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1

New algorithms for mixed-integer dynamic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed-integer dynamic optimization (MIDO) problems arise in chemical engineering whenever discrete and continuous decisions are to be made for a system described by a transient model. Areas of application include integrated design and control, synthesis of reactor networks, reduction of kinetic mechanisms and optimization of hybrid systems. This article presents new formulations and algorithms for solving MIDO problems. The algorithms

Vikrant Bansal; Vassilis Sakizlis; Roderick Ross; John D. Perkins; Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos

2003-01-01

2

Optimizing nuclear power plant refueling with mixed-integer programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem addressed here is scheduling the shutdown for refueling and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The models have up to four reactors requiring of the order of five shutdowns each over a five-year time horizon. The resulting mixed-integer program is large and complex with interesting structure. We show good results using a mixed-integer optimizer taking advantage of a strong

Fabrice Fourcade; Ellis Johnson; Mourad Bara; Philippe Cortey-Dumont

1997-01-01

3

Mixed integer model for optimizing equipment scheduling and overburden transport in a surface coal mining operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of available techniques prompted the development of a mixed integer model to optimize the scheduling of equipment and the distribution of overburden in a typical mountaintop removal operation. Using this format, a (0-1) integer model and transportation model were constructed to determine the optimal equipment schedule and optimal overburden distribution, respectively. To solve this mixed integer program, the

G. V. R

1987-01-01

4

Mixed integer model for optimizing equipment scheduling and overburden transport in a surface coal mining operation  

SciTech Connect

The lack of available techniques prompted the development of a mixed integer model to optimize the scheduling of equipment and the distribution of overburden in a typical mountaintop removal operation. Using this format, a (0-1) integer model and transportation model were constructed to determine the optimal equipment schedule and optimal overburden distribution, respectively. To solve this mixed integer program, the model was partitioned into its binary and real-valued components. Each problem was successively solved and their values added to form estimates of the value of the mixed integer program. Optimal convergence was indicated when the difference between two successive estimates satisfied some pre-specific accuracy value. The performance of the mixed integer model was tested against actual field data to determine its practical applications. To provide the necessary input information, production data was obtained from a single seam, mountaintop removal operation located in the Appalachian coal field. As a means of analyzing the resultant equipment schedule, the total idle time was calculated for each machine type and each lift location. Also, the final overburden assignments were analyzed by determining the distribution of spoil material for various overburden removal productivities. Subsequent validation of the mixed integer model was conducted in two distinct areas. The first dealt with changes in algorithmic data and their effects on the optimality of the model. The second area concerned variations in problem structure, specifically those dealing with changes in problem size and other user-inputed values such as equipment productivities or required reclamation.

Goodman, G.V.R.

1987-01-01

5

Constrained optimal power flow by mixed-integer particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient mixed-integer particle swarm optimization (MIPSO) for solving the constrained optimal power flow (OPF) with a mixture of continuous and discrete control variables and discontinuous fuel cost functions. In the MIPSO-based method, the individual that contains the real-value mixture of continuous and discrete control variables is defined, two mutation schemes are proposed to deal with the

Zwe-lee Gaing

2005-01-01

6

Optimal Placement of SVC Based on Line Flow Base Equation Using Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a novel approach to determine optimal location, number and initial compensation level of the SVC in a power system is presented. Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) is used for this purpose as a useful technique for combinatorial optimization over integers and variables. This technique can provide a fast approach as well as high computational efficiency even in

Reza Etemad; Reza Navabi; H. A. Shayanfar

2010-01-01

7

Developing Genetic Algorithms and Mixed Integer Linear Programs for Finding Optimal Strategies for a Student's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important advantage of genetic algorithms (GAs) are their ease of use, their wide applicability, and their good performance for a wide range of different problems. GAs are able to find good solutions for many problems even if the problem is complicated and its properties are not well known. In contrast, classical optimization approaches like linear programming or mixed integer

Thomas Butter; Franz Rothlauf; Jorn Grahl; Tobias Hildenbrand; Jens Arndt

8

A coupled gradient network approach for static and temporal mixed integer optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to utilize the ideas of artificial neural networks to propose new solution methods for a class of constrained mixed-integer optimization problems. These new solution methods are more suitable to parallel implementation than the usual sequential methods of mathematical programming. Another attractive feature of the proposed approach is that some mechanisms of global search may

Paul Benedict Watta

1994-01-01

9

Optimal Methodology for the Grounding Systems Design in Transmission Line Using Mixed-integer Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel optimization methodology is proposed for the design of transmission line grounding systems, taking into account technical and economical considerations. The grounding systems design of transmission lines is stated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem, in terms of the construction characteristics, and the particular requirements of the tower grounding schemes at the supports of each different line sections in

H. M. Khodr

2009-01-01

10

Hybrid System Analysis and Control via Mixed Integer Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses a framework for modeling, analyzing and controlling systems whose behavior is governed by interde- pendent physical laws, logic rules, and operating constraints, denoted as Mixed Logical Dynamical (MLD) systems. They are described by linear dynamic equations subject to linear inequalities involving real and integer variables. MLD models are equivalent to various other system descriptions like Piece Wise

Manfred Morari

11

Mixed integer programming approach to optimal short-term unit commitment for hydropower systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unit commitment problem is a complex decision-making process which involves the scheduling of generators over a set of time\\u000a periods to satisfy system load demand, water demand, system reliability, operational, and security constraints. Mathematically,\\u000a this is a nonlinear, nonconvex, high dimensional, and large-scale optimization problem over mixed integer variables. Additionally,\\u000a for a short-term unit commitment problem such as hourly or

Jaeeung Yi

1998-01-01

12

Optimal VAr planning by approximation method for recursive mixed-integer linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose an algorithm for solving reactive power planning problems. The optimization approach is based on a recursive mixed-integer programming technique using an approximation method. A fundamental feature of this algorithm is that the number of capacitor or reactor units can be treated as a discrete variable in solving large-scale VAr (volt-ampere reactive) planning problems. Numerical results have verified

K. Aoki; M. Fan; A. Nishikori

1988-01-01

13

Security-constrained optimal power flow by mixed-integer genetic algorithm with arithmetic operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient real-coded mixed-integer genetic algorithm (MIGA) for solving non-convex optimal power flow (OPF) problems with considering transmission security and bus voltage constraints for practical application. In the MIGA method, the individual is the real-coded representation that contains a mixture of continuous and discrete control variables, and two arithmetic crossover and mutation schemes are proposed to deal

Zwe-Lee Gaing; Rung-Fang Chang

2006-01-01

14

Real-coded mixed-integer genetic algorithm for constrained optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient real-coded mixed-integer genetic algorithm (MIGA) for solving non-convex optimal power flow (OPF) problems. In the MIGA method, the individual is the real-coded representation that contains a mixture of continuous and discrete control variables, and two arithmetic mutation schemes are proposed to deaf with continuous\\/discrete control variables, respectively. Simultaneously, because the length of the individual is

Zwe-Lee Gaing; Hou-Sheng Huang

2004-01-01

15

Optimization of a wood dryer kiln using the mixed integer programming technique: A case study  

SciTech Connect

When wood is to be utilized as a raw material for furniture, buildings, etc., it must be dried from approximately 100% to 6% moisture content. This is achieved at least partly in a drying kiln. Heat for this purpose is provided by electrical means, or by steam from boilers fired with wood chips or oil. By making a close examination of monitored values from an actual drying kiln it has been possible to optimize the use of steam and electricity using the so called mixed integer programming technique. Owing to the operating schedule for the drying kiln it has been necessary to divide the drying process in very short time intervals, i.e., a number of minutes. Since a drying cycle takes about two or three weeks, a considerable mathematical problem is presented and this has to be solved.

Gustafsson, S.I. [Inst. of Tech., Linkoeping (Sweden). IKP Wood Science Technology and Energy Systems

1999-07-01

16

Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added to the pultrusion domain of a composite part and thermal contact resistance (TCR) regions at the die-part interface are defined. Two optimization case studies are performed on this new configuration. In the first one, optimal die radius and TCR values are found by using a hybrid genetic algorithm based on a sequential combination of a genetic algorithm (GA) and a local search technique to fit the centerline temperature of the composite with the one calculated in the validation case. In the second optimization study, the productivity of the process is improved by using a mixed integer genetic algorithm (MIGA) such that the total number of heaters is minimized while satisfying the constraints for the maximum composite temperature, the mean of the cure degree at the die exit and the pulling speed.

Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

2013-08-01

17

Mixed integer programming improves comprehensibility and plan quality in inverse optimization of prostate HDR brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Current inverse treatment planning methods that optimize both catheter positions and dwell times in prostate HDR brachytherapy use surrogate linear or quadratic objective functions that have no direct interpretation in terms of dose-volume histogram (DVH) criteria, do not result in an optimum or have long solution times. We decrease the solution time of the existing linear and quadratic dose-based programming models (LP and QP, respectively) to allow optimizing over potential catheter positions using mixed integer programming. An additional average speed-up of 75% can be obtained by stopping the solver at an early stage, without deterioration of the plan quality. For a fixed catheter configuration, the dwell time optimization model LP solves to optimality in less than 15 s, which confirms earlier results. We propose an iterative procedure for QP that allows us to prescribe the target dose as an interval, while retaining independence between the solution time and the number of dose calculation points. This iterative procedure is comparable in speed to the LP model and produces better plans than the non-iterative QP. We formulate a new dose-volume-based model that maximizes V(100%) while satisfying pre-set DVH criteria. This model optimizes both catheter positions and dwell times within a few minutes depending on prostate volume and number of catheters, optimizes dwell times within 35 s and gives better DVH statistics than dose-based models. The solutions suggest that the correlation between the objective value and the clinical plan quality is weak in the existing dose-based models. PMID:23363622

Gorissen, Bram L; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L

2013-01-31

18

Mixed integer programming model for optimizing the layout of an ICU vehicle  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model for designing the layout of the Intensive Care Units' (ICUs) patient care space. In particular, this MIP model was developed for optimizing the layout for materials to be used in interventions. This work was developed within the framework of a joint project between the Madrid Technical Unverstity and the Medical Emergency Services of the Madrid Regional Government (SUMMA 112). Methods The first task was to identify the relevant information to define the characteristics of the new vehicles and, in particular, to obtain a satisfactory interior layout to locate all the necessary materials. This information was gathered from health workers related to ICUs. With that information an optimization model was developed in order to obtain a solution. From the MIP model, a first solution was obtained, consisting of a grid to locate the different materials needed for the ICUs. The outcome from the MIP model was discussed with health workers to tune the solution, and after slightly altering that solution to meet some requirements that had not been included in the mathematical model, the eventual solution was approved by the persons responsible for specifying the characteristics of the new vehicles. According to the opinion stated by the SUMMA 112's medical group responsible for improving the ambulances (the so-called "coaching group"), the outcome was highly satisfactory. Indeed, the final design served as a basis to draw up the requirements of a public tender. Results As a result from solving the Optimization model, a grid was obtained to locate the different necessary materials for the ICUs. This grid had to be slightly altered to meet some requirements that had not been included in the mathematical model. The results were discussed with the persons responsible for specifying the characteristics of the new vehicles. Conclusion The outcome was highly satisfactory. Indeed, the final design served as a basis to draw up the requirements of a public tender. The authors advocate this approach to address similar problems within the field of Health Services to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the processes involved. Problems such as those in operation rooms or emergency rooms, where the availability of a large amount of material is critical are eligible to be dealt with in a simmilar manner.

2009-01-01

19

Traffic Network Control Based on Hybrid Dynamical System Modeling and Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming With Convexity Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new framework for traffic flow control based on an integrated model description by means of a hybrid dynamical system. The geometrical information on the traffic network is characterized by a hybrid Petri net (HPN). Then, the algebraic behavior of the traffic flow is transformed into a mixed logical dynamical system (MLDS) form to introduce an optimization

Youngwoo Kim; Tatsuya Kato; Shigeru Okuma; Tatsuo Narikiyo

2008-01-01

20

Forestry production and logistics planning: an analysis using mixed-integer programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a mathematical model for the problem of production and logistics in the forest industry. Specifically, a dynamic model of mixed-integer programming was formulated to solve three common problems in the forest sector: forest production, forest facilities location and forest freight distribution. The implemented mathematical model allows the strategic selection of the optimal location and size of a

Juan J. Troncoso; Rodrigo A. Garrido

2005-01-01

21

Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, ...

J. V. Montoya S. Rathinam W. A. Malik Z. P. Wood

2010-01-01

22

Mixed-integer multiperiod model for the planning of oilfield production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe three mixed integer multiperiod optimization models of varying complexity for the oil production planning in the wells of an oil reservoir. The problem considers fixed topology and is concerned with the decisions involving the oil production profiles and operation\\/shut in times of the wells in each time period. We assume nonlinear behavior for the well

A. Ortõ ´ z-Gomez; V. Rico-Ramirez; S. Hernandez-Castro

23

Mixed-integer multiperiod model for the planning of oilfield production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe three mixed integer multiperiod optimization models of varying complexity for the oil production planning in the wells of an oil reservoir. The problem considers fixed topology and is concerned with the decisions involving the oil production profiles and operation\\/shut in times of the wells in each time period. We assume nonlinear behavior for the well

A. Ort??z-Gómez; V. Rico-Ramirez; S. Hernández-Castro

2002-01-01

24

A new mixed integer programming formulation for facility layout design using flexible bays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a mixed-integer programming,formulation to find optimal solutions for the block layout problem with unequal departmental areas arranged in flexible bays. The nonlinear department area constraints are modeled,in a continuous plane without using any surrogate constraints. The formulation is extensively tested on problems,from the literature. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Facility design; Facility layout;

Abdullah Konak; Sadan Kulturel-konak; Bryan A. Norman; Alice E. Smith

2006-01-01

25

A dynamic optimization approach for nonrenewable energy resources management under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an integrated dynamic optimization approach for nonrenewable energy (NRE) resources management under uncertainty. A hybrid inexact chance-constrained mixed-integer linear programming (ICCMILP) method is proposed, with an objective of maximizing economic return under constraints of resources availability and environmental regulations. In its solution process, the ICCMILP is transformed into two deterministic submodels, which correspond to the upper and

L Liu; G. H Huang; G. A Fuller; A Chakma; H. C Guo

2000-01-01

26

Optimization models for the dynamic facility location and allocation problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of logistic distribution systems is one of the most critical and strategic issues in industrial facility management. The aim of this study is to develop and apply innovative mixed integer programming optimization models to design and manage dynamic (i.e. multi-period) multi-stage and multi-commodity location allocation problems (LAP). LAP belong to the NP-hard complexity class of decision problems, and

Riccardo Manzini; Elisa Gebennini

2008-01-01

27

Parametric Mixed Integer Programming: An Application to Solid Waste Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed for carrying out parametric analysis on a mixed integer linear program (MILP) as either objective function coefficients or right-hand-side values of the constraints are varied continuously. The method involves solving MILPs at point values of the parameters of variation and joining the results by LP parametric analysis. The procedure for parametric analysis on the objective function

Larry Jenkins

1982-01-01

28

Integer and Mixed-Integer Programming Models: General Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is well-known that mixed-integer formulations can be used to model important classes of non-convex functions such as fixed-charge functions and linear economy-of-scale cost functions. The purpose of the paper is to formulate a rigorous definition of a ...

R. R. Meyer

1973-01-01

29

A Mixed Integer Programming Formulation for the Total Flow Time Single Machine Robust Scheduling Problem with Interval Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a version of the total flow time single machine scheduling problem where uncertainty about processing times is\\u000a taken into account. Namely an interval of equally possible processing times is considered for each job, and optimization is\\u000a carried out according to a robustness criterion. We propose the first mixed integer linear programming formulation for the\\u000a resulting optimization problem and

Roberto Montemanni

2007-01-01

30

PySP : modeling and solving stochastic mixed-integer programs in Python.  

SciTech Connect

Although stochastic programming is a powerful tool for modeling decision-making under uncertainty, various impediments have historically prevented its widespread use. One key factor involves the ability of non-specialists to easily express stochastic programming problems as extensions of deterministic models, which are often formulated first. A second key factor relates to the difficulty of solving stochastic programming models, particularly the general mixed-integer, multi-stage case. Intricate, configurable, and parallel decomposition strategies are frequently required to achieve tractable run-times. We simultaneously address both of these factors in our PySP software package, which is part of the COIN-OR Coopr open-source Python project for optimization. To formulate a stochastic program in PySP, the user specifies both the deterministic base model and the scenario tree with associated uncertain parameters in the Pyomo open-source algebraic modeling language. Given these two models, PySP provides two paths for solution of the corresponding stochastic program. The first alternative involves writing the extensive form and invoking a standard deterministic (mixed-integer) solver. For more complex stochastic programs, we provide an implementation of Rockafellar and Wets Progressive Hedging algorithm. Our particular focus is on the use of Progressive Hedging as an effective heuristic for approximating general multi-stage, mixed-integer stochastic programs. By leveraging the combination of a high-level programming language (Python) and the embedding of the base deterministic model in that language (Pyomo), we are able to provide completely generic and highly configurable solver implementations. PySP has been used by a number of research groups, including our own, to rapidly prototype and solve difficult stochastic programming problems.

Woodruff, David L. (University of California, Davis); Watson, Jean-Paul

2010-08-01

31

Computing dynamically equivalent realizations of biochemical reaction networks with mass conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for the computation of mass conservative dynamically equivalent chemical reaction network structures is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is formulated in an optimization-based framework as a mixed-integer linear programming problem.

Rudan, János; Szederkényi, Gábor; Hangos, Katalin M.

2013-10-01

32

A Harmony Search Algorithm Combined with Differential Operator Applied to Reliability-Redundancy Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability-redundancy allocation problem can be approached as a mixed-integer programming problem. It has been solved by using optimization techniques such as dynamic programming, integer programming, and mixed-integer nonlinear programming. On the other hand, a broad class of meta-heuristics has been developed for reliability-redundancy optimization. Recently, a new meta-heuristics called harmony search (HS) algorithm has emerged. HS was conceptualized using

Leandro dos Santos Coelho; Diego Luis de Andrade Bernert; Viviana Cocco Mariani

2009-01-01

33

Integrated control and process design during optimal polymer grade transition operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we address the simultaneous process control and design problem of polymerization reactors during dynamic grade transition operation. The problem is cast as a Mixed-Integer Dynamic Optimization (MIDO) formulation and, by using the full discretization approach for solving dynamic optimization problems [Kameswaran, S., & Biegler, L. T. (2006). Simultaneous dynamic optimization strategies: Recent advances and challenges. Computers &

Antonio Flores-tlacuahuac; Lorenz T. Biegler

2008-01-01

34

Learning Oncogenetic Networks by Reducing to Mixed Integer Linear Programming  

PubMed Central

Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) [1],a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.

Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens

2013-01-01

35

A mixed integer linear programming model for dynamic route guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges facing ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) today is to offer route guidance to vehicular traffic so as to reduce trip time experienced. In a cooperative route guidance system, the problem becomes one of assigning routes to vehicles departing at given times from a set of origins to a set of destinations so as to minimize the

David E. Kaufman; Jason Nonis; Robert L. Smith

1998-01-01

36

Interval-parameter Fuzzy-stochastic Semi-infinite Mixed-integer Linear Programming for Waste Management under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interval-parameter fuzzy-stochastic semi-infinite mixed-integer linear programming (IFSSIP) method is developed for waste\\u000a management under uncertainties. The IFSSIP method integrates the fuzzy programming, chance-constrained programming, integer\\u000a programming and interval semi-infinite programming within a general optimization framework. The model is applied to a waste\\u000a management system with three disposal facilities, three municipalities, and three periods. Compared with the previous methods,\\u000a IFSSIP

P. Guo; G. H. Huang; L. He; H. L. Li

2009-01-01

37

A Mixed-Integer LP Procedure for the Analysis of Electric Grid Security Under Disruptive Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a solution procedure for the mixed-integer bilevel programming model of the electric grid security under disruptive threat problem, here concisely denoted by (ST-MIBLP), that was recently reported. Using results from linear programming theory and some basic linearization of products of binary–binary or binary–continuous variables, we recast (ST-MIBLP) into a standard (one-level) mixed-integer linear program (ST-MILP) with no

Alexis L. Motto; José M. Arroyo; Francisco D. Galiana

2005-01-01

38

Robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming.  

PubMed

Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows. PMID:24032353

Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R

2013-09-27

39

A Tabu search-based algorithm for mixed-integer nonlinear problems and its application to integrated process and control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, we consider mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems subject to differential-algebraic constraints. This class of problems arises frequently in process design, and the particular case of integrated process and control system design is considered. Since these problems are frequently non-convex, local optimization techniques usually fail to locate the global solution. Here, we propose a global optimization algorithm, based on

Oliver Exler; Luis T. Antelo; Jose A. Egea; Antonio A. Alonso; Julio R. Banga

2008-01-01

40

An inexact two-stage mixed integer linear programming method for solid waste management in the City of Regina.  

PubMed

In this study, an interval-parameter two-stage mixed integer linear programming (ITMILP) model is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste management activities in the City of Regina. In the ITMILP, both two-stage stochastic programming and interval linear programming are introduced into a general mixed integer linear programming framework. Uncertainties expressed as not only probability density functions but also discrete intervals can be reflected. The model can help tackle the dynamic, interactive and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system in the City, and can address issues concerning plans for cost-effective waste diversion and landfill prolongation. Three scenarios are considered based on different waste management policies. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They are valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing waste flow allocation patterns, the long-term capacity planning of the City's waste management system, and the formulation of local policies and regulations regarding waste generation and management. PMID:16678336

Li, Y P; Huang, G H

2006-05-05

41

Applying a mixed-integer program to model re-screening women who test positive for C. trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

We proposed a mixed-integer program to model the management of C. trachomatis infections in women visiting publicly funded family planning clinics. We intended to maximize the number of infected women cured of C. trachomatis infections. The model incorporated screening, re-screening, and treatment options for three age groups with respective age-specific C. trachomatis infection and re-infection rates, two possible test assays, and two possible treatments. Our results showed the total budget had a great impact on the optimal strategy incorporating screening coverage, test selection, and treatment. At any budget level, the strategy that used a relatively small per-patient budget increase to re-screen all women who tested positive 6 months earlier always resulted in curing more infected women and more cost-saving than the strategy that was optimal under the condition of not including a re-screening option. PMID:15152978

Tao, Guoyu; Abban, Bartholomew K; Gift, Thomas L; Chen, Guantao; Irwin, Kathleen L

2004-05-01

42

A Mixed-Integer Programming Model for Pollution Trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution abatement-related decisions are increasingly important for industry. Pollution trading is an approach to environmental protection that uses market based mechanisms to efficiently allocate emission or pollutant reductions among different sources. This work describes an optimization model intended to provide industries with a guide for making optimal environmental decisions under the flexibility added by a trading strategy. To assess the

Vicente Rico-Ramirez; Francisco Lopez-Villarreal; Salvador Hernandez-Castro; Urmila M. Diwekar

2011-01-01

43

Safety of a decentralized scheme for free-flight ATMS using mixed integer linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider policies for free-flight management of air traffic. We consider instantaneous and bounded heading angle deviation as conflict avoidance maneuvers. The corresponding model, resulting in a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem allow to solve both conflict detection and conflict resolution problems. The developed algorithm proved successful in a centralized implementation with a large number of

Lucia Pallottino; Antonio Bicchi; Stefania Pancanti

2002-01-01

44

Mixed Integer Linear Programming in Process Scheduling: Modeling, Algorithms, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the advances of mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based approaches for the scheduling of chemical\\u000a processing systems. We focus on the short-term scheduling of general network represented processes. First, the various mathematical\\u000a models that have been proposed in the literature are classified mainly based on the time representation. Discrete-time and\\u000a continuous-time models are presented along with their strengths

Christodoulos A. Floudas; Xiaoxia Lin

2005-01-01

45

Optimal integrated control and scheduling of networked control systems with communication constraints: application to a car suspension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief addresses the problem of the optimal control and scheduling of networked control systems over limited bandwidth deterministic networks. Multivariable linear systems subject to communication constraints are modeled in the mixed logical dynamical (MLD) framework. The translation of the MLD model into the mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) formulation is described. This formulation allows the solving of the optimal

M. E. M. B. Gaid; A. Cela; Y. Hamam

2006-01-01

46

Adaptive hybrid predictive control for a combined cycle power plant optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The design and development of an adaptive hybrid predictive controller for the optimization of a real combined cycle power plant (CCPP) are presented. The real plant is modeled as a hybrid system, i.e. logical conditions and dynamic behavior are used in one single modeling framework. Start modes, minimum up\\/down times and other logical features are represented using mixed integer

A. Cipriano; R. Zúñiga

2008-01-01

47

Minimum-time control of systems with Coloumb friction: Near global optima via mixed integer linear programming  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a method of finding near global optima to minimum-time trajectory generation problem for systems that would be linear if it were not for the presence of Coloumb friction. The required final state of the system is assumed to be maintainable by the system, and the input bounds are assumed to be large enough so that they can overcome the maximum static Coloumb friction force. Other than the previous work for generating minimum-time trajectories for non redundant robotic manipulators for which the path in joint space is already specified, this work represents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first approach for generating near global optima for minimum-time problems involving a nonlinear class of dynamic systems. The reason the optima generated are near global optima instead of exactly global optima is due to a discrete-time approximation of the system (which is usually used anyway to simulate such a system numerically). The method closely resembles previous methods for generating minimum-time trajectories for linear systems, where the core operation is the solution of a Phase I linear programming problem. For the nonlinear systems considered herein, the core operation is instead the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem.

DRIESSEN,BRIAN; SADEGH,NADER

2000-04-25

48

An Application of Parametric Mixed-Integer Linear Programming to Hydropower Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem consists in selecting the sites on the river where reservoirs and hydroelectric power plants are to be built and then determining the type and size of the projected installations. The solution obviously depends on the amount of money the utility is willing to invest, which itself is a function of what the new installations will produce. It is therefore necessary to solve the problem for all possible amounts of firm energy produced, since it is not known at the outset which production level the utility will select. This is done in the paper by a parametric mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) method whose efficiency derives from the fact that the branch-and-bound algorithm for selecting the sites to be developed (and consuming most of the computer time) is solved a minimum number of times. Between the points where the MILP problem is solved, LP parametric analysis is applied.

Turgeon, André

1987-03-01

49

Progress in computational mixed integer programming - A look back from the other side of the tipping point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have been a thrilling time for the commercial application of mixed integer programming. The technology has gone through an inflection point. Just a few years ago, MIP was viewed as a temptingly powerful modeling paradigm that would consistently disappoint in practice. In constrast, in the last few years MIP has become a vital capability that powers

Robert Bixby; Edward Rothberg

2007-01-01

50

Hybrid Projected Gradient-Evolutionary Search Algorithm for Mixed Integer Nonlinear Optimization Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hybrid Projected Gradient-Evolutionary Search Algorithm (HPGES) algorithm uses a specially designed evolutionary-based global search strategy to efficiently create candidate solutions in the solution space. A local projection-based gradient search alg...

A. Homaifar A. Esterline B. Kimiaghalam

2005-01-01

51

OPTIMIZATION OF A WOOD DRYER KILN USING THE MIXED INTEGER PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wood is to be utilized as a raw material for furniture, buildings etc., it must be dried from approximately 100% to 6% moisture content. This is achieved at least partly in a drying kiln. Heat for this purpose is provided by electrical means, or by steam from boilers fired with wood chips or oil. By making a close examination

Stig-Inge Gustafsson

1999-01-01

52

Optimization of sensor parameters in programmable logic controller via mixed integer programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable logic controller (PLC) has been widely used in the industrial control as the controller for the manufacturing system, process control, and so on. This class of control system, in comparison with the standard continuous valued control system, is characterized by its use of low-resolution (typically ON\\/OFF) actuators and sensors. Although several languages for the PLC have been developed, the

Eiji KONAKA; Tatsuya SUZUKI; Shigeru OKUMA

2004-01-01

53

An analytic network process-mixed integer multi-objective programming model for partner selection in agile supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a two-stage approach, based on the application of an analytic network process-mixed integer multi-objective programming (ANP-MIMOP) model, to solve the problem of partner selection in agile supply chains (ASCs). A key requirement of an ASC is that its constituents (suppliers, producers, distributors, etc.) can combine and react to fast-changing customer demand as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Chong Wu; David Barnes; Duska Rosenberg; Xinxing Luo

2009-01-01

54

Logic-based solution methods for optimal control of hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combinatorial optimization over continuous and integer variables is a useful tool for solving complex optimal control problems of hybrid dynamical systems formulated in discrete-time. Current approaches are based on mixed-integer linear (or quadratic) programming (MIP), which provides the solution after solving a sequence of relaxed linear (or quadratic) programs. MIP formulations require the translation of the discrete\\/logic part of the

Alberto Bemporad; Nicolò Giorgetti

2006-01-01

55

Mixed-integer nonlinear optimisation approach to coarse-graining biochemical networks  

PubMed Central

Quantitative modelling and analysis of biochemical networks is challenging because of the inherent complexities and nonlinearities of the system and the limited availability of parameter values. Even if a mathematical model of the network can be developed, the lack of large-scale good-quality data makes accurate estimation of a large number of parameters impossible. Hence, coarse-grained models (CGMs) consisting of essential biochemical mechanisms are more suitable for computational analysis and for studying important systemic functions. The central question in constructing a CGM is which mechanisms should be deemed ‘essential’ and which can be ignored. Also, how should parameter values be defined when data are sparse? A mixed-integer nonlinear-programming (MINLP) based optimisation approach to coarse-graining is presented. Starting with a detailed biochemical model with associated computational details (reaction network and mathematical description) and data on the biochemical system, the structure and the parameters of a CGM can be determined simultaneously. In this optimisation problem, the authors use a genetic algorithm to simultaneously identify parameter values and remove unimportant reactions. The methodology is exemplified by developing two CGMs for the GTPase-cycle module of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Gq, and regulator of G protein signalling 4 [RGS4, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP)] starting from a detailed model of 48 reactions. Both the CGMs have only 17 reactions, fit experimental data well and predict, as does the detailed model, four limiting signalling regimes (LSRs) corresponding to the extremes of receptor and GAP concentration. The authors demonstrate that coarse-graining, in addition to resulting in a reduced-order model, also provides insights into the mechanisms in the network. The best CGM obtained for the GTPase cycle also contains an unconventional mechanism and its predictions explain an old problem in pharmacology, the biphasic (bell-shaped) response to certain drugs. The MINLP methodology is broadly applicable to larger and complex (dense) biochemical modules.

Maurya, M.R.; Bornheimer, S.J.; Venkatasubramanian, V.; Subramaniam, S.

2009-01-01

56

A mixed integer programming model to locate traumatic brain injury treatment units in the Department of Veterans Affairs: a case study.  

PubMed

For the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem facing active duty military personnel, veterans, their families, and caregivers. The VA has designated TBI treatment as one of its physical medicine and rehabilitation special emphasis programs, thereby providing a comprehensive array of treatment services to those military personnel and veterans with TBI. Timely treatment of TBI is critical in achieving maximal recovery, and being in geographical proximity to a medical center with specialized TBI treatment services is a major determinant of whether such treatment is utilized. We present a mixed integer programming model for locating TBI treatment units in the VA. This model was developed for the VA Rehabilitation Strategic Healthcare Group to assist in locating new TBI treatment units. The optimization model assigns TBI treatment units to existing VA medical centers while minimizing the sum of patient treatment costs, patient lodging and travel costs, and the penalty costs associated with foregone treatment revenue and excess capacity utilization. We demonstrate our model with VA TBI admission data from one of the VA's integrated service networks, and discuss the expected service and cost implications for a range of TBI treatment unit location options. PMID:17695136

Côté, Murray J; Syam, Siddhartha S; Vogel, W Bruce; Cowper, Diane C

2007-09-01

57

Optimization of environmental management strategies through a dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective program.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) management facilities have become a serious environmental issue. In MSW management, not only economic objectives but also environmental objectives should be considered simultaneously. In this study, a dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective programming (DSPMP) model is developed for supporting MSW management and associated GHG emission control. The DSPMP model improves upon the existing waste management optimization methods through incorporation of fuzzy possibilistic programming and chance-constrained programming into a general mixed-integer multiobjective linear programming (MOP) framework where various uncertainties expressed as fuzzy possibility distributions and probability distributions can be effectively reflected. Two conflicting objectives are integrally considered, including minimization of total system cost and minimization of total GHG emissions from waste management facilities. Three planning scenarios are analyzed and compared, representing different preferences of the decision makers for economic development and environmental-impact (i.e. GHG-emission) issues in integrated MSW management. Optimal decision schemes under three scenarios and different p(i) levels (representing the probability that the constraints would be violated) are generated for planning waste flow allocation and facility capacity expansions as well as GHG emission control. The results indicate that economic and environmental tradeoffs can be effectively reflected through the proposed DSPMP model. The generated decision variables can help the decision makers justify and/or adjust their waste management strategies based on their implicit knowledge and preferences. PMID:23313898

Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

2012-12-28

58

Optimal dynamical characterization of entanglement.  

PubMed

We show that, for experimentally relevant systems, there is an optimal measurement strategy to monitor the time evolution of entanglement under open system dynamics. This suggests an efficient, dynamical characterization of the entanglement of composite, open quantum systems. PMID:17677610

Carvalho, André R R; Busse, Marc; Brodier, Olivier; Viviescas, Carlos; Buchleitner, Andreas

2007-05-07

59

Planning Electric Power Generation: A Nonlinear Mixed Integer Model Employing Benders Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of an optimization program that is used to help electric utilities plan investments for power generation. For each year over a planning horizon the program determines what types and sizes of generating plants should be constructed, so as to minimize total discounted cost while meeting reliably the system's forecasted demands for electricity. The

F. Noonan; R. J. Giglio

1977-01-01

60

Path Planning of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Adaptive Sampling Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of adaptive sampling in the ocean is to predict the types and locations of additional ocean measurements that would be most useful to collect. Quantitatively, what is most useful is defined by an objective function and the goal is then to optimize this objective under the constraints of the available observing network. Examples of objectives are better oceanic

Namik Kemal Yilmaz; Constantinos Evangelinos; Pierre F. J. Lermusiaux; Nicholas M. Patrikalakis

2008-01-01

61

Models and algorithms to improve earthwork operations in road design using mixed integer linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In road construction, earthwork operations account for about 25% of the construction costs. Existing linear programming models for earthwork optimization are designed to minimize the hauling costs and to balance the earth across the construction site. However, these models do not consider the removal of physical blocks that may influence the earthwork process. As such, current models may result in

Warren L. Hare; Valentin R. Koch; Yves Lucet

2011-01-01

62

Genetic Algorithm for Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming Problems Using Separate Constraint Approximations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach for reducing the number of the fitness and constraint function evaluations required by a genetic algorithm (GA) for optimization problems with mixed continuous and discrete design variables. The proposed additions to the GA make the search more eective and rapidly improve the fitness value from generation to generation. The additions involve memory as a

Vladimir B. Gantovnik; Christine Anderson-Cook; Zafer Gurdal; Layne Watson

2005-01-01

63

Test scheduling for core-based systems using mixed-integer linearprogramming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present optimal solutions to the test schedulingproblem for core-based systems. Given a set of tasks (test sets forthe cores), a set of test resources (e.g., test buses, BIST hardware)and a test access architecture, we determine start times for thetasks such that the total test application time is minimized. Weshow that the test scheduling decision problem is equivalent tothe-processor open

Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2000-01-01

64

Optimization using Extremal Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a new heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems which we have recently introduced [see ``Nature's Way of Optimizing," Artificial Intelligence 119, 275-286 (2000) and cond-mat/0010337]. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a single sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions which are believed to contain the hardest instances. In particular, extremal optimization is superior to simulated annealing in the partitioning of sparse graphs, it finds the overlap of all ground-states at the phase transition of the 3-coloring problem, and it provides independent confirmation for the ground-state energy of spin glasses, previously obtained with elaborate genetic algorithms.

Boettcher, Stefan

2001-03-01

65

Adaptive critics for dynamic optimization.  

PubMed

A novel action-dependent adaptive critic design (ACD) is developed for dynamic optimization. The proposed combination of a particle swarm optimization-based actor and a neural network critic is demonstrated through dynamic sleep scheduling of wireless sensor motes for wildlife monitoring. The objective of the sleep scheduler is to dynamically adapt the sleep duration to node's battery capacity and movement pattern of animals in its environment in order to obtain snapshots of the animal on its trajectory uniformly. Simulation results show that the sleep time of the node determined by the actor critic yields superior quality of sensory data acquisition and enhanced node longevity. PMID:20223635

Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

2010-02-24

66

Deterministic global optimization algorithm based on outer approximation for the parameter estimation of nonlinear dynamic biological systems  

PubMed Central

Background The estimation of parameter values for mathematical models of biological systems is an optimization problem that is particularly challenging due to the nonlinearities involved. One major difficulty is the existence of multiple minima in which standard optimization methods may fall during the search. Deterministic global optimization methods overcome this limitation, ensuring convergence to the global optimum within a desired tolerance. Global optimization techniques are usually classified into stochastic and deterministic. The former typically lead to lower CPU times but offer no guarantee of convergence to the global minimum in a finite number of iterations. In contrast, deterministic methods provide solutions of a given quality (i.e., optimality gap), but tend to lead to large computational burdens. Results This work presents a deterministic outer approximation-based algorithm for the global optimization of dynamic problems arising in the parameter estimation of models of biological systems. Our approach, which offers a theoretical guarantee of convergence to global minimum, is based on reformulating the set of ordinary differential equations into an equivalent set of algebraic equations through the use of orthogonal collocation methods, giving rise to a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. This nonconvex NLP is decomposed into two hierarchical levels: a master mixed-integer linear programming problem (MILP) that provides a rigorous lower bound on the optimal solution, and a reduced-space slave NLP that yields an upper bound. The algorithm iterates between these two levels until a termination criterion is satisfied. Conclusion The capabilities of our approach were tested in two benchmark problems, in which the performance of our algorithm was compared with that of the commercial global optimization package BARON. The proposed strategy produced near optimal solutions (i.e., within a desired tolerance) in a fraction of the CPU time required by BARON.

2012-01-01

67

The total optimal search criterion in solving the mixed integer linear model with GNSS carrier phase observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing algorithms for GPS ambiguity determination can be classified into three categories, i.e. ambiguity resolution in\\u000a the measurement domain, the coordinate domain and the ambiguity domain. There are many techniques available for searching\\u000a the ambiguity domain, such as FARA (Frei and Beutler in Manuscr Geod 15(4):325–356, 1990), LSAST (Hatch in Proceedings of KIS’90, Banff, Canada, pp 299–308, 1990), the modified

Jianqing Cai; Erik W. Grafarend; Congwei Hu

2009-01-01

68

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

69

An infrastructure for adaptive dynamic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic optimization is emerging as a promising approach to overcome many of the obstacles of traditional static compilation. But while there are a number of compiler infrastructures for developing static optimizations, there are very few for developing dynamic optimizations. We present a framework for implementing dynamic analyses and optimizations. We provide an interface for building external modules, or clients, for

Derek Bruening; Timothy Garnett; Saman P. Amarasinghe

2003-01-01

70

Trading: An Optimization Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euent trading to manage water pollution holds considerable potential for industries and policy makers alike. This paper proposes an optimization based ap- proach to assist decision making in pollutant trading which is beyond heuristics. The optimization model, formulated as an Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem, allows decision makers to incorporate watershed and technology specific information in regulation development. The

Y. Shastri; U. Diwekar; S. Mehrotra

71

Using Annotations to Reduce Dynamic Optimization Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic compilation and optimization are widely used in heterogenous computing environments, in which an inter- mediate form of the code is compiled to native code during execution. An important tradeoff exists between the amount of time spent dynamically optimizing the program and the running time of the program. The time to perform dynamic optimizations can cause significant delays during execution

Chandra Krintz; Brad Calder

2000-01-01

72

Code Cache Management Schemes for Dynamic Optimizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic optimizer is a software-based system that performs code modifications at runtime, and several such systems have been proposed over the past several years. These systems typically perform optimization on the level of an instruction trace, and most use caching mechanisms to store recently optimized portions of code. Since the dynamic optimizers produce variable-length code traces that are modified

Kim M. Hazelwood; Michael D. Smith

2002-01-01

73

Multiobjective optimization using dynamic neighborhood particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for multiobjective optimization problems. PSO is modified by using a dynamic neighborhood strategy, new particle memory updating, and one-dimension optimization to deal with multiple objectives. Several benchmark cases were tested and showed that PSO could efficiently find multiple Pareto optimal solutions

Xiaohui Hu; Russell C. Eberhart

2002-01-01

74

Multiobjective optimization of dynamic aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic aperture (DA) is one of the key nonlinear properties for a storage ring. Although there have been both analytical and numerical methods to find the aperture, the reverse problem of how to optimize it is still a challenging problem. A general and flexible way of optimizing the DA is highly demanded in accelerator design and operation. In this paper, we discuss the use of multiobjective optimization for DA. First we consider using objective functions based only on numerical tracking results. Data mining of these results demonstrated a correlation between DA and low-order nonlinear driving terms. Next we considered using objective functions which included both numerical tracking results and analytical estimates of low-order nonlinear driving terms. This resulted in faster convergence. The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) lattice was taken as an example to illustrate this method. This multiobjective approach is not limited by particular linear or nonlinear lattice settings, and can also be applied for optimizing other properties of a storage ring.

Yang, Lingyun; Li, Yongjun; Guo, Weiming; Krinsky, Samuel

2011-05-01

75

Static and Dynamic Optimization Models in Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Charles Moss, Associate Professor of Food and Resource Economics at the University of Florida developed this web site for his course on optimization models. The course aims to introduce students to classical optimization models, particularly mathematical programming and using optimal control theory to solve dynamic optimization models. The site provides lecture notes, slides from the lectures, assignments and solutions, and computer programs.

76

Water networks security: A two-stage mixed-integer stochastic program for sensor placement under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a stochastic approach for the optimal placement of sensors in municipal water networks to detect maliciously injected con- taminants. The model minimizes the expected fraction of the population at risk and the cost of the sensors. Our work explicitly includes uncertainties in the attack risk and population density, so that the resulting problem involves optimization under uncertainty.

Vicente Rico-ramírez; Sergio Frausto-hernández; Urmila M. Diwekar; Salvador Hernández-castro

2007-01-01

77

Water networks security: A two-stage mixed-integer stochastic program for sensor placement under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a stochastic approach for the optimal placement of sensors in municipal water networks to detect maliciously injected contaminants. The model minimizes the expected fraction of the population at risk. Our work explicity includes uncertainties in attack risks and population density, so that the resulting problem involves optimization under uncertainty. In our formulation, we include the number of

Sergio Frausto-Hernández; Urmila M. Diwekar; Salvador Hernández-Castro; Vicente Rico-Ramírez

2005-01-01

78

A software environment for simultaneous dynamic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a software environment for dynamic optimization using the simultaneous approach. Over the past few years, there has been significant development in the formulation of simultaneous dynamic optimization problems, using collocation on finite elements, and in the solution of the resulting large-scale nonlinear programming problem, using powerful barrier NLP solvers. Here we describe the background of the simultaneous approach

Y.-D. Lang; L. T. Biegler

2007-01-01

79

TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

Yang, L.

2011-03-28

80

Dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A principle for dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses is presented, where the optimization criterion is maximization of the term . To this purpose it is important to consider the break-even point for artificial lighting, which can be defined as the natural light intensity in a greenhouse at which the costs of using supplementary light

E. Heuvelink; H. Challa

1989-01-01

81

Two Characterizations of Optimality in Dynamic Programming  

SciTech Connect

It holds in great generality that a plan is optimal for a dynamic programming problem, if and only if it is 'thrifty' and 'equalizing.' An alternative characterization of an optimal plan, that applies in many economic models, is that the plan must satisfy an appropriate Euler equation and a transversality condition. Here we explore the connections between these two characterizations.

Karatzas, Ioannis, E-mail: ik@math.columbia.ed [Columbia University, Department of Mathematics (United States); Sudderth, William D., E-mail: bill@stat.umn.ed [University of Minnesota, School of Statistics (United States)

2010-06-15

82

Optimizations for Dynamic Inverted Index Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For free-text search over rapidly evolving corpora, dynamic update of inverted indices is a basic requirement. B-trees are an effective tool in implementing such indices. The Zipfian distribution of postings suggests space and time optimizations unique to this task. In particular, we present two novel optimizations, merge update, which performs better than straight forward block update, and pulsing which significantly

Douglas R. Cutting; Jan O. Pedersen

1990-01-01

83

Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In current intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization, the focus is on either finding optimal beam angles (or other beam delivery parameters such as field segments, couch angles, gantry angles) or optimal beam intensities. In this article we offer a mixed integer programming (MIP) approach for simultaneously determining an optimal intensity map and optimal beam angles for IMRT delivery.

Eva K.. Lee; Tim Fox; Ian Crocker

2006-01-01

84

Synthesis of nonequilibrium reactive distillation processes by MINLP optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is presented for synthesizing reactive distillation columns when chemical reaction equilibrium cannot be assured. The MINLP minimizes the total annual cost subject to a rigorous tray-by-tray model. The solution of this MINLP yields the optimal number of trays, the optimal feed rates, and the optimal feed tray locations. The liquid holdup per tray,

Amy R. Ciric; Deyao Gu

1994-01-01

85

Optimal facility layout design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facility layout problem (FLP) is a fundamental optimization problem encountered in many manufacturing and service organizations. Montreuil introduced a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for FLP that has been used as the basis for several rounding heuristics. However, no further attempt has been made to solve this MIP optimally. In fact, though this MIP only has 2n(n?1) 0–1 variables,

Russell D. Meller; Venkat Narayanan; Pamela H. Vance

1998-01-01

86

Zone-based facilities layout optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the best features of both discrete and continuous space representations, and exploiting the notion of space structuring as done in new-generation heuristics, this paper introduces a novel zone-based optimization model for facilities layout design. Preliminary empirical results are presented, with the model solved directly using a commercial mixed integer linear programming solver for selected well known cases. The results

Benoit Montreuil; Edith Brotherton; Suzanne Marcotte

87

Mean field theory for optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method based on mean field theory to cope with the mixed nonlinear integer programming, especially with optimal power flow problems involving both continuous and discrete variables, in a more exact manner. That is, we first formulate OPF as a mixed integer programming, and then derive its mean field equations as well as the annealing algorithm, by taking

Luonan Chen; Hideki Suzuki; Kazuo Katou

1997-01-01

88

Nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization using equivalent static loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that nonlinear dynamic response optimization using a conventional optimization algorithm is fairly difficult and expensive for the gradient or non-gradient based optimization methods because many nonlinear dynamic analyses are required. Therefore, it is quite difficult to find practical large scale examples with many design variables and constraints for nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization. The equivalent static

Yong-Il Kim; Gyung-Jin Park

2010-01-01

89

Dynamic economic dispatch: feasible and optimal solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic economic dispatch is an extension of the conventional economic dispatch problem that takes into consideration the limits on the ramp rate of the generating units. This paper examines the factors that affect the feasibility and optimality of solutions to this problem. It proposes two new solution methods. The first is guaranteed to find a feasible solution even when the

X. S. Han; H. B. Gooi; Daniel S. Kirschen

2001-01-01

90

Role of controllability in optimizing quantum dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reveals an important role that controllability plays in the complexity of optimizing quantum control dynamics. We show that the loss of controllability generally leads to multiple locally suboptimal controls when gate fidelity in a quantum control system is maximized, which does not happen if the system is controllable. Such local suboptimal controls may attract an optimization algorithm into a local trap when a global optimal solution is sought, even if the target gate can be perfectly realized. This conclusion results from an analysis of the critical topology of the corresponding quantum control landscape, which refers to the gate fidelity objective as a functional of the control fields. For uncontrollable systems, due to SU(2) and SU(3) dynamical symmetries, the control landscape corresponding to an implementable target gate is proven to possess multiple locally optimal critical points, and its ruggedness can be further increased if the target gate is not realizable. These results imply that the optimization of quantum dynamics can be seriously impeded when operating with local search algorithms under these conditions, and thus full controllability is demanded.

Wu, Re-Bing; Hsieh, Michael A.; Rabitz, Herschel

2011-06-01

91

Role of controllability in optimizing quantum dynamics  

SciTech Connect

This paper reveals an important role that controllability plays in the complexity of optimizing quantum control dynamics. We show that the loss of controllability generally leads to multiple locally suboptimal controls when gate fidelity in a quantum control system is maximized, which does not happen if the system is controllable. Such local suboptimal controls may attract an optimization algorithm into a local trap when a global optimal solution is sought, even if the target gate can be perfectly realized. This conclusion results from an analysis of the critical topology of the corresponding quantum control landscape, which refers to the gate fidelity objective as a functional of the control fields. For uncontrollable systems, due to SU(2) and SU(3) dynamical symmetries, the control landscape corresponding to an implementable target gate is proven to possess multiple locally optimal critical points, and its ruggedness can be further increased if the target gate is not realizable. These results imply that the optimization of quantum dynamics can be seriously impeded when operating with local search algorithms under these conditions, and thus full controllability is demanded.

Wu Rebing; Hsieh, Michael A.; Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, TNList, Beijing, 100084 (China); Department of Chemistry and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90025 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2011-06-15

92

A Dynamic Optimization Approach for Power Generation Planning under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an integrated fuzzy possibilistic-joint probabilistic mixed-integer programming (FPJPMIP) model is developed and applied to the expansion planning of power generation under uncertainty. As an extension of existing fuzzy possibilistic programming and joint probabilistic programming, the FPJPMIP addresses system uncertainties in the model's left- and right-hand sides (with the expression of possibilistic and probabilistic distributions). Its applicability has

Z. F. Liu; G. H. Huang; N. Li

2008-01-01

93

Advances in simultaneous strategies for dynamic process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following on the popularity of dynamic simulation for process systems, dynamic optimization has been identified as an important task for key process applications. In this study, we present an improved algorithm for simultaneous strategies for dynamic optimization. This approach addresses two important issues for dynamic optimization. First, an improved nonlinear programming strategy is developed based on interior point methods. This

Lorenz T. Biegler; Arturo M. Cervantes; Andreas Wächter

2002-01-01

94

Optimizing Motion Planning for Hyper Dynamic Manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the optimal motion planning for an hyper dynamic manipulator. As case study, we consider a golf swing robot which is consisting with two actuated joint and a mechanical stoppers. Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is proposed to solve the optimal golf swing motion which is generated by Fourier series approximation. The objective function for GA approach is to minimizing the intermediate and final state, minimizing the robot's energy consummation and maximizing the robot's speed. Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Aboura, Souhila; Omari, Abdelhafid; Meguenni, Kadda Zemalache

2012-01-01

95

Application of optimal prediction to molecular dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Optimal prediction is a general system reduction technique for large sets of differential equations. In this method, which was devised by Chorin, Hald, Kast, Kupferman, and Levy, a projection operator formalism is used to construct a smaller system of equations governing the dynamics of a subset of the original degrees of freedom. This reduced system consists of an effective Hamiltonian dynamics, augmented by an integral memory term and a random noise term. Molecular dynamics is a method for simulating large systems of interacting fluid particles. In this thesis, I construct a formalism for applying optimal prediction to molecular dynamics, producing reduced systems from which the properties of the original system can be recovered. These reduced systems require significantly less computational time than the original system. I initially consider first-order optimal prediction, in which the memory and noise terms are neglected. I construct a pair approximation to the renormalized potential, and ignore three-particle and higher interactions. This produces a reduced system that correctly reproduces static properties of the original system, such as energy and pressure, at low-to-moderate densities. However, it fails to capture dynamical quantities, such as autocorrelation functions. I next derive a short-memory approximation, in which the memory term is represented as a linear frictional force with configuration-dependent coefficients. This allows the use of a Fokker-Planck equation to show that, in this regime, the noise is {delta}-correlated in time. This linear friction model reproduces not only the static properties of the original system, but also the autocorrelation functions of dynamical variables.

Barber IV, John Letherman

2004-12-01

96

The Construction of Dynamic Multi-objective Optimization Test Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic Multi-objective Optimization Problems (DMOPs) gradually become a difficult and hot topic in Multi-objective Optimization\\u000a area. However, there is lack of standard test functions for Dynamic Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms now. Firstly this\\u000a paper proves the existence of Pareto optimal set of a class of a special non-dynamic two-objective optimization problem theoretically.\\u000a Based on this result, we present one method of

Min Tang; Zhangcan Huang; Guangxi Chen

2007-01-01

97

A dynamic programming based Gas Pipeline Optimizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic programming based Gas Pipeline Optimizer (GPO) has been developed at Scientific Software-Intercomp for the HBJ gas\\u000a transmission pipeline system in India. Used as an operating and planning tool, the GPO will determine the discharge pressures\\u000a at the compressor stations and the number of compressor trains to operate at each compressor station so that fuel consumption\\u000a and start-up\\/shut-down costs

Hemant S. Lall; Peter Percell

98

New approximate optimization method for distribution system planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm to obtain an approximate optimal solution to the problem of large-scale radial distribution system planning is proposed. The distribution planning problem is formulated as a MIP (mixed integer programming) problem. The set of constraints is reduced to a set of continuous variable linear equations by using the fact that the basis of the simplex tableau consists of the

K. Aoki; K. Nara; T. Satoh; M. Kitagawa; K. Yamanaka

1990-01-01

99

Optimizing the natural gas supply mix of local distribution utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large mixed-integer linear program (MILP) and a much smaller nonlinear programming (NLP) approximation of the MILP, involving simulation and response surface estimation via regression analysis, are proposed to solve the problem of the optimal selection of natural gas supply contracts by local gas distribution utilities. Each potential supply source is characterized by several price and nonprice parameters. Weather variability

Jean-Michel Guldmann; Fahui Wang

1999-01-01

100

Energy Optimized Topologies for Distributed Averaging in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the energy efficient implementation of aver- aging\\/consensus algorithms in wireless sensor networks. For static, time-invariant topologies we start from the recent result that a bidirectional spanning tree is preferable in terms of convergence time. We formulate the combinatorial optimization problem of selecting such a minimal energy tree as a mixed integer linear pro- gramming problem. Since the problem

Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis; Binbin Li

2011-01-01

101

Three-phase distribution OPF in smart grids: Optimality versus computational burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP) solution methods and commercially available solvers lack computational efficiency and robustness in solving three-phase Distribution Optimal Power Flow (DOPF) programs, given the large number of continuous and integer variables encountered in practical sized systems. A heuristic approach to solve this problem was proposed by the authors, in which a compromise is made on optimality

Sumit Paudyaly; Claudio A. Canizares; Kankar Bhattacharya

2011-01-01

102

A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control considering voltage security assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (volt\\/VAr control: VVC) considering voltage security assessment (VSA). VVC can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The proposed method expands the original PSO to handle a MINLP and determines an online VVC strategy with continuous and discrete

H. Yoshida; K. Kawata; Y. Fukuyama; S. Takayama; Y. Nakanishi

2001-01-01

103

MINLP Models for the Synthesis of Optimal Peptide Tags and Downstream Protein Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of systematic methods for the synthesis of downstream protein processing operations has seen growing interest in recent years, as purification is often the most complex and costly stage in biochemical production plants. The objective of the work presented here is to develop mathematical models based on mixed integer optimization techniques, which integrate the selection of optimal peptide purification

Evangelos Simeonidis; Jose M. Pinto; M. Elena Lienqueo; Sophia Tsoka; Lazaros G. Papageorgiou

2005-01-01

104

Optimal cyclic scheduling for printed circuit board production lines with multiple hoists and general processing sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a mixed-integer programming formulation for finding optimal cyclic schedules for printed circuit board lines with multiple hoists on a shared track, where the processing sequence may be different than the location sequence of the tanks. Computational results on some benchmark problems indicate that optimal cyclic schedules for problems of realistic size can be found in a reasonable time.

Janny Leung; Guoqing Zhang

2003-01-01

105

Design optimization of three-phase energy efficient induction motor using adaptive bacterial foraging algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the application of an adaptive bacterial foraging (BF) algorithm for the design optimization of an energy efficient induction motor. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The induction motor design problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. A set of nine independent variables is selected, and to make the machine feasible and

V. P. Sakthivel; R. Bhuvaneswari; S. Subramanian

2010-01-01

106

DPSIM Modelling: Dynamic Optimization in Large Scale Simulation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is well established that dynamically optimal policies should be “closed loop” so that policies take into account\\u000a changing conditions of a system, it is rare for such optimization to actually be carried out in large-scale simulation models.\\u000a Computational limitations remain a major barrier to the study of dynamically optimal policies. Since the size of dynamic optimization\\u000a problems grows

Richard T. Woodward; Wade L. Griffin; Yong-Suhk Wui

107

Integrated DFM Framework for Dynamic Yield Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an abstract of the following article. Users may request access to the full article via the website, and a direct link will be emailed to them. We present a new methodology for a balanced yield optimization and a new DFM (design for manufacturability) framework which implements it. Our approach allows designers to dynamically balance multiple factors contributing to yield loss and select optimal combination of DFM enhancements based on the current information about the IC layout, the manufacturing process, and known causes of failures. We bring together the information gained from layout analysis, layout aware circuit analysis, resolution enhancement and optical proximity correction tools, parasitics extraction, timing estimates, and other tools, to suggest the DFM solution which is optimized within the existing constraints on design time and available data. The framework allows us to integrate all available sources of yield information, characterize and compare proposed DFM solutions, quickly adjust them when new data or new analysis tools become available, fine tune DFM optimization for a particular design and process and provide the IC designer with a customized solution which characterizes the manufacturability of the design, identifies and classifies areas with the most opportunities for improvement, and suggests DFM improvements. The proposed methodology replaces the ad hoc approach to DFM which targets one yield loss cause at a time at the expense of other factors with a comprehensive analysis of competing DFM techniques and trade offs between them.

2010-07-19

108

Particle Swarm Optimization with Dynamic Step Length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a robust swarm intelligent technique inspired from birds flocking and fish schooling. Though many effective improvements have been proposed, however, the premature convergence is still its main problem. Because each particle's movement is a continuous process and can be modelled with differential equation groups, a new variant, particle swarm optimization with dynamic step length (PSO-DSL), with additional control coefficient- step length, is introduced. Then the absolute stability theory is introduced to analyze the stability character of the standard PSO, the theoretical result indicates the PSO with constant step length can not always be stable, this may be one of the reason for premature convergence. Simulation results show the PSO-DSL is effective.

Cui, Zhihua; Cai, Xingjuan; Zeng, Jianchao; Sun, Guoji

109

Mobile Robotic Systems: Dynamics, Control, and Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several classes of mobile robotic systems are discussed that are based on certain non-conventional principles of motion and can move along different surfaces and inside various media. Namely, we consider wall-climbing robots equipped with pneumatic grippers and able to move along vertical walls; snake-like multilink mechanisms with actuators installed at their joints; and vibro-robots moving in resistive media and containing movable masses. Kinematics and dynamics of these types of robots are discussed. Optimal geometrical and mechanical parameters as well as optimal periodic motions of robots are determined that correspond to the maximal average speed of locomotion. Results of experiments with prototypes of robots as well as results of computer simulation are presented. The locomotion principles analyzed are applicable to robots that can move in a complicated and hazardous environment, along different surfaces, and inside tubes.

Chernousko, F. L.

2009-08-01

110

Optimization of dynamic systems using collocation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-based simulation is an important tool for the engineer. Often a time-domain simulation is the most expedient to construct, the most capable of handling complex modeling issues, or the most understandable with an engineer's physical intuition. Aeroelastic systems, for example, are often most easily solved with a nonlinear time-based approach to allow the use of high fidelity models. Simulations of automatic flight control systems can also be easier to model in the time domain, especially when nonlinearities are present. Collocation is an optimization method for systems that incorporate a time-domain simulation. Instead of integrating the equations of motion for each design iteration, the optimizer iteratively solves the simulation as it finds the optimal design. This forms a smooth, well-posed, sparse optimization problem, transforming the numerical integration's sequential calculation into a set of constraints that can be evaluated in any order, or even in parallel. The collocation method used in this thesis has been improved from existing techniques in several ways, in particular with a very simple and computationally inexpensive method of applying dynamic constraints, such as damping, that are more traditionally calculated with linear models in the frequency domain. This thesis applies the collocation method to a range of aircraft design problems, from minimizing the weight of a wing with a flutter constraint, to gain-scheduling the stability augmentation system of a small-scale flight control testbed, to aeroservoelastic design of a large aircraft concept. Collocation methods have not been applied to aeroelastic simulations in the past, although the combination of nonlinear aerodynamic analyses with structural dynamics and stability constraints is well-suited to collocation. The results prove the collocation method's worth as a tool for aircraft design, particularly when applied to the multidisciplinary numerical models used today.

Holden, Michael Eric

111

Optimal bolt preload for dynamic loading  

SciTech Connect

A simple spring-mass model is developed for closure bolting systems, including the effects of bolt prestress. An analytical solution is developed for the case of an initially peaked, exponentially decaying internal pressure pulse acting on the closure. The dependence of peak bolt stresses and deflections on bolt prestress level is investigated and an optimal prestress that minimizes peak bolt stress is found in certain cases. Vulnerability curves are developed for bolted-closure systems to provide rapid evaluation of the dynamic capacity of designs for a range in bolt prestress.

Duffey, T.A.

1992-01-01

112

Optimal bolt preload for dynamic loading  

SciTech Connect

A simple spring-mass model is developed for closure bolting systems, including the effects of bolt prestress. An analytical solution is developed for the case of an initially peaked, exponentially decaying internal pressure pulse acting on the closure. The dependence of peak bolt stresses and deflections on bolt prestress level is investigated and an optimal prestress that minimizes peak bolt stress is found in certain cases. Vulnerability curves are developed for bolted-closure systems to provide rapid evaluation of the dynamic capacity of designs for a range in bolt prestress.

Duffey, T.A.

1992-08-01

113

Optimizing compressor operation with dynamic programming  

SciTech Connect

Fuel consumption in natural gas compressor stations can be minimized using dynamic programming. Appropriate for installations with either reciprocating or centrifugal compressors in parallel or tandem configurations, this approach yields minimum fuel usage consistent with constraints on total throughput and operating limits on such individual parameters as speed, torque, and surge flow. The flow shares indicated by the optimization procedure may be achieved by adjusting pressure, temperature, or flow setpoints, depending on pipeline and compressor station configuration. Control may be exerted by changing compressor speed; reciprocating units can also be controlled by opening or closing the pockets.

Baqui, A.

1982-09-01

114

Optimal control of HIV-virus dynamics.  

PubMed

In this paper we consider a mathematical model of HIV-virus dynamics and propose an efficient control strategy to keep the number of HIV virons under a pre-specified level and to reduce the total amount of medications that patients receive. The model considered is a nonlinear third-order model. The third-order model describes dynamics of three most dominant variables: number of healthy white blood cells (T-cells), number of infected T-cells, and number of virus particles. There are two control variables in this model corresponding to two categories of antiviral drugs: reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI). The proposed strategy is based on linearization of the nonlinear model at the equilibrium point (steady state). The corresponding controller has two components: the first one that keeps the system state variables at the desired equilibrium (set-point controller) and the second-one that reduces in an optimal way deviations of the system state variables from their desired equilibrium values. The second controller is based on minimization of the square of the error between the actual and desired (equilibrium) values for the linearized system (linear-quadratic optimal controller). The obtained control strategy recommends to HIV researchers and experimentalists that the constant dosages of drugs have to be administrated at all times (set point controller, open-loop controller) and that the variable dosages of drugs have to be administrated on a daily basis (closed-loop controller, feedback controller). PMID:19294513

Radisavljevic-Gajic, Verica

2009-03-18

115

An Optimal Dynamic Threat Evaluation and Weapon Scheduling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time scheduling problems demand high level of flexibility and robustness under complex dynamic scenarios. Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA), together TEWA is one such complex dynamic system having optimal or near optimal utilization of scarce defensive resources of supreme priority. Several static solutions of TEWA have been proposed. This paper discusses an optimal dynamic multi-air threat evaluation and weapon allocation algorithm using a variant of Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA). WA uses a new dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution. Testing part of this paper shows feasibility of this approach for a range of scenarios.

Naeem, H.; Masood, A.

116

Theory and Methodology Optimizing the natural gas supply mix of local distribution utilities 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large mixed-integer linear program (MILP) and a much smaller nonlinear programming (NLP) approximation of the MILP, involving simulation and response surface estimation via regression analysis, are proposed to solve the problem of the optimal selection of natural gas supply contracts by local gas distribution utilities. Each potential supply source is characterized by several price and nonprice parameters. Weather variability

Jean-Michel Guldmann; Fahui Wang

117

A novel formulation of carbon emissions costs for optimal design configuration of system transmission planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology developed for designing an optimal configuration for system transmission planning with carbon emissions costs. The power transmission network planning problem is modeled by the mixed integer programming model, a GA, and SA. At this moment environmental issues have the most serious problem to be concerned within every part of the world. Global warming, which is

A. Sadegheih

2010-01-01

118

Optimal flow rates and well locations for soil vapor extraction design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed-integer programming model to determine the optimum number of wells, their locations and pumping rates for soil vapor extraction (SVE) is developed by coupling an air flow simulation model (AIR3D) to the GAMS optimization software. The model was tested for sensitivity of the vertical discretization of the domain, the number of potential well locations, the number of constraints, and

Charles S. Sawyer; Madhavi Kamakoti

1998-01-01

119

An optimal rescheduling for online train traffic control in disturbed situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical method for generating optimal schedules for online train traffic control in disturbed situations is proposed. This scheduling problem is formulated to a 0-1 mixed integer programming problem. The method of solution proposed here is mainly divided into two parts: the first part generates a suboptimal solution by a heuristic method based upon \\

S. Araya; K. Abe; K. Fukumori

1983-01-01

120

Optimizing multiple dam removals under multiple objectives: Linking tributary habitat and the Lake Erie ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed for optimizing the net benefits of removing multiple dams in U.S. watersheds of Lake Erie by quantifying impacts upon social, ecological, and economic objectives of importance to managers and stakeholders. Explicit consideration is given to the linkages between newly accessible tributary habitat and the lake's ecosystem. The model is a mixed integer linear program (MILP) that

Pearl Q. Zheng; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Joseph F. Koonce

2009-01-01

121

Optimizing Circular Economy Planning and Risk Analysis Using System Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a systems dynamics and multi-objective programming model (SDMOP) for planning a regional circular economy. Various risk analyses are conducted using the technique of sensitivity analysis. This SDMOP model includes two modules: the MOP module used to derive optimized parameters as inputs to the systems dynamics model, and the systems dynamics module used to plan the regional circular

Jiuping Xu; Xiaofei Li; Desheng Dash Wu

2009-01-01

122

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec

Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

123

Evolutionary Optimization of Dynamic Multi-objective Test Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-objective as well as dynamic characteristics appear in many real-world problems. In order to use multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms (MOEA) efficiently, a systematic analysis of the algorithms' behavior in dynamic environments by means of dynamic test functions is necessary. These functions can be classified into problems with changing Pareto sets and\\/or Pareto fronts with different dynamic criteria. Thus, a test

Jorn Mehnen; Tobias Wagner; Gunter Rudolph

124

Optimization of reactive distillation processes with simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulated annealing-based algorithm (MSIMPSA) suitable for the optimization of mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems was applied to the synthesis of a non-equilibrium reactive distillation column. A simulation model based on an extension of conventional distillation is proposed for the simulation step of the optimization problem. In the case of ideal vapor–liquid equilibrium, the simulation results are similar to

M. F. Cardoso; R. L. Salcedo; S. Feyo de Azevedo; D. Barbosa

2000-01-01

125

Dynamic optimization of constrained chemical engineering problems using dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many chemical engineering process control applications, one frequently encounters differential-algebraic optimization problems. Such optimal control problems are difficult to solve, in general, because of the presence of singular arcs for systems whose Hamiltonian is linear with respect to the control variable. We propose the use of absolute error penalty functions (AEPF) in handling constrained optimal control problems in chemical

S. A. Dadebo; K. B. Mcauley

1995-01-01

126

Vehicle dynamics applications of optimal control theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to survey the various forms of optimal-control theory which have been applied to automotive problems and to present illustrative examples of applications studies, with assessments of the state of the art and of the contributions made through the use of optimal-control ideas. After a short introduction to the topic mentioning several questions to which

R. S. Sharp; Huei Peng

2011-01-01

127

Dynamic optimization identifies optimal programmes for pathway regulation in prokaryotes.  

PubMed

To survive in fluctuating environmental conditions, microorganisms must be able to quickly react to environmental challenges by upregulating the expression of genes encoding metabolic pathways. Here we show that protein abundance and protein synthesis capacity are key factors that determine the optimal strategy for the activation of a metabolic pathway. If protein abundance relative to protein synthesis capacity increases, the strategies shift from the simultaneous activation of all enzymes to the sequential activation of groups of enzymes and finally to a sequential activation of individual enzymes along the pathway. In the case of pathways with large differences in protein abundance, even more complex pathway activation strategies with a delayed activation of low abundance enzymes and an accelerated activation of high abundance enzymes are optimal. We confirm the existence of these pathway activation strategies as well as their dependence on our proposed constraints for a large number of metabolic pathways in several hundred prokaryotes. PMID:23979724

Bartl, Martin; Kötzing, Martin; Schuster, Stefan; Li, Pu; Kaleta, Christoph

2013-08-27

128

Dynamics systems vs. optimal control--a unifying view.  

PubMed

In the past, computational motor control has been approached from at least two major frameworks: the dynamic systems approach and the viewpoint of optimal control. The dynamic system approach emphasizes motor control as a process of self-organization between an animal and its environment. Nonlinear differential equations that can model entrainment and synchronization behavior are among the most favorable tools of dynamic systems modelers. In contrast, optimal control approaches view motor control as the evolutionary or development result of a nervous system that tries to optimize rather general organizational principles, e.g., energy consumption or accurate task achievement. Optimal control theory is usually employed to develop appropriate theories. Interestingly, there is rather little interaction between dynamic systems and optimal control modelers as the two approaches follow rather different philosophies and are often viewed as diametrically opposing. In this paper, we develop a computational approach to motor control that offers a unifying modeling framework for both dynamic systems and optimal control approaches. In discussions of several behavioral experiments and some theoretical and robotics studies, we demonstrate how our computational ideas allow both the representation of self-organizing processes and the optimization of movement based on reward criteria. Our modeling framework is rather simple and general, and opens opportunities to revisit many previous modeling results from this novel unifying view. PMID:17925262

Schaal, Stefan; Mohajerian, Peyman; Ijspeert, Auke

2007-01-01

129

An ant colony algorithm aimed at dynamic continuous optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the concept of swarm intelligence into ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms has shown the rich possibilities of self-organization when dealing with difficult optimization. Indeed, the inherent flexibility and efficiency of ACO algorithms proved to be advantageous for difficult dynamic discrete problems, e.g. routing in telecommunication networks. Moreover, we believe that ant colony algorithms can be efficient for

J. Dréo; P. Siarry

2006-01-01

130

Aerodynamic design optimization using sensitivity analysis and computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient aerodynamic shape optimization method based on a computational fluid dynamics/sensitivity analysis algorithm has been developed which determines automatically the geometrical definition of an optimal surface starting from any initial arbitrary geometry. This method is not limited to any number of design variables or to any class of surfaces for shape definition.

Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamad E.

1992-01-01

131

Aerodynamic design optimization using sensitivity analysis and computational fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient aerodynamic shape optimization method based on a computational fluid dynamics\\/sensitivity analysis algorithm has been developed which determines automatically the geometrical definition of an optimal surface starting from any initial arbitrary geometry. This method is not limited to any number of design variables or to any class of surfaces for shape definition.

Oktay Baysal; Mohamad E. Eleshaky

1992-01-01

132

Towards Dynamic Data-Driven Optimization of Oil Well Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adequate location of wells in oil and environmental applications has a significant economical impact on reservoir management. However, the determination of optimal well locations is both challenging and computationally expensive. The overall goal of this research is to use the emerging Grid infra- structure to realize an autonomic dynamic data-driven self-optimizing reservoir framework. In this paper, we present the

Manish Parashar; Vincent Matossian; Wolfgang Bangerth; Hector Klie; Benjamin Rutt; Tahsin M. Kurç; Ümit V. Çatalyürek; Joel H. Saltz; Mary F. Wheeler

2005-01-01

133

Simple Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization for Dynamic and Noisy Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we present a Simple Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization (SDPSO) algorithm that can be used to track the optimal solution in a dynamic and noisy environment. The classic PSO algorithm lacks the ability to track changing optimum in a dyna...

J. St. Charles T. E. Potok X. Cui

2009-01-01

134

Optimal Dynamic Pricing for Perishable Assets with Nonhomogeneous Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a dynamic pricing model for selling a given stock of a perishable product over a finite time horizon. Customers, whose reservation price distribution changes over time, arrive according to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. We show that at any given time, the optimal price decreases with inventory. We also identify a sufficient condition under which the optimal price decreases

Wen Zhao; Yu-Sheng Zheng

2000-01-01

135

Dynamic Optimal Control Models in Advertising: Recent Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of recent developments that have taken place in the area of dynamic optimal control models in advertising subsequent to the comprehensive survey of the literature by Sethi in 1977. The basic problem underlying these models is that of determining optimal advertising expenditures and possibly other variables of interest over time for a firm or a

Gustav Feichtinger; Richard F. Hartl; Suresh P. Sethi

1994-01-01

136

Dynamical optimal learning for FNN and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a new dynamical optimal learning (DOL) algorithm for three-layer linear neural networks and investigates its generalization ability. The optimal learning rates can be fully determined during the training process. The mean squared error is guaranteed to be stably decreased and the learning is less sensitive to initial parameter settings. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed DOL

H. J. Tang; K. C. Tan; T. H. Lee

2004-01-01

137

New dynamical optimal learning for linear multilayer FNN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter presents a new dynamical optimal learning (DOL) algorithm for three-layer linear neural networks and investigates its generalization ability. The optimal learning rates can be fully determined during the training process. The mean squared error (mse) is guaranteed to be stably decreased and the learning is less sensitive to initial parameter settings. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed

K. C. Tan; H. J. Tang

2004-01-01

138

Dynamic programming approach to a minimum distance optimal control problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal control problem with minimum-type (non-additive) functional is considered. Such problem has several applications, including air collision avoidance problem for two aircraft. It is known that the Bellman optimality principle is not fulfilled globally for this problem, so that the dynamic programming technique works only in a part of the problem's phase space. The boundary of this part is

Arik Melikyan; N. Hovakimyan; Y. Ikeda

2003-01-01

139

Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

Williams, B.K.

1989-01-01

140

Identification and Optimization of Aircraft Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is described for the design of an adaptive controller for multivariable systems and is based on recently developed methods for identification and optimization. An application of the method to a helicopter system with time-varying parameters is...

K. S. Narendra S. S. Tripathi

1972-01-01

141

Optimization-based Dynamic Human Lifting Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, an optimization-based approach for simulating the lifting motion of a three dimensional digital human model is presented. Lifting motion is generated by minimizing a performance measure subjected to basic physical and kinematical constraint...

H. Chung J. Kim R. Bhatt S. Rahmatalla Y. Xiang

2008-01-01

142

Dynamic security constrained optimal power flow\\/VAr planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally security constrained optimal power flow and VAr planning methods consider static security observing voltage profile and flow constraints under normal and post contingency conditions. Ideally, these formulations should be extended to consider dynamic security. This paper reports on a BC Hydro\\/CEPEL joint effort establishing a dynamic security constrained OPF\\/VAr planning tool which considers simultaneously static constraints as well as

Ebrahim Vaahedi; Yakout Mansour; Chris Fuchs; Sergio Granville; Maria de Lujan Latore; Hamid Hamadanizadeh

2001-01-01

143

Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.  

PubMed

Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. PMID:23786476

Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

2013-03-18

144

Solving Optimal Control Problems by Exploiting Inherent Dynamical Systems Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computing globally efficient solutions is a major challenge in optimal control of nonlinear dynamical systems. This work proposes a method combining local optimization and motion planning techniques based on exploiting inherent dynamical systems structures, such as symmetries and invariant manifolds. Prior to the optimal control, the dynamical system is analyzed for structural properties that can be used to compute pieces of trajectories that are stored in a motion planning library. In the context of mechanical systems, these motion planning candidates, termed primitives, are given by relative equilibria induced by symmetries and motions on stable or unstable manifolds of e.g. fixed points in the natural dynamics. The existence of controlled relative equilibria is studied through Lagrangian mechanics and symmetry reduction techniques. The proposed framework can be used to solve boundary value problems by performing a search in the space of sequences of motion primitives connected using optimized maneuvers. The optimal sequence can be used as an admissible initial guess for a post-optimization. The approach is illustrated by two numerical examples, the single and the double spherical pendula, which demonstrates its benefit compared to standard local optimization techniques.

Flaßkamp, Kathrin; Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Kobilarov, Marin

2012-08-01

145

Dynamic Network Formation Using Ant Colony Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research presents three contributions for solving highly dynamic (i.e. drastic change within the network) Multi-commodity Capacitated Network Design Problems (MCNDPs) resulting in a distributed multi-agent network design algorithm. The first contribu...

S. C. Oimoen

2009-01-01

146

Combining optimal control theory and molecular dynamics for protein folding.  

PubMed

A new method to develop low-energy folding routes for proteins is presented. The novel aspect of the proposed approach is the synergistic use of optimal control theory with Molecular Dynamics (MD). In the first step of the method, optimal control theory is employed to compute the force field and the optimal folding trajectory for the C? atoms of a Coarse-Grained (CG) protein model. The solution of this CG optimization provides an harmonic approximation of the true potential energy surface around the native state. In the next step CG optimization guides the MD simulation by specifying the optimal target positions for the C? atoms. In turn, MD simulation provides an all-atom conformation whose C? positions match closely the reference target positions determined by CG optimization. This is accomplished by Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD) which uses a bias potential or harmonic restraint in addition to the usual MD potential. Folding is a dynamical process and as such residues make different contacts during the course of folding. Therefore CG optimization has to be reinitialized and repeated over time to accomodate these important changes. At each sampled folding time, the active contacts among the residues are recalculated based on the all-atom conformation obtained from MD. Using the new set of contacts, the CG potential is updated and the CG optimal trajectory for the C? atoms is recomputed. This is followed by MD. Implementation of this repetitive CG optimization-MD simulation cycle generates the folding trajectory. Simulations on a model protein Villin demonstrate the utility of the method. Since the method is founded on the general tools of optimal control theory and MD without any restrictions, it is widely applicable to other systems. It can be easily implemented with available MD software packages. PMID:22238629

Arkun, Yaman; Gur, Mert

2012-01-06

147

Policy Optimization for Dynamic Power Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic power management schemes (also called policies) reduce the power consumption of complex electronic sys- tems by trading off performance for power in a controlled fash- ion, taking system workload into account. In a power-managed system it is possible to set components into different states, each characterized by performance and power consumption levels. The main function of a power management

Luca Benini; Alessandro Bogliolo; Giuseppe A. Paleologo; GiovanniDe Micheli

1999-01-01

148

Optimal dynamical decoupling sequence for the Ohmic spectrum  

SciTech Connect

The optimal dynamical decoupling sequence for a qubit coupled to an Ohmic environment is investigated. By analytically computing the derivatives of the decoherence function, the optimal pulse locations are found to satisfy a set of nonlinear equations which can be easily solved. These equations incorporate the environment information such as the high-energy (UV) cutoff frequency {omega}{sub c}, giving a complete description of the decoupling process. The solutions explain previous experimental and theoretical results of locally optimized dynamical decoupling sequence in high-frequency-dominated environment, which were obtained by purely numerical computation and experimental feedback. As shown in numerical comparison, these solutions outperform the Uhrig dynamical decoupling sequence by one or more orders of magnitude in the Ohmic case.

Pan Yu; Cui Wei [Key Laboratory of Systems and Control, Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xi Zairong [Key Laboratory of Systems and Control, Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-02-15

149

Optimized reduction of uncertainty in bursty human dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human dynamics is known to be inhomogeneous and bursty but the detailed understanding of the role of human factors in bursty dynamics is still lacking. In order to investigate their role we devise an agent-based model, where an agent in an uncertain situation tries to reduce the uncertainty by communicating with information providers while having to wait time for responses. Here the waiting time can be considered as cost. We show that the optimal choice of the waiting time under uncertainty gives rise to the bursty dynamics, characterized by the heavy tailed distribution of optimal waiting time. We find that in all cases the efficiency for communication is relevant to the scaling behavior of the optimal waiting time distribution. On the other hand, the cost turns out in some cases to be irrelevant depending on the degree of uncertainty and efficiency.

Jo, Hang-Hyun; Moon, Eunyoung; Kaski, Kimmo

2012-01-01

150

Dynamic cellular manufacturing systems design—a comprehensive model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the dynamic cell formation problem (DCF). In dynamic environment, the product demand and mix changes\\u000a in each period of a multiperiod planning horizon. It causes need of reconfiguration of cells to respond to the product demand\\u000a and mix change in each period. This paper proposes a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model to design the dynamic cellular\\u000a manufacturing systems

Lokesh Kumar Saxena; Promod Kumar Jain

2011-01-01

151

Dynamically mapping screen real estate optimality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper brings together the fields of systems engineering and media studies to investigate the cinema\\/television\\/computer\\/mobile device screen as a dynamic interface through which points of engagement or how the aesthetics and narrative structures presented on the screen engage the user and create meaning. The co-authors work towards the development of a “screen real estate grammar” or ontology by

Luigi Benedicenti; Sheila Petty

2010-01-01

152

Optimal Verification of Operations on Dynamic Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We study the design of protocols for set-operation verification, namely the problem of cryptographically checking the correctness of outsourced set operations performed by an untrusted\\u000a server over a dynamic collection of sets that are owned (and updated) by a trusted source. We present new authenticated data\\u000a structures that allow any entity to publicly verify a proof attesting the correctness of

Charalampos Papamanthou; Roberto Tamassia; Nikos Triandopoulos

153

Optimal control of stochastic magnetization dynamics by spin current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuation-induced stochastic magnetization dynamics plays an important role in spintronics devices. Here we propose that it can be optimally controlled by spin currents to minimize or maximize the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional of the system hence to increase or decrease the probability of the large fluctuations. We apply this method to study the thermally activated magnetization switching problem and to demonstrate the merits of the optimal control strategy.

Wang, Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun

2013-05-01

154

MILP model for emergy optimization in EIP water networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eco-industrial park (EIP) concept provides a framework in which several plants can cooperate with each other and exchange\\u000a their wastewater to minimize total freshwater consumption. Emergy analysis is a methodology that considers the total, cumulative\\u000a energy which has been consumed within a system; thus, by minimizing emergy, an environmentally optimal EIP can be designed.\\u000a This article presents a mixed-integer

Mohammad Sadegh Taskhiri; Raymond R. Tan; Anthony S. F. Chiu

155

Application of field and dynamics code to LEBT optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A code for computer simulation and optimization of beam dynamics in 3D or rotationally symmetric electrostatic fields is considered. It is based on a physical model that takes into account the beam space charge. The theoretical framework used for both formulation of the model and interpretation of the results of numerical experiments is a formalism of the charged particle dynamics in phase space. The code can be used as an effective tool for computer-aided design and optimization of electrostatic accelerating and focusing systems. The operation of the code is illustrated with a typical example.

Kozynchenko, S. A.; Svistunov, Yu. A.

2006-03-01

156

Speeding up critical system dynamics through optimized evolution  

SciTech Connect

The number of defects which are generated upon crossing a quantum phase transition can be minimized by choosing properly designed time-dependent pulses. In this work we determine what are the ultimate limits of this optimization. We discuss under which conditions the production of defects across the phase transition is vanishing small. Furthermore we show that the minimum time required to enter this regime is T{approx}{pi}/{Delta}, where {Delta} is the minimum spectral gap, unveiling an intimate connection between an optimized unitary dynamics and the intrinsic measure of the Hilbert space for pure states. Surprisingly, the dynamics is nonadiabatic; this result can be understood by assuming a simple two-level dynamics for the many-body system. Finally we classify the possible dynamical regimes in terms of the action s=T{Delta}.

Caneva, Tommaso [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Fazio, Rosario [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoro, Giuseppe E. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); CNR-INFM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), P.O. Box 586, I-34014 Trieste (Italy)

2011-07-15

157

A Population Prediction Strategy for Evolutionary Dynamic Multiobjective Optimization.  

PubMed

This paper investigates how to use prediction strategies to improve the performance of multiobjective evolutionary optimization algorithms in dealing with dynamic environments. Prediction-based methods have been applied to predict some isolated points in both dynamic single objective optimization and dynamic multiobjective optimization. We extend this idea to predict a whole population by considering the properties of continuous dynamic multiobjective optimization problems. In our approach, called population prediction strategy (PPS), a Pareto set is divided into two parts: a center point and a manifold. A sequence of center points is maintained to predict the next center, and the previous manifolds are used to estimate the next manifold. Thus, PPS could initialize a whole population by combining the predicted center and estimated manifold when a change is detected. We systematically compare PPS with a random initialization strategy and a hybrid initialization strategy on a variety of test instances with linear or nonlinear correlation between design variables. The statistical results show that PPS is promising for dealing with dynamic environments. PMID:23757532

Zhou, Aimin; Jin, Yaochu; Zhang, Qingfu

2013-02-26

158

Optimization of natural-gas pipeline systems via dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity and expense of operating natural-gas pipeline systems have made optimum operation and planning of increased interest to the natural-gas pipeline industries. Since the operations of natural-gas pipeline sytems are characterized by inherent nonlinearities and numerous constraints, dynamic programming provides an extremely powerful method for optimizing such systems. This paper summarizes the application of dynamic programming techniques to solve

P. Wong; R. Larson

1968-01-01

159

MULTIOBJECTIVE DYNAMIC APERTURE OPTIMIZATION AT NSLS-II  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a multiobjective approach to the dynamic aperture (DA) optimization. Taking the NSLS-II lattice as an example, we have used both sextupoles and quadrupoles as tuning variables to optimize both on-momentum and off-momentum DA. The geometric and chromatic sextupoles are used for nonlinear properties while the tunes are independently varied by quadrupoles. The dispersion and emittance are fixed during tunes variation. The algorithms, procedures, performances and results of our optimization of DA will be discussed and they are found to be robust, general and easy to apply to similar problems.

Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.

2011-03-28

160

A Particle Swarm Optimization for Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (Volt\\/Var Control: VVC) in electric power systems considering voltage security. VVC can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The proposed method expands the original PSO to handle a MINLP and determines an on-line VVC strategy with continuous and discrete control variables such as

Yoshikazu Fukuyama; Shinichi Takayama; Yosuke Nakanishi; Hirotaka Yoshida

1999-01-01

161

Optimal Capacity Planning in Multi-Radio MultiChannel Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study how to compute the optimal capacity planning in a multi-radio multi-channel (MR-MC) wireless network, that is, to find solutions for a set of coupled problems including channel assignment, scheduling, and routing, with the objective to optimize network capacity. The current state of the art mainly resorts to formulation of a mixed integer programming problem, which

Yu Cheng; Hongkun Li

2010-01-01

162

Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link's bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link's bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link's bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

2013-03-01

163

Equilibrium selection under evolutionary game dynamics with optimizing behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate equilibrium selection in a heterogeneous population composed of both optimizing and programmed agents using an evolutionary game-theoretic framework. Under the Smith dynamic, we are able to identify a class of games in which any programmed behavior will become extinct ultimately starting from any initial state, as well as a class of games in which all programmed agents can get wiped out eventually, as long as there are not enough initially. Besides, the long-run behavior is characterized under a variety of well-behaved dynamics such as the Brown-von Neumann-Nash dynamic.

Zhang, Yanfang; Mei, Shue; Zhong, Weijun

2012-09-01

164

Fractional Order Dynamics in a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the study of fractional dynamics during the evolution of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Some initial swarm particles are randomly changed, for stimulating the system response, and its effect is compared with a non-perturbed reference. The perturbation effect in the PSO evolution is observed in the perspective of the fitness time behavior of the best particle.

E. J. Solteiro Pires; P. B. de Oliveira; J. A. T. Machado; I. S. Jesus

2007-01-01

165

Near-optimal dynamical decoupling of a qubit.  

PubMed

We present a near-optimal quantum dynamical decoupling scheme that eliminates general decoherence of a qubit to order n using O(n2) pulses, an exponential decrease in pulses over all previous decoupling methods. Numerical simulations of a qubit coupled to a spin bath demonstrate the superior performance of the new pulse sequences. PMID:20481868

West, Jacob R; Fong, Bryan H; Lidar, Daniel A

2010-04-01

166

Dynamic Optimization of Chemical Processes using Ant Colony Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony framework is illustrated by considering dynamic optimization of six important bench marking examples. This new computational tool is simple to implement and can tackle problems with state as well as terminal constraints in a straightforward fashion. It requires fewer grid points to reach the global optimum at relatively very low computational effort. The examples with varying degree of

J. Rajesh; Kapil Gupta; Hari Shankar Kusumakar; Vaidyanathan K. Jayaraman; Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

2001-01-01

167

Optimal control of switching times in switched dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an optimal control problem for switched dynamical systems, where the objective is to minimize a cost functional defined on the state, and where the control variable consists of the switching times. The gradient of the cost functional is derived on an especially simple form, which lends itself to be directly used in gradient-descent algorithms. This special structure

M. Egerstedt; Y. Wardi; F. Delmotte

2003-01-01

168

Dynamic constrained optimal power flow using semi-infinite programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic constrained optimal power flow can be modeled as a semi-infinite programming problem. In this letter, a local reduction based on infinite norm is proposed to replace the infinite constraints with finite constraints. The equivalent problem is then solved by the standard finite programming method. A case study on the WSCC nine-bus system showed that the proposed model and approach

Yan Xia; Ka Wing Chan

2006-01-01

169

Structural dynamics test simulation and optimization for aerospace components  

SciTech Connect

This paper initially describes an innovative approach to product realization called Knowledge Based Testing (KBT). This research program integrates test simulation and optimization software, rapid fabrication techniques and computational model validation to support a new experimentally-based design concept. This design concept implements well defined tests earlier in the design cycle enabling the realization of highly reliable aerospace components. A test simulation and optimization software environment provides engineers with an essential tool needed to support this KBT approach. This software environment, called the Virtual Environment for Test Optimization (VETO), integrates analysis and test based models to support optimal structural dynamic test design. A goal in developing this software tool is to provide test and analysis engineers with a capability of mathematically simulating the complete structural dynamics test environment within a computer. A developed computational model of an aerospace component can be combined with analytical and/or experimentally derived models of typical structural dynamic test instrumentation within the VETO to determine an optimal test design. The VETO provides the user with a unique analysis and visualization environment to evaluate new and existing test methods in addition to simulating specific experiments designed to maximize test based information needed to validate computational models. The results of both a modal and a vibration test design are presented for a reentry vehicle and a space truss structure.

Klenke, S.E.; Baca, T.J.

1996-06-01

170

Neural dynamic optimization for control systems.III. Applications.  

PubMed

For pt.II. see ibid., p. 490-501. The paper presents neural dynamic optimization (NDO) as a method of optimal feedback control for nonlinear multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems. The main feature of NDO is that it enables neural networks to approximate the optimal feedback solution whose existence dynamic programming (DP) justifies, thereby reducing the complexities of computation and storage problems of the classical methods such as DP. This paper demonstrates NDO with several applications including control of autonomous vehicles and of a robot-arm, while the two other companion papers of this topic describes the background for the development of NDO and present the theory of the method, respectively. PMID:18244817

Seong, C Y; Widrow, B

2001-01-01

171

Beam Dynamics Optimization for the Xfel Photo Injector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge for the European XFEL photo injector is the production of 1 nC electron beams with a normalized transverse emittance of 0.9 mm mrad. The photo injector setup consists of a 1.5-cell L-band rf gun cavity supplied with solenoids for beam focusing and emittance compensation and the first accelerating section with 8 TESLA superconducting cavities. The first 4 cavities are used as a booster to provide by proper choice of its position, gradient and phase matching conditions for the emittance conservation. For optimization of the beam dynamics in the photo injector, a staged algorithm, based on ASTRA simulations, has been developed. The first stage considers the emission of electrons from a photo cathode. The cathode laser energy and its transverse parameters are adjusted to produce a bunch charge of 1 nC in presence of space charge forces (including image charge at the cathode) and Schottky-like effects. The second stage contains rf gun cavity and solenoid optimization. The booster position, gradient and initial phase are optimized at the third stage yielding the minimum emittance at the photo injector exit. Results of the XFEL photo injector optimization will be presented. Besides simulations experimental studies towards XFEL photo injector are carried out. The photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) develops photo injectors for FELs, including FLASH and the European XFEL. A thorough comparison of measured data with results of beam dynamics simulations is one of the main PITZ goals. Detailed experimental studies on photo emission processes, thermal emittance, transverse and longitudinal phase space of the electron beam are being performed together with beam dynamics simulations. This aims to result in better understanding of beam dynamics in high brightness photo injectors. Experimentally obtained photo injector characteristics (like thermal emittance) have to be used in an additional optimization of the photo injector resulting in more realistic beam dynamics simulations. Results of these studies will be reported as well.

Krasilnikov, Mikhail

172

Optimal Control of HIV Dynamic Using Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

This present study proposes an optimal control problem, with the final goal of implementing an optimal treatment protocol which could maximize the survival time of patients and minimize the cost of drug utilizing a system of ordinary differential equations which describes the interaction of the immune system with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Optimal control problem transfers into a modified problem in measure space using an embedding method in which the existence of optimal solution is guaranteed by compactness of the space. Then the metamorphosed problem is approximated by a linear programming (LP) problem, and by solving this LP problem a suboptimal piecewise constant control function, which is more practical from the clinical viewpoint, is achieved. The comparison between the immune system dynamics in treated and untreated patients is introduced. Finally, the relationships between the healthy cells and virus are shown.

Zarei, H.; Kamyad, A. V.; Farahi, M. H.

2011-01-01

173

Optimization of cardiovascular stent design using computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

Coronary stent design affects the spatial distribution of wall shear stress (WSS), which can influence the progression of endothelialization, neointimal hyperplasia, and restenosis. Previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have only examined a small number of possible geometries to identify stent designs that reduce alterations in near-wall hemodynamics. Based on a previously described framework for optimizing cardiovascular geometries, we developed a methodology that couples CFD and three-dimensional shape-optimization for use in stent design. The optimization procedure was fully-automated, such that solid model construction, anisotropic mesh generation, CFD simulation, and WSS quantification did not require user intervention. We applied the method to determine the optimal number of circumferentially repeating stent cells (N(C)) for slotted-tube stents with various diameters and intrastrut areas. Optimal stent designs were defined as those minimizing the area of low intrastrut time-averaged WSS. Interestingly, we determined that the optimal value of N(C) was dependent on the intrastrut angle with respect to the primary flow direction. Further investigation indicated that stent designs with an intrastrut angle of approximately 40 deg minimized the area of low time-averaged WSS regardless of vessel size or intrastrut area. Future application of this optimization method to commercially available stent designs may lead to stents with superior hemodynamic performance and the potential for improved clinical outcomes. PMID:22482657

Gundert, Timothy J; Marsden, Alison L; Yang, Weiguang; LaDisa, John F

2012-01-01

174

Optimal control and design of a cold store using dynamic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of controlled processes is a combined optimal control and design problem (OCDP). Literature on solving large OCDPs is rare. This paper presents an algorithm for solving large OCDPs. For this algorithm system dynamics, objective function and their first-order derivatives must be continuous in the state, control and design parameters. The algorithm is successfully applied to the combined control

L. J. S. Lukasse; Jan Broeze; Sietze van der Sluis

2009-01-01

175

Adaptive optimal spectral range for dynamically changing scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.

Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David

2012-05-01

176

A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control in electric power systems considering voltage security assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (Volt\\/Var Control: VVC) considering voltage security assessment (VSA). VVC can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The proposed method expands the original PSO to handle a MINLP and determines an on-line VVC strategy with continuous and discrete control variables such as automatic voltage

Hirotaka Yoshida; Yoshikazu Fukuyama; Shinichi Takayama; Yosuke Nakanishi

1999-01-01

177

Optimal diffusive search: nonequilibrium resetting versus equilibrium dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study first-passage time problems for a diffusive particle with stochastic resetting with a finite rate r. The optimal search time is compared quantitatively with that of an effective equilibrium Langevin process with the same stationary distribution. It is shown that the intermittent, nonequilibrium strategy with non-vanishing resetting rate is more efficient than the equilibrium dynamics. Our results are extended to multiparticle systems where a team of independent searchers, initially uniformly distributed with a given density, looks for a single immobile target. Both the average and the typical survival probability of the target are smaller in the case of nonequilibrium dynamics.

Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.; Mallick, Kirone

2013-05-01

178

A new approach to optimal dynamic therapy planning.  

PubMed Central

Therapy planning is a very complex task. One of its crucial aspect is the derivation of therapeutic plans taking into account the dynamic aspect of the decision problem. This paper deals with dynamic decision problems using Influence Views, a novel graphical formalism based on Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) framework, in order to solve decision problems in which the optimal choice has to be revised periodically in accordance to the evolution of the patient's conditions. The proposed methodology has been applied to the plan of the prophylaxis in patients affected by a mild Hereditary Spherocytosis.

Magni, P.

1998-01-01

179

Shape Optimization of Vehicle Radiator Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (cfd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive manufacturers need to improve the efficiency and lifetime of all engine components. In the case of radiators, performance depends significantly on coolant flow homogeneity across the tubes and overall pressure drop between the inlet and outlet. Design improvements are especially needed in tube-flow uniformity to prevent premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad-hoc geometry changes, the current study combines Computational Fluid Dynamics with shape optimization methods to improve radiator performance. The goal is to develop an automated suite of virtual tools to assist in radiator design. Two objective functions are considered: a flow non-uniformity coefficient,Cf, and the overall pressure drop, dP*. The methodology used to automate the CFD and shape optimization procedures is discussed. In the first phase, single and multi-variable optimization methods, coupled with CFD, are applied to simplified 2-D radiator models to investigate effects of inlet and outlet positions on the above functions. The second phase concentrates on CFD simulations of a simplified 3-D radiator model. The results, which show possible improvements in both pressure and flow uniformity, validate the optimization criteria that were developed, as well as the potential of shape optimization methods with CFD to improve heat exchanger design. * Improving Radiator Design Through Shape Optimization, L. Guessous and S. Maddipatla, Paper # IMECE2002-33888, Proceedings of the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2002

Maddipatla, Sridhar; Guessous, Laila

2002-11-01

180

A dynamic hybrid framework for constrained evolutionary optimization.  

PubMed

Based on our previous work, this paper presents a dynamic hybrid framework, called DyHF, for solving constrained optimization problems. This framework consists of two major steps: global search model and local search model. In the global and local search models, differential evolution serves as the search engine, and Pareto dominance used in multiobjective optimization is employed to compare the individuals in the population. Unlike other existing methods, the above two steps are executed dynamically according to the feasibility proportion of the current population in this paper, with the purpose of reasonably distributing the computational resource for the global and local search during the evolution. The performance of DyHF is tested on 22 benchmark test functions. The experimental results clearly show that the overall performance of DyHF is highly competitive with that of a number of state-of-the-art approaches from the literature. PMID:21824851

Wang, Yong; Cai, Zixing

2011-08-04

181

Self-Optimization for Dynamic Scheduling in Manufacturing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Scheduling is a critical function that is present throughout many industries and applications. A great need exists for developing\\u000a scheduling approaches that can be applied to a number of different scheduling problems with significant impact on performance\\u000a of business organizations. A challenge is emerging in the design of scheduling support systems for manufacturing environments\\u000a where dynamic adaptation and optimization become

Ana Madureira; Ivo Pereira

182

Optimal Dynamic Order Submission Strategies in Some Stylized Trading Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study derives optimal dynamic,order submission strategies for trading problems faced by three stylized traders: an uninformed liquidity trader, an informed trader and a value- motivated trader. Separate solutions are obtained for quote- and order-driven markets. The results provide practicable rules for how to trade small orders and how to manage traders. Transaction cost measurement,methods,based on implementation shortfall are

Lawrence Harris

1998-01-01

183

Multi-agent System for Dynamic Manufacturing System Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper deals with the application of multi-agent system concept for optimization of dynamic uncertain process. These problems\\u000a are known to have a computationally demanding objective function, which could turn to be infeasible when large problems are\\u000a considered. Therefore, fast approximations to the objective function are required. This paper employs bundle of intelligent\\u000a systems algorithms tied together in a multi-agent

Tawfeeq Al-kanhal; Maysam Abbod

2008-01-01

184

Optimal Static-Dynamic Hedges for Barrier Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study optimal hedging of barrier options using a combination of a static position in vanilla options and dynamic trading of the underlying asset. The problem reduces to computing the Fenchel-Legendre transform of the utility-indifierence price as a function of the number of vanilla options used to hedge. Using the well-known duality between expo- nential utility and relative entropy, we

Ronnie Sircar

2004-01-01

185

An optimal tracking neuro-controller for nonlinear dynamic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer neural networks are used to design an optimal tracking neuro-controller (OTNC) for discrete-time nonlinear dynamic systems with quadratic cost function. The OTNC is made of two controllers: feedforward neuro-controller (FFNC) and feedback neuro-controller (FBNC). The FFNC controls the steady-state output of the plant, while the FBNC controls the transient-state output of the plant. The FFNC is designed using a

Young-Moon Park; Myeon-Song Choi; Kwang Y. Lee

1996-01-01

186

Optimally combining dynamical decoupling and quantum error correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum control and fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC) are two of the cornerstones on which the hope of realizing a large-scale quantum computer is pinned, yet only preliminary steps have been taken towards formalizing the interplay between them. Here we explore this interplay using the powerful strategy of dynamical decoupling (DD), and show how it can be seamlessly and optimally integrated with FTQC. To this end we show how to find the optimal decoupling generator set (DGS) for various subspaces relevant to FTQC, and how to simultaneously decouple them. We focus on stabilizer codes, which represent the largest contribution to the size of the DGS, showing that the intuitive choice comprising the stabilizers and logical operators of the code is in fact optimal, i.e., minimizes a natural cost function associated with the length of DD sequences. Our work brings hybrid DD-FTQC schemes, and their potentially considerable advantages, closer to realization.

Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Lidar, D. A.

2013-04-01

187

Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a critically endangered population through captive breeding, control of invasive species, construction of biodiversity reserves, design of landscapes to increase habitat connectivity, and resource exploitation. Although these decision making problems and their solutions present significant challenges, we suggest that a systematic and effective approach to dynamic decision making in conservation need not be an onerous undertaking. The requirements are shared with any systematic approach to decision making—a careful consideration of values, actions, and outcomes.

Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

2013-06-01

188

Optimal pension funding through dynamic simulations: the case of Taiwan public employees retirement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach combining stochastic simulations and dynamic optimization is constructed to decide the optimal funding policy of the defined benefit pension scheme. The results show a significant advantage and flexibility of this approach in projecting the optimal financial status over the traditional deterministic pension valuation. In this study, the optimal contributions are estimated through dynamic programming under the projected workforce

Shih-Chieh Chang

1999-01-01

189

Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems.  

PubMed

Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making. PMID:24141795

Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P; Kapur, Pawan

2013-10-21

190

Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems  

PubMed Central

Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.

Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

2013-01-01

191

Optimal forwarding ratio on dynamical networks with heterogeneous mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of non-Poisson statistics of human mobility trajectories, more attention has been paid to understand the role of these patterns in different dynamics. In this study, we first introduce the heterogeneous mobility of mobile agents into dynamical networks, and then investigate packet forwarding strategy on the heterogeneous dynamical networks. We find that the faster speed and the higher proportion of high-speed agents can enhance the network throughput and reduce the mean traveling time in random forwarding. A hierarchical structure in the dependence of high-speed is observed: the network throughput remains unchanged at small and large high-speed value. It is also interesting to find that a slightly preferential forwarding to high-speed agents can maximize the network capacity. Through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we show that the optimal forwarding ratio stems from the local structural heterogeneity of low-speed agents.

Gan, Yu; Tang, Ming; Yang, Hanxin

2013-05-01

192

Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.

Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

2013-10-01

193

Stochastic programming for optimizing bidding strategies of a Nordic hydropower producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the point of view of a price-taking hydropower producer participating in the day-ahead power market, market prices are highly uncertain. The present paper provides a model for determining optimal bidding strategies taking this uncertainty into account. In particular, market price scenarios are generated and a stochastic mixed-integer linear programming model that involves both hydropower production and physical trading aspects

Stein-erik Fleten; Trine Krogh Kristoffersen

2007-01-01

194

logmip: a disjunctive 0–1 non-linear optimizer for process system models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete-continuous non-linear optimization models are frequently used to formulate problems in process system engineering. Major modeling alternatives and solution algorithms include generalized disjunctive programming and mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP). Both have advantages and drawbacks depending on the problem they are dealing with. In this work, we describe the theory behind logmip, a new computer code for disjunctive programming and

Aldo Vecchietti; Ignacio E. Grossmann

1999-01-01

195

LOGMIP: a disjunctive 0-1 non-linear optimizer for process system models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete-continuous non-linear optimization models are frequently used to formulate problems in process system engineering. Major modeling alternatives and solution algorithms include generalized disjunctive programming and mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP). Both have advantages and drawbacks depending on the problem they are dealing with. In this work, we describe the theory behind LOGMIP, a new computer code for disjunctive programming and

Aldo Vecchietti; Ignacio E. Grossmann

1999-01-01

196

Optimizing spread dynamics on graphs by message passing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cascade processes are responsible for many important phenomena in natural and social sciences. Simple models of irreversible dynamics on graphs, in which nodes activate depending on the state of their neighbors, have been successfully applied to describe cascades in a large variety of contexts. Over the past decades, much effort has been devoted to understanding the typical behavior of the cascades arising from initial conditions extracted at random from some given ensemble. However, the problem of optimizing the trajectory of the system, i.e. of identifying appropriate initial conditions to maximize (or minimize) the final number of active nodes, is still considered to be practically intractable, with the only exception being models that satisfy a sort of diminishing returns property called submodularity. Submodular models can be approximately solved by means of greedy strategies, but by definition they lack cooperative characteristics which are fundamental in many real systems. Here we introduce an efficient algorithm based on statistical physics for the optimization of trajectories in cascade processes on graphs. We show that for a wide class of irreversible dynamics, even in the absence of submodularity, the spread optimization problem can be solved efficiently on large networks. Analytic and algorithmic results on random graphs are complemented by the solution of the spread maximization problem on a real-world network (the Epinions consumer reviews network).

Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Zecchina, R.

2013-09-01

197

Maximum, minimum, and optimal mutation rates in dynamic environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the dynamics of the parallel mutation-selection quasispecies model with a changing environment. For an environment with the sharp-peak fitness function in which the most fit sequence changes by k spin flips every period T , we find analytical expressions for the minimum and maximum mutation rates for which a quasispecies can survive, valid in the limit of large sequence size. We find an asymptotic solution in which the quasispecies population changes periodically according to the periodic environmental change. In this state we compute the mutation rate that gives the optimal mean fitness over a period. We find that the optimal mutation rate per genome, k/T , is independent of genome size, a relationship which is observed across broad groups of real organisms.

Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man

2009-12-01

198

Dynamic stochastic optimization models for air traffic flow management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents dynamic stochastic optimization models for Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) that enables decisions to adapt to new information on evolving capacities of National Airspace System (NAS) resources. Uncertainty is represented by a set of capacity scenarios, each depicting a particular time-varying capacity profile of NAS resources. We use the concept of a scenario tree in which multiple scenarios are possible initially. Scenarios are eliminated as possibilities in a succession of branching points, until the specific scenario that will be realized on a particular day is known. Thus the scenario tree branching provides updated information on evolving scenarios, and allows ATFM decisions to be re-addressed and revised. First, we propose a dynamic stochastic model for a single airport ground holding problem (SAGHP) that can be used for planning Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) when there is uncertainty about future airport arrival capacities. Ground delays of non-departed flights can be revised based on updated information from scenario tree branching. The problem is formulated so that a wide range of objective functions, including non-linear delay cost functions and functions that reflect equity concerns can be optimized. Furthermore, the model improves on existing practice by ensuring efficient use of available capacity without necessarily exempting long-haul flights. Following this, we present a methodology and optimization models that can be used for decentralized decision making by individual airlines in the GDP planning process, using the solutions from the stochastic dynamic SAGHP. Airlines are allowed to perform cancellations, and re-allocate slots to remaining flights by substitutions. We also present an optimization model that can be used by the FAA, after the airlines perform cancellation and substitutions, to re-utilize vacant arrival slots that are created due to cancellations. Finally, we present three stochastic integer programming models for managing inbound air traffic flow of an airport, when there is adverse weather impacting the arrival capacity of the airport along with its arrival fixes. These are the first models, for optimizing ATFM decisions, which address uncertainty of future capacities of multiple NAS resources.

Mukherjee, Avijit

199

Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz

2009-07-31

200

Optimized dynamical decoupling for power-law noise spectra  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the suppression of decoherence by means of dynamical decoupling in the pure-dephasing spin-boson model for baths with power law spectra. The sequence of ideal pi pulses is optimized according to the power of the bath. We expand the decoherence function and separate the canceling divergences from the relevant terms. The proposed sequence is chosen to be the one minimizing the decoherence function. By construction, it provides the best performance. We analytically derive the conditions that must be satisfied. The resulting equations are solved numerically. The solutions are very close to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence for a soft cutoff of the bath while they approach the Uhrig dynamical-decoupling sequence as the cutoff becomes harder.

Pasini, S.; Uhrig, G. S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Physik I, TU Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Strasse 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2010-01-15

201

Optimal control of drug therapy: melding pharmacokinetics with viral dynamics.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetics were melded with a viral dynamical model to design an optimal drug administration regimen such that the basic reproductive number for the virus was minimized. One-compartmental models with two kinds of drug delivery routes, intravenous and extravascular with multiple dosages, and two drug elimination rates, first order and Michaelis-Menten rates, were considered. We defined explicitly the basic reproductive number for the viral dynamical model melded with pharmacokinetics. When the average plasma drug concentration was constant, intravenous administration of the drug with small dosages applied frequently minimized the basic reproductive number. For extravascular administration, the basic reproductive number initially decreases to a trough point and then increases as the drug dosage increases. When a therapeutic window is considered, numerical studies indicate that the wider the window, the smaller the basic reproductive number. Once the width of the therapeutic window is fixed, the basic reproductive number monotonously declines as the minimum therapeutic level increases. The findings suggest that the existence of drug dosage and drug administration interval that minimize the basic reproductive number could help design the optimal drug administration regimen. PMID:22172775

Yang, Youping; Xiao, Yanni; Wang, Ning; Wu, Jianhong

2011-12-07

202

Hydropower Optimization for the Lower Seyhan System in Turkey using Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming with successive approximation has been used in the past for optimizing multi-reservoir water resources systems. In this study, the State Incremental Dynamic Programming (SIDP) model is developed for energy optimization of multi-reservoir systems. A random file access method is used for reaching initial and intermediate data to cope with the curse of dimensionality of dynamic programming. A conventional

Recep Yurtal; Galip Seckin; GaliMehmet Ardiclioglu

2005-01-01

203

Hydropower Optimization for the Lower Seyhan Basin System in Turkey using dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming with successive approximation has been used in the past for optimizing multi-reservoir water resources systems. In this study, a State Incremental Dynamic Programming (SIDP) model is developed for energy optimization of multi-reservoir systems. A random file access method is used to generate initial and intermediate data and cope with the curse of dimensionality of dynamic programming. The conventional

Recep Yurtal; Galip Seckin; Mehmet Ardiclioglu

2006-01-01

204

Assessment of optimally filtered recent geodetic mean dynamic topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractRecent geoids from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer satellite mission (GOCE) contain useful short-scale information for the construction of a geodetic ocean mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> topography (MDT). The geodetic MDT is obtained from subtracting the geoid from a mean sea surface (MSS) as measured by satellite altimetry. A gainful use of the MDT and an adequate assessment needs an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> filtering. This is accomplished here by defining a cutoff length scale dmax for the geoid and applying a Gaussian filter with half-width radius r on the MDT. A series of MDTs (GRACE, GOCE, and combined satellite-only (GOCO) solutions) is tested, using different sets of filter parameters dmax and r. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> global and regional dependent filter parameters are estimated. To find <span class="hlt">optimal</span> parameters and to assess the resulting MDTs, the geostrophic surface currents induced by the filtered geodetic MDT are compared to corrected near-surface currents obtained from the Global Drifter Program (GDP). The global <span class="hlt">optimal</span> cutoff degree and order (d/o) dmax (half-width radius r of the spatial Gaussian filter) is 160 (1.1°) for GRACE; 180 (1.1-1.2°) for 1st releases of GOCE (time- and space-wise methods) and GOCO models; and 210 (1.0 degree) for 2nd and 3rd releases of GOCE and GOCO models. The cutoff d/o is generally larger (smaller) and the filter length smaller (larger) for regions with strong, small-scale (slow, broad scale) currents. The smallest deviations from the drifter data are obtained with the GOCO03s geoid model, although deviations of other models are only slightly higher.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siegismund, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance Study and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Design for Thread Pool Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> determine the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dongping Xu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/989389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combining <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> decoupling with <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control for improved QIP.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Constructing high-fidelity control pulses that are robust to control and system/environment fluctuations is a crucial objective for quantum information processing (QIP). We combine <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> decoupling (DD) with <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control (OC) to identify control pulses that achieve this objective numerically. Previous DD work has shown that general errors up to (but not including) third order can be removed from {pi}- and {pi}/2-pulses without concatenation. By systematically integrating DD and OC, we are able to increase pulse fidelity beyond this limit. Our hybrid method of quantum control incorporates a newly-developed algorithm for robust OC, providing a nested DD-OC approach to generate robust controls. Motivated by solid-state QIP, we also incorporate relevant experimental constraints into this DD-OC formalism. To demonstrate the advantage of our approach, the resulting quantum controls are compared to previous DD results in open and uncertain model systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grace, Matthew D.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Dominy, Jason; Witzel, Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of objects by <span class="hlt">optimal</span> functional interpolation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many areas of science and engineering rely on functional data and their numerical analysis. The need to analyze time-varying functional data raises the general problem of interpolation, that is, how to learn a smooth time evolution from a finite number of observations. Here, we introduce <span class="hlt">optimal</span> functional interpolation (OFI), a numerical algorithm that interpolates functional data over time. Unlike the usual interpolation or learning algorithms, the OFI algorithm obeys the continuity equation, which describes the transport of some types of conserved quantities, and its implementation shows smooth, continuous flows of quantities. Without the need to take into account equations of motion such as the Navier-Stokes equation or the diffusion equation, OFI is capable of learning the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of objects such as those represented by mass, image intensity, particle concentration, heat, spectral density, and probability density. PMID:22594832</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Jong-Hoon; Kim, In Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6540E..13H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved self-protection using <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> <span class="hlt">optimized</span> expendable countermeasures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of expendable countermeasures is still found to be a viable choice for self protection against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) due to their simplicity, low cost, flexibility, recent improvements in decoy technology, the ability to handle multiple threats simultaneously and the off-board nature of these countermeasures. In civil aviation, the risk of general hazards linked to the use of pyrotechnics is the main argument against expendable countermeasures, whereas for military platforms, the limitation in capacity due to a limited number of rounds is often used as an argument to replace expendable countermeasures by laser-based countermeasures. This latter argument is in general not substantiated by modelling or figures of merit, although it is often argued that a laser based system allows for more false alarms, hence enabling a more sensitive missile approach warning system. The author has developed a model that accounts for the statistical effects of running out of expendable countermeasures during a mission, in terms of the overall mission survival probability. The model includes key parameters of the missile approach warning system (MAWS), and can handle multiple missile types and missile attack configurations, as well as various statistical models of missile attacks. The model enables quantitative comparison between laser based and expendable countermeasures, but also a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the countermeasures in terms of whether to use small or large countermeasure programs, as well as the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tuning of MAWS key parameters to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the overall performance. The model is also well suited for determination of the contributions of the different components of the system in the overall survival probability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hovland, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2929930"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Estimation of <span class="hlt">Dynamically</span> Consistent Kinematics and Kinetics for Forward <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Simulation of Gait</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Forward <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation provides a powerful framework for characterizing in vivo loads, and for predicting changes in movement due to injury, impairment or surgical intervention. However, the computational challenge of generating simulations has greatly limited the use and application of forward <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models for simulating human gait. Methods In this study, we introduce an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> estimation approach to effciently solve for generalized accelerations that satisfy the overall equations of motion and best agree with measured kinematics and ground reaction forces. The estimated accelerations are numerically integrated to enforce <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> consistency over time, resulting in a forward <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation. Numerical <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is then used to determine a set of initial generalized coordinates and speeds that produce a simulation that is most consistent with the measured motion over a full cycle of gait. The proposed method was evaluated with synthetically created kinematics and forceplate data in which both random noise and bias errors were introduced. We also applied the method to experimental gait data collected from five young healthy adults walking at a preferred speed. Results and Conclusions We show that the proposed residual elimination algorithm (REA) converges to an accurate solution, reduces the detrimental effects of kinematic measurement errors on joint moments, and eliminates the need for residual forces that arise in standard inverse <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The greatest improvements in joint kinetics were observed proximally, with the algorithm reducing joint moment errors due to marker noise by over 20% at the hip and over 50% at the low back. Simulated joint angles were generally within 1 deg of recorded values when REA was used to generate a simulation from experimental gait data. REA can thus be used as a basis for generating accurate simulations of subject-specific gait <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Remy, Christian D.; Thelen, Darryl G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708874"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> for Quality Control in Spatially Distributed Mitochondrial Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent imaging studies of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> have implicated a cycle of fusion, fission, and autophagy in the quality control of mitochondrial function by selectively increasing the membrane potential of some mitochondria at the expense of the turnover of others. This complex, <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system creates spatially distributed networks that are dependent on active transport along cytoskeletal networks and on protein import leading to biogenesis. To study the relative impacts of local interactions between neighboring mitochondria and their reorganization via transport, we have developed a spatiotemporal mathematical model encompassing all of these processes in which we focus on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a health parameter meant to mimic the functional state of mitochondria. In agreement with previous models, we show that both autophagy and the generation of membrane potential asymmetry following a fusion/fission cycle are required for maintaining a healthy mitochondrial population. This health maintenance is affected by mitochondrial density and motility primarily through changes in the frequency of fusion events. Health is <span class="hlt">optimized</span> when the selectivity thresholds for fusion and fission are matched, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed coupling of the two processes through the protein OPA1. We also demonstrate that the discreteness of the components exchanged during fusion is critical for quality control, and that the effects of limiting total amounts of autophagy and biogenesis have distinct consequences on health and population size, respectively. Taken together, our results show that several general principles emerge from the complexity of the quality control cycle that can be used to focus and interpret future experimental studies, and our modeling framework provides a road-map for deconstructing the functional importance of local interactions in communities of cells as well as organelles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patel, Pinkesh K.; Shirihai, Orian; Huang, Kerwyn Casey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2000106120"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational Methods for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> and Pursuit-Evasion Games.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thesis deals with the numerical solution of deterministic <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problems and pursuit-evasion games that emerge in the field of aircraft trajectory <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. In the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> framework, the thesis presents a continuation method for min...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Raivio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55688675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Slow Relaxation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in Finite-Time <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> by Simulated Annealing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of the specific temperature beneficial to finite-time <span class="hlt">optimization</span> by simulated annealing is discussed on the analogy of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of complex physical systems. Rate-cycling experiments are introduced and performed on practical time scales on the random Euclidean traveling salesman problems. In the present systems, the effective relaxation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the resulting good <span class="hlt">optimization</span> performance are not only dependent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Hasegawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5913..304T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> sensor management for distributed tracking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we consider the general problem of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> assignment of sensors to local fusion centers (LFCs) in a distributed tracking framework. As a result of recent technological advances, a large number of sensors can be deployed and used for tracking purposes. However, only a certain of number of sensors can be used by each local fusion center due to physical limitations. In addition, the number of available frequency channels is also limited. We can expect that the transmission power of the future sensors will be software controllable within certain lower and upper limits. Thus, the frequency reusability and the sensor reachability can be improved. Then, the problem is to select the sensor subsets that should be used by each LFC and to find their transmission frequencies and powers, in order to maximize the tracking accuracies as well as to minimize the total power consumption. This is an NP-hard multi-objective <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem. In the literature, sensors are clustered based on target or geographic location, and then sensor subsets are selected from those clusters. However, if the total number of LFCs is fixed and the total number of targets varies or a sensor can detect multiple targets, target based clustering is not desirable. Similarly, if targets occupy a small part of the surveillance region, location based clustering is also not <span class="hlt">optimal</span>. In addition, the frequency channel limitation and the advantage of the variable transmitting power are not discussed well in the literature. In this paper, we give the mathematical formulation of the above problem. Then, we present an algorithm to find a near <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution to the above problem in real time. Simulation results illustrating the performance of the sensor array manager are also presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tharmarasa, R.; Kirubarajan, T.; Peng, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1659226"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems: test cases, approximations, and applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract—After demonstrating adequately the usefulness of evolutionary multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (EMO) algorithms in finding multiple Pareto-<span class="hlt">optimal</span> solutions for static multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems, there is now a growing need for solving dy- namic multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems in a similar manner. In this paper, we focus on addressing this issue by developing a number of test problems and by suggesting a baseline algorithm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marco Farina; Kalyanmoy Deb; Paolo Amato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41040769"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control of a rougher flotation process based on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work deals with the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of a rougher flotation circuit. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of this process plays an important role in the improvement of a concentrator plant efficiency, since even small increases in the valuable recovery mean an important economic impact. In order to exploit the serial structure of this process, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming technique is used. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Maldonado; D. Sbarbaro; E. Lizama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2459002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transistor Sizing for Load Balance of Multiple Paths in <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> CMOS for Timing <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the increased importance of speed on microprocessor circuits, the complexity in transistor sizing for timing <span class="hlt">optimization</span> increases due to channel-connected transistors on various paths of the design. In this paper, an efficient approach to transistor sizing of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CMOS circuits for timing <span class="hlt">optimization</span> while considering the load balance of multiple paths, named LBMP, is proposed. The iterative <span class="hlt">optimization</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar Yelamarthi; Chien-in Henry Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.1522Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The emergence of scaling laws search <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the search <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a fundamental particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (PSO) algorithm via gathering and analyzing the data of the search area during the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> process. The PSO algorithm exhibits a distinct performance when <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> different functions, which induces the emergence of different search <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> during the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> process. The simulation results show that the performance is tightly related to the search <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> which results from the interaction between the PSO algorithm and the landscape of the solved problems. The Lévy type scaling laws search <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> emerges from the process in which the PSO algorithm shows good performance, while the Brownian <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> appears after the algorithm has stagnated due to the premature convergence. The Lévy <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> characterized by a large number of intensive local searches punctuated by long-range transfers is an indicator of good performance, which allows the algorithm to achieve an efficient balance between exploration and exploitation so as to improve the search efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qi, Jie; Rong, Zhihai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7622E..28M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-pinhole <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SPECT imaging: simulation and system <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work <span class="hlt">optimized</span> a multi-pinhole collimator for a stationary three-camera Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system designed for rapid (one-second) <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> imaging through simulations. Multi-pinhole collimator designs were investigated to increase efficiency and angular sampling while maintaining adequate spatial resolution for small-animal imaging. The study first analytically investigated the tradeoffs between efficiency and spatial resolution as a function of the number of pinholes. An oval arrangement of pinholes was proposed, and the benefits compared to a circular arrangement were quantified through simulations. Finally, collimators with six to nine pinholes were simulated, and the resulting data compared with respect to efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the angular coverage in Radon space. All simulations used the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit. The results suggest that an oval arrangement of nine pinholes improved the efficiency and SNR by factors of 1.65 and 1.3, respectively, compared to a circular arrangement. A nine-pinhole collimator was found to provide the highest geometric efficiency (~6.35*104cps/mCi) and improved the SNR by a factor of ~1.3 and ~1.1 compared to the six- and eight-pinhole collimators, respectively. Overall, the simulated multi-pinhole system depicted cylindrical objects despite the limited angular sampling and scan time of the one-second, stationary three-camera acquisition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ma, Dan; Clough, Anne V.; Gilat Schmidt, Taly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1022922"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photocathode <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> for a <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Transmission Electron Microscope: Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) team at Harvey Mudd College has been sponsored by LLNL to design and build a test setup for <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> the performance of the DTEM's electron source. Unlike a traditional TEM, the DTEM achieves much faster exposure times by using photoemission from a photocathode to produce electrons for imaging. The DTEM team's work is motivated by the need to improve the coherence and current density of the electron cloud produced by the electron gun in order to increase the image resolution and contrast achievable by DTEM. The photoemission test setup is nearly complete and the team will soon complete baseline tests of electron gun performance. The photoemission laser and high voltage power supply have been repaired; the optics path for relaying the laser to the photocathode has been finalized, assembled, and aligned; the internal setup of the vacuum chamber has been finalized and mostly implemented; and system control, synchronization, and data acquisition has been implemented in LabVIEW. Immediate future work includes determining a consistent alignment procedure to place the laser waist on the photocathode, and taking baseline performance measurements of the tantalum photocathode. Future research will examine the performance of the electron gun as a function of the photoemission laser profile, the photocathode material, and the geometry and voltages of the accelerating and focusing components in the electron gun. This report presents the team's progress and outlines the work that remains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellis, P; Flom, Z; Heinselman, K; Nguyen, T; Tung, S; Haskell, R; Reed, B W; LaGrange, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57701947"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Improved Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Approach for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Economic Dispatch Incorporating Wind Power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In solving the electrical power systems <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> economic dispatch problem, the goal is to find the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> allocation of output power among the various generators available to serve the system load. However, new challenges about <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> economic dispatch arise with large amounts of wind power integrated into the system. In this article, a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> economic dispatch model with wind power</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen Jiang; Zheng Yan; Zhi Hu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5745...74S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Model for Business Applications in Virtualized Grid Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advent of Grid computing gives enterprises an ever increasing choice of computing options, yet research has so far hardly addressed the problem of mixing the different computing options in a cost-minimal fashion. The following paper presents a comprehensive cost model and a <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model which can be used to minimize the IT expenditures of an enterprise and help in decision-making when to outsource certain business software applications. A sample scenario is analyzed and promising cost savings are demonstrated. Possible applications of the model to future research questions are outlined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strebel, Jörg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2607318"> <span id="translatedtitle">A path-stack algorithm for <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> regimes in a statistical hidden <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of speech</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we report our recent research whose goal is to improve the performance of a novel speech recognizer based on an underlying statistical hidden <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of phonetic reduction in the production of conversational speech. We have developed a path-stack search algorithm which efficiently computes the likelihood of any observation utterance while <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> regimes in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeff Z. Ma; Li Deng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22019190"> <span id="translatedtitle">A one-layer recurrent neural network for constrained pseudoconvex <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and its application for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> portfolio <span class="hlt">optimization</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a one-layer recurrent neural network is proposed for solving pseudoconvex <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems subject to linear equality and bound constraints. Compared with the existing neural networks for <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (e.g., the projection neural networks), the proposed neural network is capable of solving more general pseudoconvex <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems with equality and bound constraints. Moreover, it is capable of solving constrained fractional programming problems as a special case. The convergence of the state variables of the proposed neural network to achieve solution <span class="hlt">optimality</span> is guaranteed as long as the designed parameters in the model are larger than the derived lower bounds. Numerical examples with simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed neural network. In addition, an application for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> portfolio <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is discussed. PMID:22019190</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Qingshan; Guo, Zhishan; Wang, Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23096074"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cluster-based differential evolution algorithm with external archive for <span class="hlt">optimization</span> in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a Cluster-based <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Differential Evolution with external Archive (CDDE_Ar) for global <span class="hlt">optimization</span> in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fitness landscape. The algorithm uses a multipopulation method where the entire population is partitioned into several clusters according to the spatial locations of the trial solutions. The clusters are evolved separately using a standard differential evolution algorithm. The number of clusters is an adaptive parameter, and its value is updated after a certain number of iterations. Accordingly, the total population is redistributed into a new number of clusters. In this way, a certain sharing of information occurs periodically during the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> process. The performance of CDDE_Ar is compared with six state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimizers</span> over the moving peaks benchmark problems and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem (DOP) benchmarks generated with the generalized-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span>-benchmark-generator system for the competition and special session on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> held under the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. Experimental results indicate that CDDE_Ar can enjoy a statistically superior performance on a wide range of DOPs in comparison to some of the best known <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evolutionary <span class="hlt">optimizers</span>. PMID:23096074</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halder, Udit; Das, Swagatam; Maity, Dipnakar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13274124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research of Hydropower Stations <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Operation Based on the Discrete Differential <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Programming - Progressive <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Algorithm Combination Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The progressive <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm over-depends on the initial state, it needs to assume certain different types of initial test strategies and corresponding initial test paths, the calculation process repeats 2 to 5 times. Considering the shortfalls mentioned above, this paper presents discrete differential <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming-progressive optimum combination method which is applied in the operation of hydropower station and designs a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xuan Yingji; Mei Yadong; Xu Jiangsong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203870"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> operational planning of cogeneration systems with thermal storage by the decomposition method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">optimal</span> operational planning method is proposed for cogeneration systems with thermal storage. The daily operational strategy of constituent equipment is determined so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to the energy demand requirement. This <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem is formulated as a large-scale <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> linear programming one, and it is solved by means of the decomposition method. Effects of thermal storage on the operation of cogeneration systems are examined through a numerical study on a gas engine-driven cogeneration system installed in a hotel. This method is a useful tool for evaluating the economic and energy-saving properties of cogeneration systems with thermal storage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yokoyama, R.; Ito, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50859260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chaos rejection and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response for boost converter using SPEA multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we aim at designing a simple but <span class="hlt">optimal</span> PID controller for a Boost converter to gain a set of favorite characteristics that is a good transient as well as steady state responses and switching stability. That is done by means of a multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach called Strength Pareto algorithm, which is based on Pareto <span class="hlt">Optimality</span> concept used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. M. R. Rafiei; A. Amirahmadi; G. Griva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50516132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freeway Ramp Metering Control Based on Neural <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we consider the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> metering control problem for a local freeway ramp. The traffic model is formulated as one with stochastic and nonlinear properties. The control objective is to maintain the freeway operated at a desired traffic density and to diminish the queue length on the ramp as possible. Such a nonlinear stochastic <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problem is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jing Xu; WenSheng Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27026566"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial Foraging Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Power Flow in <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> power flow (OPF) problem has already been attempted as a static <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem, by adopting conventional gradient-based methods and more recently, nonconventional ones, such as evolutionary algorithms. However, as the loads, generation capacities and network connections in a power system are always in a changing status, these static-oriented methods are of limited use for this issue. This paper presents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. J. Tang; M. S. Li; Q. H. Wu; J. R. Saunders</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1410..296K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control sub problems we find the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> advertising strategy and goodwill.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krastev, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6071122"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Near-<span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Algorithm for Online Linear Programming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A natural <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model that formulates many online resource allocation and revenue management problems is the online linear program (LP) where the constraint matrix is revealed column by column along with the objective function. We provide a near-<span class="hlt">optimal</span> algorithm for this surprisingly general class of online problems under the assumption of random order of arrival and some mild conditions on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shipra Agrawal; Zizhuo Wang; Yinyu Ye</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14553813"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and robust explicit model predictive control of hydrogen storage tank</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a general framework for the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design and control of a metal-hydride bed under hydrogen desorption operation. The framework features: (i) a detailed two-dimension <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process model, (ii) a design and operational <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> step, and (iii) an explicit\\/multi-parametric model predictive controller design step. For the controller design, a reduced order approximate model is obtained, based on which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Panos; Konstantinos I. Kouramas; Michael C. Georgiadis; Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49668942"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> simulation, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design and control of pin-fin heat sink processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design and direct adaptive control of cylindrical pin-fin heat sink processes. For <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> heat-dispersion investigation of the pin-fin heat sinks, a 3D model that includes the heat transfer from the heat source to fins and the forced convective heat transfer by a horizontal air-cooling fan is proposed. To <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the heat dispersion performance,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chyi-Tsong Chen; Shi-Hung Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043862"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Aperture for SPEAR3 Low-Emittance Upgrade</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low emittance upgrade is planned for SPEAR3. As the first phase, the emittance is reduced from 10nm to 7nm without additional magnets. A further upgrade with even lower emittance will require a damping wiggler. There is a smaller <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture for the lower emittance optics due to a stronger nonlinearity. Elegant based Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is used to maximize the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture. Both the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture and beam lifetime are <span class="hlt">optimized</span> simultaneously. Various configurations of the sextupole magnets have been studied in order to find the best configuration. The betatron tune also can be <span class="hlt">optimized</span> to minimize resonance effects. The <span class="hlt">optimized</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture increases more than 15% from the nominal case and the lifetime increases from 14 hours to 17 hours. It is important that the increase of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture is mainly in the beam injection direction. Therefore the injection efficiency will benefit from this improvement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Lanfa; Huang, Xiaobiao; Nosochkov, Yuri; Safranek, James A.; /SLAC; Borland, Michael; /Argonne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1479.1903B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metaheuristic algorithms in structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: An application of tuned mass damper <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Metaheuristic algorithms imitate natural phenomena in order to solve <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems. These algorithms are effective on the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> problems including vibration control with tuned mass damper (TMD). In this paper, structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems were briefly reviewed. As an example, a TMD <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem was presented. Harmony Search (HS) algorithm was used to find optimum parameters of TMD mass, stiffness and damping coefficient. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> process was conducted to reduce structural displacements of a five story structure. The properties of the structure are the same for all stories except the third story mass. According to the analyses results, the TMD <span class="hlt">optimized</span> with HS approach is effective to reduce all maximum story displacements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bekda?, Gebrail; Nigdeli, Sinan Melih</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50816383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Objective <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Job-Shop Scheduling in Manufacturing Grid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a layered hybrid ant colony and genetic algorithm to solve the multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> job-shop scheduling problem in manufacturing grid. This algorithm is constructed in a layered structure, where the out layer uses ant colony algorithm to select the machine and the inner layer uses genetic algorithm with neighborhood search to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the job scheduling. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang Gao; Yusi Ding; Hongyu Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57805882"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> regulation of the environmental impact of mining across diverse land types</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> regulation of mineral extraction and environmental rehabilitation across diverse land assets is studied using discrete-time, distributed <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control. An extension of Hotelling's Rule is derived that indicates the need to manage both processes over space and time to maximise social welfare. Key empirical insights are drawn from a case study involving the Western Australian mineral sands industry. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graeme J. Doole; Ben White</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50681283"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Path Oriented In Time <span class="hlt">optimization</span> flow for mixed-static-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CMOS logic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexity of timing <span class="hlt">optimization</span> has been increasing rapidly in proportion to the shrinking CMOS device size, due to the increased number of channel-connected transistors in a path, and the rising magnitude of process variations. These significant challenges can be addressed through the implementation of designs with an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> balance between static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> circuits. This paper presents a process</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar Yelamarthi; Chien-In Henry Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA053064"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Uncertainty Threshold Principle: Some Fundamental Limitations of <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Decision Making under <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Uncertainty.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This note shows that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> systems with uncertain parameters has certain limitations. In particular, by means of a simple scalar linear-quadratic <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control example, it is shown that the infinite horizon solution does not exi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Athans R. Ku S. B. Gershwin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14552989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-scale <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a low density polyethylene plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control policy of an industrial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plant. Based on a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of the whole plant, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> feed profiles are determined to minimize the transient states generated during the switching between different steady states. This industrial process produces LDPE by high-pressure polymerization of ethylene in a tubular reactor. The plant produces different final</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Cervantes; S. Tonelli; A. Brandolin; A. Bandoni; L. Biegler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4742352"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gramian-based <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stroke amplifier compliant micro-mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a new method developed for the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design of microrobotic compliant mechanisms. It is based on a flexible building block method, called Flexln, which uses an evolutionary approach, to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> a truss-like structure made of building blocks. From the first design step, in addition to conventional mechanical criteria, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> gramian- based metrics can be considered in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathieu Grossard; Christine Rotinat-libersa; Nicolas Chaillet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://moya.bus.miami.edu/~dkelly/papers/addtax9_1_09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Second Best Taxation of Addictive Goods in <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> General Equilibrium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract In this paper we derive conditions under which <span class="hlt">optimal</span> tax rates for addictive goods exceed tax rates for non-addictive consumption goods in a rational addiction framework where exogenous government spending cannot be financed with lump sum taxes. We reexamine classic results on <span class="hlt">optimal</span> commodity,taxation and find a rich set of new findings. Our <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> results imply tax rates on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luca Bossi; Pedro Gomis-Porqueras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/126352"> <span id="translatedtitle">An automatic design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> tool and its application to computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we describe the Nimrod\\/O design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> tool, and its application in computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Nimrod\\/O facilitates the use of an arbitrary computational model to drive an automatic <span class="hlt">optimization</span> process. This means that the user can parameterise an arbitrary problem, and then ask the tool to compute the parameter values that minimize or maximise a design objective function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Abramson; Andrew Lewis; Tom Peachey; Clive Fletcher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50882350"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> design of SSSC damping controller to improve power system <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stability using modified intelligent algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, A modified intelligent Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> (PSO) and continuous Genetic Algorithms (GA) have been used for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> selection of the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) damping controller parameters in order to improve power system <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response and its stability. Then the performance of these methods on system stability has been compared. First intelligent PSO and genetic algorithms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Khani; M. Sadeghi; S. H. Hosseini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&S1=%22AUTORIDAD%22&OS=%22AUTORIDAD%22&RS=%22AUTORIDAD%22"> <span id="translatedtitle">System for <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> transportation scheduling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm">US Patent & Trademark Office Database</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A computer modeling application is disclosed for finding the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution to maximize total net margin, for the assignment of vehicles (e.g., especially vessels) in an available fleet to perform a set of voyages to transport cargo comprising one or more bulk products during a planning period, as well as an apparatus and method employing the same. The fleet can include term vehicles and spot vehicles. The vehicles, voyages, and cargos can be heterogeneous. In one embodiment, the vehicles are crude carrier vessels and the bulk products are different grades of crude oil. To increase speed, the model is broken into linear programming and <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> (linear) programming problems. The model can be run on a real-time basis to support complex scheduling operations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://prolangs.cs.vt.edu/rutgers/reading/papers/chen_oopsla.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> framework for a Java just-in-time compiler</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high performance implementation of Java Virtual Machines (JVM) and just-in-time (JIT) compilers is directed toward adaptive compilation <span class="hlt">optimizations</span> on the basis of online runtime profile information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> framework in a production-level Java JIT compiler. Our approach is to employ a mixed mode interpreter and a three level <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> compiler,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toshio Suganuma; Toshiaki Yasue; Motohiro Kawahito; Hideaki Komatsu; Toshio Nakatani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26200814"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-Euler–Lagrangian Pareto-<span class="hlt">optimality</span> Conditions for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Multiple Criterion Decision Problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper the problem of verifying the Pareto-<span class="hlt">optimality</span> of a given solution to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multiple-criterion decision (DMCD) problem is investigated. For this purpose, some new conditions are derived for Pareto-<span class="hlt">optimality</span> of DMCD problems. In the literature, Pareto-<span class="hlt">optimality</span> is characterized by means of Euler-Lagrangian differential equations. There exist problems in production and inventory control to which these conditions cannot</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Augustine O. Esogbue; Qiang Song; Donovan Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50784257"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the utility-function-based <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimal</span> analysis of pollution control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper the utility-function-based <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimal</span> analysis concerning pollution control is studied. Firstly, based on the concrete establishment of the model and rigorous quantitive analysis, the relevant <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution is derived from utility function under <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of social welfare constrained by the stock of non-renewable energy, capital and pollution. Following that, some results of our analysis are obtained: 1)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Cao; Sui-Jiang Lei; Wei-Min Ma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20015486"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> cleaning policies in heat exchanger networks under rapid fouling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper addresses the problem of short-term cleaning scheduling in a special class of heat-exchanger networks (HENs). A salient characteristic of this problem is that the performance of each heat exchanger decreases with time and can then be restored to its initial state by performing cleaning operations. Because of its practical importance, a specific problem has been considered here involving decaying equipment performance due to milk fouling. A <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> nonlinear-programming (MINLP) model is first presented incorporating general fouling profiles. This model is then linearized to a tight <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> linear-programming (MILP) model which can be solved to global <span class="hlt">optimality</span>. A detailed objective function is used to account for cleaning cost and energy requirements. The formulations can model serial and parallel HENs as well as network arrangements arising from the combination of these basic cases. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm determines simultaneously: (1) the number of cleaning operation tasks required along with their corresponding timings and (2) the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> utility utilization profile over time. A number of complex heat-exchanger networks examples are presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed models together with comparative performance results between the MINLP and MILP models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgiadis, M.C.; Papageorgiou, L.G.; Macchietto, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/130640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Simultaneous Strategies for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Process <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IntroductionOver the past decade, applications in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation have increased signicantly in the processindustries. These are driven by strong competitive markets faced by operating companiesalong with tighter specications on process performance and regulatory limits. Moreover, the developmentofpowerfulcommercial modeling tools for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation, such as ASPEN Custom######## ########################## #### ############### ###################1Modeler and gProms, has led...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenz T. Biegler; Arturo M. Cervantes; Andreas Wächter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50280351"> <span id="translatedtitle">A high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> magnetooptic current transformer with <span class="hlt">optimized</span> signal processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the power industry current has to be measured for metering and protection purposes. Conventional sensor setups need two transformers to realize the high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range. By a new mixed analog\\/digital signal processing algorithm, the performances of a high accuracy revenue metering and a fast, high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> protection metering magnetooptic current sensor were combined into one single unit. The system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephan Mohr; Thomas Bosselmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6454353"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Switched <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Modulated Power Filter Compensator for Radial Distribution System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a novel pulse width switched modulated power filter compensator (MPFC) for the voltage stability enhancement, energy utilization, loss reduction, and power factor correction in a radial distribution network using the Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> (PSO) technique. The MPFC is controlled by a novel <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tri-loop error driven controller. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> controller is regulated to minimize the switching current</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adel M. Sharaf; Adel A. A. El-gammal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4715707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Virtual Workspace Based Job Execution Methods and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Makespan <span class="hlt">Optimized</span> Scheduling Algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The virtualization technology is helpful to support grid QoS. A manual configuration method and an automatic configuration method are designed to build the virtual workspace environment based on virtualization technology. Both the MetaServices and the automatic configuration software are employed to establish the virtual workspace environment. For <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> jobs, the corresponding <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> makespan <span class="hlt">optimized</span> (DMO) scheduling algorithms are developed. Results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhili Cheng; Zhihui Du; Yinong Chen; Xiaoying Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50618606"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Strategic Analysis for a Monopolist Advertising and Pricing Based on Goodwill</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we extend the well-known Nerlove-Arrow <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model by adding both price and advertising, and study the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimal</span> strategic pricing and advertising decisions of a monopolist, and obtain the following three main findings. First, a product's price higher than the myopic price on considering the price and advertising effects on goodwill. This result is consistent with the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu Xiao-jie; Long Zhi-he; Chen Jian-guo; Song Tie-bo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51048401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of hydraulic system of CVT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With a focus on the hydraulic system of CVT(Continuously Variable Transmission), the transfer function of hydraulic system of CVT and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation model of this system based on AMEsim were built, and the characteristics of speed ratio response was simulated and calculated. To improve the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of hydraulic system of CVT, <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> design of parameters with speed ratio</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang Yang; Tang Tao-feng; Wang Xiao-ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27148340"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> for operation of a compressed air energy storage system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mathematical model is derived, simulating the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of a cavern-type (constant volume) compressed air energy storage system (CAES). With the aid of the model, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of the system decision variables such as charging and discharging timing and duration and the fuel injection policy are determined by periodic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming method. The performance criterion is maximizing the net</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dan Weiner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2448585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Profile-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of power performance by using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> voltage scaling on a PC cluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Currently, several of the high performance processors used in a PC cluster have a DVS (<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> voltage scaling) architecture that can <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> scale processor voltage and frequency. Adaptive scheduling of the voltage and frequency enables us to reduce power dissipation without a performance slowdown during communication and memory access. In this paper, we propose a method of profiled-based power-performance <span class="hlt">optimization</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshihiko Hotta; Mitsuhisa Sato; Hideaki Kimura; Satoshi Matsuoka; Taisuke Boku; Daisuke Takahashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27206116"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Simulation and <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Start-up Processes in Combined Cycle Power Plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper treats the development of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation model and its application to the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a start-up process for a combined cycle power plant. Generally, the plant system design is complicated, and the control design is difficult to establish without <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation. The comparison of the simulation results and the plant data is reported. The obtained results demonstrate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masakazu Shirakawa; Masashi Nakamoto; Shunji Hosaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16144429"> <span id="translatedtitle">A stable elemental decomposition for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Cervantes and Biegler (A.I.Ch.E.J. 44 (1998) 1038), we presented a simultaneous nonlinear programming problem (NLP) formulation for the solution of DAE <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems. Here, by applying collocation on finite elements, the DAE system is transformed into a nonlinear system. The resulting <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem, in which the element placement is fixed, is solved using a reduced space successive quadratic programming</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arturo M Cervantes; Lorenz T Biegler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992WRR....28..629C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control for Groundwater Remediation With Flexible Management Periods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A successive approximation linear quadratic regulator (SALQR) method with management periods is combined with a finite element groundwater flow and transport simulation model to determine <span class="hlt">optimal</span> time-varying groundwater pump-and-treat reclamation policies. Management periods are groups of simulation time steps during which the pumping policy remains constant. In an example problem, management periods reduced the total computational demand, as measured by the CPU time, by as much as 85% compared to the time needed for the SALQR solution without management periods. Conversely, the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> costs increased as the number of times that the control can change is reduced. With two simulation periods per management period, the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> cost increased by less than 1% compared to the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> cost with no management periods, yet the computational work was reduced by a third. The <span class="hlt">optimal</span> policies, including the number and locations of wells, changed significantly with the number of management periods. Complexity analysis revealed that the SALQR algorithm with management periods can significantly reduce the computational requirements for nonsteady <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of groundwater reclamation and other management applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Culver, Teresa B.; Shoemaker, Christine A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13255479"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-strategy ensemble evolutionary algorithm for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> have separately gained increasing attention from the research community\\u000a during the last decade. However, few studies have been reported on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (dMO) and scarce effective\\u000a dMO methods have been proposed. In this paper, we fulfill these gabs by developing new dMO test problems and new effective\\u000a dMO algorithm. In the newly designed dMO</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu Wang; Bin Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1038489"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Simple Distributed Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> and Noisy Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a Simple Distributed Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> (SDPSO) algorithm that can be used to track the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and noisy environment. The classic PSO algorithm lacks the ability to track changing optimum in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environment. Several approaches have been investigated to enhance the PSO algorithm s ability in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environments. However, in dealing with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environments, these approaches have lost PSO s original strengths of decentralized control and ease of implementation. The SDPSO algorithm proposed in this paper maintains these classic PSO features as well as provides the optimum result tracking capability in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environments. In this research, the DF1 multimodal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environment generator proposed by Morrison and De Jong is used to evaluate the classic PSO, SDPSO and other two adaptive PSOs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2266978"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classifying EEG for Brain-Computer Interface: Learning <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Filters for <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> System Features</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classification of multichannel EEG recordings during motor imagination has been exploited successfully for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). In this paper, we consider EEG signals as the outputs of a networked <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system (the cortex), and exploit synchronization features from the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system for classification. Herein, we also propose a new framework for learning <span class="hlt">optimal</span> filters automatically from the data, by employing a Fisher ratio criterion. Experimental evaluations comparing the proposed <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system features with the CSP and the AR features reveal their competitive performance during classification. Results also show the benefits of employing the spatial and the temporal filters <span class="hlt">optimized</span> using the proposed learning approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Le; Epps, Julien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18364986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classifying EEG for brain-computer interface: learning <span class="hlt">optimal</span> filters for <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system features.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classification of multichannel EEG recordings during motor imagination has been exploited successfully for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). In this paper, we consider EEG signals as the outputs of a networked <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system (the cortex), and exploit synchronization features from the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system for classification. Herein, we also propose a new framework for learning <span class="hlt">optimal</span> filters automatically from the data, by employing a Fisher ratio criterion. Experimental evaluations comparing the proposed <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system features with the CSP and the AR features reveal their competitive performance during classification. Results also show the benefits of employing the spatial and the temporal filters <span class="hlt">optimized</span> using the proposed learning approach. PMID:18364986</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Le; Epps, Julien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26199139"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and elasto-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a 2DOF planar parallel pick-and-place robot with flexible links</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> modeling and analysis of a 2-DOF translational parallel robot with flexible links for high-speed pick-and-place operation\\u000a is presented in this paper. <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> is implemented with the goal to improve the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> accuracy of the end-effector\\u000a at high speed. The governing equations of flexible links within the robot are formulated in the floating reference frame using\\u000a Euler–Lagrange method, leading to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haihong Li; Zhiyong Yang; Tian Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JSMEB..48..122S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Simulation and <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Start-up Processes in Combined Cycle Power Plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper treats the development of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation model and its application to the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a start-up process for a combined cycle power plant. Generally, the plant system design is complicated, and the control design is difficult to establish without <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation. The comparison of the simulation results and the plant data is reported. The obtained results demonstrate that the simulation is reliable to evaluate the plant <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> phenomenon and available to predict the operational processes. However, not only an analytical method but also the development of a design method is important to determine the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> operational procedure. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation and the nonlinear programming are combined, and it proposes the design method that <span class="hlt">optimizes</span> the operational parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirakawa, Masakazu; Nakamoto, Masashi; Hosaka, Shunji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/viewpub.jsp?index=7500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Market <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Timber Salvage After a Natural ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/">Treesearch</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research & Development ... We develop a model of timber market <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> after such a catastrophe that shows how timber ... These results therefore have implications for strategic salvage planning following catastrophic damage to forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJMPB..2650188B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Locally <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Structure for Synchronizability of <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A network is referred to have locally <span class="hlt">optimal</span> structure for synchronizability if its synchronizability is always decreased, no matter an arbitrary edge is added to it or an arbitrarily existed edge is deleted from it or an arbitrary edge is rewired in it. Although it is difficult to generally determine which networks have locally <span class="hlt">optimal</span> structure, this paper through various examples demonstrates that symmetrical networks indeed have this property. Actually, it is found that any structural perturbations which destruct the symmetry of an originally symmetrical network would decrease the network's synchronizability, no matter how the perturbations change the network's average path length or clustering coefficient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bu, Shouliang; Wen, Jian-Ping; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Yi, Xue-Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/robert.zeithammer/comm_adapt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research Note <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Selling in <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Auctions: Adaptation Versus Commitment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">his paper analyzes <span class="hlt">optimal</span> selling strategies of a monopolist facing forward-looking patient unit-demand bidders in a sequential auction market. Such a seller faces a fundamental choice between two selling regimes: adaptive selling that involves learning about remaining demand from early prices, and commitment selling that forgoes such learning and makes all selling decisions in the beginning of the game. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Zeithammer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sim.informatik.tu-darmstadt.de/publ/download/2002-ifac-hardt-vonstryk.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">INCREASING STABILITY IN <span class="hlt">DYNAMIC</span> GAITS USING NUMERICAL <span class="hlt">OPTIMIZATION</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> gait planning is applied in this work to the problem of improving stability in quadruped locomotion. In many settings, it is desired to operate legged machines at high performance levels where rapid velocities and a changing environment make stability of utmost concern. Since gait planning still remains a vital component of legged system control design, an efficient method of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Hardt; Oskar von Stryk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502608.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Was Your Glass Left Half Full? Family <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Optimism</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Students' levels of a frequently studied adaptive schema (<span class="hlt">optimism</span>) as a function of parenting variables (parental authority, family intrusiveness, parental overprotection, parentification, parental psychological control, and parental nurturance) were investigated. Results revealed that positive parenting styles were positively related to the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6092146"> <span id="translatedtitle">An efficient multiple shooting based reduced SQP strategy for large-scale <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. Part 1: theoretical aspects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> design and operation of complex chemical processes often require the solution of intricate <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems. A tailored simultaneous solution strategy based on multiple shooting and reduced SQP is presented. This reduced-space boundary value problem (BVP) approach allows an efficient and robust solution of multistage <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control and design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems for large, sparse DAE process models of index</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel B. Leineweber; Irene Bauer; Hans Georg Bock; Johannes P. Schlöder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4730718"> <span id="translatedtitle">MapReduce <span class="hlt">optimization</span> using regulated <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> prioritization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a system for allocating resources in shared data and compute clusters that improves MapReduce job scheduling in three ways. First, the system uses regulated and user-assigned priorities to offer different service levels to jobs and users over time. Sec- ond, the system <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> adjusts resource allocations to fit the requirements of different job stages. Finally, the system automat-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas Sandholm; Kevin Lai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/605110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Logic <span class="hlt">optimization</span> by output phase assignment in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> logic synthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Domino logic is one of the most popular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> circuit configurations for implementing high- performance logic designs. Since domino logic is inherently non-inverting, it presents a fundamental constraint of implementing logic functions without any intermediate inversions. Removal of intermediate inverters requires logic duplication for generating both the negative and positive signal phases, which results in significant area overhead. This area</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruchir Puri; Andrew Bjorksten; Thomas E. Rosser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1059219"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> PMU Placement Evaluation for Power System <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> State Estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract - The synchronized phaor measurements unit (PMU), developed in the 1980s, is concidered to be one of the most important devices in the future of power systems. The recent development of PMU technology provides high-speed, precisely synchronized sensor data, which has been found to be usefule for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, state estimation of power the power grid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Jinghe; Welch, Greg; Bishop, Gary; Huang, Zhenyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2992104"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control for groundwater remediation with flexible management periods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A successive approximation linear quadratic regulator (SALQR) method with management periods is combined with a finite element groundwater flow and transport simulation model to determine <span class="hlt">optimal</span> time-varying groundwater pump-and-treat reclamation policies. Management periods are groups of simulation time steps during which the pumping policy remains constant. In an example problem, management periods reduced the total computational demand, as measured by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teresa B. Culver; Christine A. Shoemaker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17216046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biological network design strategies: discovery through <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An important challenge in systems biology is the inherent complexity of biological network models, which complicates the task of relating network structure to function and of understanding the conceptual design principles by which a given network operates. Here we investigate an approach to analyze the relationship between a network structure and its function using the framework of <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. A common feature found in a variety of biochemical networks involves the opposition of a pair of enzymatic chemical modification reactions such as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation or methylation-demethylation. The modification pair frequently adjusts biochemical properties of its target, such as activating and deactivating function. We applied <span class="hlt">optimization</span> methodology to study a reversible modification network unit commonly found in signal transduction systems, and we explored the use of this methodology to discover design principles. The results demonstrate that different sets of rate constants used to parameterize the same network topology represent different compromises made in the resulting network operating characteristics. Moreover, the same topology can be used to encode different strategies for achieving performance goals. The ability to adopt multiple strategies may lead to significantly improved performance across a range of conditions through rate modulation or evolutionary processes. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> framework explored here is a practical approach to support the discovery of design principles in biological networks. PMID:17216046</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adiwijaya, Bambang S; Barton, Paul I; Tidor, Bruce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2085A"> <span id="translatedtitle">System design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> for stand-alone photovoltaic systems sizing by using superstructure model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the photovoltaic (PV) systems have been increasingly installed as an alternative and renewable green power generation, the initial set up cost, maintenance cost and equipment mismatch are some of the key issues that slows down the installation in small household. This paper presents the design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of stand-alone photovoltaic systems using superstructure model where all possible types of technology of the equipment are captured and life cycle cost analysis is formulated as a <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> programming (MIP). A model for investment planning of power generation and long-term decision model are developed in order to help the system engineer to build a cost effective system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azau, M. A. M.; Jaafar, S.; Samsudin, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IEITF..91.3568H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Common Sub-Expression Elimination Algorithm of Multiple Constant Multiplications with a Logic Depth Constraint</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the context of multiple constant multiplication (MCM) design, we propose a novel common sub-expression elimination (CSE) algorithm that models the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> synthesis of coefficients into a 0-1 <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> linear programming (MILP) problem with a user-defined generic logic depth constraint. We also propose an efficient solution space, which combines all minimal signed digit (MSD) representations and the shifted sum (difference) of coefficients. In the examples we demonstrate, the combination of the proposed algorithm and solution space gives a better solution comparing to existing algorithms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ho, Yuen-Hong Alvin; Lei, Chi-Un; Kwan, Hing-Kit; Wong, Ngai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..79f0901B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extreme genetic code <span class="hlt">optimality</span> from a molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> calculation of amino acid polar requirement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> calculation of the amino acid polar requirement is used to score the canonical genetic code. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this computational polar requirement has been <span class="hlt">optimized</span> by the canonical genetic code, an order of magnitude more than any previously known measure, effectively ruling out a vertical evolution <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> to the precise metric used in code scoring is consistent with code evolution having proceeded through the communal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of statistical proteins using horizontal gene transfer, as recently proposed. The extreme <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the genetic code therefore strongly supports the idea that the genetic code evolved from a communal state of life prior to the last universal common ancestor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butler, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Mathew, Damien; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........78Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of incomplete <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for structural model refinement and damage assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Model refinement and damage assessment of engineering structures can be achieved by estimating the physical design parameters from the measured <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics. The process is often posed as an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem based on either modal data matching (MDM) or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> residual <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (DRO). The MDM methods attempt to minimize a nonlinear error function between the analytical and measured modal properties. Conversely, the DRO methods attempt to minimize the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> residual between the analytical model and the measured modal properties. This research explores new approaches to model refinement and damage assessment applications based on the MDM and DRO formulations under incomplete measurement. The initial effort of this research investigates the minimum rank perturbation theory (MRPT), which is a computationally attractive model update method that makes use of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> residual. By introducing a new matrix property termed null symmetry, the MRPT is generalized to handle nonsymmetric system matrices in the equations of motion. A hybrid matrix update procedure that combines the MRPT and least squares estimation has also been extended in an iterative framework to deal with the incomplete measurement problem. The resulting algorithm minimizes the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> residual by implementing a form of repeated substitution. Then, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> least squares method is developed to bypass the computation of the model matrix perturbation. The method solves a reduced linear least squares subproblem with quadratic inequality constraint in each major iteration. Next, the theory of reduced <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sensitivity is developed along with several of its applications. The theory formulates the first and second derivatives of both the modal error function and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> residual function. It supports various applications including structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sensitivity analysis, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> sensor placement, parameter selection, damage localization, model refinement, and damage assessment. These applications are studied and demonstrated using simulation and experimental data. The proposed <span class="hlt">optimal</span> sensor placement methods provide new instrumentation tools that are consistent with the MDM and DRO formulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yap, Keng C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JSMTE..11..003C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> recycling of defective binary devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The binary defect combination problem consists in finding a fully working subset from a given ensemble of imperfect binary components. We determine the typical properties of the model using methods of statistical mechanics, in particular the region in the parameter space where there is almost surely at least one fully working subset. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> recycling of a flux of imperfect binary components leads to zero wastage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Challet, Damien; Pérez Castillo, Isaac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34583357"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> advertising expenditures in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> duopoly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper develops a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of oligopolistic advertising competition. The model is general enough to include predatory\\u000a advertising and informative advertising as particular cases. The analysis is conducted in a differential game framework and\\u000a compares the open-loop and feedback equilibria to the efficient outcome. It is found that for the informative advertising\\u000a competition game, advertising levels are closer to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Paz Espinosa; Petr Mariel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39258849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Managing <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Context to <span class="hlt">Optimize</span> Smart Interactions and Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a With the rapid growth of socio-technical ecosystems, smart interactions and services are permeating every walk of life. As\\u000a smart interactions must managed automatically and interactively in response to evolving user’s matters of concern, the smart\\u000a Internet requires creative approaches where services and interactions are implemented with awareness of, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> adaptation\\u000a to, users, computational environments, changing policies and unknown requirements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norha M. Villegas; Hausi A. Müller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPB.269.1568S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of large amorphous silicon and silica structures for molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations of energetic impacts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A practical method to create <span class="hlt">optimized</span> amorphous silicon and silica structures for molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations is developed and tested. The method is based on the Wooten, Winer, and Weaire algorithm and combination of small <span class="hlt">optimized</span> blocks to larger structures. The method makes possible to perform simulations of either very large cluster hypervelocity impacts on amorphous targets or small displacements induced by low energy ion impacts in silicon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samela, Juha; Norris, Scott A.; Nordlund, Kai; Aziz, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1456256"> <span id="translatedtitle">A computationally efficient iterative solution of the multidestination <span class="hlt">optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> routing problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> routing problem for multiple destination networks is considered. The minimum time rather than total delay cost functional is employed. The problem is solved through an iterative link-by-link <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. Each link capacity is <span class="hlt">optimally</span> partitioned by examining the upper bounds for the evacuation time imposed through different capacity allocations for each origin\\/destination pair traffic. The computational complexity per iteration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. I. Stassinopoulos; M. G. Kazantzakis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32844671"> <span id="translatedtitle">A two-step EMG-and-<span class="hlt">optimization</span> process to estimate muscle force during <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> movement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study proposed a two-step EMG-and-<span class="hlt">optimization</span> method for muscle force estimation in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> condition. Considering the strengths and the limitations of existing methods, the proposed approach exploited the advantages of min\\/max <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with constraints on the contributions of the flexor and extensor muscle groups to the net joint moment estimated through an EMG-to-moment approach. Our methodology was tested at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Amarantini; Guillaume Rao; Eric Berton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50488342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> systems described by Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger equations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is to develop a theoretical and computational framework for the analysis of quantum <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control systems given by Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger (K-G-S) equations. In the case of one dimensional spatial and continuous time, a semi-discrete numerical algorithm is constructed to find <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> system. Furthermore, numerical experiments are implemented to show the effectiveness and convergency of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quan-Fang Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2431539"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with evolutionary algorithms: a forward-looking approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work describes a forward-looking approach for the solution of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (time-changing) problems using evolutionary algorithms. The main idea of the proposed method is to combine a forecasting technique with an evolutionary algorithm. The location, in variable space, of the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution (or of the Pareto <span class="hlt">optimal</span> set in multi-objective problems) is estimated using a forecasting method. Then, using this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iason Hatzakis; David Wallace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">optimization</span> in the human <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of task execution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to explain the empirical evidence that the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of human activity may not be well modeled by Poisson processes, a model based on queuing processes was built in the literature [A. L. Barabasi, Nature (London) 435, 207 (2005)]. The main assumption behind that model is that people execute their tasks based on a protocol that first executes the high priority item. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the validity of that hypothesis assuming that people are rational agents that make their decisions in order to minimize the cost of keeping nonexecuted tasks on the list. Therefore, we build and analytically solve a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming model with two priority types of tasks and show that the validity of this hypothesis depends strongly on the structure of the instantaneous costs that a person has to face if a given task is kept on the list for more than one period. Moreover, one interesting finding is that in one of the situations the protocol used to execute the tasks generates complex one-dimensional <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. PMID:18517447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cajueiro, Daniel O; Maldonado, Wilfredo L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvS..14i4001G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of beam emittance and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture for electron storage ring using genetic algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Finding a high quality of lattice that simultaneously meets low beam emittance performance and acceptable <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture is a challenging task for the storage ring-based light source, especially for the next generation storage ring which is characterized with ultralow beam emittance. This paper presents an alternative method, based on the concept of genetic algorithm, to simultaneously <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the beam emittance and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture for low emittance lattice. Instead of analyzing the nonlinear indicators extracted from the high order nonlinear map, the algorithm can globally <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the nonlinear performance by the direct <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture tracking result. So this method is more straightforward and efficient than analyzing the nonlinear driving terms. In order to illustrate this method, the quadrupole and sextupole strengths of a five-bend-achromatic lattice are simultaneously <span class="hlt">optimized</span> by nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Finally, the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> linear optics for ultralow emittance lattices with better <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture are obtained. The result shows that the algorithm is particularly useful for the low emittance lattice design, where the beam emittance and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aperture always conflict with each other.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Lin; Li, Weimin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39236312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online layered learning for cross-layer <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multimedia systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our recent work, we proposed a systematic cross-layer framework for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multimedia systems, which allows each layer to make autonomous and foresighted decisions that maximize the system's long-term performance, while meeting the application's real-time delay constraints. The proposed solution solved the cross-layer <span class="hlt">optimization</span> offline, under the assumption that the multimedia system's probabilistic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (e.g. the application's rate-distortion-complexity behavior) were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicholas Mastronarde; Mihaela van der Schaar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57521357"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming-based particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm for an inventory management problem under uncertainty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming-based particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (DP-based PSO) algorithm for solving an inventory management problem for large-scale construction projects under a fuzzy random environment. By taking into account the purchasing behaviour and strategy under rules of international bidding, a multi-objective fuzzy random <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiuping Xu; Ziqiang Zeng; Bernard Han; Xiao Lei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://tigger.uic.edu/%7eelodie/paper1_rev.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A nonlinear continuous time <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control model of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pricing and inventory control with no backorders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a continuous time <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control model for studying a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pricing and inventory con- trol problem for a make-to-stock manufacturing system. We consider a multiproduct capacitated, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> setting. We introduce a demand-based model where the demand is a linear function of the price, the inventory cost is linear, the production cost is an increasing strictly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elodie Adida; Georgia Perakis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p5h7u75653203k51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Robust <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Approach to <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pricing and Inventory Control with no Backorders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> formulation for dealing with demand uncertainty in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pricing and inventory\\u000a control problem for a make-to-stock manufacturing system. We consider a multi-product capacitated, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> setting. We introduce\\u000a a demand-based fluid model where the demand is a linear function of the price, the inventory cost is linear, the production\\u000a cost is an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elodie Adida; Georgia Perakis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h1w788vj0362k387.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human Motion Planning Based on Recursive <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an efficient <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control and recursive <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>-based computer animation system for simulating and controlling themotion of articulated figures. A quasi-Newton nonlinear programmingtechnique (super-linear convergence) is implemented to solve minimumtorque-based human motion-planning problems. The explicit analyticalgradients needed in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are derived using a matrix exponentialformulation and Lie algebra. Cubic spline functions are used to make thesearch space</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janzen Lo; Gang Huang; Dimitris Metaxas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15000380"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> resetting of the human brain at epileptic seizures: application of nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and global <span class="hlt">optimization</span> techniques.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epileptic seizures occur intermittently as a result of complex <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> interactions among many regions of the brain. By applying signal processing techniques from the theory of nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and global <span class="hlt">optimization</span> to the analysis of long-term (3.6 to 12 days) continuous multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from four epileptic patients, we present evidence that epileptic seizures appear to serve as <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> resetting mechanisms of the brain, that is the <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> entrained brain areas before seizures disentrain faster and more frequently (p < 0.05) at epileptic seizures than any other periods. We expect these results to shed light into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis, seizure intervention and control, as well as into investigations of intermittent spatiotemporal state transitions in other complex biological and physical systems. PMID:15000380</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iasemidis, Leon D; Shiau, Deng-Shan; Sackellares, J Chris; Pardalos, Panos M; Prasad, Awadhesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JCoPh.183..307T"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of the Icosahedral Grid Modified by Spring <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated an optimum form of the modified icosahedral grid that is generated by applying the spring <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to the standard icosahedral grid system. The spring <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> can generate a more homogeneous grid system than the standard icosahedral grid system by tuning the natural spring lenght: as the natural spring length becomes longer, the ratio of maximum grid interval to minimum one becomes closer to unit. When the natural spring length is larger than a critical value, however, the spring <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system does not have a stable equilibrium. By setting the natural spring length to be the marginally critical value, we can obtain the most homogeneous grid system, which is most efficient in terms of the CFL condition. We have analyzed eigenmodes involved in the initial error of the geostrophic balance problem [test case 2 of D. L. Williamson et al. (1992, J. Comput. Phys.102, 211)]. Since the balance state in the discrete system differs slightly from the exact solution of the analytic system, the initial error field includes both the gravity wave mode and the Rossby wave mode. As the results of the analysis are based on Hough harmonics decompositions, we detected Rossby and gravity wave modes with zonal wavenumber 5, which are asymmetric against the equator. These errors are associated with icosahedral grid structure. The symmetric gravity wave mode with zonal wavenumber 0 also appears in the error field. To clarify the evolution of Rossby waves, we introduce divergence damping to reduce the gravity wave mode. From the simulated results of the geostrophic problem with various grid systems, we found that the spuriously generated Rossby wave mode is eliminated most effectively when the most homogeneously distributed grid system is used. It is therefore, concluded that the most homogeneous grid system is the best choice from the viewpoint of numerical accuracy as well as computational efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Goto, Koji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/754319"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scaling and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the radiation temperature in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> hohlraums</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have constructed a quasi-analytic model of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> hohlraum. Solutions only require a numerical root solve, which can be done very quickly. Results of the model are compared to both experiments and full numerical simulations with good agreement. The computational simplicity of the model allows one to find the behavior of the hohlraum temperature as a function the various parameters of the system and thus find optimum parameters as a function of the driving current. The model is used to investigate the benefits of ablative standoff and axial convergence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; DOUGLAS,MELISSA R.; LASH,JOEL S.; VESEY,ROGER A.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; NASH,THOMAS J.; DERZON,MARK S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21288941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Locusts use <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> thermoregulatory behaviour to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> nutritional outcomes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because key nutritional processes differ in their thermal optima, ectotherms may use temperature selection to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> performance in changing nutritional environments. Such behaviour would be especially advantageous to small terrestrial animals, which have low thermal inertia and often have access to a wide range of environmental temperatures over small distances. Using the locust, Locusta migratoria, we have demonstrated a direct link between nutritional state and thermoregulatory behaviour. When faced with chronic restrictions to the supply of nutrients, locusts selected increasingly lower temperatures within a gradient, thereby maximizing nutrient use efficiency at the cost of slower growth. Over the shorter term, when locusts were unable to find a meal in the normal course of ad libitum feeding, they immediately adjusted their thermoregulatory behaviour, selecting a lower temperature at which assimilation efficiency was maximal. Thus, locusts use fine scale patterns of movement and temperature selection to adjust for reduced nutrient supply and thereby ameliorate associated life-history consequences. PMID:21288941</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coggan, Nicole; Clissold, Fiona J; Simpson, Stephen J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvL.106s0501D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control Technique for Many-Body Quantum <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an efficient strategy for controlling a vast range of nonintegrable quantum many-body one-dimensional systems that can be merged with state-of-the-art tensor network simulation methods such as the density matrix renormalization group. To demonstrate its potential, we employ it to solve a major issue in current optical-lattice physics with ultracold atoms: we show how to reduce by about 2 orders of magnitude the time needed to bring a superfluid gas into a Mott insulator state, while suppressing defects by more than 1 order of magnitude as compared to current experiments [T. Stöferle , Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.130403]. Finally, we show that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> pulse is robust against atom number fluctuations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doria, Patrick; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21668132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control technique for many-body quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an efficient strategy for controlling a vast range of nonintegrable quantum many-body one-dimensional systems that can be merged with state-of-the-art tensor network simulation methods such as the density matrix renormalization group. To demonstrate its potential, we employ it to solve a major issue in current optical-lattice physics with ultracold atoms: we show how to reduce by about 2 orders of magnitude the time needed to bring a superfluid gas into a Mott insulator state, while suppressing defects by more than 1 order of magnitude as compared to current experiments [T. Stöferle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004)]. Finally, we show that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> pulse is robust against atom number fluctuations. PMID:21668132</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doria, Patrick; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARF25009E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimizing</span> bandwidth and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of lumped Josephson parametric amplifiers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Superconducting parametric amplifiers have revolutionized the field of quantum measurement by providing high gain, ultra-low noise amplification. They have been used successfully for high-fidelity qubit state measurements, probing nano-mechanical resonators, quantum feedback, and for microwave quantum optics experiments. Though several designs exist, a simple and robust architecture is the Lumped Josephson Parametric Amplifier (LJPA). This device consists of a capacitively shunted SQUID directly coupled to a transmission line to form a low quality factor (Q) nonlinear resonator. We discuss amplifiers which can be tuned over the full 4-8 GHz band with 20-25 dB of gain and 10 - 50 MHz of signal bandwidth. However, similar to other parametric amplifiers employing a resonant circuit, the LJPA suffers from low <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range and has a -1 dB gain compression point of order -130 dBm. We explore new designs comprised of an array of SQUIDs to improve the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range. We will present the results of numerical simulations and preliminary experiments. We will also briefly discuss improvements obtained from different biasing methods and packaging.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eddins, A.; Vijay, R.; Macklin, C.; Minev, Z.; Siddiqi, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESS...12..913S"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">optimality</span>-based model of the coupled soil moisture and root <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main processes determining soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are infiltration, percolation, evaporation and root water uptake. Modelling soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> therefore requires an interdisciplinary approach that links hydrological, atmospheric and biological processes. Previous approaches treat either root water uptake rates or root distributions and transpiration rates as given, and calculate the soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based on the theory of flow in unsaturated media. The present study introduces a different approach to linking soil water and vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, based on vegetation <span class="hlt">optimality</span>. Assuming that plants have evolved mechanisms that minimise costs related to the maintenance of the root system while meeting their demand for water, we develop a model that <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> adjusts the vertical root distribution in the soil profile to meet this objective. The model was used to compute the soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, root water uptake and fine root respiration in a tropical savanna over 12 months, and the results were compared with observations at the site and with a model based on a fixed root distribution. The <span class="hlt">optimality</span>-based model reproduced the main features of the observations such as a shift of roots from the shallow soil in the wet season to the deeper soil in the dry season and substantial root water uptake during the dry season. At the same time, simulated fine root respiration rates never exceeded the upper envelope determined by the observed soil respiration. The model based on a fixed root distribution, in contrast, failed to explain the magnitude of water use during parts of the dry season and largely over-estimated root respiration rates. The observed surface soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were also better reproduced by the <span class="hlt">optimality</span>-based model than the model based on a prescribed root distribution. The <span class="hlt">optimality</span>-based approach has the potential to reduce the number of unknowns in a model (e.g. the vertical root distribution), which makes it a valuable alternative to more empirically-based approaches, especially for simulating possible responses to environmental change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schymanski, S. J.; Sivapalan, M.; Roderick, M. L.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50800522"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model for aircraft route <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> in airport surface management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the increase of air traffic flow, aircraft conflicts and delays on hub airports have been complex and challenging in airport surface management for a long time. In this paper we propose a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> route <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> model to decrease the conflicts on the taxiway and enhance the capacity of airport surface operation compared to the current operation mode. A ready-for-departing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhen Li; Jun Zhang; Xuejun Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50563587"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ant Colony <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Approaches for the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Load-Balanced Clustering Problem in Ad Hoc Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents three ant colony <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (ACO) approaches for a difficult graph theoretic problem formulated from the task of computing load-balanced clusters in ad hoc networks. These three approaches contain novel strategies for adapting the search process to the new problem structure whenever an environment change occurs. An environment change occurs when nodes in the network move. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> changes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chin K. Ho; Hong T. Ewe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57480788"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control of age-structured population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for spread of universally fatal diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article is concerned with the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problem of age-structured population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for the spread of universally fatal diseases. The existence and uniqueness of solution of the system, which consists of a group of partial differential equations with nonlocal boundary conditions, is proved. The Dubovitskii and Milyutin functional analytical approach is adopted in the investigation of the Pontryagin maximum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bing Sun; Mi-Xia Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uq.edu.au/spatialecology/docs/Publications/2000_Shea_Possingham_Optimal_release_strategies.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> release strategies for biological control agents: an application of stochastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming to population management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Establishing biological control agents in the field is a major step in any classical biocontrol programme, yet there are few general guidelines to help the practitioner decide what factors might enhance the establishment of such agents. 2. A stochastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming (SDP) approach, linked to a metapopula- tion model, was used to find <span class="hlt">optimal</span> release strategies (number and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Shea; H. P. Possingham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61275552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Construction and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a separation cascade in the gas-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> method of separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors construct a mathematical model for the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the gaseous diffusion separation of uranium isotopes in a staged cascade where the extraction efficiency at each stage of the process is considered gas <span class="hlt">dynamically</span>. The model is based on a two-component stream which exit the separator in an enriched and a depleted form. The model is tested on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bulgakov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/448948"> <span id="translatedtitle">LaTex Human Motion Planning Based on Recursive <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 3D simulation of human activity based on physics, kinematics, and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in terrestrial and space environments, is becoming increasingly important. Virtual humans may be used to design tasks in terrestrial environments and analyze their physical workload to maximize success and safety without expensive physical mockups. Previously (J. Lo and D. Metaxas, 1999), we presented an efficient <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gang Huang; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Janzen Lo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58440026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Massively parallel computation using graphics processors with application to <span class="hlt">optimal</span> experimentation in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rapid growth in the performance of graphics hardware, coupled with recent improvements in its programmability has lead to its adoption in many non-graphics applications, including a wide variety of scientific computing fields. At the same time, a number of important <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimal</span> policy problems in economics are athirst of computing power to help overcome dual curses of complexity and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sergei Morozov; Sudhanshu Mathur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITC..91..110H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous and Decentralized <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Networks by Neural Network <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a neurodynamical approach to a large-scale <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem in Cognitive Wireless Clouds, in which a huge number of mobile terminals with multiple different air interfaces autonomously utilize the most appropriate infrastructure wireless networks, by sensing available wireless networks, selecting the most appropriate one, and reconfiguring themselves with seamless handover to the target networks. To deal with such a cognitive radio network, game theory has been applied in order to analyze the stability of the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems consisting of the mobile terminals' distributed behaviors, but it is not a tool for globally <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> the state of the network. As a natural <span class="hlt">optimization</span> <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system model suitable for large-scale complex systems, we introduce the neural network <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> which converges to an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> state since its property is to continually decrease its energy function. In this paper, we apply such neurodynamics to the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem of radio access technology selection. We compose a neural network that solves the problem, and we show that it is possible to improve total average throughput simply by using distributed and autonomous neuron updates on the terminal side.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasegawa, Mikio; Tran, Ha Nguyen; Miyamoto, Goh; Murata, Yoshitoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kato, Shuzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21437878"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control landscape for the generation of unitary transformations with constrained <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reliable and precise generation of quantum unitary transformations is essential for the realization of a number of fundamental objectives, such as quantum control and quantum information processing. Prior work has explored the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problem of generating such unitary transformations as a surface-<span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem over the quantum control landscape, defined as a metric for realizing a desired unitary transformation as a function of the control variables. It was found that under the assumption of nondissipative and controllable <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, the landscape topology is trap free, which implies that any reasonable <span class="hlt">optimization</span> heuristic should be able to identify globally <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solutions. The present work is a control landscape analysis, which incorporates specific constraints in the Hamiltonian that correspond to certain <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> symmetries in the underlying physical system. It is found that the presence of such symmetries does not destroy the trap-free topology. These findings expand the class of quantum <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems on which control problems are intrinsically amenable to a solution by <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsieh, Michael [Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Wu, Rebing [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Lidar, Daniel [Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22847361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> bioprocesses using ACADO Toolkit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design and operation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> bioprocesses gives in practice often rise to optimisation problems with multiple and conflicting objectives. As a result typically not a single <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution but a set of Pareto <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solutions exist. From this set of Pareto <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solutions, one has to be chosen by the decision maker. Hence, efficient approaches are required for a fast and accurate generation of the Pareto set such that the decision maker can easily and systematically evaluate <span class="hlt">optimal</span> alternatives. In the current paper the multi-objective optimisation of several <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> bioprocess examples is performed using the freely available ACADO Multi-Objective Toolkit ( http://www.acadotoolkit.org ). This toolkit integrates efficient multiple objective scalarisation strategies (e.g., Normal Boundary Intersection and (Enhanced) Normalised Normal Constraint) with fast deterministic approaches for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optimisation (e.g., single and multiple shooting). It has been found that the toolkit is able to efficiently and accurately produce the Pareto sets for all bioprocess examples. The resulting Pareto sets are added as supplementary material to this paper. PMID:22847361</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Logist, Filip; Telen, Dries; Houska, Boris; Diehl, Moritz; Van Impe, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6466...19Q"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Grouping Crowding Differential Evolution with Ensemble of Parameters for Multi-modal <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, multi-modal <span class="hlt">optimization</span> has become an important area of active research. Many algorithms have been developed in literature to tackle multi-modal <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems. In this work, a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> grouping crowding differential evolution (DGCDE) with ensemble of parameter is proposed. In this algorithm, the population is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> regrouped into 3 equal subpopulations every few generations. Each of the subpopulations is assigned a set of parameters. The algorithms is tested on 12 classical benchmark multi-modal <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems and compared with the crowding differential evolution (Crowding DE) in literature. As shown in the experimental results, the proposed algorithm outperforms the Crowding DE with all three different parameter settings on the benchmark problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qu, Bo Yang; Gouthanan, Pushpan; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3511764"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimizing</span> the temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of light to human perception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No previous research has tuned the temporal characteristics of light-emitting devices to enhance brightness perception in human vision, despite the potential for significant power savings. The role of stimulus duration on perceived contrast is unclear, due to contradiction between the models proposed by Bloch and by Broca and Sulzer over 100 years ago. We propose that the discrepancy is accounted for by the observer’s “inherent expertise bias,” a type of experimental bias in which the observer’s life-long experience with interpreting the sensory world overcomes perceptual ambiguities and biases experimental outcomes. By controlling for this and all other known biases, we show that perceived contrast peaks at durations of 50–100 ms, and we conclude that the Broca–Sulzer effect best describes human temporal vision. We also show that the plateau in perceived brightness with stimulus duration, described by Bloch’s law, is a previously uncharacterized type of temporal brightness constancy that, like classical constancy effects, serves to enhance object recognition across varied lighting conditions in natural vision—although this is a constancy effect that normalizes perception across temporal modulation conditions. A practical outcome of this study is that tuning light-emitting devices to match the temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the human visual system’s temporal response function will result in significant power savings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rieiro, Hector; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Danielson, Andrew P.; Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L.; Srivastava, Nishit; Macknik, Stephen L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21059054"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> purchasing of raw materials: A data-driven approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An approach to the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> purchasing of raw materials that will achieve a desired product quality at a minimum cost is presented. A PLS (Partial Least Squares) approach to formulation modeling is used to combine databases on raw material properties and on past process operations and to relate these to final product quality. These PLS latent variable models are then used in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) or <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming (MINLP) <span class="hlt">optimization</span> to select those raw-materials, among all those available on the market, the ratios in which to combine them and the process conditions under which they should be processed. The approach is illustrated for the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> purchasing of metallurgical coals for coke making in the steel industry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muteki, K.; MacGregor, J.F. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7015079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesizing <span class="hlt">optimal</span> flowsheets; Applications to IGCC system environmental control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a new process synthesis capability implemented in the public version of the ASPEN chemical process simulator is demonstrated via an illustrative case study of a complex flowsheet. The objective of the case study is to minimize the cost of an advanced integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant design featuring hot-gas cleanup, subject to environmental constraints. The problem is formulated as a <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming (MINLP) <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem, involving the selection of both an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> process configuration and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design parameters for that configuration. Performance and cost models of the IGCC system developed for the ASPEN simulator, along with the newly developed process synthesis capability, are used. As a first step, alternative in situ and external desulfurization are considered as process alternatives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diwekar, U.M.; Frey, A.C.; Rubin, E.S. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMSA...11..286M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based bulbous bow <span class="hlt">optimization</span> using a genetic algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship. With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software, CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry. In this paper, the hull form of a ship was <span class="hlt">optimized</span> for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> tool. CFD based <span class="hlt">optimization</span> consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters, automatic generation of mesh, automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function, and finally an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> tool to evaluate the cost for <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. In this paper, integration of a genetic algorithm program, written in MATLAB, was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT. Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters. These design variables were <span class="hlt">optimized</span> to achieve a minimum cost function of "total resistance". Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form <span class="hlt">optimization</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahmood, Shahid; Huang, Debo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNG51E1678G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic approach to reconstruction of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems: <span class="hlt">optimal</span> model selection criterion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most of known observable systems are complex and high-dimensional that doesn't allow to make the exact long-term forecast of their behavior. The stochastic approach to reconstruction of such systems gives a hope to describe important qualitative features of their behavior in a low-dimensional way while all other <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is modelled as stochastic disturbance. This report is devoted to application of Bayesian evidence for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> stochastic model selection when reconstructing the evolution operator of observable system. The idea of Bayesian evidence is to find compromise between the model predictiveness and quality of fitting the model into the data. We represent the evolution operator of investigated system in a form of random <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system including deterministic and stochastic parts, both parameterized by artificial neural network. Then we use Bayesian evidence criterion to estimate <span class="hlt">optimal</span> complexity of the model, i.e. both number of parameters and dimension corresponding to most probable model given the data. We demonstrate on the number of model examples that the model with non-uniformly distributed stochastic part (which corresponds to non-Gaussian perturbations of evolution operator) is <span class="hlt">optimal</span> in general case. Further, we show that simple stochastic model can be the most preferred for reconstruction of the evolution operator underlying complex observed <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> even in a case of deterministic high-dimensional system. Workability of suggested approach for modeling and prognosis of real-measured geophysical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gavrilov, A.; Mukhin, D.; Loskutov, E. M.; Feigin, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1530Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long term <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of nano-satellite deorbit using a short electrodynamic tether</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper studies the long term <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of a nano-satellite deorbit by a short electrodynamic tether. The long term deorbit process is discretized into intervals and within each interval a two-phase <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control law is proposed to achieve libration stability and fast deorbit simultaneously. The first-phase formulates an open-loop fast-deorbit control trajectory by a simplified model that assumes the slow-varying orbital elements of electrodynamic tethered system as constant and ignores perturbation forces other than the electrodynamic force. The second phase tracks the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> trajectory derived in the first phase by a finite receding horizon control method while considering a full <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of electrodynamic tether system. Both <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problems are solved by direct collocation method base on the Hermite–Simpson discretization schemes with coincident nodes. The resulting piecewise nonlinear programing problems in the sequential intervals reduces the problem size and improve the computational efficiency, which enable an on-orbit control application. Numerical results for deorbit control of a short electrodynamic tethered nano-satellite system in both equatorial and highly inclined orbits demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control method. An <span class="hlt">optimal</span> balance between the libration stability and a fast deorbit of satellite with minimum control efforts is achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhong, R.; Zhu, Z. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1499..187V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimized</span> stiffness for linear time-invariant <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system according to a new system design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with a linear time-invariant <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system such as spring-mass-damper system. General <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> systems are quite commonly to be redesigned for another purpose of using. For example, if one automobile must be redesigned to have more weights, the existing suspension must be replaced due to that gained weight. Therefore the stiffness and damping coefficient must be recomputed in order to make the automobile become suitable for using as previous. Here the spring-mass-damper system is used as an example to demonstrate the technique through <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> where the problem is solved in two categories as minimum energy and maximum jerk. Once the state and control variables are provided from the problem of minimum energy and maximum jerk, respectively, these parameter will be substituted in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> equations and leave the stiffness and damping coefficient as the unknown parameters to be solved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veeraklaew, Tawiwat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/934620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reduced-Order Model for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Pressure Swing Adsorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The last few decades have seen a considerable increase in the applications of adsorptive gas separation technologies, such as pressure swing adsorption (PSA). From an economic and environmental point of view, hydrogen separation and carbon dioxide capture from flue gas streams are the most promising applications of PSA. With extensive industrial applications, there is a significant interest for an efficient modeling, simulation, and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> strategy. However, the design and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the PSA processes have largely remained an experimental effort because of the complex nature of the mathematical models describing practical PSA processes. The separation processes are based on solid-gas equilibrium and operate under periodic transient conditions. Models for PSA processes are therefore multiple instances of partial differential equations (PDEs) in time and space with periodic boundary conditions that link the processing steps together and high nonlinearities arising from non-isothermal effects. The computational effort required to solve such systems is usually quite expensive and prohibitively time consuming. Besides this, stringent product specifications, required by many industrial processes, often lead to convergence failures of the <span class="hlt">optimizers</span>. The solution of this coupled stiff PDE system is governed by steep concentrations and temperature fronts moving with time. As a result, the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of such systems for either design or operation represents a significant computational challenge to current differential algebraic equation (DAE) <span class="hlt">optimization</span> techniques and nonlinear programming algorithms. Sophisticated <span class="hlt">optimization</span> strategies have been developed and applied to PSA systems with significant improvement in the performance of the process. However, most of these approaches have been quite time consuming. This gives a strong motivation to develop cost-efficient and robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> strategies for PSA processes. Moreover, in case of flowsheet <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, if <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PSA models are incorporated with other steady state models in the flowsheet then it will require much faster approaches for integrated <span class="hlt">optimization</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agarwal, Anshul (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA); Biegler, L.T. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA); Zitney, S.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27091355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process Variation-Aware Timing <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> and Mixed-Static-<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> CMOS Logic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advancement in CMOS technology with the shrinking device size towards 32 nm has allowed for placement of billions of transistor on a single microprocessor chip. Simultaneously, it reduced the logic gate delays to the order of pico seconds. However, these low delays and shrinking device sizes have presented design engineers with two major challenges: timing <span class="hlt">optimization</span> at high frequencies,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar Yelamarthi; Chien-In Henry Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6589..260K"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Approach for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Prevention Program Implementation in Stochastic Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The science of preventing youth problems has significantly advanced in developing evidence-based prevention program (EBP) by using randomized clinical trials. Effective EBP can reduce delinquency, aggression, violence, bullying and substance abuse among youth. Unfortunately the outcomes of EBP implemented in natural settings usually tend to be lower than in clinical trials, which has motivated the need to study EBP implementations. In this paper we propose to model EBP implementations in natural settings as stochastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> processes. Specifically, we propose Markov Decision Process (MDP) for modeling and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of such EBP implementations. We illustrate these concepts using simple numerical examples and discuss potential challenges in using such approaches in practice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Yuncheol; Prabhu, Vittal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SMaS...19l5013L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of voltage channel distribution and control voltages for tracking the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> shapes of smart plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates a control scheme for tracking the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> shapes of structures with limited numbers of voltage channels. Integrated design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of voltage channel distribution and control parameters for structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> shape control is formulated as an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem with discrete variables and continuous variables coexisting. A two-level <span class="hlt">optimization</span> method based on a simulated annealing algorithm is proposed. In the first level, the optimum channel distribution is determined by <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> the objective function which is the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> value obtained in the second level. The optimum control parameters are obtained by using a sequential linear least-squares algorithm in the second level. The effectiveness of the present design methodology and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> scheme is then demonstrated through numerical examples for tracking the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> shapes of composite plates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Shutian; Lin, Zheqi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12583402"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human motion planning based on recursive <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control techniques.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an efficient <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control and recursive <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>-based computer animation system for simulating and controlling the motion of articulated figures. A quasi-Newton nonlinear programming technique (super-linear convergence) is implemented to solve minimum torque-based human motion-planning problems. The explicit analytical gradients needed in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are derived using a matrix exponential formulation and Lie algebra. Cubic spline functions are used to make the search space for an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution finite. Based on our formulations, our method is well conditioned and robust, in addition to being computationally efficient. To better illustrate the efficiency of our method, we present results of natural looking and physically correct human motions for a variety of human motion tasks involving open and closed loop kinematic chains. PMID:12583402</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lo, Janzen; Huang, Gang; Metaxas, Dimitris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50668469"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a 2Dof parallel robot with flexible links</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> analysis and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a 2-DOF parallel robot with flexible links for high-speed pick-and-place operation was investigated. The robot named Diamond robot is composed of two limbs, each essentially consisting of two sets of parallelograms with an elbow in between. The governing equation of motion of a flexible link was formulated in the floating frame of reference using Euler-Lagrange</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haihong Li; Zhiyong Yang; Tian Huang; Jiangping Mei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26951971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> constrained <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensators for non-stationary linear stochastic systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the design of fixed-order <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensators for non-stationary linear stochastic systems with noisy observations, where the observation noise need not necessarily be white. An integral quadratic performance index defined over a finite time interval is employed and this yields a matrix variational problem in the compensator parameters. It is shown how the <span class="hlt">optimal</span>, possibly time-varying, compensator</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. R. STRISENA; S. S. CHOI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x426021gtn66527v.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Model for a <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Network Design Problem Under Demand Uncertainty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach for a network design problem explicitly incorporating traffic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>\\u000a and demand uncertainty. In particular, we consider a cell transmission model based network design problem of the linear programming\\u000a type and use box uncertainty sets to characterize the demand uncertainty. The major contribution of this paper is to formulate\\u000a such a robust network design</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byung Do Chung; Tao Yao; Chi Xie; Andreas Thorsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l50u7415wu423q71.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical design of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> trajectory with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> load-carrying capacity for cable-suspended manipulator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the development of an approach for trajectory planning of cable-suspended parallel robots using <span class="hlt">optimal</span>\\u000a control approach. A prototype has been built, and tests have been carried out to verify the theoretical results. This paper\\u000a briefly illustrates this device and presents some initial tests. The final <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> equations are organized in a closed form\\u000a similar to serial manipulator</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moharam Habibnejad Korayem; M. Bamdad; H. Tourajizadeh; A. Habibnejad Korayem; S. Bayat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39234166"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of digital computers in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of chemical reactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Along with the increasing availability of high-speed, large-storage digital computers, there has been growing interest in their utilization for real-time control purposes. A typical problem in this connection and one of long-standing interest is the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> operation of chemical reactors. To our knowledge, no digital computer is being used for this purpose, chiefly because of the many</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. E. Kalman; R. W. Koepcke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50579690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergent Enterprise <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control Models of the System of Systems Engineering Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An enter-prise engaged in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mission involving multiple internal and external stakeholders operates as a complex adaptive system. System of systems engineering in such a context, spanning the entire cycle from research and development, through acquisition, transition to operations, operational use and maintenance, and system retirement, is extraordinarily complex. Here, we apply high-level and simplified <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control-theoretic models of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leonard A. Wojcik; Kenneth C. Hoffman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5258397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Construction and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of a separation cascade in the gas-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> method of separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors construct a mathematical model for the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the gaseous diffusion separation of uranium isotopes in a staged cascade where the extraction efficiency at each stage of the process is considered gas <span class="hlt">dynamically</span>. The model is based on a two-component stream which exit the separator in an enriched and a depleted form. The model is tested on the separation of uranium hexafluoride in hydrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bulgakov, A.V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1034620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance monitoring for new phase <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of instruction dispatch cluster configuration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied <span class="hlt">dynamically</span>. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balasubramonian, Rajeev (Sandy, UT); Dwarkadas, Sandhya (Rochester, NY); Albonesi, David (Ithaca, NY)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13764581"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Framework for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Self-<span class="hlt">optimization</span> of Power and Dependability Requirements in Green Cloud Architectures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a I report on the activities and research challenges, their rationales, and the work in progress related to the ongoing EPSRC\\/UoB\\u000a Bridging the Gap Fellowship project on Green Cloud Architectures. The initiative is aimed at a framework for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> self-<span class="hlt">optimization</span>\\u000a of cloud architectures taking into account the tradeoffs involved in maintaining acceptable dependability requirements\\/ Quality\\u000a of Service (QoS) with minimal power</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rami Bahsoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15290806"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hierarchical <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the fermentation process for producing gramicidin S, using microprocessors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the multistage fermentation process for producing gramicidin S (a type of antibiotic). The problem is solved using both the four-level hierarchical approach recently developed by Fawzy and also the single-level technique using the gradient method. The results show that for several reasons the four-level hierarchical approach is superior to the single-level one for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. S. FAWZY; O. R. HINTON</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683496"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Logistic <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Algorithm Based on Random Topology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Population topology of particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (PSO) will directly affect the dissemination of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> information during the evolutionary process and will have a significant impact on the performance of PSO. Classic static population topologies are usually used in PSO, such as fully connected topology, ring topology, star topology, and square topology. In this paper, the performance of PSO with the proposed random topologies is analyzed, and the relationship between population topology and the performance of PSO is also explored from the perspective of graph theory characteristics in population topologies. Further, in a relatively new PSO variant which named logistic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> particle <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, an extensive simulation study is presented to discuss the effectiveness of the random topology and the design strategies of population topology. Finally, the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. And about the design and use of population topology on PSO, some useful conclusions are proposed which can provide a basis for further discussion and research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deng, Jianming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23818820"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new logistic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm based on random topology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Population topology of particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (PSO) will directly affect the dissemination of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> information during the evolutionary process and will have a significant impact on the performance of PSO. Classic static population topologies are usually used in PSO, such as fully connected topology, ring topology, star topology, and square topology. In this paper, the performance of PSO with the proposed random topologies is analyzed, and the relationship between population topology and the performance of PSO is also explored from the perspective of graph theory characteristics in population topologies. Further, in a relatively new PSO variant which named logistic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> particle <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, an extensive simulation study is presented to discuss the effectiveness of the random topology and the design strategies of population topology. Finally, the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. And about the design and use of population topology on PSO, some useful conclusions are proposed which can provide a basis for further discussion and research. PMID:23818820</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ni, Qingjian; Deng, Jianming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........42N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Modeling, <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Analysis, and <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Design and Operation of Electromechanical Valve Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this dissertation, the actuator-valve systems as a critical part of the automation system are analyzed. Using physics-based high fidelity modeling, this research provides a set of tools to help understand, predict, <span class="hlt">optimize</span>, and control the real performance of these complex systems. The work carried out is expected to add to the suite of analytical and numerical tools that are essential for the development of highly automated ship systems. We present an accurate <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model, perform nonlinear analysis, and develop <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design and operation for electromechanical valve systems. The mathematical model derived includes electromagnetics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Nondimensionalization has been carried out in order to reduce the large number of parameters to a few critical independent sets to help carry out a parametric analysis. The system stability analysis is then carried out with the aid of the tools from nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> analysis. This reveals that the system is unstable in a certain region of the parameter space. The system is also shown to exhibit crisis and transient chaotic responses. Smart valves are often operated under local power supply (for various mission-critical reasons) and need to consume as little energy as possible in order to ensure continued operability. The Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is utilized to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the actuation subsystem yielding the most efficient configuration from the point of view of energy consumption for two sets of design variables. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is particularly important when the smart valves are used in a distributed network. Another aspect of <span class="hlt">optimality</span> is more subtle and concerns <span class="hlt">optimal</span> operation given a designed system. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> operation comes after the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> design process to explore if there is any particular method of the valve operation that would yield the minimum possible energy used. The results of our model developed are also validated with the aid of an experimental setup including an electrically actuated butterfly valve. Several pressure sensors are employed to measure the pressure drop across the valve in addition to a torque sensor to determine the total torque acting on the valve motion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naseradinmousavi, Peiman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15538847"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> manipulation of quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the impact of control field noise on the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> manipulation of quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Simulations are performed on several multilevel quantum systems with the goal of population transfer in the presence of significant control noise. The noise enters as run-to-run variations in the control amplitude and phase with the observation being an ensemble average over many runs as is commonly done in the laboratory. A genetic algorithm with an improved elitism operator is used to find the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> field that either fights against or cooperates with control field noise. When seeking a high control yield it is possible to find fields that successfully fight with the noise while attaining good quality stable results. When seeking modest control yields, fields can be found which are <span class="hlt">optimally</span> shaped to cooperate with the noise and thereby drive the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> more efficiently. In general, noise reduces the coherence of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, but the results indicate that population transfer objectives can be met by appropriately either fighting or cooperating with noise, even when it is intense. PMID:15538847</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shuang, Feng; Rabitz, Herschel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121.9270S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperating or fighting with control noise in the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> manipulation of quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the impact of control field noise on the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> manipulation of quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Simulations are performed on several multilevel quantum systems with the goal of population transfer in the presence of significant control noise. The noise enters as run-to-run variations in the control amplitude and phase with the observation being an ensemble average over many runs as is commonly done in the laboratory. A genetic algorithm with an improved elitism operator is used to find the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> field that either fights against or cooperates with control field noise. When seeking a high control yield it is possible to find fields that successfully fight with the noise while attaining good quality stable results. When seeking modest control yields, fields can be found which are <span class="hlt">optimally</span> shaped to cooperate with the noise and thereby drive the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> more efficiently. In general, noise reduces the coherence of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, but the results indicate that population transfer objectives can be met by appropriately either fighting or cooperating with noise, even when it is intense.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shuang, Feng; Rabitz, Herschel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT........45K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> joint torque coordination of advanced robotic systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development is documented of an efficient <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling algorithm and the subsequent <span class="hlt">optimal</span> joint input load coordination of advanced robotic systems for industrial application. A closed-form <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling algorithm for the general closed-chain robotic linkage systems is presented. The algorithm is based on the transfer of system dependence from a set of open chain Lagrangian coordinates to any desired system generalized coordinate set of the closed-chain. Three different techniques for evaluation of the kinematic closed chain constraints allow the representation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling parameters in terms of system generalized coordinates and have no restriction with regard to kinematic redundancy. The total computational requirement of the closed-chain system model is largely dependent on the computation required for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of an open kinematic chain. In order to improve computational efficiency, modification of an existing open-chain KIC based <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> formulation is made by the introduction of the generalized augmented body concept. This algorithm allows a 44 pct. computational saving over the current <span class="hlt">optimized</span> one (O(N4), 5995 when N = 6). As means of resolving redundancies in advanced robotic systems, local joint torque <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is applied for effectively using actuator power while avoiding joint torque limits. The stability problem in local joint torque <span class="hlt">optimization</span> schemes is eliminated by using fictitious dissipating forces which act in the necessary null space. The performance index representing the global torque norm is shown to be satisfactory. In addition, the resulting joint motion trajectory becomes conservative, after a transient stage, for repetitive cyclic end-effector trajectories. The effectiveness of the null space damping method is shown. The modular robot, which is built of well defined structural modules from a finite-size inventory and is controlled by one general computer system, is another class of evolving, highly versatile, advanced robotic systems. Therefore, finally, a module based <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling algorithm is presented for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> coordination of such reconfigurable modular robotic systems. A user interactive module based manipulator analysis program (MBMAP) has been coded in C language running on 4D/70 Silicon Graphics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Hee-Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....47.0G08G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to <span class="hlt">optimally</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to <span class="hlt">optimally</span> allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase <span class="hlt">optimal</span> environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NJPh....4...33H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volatile decision <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: experiments, stochastic description, intermittency control and traffic <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coordinated and efficient distribution of limited resources by individual decisions is a fundamental, unsolved problem. When individuals compete for road capacities, time, space, money, goods, etc, they normally make decisions based on aggregate rather than complete information, such as TV news or stock market indices. In related experiments, we have observed a volatile decision <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and far-from-<span class="hlt">optimal</span> payoff distributions. We have also identified methods of information presentation that can considerably improve the overall performance of the system. In order to determine <span class="hlt">optimal</span> strategies of decision guidance by means of user-specific recommendations, a stochastic behavioural description is developed. These strategies manage to increase the adaptibility to changing conditions and to reduce the deviation from the time-dependent user equilibrium, thereby enhancing the average and individual payoffs. Hence, our guidance strategies can increase the performance of all users by reducing overreaction and stabilizing the decision <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. These results are highly significant for predicting decision behaviour, for reaching <span class="hlt">optimal</span> behavioural distributions by decision support systems and for information service providers. One of the promising fields of application is traffic <span class="hlt">optimization</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helbing, Dirk; Schönhof, Martin; Kern, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......124S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control of coupled spin <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the presence of relaxation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis, we study methods for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> manipulation of coupled spin <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the presence of relaxation. We use these methods to compute analytical upper bounds for the efficiency of coherence and polarization transfer between coupled nuclear spins in multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, under the presence of relaxation. We derive relaxation <span class="hlt">optimized</span> pulse sequences which achieve or approach these bounds and maximize the sensitivity of the experiments. The two systems examined in detail in this thesis, arising in the context of protein NMR spectroscopy, are a coupled heteronuclear spin pair and an Ising spin chain. New schemes for coherence and polarization transfer are found, which yield substantial gains in transfer efficiency, compared to the traditionally used pulse sequences. From the standpoint of mathematical control theory, the problems arising in connection with <span class="hlt">optimal</span> manipulation of dissipative quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, motivate the study of a class of dissipative bilinear control systems and the computation of their reachable sets. For these systems we show that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution, corresponding to the maximization of transfer efficiency, and the reachable set can be found by solving a semidefinite program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefanatos, Dionisis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......178K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">optimized</span> <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> error control and algorithms for quantum information processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two topics in the field of quantum information processing, <span class="hlt">optimized</span> <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> error suppression and quantum algorithms, are considered here. The computational errors induced by the surrounding environment is one of the main obstacles in building a quantum computer. Engineering powerful techniques to combat errors in quantum devices is highly demanding. In the first part of this thesis, I focus on one quantum error correction technique, <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> decoupling (DD), introduced in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 is dedicated to nested UDD (NUDD), a highly efficient decoupling scheme that utilizes the decoupling characteristics of UDD by multi-layer nesting. UDD (1-layer NUDD) is an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> DD method for eliminating single-qubit general dephasing, and QDD (2-layer NUDD) is a near-<span class="hlt">optimal</span> DD method for eliminating one qubit general decoherence. I present a rigorous analytical proof of the performance and universality of QDD/NUDD, and obtain an explicit formula for the decoupling order of each error type, which elucidates the relationship between the error type and characteristics of NUDD. From the explicit formula, a NUDD scheme can be designed accordingly such that <span class="hlt">optimal</span> efficiency of NUDD is achieved. Moreover, the highly efficient error cancellation mechanism is revealed by the analysis. The proof of QDD has been published in [31], and the proof of NUDD will be submitted for publication shortly. Chapter 3 is devoted to the Adiabatic Quantum Computation (AQC). In this work (published in [44]), a general time-<span class="hlt">optimal</span> strategy, which in principle can <span class="hlt">optimize</span> any quantum adiabatic algorithm for which the gap is known or can be estimated, is formulated. In addition, I present a natural differential-geometric framework for AQC. *Please refer to dissertation for diagrams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuo, Wan-Jung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3267206"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Lyapunov-Based Extension to Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> for Continuous Function <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper proposes three alternative extensions to the classical global-best particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and compares their relative performance with the standard particle swarm algorithm. The first extension, which readily follows from the well-known Lyapunov's stability theorem, provides a mathematical basis of the particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with a guaranteed convergence at an optimum. The inclusion of local and global attractors to this <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> leads to faster convergence speed and better accuracy than the classical one. The second extension augments the velocity adaptation equation by a negative randomly weighted positional term of individual particle, while the third extension considers the negative positional term in place of the inertial term. Computer simulations further reveal that the last two extensions outperform both the classical and the first extension in terms of convergence speed and accuracy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharya, Sayantani; Konar, Amit; Das, Swagatam; Han, Sang Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JApSc...8.1242L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Material Removal Rate and Tool Replacement <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> with Calculus of Variations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study mathematically presents an optimum material removal control model, where the Material Removal Rate (MRR) is comprehensively introduced, to accomplish the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> machining control and tool life determination of a cutting tool under an expected machining quantity. To resolve the incessant cutting-rate control problem, Calculus of Variations is implemented for the optimum solution. Additionally, the decision criteria for selecting the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> solution are suggested and the sensitivity analyses for key variables in the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution are fully discussed. The versatility of this study is furthermore exemplified through a numerical illustration from the real-world industry with BORLAND C++ BUILDER. It is shown that the theoretical and simulated results are in good agreement. This study absolutely explores the very promising solution to <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> organize the MRR in minimizing the machining cost of a cutting tool for the contemporary machining industry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lan, Tian-Syung; Lo, Chih-Yao; Chiu, Min-Chie; Yeh, Long-Jyi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3760...88P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive compensation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wavefront aberrations based on blind <span class="hlt">optimization</span> technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present experimental results of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aberration correction based on gradient descend algorithms. The experimental setup included a 37-actuators piezoelectric deformable mirror to distort <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> an input laser beam and a 37-element micromachined deformable membrane mirror to correct the resulting wavefront distortions. We generated time-varying aberrations using the first mirror and used the light power focused onto a pinhole as our <span class="hlt">optimization</span> matrix. We programmed a computer to maximize this metric and control the shape of the micromachined deformable membrane mirror for wavefront correction. We implemented in this computer a simple gradient descend algorithm and a stochastic perturbation gradient descent algorithm. We present experimental data on the convergence and stability of this adaptive system for various conditions of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> turbulence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polejaev, Vladimir I.; Barbier, Pierre R.; Carhart, Gary W.; Plett, Mark L.; Rush, David W.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/654204"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-objective <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming approach to constrained discrete-time <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work presents a multi-objective differential <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming approach to constrained discrete-time <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control. In the backward sweep of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming in the quadratic sub problem, the sub problem input at a stage or time step is solved for in terms of the sub problem state entering that stage so as to minimize the summed immediate and future cost subject to minimizing the summed immediate and future constraint violations, for all such entering states. The method differs from previous <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming methods, which used penalty methods, in that the constraints of the sub problem, which may include terminal constraints and path constraints, are solved exactly if they are solvable; otherwise, their total violation is minimized. Again, the resulting solution of the sub problem is an input history that minimizes the quadratic cost function subject to being a minimizer of the total constraint violation. The expected quadratic convergence of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a numerical example.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Driessen, B.J.; Kwok, K.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parameter estimation with bio-inspired meta-heuristic <span class="hlt">optimization</span>: modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of endocytosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background We address the task of parameter estimation in models of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of biological systems based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from measured data, where the models are typically non-linear and have many parameters, the measurements are imperfect due to noise, and the studied system can often be only partially observed. A representative task is to estimate the parameters in a model of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of endocytosis, i.e., endosome maturation, reflected in a cut-out switch transition between the Rab5 and Rab7 domain protein concentrations, from experimental measurements of these concentrations. The general parameter estimation task and the specific instance considered here are challenging <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems, calling for the use of advanced meta-heuristic <span class="hlt">optimization</span> methods, such as evolutionary or swarm-based methods. Results We apply three global-search meta-heuristic algorithms for numerical <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, i.e., differential ant-stigmergy algorithm (DASA), particle-swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (PSO), and differential evolution (DE), as well as a local-search derivative-based algorithm 717 (A717) to the task of estimating parameters in ODEs. We evaluate their performance on the considered representative task along a number of metrics, including the quality of reconstructing the system output and the complete <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, as well as the speed of convergence, both on real-experimental data and on artificial pseudo-experimental data with varying amounts of noise. We compare the four <span class="hlt">optimization</span> methods under a range of observation scenarios, where data of different completeness and accuracy of interpretation are given as input. Conclusions Overall, the global meta-heuristic methods (DASA, PSO, and DE) clearly and significantly outperform the local derivative-based method (A717). Among the three meta-heuristics, differential evolution (DE) performs best in terms of the objective function, i.e., reconstructing the output, and in terms of convergence. These results hold for both real and artificial data, for all observability scenarios considered, and for all amounts of noise added to the artificial data. In sum, the meta-heuristic methods considered are suitable for estimating the parameters in the ODE model of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of endocytosis under a range of conditions: With the model and conditions being representative of parameter estimation tasks in ODE models of biochemical systems, our results clearly highlight the promise of bio-inspired meta-heuristic methods for parameter estimation in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system models within system biology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......111M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Applying <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wake models to large swirl velocities for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> propellers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wake model is applied to the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> propeller systems originally studied by the classic aerodynamicists: Betz, Prandtl and Goldstein. Several modified forms of the model are theoretically developed to extend the applicable range to flight conditions with a large swirl velocity component. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> wake model calculations accurately predict the inflow behavior for helicopter rotors, including axial flow for large tip-speed ratios, (OR/V infinity) ? 20. The swirl velocity is a prominent component for small tip-speed ratios (?5), typical of forward flight for tiltrotor craft such as the V-22 Osprey and the BA609. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> wake calculation results are compared to the closed-form solutions by Prandtl and Goldstein. The exact and approximate solutions correlate strongly for infinite blade cases and finite blade cases with a large tip-speed ratio. The original form of the He-Peters and Morillo-Peters <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wake models converge poorly for small tip-speed ratios, due to neglect of the swirl velocity. Derivations are presented for several adaptations of the models to account for the large apparent mass at the inboard blade region. A best modified form is chosen and the associated empirical factor is <span class="hlt">optimized</span> to correlate well with Prandtl's solution. Error norms for the original and modified forms of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wake model are presented for propellers of various number of blades and a range of tip-speed ratios. The Goldstein solution is also studied in depth and conclusions are drawn for improving the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wake model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Makinen, Stephen M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......106T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental/analytical approaches to modeling, calibrating and <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> shaking table <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis presents an Experimental/Analytical approach to modeling and calibrating shaking tables for structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> applications. This approach was successfully applied to the shaking table recently built in the structural laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at Rice University. This shaking table is capable of reproducing model earthquake ground motions with a peak acceleration of 6 g's, a peak velocity of 40 inches per second, and a peak displacement of 3 inches, for a maximum payload of 1500 pounds. It has a frequency bandwidth of approximately 70 Hz and is designed to test structural specimens up to 1/5 scale. The rail/table system is mounted on a reaction mass of about 70,000 pounds consisting of three 12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft reinforced concrete slabs, post-tensioned together and connected to the strong laboratory floor. The slip table is driven by a hydraulic actuator governed by a 407 MTS controller which employs a proportional-integral-derivative-feedforward-differential pressure algorithm to control the actuator displacement. Feedback signals are provided by two LVDT's (monitoring the slip table relative displacement and the servovalve main stage spool position) and by one differential pressure transducer (monitoring the actuator force). The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> actuator-foundation-specimen system is modeled and analyzed by combining linear control theory and linear structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The analytical model developed accounts for the effects of actuator oil compressibility, oil leakage in the actuator, time delay in the response of the servovalve spool to a given electrical signal, foundation flexibility, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of multi-degree-of-freedom specimens. In order to study the actual <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of the shaking table, the transfer function between target and actual table accelerations were identified using experimental results and spectral estimation techniques. The power spectral density of the system input and the cross power spectral density of the table input and output were estimated using the Bartlett's spectral estimation method. The experimentally-estimated table acceleration transfer functions obtained for different working conditions are correlated with their analytical counterparts. As a result of this comprehensive correlation study, a thorough understanding of the shaking table <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and its sensitivities to control and payload parameters is obtained. Moreover, the correlation study leads to a calibrated analytical model of the shaking table of high predictive ability. It is concluded that, in its present conditions, the Rice shaking table is able to reproduce, with a high degree of accuracy, model earthquake accelerations time histories in the frequency bandwidth from 0 to 75 Hz. Furthermore, the exhaustive analysis performed indicates that the table transfer function is not significantly affected by the presence of a large (in terms of weight) payload with a fundamental frequency up to 20 Hz. Payloads having a higher fundamental frequency do affect significantly the shaking table performance and require a modification of the table control gain setting that can be easily obtained using the predictive analytical model of the shaking table. The complete description of a structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> experiment performed using the Rice shaking table facility is also reported herein. The object of this experimentation was twofold: (1) to verify the testing capability of the shaking table and, (2) to experimentally validate a simplified theory developed by the author, which predicts the maximum rotational response developed by seismic isolated building structures characterized by non-coincident centers of mass and rigidity, when subjected to strong earthquake ground motions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trombetti, Tomaso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......173P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerodynamic gradient-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span> using computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and discrete sensitivities for practical problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gradient-based shape <span class="hlt">optimization</span> methodology based on quasi-analytical sensitivities has been developed for practical three-dimensional aerodynamic applications. The flow analysis has been rendered by a fully implicit, finite-volume formulation of the Euler and Thin Layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) equations. The flow equations and aerodynamic sensitivity equation have been solved using an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for memory efficiency. A wing geometry model based on space-surface and planform parameterization has been utilized. The present methodology and its components have been tested via several comparisons. Initially, the inviscid flow analysis for a wing has been compared with those obtained using an unfactored, Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) approach, and an independent Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (CFD) code which has been extensively validated. Then, the viscous laminar flow analysis for a wing has been compared with that obtained using again the extensively validated CFD code. Next, the sensitivities computed with the present method have been compared with those obtained using the finite-difference and the PCG approaches. Effects of convergence tolerance on the flowfield sensitivities have been shown. Also, effects of grid size and viscosity on the flow analysis, sensitivity analysis and the shape <span class="hlt">optimization</span> have been established. Despite the expected increase in the computational time, the results indicate that shape <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems, which require large numbers of grid points, can be resolved with a gradient-based approach. The new procedure has been demonstrated in the design of a cranked arrow wing at Mach 2.4, with coarse and fine grid based computations performed with Euler and TLNS equations. The influence of the initial constraints on the geometry and aerodynamics of the <span class="hlt">optimized</span> shape has been explored. Various final shapes generated for an identical initial problem formulation but with different <span class="hlt">optimization</span> path options (coarse or fine grid, Euler or TLNS) have been aerodynamically evaluated via a common fine grid TLNS based analysis. The efficacy of these design options has been evaluated by comparing net performance improvement in tandem with the CPU time requirements. Results show that fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and sensitivity analyses using ADI compare well with the PCG method and CFL3D code. The ADI method reduces the memory storage but increases the computing time as compared to the PCG method. It is demonstrated that the inherent larger size of <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems can be accommodated by using the ADI method. The presently developed <span class="hlt">optimization</span> procedure is capable of learning aerodynamic lessons during the evolution of <span class="hlt">optimized</span> shapes. Initial constraints conditions show significant bearing on the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> results. Results demonstrate that to produce an aerodynamically efficient design, it is imperative to include viscous physics in the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> procedure with proper resolution. However, if CPU time constraints do not permit this option, it is advantageous to incorporate inadequately resolved viscous flow physics in lieu of properly resolved inviscid flow physics. Based upon the present results, it is recommended that to better utilize computational resources, a number of viscous coarse grid cases using the PCG (preferably) or ADI method, should initially be explored to improve <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem definition, design space and initial shape. <span class="hlt">Optimized</span> shapes should be analyzed using high fidelity (viscous fine grid resolution) flow analysis to evaluate their true performance potential. Subsequently, a viscous fine grid-based shape <span class="hlt">optimization</span> should be conducted, using ADI method, to accurately obtain the final <span class="hlt">optimized</span> shape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pandya, Mohagna Jayendrarai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCoAM.232..252L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control for nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system of microbial fed-batch culture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In fed-batch culture of glycerol bio-dissimilation to 1, 3-propanediol (1, 3-PD), the aim of adding glycerol is to obtain as much 1, 3-PD as possible. So a proper feeding rate is required during the process. Taking the concentration of 1, 3-PD at the terminal time as the performance index and the feeding rate of glycerol as the control function, we propose an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control model subject to a nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system and constraints of continuous state and non-stationary control. A computational approach is constructed to seek the solution of the above model in two aspects. On the one hand we transcribe the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control model into an unconstrained one based on the penalty functions and an extension of the state space; on the other hand, by approximating the control function with simple functions, we transform the unconstrained <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problem into a sequence of nonlinear programming problems, which can be solved using gradient-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span> techniques. The convergence analysis of this approximation is also investigated. Numerical results show that, by employing the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control policy, the concentration of 1, 3-PD at the terminal time can be increased considerably.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Chongyang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MARP26001W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of Ultrafast Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control for Identifying Biomolecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With F.COURVOISIER,L.GUYON,V.BOUTOU, and M.ROTH,J. ROSLUND, H. RABITZ, Princeton University. The identification and discrimination of molecules that exhibit almost identical structures and spectra using fluorescence spectroscopy is considered quite difficult. In order to evaluate the capability of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control for discriminating between the optical emissions of nearly identical molecules, we developed a new approach called ``<span class="hlt">optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> discrimination (ODD). A proof of principle ODD experiment has been performed using Riboflavin (RBF) and Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN) as model system. We used a complex multipulse control field made of a pair of pulses (UV and IR). The UV part (400 nm) is <span class="hlt">optimally</span> shaped using a control learning loop while the IR component (800 nm) is FT-limited (100 fs) and set at a definite time delay with respect to the UV pulse. Clear discrimination was observed for <span class="hlt">optimally</span> shaped pulses, although the linear spectra from both molecules are virtually identical. A further experiment showed that, by using the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> pulse shapes that maximize the fluorescence depletion in FMN and RBF in a differential manner, the concentration of both molecules could be retrieved while they were mixed in the same solution. The ODD demonstration sets out a promising path for future applications, as for example fluorescence microscopy where endogenous fluorescence spectra of many biomolecules overlap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolf, Jean-Pierre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing a computationally efficient <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multilevel hybrid <span class="hlt">optimization</span> scheme using multifidelity model interactions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many engineering application problems use <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithms in conjunction with numerical simulators to search for solutions. The formulation of relevant objective functions and constraints dictate possible <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithms. Often, a gradient based approach is not possible since objective functions and constraints can be nonlinear, nonconvex, non-differentiable, or even discontinuous and the simulations involved can be computationally expensive. Moreover, computational efficiency and accuracy are desirable and also influence the choice of solution method. With the advent and increasing availability of massively parallel computers, computational speed has increased tremendously. Unfortunately, the numerical and model complexities of many problems still demand significant computational resources. Moreover, in <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, these expenses can be a limiting factor since obtaining solutions often requires the completion of numerous computationally intensive simulations. Therefore, we propose a multifidelity <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm (MFO) designed to improve the computational efficiency of an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> method for a wide range of applications. In developing the MFO algorithm, we take advantage of the interactions between multi fidelity models to develop a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and computational time saving <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm. First, a direct search method is applied to the high fidelity model over a reduced design space. In conjunction with this search, a specialized oracle is employed to map the design space of this high fidelity model to that of a computationally cheaper low fidelity model using space mapping techniques. Then, in the low fidelity space, an optimum is obtained using gradient or non-gradient based <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, and it is mapped back to the high fidelity space. In this paper, we describe the theory and implementation details of our MFO algorithm. We also demonstrate our MFO method on some example problems and on two applications: earth penetrators and groundwater remediation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Castro, Joseph Pete Jr. (; .); Giunta, Anthony Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3194232"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> biclustering of microarray data by multi-objective immune <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background Newly microarray technologies yield large-scale datasets. The microarray datasets are usually presented in 2D matrices, where rows represent genes and columns represent experimental conditions. Systematic analysis of those datasets provides the increasing amount of information, which is urgently needed in the post-genomic era. Biclustering, which is a technique developed to allow simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a dataset, might be useful to extract more accurate information from those datasets. Biclustering requires the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of two conflicting objectives (residue and volume), and a multi-objective artificial immune system capable of performing a multi-population search. As a heuristic search technique, artificial immune systems (AISs) can be considered a new computational paradigm inspired by the immunological system of vertebrates and designed to solve a wide range of <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems. During biclustering several objectives in conflict with each other have to be <span class="hlt">optimized</span> simultaneously, so multi-objective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model is suitable for solving biclustering problem. Results Based on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> population, this paper proposes a novel <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multi-objective immune <span class="hlt">optimization</span> biclustering (DMOIOB) algorithm to mine coherent patterns from microarray data. Experimental results on two common and public datasets of gene expression profiles show that our approach can effectively find significant localized structures related to sets of genes that show consistent expression patterns across subsets of experimental conditions. The mined patterns present a significant biological relevance in terms of related biological processes, components and molecular functions in a species-independent manner. Conclusions The proposed DMOIOB algorithm is an efficient tool to analyze large microarray datasets. It achieves a good diversity and rapid convergence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EJASP2012..160Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-parameters <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of support vector machine-based soft-margin classifier</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article proposes a `<span class="hlt">dynamic</span>' artificial bee colony (D-ABC) algorithm for solving <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> problems. It overcomes the poor performance of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, when applied to multi-parameters <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> `activity' factor is introduced to D-ABC algorithm to speed up convergence and improve the quality of solution. This D-ABC algorithm is employed for multi-parameters <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of support vector machine (SVM)-based soft-margin classifier. Parameter <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is significant to improve classification performance of SVM-based classifier. Classification accuracy is defined as the objection function, and the many parameters, including `kernel parameter', `cost factor', etc., form a solution vector to be <span class="hlt">optimized</span>. Experiments demonstrate that D-ABC algorithm has better performance than traditional methods for this <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> problem, and better parameters of SVM are obtained which lead to higher classification accuracy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Yiming; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Fengjiao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37600809"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Nitrogen Use When Groundwater Contamination Is Internalized at the Standard in the Long Run</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An economic relationship between agricultural production and groundwater pollution is established first by analyzing the problem in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> setting. Using experimental data from 1987 to 1990 from three sites, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> policy rules that would maintain the nitrate contamination level at the 10 mg\\/l standard over time are determined next. Nitrogen application rates are then determined based on the <span class="hlt">optimal</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satya N. Yadav</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50787291"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-objective Intelligent <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Model on <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Error Measurement and Fault Diagnosis for Roll Grinder NC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The error measurement and diagnosis process of roll grinder NC has <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> complexity, non-linearity, and comprehensive characteristics. However, presently roll error measurement examination mostly uses the manual examination or single parameter <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, and the efficiency of fault diagnosis is also inefficient. In this study, the multi-objective intelligence <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model (MIOM) is applied to the roller error measurement and diagnosis. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ding Xiaoyan; Liu Lilan; Hua Zhengxiao; Yu Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60303800"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of rated capacities of coal mines in Kuzbass in the framework of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multiplicative model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors analyze the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the rated design capacity of a single coal mine without constraints. The rate of return is used as the target function of the problem. The authors solve the problem in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> statement considering the trends of wholesale coal prices, coal excavation costs, and capital investment in mine construction. The variables <span class="hlt">optimized</span> in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ordin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005fls..book..225B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control of Atomic, Molecular and Electron <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> with Tailored Femtosecond Laser Pulses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the invention of the laser, the dream was realized to actively exert control over quantum systems. Active control over the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of quantum mechanical systems is a fascinating perspective in modern physics. Cleavage and creation of predetermined chemical bonds, selective population transfer in atoms and molecules, and steering the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of bound and free electrons have been important milestones along this way. A promising tool for this purpose is available with femtosecond laser technologies. In this chapter we review some of our work on adaptive femtosecond quantum control where a learning algorithm and direct experimental feedback signals are employed to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> user-defined objectives. Femtosecond laser pulses are modified in frequency-domain pulse shapers, which apart from phase- and intensity-modulation can also modify the polarization state as a function of time. We will highlight the major advances in the field of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control by presenting our own illustrative experimental examples such as gas-phase and liquid-phase femtochemistry, control in weak and strong laser fields, and control of electron <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brixner, Tobias; Pfeifer, Thomas; Gerber, Gustav; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accurate estimation of cardinal growth temperatures of Escherichia coli from <span class="hlt">optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> experiments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prediction of the microbial growth rate as a response to changing temperatures is an important aspect in the control of food safety and food spoilage. Accurate model predictions of the microbial evolution ask for correct model structures and reliable parameter values with good statistical quality. Given the widely accepted validity of the Cardinal Temperature Model with Inflection (CTMI) [Rosso, L., Lobry, J. R., Bajard, S. and Flandrois, J. P., 1995. Convenient model to describe the combined effects of temperature and pH on microbial growth, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61: 610-616], this paper focuses on the accurate estimation of its four parameters (T(min), T(opt), T(max) and micro(opt)) by applying the technique of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> experiment design for parameter estimation (OED/PE). This secondary model describes the influence of temperature on the microbial specific growth rate from the minimum to the maximum temperature for growth. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> temperature profiles are <span class="hlt">optimized</span> within two temperature regions ([15 degrees C, 43 degrees C] and [15 degrees C, 45 degrees C]), focusing on the minimization of the parameter estimation (co)variance (D-<span class="hlt">optimal</span> design). The <span class="hlt">optimal</span> temperature profiles are implemented in a computer controlled bioreactor, and the CTMI parameters are identified from the resulting experimental data. Approximately equal CTMI parameter values were derived irrespective of the temperature region, except for T(max). The latter could only be estimated accurately from the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> experiments within [15 degrees C, 45 degrees C]. This observation underlines the importance of selecting the upper temperature constraint for OED/PE as close as possible to the true T(max). Cardinal temperature estimates resulting from designs within [15 degrees C, 45 degrees C] correspond with values found in literature, are characterized by a small uncertainty error and yield a good result during validation. As compared to estimates from non-<span class="hlt">optimized</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> experiments, more reliable CTMI parameter values were obtained from the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> experiments within [15 degrees C, 45 degrees C]. PMID:18835500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Derlinden, E; Bernaerts, K; Van Impe, J F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22789811"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> investment for enhancing social concern about biodiversity conservation: a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To maintain biodiversity conservation areas, we need to invest in activities, such as monitoring the condition of the ecosystem, preventing illegal exploitation, and removing harmful alien species. These require a constant supply of resources, the level of which is determined by the concern of the society about biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> fraction of the resources to invest in activities for enhancing the social concern y(t) by environmental education, museum displays, publications, and media exposure. We search for the strategy that maximizes the time-integral of the quality of the conservation area x(t) with temporal discounting. Analyses based on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming and Pontryagin's maximum principle show that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control consists of two phases: (1) in the first phase, the social concern level approaches to the final <span class="hlt">optimal</span> value y(?), (2) in the second phase, resources are allocated to both activities, and the social concern level is kept constant y(t) = y(?). If the social concern starts from a low initial level, the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> path includes a period in which the quality of the conservation area declines temporarily, because all the resources are invested to enhance the social concern. When the support rate increases with the quality of the conservation area itself x(t) as well as with the level of social concern y(t), both variables may increase simultaneously in the second phase. We discuss the implication of the results to good management of biodiversity conservation areas. PMID:22789811</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Joung Hun; Iwasa, Yoh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIB..94...43N"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Programming Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Design of Tidal Power Plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming algorithm is proposed and demonstrated on a test case to determine the optimum operating schedule of a barrage tidal power plant to maximize the energy generation over a tidal cycle. Since consecutive sets of high and low tides can be predicted accurately for any tidal power plant site, this algorithm can be used to calculate the annual energy generation for different technical configurations of the plant. Thus an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> choice of a tidal power plant design can be made from amongst different design configurations yielding the least cost of energy generation. Since this algorithm determines the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> time of operation of sluice gate opening and turbine gates opening to maximize energy generation over a tidal cycle, it can also be used to obtain the annual schedule of operation of a tidal power plant and the minute-to-minute energy generation, for dissemination amongst power distribution utilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nag, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13828"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Fluid Front <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in Porous Media Using Rate Control: I. Equal Mobility Fluids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In applications involving this injection of a fluid in a porous medium to displace another fluid, a main objective is the maximization of the displacement efficiency. For a fixed arrangement of injection and production points (sources and sinks), such <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is possible by controlling the injection rate policy. Despite its practical relevance, however, this aspect has received scant attention in the literature. In this paper, a fundamental approach based on <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control theory, for the case when the fluids are miscible, of equal viscosity and in the absence of dispersion and gravity effects. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are considered. From a fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> viewpoint, this is a problem in the deformation of material lines in porous media, as a function of time-varying injection rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sundaryanto, Bagus; Yortsos, Yanis C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264279"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span>-security-constrained multiobjective generation dispatch of longitudinally interconnected power systems using bicriterion global <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is devoted to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> performance assessment and model reduction for a longitudinally interconnected power system, with special emphasis on small-perturbation stability. A 2-machine equivalent is established for representing intersubsystem behavior of the test system, that is valid over a large range of interconnected system operation. Eigenvalue-sensitivity-based constraints are derived to represent variations of security levels with MW transfers between subsystems. These constraints can be stored in simple lookup tables and are used to extend the authors` work on a bicriterion <span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach for determining the most appropriate generation dispatch solution taking into account the fuel and environmental costs, and to provide security constraints during <span class="hlt">optimization</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, C.S.; Liew, A.C.; Xu, J.X.; Wang, X.W.; Fan, B. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005WRR....4105006R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seawater intrusion policy analysis with a numerical spatially heterogeneous <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For more than 50 years, Monterey County and California State officials have pursued without success water policies to halt groundwater overdraft and seawater intrusion in the multilayer confined aquifers underlying arguably the most productive farmland in the United States. This study develops a general <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model that emphasizes the institutional and physical characteristics that differentiate this policy problem from other groundwater extraction problems. The solution of the model exhibits heterogeneous spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> extraction based on spatially distributed extraction cost, pumping cost externality, and seawater intrusion stock externality. Comparison of model results under alternative management regimes elucidates landowner economic incentives, reveals the potential welfare loss of current state policy, and explains much of the history of the political economy of water in Monterey County.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reinelt, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7180987"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of crude and product tanker fleets: a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> profit maximization model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The petroleum tanker market crashed in the mid-seventies and has remained weak ever since. The cyclical pattern in tanker trade has yet to rebound from famine to feast. This research develops an original multi-stage <span class="hlt">optimization</span> to improve the management of specific fleet operating and composition decisions. The model maximizes profits over the long term via a relaxation of the demand constraint, and a compact heuristic solving for the general integer problem within a quadratic formulations. Alternative formulations are tested and the original model is compared to an actual fleet history. In all cases, the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Fleet <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Model (DFOM) consistently generates the largest profits. The performance of DFOM in the historical validation supports the hypothesis that improved fleet management has the potential to improve tanker market efficiency. The analysis identifies a trading syndrome in tanker management leading to the chronic oversupply of tankers, and prescribes management guidelines along with model applications to avoid the mistakes of past tanker operators,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Selman, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21528600"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that <span class="hlt">optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Banchi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Apollaro, T. J. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, C.N.R., via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuccoli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Vaia, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, C.N.R., via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Verrucchi, P. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, C.N.R., via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIB.tmp...41N"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Programming Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Design of Tidal Power Plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming algorithm is proposed and demonstrated on a test case to determine the optimum operating schedule of a barrage tidal power plant to maximize the energy generation over a tidal cycle. Since consecutive sets of high and low tides can be predicted accurately for any tidal power plant site, this algorithm can be used to calculate the annual energy generation for different technical configurations of the plant. Thus an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> choice of a tidal power plant design can be made from amongst different design configurations yielding the least cost of energy generation. Since this algorithm determines the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> time of operation of sluice gate opening and turbine gates opening to maximize energy generation over a tidal cycle, it can also be used to obtain the annual schedule of operation of a tidal power plant and the minute-to-minute energy generation, for dissemination amongst power distribution utilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nag, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26472427"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of life support systems in space flight applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we report on the development of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> human model for the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications.An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Hager; M. Czupalla; U. Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.academypublisher.com/jcp/vol03/no02/jcp03022128.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process Variation Aware Transistor Sizing for Load Balance of Multiple Paths in <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> CMOS for Timing <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexity in timing <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of high- performance microprocessors has been increasing with the number of channel-connected transistors in various paths of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CMOS circuits and the rising magnitude of process variations in nanometer CMOS process. In this paper, a process variation aware transistor sizing algorithm for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CMOS circuits while considering the Load Balance of Multiple Paths (LBMP) is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar Yelamarthi; Chien-in Henry Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413738R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solving the equation for the Iberian upwelling biogeochemical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> experience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trying to find a set of parameters to properly reproduce the biogeochemical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the region of study is a major concern in biogeochemical ocean modelling. Model parameters are constant values introduced in the equations that calculate the time and space evolution of the state variables of the biogeochemical model. A good set of parameters allows for a better representation of the biological and chemical processes in the system, and thus to model results more approximated to reality. However, it is not a straightforward task, because many parameters are not well constrained in the literature, or they may be unknown or vary considerably between different regions. Usually, the approach to find the appropriate values is running several simulations, after some sensitivity test to individual parameters, until a satisfactory result is obtained. This may be very time consuming and quite subjective. A more systematic way to find this set of parameters has arisen over the last years by using mathematical <span class="hlt">optimization</span> techniques. The basic principle under <span class="hlt">optimization</span> is to minimize the difference between an observed and a simulated data series by using a cost function. We have applied an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> technique to find an appropriate set of parameters for modelling the biogeochemical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the western Iberian shelf, off the Atlantic coast of Portugal and Galicia (NW Spain), which is characterized by a conspicuous seasonal upwelling. The ocean model is a high resolution 3D regional configuration of ROMS coupled to a N2PZD2 biogeochemical model. Results using the a priori parameters and the <span class="hlt">optimized</span> parameters are compared and discussed. The study is the result of a multidisciplinary collaborative effort between the University of Aveiro ocean modelling group (Portugal), the ETHZ (Switzerland) and the IIM-CSIC Vigo oceanography group (Spain).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reboreda, R.; Santaren, D.; Castro, C. G.; Alvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Nolasco, R.; Queiroga, H.; Dubert, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IEITI..95.1858L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconfiguration Process <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of <span class="hlt">Dynamically</span> Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture for Multimedia Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a novel architecture design to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the reconfiguration process of a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture (CGRA) called Reconfigurable Multimedia System II (REMUS-II). In REMUS-II, the tasks in multi-media applications are divided into two parts: computing-intensive tasks and control-intensive tasks. Two Reconfigurable Processor Units (RPUs) for accelerating computing-intensive tasks and a Micro-Processor Unit (µPU) for accelerating control-intensive tasks are contained in REMUS-II. As a large-scale CGRA, REMUS-II can provide satisfying solutions in terms of both efficiency and flexibility. This feature makes REMUS-II well-suited for video processing, where higher flexibility requirements are posed and a lot of computation tasks are involved. To meet the high requirement of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> reconfiguration performance for multimedia applications, the reconfiguration architecture of REMUS-II should be well designed. To <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the reconfiguration architecture of REMUS-II, a hierarchical configuration storage structure and a 3-stage reconfiguration processing structure are proposed. Furthermore, several <span class="hlt">optimization</span> methods for configuration reusing are also introduced, to further improve the performance of reconfiguration process. The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> methods include two aspects: the multi-target reconfiguration method and the configuration caching strategies. Experimental results showed that, with the reconfiguration architecture proposed, the performance of reconfiguration process will be improved by 4 times. Based on RTL simulation, REMUS-II can support the 1080p@32fps of H.264 HiP@Level4 and 1080p@40fps High-level MPEG-2 stream decoding at the clock frequency of 200MHz. The proposed REMUS-II system has been implemented on a TSMC 65nm process. The die size is 23.7mm2 and the estimated on-chip <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> power is 620mW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Bo; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Min; Yang, Jun; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun; Shi, Longxing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5076...70C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smart DRM (<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range management) for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> IR seeker sensitivity and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For an IR (infrared) sensor, the raw digital images coming out from the FPA (focal plane array) A/D converter contain strong non-uniformity/fixed pattern noise (FPN) as well as permanent and blinking dead pixels. Before performing the target detection and tracking functions, these raw images are processed by a CWF (chopper-wheel-free) MBPF NUC (Measurement-Based-Parametric-Fitting Non-Uniformity Correction) system to replace the dead pixels and to remove or reduce the FPN, as shown in Figure 1. The input to MBPF NUC is RIMi,j (the raw image), where 1<=i,j<=256, and the output is CIMi,j, the corrected image. It is important to note that as shown in Figure 1 the IT (integration time) for the FPA input capacitors is a critical parameter to control the sensor"s sensitivity and temperature DR (<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range). From the results of our FPN measurement, the STD (standard deviation) of FPN from a raw uncorrected image can be as high as 300-400 counts. This high count FPN will severely reduce the sensor"s sensitivity (we would like to detect a weak target as low as a couple of counts) and hamper the target tracking and/or ATR functions because of the high counts FPN artifacts. Therefore, the major purpose of the NUC system is to reduce FPN for early target detection, and the secondary purpose is to reduce FPN artifacts for reliable target tracking and ATR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hai-Wen; Olson, Teresa L. P.; Frey, Steven R., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19267163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-objective evolutionary <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of biological pest control with impulsive <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in soybean crops.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The biological pest control in agriculture, an environment-friendly practice, maintains the density of pests below an economic injury level by releasing a suitable quantity of their natural enemies. This work proposes a multi-objective numerical solution to biological pest control for soybean crops, considering both the cost of application of the control action and the cost of economic damages. The system model is nonlinear with impulsive control <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, in order to cope more effectively with the actual control action to be applied, which should be performed in a finite number of discrete time instants. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem is solved using the NSGA-II, a fast and trustworthy multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results suggest a dual pest control policy, in which the relative price of control action versus the associated additional harvest yield determines the usage of either a low control action strategy or a higher one. PMID:19267163</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardoso, Rodrigo T N; da Cruz, André R; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Takahashi, Ricardo H C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106190"> <span id="translatedtitle">A synergic simulation-<span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach for analyzing biomolecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in living organisms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A synergic duo simulation-<span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach was developed and implemented to study protein-substrate <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and binding kinetics in living organisms. The forward problem is a system of several coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which, with a given set of kinetics and diffusion parameters, can provide not only the commonly used bleached area-averaged time series in fluorescence microscopy experiments but more informative full biomolecular/drug space-time series and can be successfully used to study <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of both Dirac and Gaussian fluorescence-labeled biomacromolecules in vivo. The incomplete Cholesky preconditioner was coupled with the finite difference discretization scheme and an adaptive time-stepping strategy to solve the forward problem. The proposed approach was validated with analytical as well as reference solutions and used to simulate <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor (GFP-GR) in mouse cancer cell during a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment. Model analysis indicates that the commonly practiced bleach spot-averaged time series is not an efficient approach to extract physiological information from the fluorescence microscopy protocols. It was recommended that experimental biophysicists should use full space-time series, resulting from experimental protocols, to study <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of biomacromolecules and drugs in living organisms. It was also concluded that in parameterization of biological mass transfer processes, setting the norm of the gradient of the penalty function at the solution to zero is not an efficient stopping rule to end the inverse algorithm. Theoreticians should use multi-criteria stopping rules to quantify model parameters by <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. PMID:21106190</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IJTPE.124..690F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Studies of Particle Swarm <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> Techniques for Reactive Power Allocation Planning in Power Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper compares particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (PSO) techniques for a reactive power allocation planning problem in power systems. The problem can be formulated as a <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> nonlinear <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem (MINLP). The PSO based methods determines a reactive power allocation strategy with continuous and discrete state variables such as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) operating values of electric power generators, tap positions of on-load tap changer (OLTC) of transformers, and the number of reactive power compensation equipment. Namely, this paper investigates applicability of PSO techniques to one of the practical MINLPs in power systems. Four variations of PSO: PSO with inertia weight approach (IWA), PSO with constriction factor approach (CFA), hybrid particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (HPSO) with IWA, and HPSO with CFA are compared. The four methods are applied to the standard IEEE14 bus system and a practical 112 bus system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fukuyama, Yoshikazu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoAM.203..345S"> <span id="translatedtitle">On PDE solution in transient <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of gas networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Operative planning in gas distribution networks leads to large-scale <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems involving a hyperbolic PDE defined on a graph. We consider the NLP obtained under prescribed combinatorial decisions--or as relaxation in a branch-and-bound framework, addressing in particular the KKT systems arising in primal-dual interior methods. We propose a custom solution algorithm using sparse projections locally in time, based on the KKT systems' structural properties in space as induced by the discretized gas flow equations in combination with the underlying network topology. The numerical efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm are investigated, and detailed computational comparisons with a previously developed control space method and with the multifrontal solver MA27 are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steinbach, Marc C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/808543"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> for commercialization of renewable energy: an example for solar photovoltaics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are several studies of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> allocation of research and development resources over the time horizon of a project. The primary result of the basic noncompetitive models in this literature is that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> strategy is to choose a research intensity and ending date for the project such that the marginal costs of accelerating the project equals the marginal benefits of introducing the product sooner. This literature provides useful insights for the government planner who must allocate R&D resources for renewable energy development. However, several characteristics distinguish the process from the typical R&D planning problem. Specifically, with PV development, where the goal is to maximize the net present value of activities leading to cost reduction in commercial modules, there are (1) significant lag-times between investment in laboratory research and resulting effects in the marketplace, (2) a learning curve associated with the manufacturing process that also reduces the cost s of PV modules, (3) interim benefits from technical advances, (4) no clear end point to the R&D process, but rather a tapering off of the value of advances in technical efficiency, (5) significant uncertainty in the R&D process, (6) a family of products rather than an individual technology, (7) a co-mingling of government and private resources with implications for efficient management. A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model is developed to characterize the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> intensity and timing of government and private resource allocation for basic research in improving the technical efficiency of cells and subsidies to the manufacturing process to encourage progress on the learning curve. A series of propositions regarding <span class="hlt">optimal</span> paths for each are examined. While the research is purely analytical, the results are useful for conceptualizing the R&D planning process. They also provide a basis for a numerical study that can address whether current levels and historic patterns of funding are <span class="hlt">optimal</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richards, Kenneth, R.; Ashton, W. Bradley; McVeigh, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134816"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimizing</span> a tone curve for backward-compatible high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range image and video compression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For backward compatible high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range (HDR) video compression, the HDR sequence is reconstructed by inverse tone-mapping a compressed low <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range (LDR) version of the original HDR content. In this paper, we show that the appropriate choice of a tone-mapping operator (TMO) can significantly improve the reconstructed HDR quality. We develop a statistical model that approximates the distortion resulting from the combined processes of tone-mapping and compression. Using this model, we formulate a numerical <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem to find the tone-curve that minimizes the expected mean square error (MSE) in the reconstructed HDR sequence. We also develop a simplified model that reduces the computational complexity of the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem to a closed-form solution. Performance evaluations show that the proposed methods provide superior performance in terms of HDR MSE and SSIM compared to existing tone-mapping schemes. It is also shown that the LDR image quality resulting from the proposed methods matches that produced by perceptually-based TMOs. PMID:21134816</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mai, Zicong; Mansour, Hassan; Mantiuk, Rafal; Nasiopoulos, Panos; Ward, Rabab; Heidrich, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMagR.227...57V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> nuclear polarization and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control spatial-selective 13C MRI and MRS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aimed at 13C metabolic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) applications, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nuclear polarization (DNP) may be combined with <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control 2D spatial selection to simultaneously obtain high sensitivity and well-defined spatial restriction. This is achieved through the development of spatial-selective single-shot spiral-readout MRI and MRS experiments combined with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nuclear polarization hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate on a 4.7 T pre-clinical MR scanner. The method stands out from related techniques by facilitating anatomic shaped region-of-interest (ROI) single metabolite signals available for higher image resolution or single-peak spectra. The 2D spatial-selective rf pulses were designed using a novel Krotov-based <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control approach capable of iteratively fast providing successful pulse sequences in the absence of qualified initial guesses. The technique may be important for early detection of abnormal metabolism, monitoring disease progression, and drug research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinding, Mads S.; Laustsen, Christoffer; Maximov, Ivan I.; Søgaard, Lise Vejby; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan H.; Nielsen, Niels Chr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IEITI..95.2039W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Allocation of SPM Based on Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph for System <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a novel <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> Scratch-pad Memory allocation strategy to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the energy consumption of the memory sub-system. Firstly, the whole program execution process is sliced into several time slots according to the temporal dimension; thereafter, a Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph (TSCCG) is introduced to model the behavior of Data Cache (D-Cache) conflicts within each time slot. Then, Integer Nonlinear Programming (INP) is implemented, which can avoid time-consuming linearization process, to select the most profitable data pages. Virtual Memory System (VMS) is adopted to remap those data pages, which will cause severe Cache conflicts within a time slot, to SPM. In order to minimize the swapping overhead of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SPM allocation, a novel SPM controller with a tightly coupled DMA is introduced to issue the swapping operations without CPU's intervention. Last but not the least, this paper discusses the fluctuation of system energy profit based on different MMU page size as well as the Time Slot duration quantitatively. According to our design space exploration, the proposed method can <span class="hlt">optimize</span> all of the data segments, including global data, heap and stack data in general, and reduce the total energy consumption by 27.28% on average, up to 55.22% with a marginal performance promotion. And comparing to the conventional static CCG (Cache Conflicts Graph), our approach can obtain 24.7% energy profit on average, up to 30.5% with a sight boost in performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Jianping; Ling, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Mei, Chen; Wang, Huan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5999...13C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> voltage scaling for wireless sensor nodes with real-time constraints</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sensors are increasingly embedded in manufacturing systems and wirelessly networked to monitor and manage operations ranging from process and inventory control to tracking equipment and even post-manufacturing product monitoring. In building such sensor networks, a critical issue is the limited and hard to replenish energy in the devices involved. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> voltage scaling is a technique that controls the operating voltage of a processor to provide desired performance while conserving energy and prolonging the overall network's lifetime. We consider such power-limited devices processing time-critical tasks which are non-preemptive, aperiodic and have uncertain arrival times. We treat voltage scaling as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem whose objective is to minimize energy consumption subject to hard or soft real-time execution constraints. In the case of hard constraints, we build on prior work (which engages a voltage scaling controller at task completion times) by developing an intra-task controller that acts at all arrival times of incoming tasks. We show that this <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem can be decomposed into two simpler ones whose solution leads to an algorithm that does not actually require solving any nonlinear programming problems. In the case of soft constraints, this decomposition must be partly relaxed, but it still leads to a scalable (linear in the number of tasks) algorithm. Simulation results are provided to illustrate performance improvements in systems with intra-task controllers compared to uncontrolled systems or those using inter-task control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cassandras, Christos G.; Zhuang, Shixin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.134c4511R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolution of strongly competitive product channels with <span class="hlt">optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> discrimination: Application to flavins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fundamental molecular selectivity limits are probed by exploiting laser-controlled quantum interferences for the creation of distinct spectral signatures in two flavin molecules, erstwhile nearly indistinguishable via steady-state methods. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> discrimination (ODD) uses <span class="hlt">optimally</span> shaped laser fields to transiently amplify minute molecular variations that would otherwise go unnoticed with linear absorption and fluorescence techniques. ODD is experimentally demonstrated by combining an <span class="hlt">optimally</span> shaped UV pump pulse with a time-delayed, fluorescence-depleting IR pulse for discrimination amongst riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solution, which are structurally and spectroscopically very similar. Closed-loop, adaptive pulse shaping discovers a set of UV pulses that induce disparate responses from the two flavins and allows for concomitant flavin discrimination of ~16?. Additionally, attainment of ODD permits quantitative, analytical detection of the individual constituents in a flavin mixture. The successful implementation of ODD on quantum systems of such high complexity bodes well for the future development of the field and the use of ODD techniques in a variety of demanding practical applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roslund, Jonathan; Roth, Matthias; Guyon, Laurent; Boutou, Véronique; Courvoisier, Francois; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rabitz, Herschel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22751538"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control strategies for disinfection of bacterial populations with persister and susceptible <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is increasingly clear that bacteria manage to evade killing by antibiotics and antimicrobials in a variety of ways, including mutation, phenotypic variations, and formation of biofilms. With recent advances in understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the tolerance mechanisms, there have been subsequent advances in understanding how to manipulate the bacterial environments to eradicate the bacteria. This study focuses on using mathematical techniques to find the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> disinfection strategy to eliminate the bacteria while managing the load of antibiotic that is applied. In this model, the bacterial population is separated into those that are tolerant to the antibiotic and those that are susceptible to disinfection. There are transitions between the two populations whose rates depend on the chemical environment. Our results extend previous mathematical studies to include more realistic methods of applying the disinfectant. The goal is to provide experimentally testable predictions that have been lacking in previous mathematical studies. In particular, we provide the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> disinfection protocol under a variety of assumptions within the model that can be used to validate or invalidate our simplifying assumptions and the experimental hypotheses that we used to develop the model. We find that constant dosing is not the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> method for disinfection. Rather, cycling between application and withdrawal of the antibiotic yields the fastest killing of the bacteria. PMID:22751538</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cogan, N G; Brown, Jason; Darres, Kyle; Petty, Katherine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IEITI..95..374L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Date Flow <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of <span class="hlt">Dynamically</span> Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture for Multimedia Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a novel sub-architecture to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the data flow of REMUS-II (REconfigurable MUltimedia System 2), a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> coarse grain reconfigurable architecture. REMUS-II consists of a µPU (Micro-Processor Unit) and two RPUs (Reconfigurable Processor Unit), which are used to speeds up control-intensive tasks and data-intensive tasks respectively. The parallel computing capability and flexibility of REMUS-II makes itself an excellent candidate to process multimedia applications, which require a large amount of memory accesses. In this paper, we specifically <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the data flow to deal with those performance-hazard and energy-hungry memory accessing in order to meet the bandwidth requirement of parallel computing. The RPU internal memory could work in multiple modes, like 2D-access mode and transformation mode, according to different multimedia access patterns. This novel design can improve the performance up to 26% compared to traditional on-chip memory. Meanwhile, the block buffer is implemented to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the off-chip data flow through reducing off-chip memory accesses, which reducing up to 43% compared to direct DDR access. Based on RTL simulation, REMUS-II can achieve 1080p@30fps of H.264 High Profile@ Level 4 and High Level MPEG2 at 200MHz clock frequency. The REMUS-II is implemented into 23.7mm2 silicon on TSMC 65nm logic process with a 400MHz maximum working frequency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Xinning; Mei, Chen; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Min; Shi, Longxing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3498056"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bouncing between Model and Data: Stability, Passivity, and <span class="hlt">Optimality</span> in Hybrid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rhythmically bouncing a ball with a racket is a seemingly simple task, but it poses all the challenges critical for coordinative behavior: perceiving the ball’s trajectory to adapt position and velocity of the racket for the next ball contact. To gain insight into the underlying control strategies, the authors conducted a series of studies that tested models with experimental data, with an emphasis on deriving model-based hypotheses and trying to falsify them. Starting with a simple <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model of the racket and ball interactions, stability analyses showed that open-loop <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> affords <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> stability, such that small perturbations do not require corrections. To obtain this passive stability, the ball has to be impacted with negative acceleration—a strategy that subjects adopted in a variety of conditions at steady state. However, experimental tests that applied perturbations revealed that after perturbations, subjects applied active perceptually guided corrections to reestablish steady state faster than by relying on the passive model’s relaxation alone. Hence, the authors derived a model with active control based on <span class="hlt">optimality</span> principles that considered each impact as a separate reaching-like movement. This model captured some additional features of the racket trajectory but failed to predict more fine-grained aspects of performance. The authors proceed to present a new model that accounts not only for fine-grained behavior but also reconciles passive and active control approaches with new predictions that will be put to test in the next set of experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronsse, Renaud; Sternad, Dagmar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6993153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming for stochastic <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control on a vector multiprocessor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical methods have been developed to solve <span class="hlt">optimal</span> feedback control problems for nonlinear, continuous time <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems, perturbed by Poisson as well as Gaussian random white noise. Predictor-corrector methods have been modified for the functional partial differential equation of stochastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming to treat nonlinearities attributable to quadratic costs and nonsmoothness attributable to control switching as well as Poisson-induced delays. Uniform corrector convergence conditions are given for the multistate case. This numerical formulation is highly suitable for vectorization and parallelization techniques. These techniques have resulted in speedups of 120 times for the Argonne National Laboratory's Alliant FX/8 vector multiprocessor over a VAX 11/780, when applied to a multistate, multicontrol resource model. Speedups are greater the finer the mesh becomes, because of the dominance of concurrent-outer, vector-inner loops. Column-oriented code can run more than twice as fast as row-oriented code for highly refined meshes, but row-oriented code is more efficient and perhaps practical for coarser meshes. An analytical model of the primary loop structure yields a concurrent-outer, vector-inner loop dominant limit. Addition memory overhead is encountered in performance measurements for large mesh sizes. Advance computing techniques and hardware help alleviate Bellman's ''curse of dimensionality'' in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming computations. 48 refs., 8 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanson, F.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMagR.234...75X"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> variable flip angle schemes for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> acquisition of exchanging hyperpolarized substrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In metabolic MRI with hyperpolarized contrast agents, the signal levels vary over time due to T1 decay, T2 decay following RF excitations, and metabolic conversion. Efficient usage of the nonrenewable hyperpolarized magnetization requires specialized RF pulse schemes. In this work, we introduce two novel variable flip angle schemes for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> hyperpolarized MRI in which the flip angle is varied between excitations and between metabolites. These were <span class="hlt">optimized</span> to distribute the magnetization relatively evenly throughout the acquisition by accounting for T1 decay, prior RF excitations, and metabolic conversion. Simulation results are presented to confirm the flip angle designs and evaluate the variability of signal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> across typical ranges of T1 and metabolic conversion. They were implemented using multiband spectral–spatial RF pulses to independently modulate the flip angle at various chemical shift frequencies. With these schemes we observed increased SNR of [1-13C]lactate generated from [1-13C]pyruvate, particularly at later time points. This will allow for improved characterization of tissue perfusion and metabolic profiles in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> hyperpolarized MRI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xing, Yan; Reed, Galen D.; Pauly, John M.; Kerr, Adam B.; Larson, Peder E. Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12883211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing CO2 Conversion to Methanol Using <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span>, Applied on Shell Temperature and Inlet Hydrogen During Four Years Operation of Methanol Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The investigation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimal</span> policies for an industrial methanol reactor experiencing exothermic, reversible reactions is the subject of this study. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> values of inlet hydrogen mole fraction and shell temperature have been investigated for a heterogeneous methanol reactor. <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> has been carried out by employing the methanol production rate (MPR) as an objective function. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> history profiles for shell</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Zahedi; A. Elkamel; A. Lohi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........50C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> simulation and <span class="hlt">optimal</span> real-time operation of CHP systems for buildings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems have been widely recognized as a key alternative for electric and thermal energy generation because of their outstanding energy efficiency, reduced environmental emissions, and relative independence from centralized power grids. The systems provide simultaneous onsite or near-site electric and thermal energy generation in a single, integrated package. As CHP becomes increasingly popular worldwide and its total capacity increases rapidly, the research on the topics of CHP performance assessment, design, and operational strategy become increasingly important. Following this trend of research activities to improve energy efficiency, environmental emissions, and operational cost, this dissertation focuses on the following aspects: (a) performance evaluation of a CHP system using a transient simulation model; (b) development of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation model of a power generation unit that can be effectively used in transient simulations of CHP systems; (c) investigation of real-time operation of CHP systems based on <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with respect to operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions; and (d) development of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> supervisory feed-forward control that can provide realistic real-time operation of CHP systems with electric and thermal energy storages using short-term weather forecasting. The results from a transient simulation of a CHP system show that technical and economical performance can be readily evaluated using the transient model and that the design, component selection, and control of a CHP system can be improved using this model. The results from the case studies using <span class="hlt">optimal</span> real-time operation strategies demonstrate that CHP systems with an energy dispatch algorithm have the potential to yield savings in operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions with respect to a conventional HVAC system. Finally, the results from the case study using a supervisory feed-forward control system illustrate that <span class="hlt">optimal</span> realistic real-time operation of CHP systems with electric and thermal energy storages can be managed by this <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control using weather forecasting information. Key words: CHP, transient simulation, power generation unit, <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, real-time operation, feed-forward control, energy storage systems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cho, Hee Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bauer.uh.edu/povel/documents/povel_jleo_1999.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> \\</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes <span class="hlt">optimal</span> bankruptcy laws in a framework with asymmetric information. The key idea is that the financial distress of a firm is not observed by its lenders for quite a while. As early rescues are much cheaper than late rescues, it may pay if the creditors are forgiving in bankruptcy, thereby inducing the revelation of difficulties as early</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Povel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6925696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of time-of-use rates on the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> sizing and operation of cogeneration systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For customers with a cogeneration system (CGS), a <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> programming and nonlinear programming model is used to examine effects of time-of-use (TOU) rates on the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> operation of the constituent equipment as well as the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> sizing. Three customers are selected for case studies: a hotel, a hospital, and an office building. Effects of an on-peak/off-peak energy charge ratio on purchased power share in the total electricity demand are saturated at the ratio of 5. As the energy charge ratio is raised, cheaper off-peak power substitutes for city gas and the operating cost decreases. The responses of the hotel and the hospital are similar. The simulation results included in this paper indicate that properly designed TOU rates can provide commercial customers an incentive to operate a CGS with an appropriate mix of the self-generation and commercial power.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asano, H.; Sagai, S.; Imamura, E. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, K.; Yokoyama, R. (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApOpt..42..251S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Re-Referencing Rate for In-Plane <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Speckle Interferometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate experimentally the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> rate at which the reference speckle pattern should be updated when <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> speckle interferometry is used to measure transient in-plane displacement fields. Images are captured with a high-speed camera and phase shifting and phase unwrapping are done temporally. For a wide range of in-plane velocities, up to a maximum of 40% of the Nyquist limit, the random errors in the calculated displacement field are minimized by updating the reference speckle pattern after a speckle displacement of 1 /10 of the pixel spacing. The technique is applied to measurements of microscale deformation fields within an adhesive joint in a carbon-fiber epoxy composite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Svanbro, Angelica; Huntley, Jonathan M.; Davila, Abundio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12546504"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> re-referencing rate for in-plane <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> speckle interferometry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate experimentally the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> rate at which the reference speckle pattern should be updated when <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> speckle interferometry is used to measure transient in-plane displacement fields. Images are captured with a high-speed camera and phase shifting and phase unwrapping are done temporally. For a wide range of in-plane velocities, up to a maximum of 40% of the Nyquist limit, the random errors in the calculated displacement field are minimized by updating the reference speckle pattern after a speckle displacement of 1/10 of the pixel spacing. The technique is applied to measurements of microscale deformation fields within an adhesive joint in a carbon-fiber epoxy composite. PMID:12546504</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Svanbro, Angelica; Huntley, Jonathan M; Davila, Abundio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21255548"> <span id="translatedtitle">An '<span class="hlt">optimal</span>' spawning algorithm for adaptive basis set expansion in nonadiabatic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The full multiple spawning (FMS) method has been developed to simulate quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the multistate electronic problem. In FMS, the nuclear wave function is represented in a basis of coupled, frozen Gaussians, and a 'spawning' procedure prescribes a means of adaptively increasing the size of this basis in order to capture population transfer between electronic states. Herein we detail a new algorithm for specifying the initial conditions of newly spawned basis functions that minimizes the number of spawned basis functions needed for convergence. '<span class="hlt">Optimally</span>' spawned basis functions are placed to maximize the coupling between parent and child trajectories at the point of spawning. The method is tested with a two-state, one-mode avoided crossing model and a two-state, two-mode conical intersection model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Sandy; Coe, Joshua D.; Kaduk, Benjamin; Martinez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChPh.130m4113Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">An ``<span class="hlt">optimal</span>'' spawning algorithm for adaptive basis set expansion in nonadiabatic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The full multiple spawning (FMS) method has been developed to simulate quantum <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the multistate electronic problem. In FMS, the nuclear wave function is represented in a basis of coupled, frozen Gaussians, and a ``spawning'' procedure prescribes a means of adaptively increasing the size of this basis in order to capture population transfer between electronic states. Herein we detail a new algorithm for specifying the initial conditions of newly spawned basis functions that minimizes the number of spawned basis functions needed for convergence. ``<span class="hlt">Optimally</span>'' spawned basis functions are placed to maximize the coupling between parent and child trajectories at the point of spawning. The method is tested with a two-state, one-mode avoided crossing model and a two-state, two-mode conical intersection model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Sandy; Coe, Joshua D.; Kaduk, Benjamin; Martínez, Todd J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.3385H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and construction of miniature artificial ecosystem based on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response <span class="hlt">optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The miniature artificial ecosystem (MAES) is a combination of man, silkworm, salad and mi-croalgae to partially regenerate O2 , sanitary water and food, simultaneously dispose CO2 and wastes, therefore it have a fundamental life support function. In order to enhance the safety and reliability of MAES and eliminate the influences of internal variations and external dis-turbances, it was necessary to configure MAES as a closed-loop control system, and it could be considered as a prototype for future bioregenerative life support system. However, MAES is a complex system possessing large numbers of parameters, intricate nonlinearities, time-varying factors as well as uncertainties, hence it is difficult to perfectly design and construct a prototype through merely conducting experiments by trial and error method. Our research presented an effective way to resolve preceding problem by use of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response <span class="hlt">optimiza-tion</span>. Firstly the mathematical model of MAES with first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations including parameters was developed based on relevant mechanisms and experimental data, secondly simulation model of MAES was derived on the platform of MatLab/Simulink to perform model validation and further digital simulations, thirdly reference trajectories of de-sired <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response of system outputs were specified according to prescribed requirements, and finally <span class="hlt">optimization</span> for initial values, tuned parameter and independent parameters was carried out using the genetic algorithm, the advanced direct search method along with parallel computing methods through computer simulations. The result showed that all parameters and configurations of MAES were determined after a series of computer experiments, and its tran-sient response performances and steady characteristics closely matched the reference curves. Since the prototype is a physical system that represents the mathematical model with reason-able accuracy, so the process of designing and constructing a prototype of MAES is the reverse of mathematical modeling, and must have prerequisite assists from these results of computer simulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Enzhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49918171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robustness, convergence and stability considerations for the <span class="hlt">optimal</span>-control-based inverse <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> solution for flexible robot arms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the inverse <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> problem for flexible open-chain robot arms. In earlier work the authors (1990) derived an approximate solution to this inverse <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> problem, using <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control theory. The solution found with this method is noncausal, and results in excellent open-loop tracking. The method is applicable to multi-link arms by linearization about a nominal trajectory. In the present paper,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Theodore Kokkinis; Masoud Sahraian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w7q72m63wn56r222.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Least-Squares Unidimensional Scaling: Improved Branch-and-Bound Procedures and Comparison to <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Programming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are two well-known methods for obtaining a guaranteed globally <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solution to the problem of least-squares unidimensional scaling of a symmetric dissimilarity matrix: (a) <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming, and (b) branch-and-bound. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> programming is generally more efficient than branch-and-bound, but the former is limited to matrices with approximately 26 or fewer objects because of computer memory limitations. We present some new</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael J. Brusco; Stephanie Stahl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46552951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational-fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span>-based aeroelastic analysis and structural design <span class="hlt">optimization</span>—a researcher’s perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper discusses current approaches for the use of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in aeroelastic analyses and structural design <span class="hlt">optimization</span> applications. Current methods for computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>-based static maneuver load analysis and flutter analysis are reviewed, including related issues such as fluid-structure interface, and moving mesh. Present state-of-the-art examples from the literature are presented along with research studies by the author.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniella E. Raveh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24011116"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Analysis of the Interaction between Effector Immune and Cancer Cells and <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Control of Chemotherapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that the tumor chemotherapy treatment has damaging side effects and hence, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of this treatment is extremely important. With this in mind an accurate and comprehensive mathematical model could be useful. Various mathematical models have been derived to describe not only the beneficial effects of the immune system on controlling the growing tumor, but also to track, directly, the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on both the tumor cell and the immune cell populations. In this article, we offer a novel mathematical model presented by fractional differential equations. This model will then be used to analyze the bifurcation and stability of the complex <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> which occur in the local interaction of effector-immune cell and tumor cells in a solid tumor. We will also investigate the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of combined chemo-immunotherapy. We argue that our fractional differential equations model will be superior to its ordinary differential equations counterpart in facilitating understanding of the natural immune interactions to tumor and of the detrimental side-effects which chemotherapy may have on a patient's immune system. PMID:24011116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erjaee, G H; Ostadzad, M H; Amanpour, S; Lankarani, K B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..718..309M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Stochastic <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Programming Model With Fuzzy Storage States Applied to Reservoir Operation <span class="hlt">Optimization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Application of stochastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming (SDP) models to reservoir <span class="hlt">optimization</span> calls for state variables discretization. As an important variable discretization of reservoir storage volume has a pronounced effect on the computational efforts. The error caused by storage volume discretization is examined by considering it as a fuzzy state variable. In this approach, the point-to-point transitions between storage volumes at the beginning and end of each period are replaced by transitions between storage intervals. This is achieved by using fuzzy arithmetic operations with fuzzy numbers. In this approach, instead of aggregating single-valued crisp numbers, the membership functions of fuzzy numbers are combined. Running a simulated model with <span class="hlt">optimal</span> release policies derived from fuzzy and non-fuzzy SDP models shows that a fuzzy SDP with a coarse discretization scheme performs as well as a classical SDP having much finer discretized space. It is believed that this advantage in the fuzzy SDP model is due to the smooth transitions between storage intervals which benefit from soft boundaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mousavi, Seyed Jamshid; Mahdizadeh, Kourosh; Afshar, Abbas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21038036"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of partial multicanonical molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations applied to an alanine dipeptide in explicit water solvent.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The partial multicanonical algorithm for molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and Monte Carlo simulations samples a wide range of an important part of the potential energy. Although it is a strong technique for structure prediction of biomolecules, the choice of the partial potential energy has not been <span class="hlt">optimized</span>. In order to find the best choice, partial multicanonical molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations of an alanine dipeptide in explicit water solvent were performed with 15 trial choices for the partial potential energy. The best choice was found to be the sum of the electrostatic, Lennard-Jones, and torsion-angle potential energies between solute atoms. In this case, the partial multicanonical simulation sampled all of the local-minimum free-energy states of the P(II), C(5), ?(R), ?(P), ?(L), and C states and visited these states most frequently. Furthermore, backbone dihedral angles ? and ? rotated very well. It is also found that the most important term among these three terms is the electrostatic potential energy and that the Lennard-Jones term also helps the simulation to overcome the steric restrictions. On the other hand, multicanonical simulation sampled all of the six states, but visited these states fewer times. Conventional canonical simulation sampled only four of the six states: The P(II), C(5), ?(R), and ?(P) states. PMID:21038036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okumura, Hisashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/800774"> <span id="translatedtitle">DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design <span class="hlt">Optimization</span>, Parameter Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Sensitivity Analysis Version 3.0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, analytic reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming, or <span class="hlt">optimization</span> under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ELDRED, MICHAEL S.; GIUNTA, ANTHONY A.; VAN BLOEMEN WAANDERS, BART G.; WOJTKIEWICZ JR., STEVEN F.; HART, WILLIAM E.; ALLEVA, MARIO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/798492"> <span id="translatedtitle">DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design <span class="hlt">Optimization</span>, Parameter Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Sensitivity Analysis Version 3.0 Reference Manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, analytic reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming, or <span class="hlt">optimization</span> under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ELDRED, MICHAEL S.; GIUNTA, ANTHONY A.; VAN BLOEMEN WAANDERS, BART G.; WOJTKIEWICZ JR., STEVEN F.; HART, WILLIAM E.; ALLEVA, MARIO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895073"> <span id="translatedtitle">DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming, or <span class="hlt">optimization</span> under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991841"> <span id="translatedtitle">DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for <span class="hlt">optimization</span> with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming, or <span class="hlt">optimization</span> under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18694789"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and ligninolytic system production <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungus A modelling and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The well-documented ability to degrade lignin and a variety of complex chemicals showed by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has made it the subject of many studies in areas of environmental concern, including pulp bioleaching and bioremediation technologies. However, until now, most of the work in this field has been focused on the ligninolytic sub-system but, due to the great complexity of the involved processes, less progress has been made in understanding the biochemical regulatory structure that could explain growth <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, the substrate utilization and the ligninolytic system production itself. In this work we want to tackle this problem from the perspectives and approaches of systems biology, which have been shown to be effective in the case of complex systems. We will use a top-down approach to the construction of this model aiming to identify the cellular sub-systems that play a major role in the whole process. We have investigated growth <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, substrate consumption and lignin peroxidase production of the P. chrysosporium wild type under a set of definite culture conditions. Based on data gathered from different authors and in our own experimental determinations, we built a model using a GMA power-law representation, which was used as platform to make predictive simulations. Thereby, we could assess the consistency of some current assumptions about the regulatory structure of the overall process. The model parameters were estimated from a time series experimental measurements by means of an algorithm previously adapted and <span class="hlt">optimized</span> for power-law models. The model was subsequently checked for quality by comparing its predictions with the experimental behavior observed in new, different experimental settings and through perturbation analysis aimed to test the robustness of the model. Hence, the model showed to be able to predict the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of two critical variables such as biomass and lignin peroxidase activity when in conditions of nutrient deprivation and after pulses of veratryl alcohol. Moreover, it successfully predicts the evolution of the variables during both, the active growth phase and after the deprivation shock. The close agreement between the predicted and observed behavior and the advanced understanding of its kinetic structure and regulatory features provides the necessary background for the design of a biotechnological set-up designed for the continuous production of the ligninolityc system and its <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. PMID:18694789</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hormiga, J A; Vera, J; Frías, I; Torres Darias, N V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PMB....58.7391K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and clinical application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080962"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and clinical application.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ?15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ?45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ?35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging. PMID:24080962</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5440973"> <span id="translatedtitle">The exchange rate in a <span class="hlt">dynamic-optimizing</span> business cycle model with nominal rigidities: a quantitative investigation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper studies a quantitative <span class="hlt">dynamic-optimizing</span> business cycle model of a small open economy with staggered price and wage setting. The model exhibits exchange rate overshooting in response to money supply shocks. The predicted variability of the nominal and, especially, of the real exchange rate is noticeably higher than in standard Real Business Cycle models with flexible prices and wages.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Kollmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CompM..45..415R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the rate of penetration of a drill-string using a stochastic nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work proposes a strategy for the robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a drill-string, which is a structure that rotates and digs into the rock to search for oil. The nonparametric probabilistic approach is employed to model the uncertainties of the structure as well as the uncertainties of the bit-rock interaction model. This paper is particularly concerned with the robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the rate of penetration of the column, i.e., we aim to maximize the mathematical expectation of the mean rate of penetration, respecting the integrity of the system. The variables of the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem are the rotational speed at the top and the initial reaction force at the bit; they are considered deterministic. The goal is to find the set of variables that maximizes the expected mean rate of penetration, respecting, vibration limits, stress limit and fatigue limit of the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22153599"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of photo bioreactor for O2 regulation and control by system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and computer simulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a valid kinetic model of photo bioreactor (PBR) used for highly-effective cultivation of blue algae, Spirulina platensis, was developed for fully describing the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of O(2) concentration, then a closed-loop PBR with Linear-Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) servo controller was established and <span class="hlt">optimized</span> via digital simulation and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response <span class="hlt">optimization</span>, and the effectiveness of the closed-loop PBR was further tested and accredited by real-time simulation. The result showed that the closed-loop PBR could regulate and control the O(2) concentration in its gas phase according to the reference with desired <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response performance, hence microalgae with unique characteristic could be selected as a powerful tool for O(2) regulation and control whenever O(2) concentration in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) deviates from the nominal level in emergencies, and greatly enhance safety and reliability of BLSS on space and ground missions. PMID:22153599</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Dawei; Li, Ming; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Yi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G21A0796S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Survey Design for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Terrain Monitoring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terrestrial laser scanning (lidar) technology offers great potential as a rapid mapping technology for monitoring <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> terrain evolution at localized scales but there are inherent limitations. Because such systems have limited scanning ranges and are static, multiple scans must be merged together to form a seamless model of the terrain scene. For contiguous mapping of terrain over wide-areas (> few hundred meters) this poses several obstacles that must be overcome. The selected measurement set-up, sampling resolution, and other survey design factors as well as inherent system characteristics will influence the measurement capabilities and efficiency of repeat-coverage surveys for monitoring terrain change. Additionally, relative to airborne lidar, developments in the utilization of terrestrial lidar for terrain mapping have lagged behind. In an effort to develop more effective methods for terrain monitoring with terrestrial lidar, this research investigates the influence of survey design and scan configuration on surface change detection capability with the goal of <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> data acquisition while minimizing information loss. Results are based on several terrestrial lidar surveys conducted at an experimental watershed maintained by North Carolina State University. From the data, the influence of measurement set-up and system inherent parameters on resultant terrain data are characterized. This provides a better understanding of realistic performance traits for the given system and terrain scene enabling more efficient survey design. Finally, an <span class="hlt">optimization</span> approach for data acquisition is developed using multiple viewshed analysis constrained by the system performance characteristics and survey design specifications. The resultant method provides a powerful design tool for rapid acquisition of terrain measurements with terrestrial lidar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starek, M. J.; Mitasova, H.; Harmon, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16306155"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of a linear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system with double terminal constraint on the trajectories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A linear-quadratic problem of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control with a double terminal constraint on the trajectories is considered. A new proof of the <span class="hlt">optimality</span> criterion by means of the implicit fonctions theorem is given. The suggested condition ?-<span class="hlt">optimality</span> of is formulated in the form of the maximum principle. The suggested <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm follows the Gabasov-Kirillova approach, which is based on the concept</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. O. Bibi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6092096"> <span id="translatedtitle">An efficient multiple shooting based reduced SQP strategy for large-scale <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process <span class="hlt">optimization</span>: Part II: Software aspects and applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As model based <span class="hlt">optimization</span> techniques play a more and more important role in the chemical process industries, there is a great demand for ever more efficient and reliable process <span class="hlt">optimization</span> software. In the first part of this paper, the theoretical aspects of a tailored multiple shooting based solution strategy for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process <span class="hlt">optimization</span> have been presented (Leineweber, Bauer, Bock &</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel B. Leineweber; Andreas Schäfer; Hans Georg Bock; Johannes P. Schlöder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50793775"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> compensation for infrared thermometer based on Wiener model and particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel structure of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model is proposed in this paper and applied to construct a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model to correct the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> errors of the infrared thermometer, because of which the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> performance of the thermometer is effectively improved. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensator is established and the compensation is described and explicated by the Wiener model. According to Wiener model, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen Jie Tian; Yue Tian; Lan Ai; Ji Cheng Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.3180T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fuzzy multiobjective models for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> operation of a hydropower system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131248"> <span id="translatedtitle">HybridArc: A novel radiation therapy technique combining <span class="hlt">optimized</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> arcs and intensity modulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This investigation focuses on possible dosimetric and efficiency advantages of HybridArc-a novel treatment planning approach combining <span class="hlt">optimized</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> arcs with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. Application of this technique to two disparate sites, complex cranial tumors, and prostate was examined. HybridArc plans were compared with either <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conformal arc (DCA) or IMRT plans to determine whether HybridArc offers a synergy through combination of these 2 techniques. Plans were compared with regard to target volume dose conformity, target volume dose homogeneity, sparing of proximal organs at risk, normal tissue sparing, and monitor unit (MU) efficiency. For cranial cases, HybridArc produced significantly improved dose conformity compared with both DCA and IMRT but did not improve sparing of the brainstem or optic chiasm. For prostate cases, conformity was improved compared with DCA but not IMRT. Compared with IMRT, the dose homogeneity in the planning target volume was improved, and the maximum doses received by the bladder and rectum were reduced. Both arc-based techniques distribute peripheral dose over larger volumes of normal tissue compared with IMRT, whereas HybridArc involved slightly greater volumes of normal tissues compared with DCA. Compared with IMRT, cranial cases required 38% more MUs, whereas for prostate cases, MUs were reduced by 7%. For cranial cases, HybridArc improves dose conformity to the target. For prostate cases, dose conformity and homogeneity are improved compared with DCA and IMRT, respectively. Compared with IMRT, whether required MUs increase or decrease with HybridArc was site-dependent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robar, James L., E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Thomas, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Merging spatially variant physical process models under an <span class="hlt">optimized</span> systems <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> framework.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexity of water resource issues, its interconnectedness to other systems, and the involvement of competing stakeholders often overwhelm decision-makers and inhibit the creation of clear management strategies. While a range of modeling tools and procedures exist to address these problems, they tend to be case specific and generally emphasize either a quantitative and overly analytic approach or present a qualitative dialogue-based approach lacking the ability to fully explore consequences of different policy decisions. The integration of these two approaches is needed to drive toward final decisions and engender effective outcomes. Given these limitations, the Computer Assisted Dispute Resolution system (CADRe) was developed to aid in stakeholder inclusive resource planning. This modeling and negotiation system uniquely addresses resource concerns by developing a spatially varying system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model as well as innovative global <span class="hlt">optimization</span> search techniques to maximize outcomes from participatory dialogues. Ultimately, the core system architecture of CADRe also serves as the cornerstone upon which key scientific innovation and challenges can be addressed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cain, William O. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Pierce, Suzanne A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20149519"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-period <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model for energy planning with CO(2) emission consideration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel deterministic multi-period <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> linear programming (MILP) model for the power generation planning of electric systems is described and evaluated in this paper. The model is developed with the objective of determining the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> mix of energy supply sources and pollutant mitigation options that meet a specified electricity demand and CO(2) emission targets at minimum cost. Several time-dependent parameters are included in the model formulation; they include forecasted energy demand, fuel price variability, construction lead time, conservation initiatives, and increase in fixed operational and maintenance costs over time. The developed model is applied to two case studies. The objective of the case studies is to examine the economical, structural, and environmental effects that would result if the electricity sector was required to reduce its CO(2) emissions to a specified limit. PMID:20149519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirzaesmaeeli, H; Elkamel, A; Douglas, P L; Croiset, E; Gupta, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ITEIS.129...59O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> Design of CSD Coefficient FIR Filters Subject to Number of Nonzero Digits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a hardware implementation of FIR(Finite Impulse Response) digital filters, it is desired to reduce a total number of nonzero digits used for a representation of filter coefficients. In general, a design problem of FIR filters with CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) representation, which is efficient one for the reduction of numbers of multiplier units, is often considered as one of the 0-1 combinational problems. In such the problem, some difficult constraints make us prevent to linearize the problem. Although many kinds of heuristic approaches have been applied to solve the problem, the solution obtained by such a manner could not guarantee its <span class="hlt">optimality</span>. In this paper, we attempt to formulate the design problem as the 0-1 <span class="hlt">mixed</span> <span class="hlt">integer</span> linear programming problem and solve it by using the branch and bound technique, which is a powerful method for solving integer programming problem. Several design examples are shown to present an efficient performance of the proposed method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ozaki, Yuichi; Suyama, Kenji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......132A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model for sustainable energization strategy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> programming energy-source <span class="hlt">optimization</span> model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy <span class="hlt">optimization</span> models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abtew, Mohammed Seid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ici2.conf..668Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Offline <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy Based on the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Programming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming (DP) which is a kind of global <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithm, an energy management control strategy for a parallel PHEV on different charging depleting range (CDR) had been studied. The results show that motor-dominant control strategy should be applied to the PHEV when CDR is less than 55km, and engine-dominant control strategy should be used when CDR is more than 55km. With <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control strategies from DP, the best economic performance can be obtained as CDR is 55km; PHEV average equivalence fuel consumption can be reduced to 2.9L/100km which is 63% lower than that of prototype vehicle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Shichun; Li, Ming; Cui, Haigang; Cao, Yaoguang; Wang, Gang; Lei, Qiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50764867"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> path-planning under finite memory obstacle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based on probabilistic finite state automata models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The v*-planning algorithm is generalized to handle finite memory obstacle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. A sufficiently long observation sequence of obstacle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is algorithmically compressed via symbolic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> filtering to obtain a probabilistic finite state model which is subsequently integrated with the navigation automaton to generate an overall model reflecting both navigation constraints and obstacle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. A v*-based solution then yields a deterministic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishanu Chattopadhyay; Asok Ray</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35159415"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> abatement strategies for multiple pollutants—An illustration in the Greenhouse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate <span class="hlt">optimal</span> abatement strategies for cumulative and interacting pollutants. We show that different decay rates can cause non-monotonic behavior in the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> paths of emissions, the aggregate level of pollution, and even the relative <span class="hlt">optimal</span> price for emissions. This contrasts strikingly with the case of a single pollutant. The results are illustrated by numerical simulations, first for instructive fictitious</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ulf Moslener; Till Requate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4188990"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Exchange Rate in a <span class="hlt">Dynamic-Optimizing</span> Current Account Model with Nominal RigiditiesA Quantitative Investigation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper studies <span class="hlt">dynamic-optimizing</span> model of a semi-small open economy with sticky nominal prices and wages. The model exhibits exchange rate overshooting in response to money supply shocks. The predicted variability of nominal and real exchange rates is roughly consistent with that of G-7 effective exchange rates during the post-Bretton Woods era. The model predicts that a positive domestic money</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Miguel W. K. Kollman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/424t102675731v67.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the rate of penetration of a drill-string using a stochastic nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work proposes a strategy for the robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a drill-string, which is a structure\\u000a that rotates and digs into the rock to search for oil. The nonparametric probabilistic approach is employed to model the uncertainties\\u000a of the structure as well as the uncertainties of the bit-rock interaction model. This paper is particularly concerned with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. G. Ritto; Christian Soize; R. Sampaio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NTA.....2..458M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> to parameter search in <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes an application of the particle swarm <span class="hlt">optimization</span> (PSO) to analysis of switched <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems (SDS). This is the first application of PSO to bifurcation analysis. We consider the application to an example of the SDS which relates to a simplified model of photovoltaic systems such that the input is a single solar cell and is converted to the output via a boost converter. Our SDS includes a piecewise linear current-controlled voltage source that is a simplified model of the solar cell and the switching rule is a variant of peak-current-controlled switching. We derive two equations that give period-doubling bifurcation set and the maximum power point (MPP) for the parameter: they are objective of the analysis. The two equations are transformed into an multi objective problem (MOP) described by the hybrid fitness function consisting of two functions evaluating the validity of parameters and criteria. The proposed method permits increase (deteriorate) of some component below the criterion and the increase can help to exclude the bad component. This criteria effect helps an improvement of trade-off problems in existing MOP solvers. Furthermore, by using the piecewise exact solution and return map for the simulation, the MOP is described exactly and the PSO can find the precise (approximate) solution. From simulation results, we confirm that the PSO for the MOP can easily find the solution parameters although a standard numerical calculation needs huge calculation amount. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is confirmed by measuring in terms of accuracy, computation amount and robustness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsushita, Haruna; Saito, Toshimichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.729..864Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A code for the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of RF voltage waveform and longitudinal beam <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation in an RCS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), the dipole and quadrupole fields oscillate sinusoidally with a high repetition rate. High RF voltage is required to match the rapid change of the dipole field, and the choices of the RF voltage and synchronous phase waveform are important issues in the design of an RCS. The longitudinal beam <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation plays a key role in <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> the RF voltage waveform. A code has been developed for both RF voltage waveform <span class="hlt">optimization</span> and longitudinal beam <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation in an RCS. The code can be applied to both fundamental and dual harmonic RF systems, with dipole field oscillating as a sine wave or slightly deviated sine wave. In the simulation, the space charge effect is included, and the influence of the higher order modes of RF cavity on the beam can also be simulated. The code was applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), for <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> the RF voltage waveform of dual harmonic RF system and beam <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuan, Yao-Shuo; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan; Wang, Sheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998A%26A...335..922R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling gravity in N-body simulations of disc galaxies. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> types of softening for given <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> requirements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modelling gravity is a fundamental problem that must be tackled in N-body simulations of stellar systems, and satisfactory solutions require a deep understanding of the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects of softening. In a previous paper (Romeo 1997), we have devised a method for exploring such effects, and we have focused on two applications that reveal the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> differences between the most representative types of softened gravity. In the present paper we show that our method can be applied in another, more fruitful, way: for developing new ideas about softening. Indeed, it opens a direct route to the discovery of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> types of softened gravity for given <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> requirements, and thus to the accomplishment of a physically consistent modelling of disc galaxies, even in the presence of a cold interstellar gaseous component and in situations that demand anisotropic resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romeo, Alessandro B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22segmentation%22&id=EJ906657"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Theoretical Analysis of How Segmentation of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Visualizations <span class="hlt">Optimizes</span> Students' Learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This article reviews studies investigating segmentation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> visualizations (i.e., showing <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> visualizations in pieces with pauses in between) and discusses two not mutually exclusive processes that might underlie the effectiveness of segmentation. First, cognitive activities needed for dealing with the transience of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spanjers, Ingrid A. E.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1011826"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> response to attacks on the open science grids.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cybersecurity is a growing concern, especially in open grids, where attack propagation is easy because of prevalent collaborations among thousands of users and hundreds of institutions. The collaboration rules that typically govern large science experiments as well as social networks of scientists span across the institutional security boundaries. A common concern is that the increased openness may allow malicious attackers to spread more readily around the grid. We consider how to <span class="hlt">optimally</span> respond to attacks in open grid environments. To show how and why attacks spread more readily around the grid, we first discuss how collaborations manifest themselves in the grids and form the collaboration network graph, and how this collaboration network graph affects the security threat levels of grid participants. We present two <span class="hlt">mixed-integer</span> program (MIP) models to find the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> response to attacks in open grid environments, and also calculate the threat level associated with each grid participant. Given an attack scenario, our <span class="hlt">optimal</span> response model aims to minimize the threat levels at unaffected participants while maximizing the uninterrupted scientific production (continuing collaborations). By adopting some of the collaboration rules (e.g., suspending a collaboration or shutting down a site), the model finds <span class="hlt">optimal</span> response to subvert an attack scenario.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Altunay, M.; Leyffer, S.; Linderoth, J. T.; Xie, Z. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (FNAL); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2992599"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> programming for constrained <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control of discrete-time linear hybrid systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we study the solution to <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problems for constrained discrete-time linear hybrid systems based on quadratic or linear performance criteria. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, we give basic theoretical results on the structure of the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> state-feedback solution and of the value function. Second, we describe how the state-feedback <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control law can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesco Borrelli; Mato Baotic; Alberto Bemporad; Manfred Morari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3544168"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Theoretical and Computational Study on Robust Counterpart <span class="hlt">Optimization</span>: II. Probabilistic Guarantees on Constraint Satisfaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Probabilistic guarantees on constraint satisfaction for robust counterpart <span class="hlt">optimization</span> are studied in this paper. The robust counterpart <span class="hlt">optimization</span> formulations studied are derived from box, ellipsoidal, polyhedral, “interval+ellipsoidal” and “interval+polyhedral” uncertainty sets (Li, Z., Ding, R., and Floudas, C.A., A Comparative Theoretical and Computational Study on Robust Counterpart <span class="hlt">Optimization</span>: I. Robust Linear and Robust <span class="hlt">Mixed</span> <span class="hlt">Integer</span> Linear <span class="hlt">Optimization</span>, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 2011, 50, 10567). For those robust counterpart <span class="hlt">optimization</span> formulations, their corresponding probability bounds on constraint satisfaction are derived for different types of uncertainty characteristic (i.e., bounded or unbounded uncertainty, with or without detailed probability distribution information). The findings of this work extend the results in the literature and provide greater flexibility for robust <span class="hlt">optimization</span> practitioners in choosing tighter probability bounds so as to find less conservative robust solutions. Extensive numerical studies are performed to compare the tightness of the different probability bounds and the conservatism of different robust counterpart <span class="hlt">optimization</span> formulations. Guiding rules for the selection of robust counterpart <span class="hlt">optimization</span> models and for the determination of the size of the uncertainty set are discussed. Applications in production planning and process scheduling problems are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zukui; Floudas, Christodoulos A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhLA..375.3504S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scalable implementation of ancilla-free <span class="hlt">optimal</span> 1 ? M phase-covariant quantum cloning by combining quantum Zeno <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and adiabatic passage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scalable way for implementation of ancilla-free <span class="hlt">optimal</span> 1 ? M phase-covariant quantum cloning (PCC) is proposed by combining quantum Zeno <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and adiabatic passage. An <span class="hlt">optimal</span> 1 ? M PCC can be achieved directly from the existed <span class="hlt">optimal</span> 1 ? ( M - 1 ) PCC without excited states population during the whole process. The cases for <span class="hlt">optimal</span> 1 ? 3 (4) PCCs are discussed detailedly to show that the scheme is robust against the effect of decoherence. Moreover, the time for carrying out each cloning transformation is regular, which may reduce the complexity for achieving the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> PCC in experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shao, Xiao-Qiang; Zheng, Tai-Yu; Zhang, Shou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50954379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Layout <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of mesh antenna with multi-objectives based on <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To ensure the electromagnetic performance of the space antenna and compromise the weight, surface error, and the arrangement of cables, the paper presents the <span class="hlt">optimization</span> method for the cable mesh deployable antenna design. <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> mathematical model is built with minimum weight and surface error as objectives, number of vertical cables and radiant units, and cable forces as design variables, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiejian Di; Yuxia Zhao; Yijie Niu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6092100"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of batch processes: I. Characterization of the nominal solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">optimization</span> of batch processes has attracted attention in recent years because, in the face of growing competition, it is a natural choice for reducing production costs, improving product quality, meeting safety requirements and environmental regulations. The main bottle- neck in using <span class="hlt">optimization</span> in industry is the presence of uncertainty. The most natural way to compensate for uncertainty, and thus</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Srinivasan; S. Palanki; Dominique Bonvin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnOp...40..869S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and interactive multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> in the development of low-emission industrial boilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A CFD-based model is applied to study emission formation in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler burning biomass. After the model is validated to a certain extent, it is used for <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. There are nine design variables (nine distinct NH3 injections in the selective non-catalytic reduction process) and two objective functions (which minimize NO and NH3 emissions in flue gas). The multiobjective <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem is solved using the reference-point method involving an achievement scalarizing function. The interactive reference-point method is applied to generate Pareto <span class="hlt">optimal</span> solutions. Two inherently different <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithms, viz. a genetic algorithm and Powell's conjugate-direction method, are applied in the solution of the resulting <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem. It is shown that <span class="hlt">optimization</span> connected with CFD is a promising design tool for combustion <span class="hlt">optimization</span>. The strengths and weaknesses of the proposed approach and of the methods applied are discussed from the point of view of a complex real-world <span class="hlt">optimization</span> problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saario, A.; Oksanen, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://management.ucsd.edu/faculty/directory/liu/docs/losing.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Losing Money on Arbitrages: <span class="hlt">Optimal</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Portfolio Choice in Markets with Arbitrage Opportunities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In theory, an investor can make infinite profits by taking unlimited positions in an arbitrage. In reality, however, investors must satisfy margin requirements which completely change the economics of arbitrage. We derive the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> investment policy for a risk-averse investor in a market where there are arbitrage opportunities. We show that it is often <span class="hlt">optimal</span> to underinvest in the arbitrage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jun Liu; Francis A. Longstaff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/255139"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Approach to <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Optimization</span> of ODE and DAE Systems as High-Index Problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solution of many problems in plant operations requires determination of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control profi les subject to state constraints for systems modeled by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or dif ferential-alge- braic equations (DAEs). For example, <span class="hlt">optimal</span> temperature and\\/or feed rate profiles are important for the oper - ation of many batch reactions. Similar observations apply to reflux policies for batch distillation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William F. Feehery; Julio R. Banga; Paul I. Barton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60602669"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">optimization</span> for commercialization of renewable energy: an example for solar photovoltaics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are several studies of <span class="hlt">optimal</span> allocation of research and development resources over the time horizon of a project. The primary result of the basic noncompetitive models in this literature is that the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> strategy is to choose a research intensity and ending date for the project such that the marginal costs of accelerating the project equals the marginal benefits</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Kenneth; W. Bradley Ashton; James McVeigh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4667742"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimization</span> algorithms and weighting factors for analysis of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positron emission tomography (PET) pharmacokinetic analysis involves fitting of measured PET data to a PET pharmacokinetic model. The fitted parameters may, however, suffer from bias or be unrealistic, especially in the case of noisy data. There are many <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithms, each having different characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate (1) the performance of different <span class="hlt">optimization</span> algorithms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maqsood Yaqub; Ronald Boellaard; Marc A. Kropholler; Adriaan A. Lammertsma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CMMPh..52..992G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Optimal</span> control of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system with multiple uncertainty in the initial state as based on imperfect measurements of input and output signals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">optimal</span> control problem for a linear nonstationary <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system with uncertainty in the initial state is considered. Based on preposterior analysis, an algorithm for implementing an <span class="hlt">optimal</span> closable output loop is constructed. The control results are illustrated using a numerical example and are compared with those based on two-stage disclosable output loop.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabasov, R.; Kirillova, F. M.; Poyasok, E. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3776438"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> metabolic modeling of a microaerobic yeast co-culture: predicting and <span class="hlt">optimizing</span> ethanol production from glucose/xylose mixtures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background A key step in any process that converts lignocellulose to biofuels is the efficient fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. The co-culture of respiratory-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wild-type Scheffersomyces stipitis has been identified as a promising system for microaerobic ethanol production because S. cerevisiae only consumes glucose while S. stipitis efficiently converts xylose to ethanol. Results To better predict how these two yeasts behave in batch co-culture and to <span class="hlt">optimize</span> system performance, a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flux balance model describing co-culture metabolism was developed from genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of the individual organisms. First a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model was developed for each organism by estimating substrate uptake kinetic parameters from batch pure culture data and evaluating model extensibility to different microaerobic growth conditions. The co-culture model was constructed by combining the two individual models assuming a cellular objective of total growth rate maximization. To obtain accurate predictions of batch co-culture data collected at different microaerobic conditions, the S. cerevisiae maximum glucose uptake rate was reduced from its pure culture value to account for more efficient S. stipitis glucose uptake in co-culture. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> co-culture model was used to predict the inoculum concentration and aeration level that maximized batch ethanol productivity. The model predictions were validated with batch co-culture experiments performed at the <span class="hlt">optimal</span> conditions. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model was used to predict how engineered improvements to the S. stipitis xylose transport system could improve co-culture ethanol production. Conclusions These results demonstrate the utility of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> co-culture metabolic model for guiding process and metabolic engineering efforts aimed at increasing microaerobic ethanol production from glucose/xylose mixtures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"