈10 km s{sup –1}); the dispersion of the ensemble of knots in the filament is also low (≈10 km s{sup –1}). At the other extreme, we find that the individual clouds in the supergiant molecular cloud 2 region discussed by Wilson and collaborators have a large range of internal velocity dispersions (10 to 80 km s{sup –1}), and a large dispersion among the ensemble (≈80 km s{sup –1}). Other large-scale features observed in CO emission, and their correspondence with historical counterparts using observations in other wavelengths, are also discussed. We compare the locations of small-scale CO features with a variety of multi-wavelength observations, in particular broad- (BVIJH) and narrow-band data (H{sub α} and Pa{sub β}) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and radio (3.6 cm) continuum observations taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This comparison leads to the development of an evolutionary classification system that provides a framework for studying the sequence of star cluster formation and evolution—from diffuse supergiant molecular clouds (SGMCs) to proto, embedded, emerging, young, intermediate/old clusters. The relative timescales have been assessed by determining the fractional population of sources at each evolutionary stage. The main uncertainty in this estimate is the identification of four regions as candidate protoclusters (i.e., strong compact CO emission but no clearly associated radio emission). Using the evolutionary framework, we estimate that the maximum age range of clusters in a single GMC is ≈10 Myr

  14. A DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE X-SHAPED RADIO GALAXY 4C +00.58: A CANDIDATE FOR MERGER-INDUCED REORIENTATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Miller, M. Coleman; Cheung, Chi C.

    2010-07-01

    Although rapid reorientation of a black hole spin axis (lasting less than a few megayears) has been suggested as a mechanism for the formation of wings in X-shaped radio galaxies (XRGs), to date no convincing case of reorientation has been found in any XRG. Alternative wing formation models such as the hydrodynamic backflow models are supported by observed trends indicating that XRGs form preferentially with jets aligned along the major axis of the surrounding medium and wings along the minor axis. In this Letter, we present a deep Chandra observation of 4C +00.58, an odd XRG with its jet oriented along the minor axis. By using the X-ray data in tandem with available radio and optical data, we estimate relevant timescales with which to evaluate wing formation models. The hydrodynamic models have difficulty explaining the long wings, whereas the presence of X-ray cavities (suggesting jet activity along a prior axis) and a potential stellar shell (indicating a recent merger) favor a merger-induced reorientation model.

  15. E/S0 GALAXIES ON THE BLUE COLOR-STELLAR MASS SEQUENCE AT z = 0: FADING MERGERS OR FUTURE SPIRALS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kannappan, Sheila J.; Guie, Jocelly M.; Baker, Andrew J. E-mail: jocelly@mail.utexas.edu

    2009-08-15

    We identify a population of morphologically defined E/S0 galaxies lying on the locus of late-type galaxies in color-stellar mass space - the 'blue sequence' -at the present epoch. Using three samples (from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey or NFGS, a merged HyperLeda/Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog, and the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog), we analyze blue-sequence E/S0s with stellar masses {approx}>10{sup 8} M {sub sun}, arguing that individual objects may be evolving either up toward the red sequence or down into the blue sequence. Blue-sequence E/S0 galaxies become more common with decreasing stellar mass, comprising {approx}<2% of E/S0s near the 'shutdown mass' M{sub s} {approx} 1-2 x 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, increasing to {approx}>5% near the 'bimodality mass' M{sub b} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 10} M {sub sun}, and sharply rising to {approx}> 20%-30% below the 'threshold mass' M{sub t} {approx} 4-6 x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}, down to our completeness analysis limit at {approx}10{sup 9} M {sub sun}. The strong emergence of blue-sequence E/S0s below M{sub t} coincides with a previously reported global increase in mean atomic gas fractions below M{sub t} for galaxies of all types on both sequences, suggesting that the availability of cold gas may be basic to blue-sequence E/S0s' existence. Environmental analysis reveals that many sub-M{sub b} blue-sequence E/S0s reside in low-to-intermediate density environments. Thus, the bulk of the population we analyze appears distinct from the generally lower-mass cluster dE population; S0 morphologies with a range of bulge sizes are typical. In mass-radius and mass-{sigma} scaling relations, blue-sequence E/S0s are more similar to red-sequence E/S0s than to late-type galaxies, but they represent a transitional class. While some of them, especially in the high-mass range from M{sub b} to M{sub s} , resemble major-merger remnants that will likely fade onto the red sequence, most blue-sequence E/S0s below M{sub b

  16. MERGERS AND BULGE FORMATION IN {Lambda}CDM: WHICH MERGERS MATTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Bundy, Kevin; Wetzel, Andrew; Croton, Darren; Hernquist, Lars; Keres, Dusan; Younger, Joshua D.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Stewart, Kyle

    2010-05-20

    We use a suite of semi-empirical models to predict the galaxy-galaxy merger rate and relative contributions to bulge growth as a function of mass (both halo and stellar), redshift, and mass ratio. The models use empirical constraints on the halo occupation distribution, evolved forward in time, to robustly identify where and when galaxy mergers occur. Together with the results of high-resolution merger simulations, this allows us to quantify the relative contributions of mergers with different properties (e.g., mass ratios, gas fractions, redshifts) to the bulge population. We compare with observational constraints, and find good agreement. We also provide useful fitting functions and make public a code to reproduce the predicted merger rates and contributions to bulge mass growth. We identify several robust conclusions. (1) Major mergers dominate the formation and assembly of {approx}L{sub *} bulges and the total spheroid mass density, but minor mergers contribute a non-negligible {approx}30%. (2) This is mass dependent: bulge formation and assembly is dominated by more minor mergers in lower-mass systems. In higher-mass systems, most bulges originally form in major mergers near {approx}L{sub *}, but assemble in increasingly minor mergers. (3) The minor/major contribution is also morphology dependent: higher B/T systems preferentially form in more major mergers, with B/T roughly tracing the mass ratio of the largest recent merger; lower B/T systems preferentially form in situ from minor mergers. (4) Low-mass galaxies, being gas-rich, require more mergers to reach the same B/T as high-mass systems. Gas-richness dramatically suppresses the absolute efficiency of bulge formation, but does not strongly influence the relative contribution of major versus minor mergers. (5) Absolute merger rates at fixed mass ratio increase with galaxy mass. (6) Predicted merger rates agree well with those observed in pair and morphology-selected samples, but there is evidence that some

  17. Searching for Dual AGNs in Galaxy Mergers: Understanding Double-Peaked [O III] and Ultra Hard X-rays as Selection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurk, Rosalie C.; Max, Claire E.; Medling, Anne; Shields, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    When galaxies merge, gas accretes onto both central supermassive black holes. Thus, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O III] or of ultra hard X-rays have been proposed as techniques to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O III] emitting AGNs from SDSS DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared (IR) camera NIRC2, we showed that 30% of double-peaked [O III] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3' radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up these spatially-double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and Gemini GMOS and with long-slit spectroscopy from Keck NIRSPEC and Shane Kast Double Spectrograph. We find double-peaked emitters are caused sometimes by dual AGN and sometimes by outflows or narrow line kinematics. We also performed Chandra X-ray ACIS-S observations on 12 double-peaked candidate dual AGNs. Using our observations and 8 archival observations, we compare the distribution of X-ray photons to our spatially double near-IR images, measure X-ray luminosities and hardness ratios, and estimate column densities. By assessing what fraction of double-peaked emission line SDSS AGNs are true dual AGNs, we can better determine whether double-peaked [O III] is an efficient dual AGN indicator and constrain the statistics of dual AGNs. A second technique to find dual AGN is the detection of ultra hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. We use CARMA observations to measure and map the CO(1-0) present in nearby ultra-hard X-ray Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) merging with either a quiescent companion

  18. Spheroidal post-mergers in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpineti, Alfredo; Kaviraj, Sugata; Darg, Daniel; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Shabala, Stanislav

    2012-03-01

    Galaxy merging is a fundamental aspect of the standard hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. Recently, the Galaxy Zoo project has compiled a large, homogeneous catalogue of 3373 mergers, through direct visual inspection of the entire Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic sample. We explore a subset of galaxies from this catalogue that are spheroidal 'post-mergers' (SPMs) - where a single remnant is in the final stages of relaxation after the merger and shows evidence for a dominant bulge, making them plausible progenitors of early-type galaxies. Our results indicate that the SPMs have bluer colours than the general early-type galaxy population possibly due to merger-induced star formation. An analysis using optical emission-line ratios indicates that 20 of our SPMs exhibit LINER or Seyfert-like activity (68 per cent), while the remaining 10 galaxies are classified as either star forming (16 per cent) or quiescent (16 per cent). A comparison to the emission-line activity in the ongoing mergers from Darg et al. indicates that the active galactic nuclei (AGN) fraction rises in the post-mergers, suggesting that the AGN phase probably becomes dominant only in the very final stages of the merger process. The optical colours of the SPMs and the plausible mass ratios for their progenitors indicate that, while a minority are consistent with major mergers between two early-type galaxies, the vast majority are remnants of major mergers where at least one progenitor is a late-type galaxy.

  19. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaberge, Marco; Gilli, Roberto; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Norman, Colin

    2015-06-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z\\gt 1 using new samples. The objects have Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken with Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z\\gt 1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%-14%+8%) radio-loud galaxies at z\\gt 1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38%-15+16 are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z\\gt 1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This is strong evidence that mergers are the triggering mechanism for the radio-loud AGN phenomenon and the launching of relativistic jets from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We speculate that major black hole (BH)–BH mergers play a major role in spinning up the central SMBHs in these objects.

  20. MERGERS IN {Lambda}CDM: UNCERTAINTIES IN THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF THE MERGER RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Bundy, Kevin; Wetzel, Andrew; Ma, Chung-Pei; Croton, Darren; Khochfar, Sadegh; Hernquist, Lars; Genel, Shy; Van den Bosch, Frank; Somerville, Rachel S.; Keres, Dusan; Stewart, Kyle; Younger, Joshua D.

    2010-12-01

    Different theoretical methodologies lead to order-of-magnitude variations in predicted galaxy-galaxy merger rates. We examine how this arises and quantify the dominant uncertainties. Modeling of dark matter and galaxy inspiral/merger times contribute factor of {approx}2 uncertainties. Different estimates of the halo-halo merger rate, the subhalo 'destruction' rate, and the halo merger rate with some dynamical friction time delay for galaxy-galaxy mergers, agree to within this factor of {approx}2, provided proper care is taken to define mergers consistently. There are some caveats: if halo/subhalo masses are not appropriately defined the major-merger rate can be dramatically suppressed, and in models with 'orphan' galaxies and under-resolved subhalos the merger timescale can be severely over-estimated. The dominant differences in galaxy-galaxy merger rates between models owe to the treatment of the baryonic physics. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations without strong feedback and some older semi-analytic models (SAMs), with known discrepancies in mass functions, can be biased by large factors ({approx}5) in predicted merger rates. However, provided that models yield a reasonable match to the total galaxy mass function, the differences in properties of central galaxies are sufficiently small to alone contribute small (factor of {approx}1.5) additional systematics to merger rate predictions. But variations in the baryonic physics of satellite galaxies in models can also have a dramatic effect on merger rates. The well-known problem of satellite 'over-quenching' in most current SAMs-whereby SAM satellite populations are too efficiently stripped of their gas-could lead to order-of-magnitude under-estimates of merger rates for low-mass, gas-rich galaxies. Models in which the masses of satellites are fixed by observations (or SAMs adjusted to resolve this 'over-quenching') tend to predict higher merger rates, but with factor of {approx}2 uncertainties stemming from the

  1. Fast and Furious: Shock Heated Gas as the Origin of Spatially Resolved Hard X-Ray Emission in the Central 5 kpc of the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Pellegrini, Silvia; Max, Claire; Risaliti, Guido; U, Vivian; Zezas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ~ 6 keV (~70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ~2200 km s-1. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H2(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L 0.5-8 keV = 5.3 × 1041 erg s-1, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ~100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M hot = 1.8 × 108 M ⊙) and thermal energy (E th = 6.5 × 1057 erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M Fe = 4.6 × 105 M ⊙. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  2. Fast and Furious: Shock heated gas as the origin of spatially resolved hard X-ray emission in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy merger NGC 6240

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Zezas, Andreas; Pellegrini, Silvia; Max, Claire; U, Vivian

    2014-01-20

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ∼ 6 keV (∼70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ∼2200 km s{sup –1}. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H{sub 2}(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L {sub 0.5-8} {sub keV} = 5.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ∼100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M {sub hot} = 1.8 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}) and thermal energy (E {sub th} = 6.5 × 10{sup 57} erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M {sub Fe} = 4.6 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  3. Merger campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Through using the Web, TV, radio, and print advertisements, The Hospital of Central Connecticut announced in October 2006 its new name and the merger of two hospitals: New Britain General Hospital and Bradley Memorial Hospital. A campaign consisting of TV and radio ads was created to promote the merger. The ads are also featured on the hospital's Web site. PMID:17450950

  4. Sdssj103913.70+533029.7: a super star cluster in the outskirts of a galaxy merger

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Gillian R.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David J.; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Wilhelm, Ron; Lupton, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Niederste-Ostholt, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Covey, Kevin; Seth, Anil; Ivezic, Zeljko; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Helmboldt, Joe; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Kleinman, Scot J.; Long, Dan; /Princeton U. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /Michigan State U. /Texas U., McDonald Observ. /Texas Tech. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /New Mexico State U. /Princeton U. /Apache Point Observ. /Mt. Suhora Observ., Cracow /Tokyo U., ICRR

    2005-11-01

    We describe the serendipitous discovery in the spectroscopic data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of a star-like object, SDSSJ103913.70+533029.7, at a heliocentric radial velocity of +1012 km s{sup -1}. Its proximity in position and velocity to the spiral galaxy NGC 3310 suggests an association with the galaxy. At this distance, SDSSJ103913.70+533029.7 has the luminosity of a super star cluster and a projected distance of 17 kpc from NGC 3310. Its spectroscopic and photometric properties imply a mass of > 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}} and an age close to that of the tidal shells seen around NGC 3310, suggesting that it formed in the event which formed the shells.

  5. EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS IN THE LAST {approx}6 Gyr: FEEDBACK PROCESSES VERSUS MERGER EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ascaso, B.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Moles, M.

    2011-01-10

    We present results on the evolution of the structural parameters of two samples of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the last 6 Gyr. The nearby sample of BCGs consists of 69 galaxies from the WINGS survey spanning a redshift range of 0.04 < z < 0.07. The intermediate-redshift (0.3 < z < 0.6) sample is formed by 20 BCGs extracted from the Hubble Space Telescope archive. Both samples have similar spatial resolution and their host clusters have similar X-ray luminosities. We report an increase in the size of the BCGs from intermediate to local redshift. However, we do not detect any variation in the Sersic shape parameter in both samples. These results prove to be robust since the observed tendencies are model independent. We also obtain significant correlations between some of the BCG parameters and the main properties of the host clusters. More luminous, larger, and centrally located BCGs are located in more massive and dominant galaxy clusters. These facts indicate that the host galaxy cluster has played an important role in the formation of their BCGs. We discuss the possible mechanisms that can explain the observed evolution of the structural parameters of the BCGs. We conclude that the main mechanisms that can explain the increase in size and the non-evolution in the Sersic shape parameter of the BCGs in the last 6 Gyr are feedback processes. This result disagrees with semi-analytical simulation results supporting the idea that merging processes are the main mechanism responsible for the evolution of the BCGs up until the present epoch.

  6. Turbulent mixing layers in the interstellar medium of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. D.; Shull, J. M.; Begelman, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.

  7. Merger Signatures in the Dynamics of Star-forming Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Hayward, Christopher C.; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Lanz, Lauranne; Martínez-Galarza, Juan R.; Sanders, D. B.; Zezas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of integral field spectrographs and millimeter interferometers has revealed the internal dynamics of many hundreds of star-forming galaxies. Spatially resolved kinematics have been used to determine the dynamical status of star-forming galaxies with ambiguous morphologies, and constrain the importance of galaxy interactions during the assembly of galaxies. However, measuring the importance of interactions or galaxy merger rates requires knowledge of the systematics in kinematic diagnostics and the visible time with merger indicators. We analyze the dynamics of star-forming gas in a set of binary merger hydrodynamic simulations with stellar mass ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. We find that the evolution of kinematic asymmetries traced by star-forming gas mirrors morphological asymmetries derived from mock optical images, in which both merger indicators show the largest deviation from isolated disks during strong interaction phases. Based on a series of simulations with various initial disk orientations, orbital parameters, gas fractions, and mass ratios, we find that the merger signatures are visible for ˜0.2-0.4 Gyr with kinematic merger indicators but can be approximately twice as long for equal-mass mergers of massive gas-rich disk galaxies designed to be analogs of z ˜ 2-3 submillimeter galaxies. Merger signatures are most apparent after the second passage and before the black holes coalescence, but in some cases they persist up to several hundred Myr after coalescence. About 20%-60% of the simulated galaxies are not identified as mergers during the strong interaction phase, implying that galaxies undergoing violent merging process do not necessarily exhibit highly asymmetric kinematics in their star-forming gas. The lack of identifiable merger signatures in this population can lead to an underestimation of merger abundances in star-forming galaxies, and including them in samples of star-forming disks may bias the measurements of disk properties such

  8. A method for determining AGN accretion phase in field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, Miroslav; Martinović, Nemanja; Sinha, Manodeep

    2016-09-01

    Recent observations of active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in massive galaxies (log M*/ M⊙ > 10.4) show the following: (1) at z < 1, AGN-hosting galaxies do not show enhanced merger signatures compared with normal galaxies, (2) also at z < 1, most AGNs are hosted by quiescent galaxies and (3) at z > 1, the percentage of AGNs in star-forming galaxies increases and becomes comparable to the AGN percentage in quiescent galaxies at z ˜ 2. How can major mergers explain AGN activity in massive quiescent galaxies that have no merger features and no star formation to indicate a recent galaxy merger? By matching merger events in a cosmological N-body simulation to the observed AGN incidence probability in the COSMOS survey, we show that major merger-triggered AGN activity is consistent with the observations. By distinguishing between `peak' AGNs (recently merger-triggered and hosted by star-forming galaxies) and `faded' AGNs (merger-triggered a long time ago and now residing in quiescent galaxies), we show that the AGN occupation fraction in star-forming and quiescent galaxies simply follows the evolution of the galaxy merger rate. Since the galaxy merger rate drops dramatically at z < 1, the only AGNs left to be observed are the ones triggered by old mergers that are now in the declining phase of their nuclear activity, hosted by quiescent galaxies. As we go towards higher redshifts, the galaxy merger rate increases and the percentages of `peak' AGNs and `faded' AGNs become comparable.

  9. The unusual tidal dwarf galaxy in the merger system NGC 3227/6. Star formation in a tidal shock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, C. G.; James, P.; Loiseau, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Forbes, D.

    2005-05-01

    J1023+1952 is a cloud of neutral hydrogen located at the base of a tidal tail, associated with the interacting Seyfert system NGC 3227/6 that was discovered by Mundell et al. and identified as a candidate tidal dwarf galaxy. Here we report the discovery of active star formation concentrated in the southern half of this cloud. We suggest that the localized star formation and lack of detectable old stellar population imply a tidal origin for J1023+1954 and that its star formation is shock-triggered by collapsing gaseous tidal debris. Such shock-triggering may provide a possible formation mechanism for the recently-discovered population of young extragalactic H II regions.

  10. Hubble Frontier Fields: the geometry and dynamics of the massive galaxy cluster merger MACSJ0416.1-2403

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Eckert, Dominique; Ebeling, Harald; Richard, Johan; Limousin, Marceau; Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Clément, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Harvey, David; Knowles, Kenda; Massey, Richard; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Neichel, Benoît; Rexroth, M.

    2015-02-01

    We use a joint optical/X-ray analysis to constrain the geometry and history of the ongoing merging event in the massive galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403 (z = 0.397). Our investigation of cluster substructure rests primarily on a combined strong- and weak-lensing mass reconstruction based on the deep, high-resolution images obtained for the Hubble Frontier Fields initiative. To reveal the system's dynamics, we complement this lensing analysis with a study of the intracluster gas using shallow Chandra data, and a three-dimensional model of the distribution and motions of cluster galaxies derived from over 100 spectroscopic redshifts. The multiscale grid model obtained from our combined lensing analysis extends the high-precision strong-lensing mass reconstruction recently performed to cluster-centric distances of almost 1 Mpc. Our analysis detects the two well-known mass concentrations in the cluster core. A pronounced offset between collisional and collisionless matter is only observed for the SW cluster component, while excellent alignment is found for the NE cluster. Both the lensing analysis and the distribution of cluster light strongly suggest the presence of a third massive structure, almost 2 arcmin SW of the cluster centre. Since no X-ray emission is detected in this region, we conclude that this structure is non-virialized and speculate that it might be part of a large-scale filament almost aligned with our line of sight. Combining all evidence from the distribution of dark and luminous matter, we propose two alternative scenarios for the trajectories of the components of MACSJ0416.1-2403. Upcoming deep X-ray observations that allow the detection of shock fronts, cold cores, and sloshing gas (all key diagnostics for studies of cluster collisions) will allow us to test, and distinguish between these two scenarios.

  11. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  12. Mergers drive spin swings along the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Devriendt, J.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Peirani, S.

    2014-11-01

    The close relationship between mergers and the reorientation of the spin for galaxies and their host dark haloes is investigated using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation (Horizon-AGN). Through a statistical analysis of merger trees, we show that spin swings are mainly driven by mergers along the filamentary structure of the cosmic web, and that these events account for the preferred perpendicular orientation of massive galaxies with respect to their nearest filament. By contrast, low-mass galaxies (Ms < 1010 M⊙ at redshift 1.5) having undergone very few mergers, if at all, tend to possess a spin well aligned with their filament. Haloes follow the same trend as galaxies but display a greater sensitivity to smooth anisotropic accretion. The relative effect of mergers on magnitude is qualitatively different for minor and major mergers: mergers (and diffuse accretion) generally increase the magnitude of the specific angular momentum, but major mergers also give rise to a population of objects with less specific angular momentum left. Without mergers, secular accretion builds up the specific angular momentum of galaxies but not that of haloes. It also (re)aligns galaxies with their filament.

  13. Dynamics of Galaxy Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Joshua E.

    Preface Theory of Interacting Galaxies The Role of Gravity Holmberg's Work on Tidal Interactions "Galactic Bridges and Tails" Dark Matter Numerical Stellar Dynamics Collisionless Stellar Systems Simulating the Stars Force Calculation Time Integration Errors and Relaxation Effects Initial Conditions Numerical Gas Dynamics A Sketch of the Interstellar Medium Simulating the ISM Gas in B/D/H Models Tidal Interactions Test-Particle Studies: Bridges and Tails Self-Consistent Studies Bars and Spirals Tidal Dwarf Galaxies Self-Consistent "Lookalikes" Getting the Feel of the Antennae Sneaking Up on the Mice What Happened to the Whirlpool? Unresolved Issues Mechanics of Merging Tidal Drag Orbit Decay Violent Relaxation Final Encounters Remnant Structure Phase Mixing Characteristics Scales Radial Profiles Shapes and Kinematics Orbit Structure Gas Dynamics in Mergers Inflows in Perturbed Disks Merging Encounters Remnant Structure Dissipation and Stellar Backlash Galaxy transformation and the Arrow of Time

  14. Merger rates of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neistein, Eyal; Dekel, Avishai

    2008-08-01

    We derive analytic merger rates for dark matter haloes within the framework of the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism. These rates become self-consistent within EPS once we realize that the typical merger in the limit of a small time-step involves more than two progenitors, contrary to the assumption of binary mergers adopted in earlier studies. We present a general method for computing merger rates that span the range of solutions permitted by the EPS conditional mass function, and focus on a specific solution that attempts to match the merger rates in N-body simulations. The corrected EPS merger rates are more accurate than the earlier estimates of Lacey & Cole by ~20 per cent for major mergers and by up to a factor of ~3 for minor mergers of mass ratio 1:104. Based on the revised merger rates, we provide a new algorithm for constructing Monte Carlo EPS merger trees, which could be useful in semi-analytic modelling. We provide analytic expressions and plot numerical results for several quantities that are very useful in studies of galaxy formation. This includes (i) the rate of mergers of a given mass ratio per given final halo, (ii) the fraction of mass added by mergers to a halo and (iii) the rate of mergers per given main progenitor. The creation and destruction rates of haloes serve for a self-consistency check. Our method for computing merger rates can be applied to conditional mass functions beyond EPS, such as those obtained by the ellipsoidal collapse model or extracted from N-body simulations.

  15. The diverse evolutionary paths of simulated high-z massive, compact galaxies to z = 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellons, Sarah; Torrey, Paul; Ma, Chung-Pei; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies have much smaller physical sizes at high redshift than today. The strong evolution of galaxy size may be caused by progenitor bias, major and minor mergers, adiabatic expansion, and/or renewed star formation, but it is difficult to test these theories observationally. Herein, we select a sample of 35 massive, compact galaxies (M* = 1-3 × 1011 M⊙, M*/R1.5 > 1010.5 M⊙/kpc1.5) at z = 2 in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Illustris and trace them forwards to z = 0 to uncover their evolution and identify their descendants. By z = 0, the original factor of 3 difference in stellar mass spreads to a factor of 20. The dark matter halo masses similarly spread from a factor of 5 to 40. The galaxies' evolutionary paths are diverse: about half acquire an ex situ envelope and are the core of a more massive descendant, a third survive undisturbed and gain very little mass, 15 per cent are consumed in a merger with a more massive galaxy, and a small remainder are thoroughly mixed by major mergers. The galaxies grow in size as well as mass, and only ˜10 per cent remain compact by z = 0. The majority of the size growth is driven by the acquisition of ex situ mass. The most massive galaxies at z = 0 are the most likely to have compact progenitors, but this trend possesses significant dispersion which precludes a direct linkage to compact galaxies at z = 2. The compact galaxies' merger rates are influenced by their z = 2 environments, so that isolated or satellite compact galaxies (which are protected from mergers) are the most likely to survive to the present day.

  16. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  17. Sussing Merger Trees: The Merger Trees Comparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisawat, Chaichalit; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Schneider, Aurel; Thomas, Peter A.; Behroozi, Peter; Dolag, Klaus; Elahi, Pascal J.; Han, Jiaxin; Helly, John; Jing, Yipeng; Jung, Intae; Lee, Jaehyun; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Onions, Julian; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Tweed, Dylan; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2013-11-01

    Merger trees follow the growth and merger of dark-matter haloes over cosmic history. As well as giving important insights into the growth of cosmic structure in their own right, they provide an essential backbone to semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. This paper is the first in a series to arise from the Sussing Merger Trees Workshop in which 10 different tree-building algorithms were applied to the same set of halo catalogues and their results compared. Although many of these codes were similar in nature, all algorithms produced distinct results. Our main conclusions are that a useful merger-tree code should possess the following features: (i) the use of particle IDs to match haloes between snapshots; (ii) the ability to skip at least one, and preferably more, snapshots in order to recover subhaloes that are temporarily lost during merging; (iii) the ability to cope with (and ideally smooth out) large, temporary fluctuations in halo mass. Finally, to enable different groups to communicate effectively, we defined a common terminology that we used when discussing merger trees and we encourage others to adopt the same language. We also specified a minimal output format to record the results.

  18. Spheroidal Post-mergers In The Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpineti, Alfredo; Kaviraj, S.; Darg, D.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.

    2011-05-01

    Galaxy merging is a fundamental aspect of the standard hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. In Darg et al. (2010, MNRAS.401.1043) a large, homogeneous catalogue of mergers was compiled through direct visual inspection of the entire SDSS spectro- scopic sample using the Galaxy Zoo project. We explore a subset of galaxies from this catalogue that are spheroidal `post-mergers’ (SPMs) - where a single remnant is in the final stages of relaxation and shows evidence for a dominant bulge, making them plausible progenitors of early-type galaxies. The SPMs inhabit low-density environments and have bluer colours than the general early-type galaxy population due to merger-induced star formation. 68% of the SPMs exhibit emission-line activity, either as LINER or Seyfert-like emission, while the rest are classified as star forming (16%) or quiescent (26%). Comparison to the emission line activity in the Darg et al. sample - in which the mergers are still in progress - indicates that the AGN fraction rises in the post-mergers, suggesting that the AGN phase is dominant only in the very final stages the merging process. The optical colours of the SPMs and the plausible mass ratios for their progenitors indicate that, while a minority are consistent with major mergers between two early-type galaxies, the vast majority are remnants of major mergers where at least one progenitor is a late-type galaxy.

  19. SHOCKING TAILS IN THE MAJOR MERGER ABELL 2744

    SciTech Connect

    Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W.

    2012-05-01

    We identify four rare 'jellyfish' galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging 'Bullet-like' subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

  20. Shocking Tails in the Major Merger Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W.

    2012-05-01

    We identify four rare "jellyfish" galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging "Bullet-like" subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

  1. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): merging galaxies and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Propris, Roberto; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon P.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kelvin, Lee; Loveday, Jon; Phillipps, Steve; Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2014-11-01

    We derive the close pair fractions and volume merger rates for galaxies in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey with -23 < Mr < -17 (ΩM = 0.27, ΩΛ = 0.73, H0 = 100 km s-1 Mpc-1) at 0.01 < z < 0.22 (look-back time of <2 Gyr). The merger fraction is approximately 1.5 per cent Gyr-1 at all luminosities (assuming 50 per cent of pairs merge) and the volume merger rate is ≈3.5 × 10-4 Mpc-3 Gyr-1. We examine how the merger rate varies by luminosity and morphology. Dry mergers (between red/spheroidal galaxies) are found to be uncommon and to decrease with decreasing luminosity. Fainter mergers are wet, between blue/discy galaxies. Damp mergers (one of each type) follow the average of dry and wet mergers. In the brighter luminosity bin (-23 < Mr < -20), the merger rate evolution is flat, irrespective of colour or morphology, out to z ˜ 0.2. The makeup of the merging population does not appear to change over this redshift range. Galaxy growth by major mergers appears comparatively unimportant and dry mergers are unlikely to be significant in the buildup of the red sequence over the past 2 Gyr. We compare the colour, morphology, environmental density and degree of activity (BPT class, Baldwin, Phillips & Terlevich) of galaxies in pairs to those of more isolated objects in the same volume. Galaxies in close pairs tend to be both redder and slightly more spheroid dominated than the comparison sample. We suggest that this may be due to `harassment' in multiple previous passes prior to the current close interaction. Galaxy pairs do not appear to prefer significantly denser environments. There is no evidence of an enhancement in the AGN fraction in pairs, compared to other galaxies in the same volume.

  2. Cool dust heating and temperature mixing in nearby star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. K.; Draine, B. T.; Bianchi, S.; Gordon, K. D.; Aniano, G.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Helou, G.; Hinz, J. L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Roussel, H.; Wilson, C. D.; Bolatto, A.; Boquien, M.; Croxall, K. V.; Galametz, M.; Gil de Paz, A.; Koda, J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Sauvage, M.; Vigroux, L.; Zibetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    temperatures, contrary to what would be expected from the usual Tdust - β degeneracy. This trend is related to variations in Umin since β and Umin are very closely linked over the entire range in Umin sampled by the KINGFISH galaxies: low Umin is associated with flat β ≲ 1. Both these results strongly suggest that the low apparent β values (flat slopes) in MBBV fits are caused by temperature mixing along the line of sight, rather than by intrinsic variations in grain properties. Finally, a comparison of dust models and the data show a slight ~10% excess at 500 μm for low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) ≲ 8) and low far-infrared surface brightness (Σ500). Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgData are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A33

  3. The properties of Spheroidal Post-Mergers in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpineti, Alfredo

    2011-11-01

    Galaxy merging is a fundamental aspect of the standard hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. A large, homogeneous catalogue of mergers was compiled, through direct visual inspection of the entire SDSS spectroscopic sample using the Galaxy Zoo project. We explore a subset of galaxies from this catalogue that are spheroidal ``post-mergers'' (SPMs) - where a single remnant is in the final stages of relaxation and shows evidence for a dominant bulge, making them plausible progenitors of early-type galaxies. The SPMs have bluer colours than the general early-type galaxy population due to merger-induced star formation. An emission line analysis using optical emission line ratios indicates that 68% of our SPMs exhibit LINER or Seyfert-like activity, while the rest are classified as ``star forming'' (16%) or ``quiescent'' (26%). A comparison to emission line activity in a sample where the mergers are still in progress indicates that the AGN fraction rises in the post-mergers galaxies, while star-formation rates is higher in the mergers. The results indicate that the starburst episodes peak during the merger phase, while the AGN switches on at a later stage. The timing of mergers evolving into post-mergers is consistent with the starburst-AGN time delay we found in the literature.

  4. Chemo-dynamical evolution model: Enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-08-01

    Neutron star mergers are one of the candidate astrophysical site(s) of r-process. Several chemical evolution studies however pointed out that the observed abundance of r-process is difficult to reproduce by neutron star mergers. In this study, we aim to clarify the enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies. We carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct a chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf galaxies assuming that neutron star mergers are the major source of r-process elements. Our models reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] with neutron star mergers with a merger time of 100 Myr. We find that star formation efficiency and metal mixing processes during the first <~ 300 Myr of galaxy evolution are important to reproduce the observations. This study supports that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  5. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  6. Galactic Dynamics and Evolution: Mergers and Infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Melinda Loving

    1995-01-01

    Collisions and mergers are cited as culprits in the production of a large range of morphological phenomena observed in galaxies. Galactic interactions may generate faint structures, such as arcs and rings, or create an entirely different type of galaxy, depending on the types of galaxies involved and their orbital geometry. I develop detailed merger and infall models which are compared with observations in order to elucidate the dynamical processes which govern galactic formation and evolution. In a first project, the effect of including gas is studied in encounters between low-mass companions and elliptical galaxies which produce sharp-edged features called "shells." Ellipticals accrete gas, which may be important in constraining their evolution. Numerical simulations of tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars were performed. The stellar and gaseous components rapidly segregate to produce very different structures. Gaseous remnants are dense, concentrated structures that form when gas flows into the center of the galaxy. Star formation is expected in the nucleus, localized and distinctly separate from the stellar remnant. In a second project, the formation of a peculiar ring galaxy is modeled. The Cartwheel galaxy, in addition to an outer and inner ring, has several spokes which connect the two. In an attempt to reproduce the spokes, a fully self-consistent model is constructed in which a companion collides head-on with a primary consisting of a live halo and a disk containing both stars and gas. Stars and gas react to passage of the companion through the disk by producing a morphology similar to that of the Cartwheel. The region between the inner and outer rings contains several spokes with a clumpy, interrupted structure. Finally, models of both pairs and small groups of bulge-disk-halo galaxies are merged to form remnants that evince properties similar to elliptical galaxies. I analyze the spatial and kinematic characteristics of

  7. Diverse structural evolution at z > 1 in cosmologically simulated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Lotz, Jennifer; Moody, Christopher; Peth, Michael; Freeman, Peter; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-08-01

    From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 < z < 3. We measure automated diagnostics of galaxy morphology in cosmological simulations of the formation of 22 central galaxies with 9.3 < log10M*/M⊙ < 10.7. These high-spatial-resolution zoom-in calculations enable accurate modelling of the rest-frame UV and optical morphology. Even with small numbers of galaxies, we find that structural evolution is neither universal nor monotonic: galaxy interactions can trigger either bulge or disc formation, and optically bulge-dominated galaxies at this mass may not remain so forever. Simulated galaxies with M* > 1010M⊙ contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 < z < 2. By this epoch, simulated galaxies with specific star formation rates below 10- 9.7 yr- 1 are more likely than normal star-formers to have a broader mix of structural types, especially at M* > 1010 M⊙. We analyse a cosmological major merger at z ˜ 1.5 and find that the newly proposed Multimode-Intensity-Deviation (MID) morphology diagnostics trace later merger stages while Gini-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is <100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.

  8. An improved prescription for merger time-scales from controlled simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Á.; De Lucia, G.; Weinmann, S. M.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.

    2013-06-01

    We compare three analytical prescriptions for merger times available from the literature to simulations of isolated mergers. We probe three different redshifts, and several halo concentrations, mass ratios, orbital circularities and orbital energies of the satellite. We find that prescriptions available in the literature significantly underpredict long time-scales for mergers at high redshift. We argue that these results have not been highlighted previously either because the evolution of halo concentration of satellite galaxies has been neglected (in previous isolated merger simulations) or because long merger times and mergers with high initial orbital circularities are under-represented (for prescriptions based on cosmological simulations). Motivated by the evolution of halo concentration at fixed mass, an explicit dependence on redshift added as tmergermod(z) = (1 + z)0.44 tmerger to the prescription based on isolated mergers gives a significant improvement in the predicted merger times up to ˜20 tdyn in the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 2. When this modified prescription is used to compute galaxy stellar mass functions, we find that it leads up to a 25 per cent increase in the number of low-mass galaxies surviving at z = 0, and a 10 per cent increase for more massive galaxies. This worsens the known overprediction in the number of low-mass galaxies by hierarchical models of galaxy formation.

  9. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  10. Extreme Mergers from the Massive Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Roger

    2010-09-01

    We propose to observe two extraordinary, high-redshift galaxy clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey. Both targets are very rare, triple merger systems (one a nearly co-linear merger), and likely lie at the deepest nodes of the cosmic web. Both targets show multiple strong gravitational lensing arcs in the cluster cores. These targets only possess very short (10ks) Chandra observations, and are unobserved by XMM-Newton. The X-ray data will be used to probe the mass distribution of hot, baryonic gas, and to reveal the details of the merger physics and the process of cluster assembly. We will also search for hints of X-ray emission from filaments between the merging clumps. Subaru and Hubble Space Telescope imaging data are in hand; we request additional HST coverage for one object.

  11. Early-type dwarf galaxies in clusters: A mixed bag with various origins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisker, T.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of early-type dwarf (dE) galaxies, the most numerous objects in clusters, is believed to be closely connected to the physical processes that drive galaxy cluster evolution, like galaxy harassment and ram-pressure stripping. However, the actual significance of each mechanism for building the observed cluster dE population is yet unknown. Several distinct dE subclasses were identified, which show significant differences in their shape, stellar content, and distribution within the cluster. Does this diversity imply that dEs originate from various formation channels? Does ``cosmological'' formation play a role as well? I try to touch on these questions in this brief overview of dEs in galaxy clusters.

  12. Gas-rich mergers and feedback are ubiquitous amongst starbursting radio galaxies, as revealed by the VLA, IRAM PdBI and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; De Breuck, C.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Feain, I.; Greve, T. R.; Haas, M.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kovács, A.; Lehnert, M. D.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Seymour, N.; Wylezalek, D.

    2012-09-01

    We report new, sensitive observations of two z ˜ 3-3.5 far-infrared-luminous radio galaxies, 6C 1909+72 and B3 J2330+3927, in the 12CO J = 1-0 transition with the Karl Jansky Very Large Array and at 100-500 m using Herschel, alongside new and archival 12CO J = 4-3 observations from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We introduce a new colour-colour diagnostic plot to constrain the redshifts of several distant, dusty galaxies in our target fields. A bright SMG near 6C 1909+72 likely shares the same node or filament as the signpost active galactic nuclei (AGN), but it is not detected in 12CO despite ˜20 000 km s-1 of velocity coverage. Also in the 6C 1909+72 field, a large, red dust feature spanning ≈500 kpc is aligned with the radio jet. We suggest several processes by which metal-rich material may have been transported, favouring a collimated outflow reminiscent of the jet-oriented metal enrichment seen in local cluster environments. Our interferometric imaging reveals a gas-rich companion to B3 J2330+3927; indeed, all bar one of the eight z ≳ 2 radio galaxies (or companions) detected in 12CO provide some evidence that starburst activity in radio-loud AGN at high redshift is driven by the interaction of two or more gas-rich systems in which a significant mass of stars has already formed, rather than via steady accretion of cold gas from the cosmic web. We find that the 12CO brightness temperature ratios in radio-loud AGN host galaxies are significantly higher than those seen in similarly intense starbursts where AGN activity is less pronounced. Our most extreme example, where L CO 4-3'/L CO 1-0'>2.7, provides evidence that significant energy is being deposited rapidly into the molecular gas via X-rays and/or mechanical ('quasar-mode') feedback from the AGN, leading to a high degree of turbulence globally and a low optical depth in 12CO - feedback that may lead to the cessation of star formation on a time-scale commensurate with that of the jet activity,

  13. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comeron, Sebastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; De Paz, Armando Gil; and others

    2012-07-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T {<=} 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes {approx}3%-10% to the total 3.6 {mu}m luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  14. Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.

    1989-08-01

    A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes.

  15. Structure of merger remnants. II - Progenitors with rotating bulges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Mergers of identical galaxies consisting of self-gravitating disks, bulges, and halos are examined in the context of the suggestion that such events may form elliptical galaxies. Unlike earlier studies, the simulations reported here include effects arising from intrinsic spin of bulges. It is found that the disks and bulges are able to redistribute their angular momentum so that the luminous remnants rotate slowly near their centers. In addition, if the bulges are sufficiently concentrated, the core radii of the remnants are significantly reduced relative to those of end-states formed in mergers between pure stellar disks to the extent that the remnants share structural properties with observed elliptical galaxies. Nevertheless, it does appear that stellar-dynamical mergers between spiral progenitors will represent a viable mechanism for the production of massive elliptical galaxies only if sufficient mass resides already in dense, spheroidal components. These results suggest that any ellipticals formed in this manner having featureless light profiles were victims of a 'disk-bulge conspiracy' analogous to the disk-halo conspiracy thought to give rise to smooth rotation curves in spiral galaxies. Possible observational signatures of mergers are discussed, along with implications of the findings for our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution.

  16. The Properties of IRAS Detected Mergers in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpineti, Alfredo; Kaviraj, S.; Clements, D. L.; Darg, D.; Hyde, A. K.; Lintott, C.

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy merging is a fundamental aspect of the standard hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. We have used a large, homogeneous set of nearby mergers, selected through direct visual inspection of the entire SDSS using the GalaxyZoo project, to perform the first blind far-infrared (FIR) study of the local merger population. 3300+ mergers were cross-matched with the Imperial IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue, resulting in 606 FIR detections. The IRAS- detected mergers are typically more massive, with smaller separations, weaker tidal forces and bluer colours than their undetected counterparts. The IRAS-detected mergers are mostly (98%) spiral-spiral systems, with a median FIR luminosity of 1011 LSun and a median star-formation rate of around 15 MSun per year. They reside in low density environments but we find no dependence between group richness and their infrared properties. Their SFR seems to depend on the total mass of the system with little dependence on the mass ratio. Optical emission line ratios indicate that the AGN fraction increases with increasing FIR luminosity with a dramatic increase in the members that are ULIRGs . Comparing the typical separations of mergers that are LIRGs and those that are ULIRGs we estimate the timescale for this transition and find a value of (50 ± 16) Myr .

  17. Monitoring Young Evolving Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Bruce; Bruhweiler, Frederick; Laine, Seppo; Rottler, Lee

    2014-12-01

    Recently there has arisen the first opportunity to study a stellar merger in progress and to follow the evolution of the merger remnant. The 2008 outburst of V1309 Sco was recognized in 2011 to have resulted from a merger. We have been monitoring the evolution of its unusual IR SED in J, H, and K and in the IRAC channels, as well as at other wavelengths. We request additional IRAC data because the merger remnant has not yet 'settled down' into a final state. We shall also obtain IRAC photometry of what are currently the two other objects most widely suspected of being recent mergers, in order to compare their post-merger evolution with that of V1309 Sco. It is important to monitor these objects so that their SEDs and physical evolution can be understood and accurately modeled.

  18. Structure of merger remnants. 4: Isophotal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyl, Jeremy S.; Hernquist, Lars; Spergel, David N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the shapes of isophotes of galaxy merger remnants. More specifically, we perform a series of numerical experiments to study galaxy mergers. The simulations explore a variety of encounter geometries, types of progenitor galaxies, and particle numbers. We 'observe' each of the remnants from 64 viewpoints to estimate how the isophotal shapes vary with the orientation of the remnant. Also, by comparing the results from the various simulations, we learn how encounter geometry and the structure of the progenitors can affect the shape of the remnants. The encounter geometry, the structure of the progenitors, and the orientation of the remnant play deciding roles in the shape of the 'observed' isophotes, so much so that these simulated merger remnants have both 'boxy' and 'disky' isophotes and ellipticities ranging from E0 to E7. Thus, the shapes seen in our merger simulation remnants span a similar range to observed isophotal shapes of real galaxies. Furthermore, to estimate the errors in this analysis, we introduce the statistical bootstrap. Bootstrapping is used rather widely in observational astronomy when dealing with small samples; however, its use is practically unheard of for tackling theoretical problems. We believe that bootstrapping can be extremely useful for dealing with the small samples found in numerical simulations; therefore, we present the rudiments and basis of the technique with emphasis on its use in N-body calculations. Also, by comparing the errors for the smaller simulations with those of the larger ones, we speculate on the number of particles required to accurately explore isophotal shapes in simulations.

  19. Star formation in mergers with cosmologically motivated initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, Wouter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Kannan, Rahul; Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-09-01

    We use semi-analytic models and cosmological merger trees to provide the initial conditions for multimerger numerical hydrodynamic simulations, and exploit these simulations to explore the effect of galaxy interaction and merging on star formation (SF). We compute numerical realizations of 12 merger trees from z = 1.5 to 0. We include the effects of the large hot gaseous halo around all galaxies, following recent observations and predictions of galaxy formation models. We find that including the hot gaseous halo has a number of important effects. First, as expected, the star formation rate on long time-scales is increased due to cooling of the hot halo and refuelling of the cold gas reservoir. Secondly, we find that interactions do not always increase the SF in the long term. This is partially due to the orbiting galaxies transferring gravitational energy to the hot gaseous haloes and raising their temperature. Finally, we find that the relative size of the starburst, when including the hot halo, is much smaller than previous studies showed. Our simulations also show that the order and timing of interactions are important for the evolution of a galaxy. When multiple galaxies interact at the same time, the SF enhancement is less than when galaxies interact in series. All these effects show the importance of including hot gas and cosmologically motivated merger trees in galaxy evolution models.

  20. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  1. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, Karen A.

    This work examines star formation in the debris associated with collisions of dwarf and spiral galaxies. While the spectacular displays of major mergers are famous (e.g., NGC 4038/9, "The Antennae''), equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio <0.3) Minor mergers are less energetic than major mergers, but more common in the observable universe and, thus, likely played a pivotal role in the formation of most large galaxies. Centers of mergers host vigorous star formation from high gas density and turbulence and are surveyed over cosmological distances. However, the tidal debris resulting from these mergers have not been well studied. Such regions have large reservoirs of gaseous material that can be used as fuel for subsequent star formation but also have lower gas density. Tracers of star formation at the local and global scale have been examined for three tidal tails in two minor merger systems. These tracers include young star cluster populations, H-alpha, and [CII] emission. The rate of apparent star formation derived from these tracers is compared to the gas available to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The Western tail of NGC 2782 formed isolated star clusters while massive star cluster complexes are found in the UGC 10214 ("The Tadpole'') and Eastern tail of NGC 2782. Due to the lack of both observable CO and [CII] emission, the observed star formation in the Western tail of NGC 2782 may have a low carbon abundance and represent only the first round of local star formation. While the Western tail has a normal SFE, the Eastern tail in the same galaxy has an low observed SFE. In contrast, the Tadpole tidal tail has a high observed star formation rate and a corresponding high SFE. The low SFE observed in the Eastern tail of NGC 2782 may be due to its origin as a splash region where localized gas heating is important. However, the other tails may be tidally formed regions where gravitational compression likely

  2. The role of neutron star mergers in the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescutti, G.; Romano, D.; Matteucci, F.; Chiappini, C.; Hirschi, R.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The dominant astrophysical production site of the r-process elements has not yet been unambiguously identified. The suggested main r-process sites are core-collapse supernovae and merging neutron stars. Aims: We explore the problem of the production site of Eu. We also use the information present in the observed spread in the Eu abundances in the early Galaxy, and not only its average trend. Moreover, we extend our investigations to other heavy elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Zr) to provide additional constraints on our results. Methods: We adopt a stochastic chemical evolution model that takes inhomogeneous mixing into account. The adopted yields of Eu from merging neutron stars and from core-collapse supernovae are those that are able to explain the average [Eu/Fe]-[Fe/H] trend observed for solar neighbourhood stars, the solar abundance of Eu, and the present-day abundance gradient of Eu along the Galactic disc in the framework of a well-tested homogeneous model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ba are produced by both the s- and r-processes. The r-process yields were obtained by scaling the Eu yields described above according to the abundance ratios observed in r-process rich stars. The s-process contribution by spinstars is the same as in our previous papers. Results: Neutron star binaries that merge in less than 10 Myr or neutron star mergers combined with a source of r-process generated by massive stars can explain the spread of [Eu/Fe] in the Galactic halo. The combination of r-process production by neutron star mergers and s-process production by spinstars is able to reproduce the available observational data for Sr, Zr, and Ba. We also show the first predictions for Rb in the Galactic halo. Conclusions: We confirm previous results that either neutron star mergers on a very short timescale or both neutron star mergers and at least a fraction of Type II supernovae have contributed to the synthesis of Eu in the Galaxy. The r

  3. WITNESSING GAS MIXING IN THE METAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE HICKSON COMPACT GROUP HCG 31

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Flores, S.; Alfaro-Cuello, M.; De Oliveira, C. Mendes; Amram, P.; Carrasco, E. R.

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of gas being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. This is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. We focus on the emission line gas, which is extensive in the system. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances. While in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region, which is confirmed by the high-resolution Hα kinematics (R = 45,900). This nearby system is especially important because it involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies.

  4. Mergers, cooling flows, and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    Mergers (the capture of cold gas, especially) can have a profound influence on the hot coronal gas of early-type galaxies and clusters, potentially inducing symptoms hitherto attributed to a cooling flow, if thermal conduction is operative in the coronal plasma. Heat can be conducted from the hot phase into the cold phase, simultaneously ionizing the cold gas to make optical filaments, while locally cooling the coronal gas to mimic a cooling-flow. If there is heat conduction, though, there is no standard cooling-flow since radiative losses are balanced by conduction and not mass deposition. Amongst the strongest observational support for the existence of cooling-flows is the presence of intermediate temperature gas with x-ray emission-line strengths in agreement with cooling-flow models. Here, x-ray line strengths are calculated for this alternative model, in which mergers are responsible for the observed optical and x-ray properties. Since gas around 10(exp 4) K is thermally stable, the cold cloud need not necessarily evaporate and hydrostatic solutions exist. Good agreement with the x-ray data is obtained. The relative strengths of intermediate temperature x-ray emission lines are in significantly better agreement with a simple conduction model than with published cooling-flow models. The good agreement of the conduction model with optical, infrared and x-ray data indicates that significantly more theoretical effort into this type of solution would be profitable.

  5. Department of Transportation Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillick, J.

    1972-01-01

    The policy of the Department of Transportation with respect to evaluating airline mergers is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) statutory responsibilities of the Department of Transportation, (2) interrelationship of airline merger policy and overall airline policy, (3) executive branch criteria for domestic airline merger proposals, and position of Department of Transportation on several merger proceedings.

  6. Molecular Gas in Local Mergers: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, N.; Sheth, K.

    2013-01-01

    NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging will allow multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will be used to constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We aim to do an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which will enable in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This will in turn probe the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will help assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We will probe the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present preliminary observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

  7. Masquerading as a Merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGN), an intermediary product of galaxy mergers, can give us a better understanding of what happens when two galaxies collide. But because the angular separation of the two galactic nuclei is so small at this stage, identifying these systems is very difficult. In a recent study, a team of authors proposes a new technique for confirming dual AGN candidates.Signatures in SpectraTotal-intensity VLA image for J1023+3243. This system is confirmed as a dual AGN; the two compact radio cores are separately identifiable here. [Mller-Snchez et al. 2015]One approach commonly used to identify dual AGN candidates is to look for signatures in the spectra of these galaxies. Light is emitted by ionized gas in the narrow-line region (NLR), the region that extends from a few hundreds of parsecs to ~30kpc from the nuclei. The spatially-averaged spectrum of this region for dual AGN, however, appears double-peaked due to the motion of the two nuclei rotating around each other.But theres a problem with using this technique to identify dual AGN: other processes also produce double-peaked narrow-line emission, mimicking the behavior of dual AGN. These processes include the rotation of ionized gas in the galactic disk, and the motion of radio jets emitted from the AGN.A team of scientists led by Francisco Mller-Snchez (University of Colorado Boulder) have proposed that the use of a combination of high-resolution radio observations and spatially-resolved spectroscopy could be used to discern between these possible cases.Dual AGN or Moving Gas?To test this method, the group examined a sample of 18 active galactic nuclei from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These AGN had previously been identified as candidate dual AGN with double-peaked narrow emission lines. The team obtained both optical long-slit spectroscopy and high-resolution Very Large Array observations of these AGN. They then combined this information to identify the cause of the double-peaked lines in

  8. Ripples in disk galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, F.; Seitzer, P.

    1988-05-01

    Evidence is presented that ripples occur not only in ellipticals but also in disk galaxies of Hubble types S0, S0/Sa, and Sa, and probably even in the Sbc galaxy NGC 3310. It is argued that the ripples cannot usually have resulted from transient spiral waves or other forced vibrations in existing disks, but instead consist of extraneous sheetlike matter. The frequent presence of major disk-shaped companions suggests that ripple material may be acquired not only through wholesale mergers but also through mass transfer from neighbor galaxies. The implications of ripples in early-type disk galaxies are addressed. 40 references.

  9. Galaxy Transformation from Flyby Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Christina

    2016-05-01

    Galaxy flybys are transient encounters where two halos interpenetrate and later detach forever. Although these encounters are surprisingly common—even outnumbering galaxy mergers for massive halos at the present epoch—their dynamical effects have been largely ignored. Using idealized collisionless N-body simulations of flyby encounters, it has been shown that a galaxy flyby can excite a bar and spin up the halo. Here, we compare the structural properties of recent flybys to that of recent mergers and isolated systems within the Illustris Simulation.

  10. Merger mania: physicians beware.

    PubMed

    Weil, T P; Pearl, G M

    1998-01-01

    Corporate consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions would seem to provide immense promise in furthering the development of health networking because they affect the governance of entire organizations, rather than simply establishing revised arrangements for specific services or patients. Yet, a limited number of empirical studies have been published to date that explore whether hospital mergers actually improve access, reduce cost, or improve quality of care; and, among the reports available, the conclusions are somewhat equivocal. Physicians should be cautious of these mergers, since they seem to focus either on eliminating a direct competitor or on forming a large horizontally and vertically diversified health network that then can become a major player in gaining exclusivity in managed care contracting. With either of these merger strategies, there are antitrust-type concerns that competition among physicians and other providers will be significantly curtailed, and that consumers will end up with fewer choices in obtaining cost effective, quality patient care. PMID:10180505

  11. Stochastic evolution of rotations of early type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hoseung; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    Recent Integral-Field Spectrograph surveys (SAURON, ATLAS 3D, and SAMI project, for example) have revealed that early type galaxies have wide range of rotational properties even though they share similar photometric properties. High resolution numerical studies have shown that galaxy-galaxy interactions have significant effect on the rotation of early type galaxies, however, with limited number of sample galaxies.We present kinematic analysis of thousands of galaxies in 20 clusters from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations. Although galaxy mergers play an important role, the direction of change in the amount of rotation depends on many merger parameters such as mass ratio, orbital parameters, and relative direction of galaxy rotations. Furthermore, all their merger parameters themselves are results of non-linear galaxy formation and evolution processes. By compiling numerous galaxy merger events, we discuss statistical properties of the evolution of early type galaxy rotation. We present the impacts of various interactions: major and minor mergers, multiple mergers, and flybys.

  12. Extreme Mergers from the Massive Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.

    2010-09-01

    We will observe an extraordinary, high-redshift galaxy cluster from the Massive Cluster Survey. The target is a very rare, triple merger system, and likely lies at the one of deepest nodes of the cosmic web. The target shows multiple strong gravitational lensing arcs in the cluster core. This target only possesses a very short {10ks} Chandra observations, and is unobserved by XMM-Newton. The X-ray data from this joint Chandra/HST proposal will be used to probe the mass distribution of hot, baryonic gas, and to reveal the details of the merger physics and the process of cluster assembly. We will also search for hints of X-ray emission from filaments between the merging clumps. Subaru and some Hubble Space Telescope imaging data are in hand; we will gather additional HST coverage for a lensing analysis.

  13. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  14. Starbursts in colliding galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Duc, P. A.

    Global starbursts are a consequence of rapid changes in the dynamics of the interstellar gas. The most violent starbursts take place in the nuclear regions of galaxies, when galaxy-galaxy encounters cause a sudden reduction of angular momentum, with the subsequent infall to the central regions of a large fraction of the overall interstellar gas. Although starbursts are also observed in the central regions of isolated barred spiral galaxies, most of the starbursts with bolometric luminosities above 1012Lsun occur in mergers. Super-starbursts in galactic nuclei seem to require high infall rates of interstellar gas that can only be produced during mergers. The authors discuss the phenomenon of extranuclear starbursts in relation to the formation of dwarf galaxies during galaxy-galaxy collisions. As a consequence of tidal interactions a fraction of the less gravitationally bound atomic hydrogen that populates the outskirts of disk galaxies may escape into the intergalactic medium. It is found that the ejected gas may assemble again and collapse, leading to the formation of intergalactic starbursts, namely, tidal dwarf galaxies.

  15. REPRODUCING THE OBSERVED ABUNDANCES IN RCB AND HdC STARS WITH POST-DOUBLE-DEGENERATE MERGER MODELS-CONSTRAINTS ON MERGER AND POST-MERGER SIMULATIONS AND PHYSICS PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Denissenkov, Pavel A.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Staff, Jan; Pignatari, Marco; Paxton, Bill

    2013-07-20

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient, variable stars that are most likely the result of He-CO WD mergers. They display extremely low oxygen isotopic ratios, {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O {approx_equal} 1-10, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C {>=} 100, and enhancements up to 2.6 dex in F and in s-process elements from Zn to La, compared to solar. These abundances provide stringent constraints on the physical processes during and after the double-degenerate merger. As shown previously, O-isotopic ratios observed in RCB stars cannot result from the dynamic double-degenerate merger phase, and we now investigate the role of the long-term one-dimensional spherical post-merger evolution and nucleosynthesis based on realistic hydrodynamic merger progenitor models. We adopt a model for extra envelope mixing to represent processes driven by rotation originating in the dynamical merger. Comprehensive nucleosynthesis post-processing simulations for these stellar evolution models reproduce, for the first time, the full range of the observed abundances for almost all the elements measured in RCB stars: {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios between 9 and 15, C-isotopic ratios above 100, and {approx}1.4-2.35 dex F enhancements, along with enrichments in s-process elements. The nucleosynthesis processes in our models constrain the length and temperature in the dynamic merger shell-of-fire feature as well as the envelope mixing in the post-merger phase. s-process elements originate either in the shell-of-fire merger feature or during the post-merger evolution, but the contribution from the asymptotic giant branch progenitors is negligible. The post-merger envelope mixing must eventually cease {approx}10{sup 6} yr after the dynamic merger phase before the star enters the RCB phase.

  16. The Influence of Companion Morphology on Dust Properties and Star Formation in Galaxy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Donovan L.; Cao, Chen; Xu, C. Kevin; Jarrett, Tom; Ronca, Joseph; Hill, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by Ks magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral-spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral-elliptical (S+E). The CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) is used to fit dust models to the 2MASS, WISE and Herschel flux measurements and derive the parameters describing the PAH contribution, interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. The spirals of mixed morphology galaxy pairs do not exhibit the enhancements in interstellar radiation field and therefore dust temperature for spirals in S+S pairs in contrast to what would be expected according to standard models of gas redistribution due to encounter torques. This suggests the importance of the companion environment/morphology in determining the dust properties of a spiral galaxy in a close major-merger pair.

  17. Chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies: The origin of r-process elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Y.; Ishimaru, Y.; Saitoh, T. R.; Fujii, M. S.; Hidaka, J.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    The r-process elements such as Au, Eu, and U are observed in the extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo and the Local Group dwarf galaxies. However, the origin of r-process elements has not yet been identified. The abundance of r-process elements of stars in the Local Group galaxies provides clues to clarify early evolutionary history of galaxies. It is important to understand the chemical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies which would be building blocks of the Milky Way. In this study, we perform a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies. We show that neutron star mergers can reproduce the observation of r-process elements. We find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ¥sim 10-100 pc play significant roles in the early chemical enrichment of dwarf galaxies. We also find that the star formation rate of ˜ 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr^{-1} in early epoch (<1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for these results. Our results suggest that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  18. Understanding FE Mergers. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    This report presents research findings and discussion to help develop an understanding of what gives rise to mergers and, when they do happen, what makes them work. The research has focused on merger activity between further education (FE) colleges since incorporation in 1993. Mergers are highly contextual, and part of ensuring success is…

  19. The rate of neutron star binary mergers in the universe - Minimal predictions for gravity wave detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    Of the many sources which gravitational wave observatories might see, merging neutron star binaries are the most predictable. Their waveforms at the observable frequencies are easy to calculate. And three systems which will merge in less than a Hubble time have already been observed as binary pulsars: two in the disk of the Galaxy, and one in a globular cluster. From the lifetimes and positions of these, a lower limit to the merger rate in the Galaxy and globular cluster system are inferred with confidence. Taking the merger rate in other galaxies to scale with the star formation rate, the merger rate expected in the local universe is computed. An ultraconservative lower limit to the rate gives three per year within 1 Gpc. The best estimate, still conservative in that it considers only systems like those already observed, gives three per year within 200 Mpc. An upper limit of three mergers per year within 23/h Mpc is set by the rate of Type Ib supernovae. The rates of black hole binary mergers and black hole-neutron star binary mergers are model-dependent, but could be comparable to the given rate of neutron-star binary mergers.

  20. Do elliptical galaxies have thick disks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. C.; Wright, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss new evidence which supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies. Numerical simulations of weak interactions with thick disk systems produce shell structures very similar in appearance to those observed in many shell galaxies. The authors think this model presents a more plausible explanation for the formation of shell structures in elliptical/SO galaxies than does the merger model and, if correct, supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies.

  1. Sussing merger trees: stability and convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Pearce, Frazer R.; Knebe, Alexander; Schneider, Aurel; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Tweed, Dylan; Jung, Intae; Han, Jiaxin; Helly, John; Onions, Julian; Elahi, Pascal J.; Thomas, Peter A.; Behroozi, Peter; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Jing, Yipeng; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-06-01

    Merger trees are routinely used to follow the growth and merging history of dark matter haloes and subhaloes in simulations of cosmic structure formation. Srisawat et al. compared a wide range of merger-tree-building codes. Here we test the influence of output strategies and mass resolution on tree-building. We find that, somewhat surprisingly, building the tree from more snapshots does not generally produce more complete trees; instead, it tends to shorten them. Significant improvements are seen for patching schemes that attempt to bridge over occasional dropouts in the underlying halo catalogues or schemes that combine the halo-finding and tree-building steps seamlessly. The adopted output strategy does not affect the average number of branches (bushiness) of the resultant merger trees. However, mass resolution has an influence on both main branch length and the bushiness. As the resolution increases, a halo with the same mass can be traced back further in time and will encounter more small progenitors during its evolutionary history. Given these results, we recommend that, for simulations intended as precursors for galaxy formation models where of the order of 100 or more snapshots are analysed, the tree-building routine should be integrated with the halo finder, or at the very least be able to patch over multiple adjacent snapshots.

  2. The merger history of massive spheroids since z ˜ 1 is size-independent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, L. A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Trujillo, I.; Cenarro, A. J.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Barro, G.

    2013-07-01

    Using a compilation of 379 massive (stellar mass M ≳ 1011 M⊙) spheroid-like galaxies from the near-infrared Palomar/DEEP-2 survey, we investigated, up to z ˜ 1, whether the presence of companions depends on the size of the host galaxy. We explored the presence of companions for mass ratios with respect to the central massive galaxy down to 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, and within projected distances of 30, 50 and 100 kpc of these objects. We found evidence that these companions are equally distributed around both compact and extended massive spheroid-like galaxies. This suggests that, at least since z ˜ 1, the merger activity in these objects is nearly homogeneous across the whole population and that the merger history is not affected by the size of the host galaxy. Our results could indicate that compact and extended massive spheroid-like galaxies are increasing in size at the same rate.

  3. Mergers, Annexations, Dissolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Consolidations come in all shapes and sizes, including mergers, annexations and dissolutions. They do not all take place under state mandate, however. A handful of districts consolidate every year in some states like Illinois that have large numbers of small districts, many of them dual districts that serve K-8 or 9-12 in the same geographic area.…

  4. JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen

    2015-11-01

    JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.

  5. Giant branch mixing and the ultimate fate of primordial deuterium in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1995-01-01

    The observed cosmic abundances of light elements are most consistent with each other, and with the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, if, contrary to the usual assumption, galactic chemical evolution reduces (D = He-3)/H with time. Chemical evolution models which accomplish this require that low-mass stars destroy He-3 in the envelope gas that they return to the interstellar medium. A simple argument based on the rates of limiting nuclear reactions shows that the same giant branch mixing process which appears to be needed to explain the observed C-12/C-13 and C/N ratios in 1-2 solar mass stars would indeed also probably destroy He-3 by a large factor in the bulk of the envelope material. The conclusion is that Galactic He-3/H estimates should not be trusted for setting an upper limit on primordial (D = He-3)/H. This removes the strongest lower bound on the cosmic baryon density from big bang nucleosynthesis and the only argument for abundant baryonic dark matter.

  6. The Merger Dynamics of Abell 2061

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Avery; Sarazin, Craig L.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Chatzikos, Marios; Hogge, Taylor; Wik, Daniel R.; Rudnick, Lawrence; Farnsworth, Damon; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Brown, Shea

    2016-04-01

    Abell 2061, a galaxy cluster at a redshift of z=.0784 in the Corona Borealis Supercluster, displays features in both the X-ray and radio indicative of merger activity. Observations by the GBT and the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) have indicated the presence of an extended, central radio halo/relic coincident with the cluster's main X-ray emission and a bright radio relic to the SW of the center of the cluster. Previous observations by ROSAT, Beppo-SAX, and Chandra show an elongated structure (referred to as the ‘Plume’), emitting in the soft X-ray and stretching to the NE of the cluster’s center. The Beppo-SAX and Chandra observations also suggest the presence of a hard X-ray shock slightly NE of the cluster’s center. Here we present the details of an August 2013 XMM-Newton observation of A2061 which has greater field of view and longer exposure (48.6 ks) than the previous Chandra observation. We present images displaying the cluster’s soft and hard X-ray emission and also a temperature map of the cluster. This temperature map highlights the presence of a previously unseen cool region of the cluster which we hypothesize to be the cool core of one of the subclusters involved in this merger. We also discuss the structural similarity of this cluster with a simulated high mass-ratio offset cluster merger taken from the Simulation Library of Astrophysical cluster Mergers (SLAM). This simulation would suggest that the Plume is gas from the cool core of a subcluster which is now falling back into the center of the cluster after initial core passage.

  7. A merger shock in A2034

    SciTech Connect

    Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; David, Laurence P.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Van Weeren, Reinout J.

    2014-01-10

    We present a 250 ks Chandra observation of the cluster merger A2034 with the aim of understanding the nature of a sharp edge previously characterized as a cold front. The new data reveal that the edge is coherent over a larger opening angle and is significantly more bow-shock-shaped than previously thought. Within ∼27° about the axis of symmetry of the edge, the density, temperature, and pressure drop abruptly by factors of 1.83{sub −0.08}{sup +0.09}, 1.85{sub −0.41}{sup +0.41}, and 3.4{sub −0.7}{sup +0.8}, respectively. This is inconsistent with the pressure equilibrium expected of a cold front and we conclude that the edge is a shock front. We measure a Mach number M=1.59{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06} and corresponding shock velocity v {sub shock} ≅ 2057 km s{sup –1}. Using spectra collected at the MMT with the Hectospec multi-object spectrograph, we identify 328 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. Significantly, we find a local peak in the projected galaxy density associated with a bright cluster galaxy that is located just ahead of the nose of the shock. The data are consistent with a merger viewed within ∼23° of the plane of the sky. The merging subclusters are now moving apart along a north-south axis approximately 0.3 Gyr after a small impact parameter core passage. The gas core of the secondary subcluster, which was driving the shock, appears to have been disrupted by the merger. Without a driving 'piston,' we speculate that the shock is dying. Finally, we propose that the diffuse radio emission near the shock is due to the revival of pre-existing radio plasma that has been overrun by the shock.

  8. A Merger Shock in A2034

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, Matt S.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Couch, Warrick J.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; David, Laurence P.; Forman, William R.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Jones, Christine; van Weeren, Reinout J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 250 ks Chandra observation of the cluster merger A2034 with the aim of understanding the nature of a sharp edge previously characterized as a cold front. The new data reveal that the edge is coherent over a larger opening angle and is significantly more bow-shock-shaped than previously thought. Within ~27° about the axis of symmetry of the edge, the density, temperature, and pressure drop abruptly by factors of 1.83^{+0.09}_{-0.08}, 1.85^{+0.41}_{-0.41}, and 3.4^{+0.8}_{-0.7}, respectively. This is inconsistent with the pressure equilibrium expected of a cold front and we conclude that the edge is a shock front. We measure a Mach number M = 1.59^{+0.06}_{-0.07} and corresponding shock velocity v shock ~= 2057 km s-1. Using spectra collected at the MMT with the Hectospec multi-object spectrograph, we identify 328 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. Significantly, we find a local peak in the projected galaxy density associated with a bright cluster galaxy that is located just ahead of the nose of the shock. The data are consistent with a merger viewed within ~23° of the plane of the sky. The merging subclusters are now moving apart along a north-south axis approximately 0.3 Gyr after a small impact parameter core passage. The gas core of the secondary subcluster, which was driving the shock, appears to have been disrupted by the merger. Without a driving "piston," we speculate that the shock is dying. Finally, we propose that the diffuse radio emission near the shock is due to the revival of pre-existing radio plasma that has been overrun by the shock.

  9. Generating merger trees for dark matter haloes: a comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fangzhou; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2014-05-01

    Halo merger trees describe the hierarchical assembly of dark matter haloes, and are the backbone for modelling galaxy formation and evolution. Merger trees constructed using Monte Carlo algorithms based on the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism are complementary to using N-body simulations and have the advantage that they are not trammelled by limited numerical resolution and uncertainties in identifying and linking (sub)haloes. This paper compares multiple EPS-based merger tree algorithms to simulation results using four diagnostics: progenitor mass function, mass assembly history (MAH), merger rate per descendant halo and the unevolved subhalo mass function. Spherical collapse-based methods typically overpredict major-merger rates, whereas ellipsoidal collapse dramatically overpredicts the minor-merger rate for massive haloes. The only algorithm in our comparison that yields results in good agreement with simulations is that by Parkinson et al. (P08). We emphasize, though, that the simulation results used as benchmarks in testing the merger trees are hampered by significant uncertainties themselves: MAHs and merger rates from different studies easily disagree by 50 per cent, even when based on the same simulation. Given this status quo, the P08 merger trees can be considered as accurate as those extracted from simulations.

  10. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  11. A note on the dynamics of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. G.; Miller, R. H.

    1982-03-01

    When a dynamical simulation of galaxy clusters includes the elasticity of galactic collisions, a massive object forms as a result of galaxy mergers which may contain as much as 80% of the cluster mass. The inelasticity of galaxy encounters, as calibrated in galaxy collision experiments, is sufficiently strong to affect galaxy cluster evolution and is an essential part of the physics of galaxy clusters which must be incorporated into dynamical simulations. It is found that, although the merger framework offers a useful model for the formation of poor clusters with a cD galaxy, it does not fit the rich clusters, thereby raising questions as to how galaxy clusters survive and as to the physics which may account for the differences between clusters with and without cD galaxies. It is suggested that the age of galaxy clusters has been overestimated.

  12. Isolated Galaxies versus Interacting Pairs with MaNGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, María; Yuan, Fangting; Shen, Shiyin; Yin, Jun; Chang, Ruixiang; Feng, Shuai

    2015-10-01

    We present preliminary results of the spectral analysis on the radial distributions of the star formation history in both, a galaxy merger and a spiral isolated galaxy observed with MaNGA. We find that the central part of the isolated galaxy is composed by older stellar population ($\\sim$2 Gyr) than in the outskirts ($\\sim$7 Gyr). Also, the time-scale is gradually larger from 1 Gyr in the inner part to 3 Gyr in the outer regions of the galaxy. In the case of the merger, the stellar population in the central region is older than in the tails, presenting a longer time-scale in comparison to central part in the isolated galaxy. Our results are in agreement with a scenario where spiral galaxies are built from inside-out. In the case of the merger, we find evidence that interactions enhance star formation in the central part of the galaxy.

  13. Colliding Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope looks deep within the violent center where the two Antennae Galaxies were merging. The Hubble's high resolution and sensitivity reveals the birth of young star clusters formed in the collision. New Hubble images of young star clusters help investigators put the evolutionary sequence into the right order. The Hubble Space Telescope images are: (1) zoom into the antennae galaxies; (2) galaxy merger evolution sequence; (3) the formation of the antennae pair; and (4) artist's conception of the collision of Milky-Way Galaxy with the Andromeda.

  14. Dynamical evolution of primordial dark matter haloes through mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiya, Go; Nagai, Daisuke; Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2016-09-01

    Primordial dark matter (DM) haloes are the smallest gravitationally bound DM structures from which the first stars, black holes and galaxies form and grow in the early universe. However, their structures are sensitive to the free streaming scale of DM, which in turn depends on the nature of DM particles. In this work, we test the hypothesis that the slope of the central cusps in primordial DM haloes near the free streaming scale depends on the nature of merging process. By combining and analysing data from a cosmological simulation with the cutoff in the small-scale matter power spectrum as well as a suite of controlled, high-resolution simulations of binary mergers, we find that (1) the primordial DM haloes form preferentially through major mergers in radial orbits; (2) their central DM density profile is more susceptible to a merging process compared to that of galaxy- and cluster-sized DM haloes; (3) consecutive major mergers drive the central density slope to approach the universal form characterized by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, which is shown to be robust to the impacts of mergers and serves an attractor solution for the density structure of DM haloes. Our work highlights the importance of dynamical processes on the structure formation during the Dark Ages.

  15. Hα Velocity Mapping of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Bothun, Gregory D.

    1998-06-01

    We use imaging Fabry-Pérot observations to explore the dynamical conditions in four southern ultraluminous (LIR >~ 1012 L⊙) infrared galaxies. These galaxies all show morphological and kinematic features indicative of a major merger, but they span a wide range of inferred dynamical ages: the youngest system is just past the first encounter, while the oldest has already merged into a single object. This diversity in dynamical states indicates that ultraluminous activity is not confined solely to late-stage mergers. The Hα emission is more spatially concentrated in the later stage mergers, in agreement with models that show that mergers drive gas inward toward the nucleus, but high luminosities are achieved even in young interactions where the Hα is quite extended. Our data indicate that physical details other than the dynamical phase--such as the internal structure or gas content of the galaxies--can play a strong role in determining the luminosity evolution of merging galaxies. We also find evidence for massive star-forming complexes at large radius in the tidal debris, which reaffirms the notion that some dwarf galaxies may be spawned during the merger of more massive disk galaxies.

  16. Hα Velocity Mapping of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, C.; Bothun, G.

    1997-12-01

    We use imaging Fabry-Perot observations to explore the dynamical conditions in four southern ultraluminous (LIR > 10(12) Lsun) infrared galaxies. These galaxies all show morphological and kinematic features indicative of a major merger, but span a wide range of inferred dynamical ages: the youngest system is just past the first encounter, while the oldest has already merged into a single object. This diversity in dynamical states indicates that ultraluminous activity is not confined solely to late-stage mergers. The Hα emission is more spatially concentrated in the later stage mergers, in agreement with models which show that mergers drive gas inwards towards the nucleus, but high luminosities are achieved even in young interactions where the Hα is quite extended. Our data indicate that physical details other than the dynamical phase -- such as the internal structure or gas content of the galaxies -- can play a strong role in determining the luminosity evolution of merging galaxies. We also find evidence for massive star-forming complexes at large radius in the tidal debris, reaffirming the notion that some dwarf galaxies may be spawned during the merger of more massive disk galaxies.

  17. Evolution of the Hubble sequence in hierarchical models for galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, C. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.

    1996-12-01

    We present a model for the broad morphological distinction between the disc and spheroidal components of galaxies. Elaborating on the hierarchical clustering scheme of galaxy formation proposed by Cole et al., we assume that galaxies form stars quiescently in a disc until they are disrupted into a spheroidal configuration by mergers. Bulges and spheroids may continue to accrete gas from their hot coronae, and so they may grow discs again. Thus an individual galaxy may pass through various phases of disc or spheroid dominance during its lifetime. To distinguish between discs and spheroids we add one additional free parameter to the semi-analytic model of Cole et al., which we fix by requiring that the predicted morphological mix should match that observed locally. Assuming an Omega=1, standard cold dark matter cosmology, we calculate formation and merging histories, and the evolution in colour, luminosity and morphology of the galaxy populations in different environments. Our model predicts that the bulges of spirals were assembled before the spheroids of ellipticals, and that the spheroids of cluster ellipticals were assembled before those of field ellipticals. About 50 per cent of ellipticals, but only about 15 per cent of spirals, have undergone a major merger during the redshift interval 0.0<=z<=0.5. In spite of their violent formation history, elliptical galaxies turn out to have colour-magnitude diagrams with remarkably small scatter. Apart from a general blueing of the galaxy population with redshift, the colour-magnitude diagrams are remarkably similar at redshift z=0.5 and at the present day. The morphological mix of galaxies that become rich cluster members at high redshift is dominated by spiral galaxies, due to the long time-scale for galaxy mergers compared with the time-scale for cluster assembly at high redshift. The assembly of low-redshift clusters is slower, allowing more galaxy mergers to occur in the progenitor haloes. As a result, z=0 rich

  18. Hydrogen in hot subdwarfs formed by double helium white dwarf mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Isolated hot subdwarfs might be formed by the merging of two helium-core white dwarfs. Before merging, helium-core white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich envelopes and some of this hydrogen may survive the merger. We calculate the mass of hydrogen that is present at the start of such mergers and, with the assumption that hydrogen is mixed throughout the disrupted white dwarf in the merger process, estimate how much can survive. We find a hydrogen mass of up to about 2 × 10-3 M⊙ in merger remnants. We make model merger remnants that include the hydrogen mass appropriate to their total mass and compare their atmospheric parameters with a sample of apparently isolated hot subdwarfs, hydrogen-rich sdBs. The majority of these stars can be explained as the remnants of double helium white dwarf mergers.

  19. When Worlds Collide: Chandra Observes Titanic Merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided the best X-ray image yet of two Milky Way-like galaxies in the midst of a head-on collision. Since all galaxies - including our own - may have undergone mergers, this provides insight into how the universe came to look as it does today. Astronomers believe the mega-merger in the galaxy known as Arp 220 triggered the formation of huge numbers of new stars, sent shock waves rumbling through intergalactic space, and could possibly lead to the formation of a supermassive black hole in the center of the new conglomerate galaxy. The Chandra data also suggest that merger of these two galaxies began only 10 million years ago, a short time in astronomical terms. "The Chandra observations show that things really get messed up when two galaxies run into each other at full speed," said David Clements of the Imperial College, London, one of the team members involved in the study. "The event affects everything from the formation of massive black holes to the dispersal of heavy elements into the universe." Arp 220 is considered to be a prototype for understanding what conditions were like in the early universe, when massive galaxies and supermassive black holes were presumably formed by numerous galaxy collisions. At a relatively nearby distance of about 250 million light years, Arp 220 is the closest example of an "ultra-luminous" galaxy, one that gives off a trillion times as much radiation as our Sun. The Chandra image shows a bright central region at the waist of a glowing, hour-glass-shaped cloud of multimillion-degree gas. Rushing out of the galaxy at hundreds of thousands of miles per hour, the super-heated as forms a "superwind," thought to be due to explosive activity generated by the formation of hundreds of millions of new stars. Farther out, spanning a distance of 75,000 light years, are giant lobes of hot gas that could be galactic remnants flung into intergalactic space by the early impact of the collision. Whether the

  20. The environmental history of group and cluster galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Weinmann, Simone; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We use publicly available galaxy merger trees, obtained applying semi-analytic techniques to a large high-resolution cosmological simulation, to study the environmental history of group and cluster galaxies. Our results highlight the existence of an intrinsic history bias which makes the nature versus nurture (as well as the mass versus environment) debate inherently ill posed. In particular, we show that (i) surviving massive satellites were accreted later than their less massive counterparts, from more massive haloes and (ii) the mixing of galaxy populations is incomplete during halo assembly, which creates a correlation between the time a galaxy becomes satellite and its present distance from the parent halo centre. The weakest trends are found for the most massive satellites, as a result of efficient dynamical friction and late formation times of massive haloes. A large fraction of the most massive group/cluster members are accreted on to the main progenitor of the final halo as central galaxies, while about half of the galaxies with low and intermediate stellar masses are accreted as satellites. Large fractions of group and cluster galaxies (in particular those of low stellar mass) have therefore been ‘pre-processed’ as satellites of groups with mass ˜1013 M⊙. To quantify the relevance of hierarchical structure growth on the observed environmental trends, we have considered observational estimates of the passive galaxy fractions and their variation as a function of halo mass and clustercentric distance. Comparisons with our theoretical predictions require relatively long times (˜5-7 Gyr) for the suppression of star formation in group and cluster satellites. It is unclear how such a gentle mode of strangulation can be achieved by simply relaxing the assumption of instantaneous stripping of the hot gas reservoir associated with accreting galaxies, or if the difficulties encountered by recent galaxy formation models in reproducing the observed trends

  1. Head-Tail Radio Source Formation through Cluster Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliton, M.; Rizza, E.; Burns, J. O.; Owen, F. N.; Ledlow, M.

    1997-12-01

    We present results of a sample of 15 nearby Abell clusters from the ROSAT PSPC archive containing 23 Narrow-Angle Tailed (NAT), or head-tail radio galaxies. In the standard model for NAT formation, the jets are bent into a U-shape by ram pressure from the high velocity galaxy encountering the intracluster medium (ICM). We find that clusters with NATs show a significantly higher level of X-ray substructure than a similar sample of radio-quiet clusters, indicating that NAT radio sources are preferentially located in unrelaxed systems. Also, the velocity distribution of NAT galaxies is peaked toward low peculiar motions, and similar to that of other radio galaxies. These low galaxy velocities are inadequate to produce the ram pressure necessary to bend the radio jets. We therefore propose a new mechanism for NAT formation, in which NATs are associated with unrelaxed clusters undergoing merger events. The NAT morphology is produced in part by the merger-induced bulk motion of the ICM bending the jets. This research was supported by NASA grant NAGW-3152 to J.O.B. and F.N.O.

  2. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in Minor Merger Tidal Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, Karen; Scowen, P.; Groppi, C.; Veach, T.; Knezek, P. M.; Mullan, B.; Konstanopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Jansen, R.; Wehner, E.

    2014-07-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers and likely played a role in forming most large galaxies, including the Milky Way. Tidal debris regions have large amounts of neutral gas but a lower gas density and may have higher turbulence.Star formation tracers such as young star cluster populations and Halpha, CO, and CII emission were studied to determine the different factors that may influence star formation in tidal debris. These tracers were compared to the reservoirs of gas available for star formation to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The SFR of tidal debris can reach up to 50% of the total star formation in the system. The SFE of tidal tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales. From the tidal debris environments in this study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. A large survey with TMT as well as the continuing programs of ALMA and the EVLA can provide a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation and can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  3. The evolution of early-type galaxies in clusters from z˜ 0.8 to z ˜ 0: the ellipticity distribution and the morphological mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Dressler, Alan; Fasano, Giovanni; Valentinuzzi, Tiziano; Couch, Warrick; Moretti, Alessia; Simard, Luc; Desai, Vandana; Bettoni, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Cava, Antonio; Varela, Jesús

    2011-05-01

    We present the ellipticity distribution and its evolution for early-type galaxies in clusters from z˜ 0.8 to the current epoch, based on the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (0.04 ≤z≤ 0.07) and the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (0.4 ≤z≤ 0.8). We first investigate a mass-limited sample and we find that above a fixed mass limit (M*≥ 1010.2 M⊙), the ellipticity (ɛ) distribution of early-type galaxies notably evolves with redshift. In the local Universe, there are proportionally more galaxies with higher ellipticity, hence flatter, than in distant clusters. This evolution is due partly to the change in the mass distribution and mainly to the change in the morphological mix with z among the early types, the fraction of ellipticals goes from ˜70 per cent at high z to ˜40 per cent at low z). Analysing separately the ellipticity distribution of the different morphological types, we find no evolution both for ellipticals and for S0s. However, for ellipticals a change with redshift in the median value of the distributions is detected. This is due to a larger population of very round (ɛ < 0.05) elliptical galaxies at low z. In order to compare our finding to previous studies, we also assemble a magnitude-‘delimited’ sample that consists of early-type galaxies on the red sequence with -19.3 > MB+ 1.208z > -21. Analysing this sample, we do not recover exactly the same results as the mass-limited sample. This indicates that the selection criteria are crucial to characterize the galactic properties: the choice of the magnitude-‘delimited’ sample implies the loss of many less-massive galaxies and so it biases the final conclusions. Moreover, although we are adopting the same selection criteria, our results in the magnitude-‘delimited’ sample are also not in agreement with those of Holden et al. This is due to the fact that our and their low-zsamples have a different magnitude distribution because the Holden et al. sample suffers from incompleteness

  4. Young Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2005-10-01

    We propose deep XMM-Newton observations of two young, post-merger elliptical galaxies, NGC 3377 and NGC 5018. Because their X-ray to optical luminosity ratios are the lowest among ellipticals and their stellar populations are significantly metal-enriched, they are the best candidates to address two biggest unsolved problems of the X-ray study of elliptical galaxies: large L_X/L_B scatter and ISM Fe discrepancy. Our XMM-Newton data, in conjunction with the existing Chandra data will allow us to accurately determine Fe and alpha-elements abundances. We will then address the origin of the large L_X/L_B scatter in terms of ISM removal mechanisms by merger-induced galactic winds.

  5. Attribution of halo merger mass ratio and star formation rate density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungeun; Jo, Jeong-woon; Hwang, Jihe; Youn, Soyoung; Park, Boha

    2016-06-01

    We have used codes for implementing the merger tree algorithm by Cole et al. (2007) and Parkinson et al. (2008) and derived the halo merger mass ratio of protocluster of galaxies across the cosmic time. The authors compare the observed and simulated star formation rates reported by the various groups and derive the star formation rate densities at different red-shifts. This study implies that an investigation of different mass variables should be incorporated into the analysis in order to accurately estimate cumulative star formation rates of galaxies and star formation rate densities as a function of red-shifts.

  6. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID

  7. The Insignificance of Major Mergers in Driving Star Formation at z approximately equal to 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaviraj, S.; Cohen, S.; Windhorst, R. A.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Dopita, M. A.; Dekel, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Straughn, A.; Rutkowski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the significance of major mergers in driving star formation in the early Universe, by quantifying the contribution of this process to the total star formation budget in 80 massive (M(*) > 10(exp 10) Solar M) galaxies at z approx = 2. Employing visually-classified morphologies from rest-frame V-band HST imaging, we find that 55(exp +/-14)% of the star formation budget is hosted by non-interacting late-types, with 27(exp +/-18% in major mergers and 18(exp +/- 6)% in spheroids. Given that a system undergoing a major merger continues to experience star formation driven by other processes at this epoch (e.g. cold accretion, minor mergers), approx 27% is a likely upper limit for the major-merger contribution to star formation activity at this epoch. The ratio of the average specific star formation rate in major mergers to that in the non-interacting late-types is approx 2.2:1, suggesting that the typical enhancement of star formation due to major merging is modest and that just under half the star formation in systems experiencing major mergers is unrelated to the merger itself. Taking this into account, we estimate that the actual major-merger contribution to the star formation budget may be as low as approx 15%. While our study does not preclude a major-merger-dominated. era in the very early Universe, if the major-merger contribution to star formation does not evolve significantly into larger look-back times, then this process has a relatively insignificant role in driving stellar mass assembly over cosmic time.

  8. 76 FR 37895 - Merger Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Merger Applications AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Merger Applications. OMB Number: 1550-0016. Form Number: N/A. Description: No savings association may, without application to and approval by the OTS combine with any...

  9. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control. PMID:22688439

  10. Gravitational Wave Driven Mergers and Coalescence Time of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) initially embedded in the centers of merging galaxies is studied from the onset of galaxy mergers till coalescence. We performed direct N-body simulations using the highly efficient and massively parallel phi-GPU code capable to run on GPU supported high performance computer clusters. Post-Newtonian terms up to order 3.5 are used to drive the SMBH binary evolution in the relativistic regime. We find that SMBH binaries coalesce well within one billion year when our models are scaled to dense cuspy galaxies at low redshift. Here higher central densities provide larger supply of stars to efficiently extract energy from the SMBH binary orbit and shrink it to the phase where gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes dominant leading to the coalescence of the SMBHs. On the other hand, mergers of models that are representative of giant elliptical galaxies having central cores result in less efficient extraction of binary's orbit energy due to the lower stellar densities in the center. However, high value of eccentricities witnessed for SMBH binaries in such galaxy mergers ensure that the GW emission dominated phase sets in at larger values of the semi-major axis. This helps to compensate for the less efficient energy extraction during the phase dominated by stellar encounters resulting in mergers of SMBHs in about one billion years after the formation of binary.

  11. The Formation of Massive Stars by Collisional Mergers: Theoretical Constraints and Observational Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, Hans; Bally, John

    2004-08-01

    While accretional growth can lead to the formation of massive stars in isolation or in loose OB associations, collisional growth and mergers can only occur in high-density cluster environments. We will discuss the conditions in a very dense young star cluster under which the merger scenario of massive star formation may work, and whether these conditions are likely to occur somewhere in the our Galaxy (Orion BN/KL, NGC 3603, W3-IRS5), the Local Group (30 Dor, NGC 604), or other galaxies (NGC 5253, Henize 2-10, The Antennae clusters). We explore the observational consequences of the merger scenario. Protostellar mergers may produce high luminosity infrared flares. Mergers may be surrounded by thick tori of expanding debris, impulsive wide-angle outflows, shock-induced maser and radio continuum emission. The collision products are expected to have fast stellar rotation and a large multiplicity fraction. Massive stars growing by a series of mergers may produce eruptive bursts of wide-angle outflow activity with random orientations; the walls of the resulting outflow cavities may be observable as filaments of dense gas and dust pointing away from the massive star. The extremely rare merger of two stars close to the upper mass limit of the IMF may be a possible pathway to hypernova-generated gamma-ray bursters. We also speculate that the outflow "fingers" from the OMC1 core in the Orion molecular cloud were produced by a merger less than a thousand years ago (Bally and Zinnecker 2004, AJ submitted). Mergers may not occur in every dense young cluster, but certainly in some of them, especially those where dynamical mass segregation of massive stars has taken place (Freitag and Benz 2004, astro-ph 0403621).

  12. The Robustness of Dark Matter Density Profiles in Dissipationless Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Zentner, Andrew R.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2006-04-01

    We present a comprehensive series of dissipationless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of density distribution in equal-mass mergers between dark matter (DM) halos and multicomponent galaxies. The DM halo models are constructed with various asymptotic power-law indices ranging from steep cusps to corelike profiles and the structural properties of the galaxy models are motivated by the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation. The adopted force resolution allows robust density profile estimates in the inner ~1% of the virial radii of the simulated systems. We demonstrate that the central slopes and overall shapes of the remnant density profiles are virtually identical to those of the initial systems, suggesting that the remnants retain a remarkable memory of the density structure of their progenitors, despite the relaxation that accompanies merger activity. We also find that halo concentrations remain approximately constant through hierarchical merging involving identical systems and show that remnants contain significant fractions of their bound mass well beyond their formal virial radii. These conclusions hold for a wide variety of initial asymptotic density slopes, orbital energies, and encounter configurations, including sequences of consecutive merger events, simultaneous mergers of several systems, and mergers of halos with embedded cold baryonic components in the form of disks, spheroids, or both. As an immediate consequence, the net effect of gas cooling, which contracts and steepens the inner density profiles of DM halos, should be preserved through a period of dissipationless major merging. Our results imply that the characteristic universal shape of DM density profiles may be set early in the evolution of halos.

  13. OUR MILKY WAY AS A PURE-DISK GALAXY-A CHALLENGE FOR GALAXY FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Juntai; Rich, R. Michael; Howard, Christian D.; Kormendy, John; De Propris, Roberto; Kunder, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    Bulges are commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy collisions and mergers. Here, we model the stellar kinematics of the Bulge Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA) and find no sign that the Milky Way contains a classical bulge formed by scrambling pre-existing disks of stars in major mergers. Rather, the bulge appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on, as hinted from its asymmetric boxy shape. We construct a simple but realistic N-body model of the Galaxy that self-consistently develops a bar. The bar immediately buckles and thickens in the vertical direction. As seen from the Sun, the result resembles the boxy bulge of our Galaxy. The model fits the BRAVA stellar kinematic data covering the whole bulge strikingly well with no need for a merger-made classical bulge. The bar in our best-fit model has a half-length of {approx}4 kpc and extends 20{sup 0} from the Sun-Galactic center line. We use the new kinematic constraints to show that any classical bulge contribution cannot be larger than {approx}8% of the disk mass. Thus, the Galactic bulge is a part of the disk and not a separate component made in a prior merger. Giant, pure-disk galaxies like our own present a major challenge to the standard picture in which galaxy formation is dominated by hierarchical clustering and galaxy mergers.

  14. Witnessing Gas Mixing in the Metal Distribution of the Hickson Compact Group HCG 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Amram, P.; Alfaro-Cuello, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; de Mello, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of gas being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. This is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. We focus on the emission line gas, which is extensive in the system. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances. While in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region, which is confirmed by the high-resolution Hα kinematics (R = 45,900). This nearby system is especially important because it involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina) - Observing run: GS-2012B-Q-60.

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  16. Statistics of associations among IR galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Jack F.; Keel, William C.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of expanding the search of Kleinmann et. al. (1988) for distant, infrared-luminous objects, the authors noticed (as is often remarked) that a large number of infrared-selected galaxies have close neighbors or show merger characteristics (e.g., tidal tails, distorted disks). Because the sample size is large (567 infrared galaxies and 2182 field galaxies), this sample is ideal for statistically examining the importance of interactions among infrared galaxies. In particular, the authors compare the nearest-neighbor distribution and the two-point correlation function of their sample with that of a control sample of field galaxies.

  17. Secular evolution along the sequence of S0 Hubble types through minor mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, J.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; González-García, A. C.; Gallego, J.; Balcells, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Prieto, M.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have argued that galaxy mergers are not important drivers for the evolution of S0's, on the basis that mergers cannot preserve the coupling between the bulge and disk scale-lengths observed in these galaxies and the lack of correlation of their ratio with the S0 Hubble type. We investigate whether the remnants resulting from collision-less N-body simulations of intermediate and minor mergers onto S0 galaxies evolve fulfilling global structural relations observed in these galaxies, or not. We show that all remnants present undisturbed S0 morphologies according to the prescriptions of specialized surveys. The dry intermediate and minor mergers induce noticeable bulge growth (S0clongrightarrowS0b and S0blongrightarrowS0a), but affect negligibly to the bulge and disk scale-lengths. Therefore, if a coupling between these two components exists prior to the merger, the encounter does not break this coupling. This fact provides a simple explanation for the observed lack of correlation between the bulge-to-disk scale-lengths ratio and the S0 Hubble type. These models prove that dry intermediate and minor mergers can induce global structural evolution within the sequence of S0 Hubble types compatible with observations, meaning that these processes should not be discarded from the evolutionary scenarios of S0's just on the basis of the strong bulge-disk coupling observed in these galaxies. This study is published in Eliche-Moral et al. (2012, A&A, in press, arXiv:1209.0782).

  18. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.

  19. A Physical Approach to the Identification of High-z Mergers: Morphological Classification in the Stellar Mass Domain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibinel, A.; Le Floc'h, E.; Perret, V.; Bournaud, F.; Daddi, E.; Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Amram, P.; Duc, P.-A.

    2015-06-01

    At z ≳ 1, the distinction between merging and “normal” star-forming galaxies based on single band morphology is often hampered by the presence of large clumps which result in a disturbed, merger-like appearance even in rotationally supported disks. In this paper we discuss how a classification based on canonical, non-parametric structural indices measured on resolved stellar mass maps, rather than on single-band images, reduces the misclassification of clumpy but not merging galaxies. We calibrate the mass-based selection of mergers using the MIRAGE hydrodynamical numerical simulations of isolated and merging galaxies which span a stellar mass range of 109.8-1010.6 M⊙ and merger ratios between 1:1-1:6.3. These simulations are processed to reproduce the typical depth and spatial resolution of observed Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) data. We test our approach on a sample of real z≃ 2 galaxies with kinematic classification into disks or mergers and on ˜100 galaxies in the HUDF field with photometric/spectroscopic redshift between 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 3 and M > 109.4 M⊙. We find that a combination of the asymmetry AMASS and M20, MASS indices measured on the stellar mass maps can efficiently identify real (major) mergers with ≲20% contamination from clumpy disks in the merger sample. This mass-based classification cannot be reproduced in star-forming galaxies by H-band measurements alone, which instead result in a contamination from clumpy galaxies which can be as high as 50%. Moreover, we find that the mass-based classification always results in a lower contamination from clumpy galaxies than an H-band classification, regardless of the depth of the imaging used (e.g., CANDELS versus HUDF).

  20. An imaging survey of late-type galaxies: Local benchmarks of galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Violet

    and clumpy toward shorter wavelengths. Also, as a merger progresses from pre-merger via major merger to merger remnant stages, it evolves through the CAS parameter space, becoming first less concentrated and more asymmetric and clumpy, and then returning towards the locus of normal galaxies. The final merger products are, on average, much more concentrated than normal spiral galaxies.

  1. The imprint of satellite accretion on the chemical and dynamical properties of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Few, C. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Minchev, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We study the effects of the cosmological assembly history on the chemical and dynamical properties of the discs of spiral galaxies as a function of radius. Methods: We made use of the simulated Milky Way mass, fully-cosmological discs from Ramses Disc Environment Study (RaDES). We analysed their assembly history by examining the proximity of satellites to the galactic disc, instead of their merger trees, to better gauge which satellites impact the disc. We presented stellar age and metallicity profiles, age-metallicity relation (AMR), age-velocity dispersion relation (AVR), and stellar age distribution (SAD) in several radial bins for the simulated galaxies. Results: Assembly histories can be divided into three different stages: i) a merger dominated phase, when a large number of mergers with mass ratios of ~1:1 take place (lasting ~3.2 ± 0.4 Gyr on average); ii) a quieter phase, when ~1:10 mergers take place (lasting ~4.4 ± 2.0 Gyr); and iii) a secular phase where the few mergers that take place have mass ratios below 1:100, which do not affect the disc properties (lasting ~5.5 ± 2.0 Gyr). The first two phases are able to kinematically heat the disc and produce a disc that is chemically mixed over its entire radial extension. Phase 2 ends with a final merger event (at time tjump) marking the onset of important radial differences in the AMR, AVR, and SAD. Conclusions: Inverted AMR trends in the outer parts of discs, for stars younger than tjump, are found as the combined effect of radial motions and star formation in satellites temporarily located in these outer parts. U-shaped stellar age profiles change to an old plateau (~10 Gyr) in the outer discs for the entire RaDES sample. This shape is a consequence of inside-out growth of the disc, radial motions of disc stars (inwards and outwards), and the accretion of old stars from satellites. We see comparable age profiles even when ignoring the influence of stellar migration due to the presence of early in

  2. Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.

  3. The role of galaxy interaction in the SFR-M {sub *} relation: characterizing morphological properties of Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Barnes, J. E.; Koss, M.; Larson, K. L.; Lockhart, K.; Man, A. W. S.; Mann, A. W.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Scoville, N.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Galaxy interactions/mergers have been shown to dominate the population of IR-luminous galaxies (L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.6} L {sub ☉}) in the local universe (z ≲ 0.25). Recent studies based on the relation between galaxies' star formation rates and stellar mass (the SFR-M {sub *} relation or the {sup g}alaxy main sequence{sup )} have suggested that galaxy interaction/mergers may only become significant when galaxies fall well above the galaxy main sequence. Since the typical SFR at a given M {sub *} increases with redshift, the existence of the galaxy main sequence implies that massive, IR-luminous galaxies at high z may not necessarily be driven by galaxy interactions. We examine the role of galaxy interactions in the SFR-M {sub *} relation by carrying out a morphological analysis of 2084 Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5 in the COSMOS field. Using a detailed visual classification scheme, we show that the fraction of 'disk galaxies' decreases and the fraction of 'irregular' galaxies increases systematically with increasing L {sub IR} out to z ≲ 1.5 and z ≲ 1.0, respectively. At L {sub IR} >10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}, ≳ 50% of the objects show evident features of strongly interacting/merger systems, where this percentage is similar to the studies of local IR-luminous galaxies. The fraction of interacting/merger systems also systematically increases with the deviation from the SFR-M {sub *} relation, supporting the view that galaxies falling above the main sequence are more dominated by mergers than the main-sequence galaxies. Meanwhile, we find that ≳ 18% of massive IR-luminous 'main-sequence galaxies' are classified as interacting systems, where this population may not evolve through the evolutionary track predicted by a simple gas exhaustion model.

  4. CCD imagery of the S0 galaxies NGC 3990 and NGC 3998

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, G.A.; Welch, D.M.K.; Dupuy, D.L. Virginia Military Institute, Lexington )

    1991-01-01

    The structure and colors of NGC 3990 and NGC 3998 are investigated using BR CCD imagery. Fits of bulge-disk models of the galaxies indicate that both disks are somewhat brighter and more compact than typical S0 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters. Although the two galaxies are separated by only about 3.5 arcmin, none of the obvious signs of gravitational interaction are seen. The colors of both galaxies are normal; the disk of NGC 3998 is somewhat bluer than its bulge. The search has failed to reveal the interstellar dust predicted from the neutral hydrogen observations of NGC 3998. The dust that is seen appears to be mixed with ionized gas which occupies the center of this galaxy and may be the same material seen at longer wavelengths by the IRAS experiment. Its low abundance relative to the neutral gas is consistent with the idea that the ISM was contributed by a gas-rich dwarf galaxy in a destructive merger. 31 refs.

  5. Spin flips - II. Evolution of dark matter halo spin orientation, and its correlation with major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip E.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-09-01

    We expand our previous study on the relationship between changes in the orientation of the angular momentum vector of dark matter haloes (`spin flips') and changes in their mass, to cover the full range of halo masses in a simulation cube of length 100 h-1 Mpc. Since strong disturbances to a halo (such as might be indicated by a large change in the spin direction) are likely also to disturb the galaxy evolving within, spin flips could be a mechanism for galaxy morphological transformation without involving major mergers. We find that 35 per cent of haloes have, at some point in their lifetimes, had a spin flip of at least 45° that does not coincide with a major merger. Over 75 per cent of large spin flips coincide with non-major mergers; only a quarter coincide with major mergers. We find a similar picture for changes to the inner halo spin orientation, although here there is an increased likelihood of a flip occurring. Changes in halo angular momentum orientation, and other such measures of halo perturbation, are therefore very important quantities to consider, in addition to halo mergers, when modelling the formation and evolution of galaxies and confronting such models with observations.

  6. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  7. Compact Binary Mergers as Multimessenger Sources of Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    On the centennial anniversary of Einstein's theory of general relativity, we are on the verge of directly detecting one of its most remarkable predictions - gravitational waves (GWs). The inspiral and merger of compact binaries - binaries with black hole, neutron star or white dwarf companions - are among the most promising sources of GWs. Many of these sources are likely to generate observable electromagnetic (EM) and/or neutrino counterparts to the GWs, constituting a major advance in multimessenger astronomy. By way of illustration, we describe recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations in general relativity (GRMHD) that show how black hole-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We also discuss other recent GRMHD simulations that show how an inspiraling, supermassive binary black hole in a galaxy core stirs and accretes magnetized plasma that orbits the holes in a circumbinary disk. This process can generate ``precursor'' and ``aftermath'' EM radiation with respect to the peak GW emission at merger. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grant PHY-1300903 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  8. THE ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS: THE ROLE OF BINARY INTERACTION THROUGH TIDES, MASS TRANSFER, AND MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    De Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.; Sana, H.; De Koter, A.

    2013-02-20

    Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars-especially at low metallicity-with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux, and final fate. Deriving the birth spin distribution is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive star formation and as input for models of stellar populations in the local universe and at high redshift. Recently, it has become clear that the majority of massive stars interact with a binary companion before they die. We investigate how this affects the distribution of rotation rates, through stellar winds, expansion, tides, mass transfer, and mergers. For this purpose, we simulate a massive binary-star population typical for our Galaxy assuming continuous star formation. We find that, because of binary interaction, 20{sup +5} {sub -10}% of all massive main-sequence stars have projected rotational velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. We evaluate the effect of uncertain input distributions and physical processes and conclude that the main uncertainties are the mass transfer efficiency and the possible effect of magnetic braking, especially if magnetic fields are generated or amplified during mass accretion and stellar mergers. The fraction of rapid rotators we derive is similar to that observed. If indeed mass transfer and mergers are the main cause for rapid rotation in massive stars, little room remains for rapidly rotating stars that are born single. This implies that spin-down during star formation is even more efficient than previously thought. In addition, this raises questions about the interpretation of the surface abundances of rapidly rotating stars as evidence for rotational mixing. Furthermore, our results allow for the possibility that all early-type Be stars result from binary interactions and suggest that evidence for rotation in explosions, such as long gamma-ray bursts, points to a binary origin.

  9. Spatial Variations and Evolution of PAH, Gas, and Dust Properties in Nearby Major Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, S.

    2013-03-01

    Interactions and mergers of gas-rich galaxies are important drivers of galaxy evolution, in particular in reshaping spirals and fueling powerful starbursts and supermassive nuclear black holes. Hubble Space Telescope observations of nuclei in merging galaxies have shown an increasing nuclear luminosity density in the optical/near-infrared light with advancing merger stage (Laine et al. 2003, Rossa et al. 2007, Veilleux et al. 2009, Haan et al. 2011a), suggesting an increase of nuclear starburst activity. To address the physical conditions in major mergers and excitation mechanisms such as shocks and starbursts, it is necessary to resolve the spatial variations of the warm dust, molecular gas, and ionized gas on subgalactic scales. Here we summarize the main results based on Spitzer IRS spectral mapping observations of a sample of eight nearby, IR-bright galaxies of the Toomre Sequence (Toomre & Toomre 1972) that span the range from early through mid- to late-stage major mergers (Haan et al. 2011b).

  10. Star formation in the massive cluster merger Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Richard, J.; Santos, J. S.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.; Bouy, H.; Haines, C. P.; Okabe, N.

    2014-07-01

    We present a comprehensive study of star-forming (SF) galaxies in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Field recent cluster merger A2744 (z = 0.308). Wide-field, ultraviolet-infrared (UV-IR) imaging enables a direct constraint of the total star formation rate (SFR) for 53 cluster galaxies, with SFRUV+IR = 343 ± 10 M⊙ yr-1. Within the central 4 arcmin (1.1 Mpc) radius, the integrated SFR is complete, yielding a total SFRUV+IR = 201 ± 9 M⊙ yr-1. Focusing on obscured star formation, this core region exhibits a total SFRIR = 138 ± 8 M⊙ yr-1, a mass-normalized SFRIR of ΣSFR = 11.2 ± 0.7 M⊙ yr-1 per 1014 M⊙ and a fraction of IR-detected SF galaxies f_SF = 0.080^{+0.010}_{-0.037}. Overall, the cluster population at z ˜ 0.3 exhibits significant intrinsic scatter in IR properties (total SFRIR, Tdust distribution) apparently unrelated to the dynamical state: A2744 is noticeably different to the merging Bullet cluster, but similar to several relaxed clusters. However, in A2744 we identify a trail of SF sources including jellyfish galaxies with substantial unobscured SF due to extreme stripping (SFRUV/SFRIR up to 3.3). The orientation of the trail, and of material stripped from constituent galaxies, indicates that the passing shock front of the cluster merger was the trigger. Constraints on star formation from both IR and UV are crucial for understanding galaxy evolution within the densest environments.

  11. Galaxies appear simpler than expected.

    PubMed

    Disney, M J; Romano, J D; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-10-23

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology. PMID:18948949

  12. Galaxies appear simpler than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, M. J.; Romano, J. D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; West, A. A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Cortese, L.

    2008-10-01

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology.

  13. UNVEILING THE MASK ON THE ULIRG-TO-QSO TRANSITION OBJECT [H89]1821+643 AT z = 0.3: A GAS-POOR/GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGER AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR CO-BASED DYNAMICAL MASS ESTIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, M.; Wagg, J.; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Feain, I. J.

    2011-08-20

    We report the detection of the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 emission line in [H89]1821+643, one of the most optically luminous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the local universe, and a template ULIRG-to-QSO transition object, located in a rich, cool-core cluster at z = 0.297. The CO emission is likely to be extended, highly asymmetric with respect to the center of the host elliptical where the QSO resides, and correspond with a molecular gas mass of {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. The dynamical mass enclosed by the CO emission-line region could amount to {approx}1.7 x 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} (80% of the total mass of the elliptical host). The bulk of the CO emission is located at {approx}9 kpc southeast from the nuclei position, close to a faint optical structure, suggesting that the CO emission could either represent a gas-rich companion galaxy merging with the elliptical host or a tail-like structure reminiscent of a previous interaction. We argue that the first scenario is more likely given the large masses implied by the CO source, which would imply a highly asymmetric elliptical host. The close alignment between the CO emission's major axis and the radio plume suggests a possible role in the excitation of the ambient gas reservoir by the latter. The stacking technique was used to search for CO emission and 3-mm continuum emission from galaxies in the surrounding cluster. However, no detection was found toward individual galaxies or the stacked ensemble of galaxies, with a 3{sigma} limit of <1.1 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} for the molecular gas.

  14. Mergers. Turn of the screw.

    PubMed

    Gillett, S

    2000-04-01

    Managing the process of a merger with staff support and job counselling reduces stress. But the experience is not pain-free. The expectation that senior staff would be found other jobs in the NHS proved unrealistic. From a total staff of 6,000 there were 38 redundancies, of which 13 were voluntary. Early retirement and redundancy costs were higher than expected. Staff still show signs of distress a year after the merger took place. PMID:11067501

  15. STRUCTURES OF LOCAL GALAXIES COMPARED TO HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, Sara M.; De Mello, DuIlia F.; Gallagher, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Matt Mountain, C.; Smith, Linda J.

    2009-08-15

    The rest-frame far-ultraviolet morphologies of eight nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, and NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z {approx} 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z {approx} 4 observed in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z {approx} 1.5 and 4 by applying luminosity and size scaling. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z {approx} 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M {sub 20}), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with two-dimensional profile fitting and find the combination of M {sub 20} with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M {sub 20} 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z {approx} 1.5 and 37/12% at z {approx} 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Sersic index, 70% of the z {approx} 1.5 and z {approx} 4 real galaxies are exponential disks or bulge-like with n>0.8, and {approx} 30% of the real galaxies are classified as mergers. The artificially redshifted galaxies have n values with {approx} 35% bulge or exponential at z {approx} 1.5 and 4. Therefore, {approx} 20%-30% of Lyman-break galaxies have structures similar to local starburst mergers, and may be driven by similar processes. We assume merger-like or clumpy star-forming galaxies in the GOODS field have morphological structure with values n < 0.8 and M {sub 20}> - 1.7. We conclude that Mrk 8, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have structures similar to those of merger-like and clumpy star-forming galaxies observed at z {approx} 1.5 and 4.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 AGN host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualise the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  17. The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D = 4–7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches a limiting surface brightness of {μ }B ∼ 28–30 mag arcsec‑2 and probes colors down to {μ }B ∼ 27.5 mag arcsec‑2. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column density H i data to better constrain the star-forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy’s disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies’ outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarity in outer disk properties despite each galaxy showing distinct levels of environmental influence, from a purely isolated galaxy (M94) to one experiencing weak tidal perturbations from its satellite galaxies (M106) to a galaxy recovering from a recent merger (M64), suggesting that a variety of evolutionary histories can yield similar outer disk structure. While this suggests a common secular mechanism for outer disk formation, the large extent of these smooth, red stellar populations—which reach several disk scale lengths beyond the galaxies’ spiral structure—may challenge models of radial migration given the lack of any nonaxisymmetric forcing at such large radii.

  18. A Systematic Study of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarf Mergers: Mass Combinations for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yushi; Nakasato, Naohito; Tanikawa, Ataru; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Maeda, Keiichi; Hachisu, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    Mergers of two carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) have been considered to be progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, previous studies have claimed that mergers of CO WDs lead to SN Ia explosions either in the dynamical merger phase or the stationary rotating merger remnant phase. However, the mass range of CO WDs that lead to SNe Ia has not yet been clearly identified. In the present work, we perform systematic SPH merger simulations for the WD masses ranging from 0.5 {M}⊙ to 1.1 {M}⊙ with higher resolutions than the previous systematic surveys and examine whether or not carbon burning occurs dynamically or quiescently in each phase. We further study the possibility of SNe Ia explosions and estimate the mass range of CO WDs that lead to SNe Ia. We found that when both WDs are massive, i.e., in the mass range of 0.9 {M}⊙ ≤slant {M}{1,2}≤slant 1.1 {M}⊙ , they can explode as an SN Ia in the merger phase. On the other hand, when the more massive WD is in the range of 0.7 {M}⊙ ≤slant {M}1≤slant 0.9 {M}⊙ and the total mass exceeds 1.38 {M}⊙ , they can finally explode in the stationary rotating merger remnant phase. We estimate the contribution of CO WD mergers to the entire SN Ia rate in our galaxy to be of ≲ 9%. Thus, it might be difficult to explain all galactic SNe Ia with CO WD mergers.

  19. V1309 Scorpii: merger of a contact binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylenda, R.; Hajduk, M.; Kamiński, T.; Udalski, A.; Soszyński, I.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Poleski, R.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Stellar mergers are expected to take place in numerous circumstences in the evolution of stellar systems. In particular, they are considered as a plausible origin of stellar eruptions of the V838 Mon type. V1309 Sco is the most recent eruption of this type in our Galaxy. The object was discovered in September 2008. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the nature of V1309 Sco. Methods: V1309 Sco has been photometrically observed in course of the OGLE project since August 2001. We analyse these observations in different ways. In particular, periodogram analyses were done to investigate the nature of the observed short-term variability of the progenitor. Results: We find that the progenitor of V1309 Sco was a contact binary with an orbital period of ~1.4 day. This period was decreasing with time. The light curve of the binary was also evolving, indicating that the system evolved towards its merger. The violent phase of the merger, marked by the systematic brightenning of the object, began in March 2008, i.e. half a year before the outburst discovery. We also investigate the observations of V1309 Sco during the outburst and the decline and show that they can be fully accounted for within the merger hypothesis. Conclusions: For the first time in the literature we show from direct observations that contact binaries indeed end up by merging into a single object, as was suggested in numerous theoretical studies of these systems. Our study also shows that stellar mergers indeed result in eruptions of the V838 Mon type. Based on observations obtained with the 1.3-m Warsaw telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. The photometric data analysed in the present paper are available from the OGLE Internet archive: ftp://ogle.astrouw.edu.pl/ogle/ogle3/V1309_SCO

  20. Are the Youngsters Home? A Search for Young Clusters in the Merger Remnant NGC 2655

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochais, Thomas Bernard; Rothberg, Barry; Kuhn, Olga

    2016-01-01

    We are studying star clusters in NGC 2655, a shell elliptical galaxy that is likely a post-merger remnant and may yet still be forming new stars. Our project consists of two parts. The first goal is to put together a pipeline for taking raw images and transforming them into a final calibrated set of data. The algorithms we have developed will be useful for all astronomers who use the Large Binocular Cameras (LBCs) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) located on Mount Graham in Arizona. The LBCs are two widefield f/1.45 cameras each mounted at prime focus for each mirror of the LBT. The LBCs each have a 23' x 25' field of view (FOV) and optimized for 0.3-0.6 microns on the left mirror and 0.5-1.0 microns on the right mirror.The second goal is to effectively take a population census of young star clusters (YSCs) and Globular Clusters (GCs) in a galaxy undergoing a transformation from two spiral galaxies into an elliptical galaxy. NGC 2655 may be a future version of our Milky Way after it collides and merges with the Andromeda Galaxy. Stars are born in groups and clusters. When mergers occur between spiral galaxies, vast reservoirs of gas are turned into stars and these stars all form together in large clusters with masses ranging from 10^{4}-10^{7} M_{⊙}. As seen in major mergers like the Antennae and NGC 3256, thousands of such star clusters are formed during and after a galaxy merger. However, NGC 2655 is clearly an elliptical galaxy with strong indications of having undergone a recent major merger. Thus, it represents a transition object, allowing us to study both the GC and possibly YSC populations. Although similar studies have been undertaken for a handful of other similar transition objects (i.e. NGC 1316), they have all been done using imagers with rather small FOVs (˜ 2-6'). The large FOV of the LBCs allow us to capture not only the entire galaxy, but a large region surrounding the galaxy, making it possible to obtain a better census of GCs and YSCs

  1. Infrared images of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. S.; James, P. A.; Joseph, R. D.; Mclean, I. S.; Doyon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) luminosities. Infrared images have been useful in identifying double structures in the nuclei of interacting galaxies which have not even been hinted at by optical observations. A striking example of this is given by the K images of Arp 220. Graham et al. (1990) have used high resolution imaging to show that it has a double nucleus coincident with the radio sources in the middle of the dust lane. The results suggest that caution should be applied in the identification of optical bright spots as multiple nuclei in the absence of other evidence. They also illustrate the advantages of using infrared imaging to study the underlying structure in merging galaxies. The authors have begun a program to take near infrared images of galaxies which are believed to be mergers of disk galaxies because they have tidal tails and filaments. In many of these the merger is thought to have induced exceptionally luminous infrared emission (cf. Joseph and Wright 1985, Sanders et al. 1988). Although the optical images of the galaxies show spectacular dust lanes and filaments, the K images all have a very smooth distribution of light with an apparently single nucleus.

  2. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  3. The Pedigrees of DOGs (Dust-Obscured Galaxies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, A.; Ndwfs/MIPS Collaboration

    2009-10-01

    A simple mid-infrared to optical color criterion of R-[24]≥ 14 results in a robust selection of approximately half of the z˜ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) population. These `Dust-Obscured Galaxies', or DOGs, have various properties that suggest that they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase between gas-rich mergers and QSOs.

  4. Localized Starbursts in Dwarf Galaxies Produced by the Impact of Low-metallicity Cosmic Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.; Filho, M. E.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  5. The Origin of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John

    1998-07-01

    Most clusters and groups of galaxies contain a giant elliptical galaxy in their centers that far outshines and outweighs normal ellipticals. The origin of these brightest cluster galaxies is intimately related to the collapse and formation of the cluster. Using an N-body simulation of a cluster of galaxies in a hierarchical cosmological model, we show that galaxy merging naturally produces a massive central galaxy with surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles similar to those of observed BCGs. To enhance the resolution of the simulation, 100 dark halos at z = 2 are replaced with self-consistent disk + bulge + halo galaxy models following a Tully-Fisher relation using 100,000 particles for the 20 largest galaxies and 10,000 particles for the remaining ones. This technique allows us to analyze the stellar and dark-matter components independently. The central galaxy forms through the merger of several massive galaxies along a filament early in the cluster's history. Galactic cannibalism of smaller galaxies through dynamical friction over a Hubble time only accounts for a small fraction of the accreted mass. The galaxy is a flattened, triaxial object whose long axis aligns with the primordial filament and the long axis of the cluster galaxy distribution, agreeing with observed trends for galaxy cluster alignment.

  6. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  7. Morphological evolution of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Hill, Robert S.; Smith, Eric P.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies of the Hubble Deep Field (Abraham et al. 1996) [1] and Medium Deep Survey (Driver, Windhorst & Griffiths 1995) [6] find that the frequency of irregular/peculiar/merger systems rises with increasing redshift. However, this finding must be carefully interpreted in light of UV images of low-redshift galaxies obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (Stecher et al. 1992) [9]. These UV images imply that K-correction effects may be at least partially responsible for the apparent increase in Irr galaxies with redshift. To assess the degree to which there is an overabundance of Irregular galaxies (relative to the present epoch), we must understand the degree to which the K-correction biases morphological studies. We demonstrate the importance of the morphological K-correction to the classification schemes used in the HDF. We find that high-redshift spiral galaxies are misclassified as Irr galaxies, while Elliptical/S0 galaxies, should not be affected substantially. We have been granted 40 orbits in Cycle 7 with STIS to place these conclusions on a statistical basis.

  8. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  9. Galaxies, their satellites and progenitors: chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, I.; Cora, S. A.; Padilla, N. D.

    We use a model that combines N-body cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation (SAG: Semi-analytical galaxies; Lagos, Cora & Padilla, 2008) in order to study the properties of galaxy progenitors, using the information provided by their stellar haloes, and surviving satellites at redshift z = 0. We model the formation of stellar haloes by considering tidal stripping events acting on the satellite galaxies before the mergers occur, being able to follow their mass, luminosity and chemical properties. We find that the satellite galaxies have lower metal- licities than the stellar haloes of central galaxies for a given host DM halo mass, as has been already noted by Lagos, Padilla & Cora (2009), using a different approach.

  10. The ALHAMBRA survey: accurate merger fractions derived by PDF analysis of photometrically close pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: Our goal is to develop and test a novel methodology to compute accurate close-pair fractions with photometric redshifts. Methods: We improved the currently used methodologies to estimate the merger fraction fm from photometric redshifts by (i) using the full probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the sources in redshift space; (ii) including the variation in the luminosity of the sources with z in both the sample selection and the luminosity ratio constrain; and (iii) splitting individual PDFs into red and blue spectral templates to reliably work with colour selections. We tested the performance of our new methodology with the PDFs provided by the ALHAMBRA photometric survey. Results: The merger fractions and rates from the ALHAMBRA survey agree excellently well with those from spectroscopic work for both the general population and red and blue galaxies. With the merger rate of bright (MB ≤ -20-1.1z) galaxies evolving as (1 + z)n, the power-law index n is higher for blue galaxies (n = 2.7 ± 0.5) than for red galaxies (n = 1.3 ± 0.4), confirming previous results. Integrating the merger rate over cosmic time, we find that the average number of mergers per galaxy since z = 1 is Nmred = 0.57 ± 0.05 for red galaxies and Nmblue = 0.26 ± 0.02 for blue galaxies. Conclusions: Our new methodology statistically exploits all the available information provided by photometric redshift codes and yields accurate measurements of the merger fraction by close pairs from using photometric redshifts alone. Current and future photometric surveys will benefit from this new methodology. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The catalogues, probabilities, and figures of the ALHAMBRA close pairs detected in Sect. 5.1 are available at http://https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/alhambra/catalogues/ClosePairs

  11. Rebuilding Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Major Observing Programme Leads to New Theory of Galaxy Formation Summary Most present-day large galaxies are spirals, presenting a disc surrounding a central bulge. Famous examples are our own Milky Way or the Andromeda Galaxy. When and how did these spiral galaxies form? Why do a great majority of them present a massive central bulge? An international team of astronomers [1] presents new convincing answers to these fundamental questions. For this, they rely on an extensive dataset of observations of galaxies taken with several space- and ground-based telescopes. In particular, they used over a two-year period, several instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope. Among others, their observations reveal that roughly half of the present-day stars were formed in the period between 8,000 million and 4,000 million years ago, mostly in episodic burst of intense star formation occurring in Luminous Infrared Galaxies. From this and other evidence, the astronomers devised an innovative scenario, dubbed the "spiral rebuilding". They claim that most present-day spiral galaxies are the results of one or several merger events. If confirmed, this new scenario could revolutionise the way astronomers think galaxies formed. PR Photo 02a/05: Luminosity - Oxygen Abundance Relation for Galaxies (VLT) PR Photo 02b/05: The Spiral Rebuilding Scenario A fleet of instruments How and when did galaxies form? How and when did stars form in these island universes? These questions are still posing a considerable challenge to present-day astronomers. Front-line observational results obtained with a fleet of ground- and space-based telescopes by an international team of astronomers [1] provide new insights into these fundamental issues. For this, they embarked on an ambitious long-term study at various wavelengths of 195 galaxies with a redshift [2] greater than 0.4, i.e. located more than 4000 million light-years away. These galaxies were studied using ESO's Very Large Telescope, as well as the

  12. The SLUGGS survey: the assembly histories of individual early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Pastorello, Nicola; Foster, Caroline; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Usher, Christopher; Pota, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Early-type (E and S0) galaxies may have assembled via a variety of different evolutionary pathways. Here, we investigate these pathways by comparing the stellar kinematic properties of 24 early-type galaxies from the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey with the hydrodynamical simulations of Naab et al. In particular, we use the kinematics of starlight up to 4 effective radii (Re) as diagnostics of galaxy inner and outer regions, and assign each galaxy to one of six Naab et al. assembly classes. The majority of our galaxies (14/24) have kinematic characteristics that indicate an assembly history dominated by gradual gas dissipation and accretion of many gas-rich minor mergers. Three galaxies, all S0s, indicate that they have experienced gas-rich major mergers in their more recent past. One additional elliptical galaxy is tentatively associated with a gas-rich merger which results in a remnant galaxy with low angular momentum. Pathways dominated by gas-poor (major or minor) mergers dominate the mass growth of six galaxies. Most SLUGGS galaxies appear to have grown in mass (and size) via the accretion of stars and gas from minor mergers, with late major mergers playing a much smaller role. We find that the fraction of accreted stars correlates with the stellar mean age and metallicity gradient, but not with the slope of the total mass density profile. We briefly mention future observational and modelling approaches that will enhance our ability to accurately reconstruct the assembly histories of individual present-day galaxies.

  13. Merger influence on the thermal SZ effect: Model, simulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, P.

    XMM-Newton and Chandra reveal detailed structures and dynamical processes in clusters of galaxies. We propose an analytical model to calculate the influence of an ongoing merger on the thermal SZ effect. According to observations we distinguish between subsonic and transonic mergers. For both cases we estimate the new pressure distribution around the merging subcluster due to its movement. Depending on the geometrical shape of the subcluster, its extension and infall velocity, and also depending on the angle between the merger axis and the line of sight, the expected SZ distortion in the merger region is of the order of 3-15 percent higher than for a relaxed cluster. In addition to this new pressure distribution we also calculate the change in the thermal spectral SZ function, resulting from the bow shock accelerated electrons in a transonic or supersonic merger. The merger shock compression factor determines the power law tail of the new non-thermal electron population and it is directly related to a shift in the crossover frequency. This shift is typically a few percent towards higher frequencies. We compare our result with the expected relativistic corrections for the thermal SZ effect and we point out the different features. Our new pressure distribution is testet against simulations and expected forthcoming observations with our AMiBA instrument.

  14. The Evolution of Advanced Merger (U)LIRGs on the Color-Stellar Mass Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Based on a sample of 79 local advanced merger (adv-merger) (U)LIRGs, we search for evidence of quenching processes by investigating the distributions of star formation history indicators (EW(Hα), EW(HΔA) and Dn(4000)) on the NUV-r color-mass and SFR-M * diagrams. The distributions of EW(Hα) and Dn(4000) on the NUV-r color-mass diagram show clear trends that at a given stellar mass, galaxies with redder NUV-r colors have smaller EW(Hα) and larger D n (4000). The reddest adv-merger (U)LIRGs close to the green valley mostly have D n (4000)> 1.4. In addition, in the SFR-M * diagram, as the SFR decreases, the EW(Hα) decreases and the D n (4000) increases, implying that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs on the star formation main sequence have more evolved stellar populations than those above the main sequence. These results indicate that a fraction of the adv-merger (U)LIRGs have already exhibited signs of fading from the starburst phase and that the NUV-r reddest adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the initial stage of post-starbursts with an age of ∼ 1 Gyr, which is consistent with the gas exhaustion time-scales. Therefore, our results offer additional support for the fast evolutionary track from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  15. A Formation Scenario for the Disk of Satellites: Accretion of Satellites during Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rory; Duc, Pierre Alain; Bournaud, Frederic; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-02-01

    The Disk of Satellites (DoS) observed in the Andromeda galaxy is a thin and extended group of satellites, nearly perpendicular to the disk plane, that share a common direction of rotation about the center of Andromeda. Although a DoS is also observed in the Milky Way galaxy, the prevalance of such structures in more distant galaxies remains controversial. Explanations for the formation of such DoSs vary widely from filamentary infall, or flattening due to the potential field from the large-scale structure, to galaxy interactions in a Mondian paradigm. Here we present an alternative scenario—during a merger, a galaxy may bring its own satellite population when merging with another galaxy. We demonstrate how, under the correct circumstances, during the coalescence of the two galaxies, the satellite population can be spread into an extended, flattened structure, with a common direction of rotation about the merger remnant. We investigate the key parameters of the interaction and the satellite population that are required to form a DoS in this scenario.

  16. Binary coalescence from case A evolution: mergers and blue stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen

    2008-03-01

    We have constructed some main-sequence mergers from case A binary evolution and we have studied their characteristics using the stellar evolution code written by Eggleton. The values of both total mass and orbital angular momentum are conservative in our binary evolutions. Assuming that the matter from the secondary homogeneously mixes with the envelope of the primary and that no mass is lost from the system during the merger process, we found that some mergers might be on the left of the zero-age main sequence as defined by normal surface composition (i.e. helium content Y = 0.28 with metallicity Z = 0.02 for Population I) on a colour-magnitude diagram because of enhanced surface helium content. The study also shows that the central hydrogen content of the mergers is independent of mass. Our simple models can possibly explain a few blue stragglers observed on the left of zero-age main sequence in some clusters. However, the concentration towards the blue side of the main sequence with decreasing mass, as predicted by Sandquist et al., will not appear in our models. The products with little central hydrogen in our models are probably subgiants when they are formed, as the primaries in the progenitors also have little central hydrogen and will likely leave the main sequence during the merger process. As a consequence, we fit the formula of magnitude Mv and B-V of the mergers when they return to thermal equilibrium with maximum errors 0.29 and 0.037, respectively. Taking the above into account, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to examine our models in an old open cluster NGC 2682 and an intermediate-age cluster NGC 2660. The angular momentum loss (AML) of low-mass binaries is very important in NGC 2682, and its effect can be estimated in a simple way. In NGC 2682, binary mergers from our models cover the region with high luminosity and those from the AML are located in the region with low luminosity, which has a certain width. The blue stragglers from the AML are

  17. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E

    2009-01-22

    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture. PMID:19158792

  18. Mapping a Merger at z=1.7: Kinematics and Gas-Phase Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Eva

    2011-08-01

    We propose Osiris IFU rest-frame optical spectroscopy for the brightest distant lensed galaxy yet discovered. Newly acquired WFC3 HST data suggests that RCSGA0327 is a major merger in process, with a blue and a red component and numerous high surface brightness star-forming knots. Laser guide star IFU spectroscopy will complement the HST imaging and allow us to map out the kinematic structure of the source and test the merger scenario. The large magnification of some areas of the giant arc will additionally allow us to zoom in on individual star-forming regions at < 100pc scales.

  19. The delay time distribution of massive double compact star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennekens, N.; Vanbeveren, D.

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the temporal evolution of binary populations, in general, and double compact-star binaries and mergers, in particular, within a galactic evolution context, a very straightforward method is obviously to implement a detailed binary evolutionary model in a galactic chemical evolution code. To our knowledge, the Brussels galactic chemical evolution code is the only one that fully and consistently accounts for the important effects of interacting binaries on the predictions of chemical evolution. With a galactic code that does not explicitly include binaries, the temporal evolution of the population of double compact star binaries and mergers can be estimated with reasonable accuracy if the delay time distribution (DTD) for these mergers is available. The DTD for supernovae type Ia has been studied extensively in the past decade. In the present paper we present the DTD for merging double neutron-star binaries and mixed systems consisting of a neutron star and a black hole. The latter mergers are very promising sites for producing r-process elements, and the DTDs can be used to study the galactic evolution of these elements with a code that does not explicitly account for binaries.

  20. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  1. HST WFC3/IR Observations of Active Galactic Nucleus Host Galaxies at z ~ 2: Supermassive Black Holes Grow in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Simmons, Brooke; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2011-02-01

    We present the rest-frame optical morphologies of active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies at 1.5 < z < 3, using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, the first such study of AGN host galaxies at these redshifts. The AGNs are X-ray-selected from the Chandra Deep Field South and have typical luminosities of 1042 erg s-1galaxies of these AGNs have low Sérsic indices indicative of disk-dominated light profiles, suggesting that secular processes govern a significant fraction of the cosmic growth of black holes. That is, many black holes in the present-day universe grew much of their mass in disk-dominated galaxies and not in early-type galaxies or major mergers. The properties of the AGN host galaxies are furthermore indistinguishable from their parent galaxy population and we find no strong evolution in either effective radii or morphological mix between z ~ 2 and z ~ 0.05. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute. STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. The NGC 4013 tale: a pseudo-bulged, late-type spiral shaped by a major merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianling; Hammer, Francois; Puech, Mathieu; Yang, Yanbin; Flores, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Many spiral galaxy haloes show stellar streams with various morphologies when observed with deep images. The origin of these tidal features is discussed, either coming from a satellite infall or caused by residuals of an ancient, gas-rich major merger. By modelling the formation of the peculiar features observed in the NGC 4013 halo, we investigate their origin. By using GADGET-2 with implemented gas cooling, star formation, and feedback, we have modelled the overall NGC 4013 galaxy and its associated halo features. A gas-rich major merger occurring 2.7-4.6 Gyr ago succeeds in reproducing the NGC 4013 galaxy properties, including all the faint stellar features, strong gas warp, boxy-shaped halo and vertical 3.6 μm luminosity distribution. High gas fractions in the progenitors are sufficient to reproduce the observed thin and thick discs, with a small bulge fraction, as observed. A major merger is able to reproduce the overall NGC 4013 system, including the warp strength, the red colour and the high stellar mass density of the loop, while a minor merger model cannot. Because the gas-rich model suffices to create a pseudo-bulge with a small fraction of the light, NGC 4013 is perhaps the archetype of a late-type galaxy formed by a relatively recent merger. Then late type, pseudo-bulge spirals are not mandatorily made through secular evolution, and the NGC 4013 properties also illustrate that strong warps in isolated galaxies may well occur at a late phase of a gas-rich major merger.

  3. AN INTEGRAL FIELD STUDY OF ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS IN NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, J. A.; Kewley, L. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Torrey, P.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2012-07-01

    We present for the first time metallicity maps generated using data from the Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m of 10 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and discuss the abundance gradients and distribution of metals in these systems. We have carried out optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) of several LIRGs in various merger phases to investigate the merger process. In a major merger of two spiral galaxies with preexisting disk abundance gradients, the changing distribution of metals can be used as a tracer of gas flows in the merging system as low-metallicity gas is transported from the outskirts of each galaxy to their nuclei. We employ this fact to probe merger properties by using the emission lines in our IFS data to calculate the gas-phase metallicity in each system. We create abundance maps and subsequently derive a metallicity gradient from each map. We compare our measured gradients to merger stage as well as several possible tracers of merger progress and observed nuclear abundances. We discuss our work in the context of previous abundance gradient observations and compare our results to new galaxy merger models that trace metallicity gradient. Our results agree with the observed flattening of metallicity gradients as a merger progresses. We compare our results with new theoretical predictions that include chemical enrichment. Our data show remarkable agreement with these simulations.

  4. HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble

  5. Mergers and the outside-in formation of dwarf spheroidals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez-Llambay, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Abadi, M. G.; Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.; Hoffman, Y.; Steinmetz, M.

    2016-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group to explore the origin of age and metallicity gradients in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We find that a number of simulated dwarfs form `outside-in', with an old, metal-poor population that surrounds a younger, more concentrated metal-rich component, reminiscent of dwarf spheroidals like Sculptor or Sextans. We focus on a few examples where stars form in two populations distinct in age in order to elucidate the origin of these gradients. The spatial distributions of the two components reflect their diverse origin; the old stellar component is assembled through mergers, but the young population forms largely in situ. The older component results from a first episode of star formation that begins early but is quickly shut off by the combined effects of stellar feedback and reionization. The younger component forms when a late accretion event adds gas and reignites star formation. The effect of mergers is to disperse the old stellar population, increasing their radius and decreasing their central density relative to the young population. We argue that dwarf-dwarf mergers offer a plausible scenario for the formation of systems with multiple distinct populations and, more generally, for the origin of age and metallicity gradients in dwarf spheroidals.

  6. SYNCHRONIZED FORMATION OF STARBURST AND POST-STARBURST GALAXIES IN MERGING CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji; Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.

    2010-07-20

    We propose that synchronized triggering of star formation in gas-rich galaxies is possible during major mergers of cluster of galaxies, based on new numerical simulations of the time evolution of the physical properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) during such a merger event. Our numerical simulations show that the external pressure of the ICM, in which cluster member galaxies are embedded, can increase significantly during cluster merging. As such, efficient star formation can be triggered in gas-rich members as a result of the strong compression of their cold gas by the increased pressure. We also suggest that these star-forming galaxies can subsequently be transformed into post-starburst galaxies, with their spatial distribution within the cluster being different than that of the rest of the population. We discuss whether this possible merger-induced enhancement in the number of star-forming and post-star-forming cluster galaxies is consistent with the observed evolution of galaxies in merging clusters.

  7. Crerar/Chicago Library Merger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Paul M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps in survey project that supplied information for contemplated merger of two libraries by estimating number of volumes and titles and duplication between John Crerar Library collections and University of Chicago Library science collections. Survey's findings for volume duplication are analyzed by subject groupings and by books and…

  8. GALAXY ENVIRONMENTS OVER COSMIC TIME: THE NON-EVOLVING RADIAL GALAXY DISTRIBUTIONS AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z = 1.6

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tomer; Franx, Marijn; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-05-20

    We present a statistical study of the environments of massive galaxies in four redshift bins between z = 0.04 and z = 1.6, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey. We measure the projected radial distribution of galaxies in cylinders around a constant number density selected sample of massive galaxies and utilize a statistical subtraction of contaminating sources. Our analysis shows that massive primary galaxies typically live in group halos and are surrounded by 2-3 satellites with masses more than one-tenth of the primary galaxy mass. The cumulative stellar mass in these satellites roughly equals the mass of the primary galaxy itself. We further find that the radial number density profile of galaxies around massive primaries has not evolved significantly in either slope or overall normalization in the past 9.5 Gyr. A simplistic interpretation of this result can be taken as evidence for a lack of mergers in the studied groups and as support for a static evolution model of halos containing massive primaries. Alternatively, there exists a tight balance between mergers and accretion of new satellites such that the overall distribution of galaxies in and around the halo is preserved. The latter interpretation is supported by a comparison to a semi-analytic model, which shows a similar constant average satellite distribution over the same redshift range.

  9. EVOLUTION OF SHOCKS AND TURBULENCE IN MAJOR CLUSTER MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.; Mannheim, K.; Iapichino, L.; Miniati, F.; Bagchi, J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a set of cosmological simulations of major mergers in galaxy clusters, in order to study the evolution of merger shocks and the subsequent injection of turbulence in the post-shock region and in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The computations have been performed with the grid-based, adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, using a refinement criterion especially designed for refining turbulent flows in the vicinity of shocks. When a major merger event occurs, a substantial amount of turbulence energy is injected in the ICM of the newly formed cluster. Our simulations show that the shock launched after a major merger develops an ellipsoidal shape and gets broken by the interaction with the filamentary cosmic web around the merging cluster. The size of the post-shock region along the direction of shock propagation is of the order of 300 kpc h{sup -1}, and the turbulent velocity dispersion in this region is larger than 100 km s{sup -1}. We performed a scaling analysis of the turbulence energy within our cluster sample. The best fit for the scaling of the turbulence energy with the cluster mass is consistent with M{sup 5/3}, which is also the scaling law for the thermal energy in the self-similar cluster model. This clearly indicates the close relation between virialization and injection of turbulence in the cluster evolution. As for the turbulence in the cluster core, we found that within 2 Gyr after the major merger (the timescale for the shock propagation in the ICM), the ratio of the turbulent to total pressure is larger than 10%, and after about 4 Gyr it is still larger than 5%, a typical value for nearly relaxed clusters. Turbulence at the cluster center is thus sustained for several gigayears, which is substantially longer than typically assumed in the turbulent re-acceleration models, invoked to explain the statistics of observed radio halos. Striking similarities in the morphology and other physical parameters between our simulations

  10. THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF DOUBLE WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.; Kasen, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-03-20

    In this paper, we present a model for the long-term evolution of the merger of two unequal mass C/O white dwarfs (WDs). After the dynamical phase of the merger, magnetic stresses rapidly redistribute angular momentum, leading to nearly solid-body rotation on a viscous timescale of 10{sup -4}-1 yr, long before significant cooling can occur. Due to heating during the dynamical and viscous phases, the less massive WD is transformed into a hot, slowly rotating, and radially extended envelope supported by thermal pressure. Following the viscous phase of evolution, the maximum temperature near the envelope base may already be high enough to begin off-center convective carbon burning. If not, Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction of the inner region of the envelope on a thermal timescale of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} yr compresses the base of the envelope, again yielding off-center burning. As a result, the long-term evolution of the merger remnant is similar to that seen in previous calculations: the burning shell diffuses inward over {approx}10{sup 4} yr, eventually yielding a high-mass O/Ne WD or a collapse to a neutron star, rather than a Type Ia supernova. During the cooling and shell-burning phases, the merger remnant radiates near the Eddington limit. Given the double WD merger rate of a few per 1000 yr, a few dozen of these {approx}10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} sources should exist in a Milky Way type galaxy. While the end result is similar to that of previous studies, the physical picture and the dynamical state of the matter in our model differ from previous work. Furthermore, substantial remaining uncertainties related to the convective structure near the photosphere and mass loss during the thermal evolution may significantly affect our conclusions. Thus, future work within the context of the physical model presented here is required to better address the eventual fate of double WD mergers, including those for which one or both of the components is a He WD.

  11. Evolution of Shocks and Turbulence in Major Cluster Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Iapichino, L.; Miniati, F.; Bagchi, J.; Mannheim, K.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a set of cosmological simulations of major mergers in galaxy clusters, in order to study the evolution of merger shocks and the subsequent injection of turbulence in the post-shock region and in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The computations have been performed with the grid-based, adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, using a refinement criterion especially designed for refining turbulent flows in the vicinity of shocks. When a major merger event occurs, a substantial amount of turbulence energy is injected in the ICM of the newly formed cluster. Our simulations show that the shock launched after a major merger develops an ellipsoidal shape and gets broken by the interaction with the filamentary cosmic web around the merging cluster. The size of the post-shock region along the direction of shock propagation is of the order of 300 kpc h -1, and the turbulent velocity dispersion in this region is larger than 100 km s-1. We performed a scaling analysis of the turbulence energy within our cluster sample. The best fit for the scaling of the turbulence energy with the cluster mass is consistent with M 5/3, which is also the scaling law for the thermal energy in the self-similar cluster model. This clearly indicates the close relation between virialization and injection of turbulence in the cluster evolution. As for the turbulence in the cluster core, we found that within 2 Gyr after the major merger (the timescale for the shock propagation in the ICM), the ratio of the turbulent to total pressure is larger than 10%, and after about 4 Gyr it is still larger than 5%, a typical value for nearly relaxed clusters. Turbulence at the cluster center is thus sustained for several gigayears, which is substantially longer than typically assumed in the turbulent re-acceleration models, invoked to explain the statistics of observed radio halos. Striking similarities in the morphology and other physical parameters between our simulations and the

  12. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Planet-like Migrations.

    PubMed

    Gould; Rix

    2000-03-20

    If supermassive black holes (BHs) are generically present in galaxy centers, and if galaxies are built up through hierarchical merging, BH binaries are at least temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observations suggest, however, that binary BHs are rare, pointing toward a binary lifetime far shorter than the Hubble time. We show that, almost regardless of the detailed mechanism, all stellar dynamical processes are too slow in reducing the orbital separation once orbital velocities in the binary exceed the virial velocity of the system. We propose that a massive gas disk surrounding a BH binary can effect its merger rapidly, in a scenario analogous to the orbital decay of super-Jovian planets due to a proto-planetary disk. As in the case of planets, gas accretion onto the secondary (here a supermassive BH) is integrally connected with its inward migration. Such accretion would give rise to quasar activity. BH binary mergers could therefore be responsible for many or most quasars. PMID:10702125

  13. Observational evidence for the evolution of nuclear metallicity and star formation rate with the merger stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Wei, Peng; Guo, Xin

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of nuclear gas-phase oxygen abundance and star formation rate (SFR) of local far-infrared selected star-forming galaxies along the merger sequence, as traced by their optical morphologies. The sample was drawn from a cross-correlation analysis of the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey and 1 Jy ultraluminous infrared galaxy sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 database. The investigation is done by comparing our sample to a control sample matched in the normalized redshift distribution in two diagnostics, which are the nuclear gas-phase metallicity vs. stellar mass and the nuclear SFR vs. stellar mass diagrams. Galaxies with different morphological types show different mass-metallicity relations (MZRs). Compared to the MZR defined by the control sample, isolated spirals have comparable metallicities with the control sample at a given stellar mass. Spirals in pairs and interacting galaxies with projected separations of r p > 20 kpc show a mild metallicity dilution of 0.02–0.03 dex. Interacting galaxies with r p < 20 kpc, pre-mergers and advanced mergers are underabundant by ∼ 0.06, ∼ 0.05 and ∼ 0.04 dex, respectively. This shows an evolutionary trend that the metallicity is increasingly depressed as the merging proceeds and it is diluted most dramatically when two galaxies are closely interacting. Afterwards, the interstellar medium (ISM) is enriched when the galaxies coalesce. This is the first time that such ISM enrichment at the final coalescence stage has been observed, which demonstrates the importance of supernova explosions in affecting the nuclear metallicity. Moreover, the central SFR enhancement relative to the control sample evolves simultaneously with the nuclear gas-phase oxygen abundance. Our results support the predictions from numerical simulations.

  14. The evolution of clusters of galaxies. I - Very rich clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstone, D. O.; Malumuth, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple one-body Monte Carlo code is used to investigate the evolution of galaxies in a steady cluster potential under the influence of dynamical friction, two-body relaxation, tidal stripping, and galaxy mergers. The basic assumptions, estimated time scales, method and computer program, and effects of uncertainties in galaxy encounter physics are addressed. Numerical experiments in which the mass initially carried by galaxies and the mass function are varied are reported. It is shown that the formation of a very massive cluster galaxy depends critically on the number of galaxies, the initial division of cluster material between galaxies and a smooth intracluster medium, the mass spectrum of the galaxies, and chance. By the end of all simulations, less than half of the mass in the central regions of the cluster is bound to galaxies. It appears possible to produce any of the Bautz-Morgan classes from very similar initial conditions.

  15. ON THE ASSEMBLY HISTORY OF STELLAR COMPONENTS IN MASSIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2013-03-20

    Matsuoka and Kawara showed that the number density of the most massive galaxies (log M/M{sub Sun} = 11.5-12.0) increases faster than that of the next massive group (log M/M{sub Sun} = 11.0-11.5) during 0 < z < 1. This appears to be in contradiction to the apparent 'downsizing effect'. We attempt to understand the two observational findings in the context of the hierarchical merger paradigm using semi-analytic techniques. Our models closely reproduce the result of Matsuoka and Kawara. Downsizing can also be understood as larger galaxies have, on average, smaller assembly ages but larger stellar ages. Our fiducial models further reveal details of the history of the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies. The most massive galaxies (log M/M{sub Sun} = 11.5-12.0 at z = 0), which are mostly the brightest cluster galaxies, obtain roughly 70% of their stellar components via merger accretion. The role of merger accretion monotonically declines with galaxy mass: 40% for log M/M{sub Sun} = 11.0-11.5 and 20% for log M/M{sub Sun} = 10.5-11.0 at z = 0. The specific accreted stellar mass rates via galaxy mergers decline very slowly during the whole redshift range, while specific star formation rates sharply decrease with time. In the case of the most massive galaxies, merger accretion becomes the most important channel for the stellar mass growth at z {approx} 2. On the other hand, in situ star formation is always the dominant channel in L{sub *} galaxies.

  16. Why are AGN found in high-mass galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lan; Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2008-12-01

    There is a strong observed mass dependence of the fraction of nearby galaxies that contain either low-luminosity [low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) type] or higher luminosity (Seyfert or composite type) active galactic nuclei (AGN). This implies that either only a small fraction of low-mass galaxies contain black holes, or that the black holes in these systems only accrete rarely or at very low rates, and hence are generally not detectable as AGN. In this paper, we use semi-analytic models implemented in the Millennium Simulation to analyse the mass dependence of the merging histories of dark matter haloes and of the galaxies that reside in them. Only a few per cent of galaxies with stellar masses less than M* < 1010Msolar are predicted to have experienced a major merger. The fraction of galaxies that have experienced major mergers increases steeply at larger stellar masses. We argue that if a major merger is required to form the initial seed black hole, the mass dependence of AGN activity in local galaxies can be understood quite naturally. We then investigate when the major mergers that first create these black holes are predicted to occur. High-mass galaxies are predicted to have formed their first black holes at very early epochs. The majority of low-mass galaxies never experience a major merger and hence may not contain a black hole, but a significant fraction of the supermassive black holes that do exist in low-mass galaxies are predicted to have formed recently.

  17. A Strong Merger Shock in Abell 665

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasadia, S.; Sun, M.; Sarazin, C.; Morandi, A.; Markevitch, M.; Wik, D.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Govoni, F.; Vacca, V.

    2016-03-01

    Deep (103 ks) Chandra observations of Abell 665 have revealed rich structures in this merging galaxy cluster, including a strong shock and two cold fronts. The newly discovered shock has a Mach number of M = 3.0 ± 0.6, propagating in front of a cold disrupted cloud. This makes Abell 665 the second cluster, after the Bullet cluster, where a strong merger shock of M ≈ 3 has been detected. The shock velocity from jump conditions is consistent with (2.7 ± 0.7) × 103 km s-1. The new data also reveal a prominent southern cold front with potentially heated gas ahead of it. Abell 665 also hosts a giant radio halo. There is a hint of diffuse radio emission extending to the shock at the north, which needs to be examined with better radio data. This new strong shock provides a great opportunity to study the re-acceleration model with the X-ray and radio data combined.

  18. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-02-10

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  19. The Horizon-AGN Simulation: Morphological Diversity of Galaxies ,Promoted by AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sébastien; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Welker, Charlotte; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-09-01

    The interplay between cosmic gas accretion onto galaxies and galaxy mergers drives the observed morphological diversity of galaxies. By comparing the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations HORIZON-AGN and HORIZON-NOAGN, we unambiguously identify the critical role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in setting up the correct galaxy morphology for the massive end of the population. With AGN feedback, typical kinematic and morpho-metric properties of galaxy populations as well as the galaxy-halo mass relation are in much better agreement with observations. Only AGN feedback allows massive galaxies at the center of groups and clusters to become ellipticals, while without AGN feedback those galaxies reform discs. It is the merger-enhanced AGN activity that is able to freeze the morphological type of the post-merger remnant by durably quenching its quiescent star formation. Hence morphology is shown not to be purely driven by mass but also by the nature of cosmic accretion: at constant galaxy mass, ellipticals are galaxies that are mainly assembled through mergers, while discs are preferentially built from the in situ star formation fed by smooth cosmic gas infall.

  20. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael J.; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O.; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant `island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  1. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters.

    PubMed

    West, Michael J; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant 'island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events. PMID:14702077

  2. Galaxy evolution: The Milky Way perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on the evolution of the Galaxy are presented. The individual topics addressed include: the possibility of a merger in the Galactic past; the age and formation redshift of the Galaxy; starcounts as a probe of Galactic structure; the history of the Galactic bulge; kinematics, chemistry, and stellar populations; Monte Carlo analyses of biased Galactic structure data; dynamical history of the Galactic disk; globular cluster kinematics; destruction of globular clusters in the Galaxy. Also discussed are: globular clusters of the outer halo as probes of the Galaxy's structure and early evolution; measuring relative ages of Galactic globular clusters; accretion-induced heating of disks in galaxies; formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge and halo; history of halo gas in normal galaxies.

  3. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  4. Milky Way archaeology and the dynamical signatures of mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Facundo Ariel

    2010-09-01

    Under the current cosmological paradigm galaxies like our own Milky Way are formed bottom-up, through mergers and accretion of smaller objects that come together due to their gravitational attraction. If this paradigm is correct a vast amount of fossil remnants from the disruption of the accreted galaxies should be present in the different components of the Milky Way, such as its halo or thick disc. The quantification and the characterisation of these debris therefore provide crucial tests of this paradigm which, moreover, would allow us to establish the assembly history of our Galaxy. In this thesis numerical and analytical methods have been used to characterise the dynamical signatures as well as the time evolution of debris associated with accretion events. Simulations at different levels of sophistication have been performed to study the impact of different physical mechanisms on the final distribution of debris in Galactic phase-space (Chapter 4 & 5). New methods and techniques have been developed to identify fossil signatures of accreted galaxies (Chapter 3), as well as to characterize how much of this history may be recovered with the advent of the European Space Agency astrometric satellite Gaia (Chapter 4). The problem of the very rapid initial divergence of nearby orbits observed in N-body simulations of fully integrable potentials has also been revisited in this work (Chapter 2).

  5. Are Compton-thick AGNs the Missing Link between Mergers and Black Hole Growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Aird, James; Bell, Eric F.; Hsu, Li-Ting; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koo, David C.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mozena, Mark; Rosario, David; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z∼ 1 to test whether obscured super-massive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGNs with {N}{{H}}\\gt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2 and z\\lt 1.5. Using visual classifications, we compare the morphologies of these AGNs to control samples of moderately obscured (1022 cm{}-2\\lt {N}{{H}}\\lt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2) and unobscured ({N}{{H}}\\lt {10}22 {{cm}}-2) AGN. These control AGNs have similar redshifts and intrinsic X-ray luminosities to our heavily obscured AGN. We find that heavily obscured AGNs are twice as likely to be hosted by late-type galaxies relative to unobscured AGNs ({65.3}-4.6+4.1% versus {34.5}-2.7+2.9%) and three times as likely to exhibit merger or interaction signatures ({21.5}-3.3+4.2% versus {7.8}-1.3+1.9%). The increased merger fraction is significant at the 3.8σ level. If we exclude all point sources and consider only extended hosts, we find that the correlation between the merger fraction and obscuration is still evident, although at a reduced statistical significance (2.5σ ). The fact that we observe a different disk/spheroid fraction versus obscuration indicates that the viewing angle cannot be the only thing differentiating our three AGN samples, as a simple unification model would suggest. The increased fraction of disturbed morphologies with obscuration supports an evolutionary scenario, in which Compton-thick AGNs are a distinct phase of obscured super-massive black hole (SMBH) growth following a merger/interaction event. Our findings also suggest that some of the merger-triggered SMBH growth predicted by recent AGN fueling models may be hidden among the heavily obscured, Compton-thick population.

  6. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta de Arriba, Luis; Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We study the preferred environments of z ˜ 0 massive relic galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z ˜ 2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z ˜ 2 is ˜0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M⋆ > 1010 M⊙. This fraction rises to ˜0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, we find 1.11 ± 0.05 per cent of relics among massive galaxies. This fraction rises to 2.4 ± 0.4 per cent in high-density environments. Our findings point in the same direction as the works by Poggianti et al. and Stringer et al. Our results may reflect the fact that the cores of the clusters are created very early on, hence the centres host the first cluster members. Near the centres, high-velocity dispersions and harassment help cluster core members avoid the growth of an accreted stellar envelope via mergers, while a hot intracluster medium prevents cold gas from reaching the galaxies, inhibiting star formation.

  7. The Spatial Extent and Distribution of Star Formation in 3D-HST Mergers at z is approximately 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cox, Thomas J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Jonsson, Patrik; Lundgren, Britt; Maseda, Michael V.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of star formation in a sample of 60 visually identified galaxy merger candidates at z greater than 1. Our sample, drawn from the 3D-HST survey, is flux-limited and was selected to have high star formation rates based on fits of their broad-band, low spatial resolution spectral energy distributions. It includes plausible pre-merger (close pairs) and post-merger (single objects with tidal features) systems,with total stellar masses and star formation rates derived from multi-wavelength photometry. Here we use near-infrared slitless spectra from 3D-HST which produce H or [OIII] emission line maps as proxies for star-formation maps. This provides a first comprehensive high-resolution, empirical picture of where star formation occurred in galaxy mergers at the epoch of peak cosmic star formation rate. We find that detectable star formation can occur in one or both galaxy centres, or in tidal tails. The most common case (58%) is that star formation is largely concentrated in a single, compact region, coincident with the centre of (one of) the merger components. No correlations between star formation morphology and redshift, total stellar mass, or star formation rate are found. A restricted set of hydrodynamical merger simulationsbetween similarly massive and gas-rich objects implies that star formation should be detectable in both merger components, when the gas fractions of the individual components are the same. This suggests that z is approximately 1.5 mergers typically occur between galaxies whose gas fractions, masses, andor star formation rates are distinctly different from one another.

  8. TURBULENT CAULDRON OF STARBIRTH IN NEARBY ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope offers a stunning unprecedented close-up view of a turbulent firestorm of starbirth along a nearly edge-on dust disk girdling Centaurus A, the nearest active galaxy to Earth. A ground-based telescopic view (upper left insert) shows that the dust lane girdles the entire elliptical galaxy. This lane has long been considered the dust remnant of a smaller spiral galaxy that merged with the large elliptical galaxy. The spiral galaxy deposited its gas and dust into the elliptical galaxy, and the shock of the collision compressed interstellar gas, precipitating a flurry of star formation. Resembling looming storm clouds, dark filaments of dust mixed with cold hydrogen gas are silhouetted against the incandescent yellow-orange glow from hot gas and stars behind it. Brilliant clusters of young blue stars lie along the edge of the dark dust rift. Outside the rift the sky is filled with the soft hazy glow of the galaxy's much older resident population of red giant and red dwarf stars. The dusty disk is tilted nearly edge-on, its inclination estimated to be only 10 or 20 degrees from our line-of-sight. The dust lane has not yet had enough time since the recent merger to settle down into a flat disk. At this oblique angle, bends and warps in the dust lane cause us to see a rippled 'washboard' structure. The picture is a mosaic of two Hubble Space Telescope images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, on Aug. 1, 1997 and Jan. 10, 1998. The approximately natural color is assembled from images taken in blue, green and red light. Details as small as seven light-years across can be resolved. The blue color is due to the light from extremely hot, newborn stars. The reddish-yellow color is due in part to hot gas, in part to older stars in the elliptical galaxy and in part to scattering of blue light by dust -- the same effect that produces brilliant orange sunsets on Earth. Centaurus A (NGC 5128) Fast Facts: Right Ascension: 13: 25.5 (hours

  9. Constructing massive blue elliptical galaxies in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Tim

    Over cosmic time, galaxy mass assembly has transitioned from low-mass, star-forming disk galaxies to massive, quiescent elliptical galaxies. The merger hypothesis for the formation of new elliptical galaxies provides one physical explanation to the observed buildup of this population, a key prediction of which is a brief phase of morphological transformation from highly-disturbed remnant to blue elliptical. We study 12 plausible new ellipticals with varying degrees of morphological peculiarities visually selected from a larger parent sample of nearby (0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.04), massive (M* ≥ 10 10 M⊙ ), concentrated (Petrosian R90/R50 ≥ 2.6), and optically blue galaxies from the SDSS DR4 catalog. Using integral field spectroscopy, we construct two-dimensional spectra of the stellar populations and azimuthally bin them into concentric annuli to determine the relative ages of the stellar populations as a function of radius. Using this data and conclusions from simulations, we seek to distinguish post-mergers from galaxies undergoing other modes of mass assembly. We find that 1/3 of our sample is consistent with having undergone a recent, gas-rich major merger. Another 1/3 of our sample is consistent with having undergone a 'frosting' of recent star formation. The final 1/3 of our sample is either inconsistent with or inconclusive of having undergone a recent, gas-rich major merger.

  10. Molecular Gas in Starburts ARP 220 & NGC 6240: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, Nicholas; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging allows multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We are doing an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which enables in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This in turn probes the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We are probing the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present our observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

  11. Molecular Gas in Starburts: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Sheth, K.

    2014-01-01

    NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging allows multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We are doing an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which enables in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This in turn probes the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We are probing the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present preliminary observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

  12. Understanding the size growth of massive galaxies through stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, I.; Trujillo, I.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pérez-González, P.

    Massive early-type galaxies undergo a significant process of evolution with redshift on the stellar mass vs size plane. Furthermore, this trend does not depend on the age of their stellar populations. Therefore, such an evolution should involve processes that do not include a significant amount of star formation, leaving (mostly) dry mergers as the main growth channel. By studying close pairs involving a massive galaxy, one can quantify the role of mergers on the growth of massive galaxies. A recent study based on the SHARDS dataset reveals that minor mergers cannot be the dominant mechanism to explain the bulk of size growth in these systems. Merging is found to provide a constant fractional growth rate of ~10% per Gyr from redshift z=1, corresponding to an overall stellar mass increase of 2× between z=1 and z=0.

  13. Tidal Debris Around Merger Remnants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQullan, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We present images of the interacting pair NGC 3310. These images were taken using the HDI camera on the 0.9m at Kitt Peak in Arizona. NGC 3310 is a starburst galaxy which recently underwent a collision with a much smaller mass galaxy. It has been postulated that this galaxy was then scattered in the orbit of NGC 3310 creating multiple tidal loops around the galaxy. In order to observe and study these loops, the data must be clear of noise within 1% error. We present our method of correcting to this precision level and an analysis of the tidal loop system. We will also discuss the implications of this stellar debris on the evolutionary history of this galaxy.

  14. Simulations of White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, J.; Menon, A.; Herwig, F.; Clayton, G. C.; Even, W. P.; Fryer, C. L.; Motl, P.; Tohline, J. E.; Geballe, T.; Pignatari, M.

    2013-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars may be the result of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We have performed six 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of two WDs, keeping a total mass of 0.9 solar masses and varying the mass ratio (q) between 0.5 and 1. The simulations show that for high q, the two cores merge leading to a combined core consisting of material from both the former accretor and donor. For lower q, the donor star gets tidally disrupted and most of the donor material ends up outside the accretor core, with a hot interaction layer forming between them. A lower q leads to higher temperatures. We locate conditions that are suitable for nucleosynthesis to take place, especially looking for conditions favorable for creating 18O, since the 16O to 18O ratio in RCB stars is observed to be unusually low, of order unity. Using conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations as input to our post-processing nucleosynthesis code, we find that oxygen ratios down to 4 can be reached, but only after a hundred years, assuming the conditions will remain constant for that long. The main problem preventing the oxygen ratio to drop lower is that much 16O is dredged up from the accretor in the merger process, thereby necessitating production of large amount of 18O in order to achieve ratios of order unity.

  15. The hierarchical evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies: red galaxies in a young universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) from redshift z ~ 1.6 to z = 0. We upgrade the hierarchical semi-analytic model of Croton et al. (2006) with a new spectro-photometric model that produces realistic galaxy spectra, making use of the Maraston (2005) stellar populations and a new recipe for the dust extinction. We compare the model predictions of the K-band luminosity evolution and the J-K, V-I and I-K colour evolution with a series of datasets, including Collins et al. (Nature, 2009) who argued that semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation cannot reproduce the red colours and high luminosity of BCGs at z > 1. We show instead that the model is well in range of the observed luminosity and correctly reproduces the colour evolution of BCGs in the whole redshift range up to z ~ 1.6. We argue that the success of the semi-analytic model is in large part due to the implementation of a more sophisticated spectro-photometric model. An analysis of the model BCGs shows an increase in mass by a factor 2-3 since z ~ 1, and star formation activity down to low redshifts. While the consensus regarding BCGs is that they are passively evolving, we argue that this conclusion is affected by the degeneracy between star formation history and stellar population models used in SED-fitting, and by the inefficacy of toy-models of passive evolution to capture the complexity of real galaxies, especially those with rich merger histories like BCGs. Following this argument, we also show that in the semi-analytic model, the BCGs show a realistic mix of stellar populations, and that these stellar populations are mostly old. In addition, the age-redshift relation of the model BCGs follows that of the Universe, meaning that given their merger history and star formation history, the ageing of BCGs is always dominated by the ageing of their stellar populations. In a ΛCDM Universe, we define such evolution as `passive in the hierarchical sense'.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF CENTRAL GROUP GALAXIES IN HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, R.; Carollo, C. M.; Mayer, L.; Lake, G.; Renzini, A.; Quinn, T.; Stinson, G. S.; Yepes, G.

    2010-01-20

    We trace the evolution of central galaxies in three approx10{sup 13} M{sub sun} galaxy groups simulated at high resolution in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. In all three cases, the evolution in the group potential leads, at z = 0, to central galaxies that are massive, gas-poor early-type systems supported by stellar velocity dispersion and which resemble either elliptical or S0 galaxies. Their z approx 2-2.5 main progenitors are massive (M{sub *} approx (3-10) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}), star-forming (20-60 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) galaxies which host substantial reservoirs of cold gas (approx5 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}) in extended gas disks. Our simulations thus show that star-forming galaxies observed at z approx 2 are likely the main progenitors of central galaxies in galaxy groups at z = 0. At z approx 2 the stellar component of all galaxies is compact, with a half-mass radius <1 kpc. The central stellar density stays approximatively constant from such early epochs down to z = 0. Instead, the galaxies grow inside out, by acquiring a stellar envelope outside the innermost approx2 kpc. Consequently the density within the effective radius decreases by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Both major and minor mergers contribute to most (70{sup +20}{sub -15}%) of the mass accreted outside the effective radius and thus drive an episodical evolution of the half-mass radii, particularly below z = 1. In situ star formation and secular evolution processes contribute to 14{sup +18}{sub -9}% and 16{sup +6}{sub -11}%, respectively. Overall, the simulated galaxies grow by a factor approx4-5 in mass and size since redshift z approx 2. The short cooling time in the center of groups can foster a 'hot accretion' mode. In one of the three simulated groups this leads to a dramatic rejuvenation of the central group galaxy at z < 1, affecting its morphology, kinematics, and colors. This episode is eventually terminated by a group-group merger. Mergers also appear to be responsible for

  17. Demographics of Isolated Galaxies along the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, Honggeun; Yi, Sukyoung; Park, Jongwon; Seo, Seong-woo; Lee, Jaehyun; Smith, Rory

    2016-01-01

    Isolated galaxies in low-density environments are considered not to be perturbed by other galaxies at least for the last few Gyr, and thus they are important in the sense that they are least affected by the hierarchical mergers and interactions. To figure out the properties of isolated galaxies and their star-formation histories, we select isolated galaxies and their comparison sample in relatively denser environments from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The samples in the redshift range of 0.025 < z < 0.044 are volume-limited. The galaxies are classified based on the Hubble morphology classification scheme through a visual inspection. The catalog of Oh et al. (2011) is used for the spectroscopic study. Although we have found most of the photometric and spectroscopic properties are similar between the isolated and comparison sample galaxies, there are some differences between the samples. The most remarkable results are as follows. Late-type galaxies are dominant in isolated galaxies with the morphology distribution (E:S0:S:Irr) = (9.9:11.3:77.6:1.2)%. The percentage of elliptical galaxies among isolated galaxies is only a third of that of the comparison sample (E:S0:S:Irr) = (28.6:18.1:52.7:0.6)%. Isolated elliptical galaxies are less massive by 50% and younger by 20% in luminosity-weighted age than their counterparts, while spiral galaxies in isolated and comparison samples do not show any significant differences. This can be explained as a result of different merger and star-formation histories for differing environments in the hierarchical merger paradigm. We provide an online catalog for the list and properties of our sample galaxies.

  18. An X-ray temperature map of Abell 754: A major merger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Patrick; Briel, Ulrich G.

    1995-01-01

    We present the first two-dimensional X-ray temperature map of the rich cluster of galaxies Abell 754. We also present an X-ray surface brightness map with improved spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with previous maps. Both the temperature map and the surface brightness map show that A754 is in the throes of a violent merger; it is probably far from hydrostatic equilibrium.

  19. Probing the tides in interacting galaxy pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed spectroscopic and imaging observations of colliding elliptical galaxies revealed unmistakable diagnostic signatures of the tidal interactions. It is possible to compare both the distorted luminosity distributions and the disturbed internal rotation profiles with numerical simulations in order to model the strength of the tidal gravitational field acting within a given pair of galaxies. Using the best-fit numerical model, one can then measure directly the mass of a specific interacting binary system. This technique applies to individual pairs and therefore complements the classical methods of measuring the masses of galaxy pairs in well-defined statistical samples. The 'personalized' modeling of galaxy pairs also permits the derivation of each binary's orbit, spatial orientation, and interaction timescale. Similarly, one can probe the tides in less-detailed observations of disturbed galaxies in order to estimate some of the physical parameters for larger samples of interacting galaxy pairs. These parameters are useful inputs to the more universal problems of (1) the galaxy merger rate, (2) the strength and duration of the driving forces behind tidally stimulated phenomena (e.g., starbursts and maybe quasi steller objects), and (3) the identification of long-lived signatures of interaction/merger events.

  20. The Modes of Star Formation in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Candels Team

    2015-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, LIR>1012 Lsun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z~2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers?

  1. The Future of Merger: What Do We Want Mergers to Do--Efficiency or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Daniel W.

    2003-01-01

    Mergers have been a frequent phenomenon in higher education in the last quarter century. The conventional wisdom is that mergers are undertaken mainly for economic reasons, either to expand markets or to reduce costs. About four out of five college or university mergers survive. In the for-profit sector the comparable rate is closer to two out of…

  2. Radio Detection of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Brandon; Cardena, Brett; Dispoto, Dana; Papadopoulos, Joanna; Kavic, Michael; Simonetti, John

    2011-10-01

    Neutron star binary systems lose energy through gravitational radiation, and eventually merge. The gravitational radiation from the merger can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). It is expected that a transient radio pulse will also be produced during the merger event. Detection of such radio transients would allow for LIGO to search for signals within constrained time periods. We calculate the LWA-1 detection rate of transient events from neutron star binary mergers. We calculate the detection rate of transient events from neutron star binary mergers for the Long Wavelength Array and the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array.

  3. CANDELS: CONSTRAINING THE AGN-MERGER CONNECTION WITH HOST MORPHOLOGIES AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Nandra, Kirpal; Brusa, Marcella; Wuyts, Stijn; Rangel, Cyprian; Laird, Elise S.; Bell, Eric F.; Alexander, David M.; Bournaud, Frederic; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dekel, Avishai; and others

    2012-01-10

    Using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging taken as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we examine the role that major galaxy mergers play in triggering active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity at z {approx} 2. Our sample consists of 72 moderate-luminosity (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 42-44} erg s{sup -1}) AGNs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 that are selected using the 4 Ms Chandra observations in the Chandra Deep Field South, the deepest X-ray observations to date. Employing visual classifications, we have analyzed the rest-frame optical morphologies of the AGN host galaxies and compared them to a mass-matched control sample of 216 non-active galaxies at the same redshift. We find that most of the AGNs reside in disk galaxies (51.4{sup +5.8}{sub -5.9}%), while a smaller percentage are found in spheroids (27.8{sup +5.8}{sub -4.6}%). Roughly 16.7{sup +5.3}{sub -3.5}% of the AGN hosts have highly disturbed morphologies and appear to be involved in a major merger or interaction, while most of the hosts (55.6{sup +5.6}{sub -5.9}%) appear relatively relaxed and undisturbed. These fractions are statistically consistent with the fraction of control galaxies that show similar morphological disturbances. These results suggest that the hosts of moderate-luminosity AGNs are no more likely to be involved in an ongoing merger or interaction relative to non-active galaxies of similar mass at z {approx} 2. The high disk fraction observed among the AGN hosts also appears to be at odds with predictions that merger-driven accretion should be the dominant AGN fueling mode at z {approx} 2, even at moderate X-ray luminosities. Although we cannot rule out that minor mergers are responsible for triggering these systems, the presence of a large population of relatively undisturbed disk-like hosts suggests that the stochastic accretion of gas plays a greater role in fueling AGN activity at z {approx} 2 than previously thought.

  4. Interaction Induced Size Evolution in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Francisco Javier; Jorge Moreno, Paul Torrey, Phil Hopkins

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a suite of 75 different simulations of major mergers based on the "Feedback in Realistic Environments" FIRE model (Hopkins et al. 2014). The suite consists of mergers of disk galaxies with mass ratio of 2.5:1, set at various eccentricities, impact parameters and relative spin-orbit orientations. This work focuses on the evolution of the size of the stellar, gaseous and star-forming components. We find that, whilst older models (based on Springel & Hernquist 2003) predict dramatic size evolution - this effect is mild for the newer FIRE simulations. We believe this is due to the fact that newer simulations produce weaker gravitational tidal torques.

  5. Distinguishing disks from mergers: Tracing the kinematic asymmetries in local (U)LIRGs using kinemetry-based criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellocchi, Enrica; Arribas, Santiago; Colina, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Context. The kinematic characterization of different galaxy populations is a key observational input for distinguishing between different galaxy evolutionary scenarios because it helps to determine the number ratio of rotating disks to mergers at different cosmic epochs. Local (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) cover similar range of star formation rates (SFR) as normal high redshift (high-z), star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Therefore, their study offer a unique opportunity to study at high linear resolution and signal-to-noise (S/N) extreme star forming events and compare these events with those observed at high-z. Aims: Our goal is to analyze in detail the kinematics of the ionized gas as traced by the Hα emission of a large sample of 38 local (z < 0.1) (U)LIRG systems (50 individual galaxies). In this study, we apply kinematic criteria, which are able to characterize the evolutionary status of these systems, allowing us to derive the disk and merger ratio in such local systems. Methods: We obtained Very Large Telescope (VLT) VIMOS optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data of a sample of 38 (U)LIRGs. These systems are morphologically classified in four groups according to their dynamical phases: isolated disk, paired disk, ongoing merger, and post-coalescence merger. The first two are referred as "disk", while the second two are referred to as "merger". The "unweighted" and "weighted" kinemetry-based methods are used to kinematically classify our galaxies in disk and merger. The total kinematic asymmetry value Ktot has been used to quantify the global kinematic asymmetry degree of the observed and simulated systems. Results: From the kinemetry-based analysis we are able classify our local (U)LIRGs in three distinct kinematic groups according to their total kinematic asymmetry values (Ktot) as derived when using the weighted (unweighted) method: (1) 25 out of 50 galaxies are kinematically classified as disk with a Ktot ≤ 0.16 (0.14); (2) 9 out of

  6. Cold Fronts in Clusters of Galaxies: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Mergers of galaxy clusters -- some of the most energetic events in the Universe -- produce disturbances in hot intracluster medium, such as shocks and cold fronts, that can be used as tools to study the physics of galaxy clusters. Cold fronts may constrain viscosity and the structure and strength of the cluster magnetic fields. Combined with radio data, these observations also shed light on the production of ultrarelativistic particles that are known to coexist with the cluster thermal plasma. This talk will summarize the current X-ray observations of cluster mergers, as well as some recent radio data and high resolution hydrodynamic simulations.

  7. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  8. A CANDELS WFC3 GRISM STUDY OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: A MIX OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Yesuf, Hassen; Scarlata, Claudia; Bell, Eric F.; Laird, Elise S.; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan Renbin; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dunlop, James S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2011-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >1{sigma} detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically {approx}7 times less massive (median M{sub *} = 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) than previously studied z {approx} 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O III]/H{beta} ratios which are very similar to previously studied z {approx} 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H{beta} emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L{sub [OIII]}/L{sub 0.5-10keV} ratio is intermediate between typical z {approx} 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  9. Central Stellar Mass Deficits in the Bulges of Local Lenticular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, B. T.

    2014-03-01

    The centers of giant galaxies display stellar mass deficits (Mdef) which are thought to be a signature left by inspiraling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries that are formed in post-merger galaxies. We quantify these deficits for a sample of five luminous lenticular galaxies with bulge magnitude MV ≲ -21 mag and find Mdef ≍ 0.5 - 2MBH (black hole mass). Contrary to the traditionally proposed lenticular galaxy formation mechanisms such as ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment, the mass deficits in these galaxies suggest a two stage inside-out process for their assembly. That is, their bulges may have formed through “dry” major-merger events involving SMBHs while their disk was subsequently built up via cold gas accretion scenarios. Interestingly, these bulges have sizes and mass densities comparable to the compact massive galaxies found at z ˜ 2.

  10. AGN and their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K.; Hirschmann, M.; Remus, R.-S.; Teklu, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations are an important tool to study the co-evolution between black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. However, in order to model the accretion onto BHs and AGN feedback we need sub-grid models which contain several free parameters. The choice of these parameters has a significant impact on the properties of the BHs and their host galaxies. Therefore, we improve the accretion model and the AGN feedback model based on both theory and observations to eliminate most free parameters. In that way, the slope of the observed relation between BH mass and stellar mass is reproduced self-consistently. We performed a few extremely large simulation runs as part of the Magneticum Pathfinder simulation set, combining a high resolution with very large cosmological volumes, enabling us to study for example dual AGN, the role of galaxy mergers and AGN clustering properties.

  11. Massive Quiescent Disk Galaxies in the CANDELS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseli, Aurora; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the GOODS-S field of the CANDELS survey, we find evidence for an increasing fraction of disk-dominated galaxies at high-redshift ( 2) among the quiescent, or non-star-forming galaxy population, in agreement with a growing body of evidence from recent results in the literature. We selected all galaxies with mass M>1010 Msun within the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, and imposed a two-color selection criteria using rest-frame U, V, and J-band flux to separate quiescent from star-forming galaxies. From this sample, we performed a qualitative visual classification and a quantitative classification using the galaxy-fitting program Galfit. Of the original 140 quiescent galaxies, 23 have a disk component that contributes 50% or more of the total integrated galaxy light, and most of these are at high-redshift. At a redshift of z ~ 2 a significant fraction of all quiescent galaxies showed strong disk components with 30% being disk-dominated. We also find that massive disk galaxies seem to live in less densely populated environments while massive ellipticals live in environments with more neighbors, which leads us to believe that there are two mechanisms for the creation of massive quiescent galaxies. For the disks, the lower density environment and the disk nature of these galaxies lead us to favor cold streams over the major merger model of galaxy formation. The ellipticals, which live in higher density environments, could be assembled through major mergers of already aged stellar populations (e.g., dry mergers). This research is supported by the Clare Boothe Luce Foundation.

  12. Superdense Massive Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Cenarro, A. Javier; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana; Vazdekis, Alexandre; de la Rosa, Ignacio G.; Cava, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    Superdense massive galaxies (re ~ 1 kpc; M ~ 1011 M sun) were common in the early universe (z gsim 1.5). Within some hierarchical merging scenarios, a non-negligible fraction (1%-10%) of these galaxies is expected to survive since that epoch, retaining their compactness and presenting old stellar populations in the present universe. Using the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we find only a tiny fraction of galaxies (~0.03%) with re lsim 1.5 kpc and M sstarf gsim 8 × 1010 M sun in the local universe (z < 0.2). Surprisingly, they are relatively young (~2 Gyr) and metal-rich ([Z/H] ~0.2). The consequences of these findings within the current two competing size evolution scenarios for the most massive galaxies ("dry" mergers vs. "puffing up" due to quasar activity) are discussed.

  13. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  14. History of Galaxy Interactions and Their Impact on Star Formation Over the Last 7 Gyr from GEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogee, Shardha; Miller, Sarah H.; Penner, Kyle; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Bell, Eric F.; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Barazza, Fabio D.; Barden, Marco; Borch, Andrea; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Peng, Chien Y.; Heymans, Catherine; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Häußler, Boris; Jahnke, Knud; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Wisotzki, Lutz; Wolf, Christian; Papovich, Casey

    2009-06-01

    We perform a comprehensive estimate of the frequency of galaxy mergers and their impact on star formation over z~ 0.24-0.80 (lookback time T b~ 3-7 Gyr) using ~3600 (M>= 1 × 109 M sun) galaxies with GEMS Hubble Space Telescope, COMBO-17, and Spitzer data. Our results are as follows. (1) Among ~790 high-mass (M>= 2.5 × 1010 M sun) galaxies, the visually based merger fraction over z~ 0.24-0.80, ranges from 9% ± 5% to 8% ± 2%. Lower limits on the major merger and minor merger fraction over this interval range from 1.1% to 3.5%, and 3.6% to 7.5%, respectively. This is the first, albeit approximate, empirical estimate of the frequency of minor mergers over the last 7 Gyr. Assuming a visibility timescale of ~0.5 Gyr, it follows that over T b~ 3-7 Gyr, ~68% of high-mass systems have undergone a merger of mass ratio >1/10, with ~16%, 45%, and 7% of these corresponding respectively to major, minor, and ambiguous "major or minor" mergers. The average merger rate is ~ a few ×10-4 galaxies Gyr-1 Mpc-3. Among ~2840 blue-cloud galaxies of mass M>= 1.0 × 109 M sun, similar results hold. (2) We compare the empirical merger fraction and merger rate for high-mass galaxies to three Λ cold dark matter-based models: halo occupation distribution models, semi-analytic models, and hydrodynamic SPH simulations. We find qualitative agreement between observations and models such that the (major+minor) merger fraction or rate from different models bracket the observations, and show a factor of 5 dispersion. Near-future improvements can now start to rule out certain merger scenarios. (3) Among ~3698 M>= 1.0 × 109 M sun galaxies, we find that the mean star formation rate (SFR) of visibly merging systems is only modestly enhanced compared to non-interacting galaxies over z~ 0.24-0.80. Visibly merging systems only account for a small fraction (<30%) of the cosmic SFR density over T b~ 3-7 Gyr. This complements the results of Wolf et al. over a shorter time interval of T b~ 6.2-6.8 Gyr

  15. LEDA 074886: A Remarkable Rectangular-looking Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Lisker, Thorsten; Moore, Ben; Janz, Joachim

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of an interesting and rare rectangular-shaped galaxy. At a distance of 21 Mpc, the dwarf galaxy LEDA 074886 has an absolute R-band magnitude of -17.3 mag. Adding to this galaxy's intrigue is the presence of an embedded, edge-on stellar disk (of extent 2 R e, disk = 12'' = 1.2 kpc) for which Forbes et al. reported v rot/σ ≈ 1.4. We speculate that this galaxy may be the remnant of two (nearly edge-on) merged disk galaxies in which the initial gas was driven inward and subsequently formed the inner disk, while the stars at larger radii effectively experienced a dissipationless merger event resulting in this "emerald cut galaxy" having very boxy isophotes with a 4/a = -0.05 to -0.08 from 3 to 5 kpc. This galaxy suggests that knowledge from simulations of both "wet" and "dry" galaxy mergers may need to be combined to properly understand the various paths that galaxy evolution can take, with a particular relevance to blue elliptical galaxies.

  16. A TALE OF TWO POPULATIONS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF MERGER AND SECULAR PROCESSES TO THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2012-05-20

    Due to the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, understanding the mechanisms that trigger active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is imperative to understanding galaxy evolution and the formation of massive galaxies. It is observationally difficult to determine the trigger of a given AGN due to the difference between the AGN lifetime and triggering timescales. Here, we utilize AGN population synthesis modeling to determine the importance of different AGN triggering mechanisms. An AGN population model is computed by combining an observationally motivated AGN triggering rate and a theoretical AGN light curve. The free parameters of the AGN light curve are constrained by minimizing a {chi}{sup 2} test with respect to the observed AGN hard X-ray luminosity function. The observed black hole space density, AGN number counts, and X-ray background spectrum are also considered as observational constraints. It is found that major mergers are not able to account for the entire AGN population. Therefore, non-merger processes, such as secular mechanisms, must also trigger AGNs. Indeed, non-merger processes are the dominant AGN triggering mechanism at z {approx}< 1-1.5. Furthermore, the shape and evolution of the black hole mass function of AGNs triggered by major mergers are intrinsically different from the shape and evolution of the black hole mass function of AGNs triggered by secular processes.

  17. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  18. NGC 3934: a shell galaxy in a compact galaxy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Marino, A.; Mazzei, P.; Buson, L. M.

    2011-10-01

    Context. Mergers/accretions are considered the main drivers of the evolution of galaxies in groups. We investigate the NGC 3933 poor galaxy association that contains NGC 3934, which is classified as a polar-ring galaxy. Aims: The multi-band photometric analysis of NGC 3934 allows us to investigate the nature of this galaxy and to re-define the NGC 3933 group members with the aim to characterize the group's dynamical properties and its evolutionary phase. Methods: We imaged the group in the far (FUV, λeff = 1539 Å) and near (NUV, λeff = 2316 Å) ultraviolet (UV) bands of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). From the deep optical imaging we determined the fine structure of NGC 3934. We measured the recession velocity of PGC 213894 which shows that it belongs to the NGC 3933 group. We derived the spectral energy distribution (SED) from FUV to far-IR emission of the two brightest members of the group. We compared a grid of smooth particle hydrodynamical (SPH) chemo-photometric simulations with the SED and the integrated properties of NGC 3934 and NGC 3933 to devise their possible formation/evolutionary scenarios. Results: The NGC 3933 group has six bright members: a core composed of five galaxies, which have Hickson's compact group characteristics, and a more distant member, PGC 37112. The group velocity dispersion is relatively low (157 ± 44 km s-1). The projected mass, from the NUV photometry, is ~7 × 1012 M⊙ with a crossing time of 0.04 Hubble times, suggesting that at least in the center the group is virialized. We do not find evidence that NGC 3934 is a polar-ring galaxy, as suggested by the literature, but find that it is a disk galaxy with a prominent dust-lane structure and a wide type-II shell structure. Conclusions: NGC 3934 is a quite rare example of a shell galaxy in a likely dense galaxy region. The comparison between physically motivated SPH simulations with multi-band integrated photometry suggests that NGC 3934 is the product of a major merger.

  19. 7 CFR 1779.89 - Mergers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Mergers. 1779.89 Section 1779.89 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.89 Mergers. (a) General. The Agency may... in specific loan note agreements; and (3) All property can be legally transferred to the...

  20. The New Kind of College Mergers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James; Samels, James

    1994-01-01

    Although, during most of higher education's history, institutional mergers have been driven by financial need, a growing number of colleges and universities are merging to advance quality and breadth of services as well. These proactive, entrepreneurial mergers represent a new planning strategy. (MSE)

  1. MCMAC: Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William A.

    2014-07-01

    Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code (MCMAC) aids in the study of merging clusters. It takes observed priors on each subcluster's mass, radial velocity, and projected separation, draws randomly from those priors, and uses them in a analytic model to get posterior PDF's for merger dynamic properties of interest (e.g. collision velocity, time since collision).

  2. The Organizational and Human Implications of Merger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joan B.

    Four types of interinstitutional arrangements in higher education are described, and research results on one type (merger) are presented. A continuum of cooperative endeavors are considered: voluntary cooperative agreements, formalized consortiums, federations, mergers, and closings. The objective of the research was to determine conditions…

  3. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  4. Music from the heavens - Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a ΛCDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger timescale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  5. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Louis

    2013-01-01

    As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate. PMID:23687474

  6. Counter-rotating gaseous disks in the 'Evil Eye' galaxy NGC4826

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Robert; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The discovery of two counterrotating gaseous disks in the otherwise normal early-type spiral NGC4826 is reported. This is the most disklike galaxy in which any kinematic substructure has yet been found. This discovery raises the possibility that even spiral galaxies may have undergone a significant degree of structural evolution due to mergers.

  7. Comparing ligo merger rate observations with theory: distribution of star-forming conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Belczynski, Kryzysztof; Kopparapu, R; O' Shaughnessy, R

    2008-01-01

    -forming conditions depends on the binary evolution model and on the amount of relevant variation in star-forming conditions. For example, if after further comparison with electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations future population synthesis models suggest all BH-BH binary mergers occur promptly and therefore are associated with well-studied present-day star formation, the associated composition-related systematic uncertainty could be lower than the pessimistic value quoted above. Further, as gravitational wave detectors will make available many properties of each merger -- binary component masses, spins, and even short GRB associations and host galaxies could be available -- many detections can still be exploited to create high-precision constraints on binary compact object formation models.

  8. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, Iair; French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2016-06-01

    A star passing close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) can be torn apart in a Tidal Disruption Events (TDE). TDEs that are accompanied by observable flares are now being discovered in transient surveys and are revealing the presence and the properties of otherwise-quiescent SMBHs. Recently, it was discovered that TDEs show a strong preference for rare post-starburst galaxies, (i.e. galaxies that have undergone intense star formation but are no longer forming stars today). We quantify this preference and find that TDEs are approximately 30-200 times more likely to occur in post-starburst hosts (compared to the general SDSS galaxy population), with the enhancement factor depending on the star formation history of the galaxy. This surprising host-galaxy preference connects the until-now disparate TDE subclasses of UV/optical-dominated TDEs and X-ray-dominated TDEs, and serves as the basis for TDE-targeted transient surveys. Post-starburst galaxies may be post-mergers, with binary SMBH systems that are still spiraling in. Such systems could enhance the TDE rate, but it is not yet clear if models can quantitatively reproduce the observed enhancement. Alternative explanations for enhanced TDE rate in post-starbursts include non-spherical post-merger central potentials and enhanced rates of giant stars.

  9. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Volonteri, Marta; Ciotti, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We explore how the co-evolution of massive black holes (MBHs) and galaxies is affected by environmental effects, addressing in particular MBHs hosted in the central cluster galaxies (we will refer to these galaxies in general as ''CCGs''). Recently, the sample of MBHs in CCGs with dynamically measured masses has increased, and it has been suggested that these MBH masses (M{sub BH}) deviate from the expected correlations with velocity dispersion ({sigma}) and mass of the bulge (M{sub bulge}) of the host galaxy: MBHs in CCGs appear to be ''overmassive''. This discrepancy is more pronounced when considering the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation than the M{sub BH}-M{sub bulge} one. We show that this behavior stems from a combination of two natural factors: (1) CCGs experience more mergers involving spheroidal galaxies and their MBHs and (2) such mergers are preferentially gas poor. We use a combination of analytical and semi-analytical models to investigate the MBH-galaxy co-evolution in different environments and find that the combination of these two factors is in accordance with the trends observed in current data sets.

  10. THE COOL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. GAS CONTENT IN THE VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE AND RESULTS FROM THE COMBINED ELLIPTICAL AND LENTICULAR SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Gary A.; Sage, Leslie J.; Young, Lisa M. E-mail: lsage@astro.umd.ed

    2010-12-10

    We report new observations of atomic and molecular gas in a volume-limited sample of elliptical galaxies. Combining the elliptical sample with an earlier and similar lenticular one, we show that cool gas detection rates are very similar among low-luminosity E and S0 galaxies but are much higher among luminous S0s. Using the combined sample we revisit the correlation between cool gas mass and blue luminosity which emerged from our lenticular survey, finding strong support for previous claims that the molecular gas in ellipticals and lenticulars has different origins. Unexpectedly, however, and contrary to earlier claims, the same is not true for atomic gas. We speculate that both the active galactic nucleus feedback and merger paradigms might offer explanations for differences in detection rates, and might also point toward an understanding of why the two gas phases could follow different evolutionary paths in Es and S0s. Finally, we present a new and puzzling discovery concerning the global mix of atomic and molecular gas in early-type galaxies. Atomic gas comprises a greater fraction of the cool interstellar medium in more gas-rich galaxies, a trend which can be plausibly explained. The puzzle is that galaxies tend to cluster around molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios near either 0.05 or 0.5.

  11. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ≳ 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ∼5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  12. Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2016-05-01

    Both simulations and observations reveal that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar; bars form in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >0.5, sizes on the order of the scale length of the disk, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with flyby interactions than previously thought.

  13. SPITZER IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE TOOMRE SEQUENCE: SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH, GAS, AND DUST PROPERTIES IN NEARBY MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.; Armus, L.; Laine, S.; Surace, J. A.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Beirao, P.; Stierwalt, S.; Charmandaris, V.; Smith, J. D.; Schweizer, F.; Murphy, E. J.; Brandl, B.; Evans, A. S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Yun, M.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    We have mapped the key mid-IR diagnostics in eight major merger systems of the Toomre sequence (NGC 4676, NGC 7592, NGC 6621, NGC 2623, NGC 6240, NGC 520, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252) using the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. With these maps, we explore the variation of the ionized-gas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and warm gas (H{sub 2}) properties across the sequence and within the galaxies. While the global PAH interband strength and ionized gas flux ratios ([Ne III]/[Ne II]) are similar to those of normal star-forming galaxies, the distribution of the spatially resolved PAH and fine structure line flux ratios is significantly different from one system to the other. Rather than a constant H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratio, we find that the relation between the H{sub 2} and PAH fluxes is characterized by a power law with a roughly constant exponent (0.61 {+-} 0.05) over all merger components and spatial scales. While following the same power law on local scales, three galaxies have a factor of 10 larger integrated (i.e., global) H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratio than the rest of the sample, even larger than what it is in most nearby active galactic nuclei. These findings suggest a common dominant excitation mechanism for H{sub 2} emission over a large range of global H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratios in major mergers. Early-merger systems show a different distribution between the cold (CO J = 1-0) and warm (H{sub 2}) molecular gas components, which is likely due to the merger interaction. Strong evidence for buried star formation in the overlap region of the merging galaxies is found in two merger systems (NGC 6621 and NGC 7592) as seen in the PAH, [Ne II], [Ne III], and warm gas line emission, but with no apparent corresponding CO (J = 1-0) emission. The minimum of the 11.3/7.7 {mu}m PAH interband strength ratio is typically located in the nuclei of galaxies, while the [Ne III/[Ne II] ratio increases with distance from the nucleus. Our findings also demonstrate that the variations of

  14. The Influence of Mergers on Scatter and Evolution in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liang; Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke

    2015-07-01

    The Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (SZE) observable-mass (Y-M) scaling relation is a promising technique for obtaining mass estimates for large samples of galaxy clusters and holds a key to studying the nature of dark matter and dark energy. However, cosmological inference based on SZE cluster surveys is limited by our incomplete knowledge of scatter, and evolution in the Y-M relation. In this work, we investigate the effects of galaxy cluster mergers on the scaling relation using the Omega500 high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. We show that the non-thermal pressure associated with merger-induced gas motions contributes significantly to the scatter, and evolution of the scaling relation. After the merger, the kinetic energy of merging systems is slowly converted into thermal energy through dissipation of turbulent gas motions, which causes the thermal SZE signal to increase steadily with time. This post-merger evolution is one of the primary source of scatter in the Y-M relation. However, we show that when the missing non-thermal energy is accounted for, the resulting relation exhibits little to no redshift evolution and the scatter around the scaling relation is ˜20%-30% smaller than that of the thermal SZE signal alone. Our work opens up a possibility to further improve the current robust mass proxy, Y, by accounting for the missing non-thermal pressure component. We discuss the future prospect of measuring internal gas motions in galaxy clusters and its implication for cluster-based cosmological tests.

  15. GOODS-Herschel: the impact of galaxy-galaxy interactions on the far-infrared properties of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, H. S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Charmandaris, V.; Daddi, E.; Le Borgne, D.; Buat, V.; Magdis, G. E.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Coia, D.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dasyra, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leiton, R.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Valtchanov, I.

    2011-11-01

    -interacting galaxies. Conclusions: Our results suggest that galaxy-galaxy interactions and mergers have been strongly affecting the SFR and the dust properties of star-forming galaxies over at least 8 billion years.

  16. On the Triggering Mechanisms of Bright Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; ALESS and ALMA-S2CLS Consortia

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the physical processes that cause the extreme star formation in bright submillimeter galaxies provides essential constraints to models of galaxy formation and evolution. The outstanding issue of whether the high star formation rate of up to 1000 M⊙ yr-1 in bright submillimeter galaxies is triggered by rapidly evolving major merger events, or a consequence of violent disk instability, is still under debated. Here I present recent work on the measurements of size and morphology of the stellar distributions on a sample of ALMA-detected SMGs in ECDF-S field. Combined with the measurements of the size and morphology of the dust distributions, our results favour the scenario that most bright submillimeter galaxies are going through the processes of major merger.

  17. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  18. The dynamics of the merger in the Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, Matt S.

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will present results from a combined analysis of deep Chandra X-ray observations and a comprehensive redshift survey of the frontier field cluster A2744. From the redshift information, 343 cluster members are selected which are projected within 3 Mpc of the cluster center. Combining positions and velocities, two major substructures are identified, corresponding to the remnants of two major subclusters. The data are consistent with a post-core-passage, major merger taking place along an axis that is tilted well out of the plane of the sky, together with an interloping minor merger. Supporting this interpretation, the X-ray data reveal enriched, low entropy gas from the core of the approaching, major subcluster, lying ~2 north of the cluster center, and a shock front to the southeast of the previously known bright, compact core associated with the receding subcluster. The X-ray morphology of the compact core is consistent with a Bullet-like cluster viewed from within ~45 degrees of the merger axis. An X-ray peak ~3 arcminutes northwest of the cluster center, with an associated cold front to the northeast and a trail of low entropy gas to the south, is interpreted as the remnant of an interloping minor merger taking place roughly in the plane of the sky. The new data taken for the Frontier Fields has allowed precise measurements of the peaks in the projected mass distribution. I will discuss these new results in the context of our redshift and X-ray information and our inferred merger scenario. I will also present preliminary results on the impact of the merger on the galaxy populations bsed on our spectroscopy.

  19. The NGC 7771+NGC 7770 minor merger: harassing the little one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rosales-Ortega, F. Fabián.; Sánchez, Sebastián. F.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Díaz, Ángeles I.

    2012-09-01

    Numerical simulations of minor mergers, typically having mass ratios greater than 3:1, predict little enhancement in the global star formation activity. However, these models also predict that the satellite galaxy is more susceptible to the effects of the interaction than the primary. We use optical integral field spectroscopy and deep optical imaging to study the NGC 7771+NGC 7770 interacting system (˜10:1 stellar mass ratio) to test these predictions. We find that the satellite galaxy NGC 7770 is currently experiencing a galaxy-wide starburst with most of the optical light being from young and post-starburst stellar populations (<1 Gyr). This galaxy lies off the local star-forming sequence for composite galaxies with an enhanced integrated specific star formation rate. We also detect in the outskirts of NGC 7770 Hα emitting gas filaments. This gas appears to have been stripped from one of the two galaxies and is being excited by shocks. All these results are consistent with a minor-merger-induced episode(s) of star formation in NGC 7770 after the first close passage. Such effects are not observed on the primary galaxy NGC 7771. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). The data presented here were obtained (in part) with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA.

  20. The role of interactions in triggering bars, spiral arms and AGN in disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Preethi; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of secular structures like bars, rings and spiral arms in triggering star formation and AGN activity in disk galaxies are not well understood. In addition, the mechanisms which create and destroy these structures are not well characterized. Mergers are considered to be one of the main mechanisms which can trigger bars in massive disk galaxies. Using a sample of ~8000 close pair galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.06 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, I will present results illustrating the role of mergers in triggering bars, rings, spiral arms and AGN as a function of close pair separation and merger ratios as well as their dependence on morphology and other physical properties of the galaxies. Time permitting, I will show how resolved IFU observations from SDSS MaNGA will help to place stronger constraints on the role of these structures in triggering star formation and AGN.

  1. Merger Activity and Radio Emission Within A2061

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Avery; Sarazin, Craig L.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Chatzikos, Marios; Hogge, Taylor; Wik, Daniel R.; Rudnick, Lawrence; Farnsworth, Damon; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Brown, Shea

    2015-01-01

    Abell 2061 is a galaxy cluster located in the Corona Borealis Supercluster that boasts radio and X-ray structures indicative of a merger. A2061 is located at a redshift z = .0784, contains two brightest cluster galaxies, and has another cluster (A2067) about 2.5 Mpc to the NE, falling towards it. Within A2061, there exists an elongated structure of soft X-ray emission extending to the NE of cluster's center (referred to as the 'Plume') along with a hard X-ray shock region (the 'Shock') located just NE of the cluster's center. Previous observations in the radio have indicated the presence of a extended, central radio halo/relic accompanying the cluster's main X-ray emission but with slight NE displacement and further NE extension. Also emitting in the radio, to the SW of A2061, is a radio relic. The X-ray structures of A2061 were previously examined in 2009 by a Chandra observation. Here we present the results of an August 2013 XMM-Newton observation of the cluster. This XMM-Newton observation, imaged by three detectors, covers a greater field of view with a longer exposure (48.6 ks) than the previous Chandra observation. We will present images and spectra of various regions of the cluster. In addition, we will discuss the dynamics of the cluster, the nature of the Plume, Shock and other features, and origin of the central diffuse radio halo/relic and SW radio relic. These X-ray observations will also be compared to a numerical simulation from the Simulation Library of Astrophysics cluster Mergers (SLAM).

  2. Galaxy simulations: Kinematics and mock observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Christopher E.

    2013-08-01

    There are six topics to my thesis, which are: (1) slow rotator production in varied simulation schemes and kinematically decoupled cores and twists in those simulations, (2) the change in number of clumps in radiation pressure and no-radiation pressure simulations, (3) Sunrise experiments and failures including UVJ color-color dust experiments and UVbeta slopes, (4) the Sunrise image pipeline and algorithms. Cosmological simulations of have typically produced too many stars at early times. We find that the additional radiation pressure (RP) feedback suppresses star formation globally by a factor of ~ 3. Despite this reduction, the simulation still overproduces stars by a factor of ~ 2 with respect to the predictions provided by abundance matching methods. In simulations with RP the number of clumps falls dramatically. However, only clumps with masses Mclump/Mdisk ≤ 8% are impacted by the inclusion of RP, and clump counts above this range are comparable. Above this mass, the difference between and RP and no-RP contrast ratios diminishes. If we restrict our selection to galaxies hosting at least a single clump above this mass range then clump numbers, contrast ratios, survival fractions and total clump masses show little discrepancy between RP and no-RP simulations. By creating mock Hubble Space Telescope observations we find that the number of clumps is slightly reduced in simulations with RP. We demonstrate that clumps found in any single gas, stellar, or mock observation image are not necessarily clumps found in another map, and that there are few clumps common to multiple maps. New kinematic observations from ATLAS3D have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanism leading to a spectrum of fast-rotator and slow-rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamic simulations sampling idealized galaxy merger formation scenarios constructed from model

  3. The Magnesium-Velocity Dispersion Relation and the Genesis of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Collobert, Maela

    2003-03-01

    Available data on the magnesium-velocity dispersion (Mg-σ) relation for ~2000 early-type galaxies is analyzed. As noted previously, the Mg residuals from a fitted line are roughly Gaussian near the median but have an asymmetric blue tail, probably from subpopulations of relatively young stars. We define statistics for scatter and asymmetry of scatter in the Mg dimension and find impressive uniformity among data sets. We construct models of galaxy formation built to be as unbiased as possible toward the question of the importance of mergers in the formation of early-type galaxies. The observational constraints (Mg-σ width, asymmetry, and mean Mg strength, plus mean age and width of abundance distribution) are severe enough to eliminate almost all models. Eliminated are models with merger rates proportional to (1+z)n with n>0, models that assume early formation followed by recent drizzling of new stars, merger-only models in which the number of mergers exceeds ~80, merger-only models with less than ~20 mergers, and models with a cold dark matter power spectrum (at least within our approximations). The most successful models were those with merger probability constant or mildly declining with time, with the number of mergers needed to form the galaxy around 50 and gas fractions of ~0.2-0.35. These models are characterized by mean light-weighted ages of 8-9 Gyr (consistent with spectroscopic studies), an abundance distribution that does not exceed local constraints, and a look-back time behavior nearly indistinguishable from passive evolution of old stellar populations. Our simulations suggest that the evolution of median Mg index strength is not a good discriminator between mergers and passive evolution and that better discriminators such as Mg-σ scatter and asymmetry require N>1000 sample sizes with accuracies similar to today's local measurements.

  4. 12 CFR 708b.103 - Preparation of merger plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of merger plan. 708b.103 Section 708b.103 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MERGERS OF FEDERALLY-INSURED CREDIT UNIONS; VOLUNTARY TERMINATION OR CONVERSION OF INSURED STATUS Mergers § 708b.103 Preparation of merger plan....

  5. 12 CFR 708b.103 - Preparation of merger plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of merger plan. 708b.103 Section 708b.103 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MERGERS OF FEDERALLY-INSURED CREDIT UNIONS; VOLUNTARY TERMINATION OR CONVERSION OF INSURED STATUS Mergers § 708b.103 Preparation of merger plan....

  6. GALAXY GROWTH BY MERGING IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Tao; Hogg, David W.; Blanton, Michael R.

    2012-11-10

    We measure the mass growth rate by merging for a wide range of galaxy types. We present the small-scale (0.014 h {sup -1} {sub 70} Mpc < r < 11 h {sub 70} {sup -1} Mpc) projected cross-correlation functions w(r {sub p}) of galaxy subsamples from the spectroscopic sample of the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} galaxies of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.15) with galaxy subsamples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} galaxies). We use smooth fits to de-project the two-dimensional functions w(r {sub p}) to obtain smooth three-dimensional real-space cross-correlation functions {xi}(r) for each of several spectroscopic subsamples with each of several imaging subsamples. Because close pairs are expected to merge, the three-space functions and dynamical evolution time estimates provide galaxy accretion rates. We find that the accretion onto massive blue galaxies and onto red galaxies is dominated by red companions, and that onto small-mass blue galaxies, red and blue galaxies make comparable contributions. We integrate over all types of companions and find that at fixed stellar mass, the total fractional accretion rates onto red galaxies ({approx}3 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr) are greater than that onto blue galaxies ({approx}1 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr). These rates are almost certainly overestimates because we have assumed that all close pairs merge as quickly as the merger time that we used. One conclusion of this work is that if the total growth of red galaxies from z = 1 to z = 0 is mainly due to merging, the merger rates must have been higher in the past.

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Megan; Secrest, N.; Satyapal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) one million to a few billion times the mass of our sun are thought to reside in the center of most, if not all, bulge-dominated galaxies. It has been observed that the mass of these SMBHs is strongly correlated with the mass of these bulges, leading to the popular view that these central black holes are formed by galaxy mergers, which induce the growth of the galaxy's bulge and provide matter with which to feed the black hole. Although these properties and their possible consequences have been studied extensively in high mass galaxies and galaxies with large bulges, there is very little research on the possible existence and subsequent properties of SMBHs in low mass galaxies or galaxies with small or no central bulges. This is a significant weakness in the research of these objects as the study of this population of galaxies would allow us to gain valuable insight into SMBH seeds, black holes thought to have formed in the early universe. Strong X-rays are a good indicator of an accreting black hole, because they require more energy to produce and SMBHs are highly energetic, as well as being easier to see due to their ability to penetrate matter more easily than other forms of radiation. In this poster, I will present the results from an X-ray investigation using data matched from the Chandra X-ray observatory to a sample of low mass galaxies (with a mass of log(M) < 9).

  8. Galaxies in extreme environments: Isolated galaxies versus compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbala, Adriana

    2009-06-01

    . In spite of long standing theoretical predictions of a major merger of the galaxy members into a giant one, we find evidence that compact groups are in fact long-lived and form by sequential acquisition of galaxies, coalescing via slow dissolution.

  9. Simulations of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patick; Staff, Jan; Marcello, Dominic; Clayton, Geoffrey; Frank, Juhan

    2016-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of double white dwarf mergers initiated by mass transfer instability. In particular, we are interested in the possible connection between such double degenerate mergers and the peculiar irregular variable R Corona Borealis stars. For the merger of a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf with a Helium white dwarf, the degree to which Carbon from the accreting star is dredged up plays a crucial role in the appearance of the rejuvenated, merged object. We explore the amount of dredge up in the accreting star and its influence in stellar evolution models initialized from the merged object resulting from dynamical evolutions.

  10. The rest-frame optical morphology of starburst galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bomee; Giavalisco, Mauro; Candels, Goods-Hershcel

    2015-01-01

    Using CANDELS combined with GOODS-Herschel in the GOODS-North and South field, we investigate the rest-frame optical morphologies of starburst galaxies at 1 We compare morphologies of MS and SB galaxies using non-parametric (Sersic Index) and parametric measures as well as the visual identification. FIR luminous starburst galaxies are usually interpreted as major wet mergers. We find that the average morphologies of SB galaxies are disky and generally have much more diffuse optical light profile than massive compact early-type galaxies (ETGs), challenging gas-rich merging as the primary dissipative mechanism to assemble very compact, massive galaxies. We find that the sizes of the SB galaxies are clearly larger than those of the MS galaxies on average. NIR to MIR colors of starburst galaxies show no evidence of highly dust-obscured compact component, which could eventually emerge as the massive compact core. Very compact SB galaxies are rather rare, and hence even from a statistical standpoint, our morphological analysis of starburst galaxies does not support the popular mechanism that powerful starburst in a highly dissipative wet merger of gas-rich disks, and subsequent quenching, is the key driver behind the formation of the massive, compact early-type galaxies observed at z~2. The light distribution of the bulk of stars in starburst galaxies is simply not compact enough to eventually evolve into the massive ultra compact ETGs at high redshift universe.

  11. Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-hole Merger GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively “heavy” BHs (≳ 25 {M}⊙ ) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 1/2 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (≳ 1 Gpc-3 yr-1) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z≃ 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.

  12. Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-hole Merger GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D’Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively “heavy” BHs (≳ 25 {M}ȯ ) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 1/2 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (≳ 1 Gpc‑3 yr‑1) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z≃ 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.

  13. Mergers and acquistions of 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kales, David

    1992-05-01

    When I went back and started to track the industry for the last year, we see a tremendous amount of acquisitions and mergers. Tremendous amount of startups which by the way has a very good side to the recession, which I'll speak to. And reorganization which is also maybe a euphemism for restructuring, downsizing. As Gary mentioned, these trends were well underway before the recession, but certainly in 1991 we saw the acceleration of this, primarily from government defense cutbacks, which again have been accelerated by the end of the Cold War. We also have the restructuring which has been going on for several years because of the heightened global competition. And the third thing, of course, it's all come together with all recession.

  14. Can this merger be saved?

    PubMed

    Cliffe, S

    1999-01-01

    In this fictional case study, a merger that looked like a marriage made in heaven to those at corporate headquarters is feeling like an infernal union to those on the ground. The merger is between Synergon Capital, a U.S. financial-services behemoth, and Beauchamp, Becker & Company, a venerable British financial-services company with strong profits and an extraordinarily loyal client base of wealthy individuals. Beauchamp also boasts a strong group of senior managers led by Julian Mansfield, a highly cultured and beloved patriarch who personifies all that's good about the company. Synergon isn't accustomed to acquiring such companies. It usually encircles a poorly managed turnaround candidate and then, once the deal is done, drops a neutron bomb on it, leaving file cabinets and contracts but no people. Before acquiring Beauchamp, Synergon's macho men offered loud assurances that they would leave the tradition-bound company alone-provided, of course, that Beauchamp met the ambitious target numbers and showed sufficient enthusiasm for cross-selling Synergon's products to its wealthy clients. In charge of making the acquisition work is Nick Cunningham, one of Synergon's more thoughtful executives. Nick, who was against the deal from the start, is the face and voice of Synergon for Julian Mansfield. And Mansfield, in his restrained way, is angry at the constant flow of bureaucratic forms, at the rude demands for instant information, at the peremptory changes. He's even dropping broad hints at retirement. Nick has already been warned: if Mansfield goes, you go. Six commentators advise Nick on how to save his job by bringing peace and prosperity to the feuding couple. PMID:10345391

  15. A Case Study for a Tidal Interaction between Dwarf Galaxies in UGC 6741

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, P. A.; Ree, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    We present a case study of the tidal interaction between low-mass star-forming galaxies initially found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and further analyzed with SDSS spectroscopy and UV GALEX photometry. With a luminosity of Mr = -17.7 mag and exhibiting a prominent tidal filament, UGC 6741 appears as a scaled down version of massive gas-rich interacting systems and mergers. The stellar disk of the smaller companion, UGC 6741_B, which is three times less massive, has likely already been destroyed. Both galaxies, which are connected by a 15 kpc long stellar bridge, have similar oxygen abundances of 12 +log(O/H)˜8.3. Several knots of star-forming regions are identified along the bridge, some with masses exceeding ˜107 M ⊙ . The most compact of them, which are unresolved, may evolve into globular clusters or ultra compact dwarf galaxies. This would be the first time progenitors of such objects are detected in mergers involving dwarf galaxies. UGC 6741 currently has the color and star formation properties of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). However, analysis of its surface photometry suggests that the galaxy lies within the scaling relations defined by early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs). Thus, UGC 6741 appears as a promising system for studying the possible transformation of BCDs into dEs, possibly through a merger episode. The frequency of such dwarf-dwarf mergers should now be explored.

  16. ON THE TRANSITION FROM NUCLEAR-CLUSTER- TO BLACK-HOLE-DOMINATED GALAXY CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji; Graham, Alister W.

    2010-05-10

    Giant elliptical galaxies, believed to be built from the merger of lesser galaxies, are known to house a massive black hole (MBH) at their center rather than a compact star cluster. If low- and intermediate-mass galaxies do indeed partake in the hierarchical merger scenario, then one needs to explain why their dense nuclear star clusters are not preserved in merger events. A valuable clue may be the recent revelation that nuclear star clusters and MBHs frequently co-exist in intermediate-mass bulges and elliptical galaxies. In an effort to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the disappearance of nuclear star clusters, we have numerically investigated the evolution of merging star clusters with seed BHs. Using BHs that are 1%-5% of their host nuclear cluster mass, we reveal how their binary coalescence during a merger dynamically heats the newly wed star cluster, expanding it, significantly lowering its central stellar density, and thus making it susceptible to tidal destruction during galaxy merging. Moreover, this mechanism provides a pathway to explain the observed reduction in the nucleus-to-galaxy stellar mass ratio as one proceeds from dwarf to giant elliptical galaxies.

  17. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Micic, Miroslav; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Abel, Tom; /SLAC

    2007-10-29

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses - from seed black holes to SMBHs - over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of a Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M{sub SMBH}={approx}10{sup 6}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z{approx}6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R{sub max}=55 yr{sup -1} at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N{sub ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6.

  18. Disk minor merger as the progenitor of the Andromeda giant stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu

    2015-08-01

    Recent works have performed N -body simulations of a galaxy collision to reproduce observed shape and kinematics of a giant stellar stream (GSS) and shell-like structures in the halo of Andromeda galaxy (M31). So far, the study of the detailed comparison between the results of merger simulations and the observational data, M31's potential, orbit of the progenitor, and mass of the progenitor have been well understood. However, the morphology of the progenitor satellite galaxy has not yet examined in detail.Our simple analysis of the stellar count maps of red giant branch stars in the halo of M31 reveals an asymmetric internal structure of the giant stellar stream that can not be reproduced by a merger of a spherical symmetric progenitor. To reproduce such characteristic structure and to investigate the morphology of the disrupted progenitor, we perform N -body simulations and systematic parameter surveys varying the thickness of the disk progenitor and initial inclination of its disk. Our result suggests that a rotating component of the progenitor is required to reproduce an asymmetric internal structure of the GSS. Using the parameter that reproduces the observed structures in detail, we discuss the evolution and relaxation of the dark matter component that initially associated with the progenitor.In addition, we focus on the GSS as a probe of the density profile of the dark matter halo of M31 because the GSS is a huge structure (over 120 kpc) and its spatial and velocity structure have been observed in detail. We perform N -body simulation runs of the galaxy merger varying the power-law index of the outer-density profile and the total mass of the CDM halo of M31. The result suggests that a power-law index that is steeper than the CDM prediction.

  19. Stormy weather in galaxy clusters

    PubMed

    Burns

    1998-04-17

    Recent x-ray, optical, and radio observations coupled with particle and gas dynamics numerical simulations reveal an unexpectedly complex environment within clusters of galaxies, driven by ongoing accretion of matter from large-scale supercluster filaments. Mergers between clusters and continuous infall of dark matter and baryons from the cluster periphery produce long-lived "stormy weather" within the gaseous cluster atmosphere-shocks, turbulence, and winds of more than 1000 kilometers per second. This weather may be responsible for shaping a rich variety of extended radio sources, which in turn act as "barometers" and "anemometers" of cluster weather. PMID:9545210

  20. AEGIS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF GREEN GALAXIES AT 0.4 < z < 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Alexander J.; Coil, Alison L.; Moustakas, John; Lotz, Jennifer; Salim, Samir; Simard, Luc

    2011-08-01

    We present quantitative morphologies of {approx}300 galaxies in the optically defined green valley at 0.4 < z < 1.2, in order to constrain the mechanism(s) responsible for quenching star formation in the bulk of this population. The sample is selected from galaxies in the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). While the green valley is defined using optical U - B colors, we find that using a green valley sample defined using NUV - R colors does not change the results. Using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we study several quantitative morphological parameters including CAS, B/T from GIM2D, and Gini/M{sub 20}. We find that the green galaxy population is intermediate between the red and blue galaxy populations in terms of concentration, asymmetry, and morphological type and merger fraction estimated using Gini/M{sub 20}. We find that most green galaxies are not classified as mergers; in fact, the merger fraction in the green valley is lower than in the blue cloud. We show that at a given stellar mass, green galaxies have higher concentration values than blue galaxies and lower concentration values than red galaxies. Additionally, we find that 12% of green galaxies have B/T = 0 and 21% have B/T {<=} 0.05. Our results show that green galaxies are generally massive (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}) disk galaxies with high concentrations. We conclude that major mergers are likely not the sole mechanism responsible for quenching star formation in this population and that either other external processes or internal secular processes play an important role both in driving gas toward the center of these galaxies and in quenching star formation.

  1. Disk dwarf galaxy as the progenitor of the Andromeda giant stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of the morphology of a progenitor galaxy that has been disrupted and formed a giant southern stellar stream in the halo of Andromeda galaxy(M31). N-body simulations of a minor merger of M31 with a dwarf galaxy suggest that the progenitor's rotation plays an important role in the formation of an asymmetric surface brightness distribution of the stream.

  2. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  3. The impact of mechanical AGN feedback on the formation of massive early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Moster, Benjamin P.

    2015-06-01

    We employ cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the formation of massive galaxies with present-day stellar masses of M_stel= 8.8 × 10^{10}-6.0 × 10^{11} M_{⊙}. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with a pressure-entropy formulation that allows an improved treatment of contact discontinuities and fluid mixing, we run three sets of simulations of 20 haloes with different AGN feedback models: (1) no feedback, (2) thermal feedback, and (3) mechanical and radiation feedback. We assume that seed black holes are present at early cosmic epochs at the centre of emerging dark matter haloes and trace their mass growth via gas accretion and mergers with other black holes. Both feedback models successfully recover the observed MBH-σ relation and black hole-to-stellar mass ratio for simulated central early-type galaxies. The baryonic conversion efficiencies are reduced by a factor of 2 compared to models without any AGN feedback at all halo masses. However, massive galaxies simulated with thermal AGN feedback show a factor of ˜10-100 higher X-ray luminosities than observed. The mechanical/radiation feedback model reproduces the observed correlation between X-ray luminosities and velocity dispersion, e.g. for galaxies with σ = 200 km s- 1, the X-ray luminosity is reduced from 1042 erg s- 1 to 1040 erg s- 1. It also efficiently suppresses late-time star formation, reducing the specific star formation rate from 10-10.5 yr- 1 to 10-14 yr- 1 on average and resulting in quiescent galaxies since z = 2, whereas the thermal feedback model shows higher late-time in situ star formation rates than observed.

  4. Discovery of rare double-lobe radio galaxies hosted in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veeresh; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Sievers, Jonathan; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Hilton, Matt; Beelen, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    Double-lobe radio galaxies in the local Universe have traditionally been found to be hosted in elliptical or lenticular galaxies. We report the discovery of four spiral-host double-lobe radio galaxies (J0836+0532, J1159+5820, J1352+3126, and J1649+2635) that are discovered by cross-matching a large sample of 187 005 spiral galaxies from SDSS DR7 (Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7) to the full catalogues of FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) and NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey). J0836+0532 is reported for the first time. The host galaxies are forming stars at an average rate of 1.7-10 M⊙ yr-1 and possess supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses of a few times 108 M⊙. Their radio morphologies are similar to Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies with total projected linear sizes ranging from 86 to 420 kpc, but their total 1.4-GHz radio luminosities are only in the range 1024-1025 W Hz-1. We propose that the formation of spiral-host double-lobe radio galaxies can be attributed to more than one factor, such as the occurrence of strong interactions, mergers, and the presence of unusually massive SMBHs, such that the spiral structures are not destroyed. Only one of our sources (J1649+2635) is found in a cluster environment, indicating that processes other than accretion through cooling flows e.g. galaxy-galaxy mergers or interactions could be plausible scenarios for triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei activity in spiral galaxies.

  5. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: Public release of halo and galaxy catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, S.; Helly, J. C.; Schaller, M.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Frenk, C. S.; McCarthy, I. G.; Jenkins, A.; Rosas-Guevara, Y.; White, S. D. M.; Baes, M.; Camps, P.; Lemson, G.

    2016-04-01

    We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass-stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data have been used to link galaxies across redshifts by creating merger trees. The indexing of the tree produces a simple way to connect a galaxy at one redshift to its progenitors at higher redshift and to identify its descendants at lower redshift. In this paper we present a relational database which we are making available for general use. A large number of properties of haloes and galaxies and their merger trees are stored in the database, including stellar masses, star formation rates, metallicities, photometric measurements and mock gri images. Complex queries can be created to explore the evolution of more than 105 galaxies, examples of which are provided in the Appendix. The relatively good and broad agreement of the simulations with a wide range of observational datasets makes the database an ideal resource for the analysis of model galaxies through time, and for connecting and interpreting observational datasets.

  6. The Evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Chiara; Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from redshift z ~ 1.6 to z = 0. We upgrade the hierarchical semi-analytic model of Croton et al. with a new spectro-photometric model that produces realistic galaxy spectra, making use of the Maraston stellar populations and a new recipe for the dust extinction. We compare the model predictions of the K-band luminosity evolution and the J - K, V - I, and I - K color evolution with a series of data sets, including those of Collins et al. who argued that semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation cannot reproduce the red colors and high luminosity of BCGs at z > 1. We show instead that the model is well in range of the observed luminosity and correctly reproduces the color evolution of BCGs in the whole redshift range up to z ~ 1.6. We argue that the success of the semi-analytic model is in large part due to the implementation of a more sophisticated spectro-photometric model. An analysis of the model BCGs shows an increase in mass by a factor of 2-3 since z ~ 1, and star formation activity down to low redshifts. While the consensus regarding BCGs is that they are passively evolving, we argue that this conclusion is affected by the degeneracy between star formation history and stellar population models used in spectral energy distribution fitting, and by the inefficacy of toy models of passive evolution to capture the complexity of real galaxies, especially those with rich merger histories lik