Science.gov

Sample records for mizoram northeast india

  1. Recovery of frog and lizard communities following primary habitat alteration in Mizoram, Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Samraat S; Rawat, Gopal S; Choudhury, Binod C

    2004-01-01

    Background Community recovery following primary habitat alteration can provide tests for various hypotheses in ecology and conservation biology. Prominent among these are questions related to the manner and rate of community assembly after habitat perturbation. Here we use space-for-time substitution to analyse frog and lizard community assembly along two gradients of habitat recovery following slash and burn agriculture (jhum) in Mizoram, Northeast India. One recovery gradient undergoes natural succession to mature tropical rainforest, while the other involves plantation of jhum fallows with teak Tectona grandis monoculture. Results Frog and lizard communities accumulated species steadily during natural succession, attaining characteristics similar to those from mature forest after 30 years of regeneration. Lizards showed higher turnover and lower augmentation of species relative to frogs. Niche based classification identified a number of guilds, some of which contained both frogs and lizards. Successional change in species richness was due to increase in the number of guilds as well as the number of species per guild. Phylogenetic structure increased with succession for some guilds. Communities along the teak plantation gradient on the other hand, did not show any sign of change with chronosere age. Factor analysis revealed sets of habitat variables that independently determined changes in community and guild composition during habitat recovery. Conclusions The timescale of frog and lizard community recovery was comparable with that reported by previous studies on different faunal groups in other tropical regions. Both communities converged on primary habitat attributes during natural vegetation succession, the recovery being driven by deterministic, nonlinear changes in habitat characteristics. On the other hand, very little faunal recovery was seen even in relatively old teak plantation. In general, tree monocultures are unlikely to support recovery of natural

  2. Characterization of aerosols from biomass burning--a case study from Mizoram (Northeast), India.

    PubMed

    Badarinath, K V S; Madhavi Latha, K; Kiran Chand, T R; Gupta, Prabhat K; Ghosh, A B; Jain, S L; Gera, B S; Singh, Risal; Sarkar, A K; Singh, Nahar; Parmar, R S; Koul, S; Kohli, R; Nath, Shambhu; Ojha, V K; Singh, Gurvir

    2004-01-01

    Physical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Northeastern region, India analyzed based on measurements made during February 2002. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of burning in annual dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning is important for the atmospheric radiative process. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed to be high during burning period compared to pre- and post-burning days. Peak period of biomass burning is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during burning day and unimodal size distribution during pre- and post-burning days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass burning aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Weighted mean radius is high (0.22 microm) during burning period. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during burning period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the burning day Anderson sampler measurements showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal averaged values of surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing af biomass burning aerosols varies from -59 to -87 Wm(-2) on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiances are also discussed in the paper. PMID:14559268

  3. Radon and thoron anomalies along Mat fault in Mizoram, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaishi, Hari Prasad; Singh, Sanjay; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

    2013-12-01

    In this study, radon and thoron concentrations in soil gas has been monitored using LR-115(II) solid state nuclear track detectors since 15th July 2011 to February 2012. The study was carried out along Mat fault in Serchip district, Mizoram, India at two different sites - Mat Bridge (23°18'N, 92°48'E) and Tuichang (23°13'N, 92°56'E). The results obtained have been correlated to the seismic events that occurred within 800 km from the measuring sites over the mentioned period of time. Anomalous behaviour in radon concentrations have been observed prior to some earthquakes. Interestingly, some thoron anomalies were also recorded.

  4. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  5. A Case for Plane-Strain during the Development of the Indo-Burma Fold-Thrust Belt in Tripura and Mizoram, Northeast India (23-24°N; 91-93°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indo-Burma fold-thrust belt (FTB) in northeast India and Myanmar records shortening of a forearc prism resulting from ongoing collision of the Burma microplate and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. A >5 km thick succession of deep water, deltaic and tidal as well as fluvial deposits that span the Oligocene to present were deformed to form a ~400 km wide FTB between 91.5-96°E longitude. India-Eurasia convergence across the Indo-Burma region trends northeast and is highly oblique to the northerly structural trend of the FTB. According to geodetic data, 21 mm/yr of dextral shear and 18 mm/yr of approximately east-west shortening must be accommodated within the FTB between the active thrust front in Bangladesh (90.5°E) and the Sagaing Fault in Myanmar (96°E). This paper presents new surface geologic data collected along a ~250 km transect that crosses 15 anticline-syncline pairs between the cities of Argatala (~91.2°E) and Champhai (93.3°E), the part of FTB exposing syn-Himalayan sediment, to determine the degree of noncoaxial shear that is accommodated internally within the belt. Results indicate that the majority of the folds are upright or asymmetric horizontal folds that are either concentric or have a narrow hinge (chevron folds) and form open—closed interlimb angles which generally tighten from the foreland toward the hinterland. A cylindrical best fit describes the data well and shows dominantly east-west shortening with a horizontal north-trending regional fold axis (005/01 ± 2°). Shortening was partly accommodated by flexural slip. Flexural slip-lineations (n=32) are subperpendicular to the regional fold axis. In some locations the limbs of folds are breached by thrust faults that dip either east or west and strike north. Incremental strain axes calculated from the flexural-slip surfaces and thrust faults (n=61) indicate horizontal west-trending shortening (279/03 ± 8°) and vertical extension that is kinematically compatible with folding. Altogether

  6. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-01-01

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region. PMID:27515622

  7. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  8. Variations of soil radon concentrations along Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Jaishi, Hari Jaishi; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-11-01

    The present study concerns measurements of radon emissions from soil carried out during March to July 2013 at Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India. In this study, continuous radon monitoring in soil was done by using LR-115 type II nuclear track detector (Kodak-Pathe, France make), and the exposed films were replaced weekly. A negative correlation coefficient (-0.47) between radon concentration and barometric pressure was found during the investigation period. The average radon concentration was observed to be 1785.71 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 633.07 Bq m(-3). The maximum and minimum values of radon concentration during this period were found to be 3693.88 and 904.76 Bq m(-3), respectively. An anomalous increase in radon concentration was observed on 112th day (i.e. on 14 June 2013) during the investigation period just 1 d prior to the event of M 3.5, which occurred within 120-km distance from the monitoring site. PMID:24996920

  9. A three year study on distribution and ecology of Anophelines in Thenzawl, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Zomuanpuii, Rita; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A systematic survey on Anopheline species abundance, bionomics and habitat preference was conducted for three years in Thenzawl, Mizoram. A scoop-net method was employed for larval collection and a local made killing-jar for adults. A total of 10 species Anopheles campestris (25.8%), An. nivipes (24.0%), An. vagus (20.6%), An. jamesii (15.1%), An. jeyporiensis (11.4%), An. maculatus (1.7%), An. philippinensis (0.7%), An. annularis (0.26%), An. sinensis (0.23%) and An. peditaeniatus (0.22%) were collected. The survey site having thick tall grasses, numerous rural-huts as residents, small to relatively larger ponds and very slow running water bodies well shaded from sunlight with floating aquatic plants provided the largest area for Anopheles larvae breeding and accounted for 40% of all Anopheles larva and 25.4% total Anopheles spp. collected. An. campestris (NSK01), maculatus (NSK04), philippinensis (NSK06), nivipes (NSK10) and jeyporiensis (NSK09) were strongly anthropogenic and endophagic while vagus (NSK18) and jamesii (NSK03) were found to be highly zoophilic and exophilic and An. peditaeniatus (NSK02), annularis (NSK07) and sinensis (NSK15) were found to be highly zoophilic. Because of its abundance and bionomics, An. campestris, jeyporiensis and nivipes may have played a role in malarial transmission throughout the year. This is the first study reported on Anopheline distribution and abundance in Thenzawl, Mizoram. PMID:24665764

  10. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

  11. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  12. Educational Research in North-East India: A Source Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Nirmal; Mittal, Pratibha

    The Northeast region of India has a distinct geophysical structure and concomitant socio-economic development. New educational development initiatives for Northeastern states include bridging gaps in basic minimum services, enhancing teachers training facilities, and preparing state specific holistic plans. This annotated bibliography represents…

  13. Comprehensive seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; Sil, Arjun

    2014-06-01

    Northeast India is one of the most highly seismically active regions in the world with more than seven earthquakes on an average per year of magnitude 5.0 and above. Reliable seismic hazard assessment could provide the necessary design inputs for earthquake resistant design of structures in this region. In this study, deterministic as well as probabilistic methods have been attempted for seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states at bedrock level condition. An updated earthquake catalogue was collected from various national and international seismological agencies for the period from 1731 to 2011. The homogenization, declustering and data completeness analysis of events have been carried out before hazard evaluation. Seismicity parameters have been estimated using G-R relationship for each source zone. Based on the seismicity, tectonic features and fault rupture mechanism, this region was divided into six major subzones. Region specific correlations were used for magnitude conversion for homogenization of earthquake size. Ground motion equations (Atkinson and Boore 2003; Gupta 2010) were validated with the observed PGA (peak ground acceleration) values before use in the hazard evaluation. In this study, the hazard is estimated using linear sources, identified in and around the study area. Results are presented in the form of PGA using both DSHA (deterministic seismic hazard analysis) and PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, and spectral acceleration (T = 0. 2 s, 1.0 s) for both the states (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years). The results are important to provide inputs for planning risk reduction strategies, for developing risk acceptance criteria and financial analysis for possible damages in the study area with a comprehensive analysis and higher resolution hazard mapping.

  14. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Homogenization of Earthquake Catalog for Northeast India and Adjoining Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    A catalog for northeast India and the adjoining region for the period 1897-2009 with 4,497 earthquakes events is compiled for homogenization to moment magnitude M w,GCMT in the magnitude range 3-8.7. Relations for conversion of m b and M s magnitudes to M w,GCMT are derived using three different methods, namely, linear standard regression, inverted standard regression (ISR) and orthogonal standard regression (OSR), for different magnitude ranges based on events data for the catalog period 1976-2006. The OSR relations for M s to M w,GCMT conversion derived in this paper have significantly lower errors in regression parameters compared to the relations reported in other studies. Since the number of events with magnitude ≥7 for this region is scanty, we, therefore, considered whole India region to obtain the regression relationships between M w,GCMT and M s,ISC. A relationship between M w,GCMT and M w,NEIC is also obtained based on 17 events for the range 5.2 ≤ magnitude ≤ 6.6. A unified homogeneous catalog prepared using the conversion relations derived in this paper can serve as a reference catalog for seismic hazard assessment studies in northeast India and the adjoining region.

  17. Inhalant Use Among Schoolchildren in Northeast India: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Akoijam, Brogen Singh; Jamir, M. Nukshisangla; Phesao, Ebenezer; Senjam, Gojendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Inhalant use by children leads to poor performance in school and has been observed to precede substance use later in life. There is paucity of data on inhalant use among school children in India, particularly in the Northeast region of the country. We determined the prevalence and documented inhalant use characteristics among schoolchildren in the Northeast region of India. This cross sectional study was conducted in six states in the Northeast region of India. Schoolchildren between eighth and eleventh standards from the capital areas of the states were included in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Of the 4074 enrolled students, data from 3943 students who responded to the inhalant use question were analyzed. Mean age was 14.8 ± 1.2 years and 51.2% of participants were male. The proportion of students who had ever used inhalants (ever user) was 18.8% and adhesive/glue was the inhalant misused by most of the students. A higher proportion of males than females were ever users (P ≤ 0.001) and the most common place of use was at home (33.1%). Being in the presence of an older person using an inhalant or tobacco was found to be associated with use of inhalants among students. Nearly one-fifth of the students had used inhalants and nearly half used inhalants in the past month. Sensitization of the parents and school authorities to the problem, as well as preventive and curative services, should be considered. PMID:24250225

  18. Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education. PMID:23758496

  19. Influence of cultivar and maturity at harvest on the essential oil composition, oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in fresh ginger from northeast India.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Challa Ravi; Chakka, Ashok Kumar; Amma, K P Padmakumari; Menon, A Nirmala; Kumar, M M Sree; Venugopalan, V V

    2013-05-01

    Severe flooding of the Brahmaputra River during the monsoon season and continuous rainfall in the northeast region (NER) of India cause an enormous loss of ginger crop every year. In this context, the present study investigates the variation in the essential oil composition and oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in 10 different fresh ginger cultivars harvested at 6- and 9-month maturity from five different states of NER. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and citral composition in the essential oil were evaluated to ascertain their dependence upon the maturity of ginger. Except Mizoram Thinglaidum, Mizoram Thingria, Nagaland Nadia, and Tripura I ginger cultivars, all other cultivars showed an increase in the citral content during the maturity that was observed for the first time. At 6-month maturity, a higher undecanone level was found in Nagaland Nadia (7.36 ± 0.61%), Tripura I (6.23 ± 0.61%), and Tripura III (9.17 ± 0.76%) cultivars, and these data can be used as a benchmark to identify those immature varieties. Interestingly, the Nagaland Nadia cultivar showed higher ar-curcumene (9.57 ± 0.58%) content than zingiberene (5.84 ± 0.24%), which was unique among all cultivars. Ginger harvested at 9-month maturity from the Tripura II cultivar had the highest citral content (22.03 ± 0.49%), and the Meghalaya Mahima cultivar had the highest zingiberene content (29.89 ± 2.92%). The oleoresin content was found to decrease with maturity in all cultivars, except Assam Fibreless and Manipur I. Moreover, the highest oleoresin (11.43 ± 0.58 and 9.42 ± 0.63%) and [6]-gingerol (1.67 ± 0.03 and 1.67 ± 0.05 g) contents were observed for Tripura II and Nagaland Nadia, respectively. This study suggests that Tripura and Nagaland are the most ideal locations in NER for ginger cultivation to obtain high yields of oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents and harvesting at the 6-month maturation will compensate for the loss of ginger crop caused by the Brahmaputra River flooding in NER

  20. Evaluation of tsunami vulnerability along northeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Pravakar; Usha, Tune; Ramanamurthy, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 with a moment magnitude of 9.3 Mw caused colossal damage to the south-southeastern Indian coast and Andaman-Nicobar group of Islands. However, the northeastern coastline bordering the northwestern Bay of Bengal remained unaffected although a tidal station located in the region recorded the highest water level (~2.5 m) for the entire east coast of India on the eventful day. As a part of hazard mitigation and planning for the northeastern coast, four major settlements, viz., Gopalpur, Puri, Paradip and Digha were evaluated for tsunami vulnerability. Inundation and run-up scenarios were generated for Bay of Bengal earthquake sources such as Arakan-1762, Car Nicobar-1881, North Andaman-1941 and Sumatra 2004 using TUNAMI N2 model. The paper describes computed run-up heights and landward inundation for 20-25 km coastal stretch with different geomorphologies and topographical characteristics. Simulation results indicate that the model is able to generate a comparable run-up of 2-4.5 m for 2004 Sumatra event for Paradip region while at other locations of the coastline, it was largely unnoticed as the inundation remained within the beach limit; however water entered inland mainly through the waterways and inundated low-lying areas. It is concluded that northeast coast of India is relatively safe from the tsunami originating in Bay of Bengal region.

  1. Variability and teleconnectivity of northeast monsoon rainfall over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayagam, Lorna R.; Janardanan, Rajesh; Ram Mohan, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variabilities of rainfall over Peninsular India during the northeast monsoon (NEM) season is studied using a high resolution gridded data, for the period 1951-2003. The dominant modes of the NEM rainfall were identified using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and the power over the identified scales was extracted using wavelet analysis (scale averaged wavelet power-SAP). Homogenous regions of variability of the SAP of NEM rainfall (smoothed NEM) were studied using EOF. Excluding the subdivisions of Karnataka, the leading mode of EOF explains the spatio-temporal variability of NEM rainfall over Peninsular India. Dominant frequency of smoothed NEM is in the 4 year period and the second dominant mode is in the 8 year period. The energy of the principal components (PCs) is consistent with the above/below-normal rainfall received over the NEM region. Even though PC1 explains the variability over the core region of NEM rainfall, the energy of the WET year 1956 is not captured by PC1. The excess rainfall of this year was contributed by the subdivisions of Karnataka, whose variability is explained by PC2. EOF analysis was also applied on the SAP of SST (smoothed SST) for the months from January to September, over the Indian Ocean (30° S-30° N, 40° E-110° E), the Atlantic Ocean (30° S-30° N, 60° W-10° E) and the Pacific Ocean (30° S-30° N, 120° E-60° W). Correlation between PC1 of smoothed SST for the months of January to September and smoothed NEM averaged over Peninsular India was found and the month that bears high correlation was selected to explain the teleconnections. Thus the smoothed SST for the months of February, March and August over Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans respectively was selected to explain their relations with the smoothed NEM rainfall.

  2. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-06-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake (M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake (M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  3. Identifying predictors of childhood anaemia in north-east India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanku; Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR = 2.035; p = 0.003) and moderate (OR = 1.23; p = 0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR = 2.971; p = 0.000), (OR = 1.195; p = 0.010), and (OR = 1.201; p = 0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR = 1.406; p = 0.001) and mild (OR = 1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  4. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  5. Identifying Predictors of Childhood Anaemia in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR=2.035; p=0.003) and moderate (OR=1.23; p=0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR=2.971; p=0.000), (OR=1.195; p=0.010), and (OR=1.201; p=0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR=1.406; p=0.001) and mild (OR=1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  6. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    PubMed Central

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant. PMID:26121475

  7. Crustal structure beneath northeast India inferred from receiver function modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Kajaljyoti; Bora, Dipok K.; Goyal, Ayush; Kumar, Raju

    2016-09-01

    We estimated crustal shear velocity structure beneath ten broadband seismic stations of northeast India, by using H-Vp/Vs stacking method and a non-linear direct search approach, Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) technique followed by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data. Results show significant variations of thickness, shear velocities (Vs) and Vp/Vs ratio in the crust of the study region. The inverted shear wave velocity models show crustal thickness variations of 32-36 km in Shillong Plateau (North), 36-40 in Assam Valley and ∼44 km in Lesser Himalaya (South). Average Vp/Vs ratio in Shillong Plateau is less (1.73-1.77) compared to Assam Valley and Lesser Himalaya (∼1.80). Average crustal shear velocity beneath the study region varies from 3.4 to 3.5 km/s. Sediment structure beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley shows 1-2 km thick sediment layer with low Vs (2.5-2.9 km/s) and high Vp/Vs ratio (1.8-2.1), while it is observed to be of greater thickness (4 km) with similar Vs and high Vp/Vs (∼2.5) in RUP (Lesser Himalaya). Both Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley show thick upper and middle crust (10-20 km), and thin (4-9 km) lower crust. Average Vp/Vs ratio in Assam Valley and Shillong Plateau suggest that the crust is felsic-to-intermediate and intermediate-to-mafic beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley, respectively. Results show that lower crust rocks beneath the Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley lies between mafic granulite and mafic garnet granulite.

  8. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  9. Earthquake Forecasting in Northeast India using Energy Blocked Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, D. K.

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the cumulative seismic energy released by earthquakes (M ≥ 5) for a period 1897 to 2007 is analyzed for Northeast (NE) India. It is one of the most seismically active regions of the world. The occurrence of three great earthquakes like 1897 Shillong plateau earthquake (Mw= 8.7), 1934 Bihar Nepal earthquake with (Mw= 8.3) and 1950 Upper Assam earthquake (Mw= 8.7) signify the possibility of great earthquakes in future from this region. The regional seismicity map for the study region is prepared by plotting the earthquake data for the period 1897 to 2007 from the source like USGS,ISC catalogs, GCMT database, Indian Meteorological department (IMD). Based on the geology, tectonic and seismicity the study region is classified into three source zones such as Zone 1: Arakan-Yoma zone (AYZ), Zone 2: Himalayan Zone (HZ) and Zone 3: Shillong Plateau zone (SPZ). The Arakan-Yoma Range is characterized by the subduction zone, developed by the junction of the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It shows a dense clustering of earthquake events and the 1908 eastern boundary earthquake. The Himalayan tectonic zone depicts the subduction zone, and the Assam syntaxis. This zone suffered by the great earthquakes like the 1950 Assam, 1934 Bihar and the 1951 Upper Himalayan earthquakes with Mw > 8. The Shillong Plateau zone was affected by major faults like the Dauki fault and exhibits its own style of the prominent tectonic features. The seismicity and hazard potential of Shillong Plateau is distinct from the Himalayan thrust. Using energy blocked model by Tsuboi, the forecasting of major earthquakes for each source zone is estimated. As per the energy blocked model, the supply of energy for potential earthquakes in an area is remarkably uniform with respect to time and the difference between the supply energy and cumulative energy released for a span of time, is a good indicator of energy blocked and can be utilized for the forecasting of major earthquakes

  10. Isolation of novel variants of infectious bursal disease virus from different outbreaks in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. PMID:26854869

  11. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its

  12. A new species of Duttaphrynus (Anura:Bufonidae) from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Chetia, Mitali; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Sengupta, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    A new species of montane toad Duttaphrynus is described from Nagaland state of Northeast India. The new species is diagnosable based on following combination of characters: absence of preorbital, postorbital and orbitotympanic ridges, elongated and broad parotid gland, first finger longer than second and presence of a mid-dorsal line. The tympanum is hidden under a skin fold (in male) or absent (in female). The species is compared with its congers from India and Indo-China. We propose to consider Duttaphrynus wokhaensis as junior synonym of Duttaphrynus melanostictus. PMID:26213769

  13. Neglected Plasmodium vivax malaria in northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinod P.; Dev, Vas; Phookan, Sobhan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The northeastern States of India are co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The transmission intensity is low-to-moderate resulting in intermediate to stable malaria. Malaria control prioritized P. falciparum being the predominant and life threatening infection (>70%). P. vivax malaria remained somewhat neglected. The present study provides a status report of P. vivax malaria in the northeastern States of India. Methods: Data on spatial distribution of P. vivax from seven northeastern States (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura) were analysed retrospectively from 2008–2013. In addition, cross-sectional malarial surveys were conducted during 1991-2012 in malaria endemic pockets across the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura to ascertain the prevalence of P. vivax in different age groups. Results: Vivax malaria was encountered in all northeastern States but there existed a clear division of two malaria ecotypes supporting ≤30 and >30 per cent of total malaria cases. High proportions of P. vivax cases (60–80%) were seen in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland in the north with alpine environment, 42-67 per cent in Manipur, whereas in Assam it varied from 23-31 per cent with subtropical and tropical climate. Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram had the lowest proportion of P. vivax cases. Malaria cases were recorded in all age groups but a higher proportion of P. vivax consistently occurred among <5 yr age group compared to P. falciparum (P<0.05). P. vivax cases were recorded throughout the year with peak coinciding with rainy season although transmission intensity and duration varied. Interpretation & conclusions: In northeast India, P. vivax is a neglected infection. Estimating the relapsing pattern and transmission dynamics of P. vivax in various ecological settings is an important pre-requisite for planning malaria elimination in the northeastern States. PMID:26139771

  14. Helminth parasite spectrum of fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India: a checklist.

    PubMed

    Jyrwa, Donald B; Thapa, Sunila; Tandon, Veena

    2016-06-01

    Fish constitute a major component of diet for the people of Northeast India and they are extensively used as a protein-rich food for human consumption. The present studies incorporate the spectrum, composition and diversity of the parasitic species in freshwater fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India, with a view to identifying the species recovered by morphological criteria based on light microscopy. The collection sites included sixteen foci from eleven districts of Meghalaya for parasites occurring in the common food fishes (Cypriniformes, Channiformes, Silurformes, Symbranchiformes and Anguilliformes). The helminth parasite spectrum recovered from the various piscine host species in the study area comprised of a total of 19 taxa: 2 monogenean, 8 trematode (4 adult and 4 metacercarial stages), 12 cestode (11 adult and a metacestode stage), 6 nematode (3 adult and 3 larval stages) and a single acanthocephalan species. A checklist of the parasite species with short remarks for each is provided herein. PMID:27413300

  15. Scaling relations of moment magnitude, local magnitude, and duration magnitude for earthquakes originated in northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Dipok K.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aim to improve the scaling between the moment magnitude ( M W), local magnitude ( M L), and the duration magnitude ( M D) for 162 earthquakes in Shillong-Mikir plateau and its adjoining region of northeast India by extending the M W estimates to lower magnitude earthquakes using spectral analysis of P-waves from vertical component seismograms. The M W- M L and M W- M D relationships are determined by linear regression analysis. It is found that, M W values can be considered consistent with M L and M D, within 0.1 and 0.2 magnitude units respectively, in 90 % of the cases. The scaling relationships investigated comply well with similar relationships in other regions in the world and in other seismogenic areas in the northeast India region.

  16. Time-predictable model applicability for earthquake occurrence in northeast India and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, A.; Shanker, D.; Singh, H. N.; Kumar, A.; Paudyal, H.

    2011-03-01

    Northeast India and its vicinity is one of the seismically most active regions in the world, where a few large and several moderate earthquakes have occurred in the past. In this study the region of northeast India has been considered for an earthquake generation model using earthquake data as reported by earthquake catalogues National Geophysical Data Centre, National Earthquake Information Centre, United States Geological Survey and from book prepared by Gupta et al. (1986) for the period 1906-2008. The events having a surface wave magnitude of Ms≥5.5 were considered for statistical analysis. In this region, nineteen seismogenic sources were identified by the observation of clustering of earthquakes. It is observed that the time interval between the two consecutive mainshocks depends upon the preceding mainshock magnitude (Mp) and not on the following mainshock (Mf). This result corroborates the validity of time-predictable model in northeast India and its adjoining regions. A linear relation between the logarithm of repeat time (T) of two consecutive events and the magnitude of the preceding mainshock is established in the form LogT = cMp+a, where "c" is a positive slope of line and "a" is function of minimum magnitude of the earthquake considered. The values of the parameters "c" and "a" are estimated to be 0.21 and 0.35 in northeast India and its adjoining regions. The less value of c than the average implies that the earthquake occurrence in this region is different from those of plate boundaries. The result derived can be used for long term seismic hazard estimation in the delineated seismogenic regions.

  17. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  18. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Nongdam, P; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  19. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  20. The changing patterns of uveitis in a tertiary institute of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Das, Kalyan; Tahiliani, Prerana S; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Bharali, Gayatri; Das, Manik; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis incorporates innumerable conditions, all of which are characterized by inflammation of the uveal tract. Study of etiological factors in uveitis in the population often give important disease-specific indications and changing pattern in subsequent studies are important to know further newer occurrences of various disease prevalence. Awareness of regional variation in disease configuration is essential to develop a region specific list of differential diagnoses and also for comparison with different sub-population of the country and the world. We report the changing pattern of uveitis in a tertiary institute in the Northeast India and found that tubercular uveitis had increased in hospital-based study. PMID:26632132

  1. Discovery of a new family of amphibians from northeast India with ancient links to Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Rachunliu G; San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Sherratt, Emma; Thomas, Ashish; Babu, Suresh; Bossuyt, Franky; Wilkinson, Mark; Biju, S D

    2012-06-22

    The limbless, primarily soil-dwelling and tropical caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) comprise the least known order of tetrapods. On the basis of unprecedented extensive fieldwork, we report the discovery of a previously overlooked, ancient lineage and radiation of caecilians from threatened habitats in the underexplored states of northeast India. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic and nuclear DNA sequences, and comparative cranial anatomy indicate an unexpected sister-group relationship with the exclusively African family Herpelidae. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicate that these lineages diverged in the Early Cretaceous, about 140 Ma. The discovery adds a major branch to the amphibian tree of life and sheds light on both the evolution and biogeography of caecilians and the biotic history of northeast India-an area generally interpreted as a gateway between biodiversity hotspots rather than a distinct biogeographic unit with its own ancient endemics. Because of its distinctive morphology, inferred age and phylogenetic relationships, we recognize the newly discovered caecilian radiation as a new family of modern amphibians. PMID:22357266

  2. e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This case study deals with the implementation methodology, innovations and lessons of the ICT initiative in providing agricultural extension services to the rural tribal farming community of North-East India. Methodology: This study documents the ICT project implementation challenges, impact among farmers and briefly indicates lessons of…

  3. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CTC black tea of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Baruah, Binoti Devi; Bordoloi, Cinmoy; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2013-12-15

    Sixty black tea samples from different agro climatic zones of northeast India were assessed for biochemical constituents that determine quality and also influence organoleptic perception. The antioxidant activities such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, nitrite scavenging and super oxide scavenging, of the collected samples were analysed. Out of the four antioxidant activities, the super oxide scavenging activity was lowest and nitrite scavenging activity was highest. Theaflavin was significantly and positively correlated with nitrite scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. Thearubigins showed a significant positive correlation only with nitrite scavenging activity. Correlations between relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) and TF, TR and tasters' quality were positive and significant. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. Principal component analysis showed that Upper Assam, North Bank and South Bank produced better quality tea than other regions with respect to TF, TR, RACI and tasters' quality. PMID:23993544

  4. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Mayengbam, P.; Tolenkhomba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets. PMID:27065639

  5. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php PMID:27285615

  6. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php. PMID:27285615

  7. Probabilistic Assessment of Earthquake Recurrence in Northeast India and Adjoining Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram Bichar Singh; Tripathi, Jayant Nath; Rastogi, Bal Krishna; Das, Mridul Chandra; Chopra, Sumer

    2010-11-01

    Northeast India and adjoining regions (20°-32° N and 87°-100° E) are highly vulnerable to earthquake hazard in the Indian sub-continent, which fall under seismic zones V, IV and III in the seismic zoning map of India with magnitudes M exceeding 8, 7 and 6, respectively. It has experienced two devastating earthquakes, namely, the Shillong Plateau earthquake of June 12, 1897 ( M w 8.1) and the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950 ( M w 8.5) that caused huge loss of lives and property in the Indian sub-continent. In the present study, the probabilities of the occurrences of earthquakes with magnitude M ≥ 7.0 during a specified interval of time has been estimated on the basis of three probabilistic models, namely, Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal, with the help of the earthquake catalogue spanning the period 1846 to 1995. The method of maximum likelihood has been used to estimate the earthquake hazard parameters. The logarithmic probability of likelihood function (ln L) is estimated and used to compare the suitability of models and it was found that the Gamma model fits best with the actual data. The sample mean interval of occurrence of such earthquakes is estimated as 7.82 years in the northeast India region and the expected mean values for Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal distributions are estimated as 7.837, 7.820 and 8.269 years, respectively. The estimated cumulative probability for an earthquake M ≥ 7.0 reaches 0.8 after about 15-16 (2010-2011) years and 0.9 after about 18-20 (2013-2015) years from the occurrence of the last earthquake (1995) in the region. The estimated conditional probability also reaches 0.8 to 0.9 after about 13-17 (2008-2012) years in the considered region for an earthquake M ≥ 7.0 when the elapsed time is zero years. However, the conditional probability reaches 0.8 to 0.9 after about 9-13 (2018-2022) years for earthquake M ≥ 7.0 when the elapsed time is 14 years (i.e. 2009).

  8. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  9. Genetic diversity and relationship of Hedychium from Northeast India as dissected using PCA analysis and hierarchical clustering

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Supriyo; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kesari, Vigya; Parida, Ajay; Mitra, Sudip; Rangan, Latha

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic fingerprints of eleven Hedychium species from Northeast India were developed using PCR based markers. Fifteen inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and five amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers produced 547 polymorphic fragments. Positive correlation (r = 0.46) was observed between the mean genetic similarity and genetic diversity parameters at the inter-species level. AFLP and ISSR markers were able to group the species according to its altitude and intensity of flower aroma. Cophenetic correlation coefficients between the dendrogram and the original similarity matrix were significant for ISSR (r = 0.89) compared to AFLP (r = 0.83) markers. This genetic characterization of Hedychium from Northeast India contributes to the knowledge of genetic structure of the species and can be used to define strategies for their conservation and management. PMID:25606430

  10. The Behavioral Ecology of Family Planning : Two Ethnic Groups in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S

    2007-09-01

    Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide. PMID:26181061

  11. Composite farming systems in an era of change: Nagaland, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Malcolm; Brookfield, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Composite farming systems, first clearly identified by Rambo, are those in which radically different technologies are found together in a single farming complex. Data from diaries kept by groups of farming families in two Angami Naga villages in northeast India, Khonoma and smaller Tsiesema, detailing inputs into and outputs from wet-rice terraces and jhum (swidden) fields in the years 2000 and 2001, are presented and discussed to detail the workings of related but different composite systems. The 2000–2001 survey caught an important set of changes in midstream. Although returns to labour from the first-year jhums were much higher than those from the wet-rice terraces in 2000–2001, jhums were declining in significance as a growing non-farm economy joined the production of cool-climate vegetables and a spice crop for the Indian market as principal sources of livelihood. This story is told in the light of recent writing on the demise of swidden in the larger Southeast Asian region, and it is suggested that greater attention be paid to the composite systems, which are not uncommon in this region. This might help diversify what has perhaps been an oversimplified discussion. PMID:21847830

  12. Distribution of Earthquake Interevent Times in Northeast India and Adjoining Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes earthquake interoccurrence times of northeast India and its vicinity from eleven probability distributions, namely exponential, Frechet, gamma, generalized exponential, inverse Gaussian, Levy, lognormal, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, and Weibull distributions. Parameters of these distributions are estimated from the method of maximum likelihood estimation, and their respective asymptotic variances as well as confidence bounds are calculated using Fisher information matrices. Three model selection criteria namely the Chi-square criterion, the maximum likelihood criterion, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov minimum distance criterion are used to compare model suitability for the present earthquake catalog (Y adav et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 167:1331-1342, 2010). It is observed that gamma, generalized exponential, and Weibull distributions provide the best fitting, while exponential, Frechet, inverse Gaussian, and lognormal distributions provide intermediate fitting, and the rest, namely Levy, Maxwell Pareto, and Rayleigh distributions fit poorly to the present data. The conditional probabilities for a future earthquake and related conditional probability curves are presented towards the end of this article.

  13. Geological mapping of the Schuppen belt of north-east India using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanaya; Basu, Surajit; Hazra, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    A revised geologic map of the Schuppen belt of northeast India has been prepared based on interpretation of digitally enhanced satellite images. The satellite image interpretation is supported by limited field work and existing geologic maps. Available geological maps of this fold thrust belt are discontinuous and multi-scaled. The authors are of multiple opinions regarding the trajectory of formation boundaries and fault contacts. Digital image processing of satellite images and limited field surveys have been used to reinterpret and modify the existing geological maps of this fold thrust belt. Optical data of Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper and elevation data of ASTER have been used to prepare this revised geological map. The study area extends from Hajadisa in south to Digboi oilfield in north, bounded by Naga thrust in the west and Disang thrust in the east. PCA, Image fusion, Linear Contrast stretch, Histogram Equalization and Painted relief algorithms have been used for the delineation of major geological lineaments like lithological boundary, thrust and strike slip faults. Digital elevation maps have enabled in the discrimination between thrust contacts and lithological boundaries, with the former being located mostly in the valleys. Textural enhancements of PCA, colour composites and Painted relief algorithm have been used to discriminate between different rock types. Few geological concepts about the terrain have been revisited and modified. It is assumed that this revised map should be of practical use as this terrain promises unexploited hydrocarbon reserves.

  14. DNA barcoding of Nilssonia congeners corroborates existence of wild N. nigricans in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Venkataraman, Krishnamoorthy; Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    DNA barcode data of soft-shell turtles is limited in global DNA database while it is completely lacking for the highly debated species Nilssonia nigricans. We employed DNA barcoding technique to discriminate the species cluster for Nilssonia congeners, especially for the highly debated N. nigricans from different localities of northeast India. Sampling across the region included a few live specimens from wild, market sold carcass specimens, and a few dry carapaces meant for home decoration purpose. The generated sequences (621 bp of mtCOI) of dry carapaces showed 99-100% homology with the generated sequences of morphologically identified N. nigricans. The COI barcode sequences of N. nigricans (n = 12) showed 3.8% mean genetic divergence with N. hurum (n = 3), 10% with N. gangetica (n = 4), and 9.2% with N. formosa (GenBank sequences). Similarly, the mtCytb sequences of the dry carapace and live specimens of N. nigricans were 99-100% homologous with the conspecific database sequences and formed specific clusters. The inferred Neighbor-Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Bayesian (BA) phylogeny based on partial mtCOI gene efficiently discriminated all the congeners of Nilssonia into specific clusters and, therefore, it was helpful to detect the existence of N. nigricans. PMID:26057013

  15. Recovery of Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. from the 'fired plots' under shifting cultivation in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Chaudhry, Shivaji; Sharma, Avinash; Choudhary, Vipin Singh; Malviya, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Swati; Rinu, K; Trivedi, Pankaj; Palni, Lok Man S

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples, collected after the fire operations at agricultural sites under shifting cultivation in northeast India, were subjected to physico-chemical and microbial analysis. The fire affected various physico-chemical properties of the soil. Significant differences in pH and electrical conductivity were recorded in soil of fired and fallow plots. Significantly higher amounts of total organic carbon and nitrogen were estimated in fallow plots as compared to the fired. Difference in total phosphates was not significant. The fire operations resulted in stimulation of microbial communities. The bacteria were the most affected group followed by actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. The bacterial and actinomycetes counts were significantly higher in fired plots as compared to the fallow plots. The representative bacterial species recovered from the 'fired plots' belonged to the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA analysis revealed their maximum similarity with B. clausii, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, P. aeruginosa and P. stutzeri. Most of these species were found to be positive for phosphate solubilization and antagonism in plate based assays. In view of the importance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species in plant growth promotion and biocontrol, recovery of these species after fire operations is indicative of the microbiological merit of shifting cultivation. PMID:20625733

  16. Identification of ethnomedicinal plants (Rauvolfioideae: Apocynaceae) through DNA barcoding from northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Mahadani, Pradosh; Sharma, Gouri Dutta; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: DNA barcode-based molecular characterization is in practice for plants, but yet lacks total agreement considering the selection of marker. Plant species of subfamily Rauvolfioideae have long been used as herbal medicine by the majority of tribal people in Northeast (NE) India and at present holds mass effect on the society. Hence, there is an urgent need of correct taxonomic inventorization vis-à-vis species level molecular characterization of important medicinal plants. Objective: To test the efficiency of matK in species delineation like DNA barcoding in Rauvolfiadae (Apocynaceae). Materials and Methods: In this study, the core DNA barcode matK and trnH-psbA sequences are examined for differentiation of selected ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae. DNA from young leaves of selected species was isolated, and matK gene (~800 bp) and trnH-psbA spacer (~450 bp) of Chloroplast DNA was amplified for species level identification. Results: The ~758 bp matK sequence in comparison to the trnH-psbA showed easy amplification, alignment, and high level of discrimination value among the medicinal Rauvolfioidae species. Intergenic spacer trnH-psbA is also exhibited persistent problem in obtaining constant bidirectional sequences. Partial matK sequences exhibited 3 indels in multiple of 3 at 5 end. Evidently, generated matK sequences are clustered cohesively, with their conspecific Genbank sequences. However, repeat structures with AT-rich regions, possessing indels in multiple of 3, could be utilized as qualitative molecular markers in further studies both at the intra-specific and shallow inter-specific levels like the intergenic spacers of CpDNA. Conclusion: matK sequence information could help in correct species identification for medicinal plants of Rauvolfioideae. PMID:23930011

  17. Chemical and microbial properties of shidal, a traditional fermented fish of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Roy, Deepayan; Bejjanki, Sandeep; Bhaskar, N

    2016-01-01

    Like Southeast Asian countries fermented fish is a well known strategy of food preservation in the Northeast region of India. Shidals are mostly preferred salt-free fermented fish product amongst all. Chemical and microbial composition, antioxidative potential, fatty acid profile and proteins profile in gel electrophoresis of shidals were studied. pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) have been found as 5.86 ± 0.11, 0.115 ± 0.01 and 6.62 ± 0.07, 0.092 ± 0.01 in punti and phasa shidal respectively. DPPH (·) radical scavenging activity of punti and phasa shidal was determined as 80.15 ± 5.67 and 68.30 ± 3.22 respectively. Presence of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid indicate the nutritional significance of shidal. However, the result showed that punti shidal was rich in omega-3 but poor in omega-6 fatty acid, whereas, reverse was observed in respect of phasa shidal. Poly acrylamide gel electrophoretic study of protein revealed disappearance of myosin head chain (MHC) in the dry puntius fish (raw material of shidal). Proteins or peptides with low molecular weight between 45 and 29 kDa and between 45 and 66 kDa were noticed in both the shidals and indicative of intensive protein degradation during fermentation. Therefore, fermented fish product, shidal could be used as a potential source of nutrients and natural antioxidants. PMID:26787959

  18. Climate-Smart Landscapes for Managing Water Resources in the Tea Growing Regions of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Biggs, E. M.; Saikia, S. D.; Duncan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tea is an important global agricultural commodity, both commercially and culturally. Assam, an agrarian state in northeast India is the largest single tea growing region in the world and the productivity (both in terms of quantity and quality) requires a specific range of enviro-climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are two climate factors which highly influence productivity. Thus water plays a critical role in sustaining future tea production in Assam. Recently the region has been affected by heterogeneous spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and rising temperatures. This has led to temporally varying drought-like conditions during the tea production season, reducing crop resilience and degrading yield quality. Quantifying regional climate-yield characteristics enables more effective decision-making regarding climate change mitigation, water resources management and adaptation to sustain (and enhance) future tea crop production. This research used a panel based regression model to statistically quantify the extent to which precipitation and temperature variables are associated with changes in tea yield. Monthly time-series climate and yield data were regressed for the period 2004 to 2014. Yield data were obtained from 80 tea estates across the four main tea growing regions of Assam, and 120 climate variables were selected for analysis. Results indicate that periods of drought (e.g. more than 10 consecutive days of zero precipitation) are significantly associated with reductions in yield, whereas periods of intense precipitation (e.g. number of days where the 95th percentile was exceeded) are generally associated with increased yield. These results have provided an enhanced understanding of climate-yield characteristics, which will subsequently be used to deliver more climate-smart advisory decision-support services to tea producers in the region. Although water resources management practices, such as water harvesting structures, check dams

  19. Ethnobiology in Mizoram state: folklore medico-zoology.

    PubMed

    Lalramnghinglova, H

    1999-07-01

    Studies in ethnobotany and ethnozoology under the umbrella of Ethnobiology seem imbalanced in the sense that enormous publications have accumulated in case of the former but only little information has been disseminated in case of the latter. While 7500 wild plant species are known to be used by tribals in medicine, only 76 species of animals have been shown as medicinal resources (Anonymous, 1994). The present paper is the first-hand information of folklore medicine and animals in Mizoram. The animals enumerated comprise of 25 vertebrates and 31 invertebrates and are used for treatment of over 40 kinds of diseases or ailments, including jaundice, tuberculosis, hepatitis, cancer, asthma and veterinary disease. The author, however, does not recommend destruction of wild animals, be it for food or medicine. PMID:12585311

  20. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  1. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus. PMID:22613735

  2. Molecular characterization of veterinary important trematode and cestode species in the mithun Bos frontalis from north-east India.

    PubMed

    Chamuah, J K; Raina, O K; Lalrinkima, H; Jacob, S S; Sankar, M; Sakhrie, A; Lama, S; Banerjee, P S

    2016-09-01

    Helminth infections in the mithun Bos frontalis, including the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, hepato-gastric amphistomes Explanatum explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum and Calicophoron calicophorum, and the cestodes Echinococcus granulosus and E. ortleppi were studied in north-east India over a 2-year period from 2012 to 2014. Cystic echinococcosis caused by E. granulosus and E. ortleppi was found to be highly prevalent in the mithun, with E. ortleppi being reported for the first time. Molecular markers, including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2), 28S rDNA and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase sub-unit1 (nad1) were used to confirm the identification of the trematode and cestode species. PMID:26343353

  3. Shifting to settled cultivation: Changing practices among the Adis in Central Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Teegalapalli, Karthik; Datta, Aparajita

    2016-09-01

    In the hilly tropics, although shifting cultivation is a widespread practice, government policies have attempted to replace it with other land uses. However, several factors determine whether farming communities can make the shift. We tried understanding the factors that facilitate or impede the shift to settled cultivation through interviews with the Adi tribe in north-east India. Although settled cultivation was initiated in the 60s, about 90 % of the families still practise shifting cultivation, observing 13 festivals associated with the annual agricultural calendar. Our results indicate that the economic status of a household determined whether a family undertook settled cultivation, while labour availability was important for shifting cultivation. Often, these nuances are ignored in the Government policies. We conclude that future policies should be mindful of cultural and socio-economic factors that affect the community and of the social-ecological resilience of the landscapes and not use a one-size-fits-all strategy. PMID:26867932

  4. Monitoring green leaf tea quality parameters of different TV clones grown in northeast India using satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rishiraj

    2013-08-15

    This study tries to quantify the effects of green leaf tea parameters that influence tea quality in Northeast India. The study is to identify the different parameters that have a significant influence on tea quality through the use of remote sensing. It investigates the methods for estimating tea quality based on remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Attention focused on high yielding TV clones (TV1, TV18, TV22, TV23, TV25 and TV26). NDVI was obtained from ASTER images. Statistical analysis shows that NDVI has a strong significant effect on the caffeine content followed by epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and to some extent in other chemical parameters. Relationships therefore exist between quality parameters and remote sensing in particular for the TV clones. This leads to the conclusion that NDVI has a large potential to be used for monitoring tea quality of individual cultivars in the future. PMID:23561162

  5. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  6. Sediment fluxes and the littoral drift along northeast Andhra Pradesh Coast, India: estimation by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Kunte, Pravin D; Alagarsamy, R; Hursthouse, A S

    2013-06-01

    The littoral drift regime along the northeastern coast of India was investigated by analyzing coastal drift indicators and shoreline changes based on multitemporal satellite images. The study of offshore turbidity patterns and quantitative estimation of suspended sediments was undertaken to understand the magnitude and direction of movement of sediment fluxes. The study revealed that: (1) the character of coastal landforms and sedimentation processes indicate that the sediment transport is bidirectional and monsoon dependent; (2) multidate, multitemporal analysis of satellite images helps to show the nature of sediment transport along the coast. The dominant net sediment transport is in a NE direction along the eastern coast of India. Finally, this assessment demonstrates the potential of remote sensing technology in understanding the coastal morphometric changes, long-term sediment transport, shoreline changes, and offshore turbidity distribution pattern and the implications for the transport of sediment-associated pollutants. PMID:23064851

  7. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  8. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  9. Genetic Variation within Native Populations of Endemic Silkmoth Antheraea assamensis (Helfer) from Northeast India Indicates Need for In Situ Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Tunginba; Mazumdar-Leighton, Sudeshna; Saikia, Mahaswetta; Pant, Prashant; Kashung, Sochanngam; Neog, Kartik; Chakravorty, Rajen; Nair, Suresh; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Babu, Cheerukeri Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The need to reduce dependence on wild populations for cocoons necessitates assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated and wild populations. Molecular markers based on PCR of Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used with four populations of wild insects and eleven populations of cultivated insects. Wild populations had high genetic diversity estimates (Hi = 0.25; HS = 0.28; HE = 0.42) and at least one population contained private alleles. Both marker systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Among cultivated populations, insects of the Upper Assam region (Hi = 0.19; HS = 0.18; HE = 0) were genetically distinct (FST = 0.38 with both marker systems) from insects of Lower Assam (Hi = 0.24; HS = 0.25; HE = 0.3). Sequencing of polymorphic amplicons suggested transposition as a mechanism for maintaining genomic diversity. Implications for conservation of native populations in the wild and preserving in-farm diversity are discussed. PMID:23185503

  10. Seasonal prevalence of some zoonotic trematode infections in cattle and pigs in the north-east montane zone in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, B; Tandon, V

    1992-02-01

    Seasonal variations in the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica and Eurytrema pancreaticum in cattle, and Opisthorchis noverca, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and Gastrodiscoides hominis in pigs, were studied post-necropsy over a 1 year period in a humid, subtropical north-east hilly region in India. The overall prevalence rate was 53.02% in cattle (n = 960) and 12.92% in pigs (n = 960). Fasciola gigantica and E. pancreaticum occurred throughout the year with peaks during cold winter months. Both species showed a high intensity of infection in winter and a low intensity during summer and autumn. The rate of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis rose to a peak during June-September and thereafter declined to a low level (November-March). Except for the month of February, O. noverca occurred throughout the year, with the highest rate of infection in late autumn and winter. The abundance of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis was high during late summer and early autumn. Opisthorchis noverca showed a higher density during late autumn and winter. PMID:1561763

  11. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom.

    PubMed

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  12. Vegetation types, dominant compositions, woody plant diversity and stand structure in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Koushik; Datta, B K

    2015-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess the vegetation types, diversity and phytosociological status of woody plants in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary of Tripura, Northeast India. Vegetation data was derived by 25 line transects (10 m wide and 500 m length, each 0.5 ha size). All woody species at >10 cm gbh (Girth at Breast Height) within each plots were measured and counted. A total of six forest types were classified by cluster analysis using Importance Value Index (IVI) of 289 woody species. Species diversity, forest structure and woody community associations were evaluated and discussed. One way ANOVA revealed significant differences in all species diversity measures and stand structure along the forest types. Distribution of stem density at ten different gbh classes showed reverse J-shaped curves. Population status of woody plants was also examined through grouping of all individuals into four population age stages viz. sapling (<30 cm gbh), adult (> or = 30 - <120 cm gbh), mature (>120 - 210 cm gbh) and old (> or =210 cm). To observe dominant composition and species population trend, IVI of top ten dominant species from all forest types were tabulated. The present study suggested that Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary is an important habitat in Tripura from floristic point of view and it should be conserved on priority basis for remaining wildlife endurances and monitor for forest livelihoods products for sustainable biodiversity conservation in this region. PMID:25895264

  13. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

  14. Terpenoid compositions and antioxidant activities of two Indian valerian oils from the Khasi Hills of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayashankar; Mao, Ashiho A; Handique, Pratap J

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Valeriana jatamansi Jones and V. hardwickii Wall. (Valerianaceae) collected from the Khasi Hills of north-east India were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-seven and twenty-one compounds were characterized and identified from V. jatamansi and V. hardwickii samples, representing 90.6% and 82.7% of the total oil, respectively. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents in both the oil samples. Maaliol (26.1%), patchouli alcohol (9.3%) and a-gurjunene (8.7%) were the major components of V. jatamansi oil, whereas valeracetate (21.3%), methyl linoleate (14.1%), bornyl acetate (13.8%) and cuparene (7.1%) were the main constituents of V. hardwickii oil. Both Indian valerian essential oils were studied for their antioxidant activities using the free radical-scavanging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. V. hardwickii oil exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than V. jatamansi in both assays. For both the valerian oil samples, there was a concentration-dependent increase in free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing capacity. Both valerian oils and their ingredients are potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:21366063

  15. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

  16. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  17. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  18. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur). A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory), Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur), involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-). The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal communities. Conclusions

  19. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Chatterjee, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P. K.; Manning, A. J.; Hall, B. D.; Mühle, J.; Meredith, L. K.; Weiss, R. F.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.

    2013-06-01

    High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH4)/March 2012 (N2O and SF6) through February 2013. These measurements were made on a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and electron capture detector and were calibrated on the Tohoku University, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)-98 and SIO-2005 scales for CH4, N2O and SF6, respectively. The observations show large variability and frequent pollution events in CH4 and N2O mole fractions, suggesting significant sources in the regions sampled by Darjeeling throughout the year. In contrast, SF6 mole fractions show little variability and only occasional pollution episodes, likely due to weak sources in the region. Simulations using the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) particle dispersion model suggest that many of the enhancements in the three gases result from the transport of pollutants from the densely populated Indo-Gangetic plains of India to Darjeeling. The meteorology of the region varies considerably throughout the year from Himalayan flows in the winter to the strong South Asian summer monsoon. The model is consistent in simulating a diurnal cycle in CH4 and N2O mole fractions that is present during the winter but absent in the summer and suggests that the signals measured at Darjeeling are dominated by large scale (~100 km) flows rather than local (<10 km) flows.

  20. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Chatterjee, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P. K.; Manning, A. J.; Hall, B. D.; Mühle, J.; Meredith, L. K.; Weiss, R. F.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.

    2013-11-01

    High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH4)/March 2012 (N2O and SF6) through February 2013. These measurements were made on a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and electron capture detector, and were calibrated on the Tohoku University, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)-98 and SIO-2005 scales for CH4, N2O and SF6, respectively. The observations show large variability and frequent pollution events in CH4 and N2O mole fractions, suggesting significant sources in the regions sampled by Darjeeling throughout the year. By contrast, SF6 mole fractions show little variability and only occasional pollution episodes, likely due to weak sources in the region. Simulations using the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) particle dispersion model suggest that many of the enhancements in the three gases result from the transport of pollutants from the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plains of India to Darjeeling. The meteorology of the region varies considerably throughout the year from Himalayan flows in the winter to the strong south Asian summer monsoon. The model is consistent in simulating a diurnal cycle in CH4 and N2O mole fractions that is present during the winter but absent in the summer and suggests that the signals measured at Darjeeling are dominated by large-scale (~100 km) flows rather than local (<10 km) flows.

  1. Temperature and precipitation changes in the north-east India and their future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Sharma, Neha; Pattnayak, K. C.; Gao, X. J.; Shi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North East India (NEI), which comprise eight states, is very vulnerable to global changes and yet it was least studied so far. In this study, the present-day climatic conditions prevailing in NEI are examined based on actual observations at the meteorological stations of India Meteorological Department (IMD) in the region and on the gridded data. Further, Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) is also used to examine the projected changes in climatic parameters of temperature and precipitation in NEI under the IPCC A1B scenario. First of all, the model simulations in the present era spanning 1971-2005 are compared with the IMD gridded datasets to validate the model performance. It is found that RegCM3 is able to simulate the trends in annual mean temperature for the period 1971-2005 correctly. However, there is overestimation of rainfall simulated by the model. Major parts of NEI show a wet bias in the model precipitation. The simulated annual mean temperatures for the region show a good correlation with the gridded temperature values. Based on the IMD gridded datasets, the extreme temperature events of daily maximum and minimum temperatures are also examined in this study. Results indicate that during the years 1971-2005, the occurrence of warm nights in summer months was more frequent than the warm days. The simulations to the future years indicate rise in the annual mean temperature as well as mean rainfall. Projections based on RegCM3 simulations further indicate more frequent warm events than the cold events.

  2. Possible development mechanisms of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over northeast and east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sunanda; Vishwanathan, Gokul; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems of towering cumulonimbus clouds of high vertical and horizontal extent lasting from a few minutes to several hours. Pre-monsoon thundershowers over the past 10 years have been analyzed to understand the organization, horizontal and vertical development and dissipation of such severe events. Kalbaisakhi's/ Norwester's over north east and East India is given preference in this study, while some of the other extreme events are also analyzed due to their severity. The meteorological parameters like horizontal and vertical wind, precipitable water etc., and derived variables such as Severe Weather Threat (SWEAT) Index, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) of the identified cases are analyzed using observations from NCEP and IMD. Satellite observations from IMD and TRMM are also used to analyze the development and moisture flow of such systems. The analysis shows that some of the parameters display a clear signature of developing thunderstorms. It is also seen that cloud parameters such as convective precipitation rate and convective cloud cover from NCEP FNL didn't show much variation during the development of storms, which may be attributed to the limitation of spatial and temporal resolution. The parameters which showed indications of a developing thunderstorm were studied in detail in order to understand the possible mechanisms behind the development and organization of thunderstorm cells.

  3. A survey of metacercarial infections in commonly edible fish and crab hosts prevailing in Manipur, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Athokpam, Voleentina Devi; Tandon, Veena

    2015-09-01

    Food-borne trematode infections, which are mainly transmitted through consumption of inadequately cooked or raw fish and crabs, affect a large section of population, particularly in Southeast Asian countries, thus eliciting a remarkable morbidity and causing serious damage to health. In India, centering in several mountainous regions of the Northeast, the natives have the habit of consuming such fish or crabs that still sustain viable infective larval stage (metacercaria) of trematode flukes in their muscle tissue. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the spectrum of metacercarial diversity in commonly edible freshwater fishes and crab species in the northeastern state of Manipur and to adjudge their zoonotic potential, if any. Commonly edible fishes belonging to 15 species from 12 localities and crabs belonging to 2 species from 11 localities across Manipur state were surveyed for the purpose. The study revealed that 3 species of fishes (Channa punctatus, C. straitus and Wallago attu) harboured 4 different types of metacercariae belonging to 4 trematode families-Euclinostomum heterostomum (Clinostomidae); Lophosicyadiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp. (Diplostomidae); and Polylekithum sp. (Allocreadiidae) in addition to adult flukes of Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Isoparorchiidae). Among these, metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum showed the highest prevalence (2.33 %) though a low abundance, while for other species the prevalence ranged between 0.25 and 1.19 %. The crab species (Barythelphusa lugubris masoniana and Potamiscus manipuriensis) were found infected with 4 different types of metacercariae representing the genera Paragonimus (Troglotrematidae) and Microphallus (Microphallidae). The paragonimids showed a higher rate of occurrence (~4-25 %) compared to microphallids (~15 %). The crustaceans surveyed emerged as prospective intermediate hosts for lungflukes. Identifying the potent vectors for zoonotic parasites helps in control measures

  4. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker analysis in Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. populations from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Genetic variation in three populations of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. grown in the Manipur state of northeast India was analysed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 30 individual trees representing three populations were sampled and studied using 22 University of British Columbia (UBC set no. 9) primers in the present study. Of the total 22 primers, 19 primers produced distinct, reproducible and well-resolved fragments. Overall, a total number of 111 fragments were generated by the 19 primers and of which, 51 were polymorphic (45.94 %). The average number of loci and polymorphic loci generated per primer were 5.84 and 2.68, respectively. The genetic variation generated by ISSR markers within the three populations studied ranges from 33.33 to 18.92 %. The overall genetic differentiation (Gst) among populations was estimated to be 0.29, and the number of gene flow (Nm) was estimated to be 1.23 per generation between populations. Of the total genetic variance, 70.04 % was attributed to within-population diversity while 4.72 % differences to the among-populations. The genetic similarity across the individuals belonging to the three populations was represented by the dendrogram showing the grouping of the individuals into three major groups which is also supported by the principle component analysis. The present finding asserts the effectiveness of ISSR procedure for assessing genetic variations of P. timoriana populations and provides valuable genetic information that can be utilized for breeding and conservation strategies. PMID:24254257

  5. Aerosol temporal characteristics and its impact on shortwave radiative forcing at a location in the northeast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Kalita, Gayatry; Bhuyan, K.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2010-10-01

    Measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and mass concentration of composite and black carbon (BC) aerosols made with collocated instruments over Dibrugarh in Northeast India are used to estimate the aerosol radiative forcing for the period June 2008 to May 2009. AOD shows seasonal variation with maximum in premonsoon (0.69 ± 0.13 at 500 nm in March 2009) and minimum in the retreating monsoon (0.08 ± 0.01 at 500 nm in October 2008). Ångström coefficients α and β are highest in monsoon and premonsoon season and are lowest in premonsoon and retreating monsoon, respectively. The size segregated mass concentration is minimum in the monsoon season for all the three modes nucleation, accumulation, and coarse and maximum in winter for accumulation and coarse and in premonsoon for nucleation mode. The BC mass concentration is highest 16.3 ± 1.4 μg m-3 in winter and lowest 3.4 ± 0.9 μg m-3 in monsoon. The estimated aerosol radiative forcing of the atmosphere, using Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) outputs as inputs for Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART), is maximum in premonsoon followed by that in winter and minimum in retreating monsoon. Negative forcing is observed at the surface, whereas the top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing is nearly zero in retreating monsoon and is negative in rest of the seasons. The forcing efficiency and heating rate were highest during winter and premonsoon, respectively.

  6. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage. PMID:26693459

  7. Subcutaneous Mycosis Due to Cladosporium cladosporioides and Bipolaris cynodontis from Assam, North-East India and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Barua, Shyamanta; Barman, Jahnabi; Swargiary, Pallabi; Borgohain, Mondita; Saikia, Lahari

    2015-12-01

    A large number of phaeoid fungi cause infection in humans and other animals which is characterized by the basic development of sclerotic body, dark-coloured filamentous hyphae as well as yeast-like cells in the invaded tissue. Two cases of subcutaneous mycosis in immunocompetent male patients aged 55 and 58 years attending Dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Assam, north-east India, are reported. The first case was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Cladosporium cladosporioides. The patient clinically presented with a chronic verrucous and nodular growth of 32-year duration on the left foot and leg. Identification of the species was done by sequencing the D1/D2 region of LSU (large subunit 28S rDNA). The patient was treated with surgical resection and oral itraconazole which showed good clinical response and total regression of lesion after 9 months. The second case due to Bipolaris cynodontis presented as verrucous exophytic growth over the dorsum of the right foot of 1-year duration which was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis. The identification of the species was done by sequencing the ITS region. The patient was started with oral itraconazole but was lost to follow-up. Chromoblastomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides is rare. Bipolaris cynodontis is not yet reported as a cause of human infection. The aetiological role of this fungus was confirmed by repeated isolation of the fungus from the lesion and direct microscopy. Molecular identification methods can increase the spectrum of black moulds causing human infection in coming years. We are reporting these two cases with review of the available literature. PMID:26198088

  8. An experimental investigation to characterise soil macroporosity under different land use and land covers of northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shougrakpam, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Rupak; Dutta, Subashisa

    2010-10-01

    Saturated macropore flow is the dominant hydrological process in tropical and subtropical hilly watersheds of northeast India. The process of infiltration into saturated macroporous soils is primarily controlled by size, network, density, connectivity, saturation of surrounding soil matrix, and depthwise distribution of macropores. To understand the effects of local land use, land cover and management practices on soil macroporosity, colour dye infiltration experiments were conducted with ten soil columns (25 × 25 × 50 cm) collected from different watersheds of the region under similar soil and agro-climatic zones. The sampling sites included two undisturbed forested hillslopes, two conventionally cultivated paddy fields, two forest lands abandoned after Jhum cultivation, and two paddy fields, one pineapple plot and one banana plot presently under active cultivation stage of the Jhum cycle. Digital image analyses of the obtained dye patterns showed that the infiltration patterns differed significantly for different sites with varying land use, land cover, and cultivation practices. Undisturbed forest soils showed high degree of soil macroporosity throughout the soil profile, paddy fields revealed sealing of macropores at the topsoil due to hard pan formation, and Jhum cultivated plots showed disconnected subsoil macropores. The important parameters related to soil macropores such as maximum and average size of macropores, number of active macropores, and depthwise distribution of macropores were estimated to characterise the soil macroporosity for the sites. These experimentally derived quantitative data of soil macroporosity can have wide range of applications in the region such as water quality monitoring and groundwater pollution assessment due to preferential leaching of solutes and pesticides, study of soil structural properties and infiltration behaviour of soils, investigation of flash floods in rivers, and hydrological modelling of the watersheds.

  9. Seismicity and the nature of plate movement along the Himalayan arc, Northeast India and Arakan-Yoma: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. K.; Kumar, G. V. R. Krishna

    1987-03-01

    The Himalaya together with Arakan-Yoma form a well defined seismic belt to the north and east of the Indian Peninsula. The Seismicity along this belt is attributed mostly to collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates. However, the exact nature of activity along the major thrusts and faults is not well understood. The seismicity along the entire Himalaya and Northern Burma has been studied in detail. It has been found that besides the Main Boundary Fault and the Main Central Thrust several transverse features are also very active. Some of these behave like steeply dipping fracture zones. Along the Arakan-Yoma most of the seismicity appears to be due to subduction of the Indian lithosphere to the east. Analysis of focal mechanism solutions for the Himalaya shows that although thrust movements are predominant, normal and strike-slip faulting is taking place along some of the transverse features. In addition to thrusting, strike-slip faulting is also taking place along the Arakan-Yoma. Orientation of P-axes for all thrust solutions show a sharp change from predominantly east-west along the Burmese arc to N-S and NE-SW along the Himalaya. The direction further changes to NW-SE along the Baluchistan arc. It appears that the Indian lithosphere is under compression from practically all sides. The present day seismicity of Northeast India and Northern Burma can be explained in terms of a plate tectonics model after Nandy (1976). No simple model appears to be applicable for the entire Himalaya.

  10. A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Verma, Anand; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Singh, L C; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Kataki, Amal Ch; Saxena, Sunita; Kapur, Sujala

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines. PMID:24943687

  11. Aerosol characteristics in north-east India using ARFINET spectral optical depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.; Subba, T.; Dahutia, P.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Gogoi, M. M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Chutia, L.; Ajay, P.; Biswas, J.; Bharali, C.; Borgohain, A.; Dhar, P.; Guha, A.; De, B. K.; Banik, T.; Chakraborty, M.; Kundu, S. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Singh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Four years (2010-2014) of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 4 Indian Space Research Organisation's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India) stations (Shillong, Agartala, Imphal and Dibrugarh) in the North-Eastern Region (NER) of India (lying between 22-30°N and 89-98°E) are synthesized to evolve a regional aerosol representation, for the first time. Results show that the columnar AOD (an indicator of the column abundance of aerosols) is highest at Agartala (0.80 ± 0.24) in the west and lowest at Imphal (0.59 ± 0.23) in the east in the pre-monsoon season due to intense anthropogenic bio-mass burning in this region aided by long-range transport from the high aerosol laden regions of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), polluted Bangladesh and Bay of Bengal. In addition to local biogenic aerosols and pollutants emitted from brick kilns, oil/gas fields, household bio-fuel/fossil-fuel, vehicles, industries. Aerosol distribution and climatic impacts show a west to east gradient within the NER. For example, the climatological mean AODs are 0.67 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.14, 0.40 ± 0.17 and 0.41 ± 0.23 respectively in Agartala, Shillong, Imphal and Dibrugarh which are geographically located from west to east within the NER. The average aerosol burden in NER ranks second highest with climatological mean AOD 0.49 ± 0.2 next to the Indo-Gangetic Plains where the climatological mean AOD is 0.64 ± 0.2 followed by the South and South-East Asia region. Elevated aerosol layers are observed over the eastern most stations Dibrugarh and Imphal, while at the western stations the concentrations are high near the surface. The climate implications of aerosols are evaluated in terms of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and consequent heating of the atmosphere in the region which follows AOD and exhibit high values in pre-monsoon season at all the locations except in Agartala. The highest ARF in the atmosphere occurs in the pre-monsoon season ranging from 48.6 Wm-2 in Agartala

  12. Exudativory in the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Swapna, N; Radhakrishna, Sindhu; Gupta, Atul K; Kumar, Ajith

    2010-02-01

    In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.3+/-2.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity. PMID:19937974

  13. Micropropagation of Ilex khasiana, a critically endangered and endemic holly of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jiten Chandra; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Ilex khasiana is a rare and critically endangered holly endemic to the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, and confined to a small number of pocket areas. In addition to conventional methods of propagation, endemic and threatened plants such as this could be more effectively multiplied and conserved using in vitro methods. Such techniques have the additional advantage of having a low impact on wild populations because they require a minimum of starting material. Our objective was to develop methodologies for the successful in vitro mass propagation of I. khasiana. Methodology Seedlings were germinated in vitro under sterile conditions and nodal explants from these were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzyladenine and 4.64 µM kinetin. Principal results This generated ∼10 shoots per explant. In a second approach, callus was obtained from seedling-derived leaf discs cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzyladenine. Approximately 12 adventitious shoots per callus were regenerated from 83.33 % of the calli after transfer to MS medium supplemented with 6.63 µM 6-benzyladenine. The most effective treatment for inducing root formation on the shoots was transfer of shoots to half-strength MS medium with 9.84 µM indole-3-butyric acid. Regenerated plantlets with well-developed shoots and roots were hardened and transferred to open soil with 70 % survival after 4 weeks. Conclusions Both the methods described here are well suited for the mass multiplication of this critically endangered tree species. PMID:22476482

  14. Generation of buckle folds in Naga fold thrust belt, north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B.; Dietl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Naga fold thrust belt (NFTB), India, formed as a result of northward migration of the Indian plate initiated in Eocene and its subsequent collision with the Burmese plate during Oligocene. The NW-SE oriented compression generated a spectrum of structures; among them, we intend to focus on the folds- varying from gentle to tight asymmetric in geometry. Large recumbent folds are often associated with thrusting. Buckle folds forming under shallow crustal conditions are frequently reported from NFTB. Buckle folding occurs mainly within sandstones with intercalated shale layers which are in the study area typical for the Barail, Surma and Tipam Groups. We have tried to explain the controlling factors behind the variation of the buckle fold shapes and their varying wavelengths throughout the fold thrust belt with the aid of analogue (sand box) modelling. It is undoubted that competence contrast along with the layer parallel compressive stress are the major influencing factors in generation of buckle folds. Schmalholz and Podladchikov (1999) and Jeng et al. (2002) have shown that when low strain rate and low temperature are applicable, not only the viscosity contrast, but also the elasticity contrast govern the geometry of the developing buckle folds. Rocks deforming under high temperature and high pressure deform in pure viscous manner, whereas, rocks undergoing less confining stress and less temperature, are subjected to pure elastic deformation. However, they are the end members, and most of the deformations are a combination of these two end members, i.e. of viscoelastic nature. Our models are made up of sieved sand (0.5 mm grain size) and mica layers (1-5 mm) This interlayering imparts a mechanical anisotropy in the model. Mica is not a pure viscous material, rather it displays more elastic behaviour. The mica layers in the model produce bedding parallel slip during shortening through internal reorganization of the individual mica crystals leading to the thickening

  15. Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in Northeast India relating to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes.

    PubMed

    Khongsdier, R; Mukherjee, Nandita

    2003-10-01

    The Khasis are one of the matrilineal tribes of Meghalaya in Northeast India. They belong to the Indo-Mongoloid racial stock, and speak the Monkhmer language of the Austro-Asiatic group. They have their own traditional religion (Niam Khasi), but about 65% of them have converted to Christianity. A few Khasi members have also embraced Islam through matrimonial relationship with immigrant Muslim males. The present study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1,351 urban Khasi boys aged 3-18 years belonging to these three religious groups, with a view to understanding the effects of socioeconomic factors on growth and nutritional status, using anthropometric variables such as weight and height. The findings showed that about 60%, 29%, and 6% of these boys were below -2 Z-scores of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references in respect of weight for age, height for age, and body mass index for age, respectively. The logistic regression coefficient (beta +/- standard error) indicated that the prevalence of low weight for age (below -2 Z-scores of the NCHS references) was positively associated with age (0.088 +/- 0.014, P<0.0001), while it was inversely associated with household income (-1.216 +/- 0.030, P<0.0001). Likewise, low height for age Z-score was negatively associated with household income (-1.056 +/- 0.130, P<0.0001), although such a relationship was not significant in the case of low body mass index for age (-0.169 +/- 0.229, P>0.05). There were also significant differences between religious groups in respect of anthropometric variables. Allowing for household income, the ANCOVA test indicated that Muslim Khasi boys, who were the offspring of intermarriages between Khasi females and immigrant Muslim males, were significantly heavier and taller than Christian and Niam Khasi boys almost across ages. From about 3-10 years of age, Muslim Khasi boys were, on average, comparable to the 5th and 25th percentiles of the NCHS references of height and

  16. A simple and efficient protocol for the mass propagation of Cymbidium mastersii: an ornamental orchid of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Padmaja; Paul, Sumi; Das, Meera C.; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cymbidium mastersii is an epiphytic orchid distributed mainly in Northeast India. Owing to its high commercial value in the floricultural industry, natural populations are under threat from over-exploitation. Mass propagation provides an alternative means of satisfying the demand. Unfortunately, conventional propagation is slow and difficult, suggesting in vitro methods for mass multiplication may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol. Methodology and principal results Four nutrient media were evaluated for seed germination and early protocorm development: Murashige and Skoog (MS), half-strength MS, Knudson ‘C’ (KC), and Vacin and Went (VW). In addition, the effects of plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KN), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were studied alone and in combination. The maximum percentage seed germination (93.58 ± 0.56) was obtained in MS basal medium after 8–9 weeks of culture. Secondary protocorms (protocorm-like bodies) were developed from primary protocorms on MS medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins (BAP and KN) and auxins (NAA and IBA). The highest numbers of secondary protocorms (20.55 ± 0.62)/primary protocorms were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM BAP and 2.5 µM NAA. The most effective auxin source promoting root production (7.46 ± 0.09 per shoot) was 10.0 µM IBA. The plants were acclimatized effectively (survival percentage 88 %) in a greenhouse using a rooting medium of crushed sterile brick and charcoal (1 : 1 v/v) and vermicompost (leaf litter + cow dung, 1 : 1 v/v). Conclusions An efficient protocol was established for in vitro propagation of C. mastersii using seed as the starting material. The percentage seed germination varied with the composition of the nutrient media and was highest in full-strength MS basal medium. The number of secondary

  17. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  18. The role of precursor gases and meteorology on temporal evolution of O₃ at a tropical location in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Pathak, Binita; Kalita, Gayatry

    2014-05-01

    South Asia, particularly the Indo-Gangetic Plains and foothills of the Himalayas, has been found to be a major source of pollutant gases and particles affecting the regional as well as the global climate. Inventories of greenhouse gases for the South Asian region, particularly the sub-Himalayan region, have been inadequate. Hence, measurements of the gases are important from effective characterization of the gases and their climate effects. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation of surface level O3 measured for the first time in northeast India at Dibrugarh (27.4° N, 94.9° E, 111 m amsl), a sub-Himalayan location in the Brahmaputra basin, from November 2009 to May 2013 is presented. The effect of the precursor gases NO x and CO measured simultaneously during January 2012-May 2013 and the prevailing meteorology on the growth and decay of O3 has been studied. The O3 concentration starts to increase gradually after sunrise attaining a peak level around 1500 hours LT and then decreases from evening till sunrise next day. The highest and lowest monthly maximum concentration of O3 is observed in March (42.9 ± 10.3 ppb) and July (17.3 ± 7.0 ppb), respectively. The peak in O3 concentration is preceded by the peaks in NO x and CO concentrations which maximize during the period November to March with peak values of 25.2 ± 21.0 ppb and 1.0 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively, in January. Significant nonlinear correlation is observed between O3 and NO, NO2, and CO. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back-trajectory and concentration weighted trajectory analysis carried out to delineate the possible airmass trajectory and to identify the potential source region of NO x and O3 concentrations show that in post-monsoon and winter, majority of the trajectories are confined locally while in pre-monsoon and monsoon, these are originated at the Indo-Gangetic plains, Bangladesh, and Bay of Bengal. PMID

  19. Alcohol and Tobacco Increases Risk of High Risk HPV Infection in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Study from North-East Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupesh; Rai, Avdhesh Kumar; Das, Debabrata; Das, Rajjyoti; Kumar, R. Suresh; Sarma, Anupam; Sharma, Shashi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Ramteke, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) associated Head and Neck Cancers (HNCs) have generated significant amount of research interest in recent times. Due to high incidence of HNCs and lack of sufficient data on high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection from North -East region of India, this study was conceived to investigate hr-HPV infection, its types and its association with life style habits such as tobacco, alcohol consumption etc. Methods A total of one hundred and six primary HNC tumor biopsy specimens were collected. These samples were analyzed for hr-HPV DNA (13 HPV types) using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping was done by E6 nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR). Results The presence of hr-HPV was confirmed in 31.13% (n = 33) and 24.52% (n = 26) of the HNC patients by nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR) and HC2 assay respectively. Among hr-HPV positive cases, out of thirteen hr- HPV types analyzed, only two prevalent genotypes, HPV-16 (81.81%) followed by HPV-18 (18.18%) were found. Significant association was observed between hr-HPV infection with alcohol consumption (p <0.001) and tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) in HNC cases. Compared to HPV-18 infection the HPV-16 was found to be significantly associated with tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) habit. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption may act as risk factors for hr-HPV infection in HNCs from the North-East region of India. This was the first study from North-East India which also assessed the clinical applicability of HC2 assay in HNC patient specimens. We suggest that alcohol, tobacco and hr- HPV infection act synergistically or complement each other in the process of HNC development and progression in the present study population. PMID:26473489

  20. A Microsatellite Guided Insight into the Genetic Status of Adi, an Isolated Hunting-Gathering Tribe of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Krithika, S.; Maji, Suvendu; Vasulu, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Tibeto-Burman populations of India provide an insight into the peopling of India and aid in understanding their genetic relationship with populations of East, South and Southeast Asia. The study investigates the genetic status of one such Tibeto-Burman group, Adi of Arunachal Pradesh based on 15 autosomal microsatellite markers. Further the study examines, based on 9 common microsatellite loci, the genetic relationship of Adi with 16 other Tibeto-Burman speakers of India and 28 neighboring populations of East and Southeast Asia. Overall, the results support the recent formation of the Adi sub-tribes from a putative ancestral group and reveal that geographic contiguity is a major influencing factor of the genetic affinity among the Tibeto-Burman populations of India. PMID:18596928

  1. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  2. Genetic structure and diversity of natural and domesticated populations of Citrus medica L. in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Barbhuiya, Atiqur R; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2016-06-01

    Citron (Citrus medica L.) is a medicinally important species of citrus native to India and occurs in natural forests and home gardens in the foothills of the eastern Himalayan region of northeast India. The wild populations of citron in the region have undergone rapid decline due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and most of the remaining individuals of citron are found in fragmented natural forests and home gardens in the region. In order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of citron in wild and domesticated populations, we analyzed 219 individuals of C. medica collected from four wild and eight domesticated populations using microsatellite markers. The genetic analysis based on five polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed an average of 13.40 allele per locus. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged between 0.220-0.540 and 0.438-0.733 respectively among the wild and domesticated populations. Domesticated populations showed close genetic relationships as compared to wild populations and pairwise Nei's genetic distance ranged from 0.062 to 2.091 among wild and domesticated populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic diversity among- than within populations. The analysis of population structure revealed five groups. Mixed ancestry of few individuals of different populations revealed exchange of genetic materials among farmers in the region. Citron populations in the region show high genetic variation. The knowledge gained through this study is invaluable for devising genetically sound strategies for conservation of citron genetic resources in the region. PMID:27516853

  3. Polymorphisms of XRCC1 and XRCC2 DNA Repair genes and Interaction with Environmental Factors Influence the Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seram Anil; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been reported to play key role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we investigated interactions of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms and environmental factors in modulating susceptibility to NPC in Northeast India. One-hundred NPC patients, 90 first-degree relatives of patients and 120 controls were enrolled in the study. XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms were determined using PCR-RFLP, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approaches were applied for statistical analysis. The XRCC1 Gln/Gln genotype showed increased risk (OR=2.76; <0.024) of NPC. However, individuals with both XRCC1 and XRCC2 polymorphic variants had 3.2 fold elevated risk (<0.041). An enhanced risk of NPC was also observed in smoked meat (OR=4.07; P=0.004) and fermented fish consumers (OR=4.34, P=0.001), and tobacco-betel quid chewers (OR=7.00; P=0.0001) carrying XRCC1 polymorphic variants. However, smokers carrying defective XRCC1 gene showed the highest risk (OR = 7.47; <0.0001). On MDR analysis, the best model for NPC risk was the five-factor model combination of XRCC1 variant genotype, fermented fish, smoked meat, smoking and chewing (CVC=10/10; TBA=0.636; <0.0001); whereas in interaction entropy graphs, smoked meat and tobacco chewing showed synergistic interactions with XRCC1. These findings suggest that interaction of genetic and environmental factors might increase susceptibility to NPC in Northeast Indian populations. PMID:27356695

  4. Statistical analysis of annual maximum rainfall in North-East India: an application of LH-moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Surobhi; Borah, Munindra; Kakaty, Sarat Chandra

    2011-05-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the best fitting distribution to describe the annual series of maximum daily rainfall data for the period 1966 to 2007 of nine distantly located stations in North East India. The LH-moments of order zero (L) to order four (L4) are used to estimate the parameters of three extreme value distributions viz. generalized extreme value distribution (GEV), generalized logistic distribution (GLD), and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD). The performances of the distributions are assessed by evaluating the relative bias (RBIAS) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of quantile estimates through Monte Carlo simulations. Then, the boxplot is used to show the location of the median and the associated dispersion of the data. Finally, it can be revealed from the results of boxplots that zero level of LH-moments of the generalized Pareto distribution would be appropriate to the majority of the stations for describing the annual maximum rainfall series in North East India.

  5. Molecular Evidence of Increased Resistance to Anti-Folate Drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: A Signal for Potential Failure of Artemisinin Plus Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md. Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51I/59R/108N/164L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in

  6. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  7. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  8. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and phenotypes of two domestication related genes (OsC1 and Wx) in indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the domestication of crops, individual plants with traits desirable for human needs have been selected from their wild progenitors. Consequently, genetic and nucleotide diversity of genes associated with these selected traits in crop plants are expected to be lower than their wild progenitors. In the present study, we surveyed the pattern of nucleotide diversity of two selected trait specific genes, Wx and OsC1, which regulate amylose content and apiculus coloration respectively in cultivated rice varieties. The analyzed samples were collected from a wide geographic area in Northeast (NE) India, and included contrasting phenotypes considered to be associated with selected genes, namely glutinous and nonglutinous grains and colored and colorless apiculus. Results No statistically significant selection signatures were detected in both Wx and OsC1gene sequences. However, low level of selection that varied across the length of each gene was evident. The glutinous type varieties showed higher levels of nucleotide diversity at the Wx locus (πtot = 0.0053) than nonglutinous type varieties (πtot = 0.0043). The OsC1 gene revealed low levels of selection among the colorless apiculus varieties with lower nucleotide diversity (πtot = 0.0010) than in the colored apiculus varieties (πtot = 0.0023). Conclusions The results revealed that functional mutations at Wx and OsC1genes considered to be associated with specific phenotypes do not necessarily correspond to the phenotypes in indigenous rice varieties in NE India. This suggests that other than previously reported genomic regions may also be involved in determination of these phenotypes. PMID:24935343

  9. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  10. Development of an artificial neural network based multi-model ensemble to estimate the northeast monsoon rainfall over south peninsular India: an application of extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Nachiketa; Shrivastava, Nitin Anand; Panigrahi, B. K.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2014-09-01

    The south peninsular part of India gets maximum amount of rainfall during the northeast monsoon (NEM) season [October to November (OND)] which is the primary source of water for the agricultural activities in this region. A nonlinear method viz., Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been employed on general circulation model (GCM) products to make the multi-model ensemble (MME) based estimation of NEM rainfall (NEMR). The ELM is basically is an improved learning algorithm for the single feed-forward neural network (SLFN) architecture. The 27 year (1982-2008) lead-1 (using initial conditions of September for forecasting the mean rainfall of OND) hindcast runs (1982-2008) from seven GCM has been used to make MME. The improvement of the proposed method with respect to other regular MME (simple arithmetic mean of GCMs (EM) and singular value decomposition based multiple linear regressions based MME) has been assessed through several skill metrics like Spread distribution, multiplicative bias, prediction errors, the yield of prediction, Pearson's and Kendal's correlation coefficient and Wilmort's index of agreement. The efficiency of ELM estimated rainfall is established by all the stated skill scores. The performance of ELM in extreme NEMR years, out of which 4 years are characterized by deficit rainfall and 5 years are identified as excess, is also examined. It is found that the ELM could expeditiously capture these extremes reasonably well as compared to the other MME approaches.

  11. Wash resistance and residual efficacy of long-lasting polyester netting coated with alpha-cypermethrin (Interceptor) against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Assam, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Dev, V; Raghavendra, K; Singh, S P; Phookan, S; Khound, K; Dash, A P

    2010-04-01

    Malaria is endemic in Assam, northeast India, with low-to-moderate transmission of the causative parasites, mostly by Anopheles minimus. Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite (>60%), with remaining cases being due to P. vivax. As an alternative intervention for malaria control, long-lasting insecticidal nets [Interceptor coated with alpha-cypermethrin 10% suspension concentrate (SC), 0.667% w/w, 0.2g/m(2)] underwent field evaluation for laboratory wash resistance and residual efficacy in field conditions against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Based on entomological observations, the Interceptor net intervention was the most effective, corresponding to the lowest mosquito vector density in experimental villages. There was virtual disappearance of A. minimus in Interceptor net villages in contrast to the untreated net intervention and the no-net control. Contact cone bioassay tests revealed 100% mortality in the A.minimus group of mosquito species in the community using the Interceptor net, which was consistent during the follow-up monitoring period (October 2006 to April 2007) in field conditions. Similar levels of mortality were observed in laboratory-washed nets compared with unwashed nets, and wash resistance was consistent even after the 20th serial wash at fortnightly intervals. Community compliance and acceptance of the Interceptor net was high, with decreased nuisance due to biting mosquitoes and other household insect pests being reported. PMID:19762058

  12. Prevalence and identification of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in Escherichia coli isolated from a tertiary care hospital in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Ravikant; Kumar, Parveen; Ranotkar, Swapnil; Zutshi, Shubhranshu; Lahkar, Mangala; Phukan, Chimanjita; Saikia, Kandarpa K

    2016-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are rapidly evolving group of β-lactamase enzymes produced by the Gram negative bacteria. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolates and prevalence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes in ESBL positive E. coli isolated from the patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in North-East India. A total of 85 multidrug-resistant isolates of E. coli obtained from clinical samples; urine (n = 80), sputum (n = 3), body fluid (n = 1), vaginal discharge (n = 1) were screened for resistance to third generation cephalosporins. ESBL production in resistant isolates was determined by double disk synergy test (DDST) and phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT). ESBL positive isolates were subjected to PCR for detection of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes. Imipenem was found to be most effective against E. coli (susceptible isolates 96.47%) while ciprofloxacin was the least effective antibiotic (resistant isolates 60%). Among 33 ESBL positive isolates confirmed via PCT, preponderance in female population (60.6%) was noted. The most prevalent gene was bla(SHV) (63.04%) followed by bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) (60.86 and 54.34%, respectively) in ESBL positive E. coli. Most of the extensively used antibiotics, appear to be ineffective against the ever-mutating bacteria. This resistance urges cautious antimicrobial management on priority. Further, it helps in effectively designing the chemotherapeutic regimen for patients of a particular geographic area. PMID:26934778

  13. Measuring opportunity for natural selection: Adaptation among two linguistically cognate tribes inhabiting two eco-situations of North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous literature on the migration of Mishings point out to the fact that the Mishing and the Minyong are two culturally and linguistically cognate tribes that co-existed in the same ecology in the hills of Arunachal Pradesh. The Mishing tribe after migration, now inhabits flood-prone areas of Brahmaputra valley of Assam. AIM: The study aims to measure the adaptation process of these two cognate tribes inhabiting two different ecologies at present: Hills and plains by calculating the index of selection intensity by Crow’s and Johnston and Kensinger’s formulae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The reproductive histories of 77 Mishing mothers of completed fertility inhabiting a flood affected village of Assam and 74 Minyong mothers inhabiting a hilly village of Arunachal Pradesh are selected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Minyongs show higher average fertility than the Mishings. The proportion of embryonic death is higher, and child death is lower among the Mishings (0.1661; 0.1623) than the Minyongs (0.1319; 0.2238). The index of selection due to mortality component is contributing more toward the total index of selection in both the tribes. CONCLUSION: The contribution of mortality component is sizeable to the total selection like many other tribes of North-East India. Higher proportion of embryonic deaths among the Mishings infers that the causes are mostly biological whereas, the higher proportion of child deaths among the Minyongs infers that the causes are mostly socio-cultural. PMID:24019616

  14. Exposure to HIV prevention programmes associated with improved condom use and uptake of HIV testing by female sex workers in Nagaland, Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs) in the state of Nagaland, located in the north-east of India. Local non-government organisations (NGOs) are supported by the National State AIDS Control Society (NSACS) and the Avahan-funded Project ORCHID (Avahan is the India AIDS initiative of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in India) to deliver a range of interventions to FSWs including safe sex promotion, condom distribution, and testing and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The commercial hub of Nagaland, Dimapur, is an important transportation node, and hosts a concentration of FSWs. This paper reports on comparative analysis of Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessment (IBBA) data collected from FSWs in Dimapur in 2006 and 2009 to assess changes in condom use, HIV testing, and exposure to interventions. Methods Two IBBA cross-sectional surveys were undertaken among FSWs in Dimapur in 2006 (Round 1) and 2009 (Round 2) using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and the collection of blood and urine samples. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a sampling technique for use among hidden populations, was used to recruit the samples. Results When round 1 is compared with round 2, there was a marked and statistically significant improvement in the use of condoms at last sex with both occasional (35.2% to 72.4%) and regular (25.8% to 57.7%) clients, and an increase in the proportion having ever had an HIV test (8.9% to 29.1%). There was no evidence of an improvement in the proportional coverage of the HIV prevention services delivered to FSWs in Dimapur between round 1 and round 2. In round 2, FSWs exposed to the programme were more than twice (OR=2.27) as likely to consistently use condoms with occasional clients, four times (OR: 4.11) more likely to use condoms consistently with regular clients and nine times (OR: 9.08) more likely to have ever had an HIV test. Conclusions We found evidence of an increase in

  15. Understanding of Genetic Information in Higher Secondary Students in Northeast India and the Implications for Genetics Education

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Since the work of Watson and Crick in the mid-1950s, the science of genetics has become increasingly molecular. The development of recombinant DNA technologies by the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). By the end of the twentieth century, reports of animal cloning and recent completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), as well techniques developed for DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy and others, raised important ethical and social issues about the applications of such technologies. For citizens to understand these issues, appropriate genetics education is needed in schools. A good foundation in genetics also requires knowledge and understanding of topics such as structure and function of cells, cell division, and reproduction. Studies at the international level report poor understanding by students of genetics and genetic technologies, with widespread misconceptions at various levels. Similar studies were nearly absent in India. In this study, I examine Indian higher secondary students' understanding of genetic information related to cells and transmission of genetic information during reproduction. Although preliminary in nature, the results provide cause for concern over the status of genetics education in India. The nature of students' conceptual understandings and possible reasons for the observed lack of understanding are discussed. PMID:15746980

  16. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch. PMID:26249379

  17. Complex network analysis of high rainfall events during the northeast monsoon over south peninsular India and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Malik, N.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Indian Summer monsoon (ISM) accounts for a large part of the annual rainfall budget across most of the Indian peninsula; however, the coastal regions along the southeast Indian peninsula, as well as Sri Lanka, receive 50% or more of their annual rainfall budget during the northeast monsoon (NEM), or winter monsoon, during the months from October through December. In this study, we investigate the behavior of the NEM over the last 60 years using complex network theory. The network is constructed according to a method previously developed for the ISM, using event synchronization of extreme rainfall events as a correlation measure to create directed and undirected links between geographical locations, which represent potential pathways of moisture transport. Network measures, such as degree centrality and closeness centrality, are then used to illuminate the dynamics of the NEM rainfall over the relevant regions, and to examine the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the rainfall. Understanding the circulation of the monsoon cycle as a whole, i.e. the NEM together with the ISM, is vital for the agricultural industry and thus the population of the affected areas.

  18. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  19. Theileriasis in crossbred cows and its therapeutic management: first report from Lushai hill district of Mizoram.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Kalyan; Prasad, H; Das, Gunjan; Behera, P; Behera, S K; Rajesh, J B; Borthakur, S K

    2016-09-01

    To know the prevalence of theileriosis infection, haemato-biochemical alteration and efficacy of Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate injection against theileriosis in Lushai hill district of Mizoram; fifty five cross bred cattle were screened during July, 2013 to November, 2013. The prevalence of tropical theileriosis was 9.09 % based on blood smear examination. Clinical features of the disease were manifested by high rise of body temperature 104.8 ± 1.2 °F, lymphadenopathy, inability to walk, anorexia, listlessness, moderate anaemia, nasal discharge, edema of eye and corneal opacity. There were marked decline (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin 5.28 ± 1.81 gm/dl, total erythrocytic count 2.14 ± 0.7 × 10(6)/ul, packed cell volume 18.10 ± 0.8 % and total leukocyte count 6.95 ± 1.05 × 10(3)/ul, respectively. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly increased (P < 0.01) up to 104.5 ± 12.4 mm/1st hour. The percentage of neutrophils increased 62.75 ± 2.77 and lymphocytes decreased drastically 28.69 ± 1.45 as compared with un-infected cross bred cattle. Clinically infected cattle with Theileria annulata had significantly low levels of total proteins and albumin, (P < 0.05) but AST, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, BUN, creatinine levels and Ck-MB activity were significantly high (P < 0.05). Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate was found effective against T. annulata and could control fever and temperature returns to normalcy by 7th day post treatment along with some haemato-biochemical profiles. In brief, the study revealed that tropical theileriosis was prevalent in Lushai hill district of Mizoram especially among cross breed cattle and had effect on hepatic, renal and cardiac function which can be effectively controlled by Oxytetracycline and Diaminazene aceturate injection. PMID:27605754

  20. The Burden of Hypertension and Kidney Disease in Northeast India: The Institute for Indian Mother and Child Noncommunicable Diseases Project

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Angela; Tucci, Benedetta; Sala, Valeria; Brahmochary Mandal, Sujit K.; Doneda, Anna; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are the major cause of death not only in high income, but also in medium and low income countries. Hypertension and diabetes, the most common causes of chronic kidney disease, are particularly common in southeast Asian Countries. Because early intervention can markedly slow the progression of these two killer diseases, assessment of their presence through screening and intervention program is a priority. We summarize here results of the screening activities and the perspectives of a noncommunicable diseases project started in West Bengal, India, in collaboration with the Institute for Indian Mother and Child (IIMC), a nongovernmental voluntary organization committed to promoting child and maternal health. We started investigating hypertension and chronic kidney disease with screen in school-age children and in adults >30 years old. We found a remarkable prevalence of hypertension, even in underweight subjects, in both children and adult populations. A glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min was found in 4.1% of adult subjects significantly higher than that of 0.8% to 1.4% reported 10 years ago. Increased awareness and intervention projects to identify NCDs and block their progression are necessary in all countries. PMID:24616621

  1. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  2. Aerosol characterization over Sundarban mangrove forest at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Das, Sanat Kumar; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Singh, Soumendra; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on chemical characterization of size segregated and cumulative aerosols during winter, 2015 and summer 2016 over a remote mangrove forest at Sundarban at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal. Aerosols originated from the surf zone at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarban mangrove forest and aerosols advected from Kolkata and other metropolitan and urban cities at Indo-Gangetic Plain were characterized in terms of major water soluble inorganic species. Attempt was made to investigate the combined effect of locally generated sea-salt and advected anthropogenic aerosols could change the pristine marine character at this region during the above mentioned periods. Significant chloride depletion from sea-salt aerosols was observed in coarse and ultrafine mode compared to fine mode in winter whereas reverse trend was observed during summer. On an average the chloride to sodium ratio in PM10 aerosol was found to be around 0.6 which was much lower than that in sea-water. It was observed that non-sea-sulphate and nitrate aerosols were the major species depleting chloride from sea-salt aerosols. This supported the interaction between fresh marine and polluted anthropogenic aerosols. The average concentration of PM10 aerosols was 64 μg m-3 in winter and 89 μg m-3 in summer. Major water soluble ionic species were used for the source apportionment of aerosol during the two seasons. On an average it was observed that 60-70 % of total PM10 aerosols were constituted by the major water soluble ionic species. Emission flux and deposition flux of aerosols were also studied over this remote forest region. It was also observed that anthropogenic ionic species were mostly accumulated in the ultrafine and fine mode region both during winter and summer. On the other hand sea-salt species were mostly accumulated in the coarse mode region. Sulphate aerosol showed bimodal distribution with prominent peaks both at ultrafine/fine and coarse mode region

  3. HIV risk behaviours among injecting drug users in Northeast India following scale-up of a targeted HIV prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Northeast Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland there has been an ongoing HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) since the mid-1990s. Project ORCHID is an Avahan-funded HIV prevention project that has been working in selected districts of Manipur and Nagaland since 2004. It supports local partner non-government organisations (NGOs) to deliver a range of harm reduction interventions, and currently reaches approximately 14,500 IDUs across the two states. To assess changes in HIV risk behaviours two Behavioural Tracking Surveys (BTS) were undertaken among IDUs in 2007 and 2009. Methods The BTS used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit adult male IDUs (18 years of age and above) from Ukhrul and Chandel districts in Manipur, and Kiphire and Zunheboto districts in Nagaland. This paper reports on analysis of socio-demographics, drug use and injecting practices, sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge of HIV, and exposure to interventions. Descriptive data were analysed using RDSAT, and odds ratios were calculated in SPSS. Results The proportion of IDUs reporting NOT sharing needles / syringes at last injection increased substantially in Ukhrul (59.6% to 91.2%) and Zunheboto (45.5% to 73.8%), remained high in Chandel (97.0% to 98.9%), and remained largely unchanged in Kiphire (63.3% to 68.8%). The use of condoms with regular partners was low in all districts at both time points. In Ukhrul, Kiphire and Zunheboto the proportion of IDUs using condoms during sexual intercourse with a casual partner increased substantially to approximately 70-85%, whilst in Chandel the increase was only marginal (57.4% to 63.6%). Exposure to NGO HIV prevention interventions was significantly associated (p<0.05) with lower odds of sharing needles during the previous month (Nagaland, OR=0.63; Manipur, OR 0.35). Conclusion Despite district-level differences, the results from this BTS study indicate that exposure to HIV prevention services, predominately

  4. Association of interleukin-1β -511 C/T polymorphism with tobacco-associated cancer in northeast India: a study on oral and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpal, Meena; Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Singh, Khangembam Jitenkumar; Latha, Santhi P; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Verma, Yogesh; Zomavia, Eric; Sharma, Jagannath; Chandra Kataki, Amal; Saxena, Sunita; Kapur, Sujala

    2014-01-01

    The IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphism is associated with increased IL-1 production and with increased risk of developing cancers. In this study, 251 patients (125 with gastric cancer [GC] and 126 with oral cancer [OC]) and 207 normal controls from northeast (NE) India were genotyped for the IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphism by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. Analysis of results showed betel-quid chewing to be a major risk factor (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.05-3.87; P = 0.035) for OC. Inheritance of the IL-1β -511 CT or TT resulted in a 2.6- to 3.05-fold increase in the risk of developing OC relative to that of participants who possessed the reference genotype (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.06-6.22; P = 0.036 and OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.22-7.63; P = 0.017), after adjusting for potential confounders. The dominant genetic model also confirmed the presence of the T allele as a significant risk factor for OC (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.15-6.42; P = 0.02). In GC, interaction of the CT genotype with tobacco and betel-quid chewing habits conferred a significant 78% and 89% reduced risk of cancer, respectively. In conclusion, for the NE Indian population, the IL-1β -511 CC and CT genotypes were significantly associated with increased risk of OC. However, the interaction of the CT genotype with risk habits may play a preventive role for GC but not for OC. PMID:24561215

  5. An effective nutrient medium for asymbiotic seed germination and large-scale in vitro regeneration of Dendrobium hookerianum, a threatened orchid of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sumi; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dendrobium hookerianum is a rare and threatened epiphytic orchid of northeast India. Prospects for conservation would be strengthened by developing an in vitro method for mass propagation. Seeds are minute and difficult to use directly in the field for this purpose, being non-endospermous with a low nutrient content and dependent on a specific fungus for germination and early seedling development. Although produced in large numbers (2–3 million per capsule), <5 % germinate naturally in the wild. Our objective was to develop a rapid and successful method for in vitro propagation based on an initial in vitro asymbiotic seed germination step that achieved high percentages. Methodology Effects of four different media, i.e. (i) Murashige and Skoog (MS), (ii) Mitra et al., (iii) Knudson (KC) and (iv) Gamborg et al. (B5), were evaluated for large-scale multiplication by asymbiotic seed germination. Seedling leaf number, shoot number, shoot length, root number and root length were scored. After 7–8 months, large numbers of well-rooted plantlets were transferred to a glasshouse in thermocol pots containing compost. Six different composts based on broken brick and charcoal were compared for their ability to support further development over 90 days of hardening. Principal results The fastest and highest percentage seed germination was achieved using MS medium. Seeds on MS medium germinated in 3–4 weeks compared with 7–8 weeks on B5 medium. Seedling development was also superior on MS medium. The inclusion of plant growth regulators was unnecessary. Compost comprising broken brick and charcoal with an upper layer of moss was found to be the most suitable for the survival of transferred plantlets. Ninety per cent survival of plantlets was achieved 90 days after transfer to a glasshouse. Conclusions The use of MS culture medium is well suited for the mass multiplication of D. hookerianum plants intended for re-introducing this threatened orchid into

  6. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  7. Continental export efficiencies and delineation of sources for trace gases and black carbon in North-East India: Seasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Chutia, Lakhima; Bharali, Chandrakala; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) has been identified from back-trajectory analyses, as one of the most potential region affecting the species transport to the Northeastern region of India (NER). The continental export efficiency (εε) of BC, NOx and SO2 within the boundary layer is estimated in order to examine how efficiently these chemical species are transported towards the NER. For this the measurements carried out at Dibrugarh, a wet tropical location in NER during 2012-2013 have been used as the references in the estimation of the species enhancements above their background. CO is used as a passive tracer of transport due to its longer lifetime in the atmosphere. The emission estimates of BC, NOx, SO2 and CO in the IGP region are adopted from the emission inventories REAS and INTEX-B. The estimated export efficiency is highest in winter (DJF) for BC and NOx, whereas SO2 shows maximum efficiency in monsoon (JJAS). BC due to efficient transportation/removal from the IGP region exhibits highest εε values compared to the other species. NOx and SO2 on the other hand get transformed to other chemical species shortly after emission into the atmosphere and hence are less efficiently transported towards the study region. The export of BC, CO, NOx and SO2 are expected to supplement the chemical atmosphere in NER, which is further studied through the annual variability in their distribution in Dibrugarh. Pearson correlation analyses of BC, NOx and SO2 with CO is carried out to examine the similarity or dissimilarity among the sources.

  8. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  9. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis, a diagnostic challenge for clinicians: A hospital based study from North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, M. D.; Hussain, Masaraf; Lyngdoh, Monaliza; Sharma, Shriram; Barman, Bhupen; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a known complication of scrub typhus which range from mild meningitis to frank meninigoencephalitis. Aims and objectives: To study the clinical feature, laboratory parameters and response to treatment of scrub typhus meningitis/meningoencephalitis. Methods and Materials: This is a hospital based prospective observational study from North Eastern India. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive serological test (Weil's Felix test and IgM antibody card test). Results: 13 patients of scrub typhus with features of meningitis/meningoencephalitis were included. The mean duration of fever before presentation was 5.61±3.08 days and 4 (30.76 %) patients had eschar. Altered sensorium, headache, seizure and meningeal sign were present in 13 (100%), 13 (100%), 6 (46.15%) and 10 (76.92%) patients respectively. Mean CSF protein, glucose and Adenosine deaminase was 152.16±16.88mg/dl, 55.23±21.7mg/dl, and 16.98±7.37U/L respectively. Mean total count of CSF leukocyte and lymphocyte percentage was 46.07±131 cell/cumm and 98.66±3.09% respectively. Tablet doxycycline with or without injection azithromycin was used and that shows good response 15.38% of patients died and all of them had multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Meningoencephalitis is a common manifestation of scrub typhus and diagnosis requires high degree of clinical suspicion which if diagnosed early and specific treatment started, patients usually recover completely with few complications. PMID:26752890

  10. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  11. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992

  12. Modelling the impact of prescribed global warming on water resources of headwater catchments of the Irrawaddy River and their implications for Loktak Lake, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. R.; Thompson, J. R.; French, J. R.; Kingston, D. G.; Mackay, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is likely to have major implications for wetland ecosystems, which will include altered water level regimes due to modifications in local and catchment hydrology. However, substantial uncertainty exists in the precise impacts of climate change on wetlands due in part due to uncertainty in GCM projections. This paper explores the impacts of climate change upon river discharge within three sub-catchments of Loktak Lake, an internationally important wetland in northeast India. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through distributed hydrological models (developed using MIKE SHE) of each sub-catchment. The impacts of climate change upon water levels within Loktak Lake are subsequently investigated using a water balance model. Two groups of climate change scenarios are investigated. Group 1 uses results from seven different GCMs for an increase in global mean temperature of 2 °C, the purported threshold of "dangerous" climate change, whilst Group 2 is based on results from the HadCM3 GCM for increases in global mean temperature between 1 °C and 6 °C. Results from the Group 1 scenarios show varying responses between the three sub-catchments. The majority of scenario-sub-catchment combinations (13 out of 21) indicate increases in discharge which vary from <1% to 42% although, in some cases, discharge decreases by as much as 20%. Six of the GCMs suggest overall increases in river flow to Loktak Lake (2-27%) whilst the other results in a modest (6%) decline. In contrast, the Group 2 scenarios lead to an almost linear increase in total river flow to Loktak Lake with increasing temperature (up to 27% for 6 °C), although two sub-catchments experience reductions in mean discharge for the smallest temperature increases. In all but one Group 1 scenario, and all the Group 2 scenarios, Loktak Lake water levels are higher, regularly reaching the top of a downstream hydropower barrage that impounds the lake and necessitating the release of water

  13. Bioaccumulation of nutrients and metals in sediment, water, and phoomdi from Loktak Lake (Ramsar site), northeast India: phytoremediation options and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Meitei, Maibam Dhanaraj; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the potential of phoomdi to accumulate nutrients and metals, 11 dominant species belonging to 10 different families, sediment, and water were analyzed for a period of 2 years from the largest freshwater wetland of north-east India, Loktak (Ramsar site). Results revealed nutrient (TN and TP) and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) compartmentalization in the order phoomdi > sediment > water. Iron concentrations in water (0.37 ± 0.697 to 0.57 ± 1.010 mg L(-1)) and sediments (81.8 ± 0.45 to 253.1 ± 0.51 mg kg(-1)) show high metal discharge into the wetland. Metal accumulation in phoomdi ranged up to 212.3 ± 0.46-9461.4 ± 1.09 mg kg(-1) for Fe; 85.9 ± 0.31-3565.1 ± 0.87 mg kg(-1) for Mn; 9.6 ± 0.41-85.39 ± 0.58 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.31 ± 0.04-9.2 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) for Cu, respectively. High bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for metals (S. cucullata, 5.8 × 10(4) Fe, 3.9 × 10(4) Mn, and 1.7 × 10(4) Cu, and O. javanica, 4.9 × 10(3) Zn) and nutrients (S. polyrhiza, 9.7 × 10(2) TN, and Z. latifolia, 7.9 × 10(4) TP) revealed good accumulation in phoomdi compared to the wetland water column and indicate their potential to maintain a safe environment of Loktak. Further, the paper analyzed the health hazard of metals via phoomdi wild edible consumption, with the results confirming potential risk. Thus, the paper showed the need of in-depth monitoring and ample management strategies to ensure nutritional safety conditions of locals from the metals. PMID:27149971

  14. Occurrence of anomalous seismic activity preceding large to great earthquakes in northeast India region with special reference to 6 August 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. N.; Shanker, D.; Singh, V. P.

    2005-02-01

    Seismicity database from 1860 to 1985 of northeast India region bounded by the area 20°-32°N and 82°-100°E have been analyzed for the identification of precursory swarm/anomalous seismic activity preceding large to great earthquakes with M ≥ 7.5. It is observed that with the exception of three earthquakes (1908, 1912 and 1918), the large earthquakes of 1897, 1946, 1947, 1950 and 1951/1952 were preceded by well-developed epoch of swarm/anomalous seismic activity in space and time well before their occurrence. The seismicity is observed to fluctuate in the order of low-high-low ranging from 0-0.5, 01-33 to 0-0.7 events/year prior to these mainshocks during the epochs of normal/background, swarm/anomalous and gap/quiescence, respectively. The duration of precursory gap is observed to vary from 11 to 17 years for mainshocks of M 7.5-8.0, and from 23 to 27 years for M 8.7 and this period is dependent on the magnitude of the mainshocks. Using the values of magnitude of mainshock ( Mm), average magnitude of swarm ( Mp) and the precursory time gap ( Tp), the following predictive equations are established for the region: M=1.37M-1.40 M=3log⁡T-3.27 All the major earthquakes with mb ≥ 6.1 occurred during 1963-1988 have been investigated for their association with anomalous seismicity/precursory swarms using the events with cutoff magnitude mb ≥ 4.5. Eleven such events have occurred in the region during the period except one earthquake of 29 May 1976. All the remaining 10 earthquakes were associated in some forms of anomalous seismicity epochs. Well-defined patterns of anomalous seismicity are observed prior to 1964-1965, 12 August 1976 and 30 December 1984 ( mb 5.6). All these mainshocks are preceded by seismicity patterns in the order of low-high-low similar to that observed prior to the mainshocks from 1897 to 1962. The anomalous seismicity epoch is delineated with extremely high annual earthquake frequency, which was preceded and followed by extremely low

  15. Metagenome Sequencing Revealed Rhodococcus Dominance in Farpuk Cave, Mizoram, India, an Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hot Spot Region

    PubMed Central

    De Mandal, Surajit; Sanga, Zothan

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to survey the prokaryotic microbiota on Farpuk Cave, revealing a diverse bacterial community with 4,021 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), mainly dominated by the genus Rhodococcus. Moreover, 18.17% of the OTUs were unclassified at the phylum level, suggesting the existence of novel bacterial species. PMID:26067958

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A. K.; Pattanayak, A.; Harish, G. D.; Singh, S. K.; Ngachan, S. V.; Bansal, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur; and P3, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and quality rice

  17. New records of Indian Nematomorpha, with the description of a new species from the genus Chordodes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-01-01

    Chordodes tjorvenae, a new species of horsehair worms is described from Mizoram, Northeast India. The species is distinct from all other known species by a unique combination of cuticular charatcers. In addition, the occurrence of the genus Acutogordius, particularly A. finni, is reported for the first time from India. PMID:27615885

  18. Copy number polymorphism of glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 & GSTT1) in susceptibility to lung cancer in a high-risk population from north-east India

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, L.C.; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) have been studied intensively for their potential role in lung cancer susceptibility. However, most of the studies on association between the polymorphisms and lung cancer do not distinguish between genotypes with one or two copies of the genes. The present study investigates the gene dosage effects of GSTT1 and GSTM1 copy number and their environmental interactions to examine the association of lung cancer risk with trimodular genotypes of the GSTs in a high-risk population from north-east India. Methods: A total of 154 lung cancer cases and 154 age and sex matched controls from the high risk region of north-east India were analyzed by multiplex real-time PCR to determine the trimodal genotypes (+/+, +/- and -/-) in both the genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1). Results: No significant association and gene dosage effect of GSTM1 gene copy number with lung cancer risk (Ptrend=0.13) were found. However, absence of GSTT1 conferred 68 per cent (OR=0.32;95%CI=0.15-0.71; P=0.005) reduced risk compared to the two copy number of the gene. There was evidence of gene dosage effect of GSTT1 gene (Ptrend=0.006). Tobacco smoking was a major environmental risk factor to lung cancer (OR=3.03;95%CI=1.73-5.31; P<0.001). However, its interaction with null genotype of GSTT1 conferred significant reduced risk to lung cancer (OR=0.30;95%CI=0.10-0.91; P=0.03). Further in only tobacco smokers, null genotype was associated with increased reduced risk [0.03(0.001-0.78)0.03; Ptrend=0.006]. No effect modification of GSTM1 was observed with lung cancer risk by environmental risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that absence of GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and the effect remains unchanged after interaction with smoking. PMID:25027082

  19. Surface fine topography and PCR-based determination of metacercaria of Paragonimus sp. from edible crabs in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, V; Prasad, P K; Chatterjee, A; Bhutia, P T

    2007-12-01

    In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus infection reportedly involving species that are known to prevail in China have been identified. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the surface fine topography and sequence analysis of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA; second internal transcribed spacer, ITS2) of the metacercarial stages of the lung fluke collected from a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh). The encysted metacercariae were oval in shape and had a smooth surface. The newly excysted metacercaria had a ventral sucker larger than the oral; the body surface was covered with numerous single-pointed and thorn-like tegumentary spines, of which those on the anterior part of the body were bigger in size and showed a gradual reduction in length and number towards the posterior end; dome-shaped papillae in variable numbers were seen around the rim of the oral sucker and were sparsely distributed all over the body surface. The polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae were aligned with known sequences for the various species of Paragonimus, and the expectation value was found to be most significant with P. westermani, revealing an absolute match. The surface topography including the number and distribution of papillae and spination patterns and the ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae strongly suggest that the Paragonimus species, prevalent in the region of India, is in fact P. westermani. PMID:17786478

  20. Effect of age and season on the thyroid hormone activity of Mizoram strain female mithun (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Lalsangpuii; Ali, M. Ayub; Devi, L. Inaotombi; Behera, Parthasarathi; Ralte, Lalsanglura

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to generate baseline data on the normal values of the thyroidhormone (TH) activity as well as their correlation with age and season. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from jugular vein of 30 female mithun’s of three different age groups viz. Calves (6 months to 1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (above 3 years) during the three season’s viz. Monsoon, winter and spring of a year. The serum was analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) activity. Result: The result showed a significantly (p<0.05) a higher T3 level in heifers followed by adults and calves and higher T4 level in adults followed by heifers and calves in all the seasons. The TSH level was higher in heifers in all the seasons. The winter season recorded higher level of T3, T4, and TSH as compared to the other seasons of a year. Conclusion: The TSH and T3 level were the highest for aheifer, whereas T4 level was the highest for adults inall the season. Furthermore, the higher level of TH was observed in winter season. The increased level of the TH during the winter season signifies their calorigenic effect. Similarly in heifers, the increased T3 concentrations show its importance in reproductive physiology and its association with ovarian activity. This indicates that age and season have aprofound effect on TH activity of Mizoram strain female mithun. PMID:27047046

  1. Formation of Se (0) Nanoparticles by Duganella sp. andAgrobacterium sp. isolated from Se-laden soil of North-East Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, but is toxic at high concentrations. Depending upon the geological background, the land use or on anthropogenic pollution, different amounts of Se may be present in soil. Its toxicity is related to the oxyanions selenate and selenite as they are water soluble and bioavailable. Microorganisms play an important role in Se transformations in soil and its cycling in the environment by transforming water-soluble oxyanions into water insoluble, non-toxic elemental Se (0). For this study, soil samples were collected from selenium-contaminated agricultural soils of Punjab/India to enrich and isolate microbes that interacted with the Se cycle. Results A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0) nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. Four pure cultures (C 1, C 4, C 6, C 7) of Gram negative, oxidase and catalase positive, aerobic bacteria were isolated from this mixed microbial consortium and identified by 16 S rDNA gene sequence alignment as two strains of Duganella sp. (C 1, C 4) and two strains of Agrobacterium sp.(C 6, C 7). SEM/TEM-EDX analyses of the culture broth of the four strains revealed excretion of uniformly round sharply contoured Se (0) nanoparticles by all cultures. Their size ranged from 140–200 nm in cultures of strains C 1 and C 4, and from 185–190 nm in cultures of strains C 6 and C 7. Both Duganella sp. revealed better selenite reduction efficiencies than the two Agrobacterium sp. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the capability of newly isolated, aerobically growing Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. from soils of Punjab/India to form spherical, regularly formed Se (0) nanoparticles from water soluble selenite. Among others, the four strains may significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of Se in soil. Bioconversion of toxic selenite to non-toxic Se (0

  2. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 μM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  3. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed health and other service needs

  4. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  5. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  6. Anomalous behavior of ionospheric total electron content over Dibrugarh preceding five major earthquakes (M greater than 5) in North-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Hazarika, Rumajyoti

    The North Eastern part of India nestled between the Eastern Himalayas and the South East Asia mountains and valleys falls in the high risk seismic zone 5. Five major earthquakes (M>5) occurred from 2009 to 2013 within this zone. The epicentres of the earthquakes lied within about 2.5° in latitude and longitude from Dibrugarh (27.5° N, 94.9° E) where ionospheric TEC is being recorded using a NOVATEL GSV4004B receiver since 2009. The TEC data has been analyzed to examine the signature of these earthquakes on the ionosphere prior to their occurrence by removing the ionospheric anomalies that might be caused by variations in solar and magnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of TEC data is utilized to construct their upper and lower bounds to detect the excursions outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The results indicate large enhancements and depletion in TEC on geomagnetically quite days at Dibrugarh, which is within the earthquake preparation zones. Both enhancement and depletion in TEC have been observed prior to 1 to 15 days of the earthquakes, mainly during daytime hours. The enhancement in TEC was seen before four major earthquakes respectively M 6.4, M 6.1, M 5.8 and M 5.4, while in contrast depletion in TEC was observed before the M 5.6 earthquake. Probable causes of these enhancement and depletion prior to the earthquakes are discussed. One probable cause could be the large increase in surface latent heat flux observed between 4-8 days prior to the earthquakes near the epicenter.

  7. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01) as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization. PMID:27047176

  8. Modelling the impact of prescribed global warming on runoff from headwater catchments of the Irrawaddy River and their implications for the water level regime of Loktak Lake, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. R.; Thompson, J. R.; French, J. R.; Kingston, D. G.; Mackay, A. W.

    2010-09-01

    Climate change is likely to have major implications for wetland ecosystems, which will include altered water level regimes due to modifications in local and catchment hydrology. However, substantial uncertainty exists in the precise impacts of climate change on wetlands due in part to uncertainty in GCM projections. This paper explores the impacts of climate change upon river discharge within three sub-catchments of Loktak Lake, an internationally important wetland in northeast India. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through distributed hydrological models (developed using MIKE SHE) of each sub-catchment. The impacts of climate change upon water levels within Loktak Lake are subsequently investigated using a water balance model. Two groups of climate change scenarios are investigated. Group 1 uses results from seven different GCMs for an increase in global mean temperature of 2 °C, the purported threshold of ''dangerous'' climate change, whilst Group 2 is based on results from the HadCM3 GCM for increases in global mean temperature between 1 °C and 6 °C. Results from the Group 1 scenarios show varying responses between the three sub-catchments. The majority of scenario-sub-catchment combinations (13 out of 21) indicate increases in discharge which vary from <1% to 42% although, in some cases, discharge decreases by as much as 20%. Six of the GCMs suggest overall increases in river flow to Loktak Lake (2-27%) whilst the other results in a modest (6%) decline. In contrast, the Group 2 scenarios lead to an almost linear increase in total river flow to Loktak Lake with increasing temperature (up to 27% for 6 °C), although two sub-catchments experience reductions in mean discharge for the smallest temperature increases. In all but one Group 1 scenario, and all the Group 2 scenarios, Loktak Lake water levels are higher, regularly reaching the top of a downstream hydropower barrage that impounds the lake and necessitating the release of water for

  9. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Robin; Das, Banani; Das, Arpana; Ahmed, Mansur; Bawri, Sonika; Rai, Suditi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03), preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03). Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478), low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g), and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417) were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover, contraceptive knowledge and its use were found to be poor among adolescent mothers. Conclusion With quality antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care, the obstetric risk of childbirth in adolescent mothers

  10. NORTHEAST CLIMATE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Regional Climate Center (NRCC) database includes a complete collection of historical climate data for the northeastern United States as well as continually updated National Weather Service observations and forecasts. In addition, daily temperature and precipitation ...

  11. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. Materials and Methods: A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6th week. Results: Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3rd week where it reduced significantly (p<0.05) at and above 6% TDLM in the ration. The average body weight gain decreased significantly (p<0.05) above 6% TDLM inclusion. The average body weights at 7th, 14th, and 21st day of age reduced significantly (p<0.05) from 4% to 10% TDLM inclusion level but was statistically non-significant up to 4% TDLM at 28th, 35th, and 42nd day of age. Body weight at 42nd day of age was 1624.72±30.52, 1616.66±17.84, 1592.60±19.24, 1404.61±17.76, 1188.29±17.67, and 1054.33±18.81 gin TDLM-0, TDLM-2, TDLM-4, TDLM-6, TDLM-8, and TDLM-10, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients decreased with increased inclusion level of TDLM. The digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract were significantly higher in TDLM-0, but crude fiber digestibility was comparable without any significant difference among the groups. Feed conversion ratio

  12. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India. Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the differences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test. Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60%) followed by pet (29.16%) and stray dogs (17.75%). Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. PMID:27047976

  13. VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  14. 52. Ground floor, northeast corner, looking northeast at former delivery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Ground floor, northeast corner, looking northeast at former delivery entries (archways have since been filled in) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  15. 5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF (HOISTS IN CENTER). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. Northeast Hellas Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-446, 8 August 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of pitted terrain northeast of Hellas Basin shows light-toned outcrops of layered, sedimentary rock, and a valley floor covered by large, dark ripples or small dunes. Similar light-toned sedimentary materials are found throughout the region immediately northeast of Hellas, and in the crater, Terby. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and located near 27.5oS, 281.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  17. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  18. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     View Larger Image ... a tongue of pollution extending across the middle of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther ...

  19. 2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE MINE OFFICE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  20. 29. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF NORTHEAST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF NORTHEAST SECTION OF THE STRUCTURE, SHOWING ORIGINAL WOOD DECK, RAILING AND EARLY 1930'S PACKARD AUTOMOBILE IN BACKGROUND. Photographer unknown, date unknown. (Print in possession of the Washington County Highway Department). - Hegeman-Hill Street Bridge, Spanning Batten Kill, .65 mile West of Greenwich, Easton, Washington County, NY

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus (L) from north-east India as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2014-01-01

    The north-eastern region of India is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of Citrus (L.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely Citrus indica, Citrus macroptera, Citrus latipes, Citrus ichagensis and Citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. In order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various Citrus species, a combined approach involving morphological, cytogenetical and molecular approaches were adopted in the present study. Cytogenetic approaches are known to resolve taxonomic riddles in a more efficient manner, by clearly delineating taxa at species and sub species levels. Male meiotic studies revealed a gametic chromosome number of n = 9, without any evidence of numerical variations. Bivalents outnumbered all other types of associations in pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed at diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I. Univalents were frequently encountered in nine species presently studied, though their presence appropriately did not influence the distributional pattern of the chromosomes at anaphases I and II. The molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data related to ITS 1, ITS 2 and ITS 1 + 5.8 s + ITS 2 of rDNA using maximum parsimony method and Bayesian inference have thrown light on species inter-relationship and evolution of Citrus species confirming our cytogenetical interpretations. The three true basic species i.e. Citrus medica, Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata with their unique status have been resolved into distinct clades with molecular approaches as well. C. indica which occupies a unique position in the phylogenetic ladder of the genus Citrus has been resolved as a distinct clade and almost behaving as an out-group. The presences of quadrivalents in C. indica also echo and support its unique position. From our study it is amply clear that C

  2. Northeast Pacific flatfish management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Exploitation of northeast Pacific flatfish effectively began in the late 1800s with the fishery for Pacific halibut. Harvest of other flatfish occurred on a limited, local basis until foreign fishing fleets came to the area in the late 1950s. When US and Canadian fishermen replaced the foreign fleets in the 1970s and 1980s, a conservation-based management system designed to control foreign fishing was applied to the domestic fleet. Flatfish stock assessment is based on scientific surveys, both trawl and longline, and on catch-age models. In Alaskan waters since 1989 and since 1996 in Canadian waters, mandatory observers collect data on species composition, discards of flatfish and other groundfish, and catch and discards of prohibited species. Fishermen pay observer costs. Most biomass and harvest occurs in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands area. Many northeast Pacific flatfish are near record-high abundance, an order of magnitude higher than 20 years ago. Exploitation rates based on F35% or F0.1 generate acceptable biological catch of more than 1 million mt, but annual harvest reaches only 300,000 mt. Total groundfish harvest is limited by an optimum yield limit of 2 million mt in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, where the acceptable biological catch is 3 million mt, and by limits on amounts of Pacific halibut and other prohibited species bycatch. Most flatfish are relatively low-value species, and fishermen chose to fish for more valuable species. A large, powerful fleet which developed under open access in the US saw fishing time decline and economic problems increase as catching capacity grew, while Canada stabilized its fleet with limited entry and catch restrictions for individual vessels.

  3. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  4. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  5. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  6. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

  7. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  8. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  9. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  10. The Northeast Climate Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaswamy, M. J.; Palmer, R. N.; Morelli, T.; Staudinger, M.; Holland, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. Recognizing the critical threats, unique climate challenges, and expansive and diverse nature of the northeast region, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin-Madison have formed a consortium to host the NE CSC. This partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey climate science center network provides wide-reaching expertise, resources, and established professional collaborations in both climate science and natural and cultural resources management. This interdisciplinary approach is needed for successfully meeting the regional needs for climate impact assessment, adaptive management, education, and stakeholder outreach throughout the northeast region. Thus, the NE CSC conducts research, both through its general funds and its annual competitive award process, that responds to the needs of natural resource management partners that exist, in part or whole, within the NE CSC bounds. This domain includes the North Atlantic, Upper Midwest and Great Lakes, Eastern Tallgrass and Big Rivers, and Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), among other management stakeholders. For example, researchers are developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances which can enable adaptation of projected climate impacts; conducting a Designing Sustainable Landscapes project to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes in the Northeast to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite of

  11. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  12. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  13. Mitochondrial DNA evidence supports northeast Indian origin of the aboriginal Andamanese in the Late Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Wei; Mitra, Bikash; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-03-20

    In view of the geographically closest location to Andaman archipelago, Myanmar was suggested to be the origin place of aboriginal Andamanese. However, for lacking any genetic information from this region, which has prevented to resolve the dispute on whether the aboriginal Andamanese were originated from mainland India or Myanmar. To solve this question and better understand the origin of the aboriginal Andamanese, we screened for haplogroups M31 (from which Andaman-specific lineage M31a1 branched off) and M32 among 846 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) sampled across Myanmar. As a result, two Myanmar individuals belonging to haplogroup M31 were identified, and completely sequencing the entire mtDNA genomes of both samples testified that the two M31 individuals observed in Myanmar were probably attributed to the recent gene flow from northeast India populations. Since no root lineages of haplogroup M31 or M32 were observed in Myanmar, it is unlikely that Myanmar may serve as the source place of the aboriginal Andamanese. To get further insight into the origin of this unique population, the detailed phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed by including additional 7 new entire mtDNA genomes and 113 M31 mtDNAs pinpointed from South Asian populations, and the results suggested that Andaman-specific M31a1 could in fact trace its origin to northeast India. Time estimation results further indicated that the Andaman archipelago was likely settled by modern humans from northeast India via the land-bridge which connected the Andaman archipelago and Myanmar around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a scenario in well agreement with the evidence from linguistic and palaeoclimate studies. PMID:21477783

  14. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean

  15. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Paragonimiasis in a Child from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jashbeer S; Das, Partha Pratim; Borah, Amrit Kr; Das, Jayanta Kr

    2016-04-01

    Paragonimiasis or lung fluke infection is one of the neglected tropical parasitic disease which is found worldwide. Several endemic foci have been discovered in the Northeast India. Pulmonary paragonimiasis presenting with haemoptysis is generally mistaken for pulmonary tuberculosis. Herein, we present a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis, which initially presented with haemoptysis and remained undiagnosed for two years. The patient was treated with Praziquantel 25mg/kg thrice daily for two days along with the supportive care. Subsequently, on follow up after three months the patient had improved with no fever and cough. PMID:27190807

  17. Paragonimiasis in a Child from Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Borah, Amrit Kr; Das, Jayanta Kr

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis or lung fluke infection is one of the neglected tropical parasitic disease which is found worldwide. Several endemic foci have been discovered in the Northeast India. Pulmonary paragonimiasis presenting with haemoptysis is generally mistaken for pulmonary tuberculosis. Herein, we present a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis, which initially presented with haemoptysis and remained undiagnosed for two years. The patient was treated with Praziquantel 25mg/kg thrice daily for two days along with the supportive care. Subsequently, on follow up after three months the patient had improved with no fever and cough. PMID:27190807

  18. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  19. 3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  20. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  1. First report of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Dutta, Ram; Roy, Somnath; Ngachan, S V

    2014-01-01

    The present study confirms the occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) under the genus Potyvirus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya based on mechanical transmission assay, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and sequence analysis. This is the first record of Chivmv in Naga chilli in North-East India. PMID:24426324

  2. Northeast Regional Planetary Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Saunders, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In 1980, the Northeast Planetary Data Center (NEPDC) was established with Tim Mutch as its Director. The Center was originally located in the Sciences Library due to space limitations but moved to the Lincoln Field Building in 1983 where it could serve the Planetary Group and outside visitors more effectively. In 1984 Dr. Peter Schultz moved to Brown University and became its Director after serving in a similar capacity at the Lunar and Planetary Institute since 1976. Debbie Glavin has served as the Data Center Coordinator since 1982. Initially the NEPDC was build around Tim Mutch's research collection of Lunar Orbiter and Mariner 9 images with only partial sets of Apollo and Viking materials. Its collection was broadened and deepened as the Director (PHS) searched for materials to fill in gaps. Two important acquisitions included the transfer of a Viking collection from a previous PI in Tucson and the donation of surplused lunar materials (Apollo) from the USGS/Menlo Park prior to its building being torn down. Later additions included the pipeline of distributed materials such as the Viking photomosaic series and certain Magellan products. Not all materials sent to Brown, however, found their way to the Data Center, e.g., Voyager prints and negatives. In addition to the NEPDC, the planetary research collection is separately maintained in conjunction with past and ongoing mission activities. These materials (e.g., Viking, Magellan, Galileo, MGS mission products) are housed elsewhere and maintained independently from the NEPDC. They are unavailable to other researchers, educators, and general public. Consequently, the NEPDC represents the only generally accessible reference collection for use by researchers, students, faculty, educators, and general public in the Northeast corridor.

  3. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  4. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  5. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  6. [Environmental mesotheliomas in northeast Corsica].

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Viallat, J R; Boutin, C; Farisse, P; Billon-Galland, M A; Hereng, P; Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, we have collected fourteen cases of mesothelioma induced by environmental exposure to asbestos, going back to childhood in patients from north-east Corsica, in a region which was remote from the asbestos mine of Canari. There were eight men and six women with a mean age of 69.5 +/- 4 years. Six patients presented with bilateral calcified pleural plaques as evidence of environmental exposure. The mineral analysis carried out on five patients (four had thoracoscopies and one an alveolar lavage), showed a moderate deposit of chrysotile (0.3 to 3.4 x 10(6) fibres per gram of dry tissue), and elevated level of tremolite (1.4 to 62 x 10(6) fibres/g). The ambient dosage of asbestos has confirmed the existence of environmental pollution by chrysotile fibres and above all by tremolite. In addition, the same type of fibres have been identified in the parietal pleural of animals subjected to the same risk. In this region, the risk is estimated, on the basis of our results, as 10 cases of mesothelioma per 100,000 inhabitants per year. PMID:8235025

  7. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  8. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  9. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  10. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  11. 1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 431, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT; AUDITORIUM IS VISIBLE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF AUDITORIUM; ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT IS IN FOREGROUND; FLAGPOLE IS IN CENTER. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING LANDSCAPING AROUND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING LANDSCAPING AROUND ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT; THE AUDITORIUM IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. 20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' OFFICE ALONG NORTH SIDE OF FIRST FLOOR. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  17. Interior view of northeast unit master bedroom, looking into sleeping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of northeast unit master bedroom, looking into sleeping porch, facing northeast - MacDill Air Force Base, Double Non-Commissioned Officers' Quarters, 7418 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  18. Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the left and building 10 on the right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Entrance Gateway, East Colfax Avenue & Peoria Street, Northeast Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Detail of door and gable treatment, looking northeast at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of door and gable treatment, looking northeast at intersection of East Wing (Wing 1) and central core - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of boathouse, west and south sides of dock - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  1. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  2. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  3. 2. General context view of Express Building, looking northeast, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General context view of Express Building, looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground, showing relationship to the Bend Depot - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  4. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 55. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 1: View towards the northeast of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 1, installed in 1957. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 3. Light tower and fog signal house, view northeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower and fog signal house, view northeast, west and south sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  9. 7. Oil house, view northeast, west and south sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oil house, view northeast, west and south sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  10. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  11. Interior view of upstairs loft, north portion; camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of upstairs loft, north portion; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 5. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 1. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  15. 1. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. 6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  17. 3. CLUBHOUSE. FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE AND NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CLUBHOUSE. FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE AND NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. 1. THREESTALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-STALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  19. 4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. 2. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. 4. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Foreman's House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 4. HOUSE No. 16. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HOUSE No. 16. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, House No. 16, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. 3. TWOSTALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO-STALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  5. 2. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Foreman's House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. MiSeq HV4 16S rRNA gene analysis of bacterial community composition among the cave sediments of Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    De Mandal, Surajit; Zothansanga; Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Senthil Kumar, Nachimuthu

    2016-06-01

    Caves in Mizoram, Northeast India, are potential hotspot diversity regions due to the historical significance of the formation of the Indo-Burman plateau and also because of their unexplored and unknown diversity. High-throughput paired end Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of 16S rRNA was performed to study the bacterial community of three caves situated in Champhai district of Mizoram, Northeast India. A total of 10,643 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (based on 97 % cutoff) comprising of 21 major and 21 candidate phyla with a sequencing depth of 1,140,013 were found in this study. The overall taxonomic profile obtained by the RDP classifier and Greengenes OTU database revealed high diversity within the bacterial communities. Communities were dominated by Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, while members of Archaea were less varied and mostly comprising of Eukaryoarchea. Analysis revealed that Farpuk (CFP) cave sediment has low microbial diversity and is mainly dominated by Actinobacteria (80 % reads), whereas different bacterial communities were found in the caves of Murapuk (CMP) and Lamsialpuk (CLP). Analysis also revealed that a major portion of the identified OTUs was classified under rare biosphere. Importantly, all these caves recorded a high number of unclassified OTUs, which might represent new species. Further analysis with whole genome sequencing is needed to validate the unknown species as well as to determine their functional role. PMID:26971799

  7. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Patients with Scrub Typhus in 3 Regions of India

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Mahajan, Sanjay K.; Tariang, David; Trowbridge, Paul; Prakash, John A.J.; David, Thambu; Sathendra, Sowmya; Abraham, O.C.

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness that is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region, is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which displays high levels of antigenic variation. We conducted an investigation to identify the circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in 3 scrub typhus–endemic geographic regions of India: South India, Northern India, and Northeast India. Eschar samples collected during September 2010–August 2012 from patients with scrub typhus were subjected to 56-kDa type-specific PCR and sequencing to identify their genotypes. Kato-like strains predominated (61.5%), especially in the South and Northeast, followed by Karp-like strains (27.7%) and Gilliam and Ikeda strains (2.3% each). Neimeng-65 genotype strains were also observed in the Northeast. Clarifying the genotypic diversity of O. tsutsugamushi in India enhances knowledge of the regional diversity among circulating strains and provides potential resources for future region-specific diagnostic studies and vaccine development. PMID:25530231

  8. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from patients with scrub typhus in 3 regions of India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, George M; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Mahajan, Sanjay K; Tariang, David; Trowbridge, Paul; Prakash, John A J; David, Thambu; Sathendra, Sowmya; Abraham, O C

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness that is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region, is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which displays high levels of antigenic variation. We conducted an investigation to identify the circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in 3 scrub typhus-endemic geographic regions of India: South India, Northern India, and Northeast India. Eschar samples collected during September 2010-August 2012 from patients with scrub typhus were subjected to 56-kDa type-specific PCR and sequencing to identify their genotypes. Kato-like strains predominated (61.5%), especially in the South and Northeast, followed by Karp-like strains (27.7%) and Gilliam and Ikeda strains (2.3% each). Neimeng-65 genotype strains were also observed in the Northeast. Clarifying the genotypic diversity of O. tsutsugamushi in India enhances knowledge of the regional diversity among circulating strains and provides potential resources for future region-specific diagnostic studies and vaccine development. PMID:25530231

  9. NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING CORE ROOM ROOF DIRECTLY NORTHEAST, GREY IRON FOUNDRY TO THE RIGHT, MALLEABLE IRON CUPOLAS AND FOUNDRY NORTHEAST OF GREY IRON FOUNDRY WITH THE BRASS FOUNDRY IN THE REAR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Geological factors contributing to landslides: case studies of a few landslides in different regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Nirmala; Ramanathan, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Landslides - mass movements of rock, debris or earth down a slope - are worldwide phenomena which cause significant damage and an estimated 5000 fatalities each year. They are caused by the interplay of various natural and anthropogenic factors and occur under diverse geoenvironmental conditions. In India, landslides occur primarily in the Himalayas of North India and in the Western Ghats of South India. This paper reports the results of field investigations for six landslide sites in North, Northeast and South India. We provide explanations as to why several landslides occurred at each of the sites. Our goal is to gain a deeper insight into the causes and precursors of landslides, which will facilitate more accurate identification of landslide-prone locations and enable early detection of landslide events.

  11. Northeast Regional Education Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange Steering Committee, Boston, MA.

    Created to facilitate the dissemination of information between researchers and the educational community, the Northeast Regional Exchange steering committee has defined needs, determined agency qualifications, identified priorities, undertaken a series of minigrant projects, and developed plans for the extension of these projects and a study of…

  12. Northeast Regional Exchange, Annual Report, January 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1982

    The activities of Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc. (NEREX) during its first year of operation are delineated in this report. The newest member of the national network of Research and Development Exchanges (RDx), this service agency was established to promote educational improvement in the seven northeastern states: Connecticut, Maine,…

  13. Teacher Morale in Rural Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Brenda Dishman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the factors that influence the morale levels of teachers in the public school systems of 3 contiguous counties in rural northeast Tennessee. The level of teacher morale was measured using the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Data associated with the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System…

  14. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M N; Raina, O K; Sankar, M; Rialch, Ajayta; Tigga, M N; Kumar, G Ravi; Banerjee, P S

    2016-07-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite causing piroplasmosis in dogs and has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present communication is the first evidence on the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni of dogs in India. Blood samples were collected from 164 dogs in north and northeast states of India and 13 dogs (7.9%) were found positive for B. gibsoni infection by microscopic examination of blood smears. Molecular confirmation of these microscopic positive cases for B. gibsoni was carried out by 18S rRNA nested-PCR, followed by sequencing. Nested-PCR for the 18S rRNA gene was also carried out on microscopically B. gibsoni negative samples that detected a higher percentage of dogs (28.6%) infected with B. gibsoni. Genetic diversity in B. gibsoni in India was determined by studying B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (BgTRAP) gene fragments (855bp) in 19 isolates from four north and northeast states of India. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasite in India and Bangladesh formed a distinct cluster away from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates available from Japan, Taiwan and Korea. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Indian isolates that was shared by B. gibsoni isolates of Bangladesh. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in India and Bangladesh. Further studies are required for better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni prevalent in India and in its neighbouring countries. PMID:27020545

  15. Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanshu; Chandra, Kailash; Hillert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Odontotrypes Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) belonging to the subgenus Odontotrupes Boucomont, 1905 is described from the Tawang district, State of Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India): Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species. Relevant diagnostic characters (pronotum, head, elytra, profemur, scutellar shield, and external male genitalia) are illustrated and compared with closely related species of this subgenus, in particular Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) orichalceus (Fairmaire, 1895). The distribution of the new species is mapped. PMID:27615859

  16. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  17. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  18. Postcards from India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahni, Urvashi

    1999-01-01

    Interviews children and adults living in rural areas in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India regarding education, revealing individuals' hopes and dreams against a backdrop of severe class, caste, and gender stratification. Examines the promise of schooling and literacy in India, the relationship of schooling and literacy to work, and of…

  19. Hurricane Bonnie, Northeast of Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Bonnie was over the North Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles northeast of Bermuda (39.0N, 56.5W) when this photo was taken. Compare this view with Hurricane Iniki, also photographed on this mission (STS-47-77-058). Bonnie is small but in her prime, having a well defined eye, a tight spiral gyre indicating high wind speeds and numerous thunderheads. Iniki, on the other hand, was decaying when photographed and no longer presented a threat.

  20. Northeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, A. J.; Trautz, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage is a viable option for the electric power industry in the "Northeast" region to meet regional and forthcoming federal CO2 cap-and-trade programs. Capturing CO2 emissions and storing the gas in underground geological formations could significantly reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. However, before this can be implemented, site-specific geological research needs to be conducted to determine which formations are potentially capable of storing the quantity of CO2 emitted by power plants in the Northeast region. While the target geosequestration formations in the Northeast may have less storage capacity than those in the Midwest, Southeast or Southwest, the available capacities may be large enough to sequester a significant fraction of the CO2 produced by some regional power plants (which are also smaller, individually and in total, than those in the other regions). The study will also conduct baseline assessments of electric power producer plants and CO2 emission estimates and create first level screening on potential geologic structures for CO2 sequestration. The work will establish a general database of "Other Uses" (current industrial and technological innovations/options), characterize transport issues, both on land and offshore, and, provide general guidance on the physical and land-use constraint factors of "add-on" capture technologies at existing power plants.

  1. 6. Northeast elevation of single bin. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast elevation of single bin. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 2. View northeast. South elevation Westminster span, link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northeast. South elevation - Westminster span, link span, Walpole span. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  4. 11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING WELDED REINFORCEMENT - Perkins Corner Bridge, Spanning Willimantic River at Flanders & Cider Mill Roads, Coventry, Tolland County, CT

  5. View of main facade (southwest side), camera facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main facade (southwest side), camera facing northeast - Golden Gate International Exposition, Hall of Transportation, 440 California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Bridge, Spanning Eagle Creek on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Perspective view from northeast of convalescent pavilion ("A"). National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northeast of convalescent pavilion ("A"). - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Hospital, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  9. 3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  10. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTHEAST VIEW OF EXAMINING ROOM, DOCTOR'S OFFICE - Governor John Hubbard House, 52 Winthrop Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME