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Sample records for ml bronchoscopic lung

  1. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, Edward P; Wood, Douglas E; Utz, James P

    2008-05-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) produces physiological, symptomatic, and survival benefits in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Because it is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost, nonsurgical alternatives for achieving volume reduction have been developed. Three bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) approaches have shown promise and reached later-stage clinical trials. These include the following: (1) placement of endobronchial one-way valves designed to promote atelectasis by blocking inspiratory flow; (2) formation of airway bypass tracts using a radiofrequency catheter designed to facilitate emptying of damaged lung regions with long expiratory times; and (3) instillation of biological adhesives designed to collapse and remodel hyperinflated lung. The limited clinical data currently available suggest that all three techniques are reasonably safe. However, efficacy signals have been substantially smaller and less durable than those observed after LVRS. Studies to optimize patient selection, refine treatment strategies, characterize procedural safety, elucidate mechanisms of action, and characterize short- and longer-term effectiveness of these approaches are ongoing. Results will be available over the next few years and will determine whether BLVR represents a safe and effective alternative to LVRS. PMID:18453355

  2. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting. PMID:25940429

  3. Lung volume reduction for advanced emphysema: surgical and bronchoscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Sherry L; Westfall, Elizabeth; Dransfield, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death in the United States, affecting more than 24 million people. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; they improve symptoms and quality of life and reduce exacerbations. These and smoking cessation and long-term oxygen therapy for hypoxemic patients are the only medical treatments definitively demonstrated to reduce mortality. Surgical approaches include lung transplantation and lung volume reduction and the latter has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, quality of life, and survival in highly selected patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery results in clinical benefits. The procedure is associated with a short-term risk of mortality and a more significant risk of cardiac and pulmonary perioperative complications. Interest has been growing in the use of noninvasive, bronchoscopic methods to address the pathological hyperinflation that drives the dyspnea and exercise intolerance that is characteristic of emphysema. In this review, the mechanism by which lung volume reduction improves pulmonary function is outlined, along with the risks and benefits of the traditional surgical approach. In addition, the emerging bronchoscopic techniques for lung volume reduction are introduced and recent clinical trials examining their efficacy are summarized. PMID:22189668

  4. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Davis, K Rennis; Vadakkan, D Thomas; Krishnakumar, E V; Anas, A Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia. PMID:25814803

  5. Bronchoscopic culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs. ... Culture - bronchoscopic ... used to get a sample ( biopsy ) of lung tissue or fluid. The sample ... a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ...

  6. Bronchoscopic NdYAG laser treatment in lung cancer, 30 years on: an institutional review.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, K; Dixon, Kate

    2006-12-01

    We review our 21-year experience in bronchoscopic NdYAG laser for lung cancer and the relevant literature. Patients totaling 1,159 received 2,235 bronchoscopic treatments. The pre-requisite for laser therapy was the presence of >50% obstruction of the bronchial lumen. We use the rigid bronchoscope, with the patient under general anaesthetic and application of laser in its non-contact mode. Two patients (0.17%) died following the procedure, and 4.8% had non-fatal complications. Four to 6 weeks after treatment there was a 48% increase in bronchial calibre and an increase of 27% (mean) in forced vital capacity and 15% (mean) in forced expiratory volume in one second, respectively. These paralleled symptomatic relief and chest X-ray improvement. Literature review indicated results similar to ours in those centres with high volume activity. Thirty years on, bronchoscopic YAG laser therapy of lung cancer still has an important role in palliation of patients with inoperable lung cancer, particularly those requiring immediate relief of bronchial obstruction. PMID:17003957

  7. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  8. Anastomotic Airway Complications After Lung Transplant: Clinical, Bronchoscopic and CT Correlation.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Kyle; Trujillo, Camilo; Ford, Jonathan; Decker, Summer; Pelaez, Andres; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the normal appearance and common complications of the airway anastomosis in lung transplant patients with emphasis on computed tomography images with bronchoscopic correlation. The spectrum of complications will be presented as early (<1 mo after transplant) or late (>1 mo). Variations in surgical technique as well as presentation and management options for airway complications will also be discussed. PMID:27428022

  9. The Effects of Bronchoscope Diameter on the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy of Peripheral Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nakwon; Kim, Sang-Ha; Kwon, Woocheol; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Yong, Suk Joong; Shin, Kye Chul; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Yeun Seoung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is a valuable diagnostic tool for peripheral pulmonary lesions. The diagnostic yield of TBLB reportedly ranges from 41%-60%. Many studies demonstrated the various factors that influence the yield of TBLB, including size, location, and distance from the carina or pleura. However, no study has evaluated the effects of the bronchoscope diameter. We evaluated whether the bronchoscope diameter affected the diagnostic yield of TBLB. Methods We reviewed records from 178 patients who underwent TBLB using bronchoscopes of two different diameters (5.7 mm, thick outer diameter, Olympus BF-200; 4.9 mm, thin, BF-260). The fluoroscopic guidance rates, yield of TBLB and flexible bronchoscopy (FB) were compared between the two groups. Additionally, we compared the results of the procedures with respect to diagnosis, distance from the pleura, and size of the lesion. Results The results of fluoroscopic guidance, TBLB, and FB yield using thin diameter bronchoscope were significantly better than those obtained with a thick diameter bronchoscope (p=0.021, p=0.036, and p=0.010, respectively). Particularly, when the distance from the pleura was ≤ 10 mm, success rates for fluoroscopic guidance and FB with thin bronchoscope were higher (p=0.013 and p=0.033, respectively), as compared to with thick bronchoscope. Conclusion A thinner diameter bronchoscope increased the yield of bronchoscopy, and bronchial washing in conjunction with TBLB was useful in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary nodules. PMID:25580141

  10. Pulmonary Parenchymal Lymphoma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Cryoprobe Lung Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Dante; Batzlaff, Cassandra; Maldonado, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with progressively worsening lung infiltrates and respiratory failure. Extensive investigations including bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and conventional transbronchial forceps biopsies failed to establish the diagnosis. After transfer to our institution, he underwent repeat bronchoscopy with transbronchial cryobiopsy, which provided large, high-quality biopsy specimens establishing the diagnosis of parenchymal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:26496093

  11. Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  12. Surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  13. The Molecular Bronchoscope: A Tool for Measurement of Spatially Dependent CO2 Concentrations in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Luca; Couper, John H; Richmond, Graham; Hancock, Gus; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory physicians use bronchoscopy for visual assessment of the lungs' topography and collecting tissue samples for external analysis. We propose a novel bronchoscope tool that would enable spatially dependent measurements of the functioning of the lungs by determining local concentrations of carbon dioxide, which will be produced by healthy parts of the lung at rates that are higher than from portions where gas exchange is impaired. The gas analyzer is based on a compact laser absorption spectrometer making use of fiber optics for delivery and return of low intensity diode laser radiation to and from the measurement chamber at the distal end of a flexible conduit. The appropriate optical wavelength was chosen such that light is selectively absorbed only by gaseous CO2. The optical absorption takes place over a short path (8.8 mm) within a rigid, 12 mm long, perforated probe tip. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was adopted as the analytical technique to reduce the noise on the optical signal and yield measurements of relative CO2 concentration every 180 ms with a precision as low as 600 part-per-million by volume. The primary objective of such a device is to see if additional spatial information about the lungs functionality can be gathered, which will complement visual observation. PMID:27487178

  14. Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydarian, Mohammadreza; Choy, Stephen; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David; Coxson, Harvey O.; Lam, Stephen; Parraga, Grace

    2011-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects almost 600 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. COPD is an umbrella term for respiratory symptoms that accompany destruction of the lung parenchyma and/or remodeling of the airway wall, the sum of which result in decreased expiratory flow, dyspnea and gas trapping. Currently, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the main clinical method used for COPD imaging, providing excellent spatial resolution for quantitative tissue measurements although dose limitations and the fundamental spatial resolution of CT limit the measurement of airway dimensions beyond the 5th generation. To address this limitation, we are piloting the use of bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), by exploiting its superior spatial resolution of 5-15 micrometers for in vivo airway imaging. Currently, only manual segmentation of OCT airway lumen and wall have been reported but manual methods are time consuming and prone to observer variability. To expand the utility of bronchoscopic OCT, automatic and robust measurement methods are required. Therefore, our objective was to develop a fully automated method for segmenting OCT airway wall dimensions and here we explore several different methods of image-regeneration, voxel clustering and post-processing. Our resultant automated method used K-means or Fuzzy c-means to cluster pixel intensity and then a series of algorithms (i.e. cluster selection, artifact removal, de-noising) was applied to process the clustering results and segment airway wall dimensions. This approach provides a way to automatically and rapidly segment and reproducibly measure airway lumen and wall area.

  15. [Bronchoscopic treatments for COPD].

    PubMed

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Inoue, Takeo; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2016-05-01

    Several non-surgical and minimally invasive bronchoscopic interventions, such as bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques, have been developed to treat patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BLVR has been studied for treatment in severe COPD patients with emphysema. BLVR with one-way endobronchial valves is reported to be effective for patients with a heterogeneous emphysema distribution and without inter-lobar collateral ventilation. For the patients with collateral ventilation, and for the patients with homogeneous emphysema, BLVR with lung volume reduction coil has shown promising results. Targeted lung denervation(TLD) is a novel bronchoscopic intervention based on ablation of parasympathetic nerves surrounding the main bronchi. TLD seems to be effective for COPD with chronic bronchitis phenotype. This review gives a general overview of BLVR with one-way valve and lung volume reduction coil, and TLD. PMID:27254951

  16. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia successfully treated with bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shota; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hara, Shintaro; Kitaichi, Masanori; Kohno, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A 65-y-old Japanese man was referred to the respiratory medicine department because of abnormal radiologic findings. High-resolution chest computed tomography scans revealed a geographic distribution of ground-glass opacities and associated thickening of the interlobular septa (crazy-paving patterns) in both lower lobes. He had a habit of drinking 400-500 mL of milk and 400-800 mL of canned coffee with milk every day. A swallowing function test revealed liquid dysphagia. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology findings showed multiple lipid-laden macrophages. Taken together, these findings revealed exogenous lipoid pneumonia. We performed bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy 3 times in the left lung. After the treatment, the radiologic findings improved in both lungs. The patient has not experienced a recurrence of lipoid pneumonia in 2 y to date. In conclusion, a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia was successfully treated with bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy. PMID:25161297

  17. Efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei; Pan, Qingqing; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods All patients with bronchoscopic biopsy-proven lung adenocarcinoma at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to November 2011 were enrolled. Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was used to detect EGFR gene mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect ALK rearrangement. The correlation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) results with standard methods for EGFR mutation status and ALK rearrangement were checked. Results Bronchoscopic specimens were successfully used to detect EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement with success rates of 85.2% and 71.3%, respectively, in non-small cell lung cancer patients. EGFR analysis by ARMS yielded a positive result in 35.8% (33/92) and positive ALK rearrangement was detected by FISH in 7.8% (6/77) of cases. It was more likely to be unsuccessful in patients with tumor cells less than 100/high power field and the ratio tumor numbers in 0–10%. In EGFR-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity of E746-A750 deletions were 73.3% (11/15) and 93.3% (70/75), respectively, and those of L858R were 93.3% (14/15) and 93.2% (69/74), respectively. In ALK-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% (3/6) and 100% (71/71), respectively. Conclusions Small bronchoscopic specimens could achieve higher successful detection rates via EGFR mutation and ALK gene rearrangement. PMID:26557908

  18. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves for patients with heterogeneous emphysema and intact interlobar fissures (the BeLieVeR-HIFi trial): study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Davey, C; Zoumot, Z; Jordan, S; Carr, D H; Polkey, M I; Shah, P L; Hopkinson, N S

    2015-03-01

    Although lung volume reduction surgery improves survival in selected patients with emphysema, there has been ongoing interest in developing and evaluating bronchoscopic approaches to try to reduce lung volumes with less morbidity and mortality. The placement of endobronchial valves is one such technique, and although some patients have had a significant improvement, responses have been inconsistent because collateral ventilation prevents lobar atelectasis. We describe the protocol of a trial (ISRCTN04761234) aimed to show that a responder phenotype, patients with heterogeneous emphysema and intact interlobar fissures on CT scanning, can be identified prospectively, leading to a consistent benefit in clinical practice. PMID:24664535

  19. [Bronchoscopic treatment of emphysema].

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-04-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques for the management of emphysema have evolved from the success of surgical treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) involves the removal of 20% to 30% of each lung and targets the most emphysematous segments. Patients with heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema and a low baseline exercise capacity have been identified as a subgroup within COPD in whom mortality benefits can even be achieved, along with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Increased short-term mortality of approximately 5% and postoperative morbidity are the main limitations of LVRS. The extremely restrictive selection criteria for LVRS coupled with the relatively high mortality/morbidity have been the impetus for developing less invasive endoscopic modalities. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) researchers have pursued various approaches using a range of modalities, such as blockers, stents, valves, sealants, and implants. BLVR appears to be safer than LVRS in terms of mortality and morbidity. This safety profile presents an attractive alternative for patients with COPD who are fragile physiologically because of the severity of their lung disease and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. The current report aims to describe the various minimally invasive modalities available for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:22616152

  20. Novel bronchoscopic strategies for the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions: present techniques and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher; Akulian, Jason; Ortiz, Ricardo; Lee, Hans; Yarmus, Lonny

    2014-07-01

    The diagnosis of the peripheral lung lesion has been a long-standing clinical challenge--balancing accuracy with patient safety. With recent data revealing mortality benefits with lung cancer screening via low-dose computed tomography, now more than ever, clinicians will be challenged with the task of providing the means to provide a safe and minimally invasive method of obtaining accurate tissue diagnostics for the pulmonary nodule. In this review, we present available technologies to aid clinicians in attempts at minimally invasive techniques and the data supporting their use. In addition, we review novel tools under investigation that may further increase yield and provide additional benefit in obtaining an early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:24797257

  1. Tissue requirements in lung cancer diagnosis for tumor heterogeneity, mutational analysis and targeted therapies: initial experience with intra-operative Frozen Section Evaluation (FROSE) in bronchoscopic biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Iding, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advances in lung cancer treatment have changed the requirement for the amount and quality of biopsy specimens needed to characterize the tumor and select the best treatment. One adjunct to guide the bronchoscopist on the quality and quantity of specimens during bronchoscopic biopsies for the diagnosis of lung cancer is rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytological specimens. This technique has been shown to add to the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy when obtaining adequate specimens for molecular profiling in lung cancer. ROSE is not available at all medical centers. We describe our initial experience using intra-procedural Frozen Section Evaluation (FROSE) of bronchoscopic biopsy specimens as an alternative to ROSE. Methods A retrospective analysis of all interventional pulmonology cases using FROSE between February and July 2015 was performed. Results analyzed to evaluate the success in obtaining adequate specimens for molecular profiling. Results A total of 88 interventional pulmonology cases employing a frozen section in at least one site were identified. In 94.3% of cases, a definitive diagnosis of benign or malignant was made. The concordance of frozen section diagnoses of benign or malignant was 100% with final diagnoses. Thirteen of the eighty-eight cases were ultimately sent for molecular analysis. Of these, twelve of thirteen (92.3%) cases were adequate to perform all ordered molecular testing. In all cases there was sufficient tissue to perform EGFR and ALK testing. Conclusions In medical centers where ROSE may not be available, the use of FROSE by the local pathologist can be an effective technique to obtain adequate tissue and cytological samples for the diagnosis and molecular profiling of lung cancers. Further prospective study in bronchoscopic tissue sampling techniques to obtain the optimum quantity and quality of samples for molecular profiling of lung cancers for targeted treatments is needed. PMID:27606077

  2. A randomized trial to assess the utility of preintubation adult fiberoptic bronchoscope assessment in patients for thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nayana; Tarwade, Pritee; Shetmahajan, Madhavi; Pramesh, C. S.; Jiwnani, Sabita; Mahajan, Abhishek; Purandare, Nilendu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Confirmation of placement of Double lumen endobronchial tubes (DLETT) and bronchial blockers (BBs) with the pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is the most preferred practice worldwide. Most centers possess standard adult FOBs, some, particularly in developing countries might not have access to the pediatric-sized devices. We have evaluated the role of preintubation airway assessment using the former, measuring the distance from the incisors to the carina and from carina to the left and right upper lobe bronchus in deciding the depth of insertion of the lung isolation device. Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial consisting of 84 patients (all >18 years) undergoing thoracic surgery over a 12-month period. In the study group (n = 38), measurements obtained during FOB with the adult bronchoscope decided the depth of insertion of the lung isolation device. In the control group (n = 46), DLETTs and BBs were placed blindly followed by clinical confirmation by auscultation. Selection of the type and size of the lung isolation device was at the discretion of the anesthesiologist conducting the case. In all cases, pediatric FOB was used to confirm accurate placement of devices. Results: Of 84 patients (DLETT used in 76 patients; BB used in 8 patients), preintubation airway measurements significantly improved the success rate of optimal placement of lung isolation device from 25% (11/44) to 50% (18/36) (P = 0.04). Our incidence of failed device placement at initial insertion was 4.7% (4/84). Incidence of malposition was 10% (8/80) with 4 cases in each group. The incidence of suboptimal placement was lower in the study group at 38.9% (14/36) versus 65.9% (29/44). Conclusions: Preintubation airway measurements with the adult FOB reduces airway manipulations and improves the success rate of optimal placement of DLETT and BB. PMID:27052065

  3. Descriptive data on cancerous lung lesions detected by auto-fluorescence bronchoscope: A five-year study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Asmitananda; Gao, Lin; Ren, Hui; Yang, Tian; Chen, Tianjun; Chen, Mingwei

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) has been used for the identification and localization of intra-epithelial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions within the bronchus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the applicability of AFB for the detection and localization of precancerous and cancerous lesions, in addition to analyzing the morphologic presentation, their association to histological type and the variation between genders. METHODS: A five-year study involving 4983 patients, who underwent routine bronchoscopy [B] examination in a local tertiary teaching hospital, was done. The B examination was performed under intratracheal lidocaine, and samples were obtained using suitable approach. One thousand four hundred and eighty-five pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were included in the study. The following parameters were studied: Morphological presentation, biopsy sites, histology. Differences between the groups were analyzed using Chi square test. RESULT: One thousand four hundred and eighty-five patients who had hyperplasia or neoplastic lesions were further confirmed as lung cancer pathologically. Lung cancer was more commonly found in the right lung (51.58% vs. 42.82%). The lesion occurred more frequently in the upper lobe than the lower lobe (44.17% vs. 22.42%). Male patients with squamous cell carcinoma showed upper lobe involvement more commonly, while the left main bronchus was more commonly involved in female patients. Adenocarcinoma mostly involved lesion of the upper lobe. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the major proliferative types (80.15% and 76.16% respectively). CONCLUSION: AFB is efficient in the detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung lesions. The morphological presentation is associated to the histological type. There is variation in the presentation and histology of cancerous lung lesions between genders. PMID:22347346

  4. Integrated system for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Graham, Michael W.; Yu, Kun-Chang; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    Bronchoscopy is often performed for diagnosing lung cancer. The recent development of multidetector CT (MDCT) scanners and ultrathin bronchoscopes now enable the bronchoscopic biopsy and treatment of peripheral regions of interest (ROIs). Because the peripheral ROIs are often located several generations within the airway tree, careful planning is required prior to a procedure. The current practice for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures, however, is difficult, error-prone, and time-consuming. We propose a system for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures using patient-specific MDCT chest scans. The planning process begins with a semi-automatic segmentation of ROIs. The remaining system components are completely automatic, beginning with a new strategy for tracheobronchial airway-tree segmentation. The system then uses a new locally-adaptive approach for finding the interior airway-wall surfaces. From the polygonal airway-tree surfaces, a centerline-analysis method extracts the central axes of the airway tree. The system's route-planning component then analyzes the data generated in the previous stages to determine an appropriate path through the airway tree to the ROI. Finally, an automated report generator gives quantitative data about the route and both static and dynamic previews of the procedure. These previews consist of virtual bronchoscopic endoluminal renderings at bifurcations encountered along the route and renderings of the airway tree and ROI at the suggested biopsy location. The system is currently in use for a human lung-cancer patient pilot study involving the planning and subsequent live image-based guidance of suspect peripheral cancer nodules.

  5. Assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with bronchoscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Colby, Thomas V.; Tager, Andrew M.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of fibrotic lung disease, with a 3 year survival rate of 50%. Diagnostic certainty of IPF is essential to determine the most effective therapy for patients, but often requires surgery to resect lung tissue and look for microscopic honeycombing not seen on chest computed tomography (CT). Unfortunately, surgical lung resection has high risks of associated morbidity and mortality in this patient population. We aim to determine whether bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) can serve as a novel, low-risk paradigm for in vivo IPF diagnosis without surgery or tissue removal. OCT provides rapid 3D visualization of large tissue volumes with microscopic resolutions well beyond the capabilities of CT. We have designed bronchoscopic OCT catheters to effectively and safely access the peripheral lung, and conducted in vivo peripheral lung imaging in patients, including those with pulmonary fibrosis. We utilized these OCT catheters to perform bronchoscopic imaging in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary fibrosis to determine if bronchoscopic OCT could successfully visualize features of IPF through the peripheral airways. OCT was able to visualize characteristic features of IPF through the airway, including microscopic honeycombing (< 1 mm diameter) not visible by CT, dense peripheral fibrosis, and spatial disease heterogeneity. These findings support the potential of bronchoscopic OCT as a minimally-invasive method for in vivo IPF diagnosis. However, future clinical studies are needed to validate these findings.

  6. Planning and visualization methods for effective bronchoscopic target localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Taeprasarsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of lymph nodes is an important step in staging lung cancer. Lymph nodes, however, lie behind the airway walls and are near large vascular structures - all of these structures are hidden from the bronchoscope's field of view. Previously, we had presented a computer-based virtual bronchoscopic navigation system that provides reliable guidance for bronchoscopic sampling. While this system offers a major improvement over standard practice, bronchoscopists told us that target localization- lining up the bronchoscope before deploying a needle into the target - can still be challenging. We therefore address target localization in two distinct ways: (1) automatic computation of an optimal diagnostic sampling pose for safe, effective biopsies, and (2) a novel visualization of the target and surrounding major vasculature. The planning determines the final pose for the bronchoscope such that the needle, when extended from the tip, maximizes the tissue extracted. This automatically calculated local pose orientation is conveyed in endoluminal renderings by a 3D arrow. Additional visual cues convey obstacle locations and target depths-of-sample from arbitrary instantaneous viewing orientations. With the system, a physician can freely navigate in the virtual bronchoscopic world perceiving the depth-of-sample and possible obstacle locations at any endoluminal pose, not just one pre-determined optimal pose. We validated the system using mediastinal lymph nodes in eleven patients. The system successfully planned for 20 separate targets in human MDCT scans. In particular, given the patient and bronchoscope constraints, our method found that safe, effective biopsies were feasible in 16 of the 20 targets; the four remaining targets required more aggressive safety margins than a "typical" target. In all cases, planning computation took only a few seconds, while the visualizations updated in real time during bronchoscopic navigation.

  7. ML-18 is a non-peptide bombesin receptor subtype-3 antagonist which inhibits lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Mantey, Samuel A; Moreno, Paola; Nakamura, Taichi; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype (BRS)-3 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the bombesin (BB)-family of peptides. BRS-3 is an orphan GPCR and little is known of its physiological role due to the lack of specific agonists and antagonists. PD168368 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (R) whereas PD176252 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) R and NMBR but not BRS-3. Here nonpeptide analogs of PD176252 e.g. the S-enantiomer ML-18, and the R-enantiomer, EMY-98, were investigated as BRS-3 antagonists using lung cancer cells. ML-18 and EMY-98 inhibited specific (125)I-BA1 (DTyr-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-βAla-His-Phe-Nle-NH2)BB(6-14) binding to NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells stably transfected with BRS-3 with IC50 values of 4.8 and >100μM, respectively. In contrast, ML-18 bound with lower affinity to the GRPR and NMBR with IC50 values of 16 and >100μM, respectively. ML-18 (16μM), but not its enantiomer EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 10nM BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) in a reversible manner using lung cancer cells loaded with FURA2-AM. ML-18 (16μM), but not EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 100nM BA1 to cause tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells. ML-18 but not EMY-98 inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells. The results indicate that ML-18 is a nonpeptide BRS-3 antagonist that should serve as a template to improve potency and selectivity. PMID:25554218

  8. Endobronchial Ultrasound Bronchoscope Damage.

    PubMed

    Patil, Monali; Harris, Kassem; Krishnan, Amita; Alraiyes, Abdul H; Dhillon, Samjot S

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is an effective, safe, and cost-effective diagnostic bronchoscopy technique for the work-up of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Concern has been raised, however, about the high cost of convex-probe EBUS bronchoscope repairs. The damage is usually due to breakage of the insertion tube (the flexible part that is advanced into the airways), moisture invasion and damages to the working channel, image guide bundle, or umbilical cord. Understanding the root cause of EBUS scope damage is important for its prevention. We describe 2 unusual cases of EBUS scope damage. In the first case, the distal black rubber covering of the EBUS scope insertion tube was damaged due to friction with the edge of an endotracheal tube and in the second case, the EBUS scope insertion tube was angulating laterally instead of vertically during the flexion maneuver, probably due to scope manipulation while wedged tightly in a segmental bronchus. PMID:27077640

  9. Can Bronchoscopic Airway Anatomy Be an Indicator of Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara A.; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Bronchoscopic evaluations revealed that some children have double branching of bronchi (designated "doublets") in the lower lungs airways, rather than normal, single branching. Retrospective analyses revealed only one commonality in them: all subjects with doublets also had autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That is, 49 subjects exhibited…

  10. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xiongbiao

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. Methods: The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model was designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. Results: The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0–10 min{sup −1}. The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. Conclusions: An

  11. Bronchoscopic treatments for emphysema.

    PubMed

    Delage, A; Marquette, C-H

    2011-10-01

    In late stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema can worsen respiratory symptoms, not only via the loss of surface for gas exchange, but also via alterations in mechanical properties of the respiratory system (dynamic and static hyperinflation). Emphysematous lung volume reduction aims at improving respiratory mechanics and symptomatology in patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been shown to be effective in selected patient populations, but its morbidity and costs are quite elevated. Alternatives to LVRS do not remove emphysematous lung tissue per se, but rather consist of devices aiming to: 1) reduce the volume that affected lung parenchyma occupies (unidirectional endobronchial valves or plugs, parenchymal injection of bioactive scarring agents); 2) redistribute ventilatory flow (airway bypass systems). Preliminary studies of these devices have shown that they are relatively safe. These also show modest benefits in exercise capacity, although individual subjects can experience spectacular improvement. Current objective is to identify predictors of response to therapy with such devices. PMID:22099415

  12. Assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with bronchoscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Colby, Thomas V.; Tager, Andrew M.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of fibrotic lung disease, with a significantly worse prognosis than other forms of pulmonary fibrosis (3-year survival rate of 50%). Distinguishing IPF from other fibrotic diseases is essential to patient care because it stratifies prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. However, making the diagnosis often requires invasive, high-risk surgical procedures to look for microscopic features not seen on chest CT, such as characteristic cystic honeycombing in the peripheral lung. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides rapid 3D visualization of large tissue volumes with microscopic resolutions well beyond the capabilities of CT. We aim to determine whether bronchoscopic OCT can provide a low-risk, non-surgical method for IPF diagnosis. We have developed bronchoscopic OCT catheters that access the peripheral lung and conducted in vivo peripheral lung imaging in patients, including those with pulmonary fibrosis. We also conducted bronchoscopic OCT in ex vivo lung from pulmonary fibrosis patients, including IPF, to determine if OCT could successfully visualize features of IPF through the peripheral airways. Our results demonstrate that OCT is able to visualize characteristic features of IPF through the airway, including microscopic honeycombing (< 1 mm diameter) not visible by CT, dense peripheral fibrosis, and spatial disease heterogeneity. We also found that OCT has potential to distinguish mimickers of IPF honeycombing, such as traction bronchiectasis and emphysema, from true honeycombing. These findings support the potential of bronchoscopic OCT as a minimally-invasive method for in vivo IPF diagnosis. However, future clinical studies are needed to validate these findings.

  13. A novel external bronchoscope tracking model beyond electromagnetic localizers: dynamic phantom validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    Localization of a bronchoscope and estimation of its motion is a core component for constructing a bronchoscopic navigation system that can guide physicians to perform any bronchoscopic interventions such as the transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and the transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). To overcome the limitations of current methods, e.g., image registration (IR) and electromagnetic (EM) localizers, this study develops a new external tracking technique on the basis of an optical mouse (OM) sensor and IR augmented by sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampling (here called IR-SMC). We first construct an external tracking model by an OM sensor that is uded to directly measure the bronchoscope movement information including the insertion depth and the rotation of the viewing direction of the bronchoscope. To utilize OM sensor measurements, we employed IR with SMC sampling to determine the bronchoscopic camera motion parameters. The proposed method was validated on a dynamic phantom. Experimental results demonstrate that our constructed external tracking prototype is a perspective means to estimate the bronchoscope motion, compared to the start-of-the-art, especially for image-based methods, improving the tracking performance by 17.7% successfully processed video images.

  14. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 68‐year‐old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium‐sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure‐related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  15. Bronchoscopy guidance system based on bronchoscope-motion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Duane C.; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopy-guidance systems assist physicians during bronchoscope navigation. However, these systems require an attending technician and fail to continuously track the bronchoscope. We propose a real-time technicianfree bronchoscopy-guidance system that employs continuous tracking. For guidance, our system presents directions on virtual views that are generated from the bronchoscope's tracked location. The system achieves bronchoscope tracking using a strategy that is based on a recently proposed method for sensor-based bronchoscope-motion tracking.1 Furthermore, a graphical indicator notifies the physician when he/she has maneuvered the bronchoscope to an incorrect branch. Our proposed system uses the sensor data to generate virtual views through multiple candidate routes and employs image matching in a Bayesian framework to determine the most probable bronchoscope pose. Tests based on laboratory phantoms validate the potential of the system.

  16. Therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions for malignant airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dalar, Levent; Özdemir, Cengiz; Abul, Yasin; Karasulu, Levent; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Akbaş, Ayşegül; Altın, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is no definitive consensus about the factors affecting the choice of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of malignant airway obstruction. The present study defines the choice of the interventional bronchoscopic modality and analyzes the factors influencing survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction. Totally, over 7 years, 802 interventional rigid bronchoscopic procedures were applied in 547 patients having malignant airway obstruction. There was a significant association between the type of stent and the site of the lesion in the present study. Patients with tracheal involvement and/or involvement of the main bronchi had the worst prognosis. The sites of the lesion and endobronchial treatment modality were independent predictors of survival in the present study. The selection of different types of airway stents can be considered on the base of site of the lesion. Survival can be estimated based on the site of the lesion and endobronchial brochoscopic modality used. PMID:27281104

  17. [Removal of bronchial foreign bodies by suction with a bronchoscope].

    PubMed

    Mita, Y; Dobashi, K; Saitoh, R; Tsuchiya, S; Nakano, H; Watanabe, S; Makimoto, T; Ishihara, S; Mori, M

    1997-04-01

    We report two cases in which intrabronchial foreign bodies were removed with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. In both cases the foreign body was a seed of a small Japanese apricot. Atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia was seen on chest roentgenograms. The foreign bodies were associated with slight inflammation and polyps on the bronchial epithelium. The foreign bodies were removed by applying suction with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. This method may also be useful for removing other large, hard, uneven, and ball-like foreign bodies. PMID:9212671

  18. Real-time motion compensation for EM bronchoscope tracking with smooth output - ex-vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gergel, Ingmar; Menzel, Manuela; Hautmann, Hubert; Wegner, Ingmar; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Navab, Nassir

    2012-02-01

    Navigated bronchoscopy provides benefits for endoscopists and patients, but accurate tracking information is needed. We present a novel real-time approach for bronchoscope tracking combining electromagnetic (EM) tracking, airway segmentation, and a continuous model of output. We augment a previously published approach by including segmentation information in the tracking optimization instead of image similarity. Thus, the new approach is feasible in real-time. Since the true bronchoscope trajectory is continuous, the output is modeled using splines and the control points are optimized with respect to displacement from EM tracking measurements and spatial relation to segmented airways. Accuracy of the proposed method and its components is evaluated on a ventilated porcine ex-vivo lung with respect to ground truth data acquired from a human expert. We demonstrate the robustness of the output of the proposed method against added artificial noise in the input data. Smoothness in terms of inter-frame distance is shown to remain below 2 mm, even when up to 5 mm of Gaussian noise are added to the input. The approach is shown to be easily extensible to include other measures like image similarity.

  19. 3D MDCT-Based System for Planning Peripheral Bronchoscopic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Graham, Michael W.; Higgins, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of lung cancer often begins with the assessment of a suspect peripheral chest site. Such suspicious peripheral sites may be solitary pulmonary nodules or other abnormally appearing regions of interest (ROIs). The state-of-the-art process for assessing such peripheral ROIs involves off-line procedure planning using a three-dimensional (3D) multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scan followed by bronchoscopy with an ultrathin bronchoscope. We present an integrated computer-based system for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures. The system takes a 3D MDCT chest image as input and performs nearly all operations automatically. The only interaction required by the physician is the selection of ROI locations. The system is computationally efficient and fits smoothly within the clinical work flow. Integrated into the system and described in detail in the paper is a new surface-definition method, which is vital for effective analysis and planning to peripheral sites. Results demonstrate the efficacy of the system and its usage for the live guidance of ultrathin bronchoscopy to the periphery. PMID:19217089

  20. Bronchoscopic location of bronchopleural fistula with xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Lillington, G.A.; Stevens, R.P.; DeNardo, G.L.

    1982-04-01

    Successful application of the technique of transbronchoscopic endobronchial occlusion of a persistent bronchopleural fistula requires an accurate determination of the segmental location of the air leak. This was achieved by injections of small boluses of Xe-133 into a number of segmental bronchi through a fiber-optic bronchoscope. Following the instillation of Xe-133 into the segmental bronchus leading to the fistula, there was a marked increase in radioactivity in the intercostal drainage tube.

  1. Bronchoscopic diathermy resection and stent insertion: a cost effective treatment for tracheobronchial obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, M.; Kaplan, D.; Goldstraw, P.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Major airways obstruction is a distressing cause of morbidity and mortality. For disease that is extensive and recurrent, there is a need for a safe and cost effective technique for palliation. METHODS--The results of 29 patients with tracheobronchial obstruction (24 malignant and five benign) treated by diathermy resection alone or in combination with endobronchial stenting have been reviewed. RESULTS--The major site of obstruction was the trachea in 14, main carina in seven, right main bronchus in six, and left main bronchus in two patients. Fifteen had received other forms of treatment beforehand including external radiotherapy, endoscopic dilatation, and laser resection (Nd:YAG). Five patients required two or more treatment sessions for symptom recurrence. Ten patients also received additional treatment with a stent (nine) or insertion of gold grains (one). There were no intraoperative deaths or complications and the average length of stay was five days (range 2-14). Twenty eight patients reported immediate symptomatic relief, and objective improvement in the results of lung function tests was seen in eight patients whose condition was less acute and where preoperative lung function tests could be undertaken (average improvement in FEV1 of 53.1% and in FVC of 20.6%). CONCLUSIONS--Bronchoscopic diathermy resection is an effective and safe method for relieving the symptoms of tracheobronchial obstruction at appreciably less cost than laser resection. Images PMID:8296261

  2. Comparison of the glidescope®, flexible fibreoptic intubating bronchoscope, iPhone modified bronchoscope, and the Macintosh laryngoscope in normal and difficult airways: a manikin study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smart phone technology is becoming increasingly integrated into medical care. Our study compared an iPhone modified flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope as an intubation aid and clinical teaching tool with an unmodified bronchoscope, Glidescope® and Macintosh laryngoscope in a simulated normal and difficult airway scenario. Methods Sixty three anaesthesia providers, 21 consultant anaesthetists, 21 registrars and 21 anaesthetic nurses attempted to intubate a MegaCode Kelly™ manikin, comparing a normal and difficult airway scenario for each device. Primary endpoints were time to view the vocal cords (TVC), time to successful intubation (TSI) and number of failed intubations with each device. Secondary outcomes included participant rated device usability and preference for each scenario. Advantages and disadvantages of the iPhone modified bronchoscope were also discussed. Results There was no significant difference in TVC with the iPhone modified bronchoscope compared with the Macintosh blade (P = 1.0) or unmodified bronchoscope (P = 0.155). TVC was significantly shorter with the Glidescope compared with the Macintosh blade (P < 0.001), iPhone (P < 0.001) and unmodified bronchoscope (P = 0.011). The iPhone bronchoscope TSI was significantly longer than all other devices (P < 0.001). There was no difference between anaesthetic consultant or registrar TVC (P = 1.0) or TSI (P = 0.252), with both being less than the nurses (P < 0.001). Consultant anaesthetists and nurses had a higher intubation failure rate with the iPhone modified bronchoscope compared with the registrars. Although more difficult to use, similar proportions of consultants (14/21), registrars (15/21) and nurses (15/21) indicated that they would be prepared to use the iPhone modified bronchoscope in their clinical practice. The Glidescope was rated easiest to use (P < 0.001) and was the preferred device by all participants for the difficult airway scenario

  3. Multimodal 3D PET/CT system for bronchoscopic procedure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Higgins, William E.

    2013-02-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) / computed-tomography (CT) scanners give 3D multimodal data sets of the chest. Such data sets offer the potential for more complete and specific identification of suspect lesions and lymph nodes for lung-cancer assessment. This in turn enables better planning of staging bronchoscopies. The richness of the data, however, makes the visualization and planning process difficult. We present an integrated multimodal 3D PET/CT system that enables efficient region identification and bronchoscopic procedure planning. The system first invokes a series of automated 3D image-processing methods that construct a 3D chest model. Next, the user interacts with a set of interactive multimodal graphical tools that facilitate procedure planning for specific regions of interest (ROIs): 1) an interactive region candidate list that enables efficient ROI viewing in all tools; 2) a virtual PET-CT bronchoscopy rendering with SUV quantitative visualization to give a "fly through" endoluminal view of prospective ROIs; 3) transverse, sagittal, coronal multi-planar reformatted (MPR) views of the raw CT, PET, and fused CT-PET data; and 4) interactive multimodal volume/surface rendering to give a 3D perspective of the anatomy and candidate ROIs. In addition the ROI selection process is driven by a semi-automatic multimodal method for region identification. In this way, the system provides both global and local information to facilitate more specific ROI identification and procedure planning. We present results to illustrate the system's function and performance.

  4. The effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in acute respiratory distress syndrome: experimental evidence from a lung model.

    PubMed

    Nay, M-A; Mankikian, J; Auvet, A; Dequin, P-F; Guillon, A

    2016-02-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is essential for appropriate care during mechanical ventilation, but can significantly affect mechanical ventilation of the lungs, particularly for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We aimed to describe the consequences of bronchoscopy during lung-protective ventilation in a bench study, and thereby to determine the optimal diameter of the bronchoscope for avoiding disruption of the protective-ventilation strategy during the procedure. Immediately following the insertion of the bronchoscope into the tracheal tube, either minute ventilation decreased significantly, or positive end-expiratory pressure increased substantially, according to the setting of the inspiratory pressure limit. The increase in end-expiratory pressure led to an equivalent increase in the plateau pressure, and lung-protective ventilation was significantly altered during the procedure. We showed that a bronchoscope with an external diameter of 4 mm (or less) would allow safer bronchoscopic interventions in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:26559154

  5. Amplification of residual DNA sequences in sterile bronchoscopes leading to false-positive PCR results.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, K; Luke, S; McGurn, C; Snowden, N; Monti, C; Fry, W A

    1996-01-01

    PCR has been used successfully for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in uncultured patient samples. Its potential is hindered by the risk of false-positive results as a result of either amplicon carryover of cross-contamination between patient samples. In the present study, we investigated whether residual amplifiable human or M. tuberculosis DNA could remain in sterile bronchoscopes and potentially be a cause of false-positive PCR results in subsequent patient samples. Sterilized bronchoscopes were flushed with sterile saline, and the collected eluate was submitted for PCR amplification of IS6110 sequences and exon 8 of the human p53 gene. Of a total of 55 washes of sterile bronchoscopes from two institutions, 2 (3.6%) contained amplifiable M. tuberculosis DNA and 11 (20%) contained residual human DNA. These findings indicate that residual DNA can remain in sterilized bronchoscopes and can be a source of false-positive PCR results. PMID:8818888

  6. A model of respiratory airway motion for real-time tracking of an ultrathin bronchoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, Timothy D.; Haynor, David R.; Glenny, Robb W.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2007-03-01

    Deformable registration of chest CT scans taken of a subject at various phases of respiration provide a direct measure of the spatially varying displacements that occur in the lung due to breathing. This respiratory motion was studied as part of the development of a CT-based guidance system for a new electromagnetically tracked ultrathin bronchoscope. Fifteen scans of an anesthesized pig were acquired at five distinct lung pressures between full expiration to full inspiration. Deformation fields were computed by non-rigid registration using symmetric "demons" forces followed by Gaussian regularization in a multi-resolution framework. Variants of the registration scheme were tested including: initial histogram matching of input images, degree of field smoothing during regularization, and applying an adaptive smoothing method that weights elements of the smoothing kernel by the magnitude of the image gradient. Registration quality was quantified and compared using inverse and transitive consistency metrics. After optimizing the algorithm parameters, deformation fields were computed by registering each image in the set to a baseline image. Registration of the baseline image at full inspiration to an image at full expiration produced the maximum deformation. Two hypotheses were made: first, that each deformation could be modeled as a mathematical sub-multiple of the maximum deformation, and second, that the deformation scales linearly with respiratory pressure. The discrepancy between the deformation measured by image registration and that predicted by the linear model was 1.25 mm on average. At maximum deformation, this motion compensation constitutes an 87% reduction in respiration-induced localization error.

  7. On scale invariant features and sequential Monte Carlo sampling for bronchoscope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luó, Xióngbiao; Feuerstein, Marco; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Natori, Hiroshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an improved bronchoscope tracking method for bronchoscopic navigation using scale invariant features and sequential Monte Carlo sampling. Although image-based methods are widely discussed in the community of bronchoscope tracking, they are still limited to characteristic information such as bronchial bifurcations or folds and cannot automatically resume the tracking procedure after failures, which result usually from problematic bronchoscopic video frames or airway deformation. To overcome these problems, we propose a new approach that integrates scale invariant feature-based camera motion estimation into sequential Monte Carlo sampling to achieve an accurate and robust tracking. In our approach, sequential Monte Carlo sampling is employed to recursively estimate the posterior probability densities of the bronchoscope camera motion parameters according to the observation model based on scale invariant feature-based camera motion recovery. We evaluate our proposed method on patient datasets. Experimental results illustrate that our proposed method can track a bronchoscope more accurate and robust than current state-of-the-art method, particularly increasing the tracking performance by 38.7% without using an additional position sensor.

  8. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    PubMed

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented. PMID:26867305

  9. Bronchoscopy: Diagnostic and Therapeutic for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas L; Berkheim, David B

    2016-07-01

    The bronchoscope has gone through much advancement from its origin as a thin metal tube. It has become a highly sophisticated tool for clinicians. Both rigid and the flexible bronchoscopes are invaluable in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment of this disease process hinges on accurate diagnosis and lymph node staging. Technologies, such as endobronchial ultrasound, navigational bronchoscopy, and autofluorescence, have improved efficacy of endobronchial diagnosis and sample collection. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery and has a complication from a centrally located mass, the bronchoscope has been used to deliver palliative therapies. PMID:27261910

  10. Bronchoscopic debulking for endobronchial malignancy: Predictors of recanalization and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Scott Chih-Hsi; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Chun-Liang; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Liu, Chien-Ying; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Central airway obstruction related to endobronchial malignancy is one of the most difficult oncological complications and requires efficient palliative intervention. Methods Fifty-three consecutive patients with unresectable endobronchial malignancy receiving bronchoscopic cryotherapy as palliative treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Efficiency was evaluated by the improvement of performance status (PS), and the best achievement of tumor removal was assessed as complete or partial removal. Result Patients’ PS after cryotherapeutic tumor removal improved from the baseline PS (P = 0.006). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the compression part of the tumor (odds ratio [OR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23∼0.75, P = 0.004) and the thin tumor stalk (OR 87.86; 95% CI 2.31∼3337.37, P = 0.016) were independent predictors of complete tumor removal. Tumors larger than 9.3 cm, including compression and invasion parts, had the highest odds of being only partially removed (positive predictive value [PPV]: 88.2%, likelihood ratio [LR]+: 10.49); tumors smaller than 9.3 cm were likely to be completely removed (negative predictive value [NPV]: 80.6%, LR−: 0.34). After cryotherapy, re-obstruction was significantly associated with non-squamous cell carcinoma (65.7 vs. 16.7%, P = 0.001) and patients who had longer overall survival (11.7 vs. 1.5 months, P < 0.001). Odds of tumor re-obstruction increased 2.28-fold (PPV: 81.6%, LR+: 2.28) beyond two months; the odds decreased by 81% (NPV: 73.3%, LR−: 0.19) within two months. Conclusion Debulking of a tumor using cryotherapy is a useful palliative treatment for endobronchial obstruction secondary to a variety of malignancies. PMID:26557910

  11. Advances in bronchoscopy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Dexter, Elisabeth U.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques have seen significant advances in the last decade. The development and refinement of different types of endobronchial ultrasound and navigation systems have led to improved diagnostic yield and lung cancer staging capabilities. The complication rate of these minimally invasive procedures is extremely low as compared to traditional transthoracic needle biopsy and surgical sampling. These advances augment the safe array of methods utilized in the work up and management algorithms of lung cancer. PMID:23346012

  12. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  17. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration.

    PubMed

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications. PMID:23257641

  18. Observation-driven adaptive differential evolution and its application to accurate and smooth bronchoscope three-dimensional motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Wan, Ying; He, Xiangjian; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes an observation-driven adaptive differential evolution algorithm that fuses bronchoscopic video sequences, electromagnetic sensor measurements, and computed tomography images for accurate and smooth bronchoscope three-dimensional motion tracking. Currently an electromagnetic tracker with a position sensor fixed at the bronchoscope tip is commonly used to estimate bronchoscope movements. The large tracking error from directly using sensor measurements, which may be deteriorated heavily by patient respiratory motion and the magnetic field distortion of the tracker, limits clinical applications. How to effectively use sensor measurements for precise and stable bronchoscope electromagnetic tracking remains challenging. We here exploit an observation-driven adaptive differential evolution framework to address such a challenge and boost the tracking accuracy and smoothness. In our framework, two advantageous points are distinguished from other adaptive differential evolution methods: (1) the current observation including sensor measurements and bronchoscopic video images is used in the mutation equation and the fitness computation, respectively and (2) the mutation factor and the crossover rate are determined adaptively on the basis of the current image observation. The experimental results demonstrate that our framework provides much more accurate and smooth bronchoscope tracking than the state-of-the-art methods. Our approach reduces the tracking error from 3.96 to 2.89 mm, improves the tracking smoothness from 4.08 to 1.62 mm, and increases the visual quality from 0.707 to 0.741. PMID:25660001

  19. Lung volume reduction therapies for advanced emphysema: an update.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert L; Decamp, Malcolm M; Criner, Gerard J; Celli, Bartolome R

    2010-08-01

    Observational and randomized studies provide convincing evidence that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves symptoms, lung function, exercise tolerance, and life span in well-defined subsets of patients with emphysema. Yet, in the face of an estimated 3 million patients with emphysema in the United States, < 15 LVRS operations are performed monthly under the aegis of Medicare, in part because of misleading reporting in lay and medical publications suggesting that the operation is associated with prohibitive risks and offers minimal benefits. Thus, a treatment with proven potential for palliating and prolonging life may be underutilized. In an attempt to lower risks and cost, several bronchoscopic strategies (bronchoscopic emphysema treatment [BET]) to reduce lung volume have been introduced. The following three methods have been tested in some depth: (1) unidirectional valves that allow exit but bar entry of gas to collapse targeted hyperinflated portions of the lung and reduce overall volume; (2) biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) that involves intrabronchial administration of a biocompatible complex to collapse, inflame, scar, and shrink the targeted emphysematous lung; and (3) airway bypass tract (ABT) or creation of stented nonanatomic pathways between hyperinflated pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree to decompress and reduce the volume of oversized lung. The results of pilot and randomized pivotal clinical trials suggest that the bronchoscopic strategies are associated with lower mortality and morbidity but are also less efficient than LVRS. Most bronchoscopic approaches improve quality-of-life measures without supportive physiologic or exercise tolerance benefits. Although there is promise of limited therapeutic influence, the available information is not sufficient to recommend use of bronchoscopic strategies for treating emphysema. PMID:20682529

  20. Evaluation of primary lung cancer with indium 111 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (type ZCE-025) monoclonal antibody scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Morris, J.F.; Antonovic, R.; Ahmed, A.; Galey, W.T.; Duncan, C.; Krishnamurthy, G.T. )

    1990-02-01

    A study was undertaken to test whether indium 111 (111In)-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (type ZCE 025) monoclonal intact antibody (MoAb) would concentrate in primary lung cancer enabling its detection and localization by scintigraphy. The scintigraphic results were correlated with chest radiograph, computed tomograph (CT), bronchoscopy, surgical resection, and tumor CEA analysis. Twenty adult male patients with clinical suspicion of primary lung cancer were studied. Each subject was infused with 4 to 5 mCi of 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb, and planar and tomographic scintiphotos were obtained on days 3 and 6 or 7 postinfusion. The scintigraphy was true-positive in 12 of 16 patients with primary lung cancer, eight of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and four of seven with adenocarcinoma; it was true-negative in three of four patients with benign lung disease with an overall accuracy of 75%. In seven patients with confirmed primary lung cancer, but with negative bronchoscopic findings, the scintigraphy was true-positive in four. In 11 patients with definitely positive or suspicious malignancy by bronchoscopy the monoclonal scintigraphy was positive in eight. In true-positive cases, the location and size of the lesion by 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb imaging correlated well with CT findings and also tumor mass at surgery. Only one of 12 tumors stained positive for CEA had serum CEA levels greater than 10 ng/ml, indicating nonleakage of the tumor antigen into general circulation in early lung cancer. It is concluded that 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb planar and tomographic imaging shows potential to serve as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of primary lung cancer. The lung lesion is likely to be malignant if it concentrates 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb and benign if it does not.

  1. Outbreak of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections related to contaminated bronchoscope suction valves, Lyon, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Guy, Marine; Vanhems, Philippe; Dananché, Cédric; Perraud, Michel; Regard, Anne; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Bertrand, Xavier; Crozon-Clauzel, Jullien; Floccard, Bernard; Argaud, Laurent; Cassier, Pierre; Bénet, Thomas

    2016-07-14

    In April 2014, pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia co-infections potentially related to bronchoscopic procedures were identified in the intensive care units of a university hospital in Lyon, France. A retrospective cohort of 157 patients exposed to bronchoscopes from 1 December 2013 to 17 June 2014 was analysed. Environmental samples of suspected endoscopes were cultured. Bronchoscope disinfection was reviewed. Ten cases of pulmonary P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia co-infections were identified, including two patients with secondary pneumonia. Eight cases were linked to bronchoscope A1 and two to bronchoscope A2. Cultures deriving from suction valves were positive for P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia. Exposure to bronchoscopes A1 and A2 was independently coupled with increased risk of co-infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 84.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.3-771.6 and aOR = 11.8, 95% CI: 1.2-121.3). Isolates from suction valves and clinical samples presented identical pulsotypes. The audit detected deficiencies in endoscope disinfection. No further cases occurred after discontinuation of the implicated bronchoscopes and change in cleaning procedures. This outbreak of pulmonary P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia co-infections was caused by suction valve contamination of two bronchoscopes of the same manufacturer. Our findings underscore the need to test suction valves, in addition to bronchoscope channels, for routine detection of bacteria. PMID:27458712

  2. Bronchoscopic assessment of airway retention time of aerosolized xylitol

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Lakshmi; Neelakantan, Srividya; Launspach, Janice; Watt, Janet L; Allaman, Margaret M; Kearney, William R; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Zabner, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Background Human airway surface liquid (ASL) has abundant antimicrobial peptides whose potency increases as the salt concentration decreases. Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that has the ability to lower ASL salt concentration, potentially enhancing innate immunity. Xylitol was detected for 8 hours in the ASL after application in airway epithelium in vitro. We tested the airway retention time of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in healthy volunteers. Methods After a screening spirometry, volunteers received 10 ml of nebulized 5% xylitol. Bronchoscopy was done at 20 minutes (n = 6), 90 minutes (n = 6), and 3 hours (n = 5) after nebulization and ASL was collected using microsampling probes, followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Xylitol concentration was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and corrected for dilution using urea concentration. Results All subjects tolerated nebulization and bronchoscopy well. Mean ASL volume recovered from the probes was 49 ± 23 μl. The mean ASL xylitol concentration at 20, 90, and 180 minutes was 1.6 ± 1.9 μg/μl, 0.6 ± 0.6 μg/μl, and 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/μl, respectively. Corresponding BAL concentration corrected for dilution was consistently lower at all time points. The terminal half-life of aerosolized xylitol obtained by the probes was 45 minutes with a mean residence time of 65 minutes in ASL. Corresponding BAL values were 36 and 50 minutes, respectively. Conclusion After a single dose nebulization, xylitol was detected in ASL for 3 hours, which was shorter than our in vitro measurement. The microsampling probe performed superior to BAL when sampling bronchial ASL. PMID:16483382

  3. ML 3.1 developer's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML development was started in 1997 by Ray Tuminaro and Charles Tong. Currently, there are several full- and part-time developers. The kernel of ML is written in ANSI C, and there is a rich C++ interface for Trilinos users and developers. ML can be customized to run geometric and algebraic multigrid; it can solve a scalar or a vector equation (with constant number of equations per grid node), and it can solve a form of Maxwell's equations. For a general introduction to ML and its applications, we refer to the Users Guide [SHT04], and to the ML web site, http://software.sandia.gov/ml.

  4. Two cases of endobronchial aspergilloma with lung cancer: a review the literature of endobronchial aspergilloma with underlying malignant lesions of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shenghua; Jiang, Luning; Shan, Fenglian; Zhang, Xiulian; Song, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial aspergilloma is a rare disease entity with pulmonary involvement of aspergillus. Few cases of endobronchial aspergilloma associated with malignant lesions have been reported in the literature. We present 2 more cases of endobronchial aspergilloma with underlying lung cancer. And summarize the published literatures to investigate the clinical manifestations, bronchoscopic characters, imaging performances in patients with endobronchial aspergilloma with underlying malignant lesions of the lung. A review of the literature reveals 8 cases of endobronchial aspergilloma with coexisting lung malignant lesions upon presentation. The medical details of the patients including age, sex, clinical symptoms, radiological manifestations bronchoscopic characters, diagnosis and treatment are summarized. Endobronchial aspergilloma is usually incidentally detected in patients with underlying lung disease. With the increasing popularity of flexible bronchoscopy, it is being recognized as a necrotic mass causing bronchial obstruction. We should be paid more attention to prevent misdiagnosis of combined endobronchial aspergilloma and lung malignant diseases. PMID:26629257

  5. Impacted Sharp Oesophageal Foreign Bodies--A Novel Technique of Removal with the Paediatric Bronchoscope.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aparajita; Bajpai, Minu

    2016-04-01

    Sharp foreign bodies in the oesophagus may present as an entirely asymptomatic child with only radiological evidence but require emergent surgical management. Safety pins, razor blades and needles are a few of the commonly ingested sharp objects in developing countries. The open safety pin is a particularly interesting clinical problem, as the management depends on its location and orientation. Many methods and instruments have been used over the years to remove them from the upper digestive tract. We present a novel method using the rigid paediatric bronchoscope and alligator forceps for the extraction of this unusual foreign body from the oesophagus of a 6 year old girl. PMID:26851436

  6. Comparison of diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kanoksil, Wasana; Laungdamerongchai, Sarangrat

    2015-01-01

    Background There are many sampling techniques dedicated to radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) guided flexible bronchoscopy (FB). However, data regarding the diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques is limited. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic yields among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Methods A prospective study was conducted on 112 patients who were diagnosed with PPLs and underwent R-EBUS-guided FB between Oct 2012 and Sep 2014. Sampling techniques—including transbronchial biopsy (TBB), brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed fluid of brushing, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)—were evaluated for the diagnosis. Results The mean diameter of the PPLs was 23.5±9.5 mm. The final diagnoses included 76 malignancies and 36 benign lesions. The overall diagnostic yield of R-EBUS-guided bronchoscopy was 80.4%; TBB gave the highest yield among the 112 specimens: 70.5%, 34.8%, 62.5%, 50.0% and 42.0% for TBB, brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed brushing fluid, and BAL fluid (BALF), respectively (P<0.001). TBB provided high diagnostic yield irrespective of the size and etiology of the PPLs. The combination of TBB and brushing smear achieved the maximum diagnostic yield. Of 31 infectious PPLs, BALF culture gave additional microbiological information in 20 cases. Conclusions TBB provided the highest diagnostic yield; however, to achieve the highest diagnostic performance, TBB, brushing smear and BAL techniques should be performed together. PMID:25973236

  7. Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in adults: experience with 62 patients from 1974-1998.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, A; Sorli, J; Music, E; Kecelj, P

    1999-10-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with therapeutic bronchoscopy for removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in the adult. Bronchoscopy records and collection of foreign bodies in the endoscopic department were retrospectively examined. Among 37,466 bronchoscopies performed between 1974-1998, 62 (0.2%) were performed for the removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Medical history was suggestive of foreign body aspiration in 33 patients and the chest radiograph was suggestive in 10 patients. The procedure was performed with the flexible bronchoscope in 42 patients (68%), rigid bronchoscope in 4 (6%), and with both in 16 (26%) patients. Foreign bodies were found in the right bronchial tree on 42 occasions, in the left on 20 and in the trachea once. In 39 patients, inflammatory granulations were found around the foreign body. The origins of the foreign bodies included: bone fragments (n=31), vegetable (n=10), broncholith (n=8), a part of dental prosthesis (n=7), endodontic needle (n=2), a metallic (n=2), or plastic (n=1) particle, a tracheostomy tube (n=1) and a match (n=1). In one patient, 2 foreign bodies were found. The foreign bodies were successfully removed in all but 2 patients (3%). The most useful instruments for removal were alligator forceps and the wire basket. Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial system are rare in adults. They can be successfully removed in the majority of patients under either flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:10573222

  8. Transbronchial Dissemination of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Tomoya; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Bandoh, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung cancer with transbronchial dissemination in a 73-year-old man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple bronchial mucosal nodules that existed independently of one another. We reviewed 16 previous cases of endobronchial metastasis in lung cancer. All patients were men. Among the reports that described the smoking history, most patients were smokers (6/7), and the most frequent histological type of cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (11/17). Although hematogenous and lymphogenous routes have been reported as metastatic mechanisms, no previous cases involving transbronchial dissemination have been described. Transbronchial dissemination may be an alternative pathway of endobronchial metastasis. PMID:26672760

  9. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  10. Anesthesia for Advanced Bronchoscopic Procedures: State-of-the-Art Review.

    PubMed

    Goudra, Basavana G; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Farid, Nahla; Harris, Kassem

    2015-08-01

    The bronchoscopic procedures have seen a remarkable increase in both numbers and complexity. Although many anesthesia providers have kept pace with the challenge, the practice is varied and frequently suboptimal. Shared airway during bronchoscopy poses unique challenges. The available reviews have tried to address this lacuna; however, these have frequently dealt with the technical aspects of bronchoscopy than anesthetic challenges. The present review provides evidence-based management insights into anesthesia for bronchoscopy-both flexible and rigid. A systematic approach toward pre-procedural evaluation and risk stratification is presented. The possible anatomical and physiological factors that can influence the outcomes are discussed. Pharmacological principles guiding sedation levels and appropriate selection of sedatives form the crux of safe anesthetic management. The newer and safer drugs that can have potential role in anesthesia for bronchoscopy in the near future are discussed. Ventilatory strategies during bronchoscopy for prevention of hypoxia and hypercarbia are emphasized. PMID:25921014

  11. Bronchoscopic intubation during continuous nasal positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarevic, Igor; Berlin, David

    2015-03-01

    Endotracheal intubation is difficult in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure who deteriorate despite treatment with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Maintaining NIPPV during intubation may prevent alveolar derecruitment and deterioration in gas exchange. We report a case series of 10 nonconsecutive patients with NIPPV failure who were intubated via a flexible bronchoscope during nasal mask positive pressure ventilation. All 10 patients were intubated in the first attempt. Hypotension was the most frequent complication (33%). Mean decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation during the procedure was 4.7 ± 3.1. This method of intubation may extend the benefits of preoxygenation throughout the whole process of endotracheal intubation. It requires an experienced operator and partially cooperative patients. A prospective trial is necessary to determine the best intubation method for NIPPV failure. PMID:24243561

  12. Flexible bronchoscopic management of benign tracheal stenosis: long term follow-up of 115 patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of benign tracheal stenosis (BTS) varies with the type and extent of the disease and influenced by the patient's age and general health status, hence we sought to investigate the long-term outcome of patients with BTS that underwent minimally invasive bronchoscopic treatment. Methods Patients with symptomatic BTS were treated with flexible bronchoscopy therapeutic modalities that included the following: balloon dilatation, laser photo-resection, self-expanding metal stent placement, and High-dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy used in cases of refractory stent-related granulation tissue formation. Results A total of 115 patients with BTS and various cardiac and respiratory co-morbidities with a mean age of 61 (range 40-88) were treated between January 2001 and January 2009. The underlining etiologies for BTS were post - endotracheal intubation (N = 76) post-tracheostomy (N = 30), Wegener's granulomatosis (N = 2), sarcoidosis (N = 2), amyloidosis (N = 2) and idiopathic BTS (N = 3). The modalities used were: balloon dilatation and laser treatment (N = 98). Stent was placed in 33 patients of whom 28 also underwent brachytherapy. Complications were minor and mostly included granulation tissue formation. The overall success rate was 87%. Over a median follow-up of 51 months (range 10-100 months), 30 patients (26%) died, mostly due to exacerbation of their underlying conditions. Conclusions BTS in elderly patients with co-morbidities can be safely and effectively treated by flexible bronchoscopic treatment modalities. The use of HDR brachytherapy to treat granulation tissue formation following successful airway restoration is promising. PMID:20078894

  13. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer: a treatment option for patients ineligible for surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Thorpe, James Andrew Charles; Stringer, Mark; Oxtoby, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review the Yorkshire Laser Centre experience with bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer in subjects not eligible for surgery and to discuss diagnostic problems and the indications for PDT in such cases. Methods Of 200 patients undergoing bronchoscopic PDT, 21 had early central lung cancer and were entered into a prospective study. Patients underwent standard investigations including white light bronchoscopy in all and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in 12 of the most recent cases. Indications for bronchoscopic PDT were recurrence/metachronous endobronchial lesions following previous treatment with curative intent in 10 patients (11 lesions), ineligibility for surgery because of poor cardiorespiratory function in 8 patients (9 lesions) and declined consent to operation in 3 patients. PDT consisted of intravenous administration of Photofrin 2 mg/kg followed by bronchoscopic illumination 24–48 h later. Results 29 treatments were performed in 21 patients (23 lesions). There was no procedure‐related or 30 day mortality. One patient developed mild skin photosensitivity. All patients expressed satisfaction with the treatment and had a complete response of variable duration. Six patients died at 3–103 months (mean 39.3), three of which were not as a result of cancer. Fifteen patients were alive at 12–82 months. Conclusion Bronchoscopic PDT in early central lung cancer can achieve long disease‐free survival and should be considered as a treatment option in those ineligible for resection. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is a valuable complementary investigation for identification of synchronous lesions and accurate illumination in bronchoscopic PDT. PMID:17090572

  14. Use of endobronchial valves for native lung hyperinflation associated with respiratory failure in a single-lung transplant recipient for emphysema.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maria M; Johnson, Bruce A; McCurry, Kenneth R; Landreneau, Rodney J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    Emphysema is a common indication for adult pulmonary transplantation. Double-lung transplantation is increasingly the preferred approach because severe posttransplant native lung hyperinflation (NLH) following single-lung transplantation may compromise allograft lung function. We describe successful emergency use of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves (EBVs) [Zephyr; Emphasys Medical; Redwood, CA] in a single-lung transplant recipient who was critically ill with ventilator dependence from complications of NLH and at excessive risk for lung volume reduction surgery or pneumonectomy. Following placement of 17 valves in all segments of the native lung, atelectasis of the native lung was accompanied by volume expansion of the allograft. Immediately following valve placement, peak airway pressure decreased and alveolar ventilation increased. The patient was subsequently weaned from mechanical ventilation. This report suggests the need for clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of EBVs in single-lung transplant recipients with less critical functional impairment associated with NLH. PMID:17218578

  15. Real-time bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation using multiple sensor-driven alignment of CT images and electromagnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-09-01

    Bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation plays a key role in developing bronchoscopic navigation systems. Currently external tracking devices, particularly electromagnetic trackers with electromagnetic sensors, are increasingly introduced to navigate surgical tools in pre-clinical images. An unavoidable problem, which is to align the electromagnetic tracker to pre-clinical images, must be solved before navigation. This paper proposes a multiple sensor-driven registration method to establish this alignment without using any anatomical fiducials. Although current fiducially free registration methods work well, they limit to the initialization of optimization and manipulating the bronchoscope along the bronchial centerlines, which could be failed easily during clinical interventions. To address these limitations, we utilize measurements of multiple electromagnetic sensors to calculate bronchoscope geometric center positions that are usually closer to the bronchial centerlines than the sensor itself measured positions. We validated our method on a bronchial phantom. The experimental results demonstrate that our idea of using multiple sensors to determine bronchoscope geometric center positions for fiducial-free registration was very effective. Compared to currently available methods in bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation, our method reduced fiducial alignment error from at least 6.79 to 4.68-5.26 mm and significantly improved motion estimation or tracking accuracy from at least 5.42 to 3.78-4.53 mm. PMID:25002104

  16. Successful Treatment of Tracheal Invasion Caused by Thyroid Cancer Using Endotracheal Tube Balloon Inflation under Flexible Bronchoscopic Guidance.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang-Hee; Jung, Bock-Hyun; Kwon, Jun Sung; Lim, Jaemin

    2014-11-01

    Tracheal invasion is an uncommon complication of thyroid cancer, but it can cause respiratory failure. A rigid bronchoscope may be used to help relieve airway obstruction, but general anesthesia is usually required. Tracheal balloon dilatation and stent insertion can be performed without general anesthesia, but complete airway obstruction during balloon inflation may be dangerous in some patients. Additionally, placement of the stent adjacent to the vocal cords can be technically challenging. An 86-year-old female patient with tracheal invasion resulting from thyroid cancer was admitted to our hospital because of worsening dyspnea. Due to the patient's refusal of general anesthesia and the interventional radiologist's difficulty in completing endotracheal stenting, we performed endotracheal tube balloon dilatation and argon plasma coagulation. We have successfully treated tracheal obstruction in the patient with thyroid cancer by using endotracheal tube balloon inflation and a flexible bronchoscope without general anesthesia or airway obstruction during balloon inflation. PMID:25473409

  17. Glued lungs: Sticky and tricky

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Deepak; Nair, Vidya; Khanna, Arjun; Dogra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes. This case highlights a serious complication of intrabronchial cyanoacrylate gluing to control bleeding in hemoptysis, which might warrant its very cautious use in moderate hemoptysis although surgical modality is considered the definitive treatment in life-threatening hemoptysis. PMID:27625448

  18. Bronchoplastic procedures for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Naruke, T; Yoneyama, T; Ogata, T; Suemasu, K

    1977-06-01

    Twenty patients with lung cancer have undergone bronchoplastic procedures September, 1965, to June, 1976 in our hospital. Bronchoplastic procedures are considered to be indicated for early cases of hilar lung cancer rather than for somewhat advanced cases. Endoscopic examination and roentgenograms of the bronchial arteries are needed to delineate resectional lines of bronchus, the former for deciding the mucosal extent and the latter the intrabronchial extent of the tumor. The bronchoplastic procedures we adopted were free from the risks and dangers generally accompanying the operation, and there were no postoperative deaths. For the prevention of postoperative complications, careful attention to suture technique is needed, and postoperative bronchoscopic suction of intrabronchial secretions is absolutely necessary. These procedures assure good quality of life postoperatively and improvement in the survival rate by preserving pulmonary function, enhancing curability, and increasing the operative indications. These advantages warrant high evaluation of the operation. PMID:870767

  19. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  20. Exploration under the dome: Esophageal ultrasound with the ultrasound bronchoscope is indispensible

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Nikhil; Hulett, Cidney; Patolia, Setu; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective use of the convex curvilinear ultrasound bronchoscope in the esophagus (EUS-B) for fine needle aspiration biopsy of mediastinal structures is now well described. In contrast, there is little to no reporting, depending on the site of EUS-B for access to sub-diaphragmatic structures. Our practice has been accessing sub-diaphragmatic sites for years. This review documents our experience with EUS-B to biopsy liver, left adrenal glands, and coeliac lymph nodes. Methods: After Institutional Review Board's approval, all endosonographic procedures performed by interventional pulmonary between July 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed. Those including biopsy of sub-diaphragmatic sites were then selected for analysis. Results: Over the study interval, 45 sub-diaphragmatic biopsy procedures (25 left adrenal glands, 7 liver, and 13 celiac node) were performed with EUS-B. In all cases, cellular adequacy was present, and samples were large enough for immunohistochemistry and any relevant ancillary studies. Metastatic malignancy was documented in 58% of cases, 16% of cases contained benign diagnostic findings, and in 27% of cases, normal organ tissue was documented. There were no complications. Conclusions: Operators comfortable with the endobronchial ultrasound scope in both the airway and the esophagus can actively seek and successfully perform biopsy of sub-diaphragmatic abnormalities when present and can thereby add to the diagnostic value of the procedure. PMID:27503158

  1. Towards hybrid bronchoscope tracking under respiratory motion: evaluation on a dynamic motion phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Feuerstein, Marco; Sugiura, Takamasa; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a hybrid camera tracking method that uses electromagnetic (EM) tracking and intensitybased image registration and its evaluation on a dynamic motion phantom. As respiratory motion can significantly affect rigid registration of the EM tracking and CT coordinate systems, a standard tracking approach that initializes intensity-based image registration with absolute pose data acquired by EM tracking will fail when the initial camera pose is too far from the actual pose. We here propose two new schemes to address this problem. Both of these schemes intelligently combine absolute pose data from EM tracking with relative motion data combined from EM tracking and intensity-based image registration. These schemes significantly improve the overall camera tracking performance. We constructed a dynamic phantom simulating the respiratory motion of the airways to evaluate these schemes. Our experimental results demonstrate that these schemes can track a bronchoscope more accurately and robustly than our previously proposed method even when maximum simulated respiratory motion reaches 24 mm.

  2. FieldML: concepts and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, G. Richard; Nielsen, Poul M.F.; Blackett, Shane A.; Bradley, Chris P.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The field modelling language FieldML is being developed as a standard for modelling and interchanging field descriptions in software, suitable for a wide range of computation techniques. It comprises a rich set of operators for defining generalized fields as functions of other fields, starting with basic domain fields including sets of discrete objects and coordinate systems. It is extensible by adding new operators and by their arbitrary combination in expressions, making it well suited for describing the inherent complexity of biological materials and organ systems. This paper describes the concepts behind FieldML, including a simple example of a spatially varying finite-element field. It outlines current implementations in established, open source computation and visualization software, both drawing on decades of bioengineering modelling software development experience. PMID:19380316

  3. Modelling biological modularity with CellML.

    PubMed

    Cooling, M T; Hunter, P; Crampin, E J

    2008-03-01

    In recent years advances in the construction of mathematical models of biological systems have yielded an array of valuable constructs. The authors seek to provide a 'leading practice' method for implementing modularised kinetic mass-action models in order to obtain a number of advantages in model construction, validation and derived insights. The authors advocate the consideration of 'accounting cycles' or 'chains' to define 'functional' components and the separate consideration of 'messenger' components for mobile or diffusive molecular species. From a conceptual modularisation the authors illustrate, with an example drawn from signal transduction, a component-based formulation in the model exchange format cellular modelling markup language (CellML) 1.1 - demonstrating loose coupling between functionally-focused reusable components. Finally, the authors discuss the dilemmas associated with modelling protein-to-protein interactions, and the vision for using future CellML enhancements to resolve potential duplications when combining independently developed models. PMID:18397118

  4. CytometryML and other data formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    Cytology automation and research will be enhanced by the creation of a common data format. This data format would provide the pathology and research communities with a uniform way for annotating and exchanging images, flow cytometry, and associated data. This specification and/or standard will include descriptions of the acquisition device, staining, the binary representations of the image and list-mode data, the measurements derived from the image and/or the list-mode data, and descriptors for clinical/pathology and research. An international, vendor-supported, non-proprietary specification will allow pathologists, researchers, and companies to develop and use image capture/analysis software, as well as list-mode analysis software, without worrying about incompatibilities between proprietary vendor formats. Presently, efforts to create specifications and/or descriptions of these formats include the Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification; extensions to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM); Open Microscopy Environment (OME); Flowcyt, an extension to the present Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS); and CytometryML. The feasibility of creating a common data specification for digital microscopy and flow cytometry in a manner consistent with its use for medical devices and interoperability with both hospital information and picture archiving systems has been demonstrated by the creation of the CytometryML schemas. The feasibility of creating a software system for digital microscopy has been demonstrated by the OME. CytometryML consists of schemas that describe instruments and their measurements. These instruments include digital microscopes and flow cytometers. Optical components including the instruments' excitation and emission parts are described. The description of the measurements made by these instruments includes the tagged molecule, data acquisition subsystem, and the format of the list-mode and/or image data. Many

  5. Effects of leukotriene B4 in the human lung. Recruitment of neutrophils into the alveolar spaces without a change in protein permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T R; Pistorese, B P; Chi, E Y; Goodman, R B; Matthay, M A

    1989-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major product of human alveolar macrophages and has potent chemotactic activity for neutrophils (PMN) in vitro. To evaluate the effects of LTB4 in the normal human lung, we instilled LTB4 (5 X 10(-7)M, 10 ml) into a subsegment of the right middle lobe and 0.9% NaCl (10 ml) into a subsegment of the lingula using a fiberoptic bronchoscope in 12 healthy human volunteers. 4 h later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage of the same subsegments. Compared with the NaCl instillation, LTB4 caused a large increase in lavage total cells (NaCl = 6.8 +/- 1.0 X 10(6) vs. LTB4 = 26.4 +/- 5.0 X 10(6), P less than 0.01), most of which were PMN (NaCl = 12.2 +/- 4.6% vs. LTB4 = 55.7 +/- 6.0%, P less than 0.001). In contrast, there was only a small increase in lavage total protein, and the lavage total protein correlated weakly with lavage total cells and PMN. The production of superoxide anion by the lavage PMN in response to phorbol myristate acetate was similar to that of peripheral blood PMN. The migration of lavage PMN was normal toward the chemotactic peptide FMLP, but reduced toward LTB4 and zymosan-activated human serum. Morphometric analysis using transmission electron microscopy indicated a selective loss of small granules in the lung neutrophils as compared with peripheral blood neutrophils. The data indicate that in the normal human lung, LTB4 can recruit active PMN into the airspaces without causing a significant change in the protein permeability of the epithelial barrier. Images PMID:2553777

  6. CytometryML binary data standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2005-03-01

    CytometryML is a proposed new Analytical Cytology (Cytomics) data standard, which is based on a common set of XML schemas for encoding flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types (metadata). CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. The separation of the large binary data objects (list mode and image data) from the XML description of the metadata permits the metadata to be directly displayed, analyzed, and reported with standard commercial software packages; the direct use of XML languages; and direct interfacing with clinical information systems. The separation of the binary data into its own files simplifies parsing because all extraneous header data has been eliminated. The storage of images as two-dimensional arrays without any extraneous data, such as in the Adobe Photoshop RAW format, facilitates the development by scientists of their own analysis and visualization software. Adobe Photoshop provided the display infrastructure and the translation facility to interconvert between the image data from commercial formats and RAW format. Similarly, the storage and parsing of list mode binary data type with a group of parameters that are specified at compilation time is straight forward. However when the user is permitted at run-time to select a subset of the parameters and/or specify results of mathematical manipulations, the development of special software was required. The use of CytometryML will permit investigators to be able to create their own interoperable data analysis software and to employ commercially available software to disseminate their data.

  7. Aerosol delivery and safety of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease in young children with cystic fibrosis: a bronchoscopic study. Pulmozyme Pediatric Broncoscopy Study Group.

    PubMed

    Wagener, J S; Rock, M J; McCubbin, M M; Hamilton, S D; Johnson, C A; Ahrens, R C

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the delivery to the lungs and the short-term safety of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase, Pulmozyme) in children with cystic fibrosis younger than 5 years of age compared with older children. Patients between the ages of 3 months and 10 years had bronchoscopic examination with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after administration of an aerosol dose of 2.5 mg of rhDNase. After recovery from the procedure, patients were discharged home for an additional 13 days of rhDNase therapy. During this time adverse events were recorded to assess short-term safety. A total of 98 patients were enrolled, 65 (66%) aged 3 months to 5 years and 33 (34%) aged 5 years to 10 years. Deoxyribonuclease concentrations in BAL fluid were variable (interquartile range, 752 to 3943 micrograms/mL epithelial lining fluid [ELF]) and did not depend on patient age, weight, or height or differ when delivered through a mouthpiece or mask. The median value for the BAL DNA concentration in the younger group was 432 micrograms/mL ELF compared with 703 micrograms/mL ELF in the older patients. This study demonstrates the value of bronchoscopy and BAL for assessing nebulized medication delivery in young children and shows that aerosolized medications can be delivered to and are present in comparable amounts in the lower airways of younger and older children. Exposure to rhDNase appears to be safe over 2 weeks in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis. PMID:9787685

  8. Evaluation of Endotracheal Intubation with a Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope in Lateral Patient Positioning: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Wu; Lu, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Lei, Li-Pei; Fang, Xiang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an unmet need for a reliable method of airway management for patients in the lateral position. This prospective randomized controlled two-center study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of intubation using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in the lateral position during surgery. Methods: Seventy-two patients scheduled for elective nonobstetric surgery in the lateral decubitus position requiring tracheal intubation under general anesthesia at Lishui Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province and Jiaxing First Hospital of Zhejiang Province from April 1, 2015, to September 30, 2015, were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the supine position group (Group S, n = 38) and the lateral position group (Group L, n = 34). Experienced anesthetists performed tracheal intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope after general anesthesia. The time required for intubation, intubation success rates, and hemodynamic changes was recorded. Between-group differences were assessed using the Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Results: The median total time to tracheal intubation was significantly longer in Group S (140.0 [135.8, 150.0] s) compared to Group L (33.0 [24.0, 38.8] s) (P < 0.01). The first-attempt intubation success rate was significantly higher in Group L (97%) compared to Group S (16%). Hemodynamic changes immediately after intubation were more exaggerated in Group S compared to Group L (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Endotracheal intubation with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope may be an effective and timesaving technique for patients in the lateral position. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-IIR-16007814; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=13183. PMID:27569229

  9. Emphysema: coiling up the lungs, trick or treat?

    PubMed

    Bezzi, M; Mondoni, M; Sorino, C; Solidoro, P

    2015-08-01

    Lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is a minimally-invasive technique planned to achieve an improvement of exercise capacity and pulmonary function in subjects with advanced emphysema and hyperinflation. It has been proposed together with other bronchoscopic lung volume reduction approaches to reduce lung hyperinflation in emphysema as less invasive alternatives to LVRS and are currently under clinical investigation. Following the successful early experiences in previous pilot trials, recent studies allow further investigation into the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a multi-center setting in a larger group of patients. According to this studies we can state that LVR coil treatment results in significant clinical improvements in patients with severe emphysema, in multicenter analysis, with a good safety profile and sustained results for up to 1 year. The literature on endobronchial coils continues to look promising with an acceptable safety profile, and positive long-term follow-up data are certainly more and more available. However, further well-designed, blinded, placebo (or sham) controlled trials, and even randomized trials against LVRS (lung volume reduction surgery), are needed before routine clinical use can be recommended. This is true not only for endobronchial coils, but also for the whole field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. PMID:27427120

  10. Pulmonary infiltrates in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic approach using non-invasive and bronchoscopic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rano, A; Agusti, C; Jimenez, P; Angrill, J; Benito, N; Danes, C; Gonzalez, J; Rovira, M; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A; Torres, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent life threatening complication in immunocompromised patients, requiring early diagnosis and specific treatment. In the present study non-invasive and bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques were applied in patients with different non-HIV immunocompromised conditions to determine the aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates and to evaluate the impact of these methods on therapeutic decisions and outcome in this population.
METHODS—The non-invasive diagnostic methods included serological tests, blood antigen detection, and blood, nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), sputum and tracheobronchial aspirate (TBAS) cultures. Bronchoscopic techniques included fibrobronchial aspirate (FBAS), protected specimen brush (PSB), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Two hundred consecutive episodes of pulmonary infiltrates were prospectively evaluated during a 30 month period in 52 solid organ transplant recipients, 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 68 patients with haematological malignancies, and 27 patients requiring chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs.
RESULTS—An aetiological diagnosis was obtained in 162 (81%) of the 200 patients. The aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates was infectious in 125 (77%) and non-infectious in 37 (23%); 38 (19%) remained undiagnosed. The main infectious aetiologies were bacterial (48/125, 24%), fungal (33/125, 17%), and viral (20/125, 10%), and the most frequent pathogens were Aspergillus fumigatus (n=29), Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12). Among the non-infectious aetiologies, pulmonary oedema (16/37, 43%) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (10/37, 27%) were the most common causes. Non-invasive techniques led to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in 41% of the cases in which they were used; specifically, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 30/191 (16%); sputum cultures 27/88 (31%); NPW 9/50 (18

  11. Sealing of tracheoesophageal fistula using a Y stent through fiberoptic bronchoscope during general anesthesia under laryngeal mask airway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Yang, Pingliang; Zuo, Yunxia

    2014-01-01

    A 64-yr-old man was admitted because of repeated pneumonia. Both fiberoptic bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy revealed a large tracheoesophageal fistula (15 mm) in the right posterior trachea 1 cm beyond the carina. Coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy Y shaped stent was planned to seal this fistula under general anesthesia. We took advantage of laryngeal mask airway to insert the fiberoptic bronchoscope to guide the stent placement. Our method of sealing a large tracheoesophageal fistula with LMA under total intravenous anesthesia was successful. PMID:25664132

  12. Effect of Acute Hypercapnia on Outcomes and Predictive Risk Factors for Complications among Patients Receiving Bronchoscopic Interventions under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Zhang, Rujin; Yue, Yun; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute hypercapnia on surgery outcomes among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions under general anesthesia. Furthermore, independent predictive factors for surgery complications were analyzed. Method A total of 323 patients with airway stenosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. Each patient underwent interventional rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Arterial blood gas (ABG) was measured intraoperatively. In light of PaCO2 levels in ABG, patients were divided into three groups: Group C (control) (PaCO2:≤ 60 mmHg), Group M (moderate) (PaCO2:61–100 mmHg), and Group S (severe) (PaCO2: >100 mmHg). Parameters, including PaO2 levels and recovery delays, were compared across three groups. Complications among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions were evaluated as well. Independent predictive factors for surgery related complications were analyzed by multivariable regression method. Results Significant differences in weight (p=0.04), ASA IV (p=0.008), dyspnea index (p=0.003),COPD (p=0.02), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.002), severe stenosis severity (p=0.02), and stenosis locations among three groups were observed. Mild (PaCO2:~60 mmHg) to moderate (PaCO2:60–100 mmHg) hypercapnia was not associated with delayed recovery, whereas severe hypercapnia (PaCO2:>100 mmHg) was associated with delayed recovery, as well as declined PaO2 (p=0.00) and elevated blood glucose levels (p=0.00). The complications of bronchoscopic interventions included postoperative congestive heart failure (14 cases, 4.3%), tracheorrhagia (8 cases, 2.5%), delayed recovery (19 cases, 5.9%), and transfers to ICU after surgery (10 cases, 3.1%). The multivariable regression analysis showed that procedure duration (p=0.003), lobectomy (p=0.007), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.01), severe bronchial stenosis (p=0.01) and hypercapnia (p=0.02) were independent predictive factors for surgery related complications

  13. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  14. Fluorescence bronchoscopy for detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Doiron, D R; Profio, E; Vincent, R G; Dougherty, T J

    1979-07-01

    A system using the fluorescence bronchoscope has been designed for localization of small, early bronchogenic carcinoma by the fluorescence of previously injected hematoporphyrin derivative. The system included a 200W mercury vapor lamp and primary filter, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope with special violet-transmitting light conductor, secondary filter, and image intensifier tube. Tests indicated the system could detect a tumor only 100 micron thick at the expected concentration of hematoporphyrin derivative: 1 microgram/gm at 48 to 96 hours following intravenous injection at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. Examination of resected specimens (six of lung, one of esophagus) showed positive fluorescence in all cases, with fluorescence visible beyond the region visible under conventional white light examination. Fluorescence bronchoscopy has been performed on four patients thus far. Positive fluorescence was observed in all three cases where the tumor had been known to occur. Positive fluorescence was also observed in the patient with sputum positive for lung cancer, but negative x-ray film findings. However, additional examinations are required to demonstrate the smallest lesion that can be detected in vivo. PMID:446168

  15. [Treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax by electrocoagulation via a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a hysteroscope irrigation outer sheath as a thoracoscope].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, T; Nakamura, H

    1990-03-01

    Since 1981 in Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, the authors performed electro-coagulation therapy for air leakage from bullae (blebs) via a rigid thoracoscope in 31 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Among these patients, this treatment was unsuccessful in 14 patients (45.2%) because of 5 multiple or giant bullae and 9 cases in which it was impossible to visualize the bullae in the mediastinum or because of pleural adhesion. In order to widen the visual field and increase the mobility of the thoracoscope, we employed a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a hysteroscope outer sheath used for irrigation as a flexible thoracoscope. This method makes it possible to examine both mediastinal pleura and adhesive pleural space, and to electrocoagulate bullae which cannot be visualized by a rigid thoracoscope. It was possible to visualize the blebs in all 13 cases with spontaneous pneumothorax in which this examination was attempted. This therapeutic procedure causes the patients less pain and the hospitals more economical because no new thoracoscope is necessary. This method of thoracoscopic therapy of spontaneous pneumothorax using a fiberoptic bronchoscope is more successful, effective, economical and painless than by rigid thoracoscope and should be attempted before thoracotomy. PMID:2214384

  16. Lung donor selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  17. Lung donor selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  18. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  19. Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases: Diagnostic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai-Feng; Feng, Ruie; Cui, Han; Tian, Xinlun; Wang, Hanping; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Weihong; Lo, Bee Hong

    2016-06-01

    Diffuse cystic lung disease (DCLD) is a group of heterogeneous diseases that present as diffuse cystic changes in the lung on computed tomography of the chest. Most DCLD diseases are rare, although they might resemble common diseases such as emphysema and bronchiectasis. Main causes of DCLD include lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, amyloidosis, light-chain deposition disease, Sjögren syndrome, and primary or metastatic neoplasm. We discuss clinical factors that are helpful in the differential diagnosis of DCLDsuch as sex and age, symptoms and signs, extrapulmonary presentations, cigarette smoking, and family history. Investigations for DCLD include high-resolution computed tomography, biochemical and histopathological studies, genetic tests, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoscopic and video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsies. A proposed diagnostic algorithm would enhance ease of diagnosing most cases of DCLD. PMID:27231867

  20. Bronchial pleomorphic adenoma coexisting with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Akanabe, Kumi; Hamaguchi, Reo; Wakaki, Misa; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma usually occurs in the salivary glands but rarely in the trachea or bronchi. A 71-year-old man had abnormal shadows on a chest X-ray. Chest CT revealed one tumor in the right basal segment of the lung and another, in the left main bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the right tumor revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Right lower lobectomy and lymph node dissection were performed (pT2N0M0, stage IB). At the orifice of the left main bronchus, bronchoscopy identified a polypoid lesion nearly obstructing the airway. The lesion was resected with hot snare ablation. The histological examination revealed a mixture of epithelial and myxoid mesenchymal elements, characterized by ductal structures, squamous metaplasia, and cartilage tissue. The diagnosis was bronchial pleomorphic adenoma coexisting with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:21597416

  1. Fully Automated Pulmonary Lobar Segmentation: Influence of Different Prototype Software Programs onto Quantitative Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-ju; Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Dinkel, Julien; Hielscher, Thomas; Gompelmann, Daniela; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Surgical or bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques can be beneficial for heterogeneous emphysema. Post-processing software tools for lobar emphysema quantification are useful for patient and target lobe selection, treatment planning and post-interventional follow-up. We aimed to evaluate the inter-software variability of emphysema quantification using fully automated lobar segmentation prototypes. Material and Methods 66 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent CT for planning of BLVR were included. Emphysema quantification was performed using 2 modified versions of in-house software (without and with prototype advanced lung vessel segmentation; programs 1 [YACTA v.2.3.0.2] and 2 [YACTA v.2.4.3.1]), as well as 1 commercial program 3 [Pulmo3D VA30A_HF2] and 1 pre-commercial prototype 4 [CT COPD ISP ver7.0]). The following parameters were computed for each segmented anatomical lung lobe and the whole lung: lobar volume (LV), mean lobar density (MLD), 15th percentile of lobar density (15th), emphysema volume (EV) and emphysema index (EI). Bland-Altman analysis (limits of agreement, LoA) and linear random effects models were used for comparison between the software. Results Segmentation using programs 1, 3 and 4 was unsuccessful in 1 (1%), 7 (10%) and 5 (7%) patients, respectively. Program 2 could analyze all datasets. The 53 patients with successful segmentation by all 4 programs were included for further analysis. For LV, program 1 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 72 ml and the widest LoA of [-356, 499 ml] (p<0.05). Program 3 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 4% and the widest LoA of [-7, 14%] for EI (p<0.001). Conclusions Only a single software program was able to successfully analyze all scheduled data-sets. Although mean bias of LV and EV were relatively low in lobar quantification, ranges of disagreement were substantial in both of them. For longitudinal emphysema monitoring, not only scanning protocol but

  2. [Diagnosis and surgical treatment for small-sized peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Iyoda, A; Fujisawa, T; Moriya, Y

    2004-01-01

    Small-sized peripheral lung cancers have been detected more frequently as a result of recent developments in diagnostic imaging including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Although the diagnosis of small-sized peripheral lung cancers is difficult, it makes an adequate diagnosis possible using transbronchial fine needle aspiration cytology or a new thin-type bronchoscope. Surgical treatment using mini-thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery is effective for early stage small-sized peripheral lung cancers. Lesser resection of lung cancer may provide many benefits to patients, such as preserving vital lung tissue and providing the chance for further resection if a second primary lung cancer develops, however, lobectomy with systematic hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissection should remain the standard surgical treatment, and an intentional limited resection should be adopted for very limited patients with a definitive early stage because of recurrence rates. PMID:14733091

  3. The CellML 1.1 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Autumn; Hedley, Warren; Nelson, Melanie; Lloyd, Catherine; Halstead, Matt; Bullivant, David; Nickerson, David; Hunter, Peter; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This document specifies CellML 1.1, an XML-based language for describing and exchanging models of cellular and subcellular processes. MathML embedded in CellML documents is used to define the underlying mathematics of models. Models consist of a network of reusable components, each with variables and equations manipulating those variables. Models may import other models to create systems of increasing complexity. Metadata may be embedded in CellML documents using RDF. PMID:26528557

  4. Assessing Bacterial Populations in the Lung by Replicate Analysis of Samples from the Upper and Lower Respiratory Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Diamond, Joshua M.; Li, Hongzhe; Collman, Ronald G.; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2012-01-01

    Microbes of the human respiratory tract are important in health and disease, but accurate sampling of the lung presents challenges. Lung microbes are commonly sampled by bronchoscopy, but to acquire samples the bronchoscope must pass through the upper respiratory tract, which is rich in microbes. Here we present methods to identify authentic lung microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid that contains substantial oropharyngeal admixture. We studied clinical BAL samples from six selected subjects with potential heavy lung colonization. A single sample of BAL fluid was obtained from each subject along with contemporaneous oral wash (OW) to sample the oropharynx, and then DNA was extracted from three separate aliquots of each. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and products analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. By comparing replicates, we were able to specify the depth of sequencing needed to reach a 95% chance of identifying a bacterial lineage of a given proportion—for example, at a depth of 5,000 tags, OTUs of proportion 0.3% or greater would be called with 95% confidence. We next constructed a single-sided outlier test that allowed lung-enriched organisms to be quantified against a background of oropharyngeal admixture, and assessed improvements available with replicate sequence analysis. This allowed identification of lineages enriched in lung in some BAL specimens. Finally, using samples from healthy volunteers collected at multiple sites in the upper respiratory tract, we show that OW provides a reasonable but not perfect surrogate for bacteria carried into to the lung by a bronchoscope. These methods allow identification of microbes that can replicate in the lung despite the background due to oropharyngeal microbes derived from aspiration and bronchoscopic carry-over. PMID:22970118

  5. Endobronchial polyp derived from a myxosarcoma in the lung of a dog.

    PubMed

    Hill, Richard C; Ginn, Pamela E; Thompson, Margret S; Seguin, M Alexis; Miller, Daphne; Taylor, David P

    2008-01-01

    An endobronchial polyp was visible radiographically and bronchoscopically in an 11-year-old, mixed-breed dog with a persistent cough. The polyp was removed by traction. Initial histological examination suggested it was a myxomatous fibroma. The cough resolved but recurred with polyp regrowth. Two additional lung masses became visible radiographically. The polyp was removed twice more at 6-month intervals. Euthanasia was performed 15 months after first presentation when coughing recurred soon after the final bronchoscopy. Histological examination revealed that the mass was a myxomatous sarcoma. The lung contained two other unrelated tumors: a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and a carcinoma of unknown origin. PMID:18981198

  6. [Anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung with anomalous return of V6].

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Jotaro; Handa, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro

    2014-11-01

    The patient was 52-year-old woman. Her chief compliant was bloody sputum. The computed tomography revealed an anomalous artery from descending aorta running into left lung basal segment and anomalous left V6 return to superior pulmonary vein. The bronchoscopic examination showed normal bronchial branches. Under the diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung without sequestration, left lower lobectomy was performed. Microscopically, the pulmonary artery showed intimal thickening and alveolar collapse with interstitial fibrosis were seen. The postoperative course was uneventful and she discharged at 6th postoperative day. PMID:25391467

  7. jmzML, an open-source Java API for mzML, the PSI standard for MS data.

    PubMed

    Côté, Richard G; Reisinger, Florian; Martens, Lennart

    2010-04-01

    We here present jmzML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzML data standard. Based on the Java Architecture for XML Binding and XPath-based XML indexer random-access XML parser, jmzML can handle arbitrarily large files in minimal memory, allowing easy and efficient processing of mzML files using the Java programming language. jmzML also automatically resolves internal XML references on-the-fly. The library (which includes a viewer) can be downloaded from http://jmzml.googlecode.com. PMID:20127693

  8. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Transplant? A lung transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased lung ... a healthy lung from a deceased donor. Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to ...

  9. A heterochronic genetic change from an EGFR mutation to an ALK rearrangement in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Hayama, Manabu; Nishihara, Takashi; Nishida, Takuji; Tanaka, Ayako; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-05-01

    An 87-year-old man with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma was treated with gefitinib. At the beginning of treatment, surgically resected archived tumor tissue revealed a deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene, but no ALK gene rearrangement. After gefitinib treatment for 9 months, the disease progressed. Bronchoscopic rebiopsy was used to evaluate resistance mechanisms, and revealed lung adenocarcinoma with wild-type EGFR genes and a newly emerged ALK gene rearrangement. Treatment was switched to alectinib and a partial response was achieved within 4 weeks. This is a rare case of heterochronic genetic change to an ALK gene rearrangement in EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27162697

  10. A heterochronic genetic change from an EGFR mutation to an ALK rearrangement in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Motohiro; Hayama, Manabu; Nishihara, Takashi; Nishida, Takuji; Tanaka, Ayako; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    An 87-year-old man with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma was treated with gefitinib. At the beginning of treatment, surgically resected archived tumor tissue revealed a deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene, but no ALK gene rearrangement. After gefitinib treatment for 9 months, the disease progressed. Bronchoscopic rebiopsy was used to evaluate resistance mechanisms, and revealed lung adenocarcinoma with wild-type EGFR genes and a newly emerged ALK gene rearrangement. Treatment was switched to alectinib and a partial response was achieved within 4 weeks. This is a rare case of heterochronic genetic change to an ALK gene rearrangement in EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27162697

  11. jTraML: An Open Source Java API for TraML, the PSI Standard for Sharing SRM Transitions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We here present jTraML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative TraML data standard. The library provides fully functional classes for all elements specified in the TraML XSD document, as well as convenient methods to construct controlled vocabulary-based instances required to define SRM transitions. The use of jTraML is demonstrated via a two-way conversion tool between TraML documents and vendor specific files, facilitating the adoption process of this new community standard. The library is released as open source under the permissive Apache2 license and can be downloaded from http://jtraml.googlecode.com. TraML files can also be converted online at http://iomics.ugent.be/jtraml. PMID:21967198

  12. jTraML: an open source Java API for TraML, the PSI standard for sharing SRM transitions.

    PubMed

    Helsens, Kenny; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Deutsch, Eric; Moritz, Robert L; Martens, Lennart

    2011-11-01

    We here present jTraML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative TraML data standard. The library provides fully functional classes for all elements specified in the TraML XSD document, as well as convenient methods to construct controlled vocabulary-based instances required to define SRM transitions. The use of jTraML is demonstrated via a two-way conversion tool between TraML documents and vendor specific files, facilitating the adoption process of this new community standard. The library is released as open source under the permissive Apache2 license and can be downloaded from http://jtraml.googlecode.com . TraML files can also be converted online at http://iomics.ugent.be/jtraml . PMID:21967198

  13. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC: EXISTING ML NO. 3 LAUNCHER. Sheet A1 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  15. CellML metadata standards, associated tools and repositories

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Daniel A.; Britten, Randall; Cooling, Mike T.; Garny, Alan; Halstead, Matt D.B.; Hunter, Peter J.; Lawson, James; Lloyd, Catherine M.; Marsh, Justin; Miller, Andrew; Nickerson, David P.; Nielsen, Poul M.F.; Nomura, Taishin; Subramanium, Shankar; Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Yu, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    The development of standards for encoding mathematical models is an important component of model building and model sharing among scientists interested in understanding multi-scale physiological processes. CellML provides such a standard, particularly for models based on biophysical mechanisms, and a substantial number of models are now available in the CellML Model Repository. However, there is an urgent need to extend the current CellML metadata standard to provide biological and biophysical annotation of the models in order to facilitate model sharing, automated model reduction and connection to biological databases. This paper gives a broad overview of a number of new developments on CellML metadata and provides links to further methodological details available from the CellML website. PMID:19380315

  16. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  17. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  18. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; Robertson, Ian D; Hawkins, Eleanor C

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  19. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nafe, Laura A.; Robertson, Ian D.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  20. Real time ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy: Is it a better option than bronchoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Parli Raghavan; Vijay, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided percutaneous tracheostomy (USPCT) and bronchoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy (BPCT) and the incidence of complications in critically ill, obese patients. Methods Seventy four consecutive patients were included in a prospective study and randomly divided into USPCT and BPCT. Incidence of complications, ease and efficacy were compared in obese USPCT (n = 38)and BPCT (n = 36). Results are expressed as the median (25th–75th percentile) or number (percentage). Results The median times for tracheostomy were 12 min (9–14) in USPCT patients and 18 min (12–21.5) in BPCT (p = 0.05). The overall complication rate was higher in BPCT than USPCT patient group (75% vs. 321%, p < 0.05). Most complications were minor (hypotension, desaturation, tracheal cuff puncture and minor bleeding) and of higher number in the BPCT. Ultrasound-guided PCT was possible in all enrolled patients and there were no surgical conversions or deaths. Conclusions This study demonstrated that real US-guided PCT is a favourable alternative to BPCT with a low complication rate and ease, thus proving more efficacious. A US examination provides information on cervical anatomy, vasculature etc. and hence modifies and guides choice of the PCT puncture site. PMID:25859079

  1. Lung Cell Oxidant Injury

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, Norbert; Simon, Lawrence M.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidant damage of lung tissue during in vivo hyperoxic exposure appears to be amplified by neutrophils that release toxic amounts of oxygen metabolites. In our studies cloned lung epithelial cells (L2 cells), lung fibroblasts, and pulmonary artery endothelial cells were cultured under either ambient (Po2 ∼ 140 torr) or hyperoxic (Po2 ∼ 630 torr) conditions for 48 h (24 h for endothelial cells). After cultivation, phorbol myristate acetate- or opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophils were added to the cultivated monolayers for 4 h, and lung cell damage was quantitated using 51Cr release as an index. The data show that stimulated neutrophils are able to injure the three lung cell lines tested, with endothelial cells being highly susceptible to this injury and L2 cells being slightly more susceptible than lung fibroblasts. The studies also demonstrate that all three lung cell lines exposed to sustained hyperoxia are more susceptible to neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity than their time-matched air controls. Hydrogen peroxide was the main toxic oxygen metabolite because catalase (2,500 U/ml) completely protected the target cells. Equivalent quantities of hydrogen peroxide generated by glucose oxidase instead of by neutrophils gave a similar degree of target cell injury. Superoxide dismutase at high concentrations (250 μg/ml) provided some protection. Other systems that detoxify oxygen metabolites were without protective effect. These findings indicate that the increase in susceptibility of lung cells to neutrophil-mediated oxidant damage is a toxic effect of hyperoxia on lung cells. This specific manifestation of oxygen damage provides insight into the integration between primary mechanisms (oxygen exposure) and secondary mechanisms (release of oxygen metabolites by neutrophils) with respect to the cellular basis for pulmonary oxygen toxicity. PMID:6284800

  2. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  3. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  4. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  5. The jmzQuantML programming interface and validator for the mzQuantML data standard.

    PubMed

    Qi, Da; Krishna, Ritesh; Jones, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    The mzQuantML standard from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has recently been released, capturing quantitative data about peptides and proteins, following analysis of MS data. We present a Java application programming interface (API) for mzQuantML called jmzQuantML. The API provides robust bridges between Java classes and elements in mzQuantML files and allows random access to any part of the file. The API provides read and write capabilities, and is designed to be embedded in other software packages, enabling mzQuantML support to be added to proteomics software tools (http://code.google.com/p/jmzquantml/). The mzQuantML standard is designed around a multilevel validation system to ensure that files are structurally and semantically correct for different proteomics quantitative techniques. In this article, we also describe a Java software tool (http://code.google.com/p/mzquantml-validator/) for validating mzQuantML files, which is a formal part of the data standard. PMID:24453188

  6. The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Michael T; Hunter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 is a modular framework that describes how semantic annotations should be made about mathematical models encoded in the CellML (www.cellml.org) format, and their elements. In addition to the Core specification, there are several satellite specifications, each designed to cater for model annotation in a different context. Basic Model Information, Citation, License and Biological Annotation specifications are presented. PMID:26528558

  7. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  8. [Therapy of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Reinmuth, N; Gröschel, A; Schumann, C; Sebastian, M; Wiewrodt, R; Reck, M

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for the leading cause of cancer deaths in Germany and is characterized by early metastasis formation. The majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will receive systemic therapy for treatment of their disease. Importantly together with the identification of targetable oncogenic alterations, systemic treatment of NSCLC has dramatically changed in recent years with the implementation of various new agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti angiogenic agents, and immune modulating drugs. However, these new therapeutic options also challenge the treating physician since molecular, histologic, and clinical factors need to be considered for the clinical decision-making. Moreover, supportive therapy including bronchoscopic therapy has evolved. The following therapy recommendations will summarize the up-to date treatment strategies for metastatic NSCLC. PMID:27603945

  9. [Lung Volume Reduction Surgery - State of the Art 2016].

    PubMed

    Caviezel, C; Franzen, D; Inci, I; Weder, W

    2016-09-01

    In a number of large case series in the mid-1990s, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was shown to reduce dyspnoea and improve pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema. The large randomised National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) confirmed this in the early 2000s and also demonstrated that selected patients live longer after surgery. Patient selection is crucial to the success of the procedure and should be performed at a specialised experienced centre with a multidisciplinary team approach on emphysema treatment. The upper-lobe predominant heterogeneous type of emphysema is the best indication, but there are other types of emphysema morphology that are also eligible for surgery, if ideally chosen. Nowadays there is also growing evidence for positive effects after different types of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with increasing quality. These methods add to the range of multimodal emphysema treatment. PMID:27607886

  10. Lung cancer: chemoprevention and intermediate effect markers.

    PubMed

    Tockman, M S

    2001-01-01

    Even after smoking cessation, genetic damage in the airways epithelium may lead to focal progression of lung carcinogenesis. Some centres now report as many new lung cancer cases among former smokers as among current smokers. Chemoprevention is a potential approach to diminish the progression of pre-clinical genetic damage. The most intensively studied lung cancer chemoprevention agents are the retinoids, including vitamin A and its synthetic analogues and precursors. While effective in suppressing lung carcinogenesis in animal models, retinoids have failed to inhibit carcinogenesis in human chemoprevention trials with premalignant end-points (sputum atypia, bronchial metaplasia). In trials with lung cancer end-points, administration of retinoids either was ineffective or, in the case of beta-carotene, led to greater lung cancer incidence and mortality. In view of these findings, markers of specific retinoid effect (i.e., levels of RAR-beta) become less relevant. Other markers of genetic instability and proliferation may be useful for both early detection and potentially as intermediate-effect markers for new chemoprevention trials. Cytological atypia, bronchial metaplasia, protein (hnRNP A2/B1) overexpression, ras oncogene activation and tumour-suppressor gene deletion, genomic instability (loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite alterations), abnormal methylation, helical CT detection of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and fluorescent bronchoscopic detection of angiogenic squamous dysplasia offer great promise for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer far in advance of clinical presentation. These end-points can now be evaluated as monitors of response to chemoprevention as potential intermediate-effect markers. PMID:11220665

  11. From WaterML to TimeseriesML: Evolution and implications for cross-domain data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctur, D. K.; Taylor, P.; Lowe, D.; Tomkins, J.; Teng, W. L.; Ames, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    WaterML 2.0 part 1 was adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in 2012 as an international standard profile of the Observations and Measurements conceptual model, for exchange of water observations time series data. It is implemented by national data producers such as the US Geological Survey for surface water time series, the NOAA/National Weather Service for forecast time series, the French Geological Survey for groundwater level monitoring, and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for surface water observations. But WaterML 2.0 is not "just for water". The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has recognized its potential role as a common time series description that could work for multiple application domains such as meteorology, climate, oceanography, and others. Accordingly, the WMO requested the OGC to migrate the non-hydrology parts of WaterML 2.0 to a new standard to be called TimeseriesML. This would then be considered by WMO for adoption as an operational standard globally. What does this mean for the geosciences? How far can this time series description be applied? What about time series of satellite retrievals? What will happen to WaterML 2.0 (and applications that work with it) when TimeseriesML is finished? These are among the questions we address in this presentation.

  12. QuakeML 2.0: Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Kästli, Philipp; Heiniger, Lukas; Saul, Joachim; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Clinton, John

    2016-04-01

    QuakeML is a community-backed data model for seismic event parameter description. Its current version 1.2, released in 2013, has become the gold standard for parametric data dissemination at seismological data centers, and has been adopted as an FDSN standard. It is supported by several popular software products and data services, such as FDSN event web services, QuakePy, and SeisComP3. Work on the successor version 2.0 is under way since 2015. The scope of QuakeML has been expanded beyond event parameter description. Thanks to a modular architecture, many thematic packages have been added, which cover peak ground motion, site and station characterization, hydraulic parameters of borehole injection processes, and macroseismics. The first three packages can be considered near final and implementations of program codes and SQL databases are in productive use at various institutions. A public community review process has been initiated in order to turn them into community-approved standards. The most recent addition is a package for single station quake location, which allows a detailed probabilistic description of event parameters recorded at a single station. This package adds some information elements such as angle of incidence, frequency-dependent phase picks, and dispersion relations. The package containing common data types has been extended with a generic type for probability density functions. While on Earth, single station methods are niche applications, they are of prominent interest in planetary seismology, e.g., the NASA InSight mission to Mars. So far, QuakeML is lacking a description of seismic instrumentation (inventory). There are two existing standards of younger age (FDSN StationXML and SeisComP3 Inventory XML). We discuss their respective strengths, differences, and how they could be combined into an inventory package for QuakeML, thus allowing full interoperability with other QuakeML data types. QuakeML is accompanied by QuakePy, a Python package

  13. ML314: A Biased Neurotensin Receptor Ligand for Methamphetamine Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barak, Larry S; Bai, Yushi; Peterson, Sean; Evron, Tama; Urs, Nikhil M; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Hedrick, Michael P; Hershberger, Paul; Maloney, Patrick R; Chung, Thomas D Y; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Thomas, James B; Hanson, Glen R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Caron, Marc G

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine addiction will provide important societal benefits. Neurotensin receptor NTR1 and dopamine receptor distributions coincide in brain areas regulating methamphetamine-associated reward, and neurotensin peptides produce behaviors opposing psychostimulants. Therefore, undesirable methamphetamine-associated activities should be treatable with druggable NTR1 agonists, but no such FDA-approved therapeutics exist. We address this limitation with proof-of-concept data for ML314, a small-molecule, brain penetrant, β-arrestin biased, NTR1 agonist. ML314 attenuates amphetamine-like hyperlocomotion in dopamine transporter knockout mice, and in C57BL/6J mice it attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, potentiates the psychostimulant inhibitory effects of a ghrelin antagonist, and reduces methamphetamine-associated conditioned place preference. In rats, ML314 blocks methamphetamine self-administration. ML314 acts as an allosteric enhancer of endogenous neurotensin, unmasking stoichiometric numbers of hidden NTR1 binding sites in transfected-cell membranes or mouse striatal membranes, while additionally supporting NTR1 endocytosis in cells in the absence of NT peptide. These results indicate ML314 is a viable, preclinical lead for methamphetamine abuse treatment and support an allosteric model of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:27119457

  14. ML 3.1 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-10-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the Aztec 2.1 and AztecOO iterative package [16]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  15. ML 3.0 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Az = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the AZTEC 2.1 and AZTECOO iterative package [15]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and non-symmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  16. Forming Centaurus A's High M/L Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauda Bovill, Mia; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Ricotti, Massimo; Taylor, Matthew Alan

    2015-08-01

    Using a set of high resolution N-body simulations, we develop a formation model for the high M/L globular clusters recently found around Centaurus A. In our model, the high M/L clusters are not true globular clusters, but rather the stripped cores of dwarf galaxies which underwent an epoch of efficient, concentrated star formation, possibly before or during the epoch of reionization. Given the known stellar masses of these objects, their halos virialized with relatively high masses and high redshift, falling into the Centaurus A with > 109 Msolar. These criteria give us a distribution of surviving subhalos which is consistent with the number and three dimensional distribution of the high M/L clusters within 100 pc of Centaurus A.

  17. Advanced therapies for COPD-What's on the horizon? Progress in lung volume reduction and lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Michael A; Hopkins, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity. Treatment options beyond conventional medical therapies are limited to a minority of patients. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) although effective in selected subgroups of patients is not commonly undertaken. Morbidity associated with the procedure has contributed to this low utilisation. In response to this, less invasive bronchoscopic lung volume techniques are being developed to attempt to mitigate some of the risks and costs associated with surgery. Of these, endobronchial valve therapy is the most comprehensively studied although the presence of collateral ventilation in a significant proportion of patients has compromised its widespread utility. Bronchial thermal vapour ablation and lung volume reduction (LVR) coils are not dependent on collateral ventilation. These techniques have shown promise in early clinical trials; ongoing work will establish whether they have a role in the management of advanced COPD. Lung transplantation, although effective in selected patients for palliation of symptoms and improving survival, is limited by donor organ availability and economic constraint. Reconditioning marginal organs previously declined for transplantation with ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is one potential strategy in improving the utilisation of donor organs. By increasing the donor pool, it is hoped lung transplantation might be more accessible for patients with advanced COPD into the future. PMID:25478204

  18. Advanced therapies for COPD—What’s on the horizon? Progress in lung volume reduction and lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity. Treatment options beyond conventional medical therapies are limited to a minority of patients. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) although effective in selected subgroups of patients is not commonly undertaken. Morbidity associated with the procedure has contributed to this low utilisation. In response to this, less invasive bronchoscopic lung volume techniques are being developed to attempt to mitigate some of the risks and costs associated with surgery. Of these, endobronchial valve therapy is the most comprehensively studied although the presence of collateral ventilation in a significant proportion of patients has compromised its widespread utility. Bronchial thermal vapour ablation and lung volume reduction (LVR) coils are not dependent on collateral ventilation. These techniques have shown promise in early clinical trials; ongoing work will establish whether they have a role in the management of advanced COPD. Lung transplantation, although effective in selected patients for palliation of symptoms and improving survival, is limited by donor organ availability and economic constraint. Reconditioning marginal organs previously declined for transplantation with ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is one potential strategy in improving the utilisation of donor organs. By increasing the donor pool, it is hoped lung transplantation might be more accessible for patients with advanced COPD into the future. PMID:25478204

  19. Early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Early detection and surgical resection is essential for the treatment of lung cancer. Although the introduction of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) is considered to be one of the most promising clinical research developments, CT screening is used for detecting small peripheral lesions. Tumors arising in the central airways require other techniques for early detection. Centrally arising squamous cell carcinoma of the airway, especially in heavy smokers, is thought to develop through multiple stages from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia, followed by carcinoma in situ (CIS), progressing to invasive cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions defined as dysplasia and CIS before progressing to invasive cancer. Great efforts have been made to develop new mucosal imaging techniques. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques capable of detecting preinvasive lesions and currently available in clinical practice include autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), high magnification ronchovideoscope, and narrow band imaging (NBI). For a more precise evaluation of newly detected preinvasive lesions, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used. PMID:20172431

  20. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  1. DocML: A Digital Library of University Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Ioannis; Karakoidas, Vassileios; Chrissikopoulos, Vassileios

    2002-01-01

    Describes DocML, a Web-based digital library of university data that is used to build a system capable of preserving and managing student assignments. Topics include requirements for a digital library of university data; metadata and XML; three-tier architecture; user interface; searching; browsing; content delivery; and administrative issues.…

  2. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC VIEW: MLP NO. 1. Sheet A10 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. AstroML: Python-powered Machine Learning for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Plas, Jake; Connolly, A. J.; Ivezic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    As astronomical data sets grow in size and complexity, automated machine learning and data mining methods are becoming an increasingly fundamental component of research in the field. The astroML project (http://astroML.org) provides a common repository for practical examples of the data mining and machine learning tools used and developed by astronomical researchers, written in Python. The astroML module contains a host of general-purpose data analysis and machine learning routines, loaders for openly-available astronomical datasets, and fast implementations of specific computational methods often used in astronomy and astrophysics. The associated website features hundreds of examples of these routines being used for analysis of real astronomical datasets, while the associated textbook provides a curriculum resource for graduate-level courses focusing on practical statistics, machine learning, and data mining approaches within Astronomical research. This poster will highlight several of the more powerful and unique examples of analysis performed with astroML, all of which can be reproduced in their entirety on any computer with the proper packages installed.

  4. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... balloon-like tissues (blebs) that cause lung collapse ( pneumothorax ) Wedge resection, to remove part of a lobe ... Treat injuries that cause lung tissue to collapse ( pneumothorax or hemothorax ) Treat permanently collapsed lung tissue ( atelectasis ) ...

  5. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a total collapse, it is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, ...

  6. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  7. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  8. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  9. Magnetic Navigation System for Thoracoscopic Surgery: a Partial Lung Resection with Transbronchial Marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Terauchi, Kunihiko; Yanada, Masashi; Shimomura, Masanori; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    In order to detect and track a small magnet embedded in the vicinity of a target tumor during surgery, we have developed a magnetic navigation system based on three-dimensional measurements with micro-fluxgate magnetic sensors. In this paper, we present an image overlay method for superimposing the embedded magnetic marker through a bronchoscope. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system and its applicability in clinical use, we set up an in vivo experiment, in which surgeons used this system to perform thoracoscopic surgery on a pig with transbronchial marking and oblique-viewing, and we succeeded in a partial resection of the pig lung including the target area. Next, we tried a wedge resection for a lung tumor in a clinical case. We successfully performed the partial resection of the lung including the target area, which corresponded to the tumor lesion, under the guidance of the magnetic navigation system.

  10. Lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the nasopharynx following bronchoscopy intervention therapies: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the nasopharynx is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe the case of a patient with a mass in the nasopharynx found by bronchoscopy. Our patient was a 61-year-old man receiving multiple bronchoscopy intervention therapies for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which was histopathologically confirmed. The SCC metastasized to the nasopharynx following the bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The lesion was considered metastatic from lung cancer on the basis of clinical and histological clues. The exact mechanism of lung cancer metastasis to the nasopharynx in this case remains unclear because either implantation or hematogenous and lymphatic spread is possible. A thorough head and neck examination should be undertaken during bronchoscopic evaluation, especially in patients receiving bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The early detection of a silent nasopharyngeal metastasis is important to choosing from among the multiple treatment options available. PMID:24673971

  11. A rare case of lung carcinoma with mucoepidermoid histopathology: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David; Modi, Yashpal; Dorai, Bhuvaneswari; Guron, Gunwant

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung is exceedingly rare. Our case involves a 58-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath, dysphagia, and weight loss. He denied ever smoking. Chest x-ray revealed trapped lung, and CT demonstrated a right bronchial mass. Diagnosis of lung carcinoma was made by bronchoscopic FNA biopsy. EGFR mutation was negative. Staging workup demonstrated evidence of advanced disease. Performance status was good, and it was decided to start chemotherapy and radiation for palliation. Lung carcinomas often present as an obstructing hilar mass. There are different histological grades that affect progression and survival. Though uncommon, metastatic spread has been previously reported. Studies have investigated the possible role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in both EGFR-mutated and non-mutated cases. Unfortunately, there has been little consensus as to which therapies are most beneficial. PMID:25887880

  12. Modeling Off-Nominal Behavior in SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Donahue, Kenneth; Ingham, Michel; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew K.; Post, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Specification and development of fault management functionality in systems is performed in an ad hoc way - more of an art than a science. Improvements to system reliability, availability, safety and resilience will be limited without infusion of additional formality into the practice of fault management. Key to the formalization of fault management is a precise representation of off-nominal behavior. Using the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission for source material, we have modeled the off-nominal behavior of the SMAP system during its initial spin-up activity, using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In the course of developing these models, we have developed generic patterns for capturing off-nominal behavior in SysML. We show how these patterns provide useful ways of reasoning about the system (e.g., checking for completeness and effectiveness) and allow the automatic generation of typical artifacts (e.g., success trees and FMECAs) used in system analyses.

  13. IBM techexplorer and MathML: Interactive Multimodal Scientific Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Angel

    2001-06-01

    The World Wide Web provides a standard publishing platform for disseminating scientific and technical articles, books, journals, courseware, or even homework on the internet; however, the transition from paper to web-based interactive content has brought new opportunities for creating interactive content. Students, scientists, and engineers are now faced with the task of rendering the 2D presentational structure of mathematics, harnessing the wealth of scientific and technical software, and creating truly accessible scientific portals across international boundaries and markets. The recent emergence of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards such as the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), Language (XSL), and Aural CSS (ACSS) provide a foundation whereby mathematics can be displayed, enlivened, computed, and audio formatted. With interoperability ensured by standards, software applications can be easily brought together to create extensible and interactive scientific content. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the IBM techexplorer Hypermedia Browser, a web browser plug-in and ActiveX control aimed at bringing interactive mathematics to the masses across platforms and applications. We will demonstrate "live" mathematics where documents that contain MathML expressions can be edited and computed right inside your favorite web browser. This demonstration will be generalized as we show how MathML can be used to enliven even PowerPoint presentations. Finally, we will close the loop by demonstrating a novel approach to spoken mathematics based on MathML, DOM, XSL, ACSS, techexplorer, and IBM ViaVoice. By making use of techexplorer as the glue that binds the rendered content to the web browser, the back-end computation software, the Java applets that augment the exposition, and voice-rendering systems such as ViaVoice, authors can indeed create truly extensible and interactive scientific content. For more information see: [http

  14. Evaluation of alternative capping layers for EUVL mask ML blank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pei-yang; Spiller, Eberhard; Gullikson, Eric; Hill, Shannon

    2005-11-01

    The standard silicon (Si) capping layer used for extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL) multilayer (ML) mask blanks has some shortcomings, such as low oxidation resistance, low chemical resistance, low etch selectivity in either the SiO2 buffer layer etch to the capping layer or the absorber etch (e.g., TaN) to the capping layer. These performance and process issues with Si capped ML mask blank will reduce the mask lifetime and require tighter process control during EUVL mask fabrication. Alternative capping materials have been investigated for both EUVL optics and for mask applications.1-5 It has been initially demonstrated that Ru capping layers have high oxidation resistance and high mask process margin as compared to Si ML cap. In this paper, we will present a detailed evaluation of Ru and ion beam deposited (IBD) diamond-like-carbon (DLC) for EUVL mask application. Performance evaluations of the DLC mask blank capping layer and Ru capping layer were made in the area of reflectivity performance, shelf-life, and EUV exposure stability. It has been shown that EUV exposure induced capping layer change depends upon the exposure conditions. However, we found that as long as the induced relative change in the ML cap material are the same (e.g., the same amount of oxidation), regardless of exposure time and exposure conditions, the resulting reflectivity change is about the same. In the case of the two capping layer materials we evaluated, the capping surface reaction with active oxygen is the primary cause for the reflectivity degradation.

  15. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK A. Sheet A13 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 1 & 2. Sheet A15 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS I. Sheet A17 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS II. Sheet A18 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 3 & 4. Sheet A16 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK 0. Sheet A12 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK B. Sheet A14 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  3. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS IV. Sheet A20 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. Mass Spectrometer Output File Format mzML

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important technique for analyzing proteins and other biomolecular compounds in biological samples. Each of the vendors of these mass spectrometers uses a different proprietary binary output file format, which has hindered data sharing and the development of open source software for downstream analysis. The solution has been to develop, with the full participation of academic researchers as well as software and hardware vendors, an open XML-based format for encoding mass spectrometer output files, and then to write software to use this format for archiving, sharing, and processing. This chapter presents the various components and information available for this format, mzML. In addition to the XML schema that defines the file structure, a controlled vocabulary provides clear terms and definitions for the spectral metadata, and a semantic validation rules mapping file allows the mzML semantic validator to insure that an mzML document complies with one of several levels of requirements. Complete documentation and example files insure that the format may be uniformly implemented. At the time of release there already existed several implementations of the format and vendors have committed to supporting the format in their products. PMID:20013381

  5. 026. Papillary adenoma of the lung: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Baliaka, Aggeliki; Tryfon, Stavros; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Cheva, Angeliki; Papastergiou, Christos; Sakkas, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    Background Papillary adenoma of the lung is a rare neoplasm with only 24 cases reported in the current literature. It occurs in individuals range in age, from 7-60 years with a male predominance and is usually detected incidentally on chest radiographs. Objective The report of a rare case of pulmonary papillary adenoma. Methods A 70-year-old male presented to our Hospital with cough and expectoration. The chest radiological examination demonstrated a nodular shadow two cm in size at the upper lobe of the left lung. Bronchoscopic lung biopsy was performed and the tissue sample was sent for histological examination. Results Pathology examination revealed a lesion consisting of a papillary growth pattern of cuboidal to columnar, ciliated epithelial cells lining the surface of fibrovascular cores. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were noted, but nuclear atypia or mitosis were almost absent. The histological features were consistent with pulmonary papillary adenoma. Conclusions Papillary adenoma of the lung is a benign, circumscribed papillary neoplasm (WHO 2004). Its rarity and shared histologic features of other benign and malignant tumors, such as alveolar adenoma, papillary adenocarcinomas including metastatic thyroid carcinoma, bronchoalveolar carcinoma and papillary carcinoid tumor, demand special attention for diagnosis. In our case, the pathologic criteria, such as papillary growth pattern and cytologic features, were sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of papillary adenoma of the lung.

  6. Bronchoscopic diagnosis of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Baselski, V S; Wunderink, R G

    1994-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality but also by a relative inability to establish a specific etiologic agent on clinical grounds alone. With the recognized shortcomings of expectorated or aspirated secretions toward establishing an etiologic diagnosis, clinicians have increasingly used bronchoscopy to obtain diagnostic samples. A variety of specimen types may be obtained, including bronchial washes or brushes, protected specimen brushings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial biopsies. Bronchoscopy has been applied in three primary clinical settings, including the immunocompromised host, especially human immunodeficiency virus-infected and organ transplant patients; ventilator-associated pneumonia; and severe, nonresolving community- or hospital-acquired pneumonia in nonventilated patients. In each clinical setting, and for each specimen type, specific laboratory protocols are required to provide maximal information. These protocols should provide for the use of a variety of rapid microscopic and quantitative culture techniques and the use of a variety of specific stains and selective culture to detect unusual organism groups. PMID:7834604

  7. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Biing-Ru; Chen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs). We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients. Methods In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008). Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007) and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013). Results A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001) and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001). The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001). In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001). Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period. Conclusions Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications. PMID:26545094

  8. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  9. Effects of contrast material on computed tomographic measurements of lung volumes in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Bouhemad, Bélaid; Richecoeur, Jack; Lu, Qin; Malbouisson, Luiz M; Cluzel, Philippe; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Background Intravenous injection of contrast material is routinely performed in order to differentiate nonaerated lung parenchyma from pleural effusion in critically ill patients undergoing thoracic computed tomography (CT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of contrast material on CT measurement of lung volumes in 14 patients with acute lung injury. Method A spiral thoracic CT scan, consisting of contiguous axial sections of 10 mm thickness, was performed from the apex to the diaphragm at end-expiration both before and 30 s (group 1; n = 7) or 15 min (group 2; n = 7) after injection of 80 ml contrast material. Volumes of gas and tissue, and volumic distribution of CT attenuations were measured before and after injection using specially designed software (Lungview®; Institut National des Télécommunications, Evry, France). The maximal artifactual increase in lung tissue resulting from a hypothetical leakage within the lung of the 80 ml contrast material was calculated. Results Injection of contrast material significantly increased the apparent volume of lung tissue by 83 ± 57 ml in group 1 and 102 ± 80 ml in group 2, whereas the corresponding maximal artifactual increases in lung tissue were 42 ± 52 ml and 31 ± 18 ml. Conclusion Because systematic injection of contrast material increases the amount of extravascular lung water in patients with acute lung injury, it seems prudent to avoid this procedure in critically ill patients undergoing a thoracic CT scan and to reserve its use for specific indications. PMID:12617742

  10. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  11. MorphML: level 1 of the NeuroML standards for neuronal morphology data and model specification.

    PubMed

    Crook, Sharon; Gleeson, Padraig; Howell, Fred; Svitak, Joseph; Silver, R Angus

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative neuroanatomical data are important for the study of many areas of neuroscience, and the complexity of problems associated with neuronal structure requires that research from multiple groups across many disciplines be combined. However, existing neuron-tracing systems, simulation environments, and tools for the visualization and analysis of neuronal morphology data use a variety of data formats, making it difficult to exchange data in a readily usable way. The NeuroML project was initiated to address these issues, and here we describe an extensible markup language standard, MorphML, which defines a common data format for neuronal morphology data and associated metadata to facilitate data and model exchange, database creation, model publication, and data archiving. We describe the elements of the standard in detail and outline the mappings between this format and those used by a number of popular applications for reconstruction, simulation, and visualization of neuronal morphology. PMID:17873371

  12. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  13. QualityML: a dictionary for quality metadata encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninyerola, Miquel; Sevillano, Eva; Serral, Ivette; Pons, Xavier; Zabala, Alaitz; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The scenario of rapidly growing geodata catalogues requires tools focused on facilitate users the choice of products. Having quality fields populated in metadata allow the users to rank and then select the best fit-for-purpose products. In this direction, we have developed the QualityML (http://qualityml.geoviqua.org), a dictionary that contains hierarchically structured concepts to precisely define and relate quality levels: from quality classes to quality measurements. Generically, a quality element is the path that goes from the higher level (quality class) to the lowest levels (statistics or quality metrics). This path is used to encode quality of datasets in the corresponding metadata schemas. The benefits of having encoded quality, in the case of data producers, are related with improvements in their product discovery and better transmission of their characteristics. In the case of data users, particularly decision-makers, they would find quality and uncertainty measures to take the best decisions as well as perform dataset intercomparison. Also it allows other components (such as visualization, discovery, or comparison tools) to be quality-aware and interoperable. On one hand, the QualityML is a profile of the ISO geospatial metadata standards providing a set of rules for precisely documenting quality indicator parameters that is structured in 6 levels. On the other hand, QualityML includes semantics and vocabularies for the quality concepts. Whenever possible, if uses statistic expressions from the UncertML dictionary (http://www.uncertml.org) encoding. However it also extends UncertML to provide list of alternative metrics that are commonly used to quantify quality. A specific example, based on a temperature dataset, is shown below. The annual mean temperature map has been validated with independent in-situ measurements to obtain a global error of 0.5 ° C. Level 0: Quality class (e.g., Thematic accuracy) Level 1: Quality indicator (e.g., Quantitative

  14. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J.; Mirams, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush–Larsen and Generalized Rush–Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a ‘gold standard’ for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior. PMID:25610400

  15. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J; Mirams, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush-Larsen and Generalized Rush-Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a 'gold standard' for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior. PMID:25610400

  16. [Technology on Partial Resection and Segmentectomy for Early-stage Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, lung cancer patients who cannot undergo lobectomy because of impaired pulmonary function, co-morbidity, and/or advanced age are increasing. And patients whose lung cancer is small in size, peripherally located, and assumed to be N0 disease are also increasing. Therefore, we have a greater opportunity to perform sublobar lung resection for these patients. For sublobar resection, several surgical technologies have been developed. Virtual-assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP) is bronchoscopic multiple dye-marking technique under support of 3-dimensional virtual images to provide geometric information on the lung surface. This technic is effective to show the location of hardly palpable small lung cancer for thoracoscopic partial lung resection and to visualize the intersegmental / intersubsegmental planes for segmentectomy. Selective segmental inflation technic is to inflate the segment which includes lung cancer in order to make an intersegmental plane, so-called inflation-deflation line, to be cut. Using this technic, we can recognize the real margin from the tumor edge to the resected plane under thoracoscopic approach. PMID:27440032

  17. Motion Planning for a Three-Stage Multilumen Transoral Lung Access System

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Alan; Torres, Luis G.; Feins, Richard H.; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and early-stage diagnosis is critical to survival. Biopsy is typically required for a definitive diagnosis, but current low-risk clinical options for lung biopsy cannot access all biopsy sites. We introduce a motion planner for a multilumen transoral lung access system, a new system that has the potential to perform safe biopsies anywhere in the lung, which could enable more effective early-stage diagnosis of lung cancer. The system consists of three stages in which a bronchoscope is deployed transorally to the lung, a concentric tube robot pierces through the bronchial tubes into the lung parenchyma, and a steerable needle deploys through a properly oriented concentric tube and steers through the lung parenchyma to the target site while avoiding anatomical obstacles such as significant blood vessels. A sampling-based motion planner computes actions for each stage of the system and considers the coupling of the stages in an efficient manner. We demonstrate the motion planner's fast performance and ability to compute plans with high clearance from obstacles in simulated anatomical scenarios. PMID:26942041

  18. SysML: A Language for Space System Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, S.; Strangapede, A.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an ESA/ESTEC internal study, performed with the support of INTECS, about modeling languages to support Space System Engineering activities and processes, with special emphasis on system requirements identification and analysis. The study was focused on the assessment of dedicated UML profiles, their positioning alongside the system and software life cycles and associated methodologies. Requirements for a Space System Requirements Language were identified considering the ECSS-E-10 and ECSS-E_40 processes. The study has identified SysML as a very promising language, having as theoretical background the reference system processes defined by the ISO15288, as well as industrial practices.

  19. Impairment of bronchial mucociliary clearance in long-term survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantation. The Paris-Sud Lung Transplant Group.

    PubMed

    Herve, P; Silbert, D; Cerrina, J; Simonneau, G; Dartevelle, P

    1993-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate bronchial mucociliary clearance after heart/lung and double lung transplantation. Bronchial mucociliary clearance was measured using a noninvasive radioaerosol technique: 99mTc-labeled albumin was aerosolized using a spinning-top generator (mass median aerodynamic diameter, 7.5 mu; geometric standard deviation, 1.5 mu). Radioactivity counts were acquired during 60 min with a gamma camera. A region of interest was drawn over the right lung delineated by a 133Xe lung ventilation image. Bronchial mucociliary clearance was assessed as the percentage of decrease in radioactivity per hour calculated on time-activity curves fitted by a monoexponential model. To exclude patients with acute lung rejection, opportunistic lung infection, and obliterative bronchiolitis, all patients with transplants underwent pulmonary function tests and bronchoscopic examination before clearance measurement. Eight heart/lung and five double-lung nonsmoking transplant patients with normal lung histology were studied 19.3 +/- 4.0 mo after surgery and compared to nine normal nonsmokers. A similar proximal deposition of the aerosol was obtained in patients with transplants and normal subjects; skew values of distribution histograms of aerosol radioactivity counts were 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, and the ratios between central and peripheral 99mTc radioactivity counts were 2.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.3 +/- 0.2, respectively. No significant difference was observed in bronchial clearance values between patients with heart/lung and double-lung transplants (26.4 +/- 3.0 percent/h vs 35.9 +/- 3.5 percent/h). Conversely, bronchial clearance was significantly lower in transplant recipients (30.0 +/- 2.5 percent/h) than in normal controls (58.7 +/- 6.2 percent/h; p < 0.001). This decreased bronchial clearance can be expected to increase the risk of lung infection in long-term survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantation. PMID:8380268

  20. Efficacy of a New Blind Insertion Technique of Arndt Endobronchial Blocker for Lung Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peng; Ni, Juan; Zhou, Cheng; Yu, Hai; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to find other methods of blind insertion of Arndt endobronchial blocker (AEB) for lung isolation when a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is unavailable. We compared the effectiveness and safety of 3 insertion techniques of AEB: Gum elastic bougie (GEB)-, bougie combined with cricoid displacing (BCD)-, and fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB)-guided insertion. Seventy-eight patients undergoing esophageal procedure and requiring left thoracotomy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: GEB group, BCD group, and FOB group. We recorded the successful placement of AEBs at first attempt, placement time, malposition of AEBs in supine and lateral decubitus position, the bronchus injury score, and other complications. The successful placement of AEB for the first attempt was 22/26, 25/26, and 26/26 patients in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. The placement times in GEB and BCD groups were longer than those in the FOB group (P < 0.05). AEB malposition occurred in 1/26, 2/26, 1/26 patients after lateral decubitus position, and AEBs were repositioned in 5/26, 3/26, 1/26 patients by FOB due to poor lung isolation in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. There was no difference for the bronchus injury scores and other complications among 3 groups (P > 0.05). Bougie and cricoid displacing-guided blind insertion of AEB seems to be a novel method, which is an effective and safe alternative when FOB was unavailable. PMID:27175708

  1. Integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guibert, Nicolas; Mazieres, Julien; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Rouviere, Damien; Didier, Alain; Hermant, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Tracheal or bronchial proximal stenoses occur as complications in 20-30% of lung cancers, resulting in a dramatic alteration in quality of life and poor prognosis. Bronchoscopic management of these obstructions is based on what are known as "thermal" techniques for intraluminal stenosis and/or placement of tracheal or bronchial prostheses for extrinsic compressions, leading to rapid symptom palliation in the vast majority of patients. This invasive treatment should only be used in cases of symptomatic obstructions and in the presence of viable bronchial tree and downstream parenchyma. This review aims to clarify 1) the available methods for assessing the characteristics of stenoses before treatment, 2) the various techniques available including their preferred indications, outcomes and complications, and 3) the integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the multidisciplinary management of proximal bronchial cancers and its synergistic effects with the other specific treatments (surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy). PMID:26324799

  2. ML detection in hyperspectral imagery: a GMRF modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Susan M.; Moura, Jose M. F.

    1999-07-01

    The use of hyperspectral imagery for remote sensing detection applications has received attention recently due to the ability of the hyperspectral sensor to provide registered information in both space and frequency. In this paper we extend our work on the development of an efficient implementation of the Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector in which we use a 3D Gauss-Markov random field to model the clutter background in the hyperspectral data. We review the details of the optimal ML estimation approach for obtaining the Markov parameters and discuss a gradient based optimization scheme for obtaining these estimates. To improve the computational efficiency of the overall detection algorithm, we develop an estimation method based on some simple mathematical approximations that allows us to explicitly solve for the Markov parameters. In addition, we use a stochastic, rather than deterministic target model by implementing a single hypothesis test in place of the more traditional binary hypothesis paradigm. We compare the detection performance and the computational requirements of our updated model and detector implementation to the benchmark RX detection algorithm for hyperspectral imagery.

  3. CaML: Camera Markup Language for Network Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayles, Maxwell; Wu, Xiaojing; Boyd, Jeffrey E.

    2003-01-01

    As processor speeds increase and the cost of digital video technology falls, the use of video is expanding in a plethora of applications including video surveillance, human computer interaction, tele-instruction, and enhanced sports broadcasts. However, a major problem that now faces developers of video systems is the requirement to build the low-level video processing from the ground up for each application. This paper describes a camera system that acts not merely as a provider of pixels, but as a video information server. A video application interacts with the camera server using the Camera Markup Language (CaML, pronounced camel) proposed here. CaML is an XML-based (Extensible Markup Language) data format for exchanging video information with a server. It provides a layer of abstraction between the application and the pixels to simplify the development process and is well-suited to exchanging data over a network. Using a camera as a server on a network makes it a simple matter for a single application to use multiple cameras. Local- and wide-area networks (LANs and WANs) replace the need for conventional methods for routing video signals.

  4. No evidence for a role of Merkel cell polyomavirus in small cell lung cancer among Iranian subjects.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Shirin; Yousefi, Forough; Seifi, Sharareh; Khosravi, Adnan; Nadji, Seyed Alireza

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), as a new member of polyomaviruses, has recently been discovered as a possible etiologic factor for human cancer. It was first detected in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant lung tumor which shares histopathological and genetic features with MCC, as both are of neuroendocrine origin. In this study, we investigated the presence of MCPyV DNA in SCLC specimens by real-time PCR. Our null hypothesis was that MCPyV is an etiologic factor in SCLC, as previously seen in MCC. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were obtained from 50 patients, who underwent bronchoscopic biopsy and were diagnosed with SCLC between March 2010 and March 2012. Similarly, we obtained bronchoscopic biopsy specimens from 29 patients, who were diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All samples were obtained at a single center (Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran). Real-time PCR was done to detect the presence of MCPyV DNA. After excluding one specimen from the SCLC group due to loss of tumor tissue, we did not detect MCPyV DNA in samples from patients with either SCLC (the mean age 58.9 years, male/female ratio: 7.3/1) or NSCLC. Our results suggest that MCPyV does not play a role in the pathogenesis of SCLC, which is in accord with the results from other prior investigations. PMID:25238937

  5. Endotracheal tube intubation with the aid of a laryngeal mask airway, a fiberoptic bronchoscope, and a tube exchanger in a difficult airway patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joon Kyung; Kim, Hyung Gon; Kim, Jung Eun; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kang, Jong-Man

    2014-03-01

    A 28-year-old male patient with occipito-atlanto-axial instability underwent a cervical fusion with posterior technique. Post-operatively, the endotracheal tube (ETT) was removed, and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. After transfer, an upper airway obstruction developed and reintubations with a laryngoscope were attempted but failed. We inserted a #4 proseal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and passed a 5.0 mm ETT through the LMA with the aid of a fiberoptic bronchoscope. We passed a tube exchanger through the 5.0 mm ETT and exchanged it with a 7.5 mm ETT. This method may be a useful alternative for difficult tracheal intubations. PMID:24729847

  6. Segmentation and frequency domain ML pitch estimation of speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Salim A.

    The rate of oscillation of the vocal cords and its inverse value, the pitch period, are important speech features that are useful for speech analysis/synthesis, speech recognition, and speech coding. An automatic approach for the estimation of the pitch period in continuous speech is presented. The proposed approach considers the segmentation of the speech signal into homogeneous regions and the detection of segments that are generated by vocal cord oscillations prior to pitch estimation. The pitch period of voiced segments is estimated in the frequency domain using a maximum likelihood (ML) procedure. The estimated pitch period is chosen to maximize a likelihood function over the range of expected pitch periods. An efficient simplified realization of the generalized likelihood ratio segmentation method is also described.

  7. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A.; Olsen, Karen J.; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this “scientific meta-data” and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML—a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML. PMID:27134778

  8. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  9. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  10. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases that may require a lung transplant are: Cystic fibrosis Damage to the arteries of the lung because ... BC; Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee; ... Therapies Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: ...

  11. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/20675678 . Kotloff RM, Keshavjee S. Lung transplantation. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst MD, et ... 58. Solomon M, Grasemann H, Keshavjee S. Pediatric lung transplantation. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2010; 57(2):375- ...

  12. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  13. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Vazquez de Anda, G F; Lachmann, R A; Verbrugge, S J; Gommers, D; Haitsma, J J; Lachmann, B

    2001-07-01

    Disturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish lung function after ventilation-induced lung injury. Adult rats were exposed to high PIP without PEEP for 20 min. Thereafter, the animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first group was killed immediately after randomization and used as an untreated control. The second group received only sham treatment and ventilation, and three groups received treatment with perfluorocarbon (10 mL x kg(-1), 20 mL x kg(-1), and 20 ml x kg(-1) plus an additional 5 mL x kg(-1) after 1 h). The four groups were maintained on mechanical ventilation for a further 2-h observation period. Blood gases, lung mechanics, total protein concentration, minimal surface tension, and small/large surfactant aggregates ratio were determined. The results show that in ventilation-induced lung injury, partial liquid ventilation with different amounts of perflubron improves gas exchange and pulmonary function, when compared to a group of animals treated with standard respiratory care. These effects have been observed despite the presence of a high intra-alveolar protein concentration, especially in those groups treated with 10 and 20 mL of perflubron. The data suggest that replacement of perfluorocarbon, lost over time, is crucial to maintain the constant effects of partial liquid ventilation. PMID:11510811

  14. Lung cancer detection using a miniature sodium iodide detector and cobalt-57 bleomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Nevin, W.S.; Barber, H.B.; Donahue, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A small sodium iodide scintillation detector was designed for insertion through a fiberoptic bronchoscope to detect and localize sites of deposition of cobalt-57 bleomycin in lung cancer. The detector was used in 40 diagnostic studies of 34 patients; 21 of the patients had tumors. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of the detector to those of plain chest x-ray films and bronchoscopy in detecting tumors. Sensitivity and specificity for the detector were 68 percent and 80 percent, respectively; for bronchoscopy, 72 percent and 100 percent; and for roentgenograms, 80 percent and 53 percent. Sensitivity for the detector and bronchoscopy combined was 92 percent. The detector succeeded in locating nonvisible submucosal and extraluminal tumors, and may contribute to early diagnosis and more accurate staging of lung cancer.

  15. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  16. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  17. Lung vasculature imaging using speckle variance optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Lane, Pierre M.; McWilliams, Annette; Shaipanich, Tawimas; MacAulay, Calum E.; Yang, Victor X. D.; Lam, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Architectural changes in and remodeling of the bronchial and pulmonary vasculature are important pathways in diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. However, there is a lack of methods that can find and examine small bronchial vasculature in vivo. Structural lung airway imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has previously been shown to be of great utility in examining bronchial lesions during lung cancer screening under the guidance of autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Using a fiber optic endoscopic OCT probe, we acquire OCT images from in vivo human subjects. The side-looking, circumferentially-scanning probe is inserted down the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope and manually guided to the imaging location. Multiple images are collected with the probe spinning proximally at 100Hz. Due to friction, the distal end of the probe does not spin perfectly synchronous with the proximal end, resulting in non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD) of the images. First, we apply a correction algorithm to remove NURD. We then use a speckle variance algorithm to identify vasculature. The initial data show a vascaulture density in small human airways similar to what would be expected.

  18. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  19. RIF RuleML Rosetta Ring: Round-Tripping the Dlex Subset of Datalog RuleML and RIF-Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Harold

    The RIF RuleML overlap area is of broad interest for Web rule interchange. Its kernel, Dlex, is defined syntactically and semantically as the common sublanguage of Datalog RuleML and RIF-Core restricted to positional arguments and non-conjunctive rule conclusions, and allowing equality plus externals in rule premises (only). Semantics-preserving mappings are then defined between the Dlex subset of the RIF Presentation Syntax and RIF/XML, RIF/XML and RuleML/XML, as well as RuleML/XML and the Prolog-like RuleML/POSL. These mappings are the basis for RIF RuleML feature comparison and translation. The slightly augmented mappings can be composed into a ('Rosetta') ring for round-tripping between all pairs of Dlex representations.

  20. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT): a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Charlie; Herth, Felix JF; Kovitz, Kevin L; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ernst, Armin; Goldin, Jonathan; Noppen, Marc; Criner, Gerard J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT) posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 45% of predicted, hyperinflation (total lung capacity measured by body plethysmography > 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted), and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC) score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema

  1. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-01

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml . PMID:24906114

  2. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhurst, Tim; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) plays a key role in the evaluation of undiagnosed lung nodules, when primary lung cancer is strongly suspected, or when it has already been diagnosed by other techniques. Although technical factors may compromise characterization of small or highly mobile lesions, lesions without apparent FDG uptake can generally be safely observed, whereas FDG-avid lung nodules almost always need further evaluation. FDG-PET/CT is now the primary staging imaging modality for patients with lung cancer who are being considered for curative therapy with either surgery or definitive radiation therapy. PMID:25829084

  3. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  4. Randomised controlled trial comparing the Ambu® aScope™2 with a conventional fibreoptic bronchoscope in orotracheal intubation of anaesthetised adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Ng, I; Ang, J P; Koh, S M; Lee, K; Mezzavia, P; Morris, J; Loh, F; Segal, R

    2015-07-01

    Fibreoptic intubation remains an essential skill for anaesthetists to master. In addition to the reusable fibrescope, an alternative disposable videoscope is available (aScope(™)2, Ambu®, Ballerup, Denmark). A total of 60 anaesthetised adult patients were randomised to either having orotracheal intubation using the aScope 2 or a Karl Storz fibrescope. Intubations were performed by experienced operators who were familiar with both devices. The primary outcome was the Global Rating Scale score. Secondary outcomes included intubation success, number of intubation attempts and intubation time. Other subjective outcomes including practicality, useability and image quality were also recorded. There was no significant difference in the Global Rating Scale score, intubation success orintubation time between the aScope 2 or Karl Storz fibrescope. Global Rating Scale scores were three and two in the aScope 2 and Karl Storz groups respectively (P=0.14). All of the other subjective outcomes were similar between the two groups, except that operators found it easier to use the aScope 2 compared to the fibrescope. There was no significant difference in clinical performance between the aScope 2 and the Karl Storz fibreoptic bronchoscope. The aScope's practicality, disposability and recently improved version (aScope(™)3) potentially make it an acceptable alternative to the reusable fibrescope. PMID:26099760

  5. Non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria in hospital tap water and water used for haemodialysis and bronchoscope flushing: prevalence and distribution of antibiotic resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Sara; Quaranta, Gianluigi; De Meo, Concetta; Bruno, Stefania; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Carovillano, Serena; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2014-11-15

    This study provides a detailed description of the distribution of non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) collected in water sources (tap water and water used for haemodialysis and bronchoscope flushing) from different wards of a tertiary care hospital. The aim is to identify risk practices for patients or to alert clinicians to the possible contamination of environment and medical devices. The resistance profile of NFGNB environmental isolates has shown that more than half (55.56%) of the strains isolated were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested in different antimicrobial categories. In particular, 38.89% of these strains were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 16.67% were extensively drug resistant (XDR). The most prevalent bacterial species recovered in water samples were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Ralstonia pickettii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Analysis of antibiotic resistance rates has shown remarkable differences between Pseudomonadaceae (P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens) and emerging pathogens, such as S. maltophilia and R. pickettii. Multidrug resistance can be relatively common among nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa, which represent the large majority of clinical isolates; moreover, our findings highlight that the emergent antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens, such as R. pickettii and S. maltophilia, isolated from hospital environments could be potentially more dangerous than other more known waterborne pathogens, if not subjected to surveillance to direct the decontamination procedures. PMID:25173861

  6. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  7. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  8. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  9. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

    MedlinePlus

    Air around the lung; Air outside the lung; Pneumothorax dropped lung; Spontaneous pneumothorax ... Collapsed lung can be caused by an injury to the lung. Injuries can include a gunshot or knife wound ...

  10. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  11. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  12. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  13. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration versus Standard Bronchoscopic Modalities for Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Xing; Chen, Ru-Xuan; Huang, Hui; Shao, Chi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yong-Zhe; Xu, Zuo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is an effective technique used to precisely detect enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The efficacy of EBUS-TBNA versus standard modalities for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains to be elucidated. In this meta-analysis, we compared the efficacies of these methods. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Cpvip, CNKI, and the bibliographies of the relevant references. We analyzed the data obtained with Revman 5.2 (Nordic Cochrane Center, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Stata 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Sixteen studies with a total of 1823 participants met the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted regarding the diagnostic yield of each approach. The ORs for EBUS-TBNA versus transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis ranged from 0.26 to 126.58, and the pooled OR was 5.89 (95% CI, 2.20–15.79, P = 0.0004). These findings indicated that EBUS-TBNA provided a much higher diagnostic yield than TBLB. The pooled OR for EBUS-TBNA + TBLB + endobronchial biopsy (EBB) versus TBNA + TBLB + EBB was 1.54 (95% CI, 0.61–3.93, P = 0.36), implying that there was no significant difference between their diagnostic yields. However, clinical heterogeneity was reflected in the nature of the studies and in the operative variables. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that EBUS-TBNA + TBLB + EBB could be used for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, if available. At medical centers without EBUS-TBNA, TBNA + TBLB + EBB could be used instead. PMID:27364799

  14. Cisplatin loaded albumin mesospheres for lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2015-01-01

    The low solubility of cisplatin in aqueous solution limits the treatment effectiveness and the application of cisplatin in various kinds of drug-eluting devices. Although cisplatin has a high solubility in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the toxicity of cisplatin can be greatly reduced while dissolved in DMSO. In this study, the solid powder of cisplatin-loaded albumin mesospheres (CDDP/DMSO-AMS), in a size range of 1 to 10 µm, were post-loaded with cisplatin and showed high cisplatin content (16% w/w) and effective cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. Cisplatin were efficiently absorbed into the albumin mesospheres (AMS) in DMSO and, most importantly, the toxicity of cisplatin was remained at 100% after the loading process. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS was designed for the intratumoral injection through the bronchoscopic catheter or dry powder inhalation (DPI) due to its high stability in air or in solution. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed a fast cisplatin release within 24 hours. In the in vitro study, CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed high effectiveness on killing the lung cancer cells including the non-small cell lung cancer (NCL-H23 and A549), malignant mesothelioma (CRL-2081) and the mouse lung carcinoma (Lewis lung carcinoma) cell lines. The albumin based mesospheres provide an ideal loading matrix for cisplatin and other metal-based drugs due to the high swelling degree and fast uptake rate in the organic solvents with high polarity. In addition, to investigate the effects of polysaccharides, such as chitosan and chondroitin, on enhancing loading efficiency and lasting cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the polysaccharide-modified albumin mesospheres were synthesized and loaded with cisplatin in this study. PMID:25973300

  15. Cisplatin loaded albumin mesospheres for lung cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2015-01-01

    The low solubility of cisplatin in aqueous solution limits the treatment effectiveness and the application of cisplatin in various kinds of drug-eluting devices. Although cisplatin has a high solubility in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the toxicity of cisplatin can be greatly reduced while dissolved in DMSO. In this study, the solid powder of cisplatin-loaded albumin mesospheres (CDDP/DMSO-AMS), in a size range of 1 to 10 µm, were post-loaded with cisplatin and showed high cisplatin content (16% w/w) and effective cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. Cisplatin were efficiently absorbed into the albumin mesospheres (AMS) in DMSO and, most importantly, the toxicity of cisplatin was remained at 100% after the loading process. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS was designed for the intratumoral injection through the bronchoscopic catheter or dry powder inhalation (DPI) due to its high stability in air or in solution. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed a fast cisplatin release within 24 hours. In the in vitro study, CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed high effectiveness on killing the lung cancer cells including the non-small cell lung cancer (NCL-H23 and A549), malignant mesothelioma (CRL-2081) and the mouse lung carcinoma (Lewis lung carcinoma) cell lines. The albumin based mesospheres provide an ideal loading matrix for cisplatin and other metal-based drugs due to the high swelling degree and fast uptake rate in the organic solvents with high polarity. In addition, to investigate the effects of polysaccharides, such as chitosan and chondroitin, on enhancing loading efficiency and lasting cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the polysaccharide-modified albumin mesospheres were synthesized and loaded with cisplatin in this study. PMID:25973300

  16. Decreased ERCC1 Expression After Platinum-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Podmaniczky, Eszter; Fábián, Katalin; Pápay, Judit; Puskás, Rita; Gyulai, Márton; Furák, József; Tiszlavicz, László; Losonczy, György; Tímár, József; Moldvay, Judit

    2015-04-01

    We have already demonstrated in a small cohort of 17 non-small cell lung cancer patients that ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) protein expression decreased after platinum-based treatment, however, certain clinicopathological parameters, such as histologic subtypes, ERCC1 expression scores, chemotherapeutic combinations, response rate, gender and smoking history were not analyzed. The aim of our present study was to extend the studied cohort and analyze those parameters. ERCC1 protein expression was examined in 46 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. 46 bronchoscopic biopsy samples (27 squamous cell carcinomas /SCC/ and 19 adenocarcinomas /ADC/) together with their corresponding surgical biopsies were studied. ERCC1 immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Staining scores were calculated by multiplying the percentage of positive tumor cells (0-100) by the staining intensity (0-3). 24/27 bronchoscopic SCC tissues expressed ERCC1. Thirteen of these cases became negative after neoadjuvant therapy and the expression differences between pre- and postchemotherapy samples were highly significant (p < 0.001). 11/19 bronchoscopic ADC tissues expressed ERCC1. Six of these cases became negative after neoadjuvant therapy and the expression differences were significant (p < 0.010). There was no newly expressed ERCC1 postoperatively. Comparison of staining score changes revealed more pronounced decrease in SCC (p = 0.032). We observed no correlation between initial ERCC1 level or ERCC1 decrease and overall survival, but we demonstrated correlations between decrease in ERCC1 expression and histologic subtypes of tumors and gender. We could confirm our previous data in a larger cohort that platinum-based chemotherapy affects the ERCC1 expression probably referring to an induction of tumor cell selection. PMID:25194563

  17. Musashi1 as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Yu, Huina; Linnoila, R Ilona; Li, Laodong; Li, Dangyu; Mo, Biwen; Okano, Hideyuki; Penalva, Luiz O F; Glazer, Robert I

    2013-05-01

    Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. One approach to improving survival is the identification of biomarkers to detect early stage disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of the stem cell and progenitor cell marker, Musashi1 (Msi1), as a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Functional studies in A549 bronchioalveolar carcinoma and NCI-H520 squamous cell carcinoma cells revealed that Msi1 was enriched in spheroid cultures of tumor cells and in the CD133+ cell population. Downregulation of Msi1 by lentivirus-mediated expression of an Msi1 shRNA reduced spheroid colony proliferation. Growth inhibition was associated with reduced nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibition of the processing of intracellular Notch. In primary lung cancer, Msi1 protein expression was elevated in 86% of 202 tissue microarray specimens, and Msi1 mRNA was increased in 80% of 118 bronchoscopic biopsies, including metastatic disease, but was rarely detected in adjacent normal lung tissue and in non-malignant diseased tissue. Msi1 was expressed in a diffuse pattern in most tumor subtypes, except in squamous cell carcinomas, where it appeared in a focal pattern in 50% of specimens. Thus, Msi1 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for all lung cancer subtypes. PMID:23715514

  18. Musashi1 as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, R. Ilona; Li, Laodong; Li, Dangyu; Mo, Biwen; Okano, Hideyuki; Penalva, Luiz O. F.; Glazer, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. One approach to improving survival is the identification of biomarkers to detect early stage disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of the stem cell and progenitor cell marker, Musashi1 (Msi1), as a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Functional studies in A549 bronchioalveolar carcinoma and NCI-H520 squamous cell carcinoma cells revealed that Msi1 was enriched in spheroid cultures of tumor cells and in the CD133+ cell population. Downregulation of Msi1 by lentivirus-mediated expression of an Msi1 shRNA reduced spheroid colony proliferation. Growth inhibition was associated with reduced nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibition of the processing of intracellular Notch. In primary lung cancer, Msi1 protein expression was elevated in 86% of 202 tissue microarray specimens, and Msi1 mRNA was increased in 80% of 118 bronchoscopic biopsies, including metastatic disease, but was rarely detected in adjacent normal lung tissue and in non-malignant diseased tissue. Msi1 was expressed in a diffuse pattern in most tumor subtypes, except in squamous cell carcinomas, where it appeared in a focal pattern in 50% of specimens. Thus, Msi1 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for all lung cancer subtypes. PMID:23715514

  19. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  20. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to intubation: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope versus McCoy laryngoscope in presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilization for traumatic cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nitesh; Purohit, Shobha; Kalra, Poonam; Lall, Tarun; Khare, Avneesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intubation is known to cause an exaggerated hemodynamic response in the form of tachycardia, hypertension, and dysrhythmias. In cervical spine instability, intubation has to be performed using cervical immobilization to prevent exacerbation of spinal cord injuries. Application of rigid cervical collar may reduce cervical spine movements, but it hinders tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic responses to fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and McCoy laryngoscope in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with rigid cervical collar simulating cervical spine immobilization in the situation of cervical trauma. Methods: Thirty-two patients in the age range 20–50 years, of American Society of Anaesthesiologist I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups according to the technique used for intubation: Group A (flexible FOB) and Group B (McCoy laryngoscope). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, intraoperatively, immediately before and after induction, and immediately after intubation. Thereafter, every min for next 5 min. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison of categorical data was done by Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by the parametric test (unpaired t-test), and probability was considered to be significant if <0.05. Results: Due to intubation response, HR and blood pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) above preoperative values in McCoy group as compared to the fiberoptic group. Conclusion: We suggest that the flexible FOB is an effective and better method of intubation in a situation like traumatic cervical spine injury and provides stable hemodynamics. PMID:26712970

  1. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation may be the only intervention that can prolong survival and improve quality of life for those individuals with advanced lung disease who are acceptable candidates for the procedure. However, these candidates may be extremely ill and require ventilator and/or circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, and lung transplantation recipients are at risk of numerous post-transplant complications that include surgical complications, primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, opportunistic infection, and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which may be caused by chronic rejection. Many advances in pre- and post-transplant management have led to improved outcomes over the past decade. These include the creation of sound guidelines for candidate selection, improved surgical techniques, advances in donor lung preservation, an improving ability to suppress and treat allograft rejection, the development of prophylaxis protocols to decrease the incidence of opportunistic infection, more effective therapies for treating infectious complications, and the development of novel therapies to treat and manage CLAD. A major obstacle to prolonged survival beyond the early post-operative time period is the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), which is the most common form of CLAD. This manuscript discusses recent and evolving advances in the field of lung transplantation. PMID:23710330

  2. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, YOKO; KODAMA, KEN; MANIWA, TOMOHIRO; TAKEDA, MASASHI; KISHIMA, HIROKI

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement mostly occurs in the adenocarcinoma subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with squamous cell carcinoma harboring the ALK rearrangement are extremely rare. This is a case report of a squamous cell carcinoma patient with EML4-ALK rearrangement. An elderly man with a heavy smoking history presented with a mass lesion in the right main bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the tumor confirmed a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, and it was proven to harbor ALK rearrangement, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization, but not epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. The patient underwent radiation therapy, with a markedly favorable response. ALK-targeted treatment may be a viable option if disease progression occurs in such a case in the future. PMID:27330767

  3. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  4. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  5. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  8. Tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Ogino, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Koeda, Yorihiko; Ueda, Hironobu; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Aoki, Hidehiko; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2012-04-01

    We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22057370

  9. Position systématique de Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    1999-07-01

    The species Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999, described as a Jacanidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) is very different from the recent and fossil Jacanidae and corresponds to a Coraciidae (Aves: Coraciiformes). It is here placed in the extinct genus Geranopterus and becomes Geranopterus bohemicus ( Mlíkovsky, 1999).

  10. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  11. CodonPhyML: Fast Maximum Likelihood Phylogeny Estimation under Codon Substitution Models

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Manuel; Zoller, Stefan; Anisimova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Markov models of codon substitution naturally incorporate the structure of the genetic code and the selection intensity at the protein level, providing a more realistic representation of protein-coding sequences compared with nucleotide or amino acid models. Thus, for protein-coding genes, phylogenetic inference is expected to be more accurate under codon models. So far, phylogeny reconstruction under codon models has been elusive due to computational difficulties of dealing with high dimension matrices. Here, we present a fast maximum likelihood (ML) package for phylogenetic inference, CodonPhyML offering hundreds of different codon models, the largest variety to date, for phylogeny inference by ML. CodonPhyML is tested on simulated and real data and is shown to offer excellent speed and convergence properties. In addition, CodonPhyML includes most recent fast methods for estimating phylogenetic branch supports and provides an integral framework for models selection, including amino acid and DNA models. PMID:23436912

  12. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... years. Their conditions are so severe that other treatments, such as medicines or breathing devices, no longer work. Lung transplants most often are used to treat people who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary ...

  13. RiverML: Standardizing the Communication of River Model Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, S.; Maidment, D. R.; Arctur, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    RiverML is a proposed language for conveying a description of river channel and floodplain geometry and flow characteristics through the internet in a standardized way. A key goal of the RiverML project is to allow interoperability between all hydraulic and hydrologic models, whether they are industry standard software packages or custom-built research tools. By providing a common transfer format for common model inputs and outputs, RiverML can shorten the development time and enhance the immediate utility of innovative river modeling tools. RiverML will provide descriptions of cross sections and multiple flow lines, allowing the construction of wireframe representations. In addition, RiverML will support descriptions of network connectivity, properties such as roughness coefficients, and time series observations such as water surface elevation and flow rate. The language is constructed in a modular fashion such that the geometry information, network information, and time series observations can be communicated independently of each other, allowing an arbitrary suite of software packages to contribute to a coherently modeled scenario. Funding for the development of RiverML is provided through an NSF grant to CUAHSI HydroShare project, a web-based collaborative environment for sharing data & models. While RiverML is geared toward the transfer of data, HydroShare will serve as a repository for storing water-related data and models of any format, while providing enhanced functionality for standardized formats such as RiverML, WaterML, and shapefiles. RiverML is a joint effort between the CUAHSI HydroShare development team, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group, and an international community of data providers, data users, and software developers.

  14. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  15. Bronchoscopic interventions for severe COPD

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Robert F.; Parrish, Scott; Sarkar, Saiyad; Krimsky, William; Turner, J. Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes severe handicap among smokers. Most patients have to remain under continuous oxygen therapy at home. Moreover, respiratory infections are very common among these patients and vaccination is obligatory against influenza. Emphysema and bronchiectasis are observed with computed tomography (CT) and in several situations these parenchymal damages are responsible for pneumothorax in one case and pseudomonas aeroginosa infection. Novel mini-invasive techniques are used currently for emphysema treatments which are described extensively throughout our current work. PMID:25337396

  16. Endobronchial radiation therapy (EBRT) in the management of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, M. III; Leidholdt, E.M. Jr.; Tatera, B.S.; Joseph, J. )

    1990-06-01

    Between October 1987 and November 1988, 19 endobronchial Iridium-192 line source placements were attempted in 17 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer. Approximately 30 Gy was delivered to the endobronchus using a low dose rate (LDR) afterloading technique delivering a mean dose of 70 cGy/hr at 5 mm. Improvement in subjective symptoms was noted in 67% of evaluable patients whereas objective responses defined by chest X ray and bronchoscopy were noted in 26% and 60%, respectively. No significant morbidity was observed. The radiation exposure to health care workers was low ranging from 10 to 40 mRem per treatment course with most of the staff receiving less than 10 mRem per treatment course (minimal detectable level 10 mRem). The results of this series are compared with selected series using low dose rate as well as intermediate dose rate (IDR) and high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial radiation therapy (EBRT). Based on bronchoscopic responses from the selected series reviewed, both HDR low total dose per treatment (range 7.5-10 Gy) and LDR high total dose per treatment (range 30-50 Gy) are effective in palliating the vast majority of patients with endobronchial lesions. Intermediate dose rate is also effective using fractions similar to high dose rate but total dose similar to low dose rate. The efficacy of endobronchial radiation therapy in the palliative setting suggest a possible role for endobronchial radiation therapy combined with external beam irradiation with or without chemotherapy in the initial management of localized lung cancer. Defining the optimal total dose, dose rate, and the exact role of endobronchial radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer will require large cooperative trials with standardization of techniques and definitions.

  17. Discovery of ML326: the first sub-micromolar, selective M5 PAM

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Patirck R.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Lamasal, Atin; Vinson, Paige N.; Smith, Emery; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S.; Engers, Julie L.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Wood, Michael R.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    This letter describes the further chemical optimization of the M5 PAM MLPCN probes ML129 and ML172. A multi-dimensional iterative parallel synthesis effort quickly explored isatin replacements and a number of southern heterobiaryl variations with no improvement over ML129 and ML172. An HTS campaign identified several weak M5 PAMs (M5 EC50 >10 μM) with a structurally related isatin core that possessed a southern phenethyl ether linkage. While SAR within the HTS series was very shallow and unable to be optimized, grafting the phenethyl ether linkage onto the ML129/ML172 cores led to the first sub-micromolar M5 PAM, ML326 (VU0467903), (human and rat M5 EC50s of 409 nM and 480 nM, respectively) with excellent mAChR selectivity (M1-M4 EC50s <30 μM) and a robust 20-fold leftward shift of the ACh CRC. PMID:23562060

  18. The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

  19. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  20. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  1. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  2. Rare A2ML1 variants confer susceptibility to otitis media.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Chiong, Charlotte M; Reyes-Quintos, Ma Rina T; Tantoco, Ma Leah C; Wang, Xin; Acharya, Anushree; Abbe, Izoduwa; Giese, Arnaud P; Smith, Joshua D; Allen, E Kaitlynn; Li, Biao; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Garcia, Marieflor Cristy; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D V; Labra, Patrick John; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa I; Chan, Abner L; Wang, Gao T; Daly, Kathleen A; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Patel, Janak A; Riazuddin, Saima; Sale, Michele M; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ahmed, Zubair M; Abes, Generoso T; Leal, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    A duplication variant within the middle ear-specific gene A2ML1 cosegregates with otitis media in an indigenous Filipino pedigree (LOD score = 7.5 at reduced penetrance) and lies within a founder haplotype that is also shared by 3 otitis-prone European-American and Hispanic-American children but is absent in non-otitis-prone children and >62,000 next-generation sequences. We identified seven additional A2ML1 variants in six otitis-prone children. Collectively, our studies support a role for A2ML1 in the pathophysiology of otitis media. PMID:26121085

  3. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Israel L.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.; Mariani, Alessandro W.; Fernandes, Flávio G.; Unterpertinger, Fernando V.; Canzian, Mauro; Jatene, Fabio B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex® was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98). The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p = 0.035). The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H2O in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H2O in Group 2 (p = 0.816). The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p = 0.87). The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0), and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm2 and 137.50/mm2, respectively (p = 0.71). CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation. PMID:23018310

  4. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: NORAMET intercomparison of volume standards at 50 mL and 100 mL (SIM.M.FF-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, C.; Trujillo Juarez, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Bean, V.

    2003-01-01

    An intercomparison of volume standards, 50 mL and 100 mL pycnometers, was decided on at the NORAMET Technical Contacts Meeting of 8-9 June 1998. The participating laboratories were CENAM, NIST, and NRC. NRC acted as the pilot laboratory. The comparison was done between April 1999 and October 1999. The pycnometers were not protected against evaporation by a supplementary cap. Even with this handicap, the three laboratories agreed with one another very well. The difference between maximum and minimum reported volumes never exceeded 0.014%. This comparison was assigned the number SIM.M.FF-S1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the SIM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. 84. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM SWITCHBOARD FRONT ELEVATION (ML829/40FS) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - SWITCHBOARD - FRONT ELEVATION (ML-8-29/40-FS) August 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  6. 98. ARAIII. ML1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor pit by hoist. July 13, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4049. Photographer: Lowin. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Executing medical logic modules expressed in ArdenML using Drools.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chai Young; Sward, Katherine A; Haug, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Arden Syntax is an HL7 standard language for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Despite nearly 2 decades of availability, Arden Syntax has not been widely used. This has been attributed to the lack of a generally available compiler to implement the logic, to Arden's complex syntax, to the challenges of mapping local data to data references in the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs), or, more globally, to the general absence of decision support in healthcare computing. An XML representation (ArdenML) may partially address the technical challenges. MLMs created in ArdenML can be converted into executable files using standard transforms written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) language. As an example, we have demonstrated an approach to executing MLMs written in ArdenML using the Drools business rule management system. Extensions to ArdenML make it possible to generate a user interface through which an MLM developer can test for logical errors. PMID:22180871

  8. Parameter identifiability of cardiac ionic models using a novel CellML least squares optimization tool.

    PubMed

    Hui, Ben B B; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H

    2007-01-01

    Published models of excitable cells can be used to fit to a range of action potential experimental data. CellML is a well-defined standard for publishing and exchanging such models, but currently there is a lack of software that utilizes CellML for parameter analysis. In this paper, we introduce a Java-based utility capable of performing model simulation, identifiability analysis, and parameter optimization of ionic cardiac cell models written in CellML. Identifiability analysis was performed in seven CellML models. Parameter identifiability was consistently improved by using the compensatory membrane current as opposed to the membrane voltage as the residual. as well as through the introduction of an additional stimulus set used in the fitting process. PMID:18003205

  9. 95. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1. Shows test and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1. Shows test and control buildings, berms, fencing. March 14, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-1666. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 34. GENERAL VIEW OF ML9. TOP OF 'MILK STOOL' HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. GENERAL VIEW OF ML-9. TOP OF 'MILK STOOL' HAS BEEN REMOVED (LEFT) AND MACHINE ROOM OF HAMMERHEAD CRANE IS VISIBLE ON GROUND AT RIGHT. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  11. GeochronML - O&M, GeoSciML and the Age of the Earth: Developing a geochronology data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, K. N.; Ardlie, N.; Sullivan, L.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Geochronology is the vital fourth dimension for geological knowledge. It provides the temporal framework for understanding and modelling geological processes and rates of change. Incorporating geochronological 'observations and measurements' into interoperable geological data systems is thus a critical pursuit. Although there are several resources for storing and accessing geochronological data, there is no standard format for exchanging such data among users. Current systems are a mixture of comma-delimited text files, Excel spreadsheets and PDFs that assume prior specialist knowledge and frequently force the user to laboriously, and potentially erroneously, extract the required data manually. Geoscience Australia and partners are developing a standard data exchange format for geochronological data (`geochronML') within the broader framework of Observations and Measurements and GeoSciML that are an important facet of emerging international geoscience data transfer standards. Geochronology analytical processes and resulting data present some challenging issues as a rock `age' is typically not a direct measurement, but rather the interpretation of a statistical amalgam of several measurements chosen with the aid of prior geological knowledge and analytical metadata. The level at which these data need to be exposed to a user varies greatly, even to the same user over the course of a project. GeochronML is also attempting to provide a generic pattern that will support as wide as range of radioisotopic systems as possible. This presentation will discuss developments at Geoscience Australia and the opportunities for collaboration.

  12. CytometryML: a data standard which has been designed to interface with other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2007-02-01

    Because of the differences in the requirements, needs, and past histories including existing standards of the creating organizations, a single encompassing cytology-pathology standard will not, in the near future, replace the multiple existing or under development standards. Except for DICOM and FCS, these standardization efforts are all based on XML. CytometryML is a collection of XML schemas, which are based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) datatypes. The CytometryML schemas contain attributes that link them to the DICOM standard and FCS. Interoperability with DICOM has been facilitated by, wherever reasonable, limiting the difference between CytometryML and the previous standards to syntax. In order to permit the Resource Description Framework, RDF, to reference the CytometryML datatypes, id attributes have been added to many CytometryML elements. The Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification and the Flowcyt standards development effort employ RDF syntax. Documentation from DICOM has been reused in CytometryML. The unity of analytical cytology was demonstrated by deriving a microscope type and a flow cytometer type from a generic cytometry instrument type. The feasibility of incorporating the Flowcyt gating schemas into CytometryML has been demonstrated. CytometryML is being extended to include many of the new DICOM Working Group 26 datatypes, which describe patients, specimens, and analytes. In situations where multiple standards are being created, interoperability can be facilitated by employing datatypes based on a common set of semantics and building in links to standards that employ different syntax.

  13. The Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC9 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Pei, Shengqiang; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; Lu, Ying; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are known to play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses in plants. Currently, little information regarding the functional roles of NAC genes in stress tolerance is available in Miscanthus lutarioriparius, a promising bioenergy plant for cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we carried out the functional characterization of MlNAC9 in abiotic stresses. MlNAC9 was shown to act as a nuclear localized transcription activator with the activation domain in its C-terminus. The overexpression of MlNAC9 in Arabidopsis conferred hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) at seed germination and root elongation stages. In addition, the overexpression of MlNAC9 led to increased seed germination rate and root growth under salt (NaCl) treatment. Meanwhile, the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MlNAC9 showed enhanced tolerance to drought and cold stresses. The expression of stress-responsive marker genes was significantly increased in MlNAC9 overexpression lines compared to that of WT under ABA, drought, salt, and cold stresses. Correspondingly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower accumulated in MlNAC9 overexpression lines under drought and salt treatments. These results indicated that the overexpression of MlNAC9 improved the tolerance to abiotic stresses via an ABA-dependent pathway, and the enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants was mainly attributed to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes and the enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27085481

  14. Using CellML with OpenCMISS to Simulate Multi-Scale Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, David P.; Ladd, David; Hussan, Jagir R.; Safaei, Soroush; Suresh, Vinod; Hunter, Peter J.; Bradley, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    OpenCMISS is an open-source modeling environment aimed, in particular, at the solution of bioengineering problems. OpenCMISS consists of two main parts: a computational library (OpenCMISS-Iron) and a field manipulation and visualization library (OpenCMISS-Zinc). OpenCMISS is designed for the solution of coupled multi-scale, multi-physics problems in a general-purpose parallel environment. CellML is an XML format designed to encode biophysically based systems of ordinary differential equations and both linear and non-linear algebraic equations. A primary design goal of CellML is to allow mathematical models to be encoded in a modular and reusable format to aid reproducibility and interoperability of modeling studies. In OpenCMISS, we make use of CellML models to enable users to configure various aspects of their multi-scale physiological models. This avoids the need for users to be familiar with the OpenCMISS internal code in order to perform customized computational experiments. Examples of this are: cellular electrophysiology models embedded in tissue electrical propagation models; material constitutive relationships for mechanical growth and deformation simulations; time-varying boundary conditions for various problem domains; and fluid constitutive relationships and lumped-parameter models. In this paper, we provide implementation details describing how CellML models are integrated into multi-scale physiological models in OpenCMISS. The external interface OpenCMISS presents to users is also described, including specific examples exemplifying the extensibility and usability these tools provide the physiological modeling and simulation community. We conclude with some thoughts on future extension of OpenCMISS to make use of other community developed information standards, such as FieldML, SED-ML, and BioSignalML. Plans for the integration of accelerator code (graphical processing unit and field programmable gate array) generated from CellML models is also

  15. GeoSciML v2: an interchange and mark-up language for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.

    2009-04-01

    GeoSciML was released in 2006 as a data transfer standard for geoscience. The scope of GeoSciML is the information generally shown on geological maps along with some observations, in particular those made using boreholes. Following further testing and use-case analysis GeoSciML v2 has recently been released incorporating enhanced representation of geologic units, earth materials, structures and associated vocabularies. The model utilizes the XML-based Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) for spatial information, and Observations and Measurements markup schema (O&M) for field and lab observations, including boreholes. In the GeoSciML conceptual model, 'mapped features,' which represent occurrences such as a polygon or curve on a geologic map, are specified by a 'geologic feature,' which is a typed description of an entity analogous to a 'legend item' on a map. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. GeoSciML also includes a structure for controlled concepts that may be defined in terms of normative geologic features, GeoSciML earth material descriptions, or an entity from some other schema. Controlled concepts can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons, and are used as the basis for classification. GeoSciMLv2 has been proven in an OGC web services compliant testbed comprising services from 10 geological surveys worldwide. Testbed services and products include Web Mapping Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) serving data in GeoSciML v2 form; catalog and vocabulary services, and metadata for such services; registers of vocabularies; and clients capable of using, querying and rendering such services. The paper will describe the GeoSciML v2 resources available and how to obtain them. These include the schema representation in UML and W3C XSD, documentation describing the schema and how to use it, and example data files.

  16. QuakeML: XML for Seismological Data Exchange and Resource Metadata Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Kästli, P.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; QuakeML Working Group

    2007-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange format for seismology that is under development. Current collaborators are from ETH, GFZ, USC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, and ISTI. QuakeML development was motivated by the lack of a widely accepted and well-documented data format that is applicable to a broad range of fields in seismology. The development team brings together expertise from communities dealing with analysis and creation of earthquake catalogs, distribution of seismic bulletins, and real-time processing of seismic data. Efforts to merge QuakeML with existing XML dialects are under way. The first release of QuakeML will cover a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Further extensions are in progress or planned, e.g., for macroseismic information, location probability density functions, slip distributions, and ground motion information. The QuakeML language definition is supplemented by a concept to provide resource metadata and facilitate metadata exchange between distributed data providers. For that purpose, we introduce unique, location-independent identifiers of seismological resources. As an application of QuakeML, ETH Zurich currently develops a Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit as a contribution to CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability). We follow a collaborative and transparent development approach along the lines of the procedures of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). QuakeML currently is in working draft status. The standard description will be subjected to a public Request for Comments (RFC) process and eventually reach the status of a recommendation. QuakeML can be found at http://www.quakeml.org.

  17. WaterML: an XML Language for Communicating Water Observations Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.

    2007-12-01

    One of the great impediments to the synthesis of water information is the plethora of formats used to publish such data. Each water agency uses its own approach. XML (eXtended Markup Languages) are generalizations of Hypertext Markup Language to communicate specific kinds of information via the internet. WaterML is an XML language for water observations data - streamflow, water quality, groundwater levels, climate, precipitation and aquatic biology data, recorded at fixed, point locations as a function of time. The Hydrologic Information System project of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc (CUAHSI) has defined WaterML and prepared a set of web service functions called WaterOneFLow that use WaterML to provide information about observation sites, the variables measured there and the values of those measurments. WaterML has been submitted to the Open GIS Consortium for harmonization with its standards for XML languages. Academic investigators at a number of testbed locations in the WATERS network are providing data in WaterML format using WaterOneFlow web services. The USGS and other federal agencies are also working with CUAHSI to similarly provide access to their data in WaterML through WaterOneFlow services.

  18. An Ontology for State Analysis: Formalizing the Mapping to SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Karban, Robert; Rouquette, Nicolas; Jenkins, Steven; Ingham, Michel

    2012-01-01

    State Analysis is a methodology developed over the last decade for architecting, designing and documenting complex control systems. Although it was originally conceived for designing robotic spacecraft, recent applications include the design of control systems for large ground-based telescopes. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) began a project to design the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which will require coordinated control of over a thousand articulated mirror segments. The designers are using State Analysis as a methodology and the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a modeling and documentation language in this task. To effectively apply the State Analysis methodology in this context it became necessary to provide ontological definitions of the concepts and relations in State Analysis and greater flexibility through a mapping of State Analysis into a practical extension of SysML. The ontology provides the formal basis for verifying compliance with State Analysis semantics including architectural constraints. The SysML extension provides the practical basis for applying the State Analysis methodology with SysML tools. This paper will discuss the method used to develop these formalisms (the ontology), the formalisms themselves, the mapping to SysML and approach to using these formalisms to specify a control system and enforce architectural constraints in a SysML model.

  19. The optical properties of lung as a function of respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, J. F.; van Staveren, H. J.; Posthumus, P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.

    1997-11-01

    Lung consists of alveoli enclosed by tissue and both structures contribute to volume-dependent scattering of light. It is the purpose of this paper to determine the volume-dependent optical properties of lung. In vivo interstitial fibre measurements of the effective attenuation coefficient at 632.8 nm differed during inspiration from that during expiration . In vitro measurements on a piglet lung insufflated with oxygen from 50 to 150 ml showed the effective attenuation coefficient at 632.8 nm decreases as a function of oxygen volume in the lung (at 50 ml , at 100 ml , and at 150 ml ). This was explained by combining scattering of alveoli (Mie theory) with optical properties of collapsed lung tissue using integrating sphere measurements. Theory and measured in vitro values showed good agreement (deviation ). Combination of these data yields the absorption coefficient and scattering parameters of lung tissue as a function of lung volume. We conclude that the light fluence rate in lung tissue should be estimated using optical properties that include scattering by the alveoli.

  20. Mild loss of lung aeration augments stretch in healthy lung regions.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Maurizio; Xin, Yi; Hamedani, Hooman; Clapp, Justin; Kadlecek, Stephen; Meeder, Natalie; Zeng, Johnathan; Profka, Harrilla; Kavanagh, Brian P; Rizi, Rahim R

    2016-02-15

    Inspiratory stretch by mechanical ventilation worsens lung injury. However, it is not clear whether and how the ventilator damages lungs in the absence of preexisting injury. We hypothesized that subtle loss of lung aeration during general anesthesia regionally augments ventilation and distension of ventilated air spaces. In eight supine anesthetized and intubated rats, hyperpolarized gas MRI was performed after a recruitment maneuver following 1 h of volume-controlled ventilation with zero positive end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP), FiO2 0.5, and tidal volume 10 ml/kg, and after a second recruitment maneuver. Regional fractional ventilation (FV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of (3)He (a measurement of ventilated peripheral air space dimensions), and gas volume were measured in lung quadrants of ventral and dorsal regions of the lungs. In six additional rats, computed tomography (CT) images were obtained at each time point. Ventilation with ZEEP decreased total lung gas volume and increased both FV and ADC in all studied regions. Increases in FV were more evident in the dorsal slices. In each lung quadrant, higher ADC was predicted by lower gas volume and by increased mean values (and heterogeneity) of FV distribution. CT scans documented 10% loss of whole-lung aeration and increased density in the dorsal lung, but no macroscopic atelectasis. Loss of pulmonary gas at ZEEP increased fractional ventilation and inspiratory dimensions of ventilated peripheral air spaces. Such regional changes could help explain a propensity for mechanical ventilation to contribute to lung injury in previously uninjured lungs. PMID:26662053

  1. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Update Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  2. How Lungs Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of ... Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow spaces in the bones ...

  3. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  4. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, the cause ...

  5. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... Gender Height Hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) level

  6. Interoperability of unattended ground sensors with an open architecture controller using SensorML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Jon; Fairgrieve, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) from a wide range of manufacturers have difficulty interoperating with each other and common control and dissemination points. Typically, sensor data is transmitted via RF or wired connections to a central location where the data can be fused together and transmitted further via satellite to a Processing, Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) system. These PED's are charged with analyzing the data to create real time actionable intelligence for the war fighter. However, when several disparate sensors from different manufacturers are used, interoperability problems arise. Therefore, a central UGS controller that accepts data from a wide range of sensors and helps them interoperate is essential. This paper addresses benefits derived from using the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Model Language (SensorML) sensor descriptions for an UGS controller. SensorML 1.0 is an approved OGC standard and is one of the major components within the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. SensorML provides standard models and an XML encoding for describing any process, including the process of measurement by sensors. By incorporating SensorML, an UGS controller can accept data from various sensors from different manufacturers, and interpret that data with the SensorML descriptions to allow the controller to take programmed actions and interoperate between sensors. Furthermore, SensorML can be used to translate the native sensor formats once the original data has been transmitted to the PED. Therefore, this makes a SensorML enabled UGS controller an extremely powerful tool that provides situational awareness by combining multiple sensors to form a single common operational picture (COP).

  7. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  8. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge

  9. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  10. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  11. Diet and obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Trenga, C

    2001-01-01

    The results presented in this review suggest that the impact of nutrition on obstructive lung disease is most evident for antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin C and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E. By decreasing oxidant insults to the lung, antioxidants could modulate the development of chronic lung diseases and lung function decrement. Antioxidant vitamins could also play an important role in gene-environment interactions in complex lung diseases such as childhood asthma. Data also suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may have a potentially protective effect against airway hyperreactivity and lung function decrements; however, relevant data are still sparse. Although epidemiologic data suggest that consumption of fresh fruit may reduce risk of noncarcinogenic airway limitation, there are no clear data on which nutrients might be most relevant. While some studies evaluate daily intake of vitamin C, other studies use fruit consumption as a surrogate for antioxidant intake. Given the dietary intercorrelations among antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin C, beta-carotene, and flavonoids, as well as other micronutrients, it may be difficult to isolate a specific effect. Some population subgroups with higher levels of oxidative stress, such as cigarette smokers, may be more likely to benefit from dietary supplementation, since some studies have suggested that antioxidant intake may have a greater impact in this group. Studies of lung function decrement and COPD in adults suggest that daily intake of vitamin C at levels slightly exceeding the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (60 mg/day among nonsmokers and 100 mg/day among smokers) may have a protective effect (20). In the Schwartz and Weiss (85) and Britton et al. (87) studies, an increase of 40 mg/day in vitamin C intake led to an approximate 20-ml increase in FEV1. Daily mean vitamin C intakes in these studies were 66 mg and 99.2 mg, respectively, and the highest intake level (178 mg/day) was approximately

  12. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  13. Airflows after inhalation of terbutaline sulphate aerosol from a 750-ml spacer for four weeks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E; Hidinger, K G; Rosenhall, L; Hagstad, H; Löfgren, L; Perk, J; Stiksa, G; Ström, K

    1986-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate was administered to 40 adult asthmatic patients via an ordinary metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or one connected to a 750-ml spacer in an open, randomized, crossover study. Spirometry was obtained before the start of the study and again after four weeks of treatment with each inhaler. The patients recorded on a diary card the severity of their asthma symptoms and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in the morning before and after drug administration and in the evening. Preinhalation spirometric values were higher after four weeks with the 750-ml spacer than at the start of the study (P less than or equal to 0.05). Daily morning and evening PEFR values were higher after use of the 750-ml spacer than after use of the ordinary MDI (P less than 0.05). Daily symptom scores were generally low. A significantly better effect (P less than or equal to 0.05) with the 750-ml spacer was achieved only in daytime dyspnea. The investigators conclude that the attachment of a 750-ml spacer to an ordinary metered-dose inhaler can improve the efficacy of terbutaline sulphate in the long-term treatment of asthma. PMID:3698068

  14. The evolution of the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Maidment, D.; Tarboton, D. G.; Whiteaker, T.; Hooper, R.; Kirschtel, D.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS, his.cuahsi.org) uses web services as the core data exchange mechanism which provides programmatic connection between many heterogeneous sources of hydrologic data and a variety of online and desktop client applications. The service message schema follows the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML) 1.x specification (see OGC Discussion Paper 07-041r1). Data sources that can be queried via WaterML-compliant water data services include national and international repositories such as USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), USEPA STORET (Storage & Retrieval), USDA SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry), NCDC ISH and ISD(Integrated Surface Hourly and Daily Data), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and DAYMET (Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries). Besides government data sources, CUAHSI HIS provides access to a growing number of academic hydrologic observation networks. These networks are registered by researchers associated with 11 hydrologic observatory testbeds around the US, and other research, government and commercial groups wishing to join the emerging CUAHSI Water Data Federation. The Hydrologic Information Server (HIS Server) software stack deployed at NSF-supported hydrologic observatory sites and other universities around the country, supports a hydrologic data publication workflow which includes the following steps: (1) observational data are loaded from static files or streamed from sensors into a local instance of an Observations Data Model (ODM) database; (2) a generic web service template is configured for the new ODM instance to expose the data as a WaterML-compliant water data service, and (3) the new water data service is registered at the HISCentral registry (hiscentral.cuahsi.org), its metadata are harvested and semantically tagged using concepts from a hydrologic ontology. As a result, the new service is indexed in the CUAHSI central metadata catalog, and becomes

  15. ISAC's Gating-ML 2.0 data exchange standard for gating description.

    PubMed

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2015-07-01

    The lack of software interoperability with respect to gating has traditionally been a bottleneck preventing the use of multiple analytical tools and reproducibility of flow cytometry data analysis by independent parties. To address this issue, ISAC developed Gating-ML, a computer file format to encode and interchange gates. Gating-ML 1.5 was adopted and published as an ISAC Candidate Recommendation in 2008. Feedback during the probationary period from implementors, including major commercial software companies, instrument vendors, and the wider community, has led to a streamlined Gating-ML 2.0. Gating-ML has been significantly simplified and therefore easier to support by software tools. To aid developers, free, open source reference implementations, compliance tests, and detailed examples are provided to stimulate further commercial adoption. ISAC has approved Gating-ML as a standard ready for deployment in the public domain and encourages its support within the community as it is at a mature stage of development having undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. PMID:25976062

  16. Lung Circulation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  17. Who Needs a Lung Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs a Lung Transplant? Your doctor may recommend a lung transplant ... lungs to pick up oxygen. Applying to a Lung Transplant Program Lung transplants are done in medical ...

  18. Acyl protein thioesterase 1 and 2 (APT-1, APT-2) inhibitors palmostatin B, ML348 and ML349 have different effects on NRAS mutant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Vujic, Igor; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Vujic, Marin; Kwong, Andrew; Tsumura, Aaron; Murphy, Ryan; Moy, Adrian; Posch, Christian; Monshi, Babak; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic NRAS mutations are frequent in melanoma and lead to increased downstream signaling and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Since the direct inhibition of NRAS is not possible yet, modulators of NRAS posttranslational modifications have become an area of interest. Specifically, interfering with NRAS posttranslational palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle could disturb proper NRAS localization, and therefore decrease cell proliferation and downstream signaling. Here, we investigate the expression and function of NRAS depalmitoylating acyl protein thioesterases 1 and 2 (APT-1, APT-2) in a panel of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. First, we show that all melanoma cell lines examined express APT-1 and APT-2. Next, we show that siRNA mediated APT-1 and APT-2 knock down and that the specific APT-1 and -2 inhibitors ML348 and ML349 have no biologically significant effects in NRAS mutant melanoma cells. Finally, we test the dual APT-1 and APT-2 inhibitor palmostatin B and conclude that palmostatin B has effects on NRAS downstream signaling and cell viability in NRAS mutant melanoma cells, offering an interesting starting point for future studies. PMID:26771141

  19. Lung mechanics are both dose and tidal volume dependant in LPS-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Smet, Hilde R; Bersten, Andrew D

    2009-07-31

    Endotoxin stimulus plays a significant role in various forms of acute lung injury (ALI) which may be exacerbated by mechanical ventilation. Here, we identify the temporal pathophysiologic sequence following inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequently examine both LPS dose and V(T) relationships. Rats received intratracheal LPS (3, 9 or 15 mg/kg) prior to mechanical ventilation (V(T)=6, 9 or 12 ml/kg) and measurement of forced impedance mechanics for up to 4h. LPS-induced lung injury was achieved within the 15 min of LPS instillation with a 78% decrease in PaO(2) promptly followed by approximately 30% deterioration in tissue elastance. Despite a 41% increase in total surfactant, the active disaturated phospholipid fraction decreased 3-7% with decreasing PaO(2) and tissue mechanics and with increases in total lung lavage protein (150%) and wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (10%). V(T)=12 ml/kg resulted in an additional deterioration in tissue resistance (130%) and elastance (63%). These results suggest that LPS-induced lung injury is both LPS dose and V(T) sensitive, supporting a 'two hit' model of ALI. PMID:19539791

  20. [Clinical importance of basal insulin analogues and insulin Toujeo® 300 units/ml].

    PubMed

    Adamíková, Alena

    2015-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease that requires a personalized approach to treatment with goals tailored to capabilities and abilities of the patient, his other diseases so as to ensure good diabetes control without the risk of hypoglycemic events and the development or progression of late diabetic complications. Recommendations for treatment of diabetes is classified in second-line as a one of the possibilities of treatment of basal insulin immediately after the failure of therapy with metformin and diet. The new generation of basal insulin analogues provides its effect profile and features a completely new quality to the treatment of diabetes. Toujeo® 300 units/ml is a new long-acting basal insulin glargine concentration of 300 units/ ml with a low glycemic variability, which in studies has demonstrated consistent control of diabetes in a significant reduction in the risk of hypoglycemia especially at night compared with insulin glargin of concentration 100 units/ml. PMID:26652788

  1. ClonalFrameML: Efficient Inference of Recombination in Whole Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Didelot, Xavier; Wilson, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Recombination is an important evolutionary force in bacteria, but it remains challenging to reconstruct the imports that occurred in the ancestry of a genomic sample. Here we present ClonalFrameML, which uses maximum likelihood inference to simultaneously detect recombination in bacterial genomes and account for it in phylogenetic reconstruction. ClonalFrameML can analyse hundreds of genomes in a matter of hours, and we demonstrate its usefulness on simulated and real datasets. We find evidence for recombination hotspots associated with mobile elements in Clostridium difficile ST6 and a previously undescribed 310kb chromosomal replacement in Staphylococcus aureus ST582. ClonalFrameML is freely available at http://clonalframeml.googlecode.com/. PMID:25675341

  2. Role of fetal breathing movements in control of fetal lung distension.

    PubMed

    Miller, A A; Hooper, S B; Harding, R

    1993-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the role of fetal breathing movements (FBM) in the maintenance of fetal lung liquid volume. Experiments were performed in 14 chronically catheterized fetal sheep. FBM were selectively abolished for 48 h by the infusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX) onto the phrenic nerves of five fetuses. Lung liquid volumes and secretion rates were measured before each treatment, 46-48 h after the start of the TTX infusion, and 22-24 h after the end of the infusion. Blockade of the phrenic nerves reduced fetal lung liquid volumes from 27.6 +/- 1.9 to 21.8 +/- 2.6 ml/kg and increased lung liquid secretion rates from 3.8 +/- 0.6 to 6.2 +/- 1.1 ml.h-1.kg-1. Control experiments confirmed the lack of effect of TTX infused intravenously and saline infused intrapleurally on changes in fetal lung liquid volume and secretion rate. To measure the static relaxation volume of the fetal lung, in six fetuses we combined skeletal muscle paralysis with bypass of the upper airway for 48 h. This reduced fetal lung liquid volume from 39.1 +/- 3.1 to 23.0 +/- 2.5 ml/kg and increased lung liquid secretion rates from 4.1 +/- 0.7 to 5.8 +/- 0.9 ml.h-1.kg-1. This experiment demonstrates that the fetal lung is normally maintained at a level of expansion that is much greater than its static relaxation volume. We conclude that the volume of luminal liquid in the fetal lungs is dependent on the diaphragmatic contractions associated with FBM. Their effect is to resist the elastic recoil of the fetal lungs, thereby reducing the loss of liquid from the lungs via the trachea. PMID:8125894

  3. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org . PMID:21063949

  4. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API), and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions. PMID:20377909

  5. Mapping viscoelastic properties by multi-line (ML) acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomyo, Mikako; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    In these days ultrasound studies of non-invasive diagnostic methods using the elastic property of tissue have showed very promising results. Biological soft tissues are viscoelastic in nature; therefore several recent studies have shown the feasibility of shear wave dispersion in order to express viscosity which is considered to be valid for early diagnoses. Shear wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) has been conducted under ex vivo and in vivo conditions, which could estimate the value of shear elasticity and viscosity from a 40 x 40 mm2 area. In this study, our proposed Multi-line (ML) acoustic radiation force method could map shear elasticity and viscosity at 0.2 x 0.2 mm2 pixel in 25.6 mm width and 29.6 mm depth area. ML uses seven focus points in depth to create much planar shear wave than ever, and twenty pushing line to obtain data such a broader area than ever. These sequences contribute to express precise values of shear elasticity and viscosity at each pixel. A 10% gelatin phantom with a 10% gelatin and 1% xanthan gum mixture inclusion was prepared for ML experiment, and one homogenous phantom made of the same concentrations as the background of ML experiments was for ML and SDUV experiments three times to validate. The ML measurement resulted μ1 = 1.129±0.118 kPa, μ2 = 0.893±0.090 Pa・s in the 10% gelatin background; their corresponding SDUV measurement were μ1 = 1.250±0.129 kPa, μ2 = 0.833±0.098 Pa・s in 10% gelatin phantom. Though further evaluations such as frequency and rheological model are required, the results could show the effectiveness of this proposed method in mapping viscoelasticity and the feasibility of in vivo and ex vivo experiments.

  6. Transcript Signatures of Lymphocytic Bronchitis in Lung Allograft Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Dolganov, Gregory; Jones, Kirk D.; Donnelly, Samantha; Weaver, Timothy; Caughey, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis are barriers to sustained graft function in recipients of transplanted lungs. Early detection is hindered by inadequate tests and an incomplete understanding of the molecular events preceding or accompanying graft deterioration. Methods Hypothesizing that genes involved in immune responses and tissue remodeling produce biomarkers of rejection, we measured the expression of 192 selected genes in 72 sets of biopsy specimens from human lung allografts. Gene transcripts were quantified using a 2-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach in endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy specimens from transplant recipients without acute infections undergoing routine surveillance bronchoscopy. Results Comparisons of histopathology in parallel biopsy specimens identified 6 genes correlating with rejection as manifested by lymphocytic bronchitis, a suspected harbinger of obliterative bronchiolitis. For example, β2-defensin and collagenase transcripts in inflamed bronchi increased 37-fold and 163-fold, respectively. By contrast, these transcripts did not correlate with acute rejection in transbronchial specimens. Further, no correspondence was noted between histopathologic bronchitis and parenchymal rejection when endobronchial and transbronchial samples were obtained from the same patient. Conclusions Our highly sensitive method permits quantitation of many gene transcripts simultaneously in small, bronchoscopically acquired biopsy specimens of allografts. Transcript signatures obtained by this approach suggest that airway and alveolar responses to rejection differ and that endobronchial biopsy specimens assess lymphocytic bronchitis and chronic rejection but are not proxies for transbronchial biopsy specimens. Further, they reveal changes in airway expression of the specific genes involved in host defense and remodeling and suggest that the measurement of transcripts correlating with lymphocytic bronchitis

  7. Lung tumor tracking in fluoroscopic video based on optical flow

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Qianyi; Hamilton, Russell J.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Alexander, Brian; Jiang, Steve B.

    2008-12-15

    Respiratory gating and tumor tracking for dynamic multileaf collimator delivery require accurate and real-time localization of the lung tumor position during treatment. Deriving tumor position from external surrogates such as abdominal surface motion may have large uncertainties due to the intra- and interfraction variations of the correlation between the external surrogates and internal tumor motion. Implanted fiducial markers can be used to track tumors fluoroscopically in real time with sufficient accuracy. However, it may not be a practical procedure when implanting fiducials bronchoscopically. In this work, a method is presented to track the lung tumor mass or relevant anatomic features projected in fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers based on an optical flow algorithm. The algorithm generates the centroid position of the tracked target and ignores shape changes of the tumor mass shadow. The tracking starts with a segmented tumor projection in an initial image frame. Then, the optical flow between this and all incoming frames acquired during treatment delivery is computed as initial estimations of tumor centroid displacements. The tumor contour in the initial frame is transferred to the incoming frames based on the average of the motion vectors, and its positions in the incoming frames are determined by fine-tuning the contour positions using a template matching algorithm with a small search range. The tracking results were validated by comparing with clinician determined contours on each frame. The position difference in 95% of the frames was found to be less than 1.4 pixels ({approx}0.7 mm) in the best case and 2.8 pixels ({approx}1.4 mm) in the worst case for the five patients studied.

  8. ANZSoilML: An Australian - New Zealand standard for exchange of soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Ritchie, Alistair; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Australian-New Zealand soil information exchange standard (ANZSoilML) is a GML-based standard designed to allow the discovery, query and delivery of soil and landscape data via standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services. ANZSoilML modifies the Australian soil exchange standard (OzSoilML), which is based on the Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) database design and exchange protocols, to meet the New Zealand National Soils Database requirements. The most significant change was the removal of the lists of CodeList terms in OzSoilML, which were based on the field methods specified in the 'Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook'. These were replaced with empty CodeLists as placeholders to external vocabularies to allow the use of New Zealand vocabularies without violating the data model. Testing of the use of these separately governed Australian and New Zealand vocabularies has commenced. ANZSoilML attempts to accommodate the proposed International Organization for Standardization ISO/DIS 28258 standard for soil quality. For the most part, ANZSoilML is consistent with the ISO model, although major differences arise as a result of: • The need to specify the properties appropriate for each feature type; • The inclusion of soil-related 'Landscape' features; • Allowing the mapping of soil surfaces, bodies, layers and horizons, independent of the soil profile; • Allowing specifying the relationships between the various soil features; • Specifying soil horizons as specialisations of soil layers; • Removing duplication of features provided by the ISO Observation & Measurements standard. The International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) Working Group on Soil Information Standards (WG-SIS) aims to develop, promote and maintain a standard to facilitate the exchange of soils data and information. Developing an international exchange standard that is compatible with existing and emerging national and

  9. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frödin, J E

    1996-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on radiotherapy for lung cancer is based on 80 scientific articles, including 2 meta-analyses, 29 randomized studies, 19 prospective studies, and 21 retrospective studies. These studies involve 28172 patients. Basic treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is chemotherapy. Addition of radiotherapy to the primary tumor and mediastinum reduces local recurrence, prolongs long-term survival, and is often indicated. Current, and future, studies can be expected to show successive improvements in results for SCLC by optimizing the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Should these treatments be given simultaneously or sequentially, and in which order? Which fractionation is best? Probably, no change in resource requirements for radiotherapy will be necessary, with the possible exception of changes in fractionation. Surgery constitutes primary treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stages I and II. Radiotherapy may provide an alternative for patients who are inoperable for medical reasons. The value of radiotherapy following radical surgery for NSCLC remains to be shown. It is not indicated based on current knowledge. For NSCLC stage III, radiotherapy shrinks tumors and prolongs survival at 2 and 3 years. Whether it influences long-term survival after 5 years has not been shown. Considering the side effects of treatment, one must question whether limited improvements in survival motivate routine radiotherapy in these patients. Earlier attempts to add chemotherapy to radiotherapy to improve treatment results of NSCLC have not yielded convincing results. Several studies are currently on-going. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) greatly reduces the risk for brain metastases from SCLC. However, it has little influence on survival. Many treatment centers give PCI to SCLC patients who have achieved complete remission. This practice may be questioned since PCI is associated with serious complications. PCI is

  10. Ectopic ACTH Production in Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, George; Yalow, Rosalyn S.

    1974-01-01

    Immunoreactive ACTH was found in almost all tissue extracts of lung carcinoma from patients without clinical evidence of Cushing's syndrome; i.e. 14 of 15 primary tumors, nine of nine metastatic lymph nodes, and four of four metastatic liver nodules contained immunoreactive ACTH. The incidence of ACTH in extracts of other tumor types was much lower. Comparable normal tissues contained no detectable ACTH. Immunoreactive growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, or gastrin was not found in the same carcinoma tissue. The predominant form of ACTH in the tumor extracts was big ACTH. In pituitary extracts little ACTH predominated. 53% of 83 patients with lung carcinoma had afternoon plasma ACTH levels greater than 150 pg/ml; more than 90% of plasmas containing less than 150 pg/ml were obtained from patients who had received radiation therapy or chemotherapy. 31% of 45 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 28% of 25 patients with other severe lung disease, and 6% of 33 controls had elevated values. Big ACTH predominated in the plasma of patients with lung carcinoma or COPD having elevated ACTH levels. Tissue from the lung of a smoking dog with atypical histologic changes contained immunoreactive ACTH, almost exclusively in the big form, while tissue from another smoking dog that was histologically normal contained no ACTH. Thus ACTH may be present even in precancerous lung lesions. These studies suggest that serial plasma ACTH levels may be of value in screening for, and/or management of, patients with carcinoma of the lung. PMID:4360854

  11. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  12. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  13. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  14. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  15. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    SciTech Connect

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  16. Identification and Characterization of ML352: A Novel, Noncompetitive Inhibitor of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is the rate-limiting determinant of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, yet the transporter remains a largely undeveloped target for the detection and manipulation of synaptic cholinergic signaling. To expand CHT pharmacology, we pursued a high-throughput screen for novel CHT-targeted small molecules based on the electrogenic properties of transporter-mediated choline transport. In this effort, we identified five novel, structural classes of CHT-specific inhibitors. Chemical diversification and functional analysis of one of these classes identified ML352 as a high-affinity (Ki = 92 nM) and selective CHT inhibitor. At concentrations that fully antagonized CHT in transfected cells and nerve terminal preparations, ML352 exhibited no inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) and also lacked activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters, as well as many receptors and ion channels. ML352 exhibited noncompetitive choline uptake inhibition in intact cells and synaptosomes and reduced the apparent density of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding sites in membrane assays, suggesting allosteric transporter interactions. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed limited in vitro metabolism and significant CNS penetration, with features predicting rapid clearance. ML352 represents a novel, potent, and specific tool for the manipulation of CHT, providing a possible platform for the development of cholinergic imaging and therapeutic agents. PMID:25560927

  17. Measurement and Structural Model Class Separation in Mixture CFA: ML/EM versus MCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parameter recovery was assessed within mixture confirmatory factor analysis across multiple estimator conditions under different simulated levels of mixture class separation. Mixture class separation was defined in the measurement model (through factor loadings) and the structural model (through factor variances). Maximum likelihood (ML) via the…

  18. INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. BROWN; SWITCHER, BILL CLARK; DESULPHUR OPERATORS, CHARLIE WILLIAMS AND TIM BUSH - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  19. INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. BROWN; SWITCHER, BILL CLARK; DESULPHUR OPERATORS, CHARLIE WILLIAMS AND TIM BUSH. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 97. ARAIII. ML1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor building (ARA-608) for examination of corrosion on its underside and repair. May 24, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-3485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures. PMID:26528560

  2. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  3. 94. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1 area. Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1 area. Camera facing north. Reactor test building is in center of view. Walking path and utility lines connect test building. Berm lies between. Road curves to left and continues to GCRE complex. Ineel photo no. 79-4707. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 170. ARAIV Blast bunker installed after ML1 buildings were removed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. ARA-IV Blast bunker installed after ML-1 buildings were removed. Isometric detail and section. EG&G Company. Date: June 1985. Ineel index code no. 066-0600-60-220-166261. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 96. ARAIV. Typical view of ML1 reactor field test operations. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. ARA-IV. Typical view of ML-1 reactor field test operations. Reactor has been hoisted onto truck at door of test assembly building. May 17, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-3257. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  8. Segmental hemodynamics during partial liquid ventilation in isolated rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Angela C.; Hirsh, Emily; Wong, Andrew C.; Moore, Timothy M.; Taylor, Aubrey E.; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Younger, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) is a means of ventilatory support in which gas ventilation is carried out in a lung partially filled with a perfluorocarbon liquid capable of supporting gas exchange. Recently, this technique has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy for cardiac arrest, during which PLV with cold perfluorocarbons might rapidly cool the intrathoracic contents and promote cerebral protective hypothermia while not interfering with gas exchange. A concern during such therapy will be the effect of PLV on pulmonary hemodynamics during very low blood flow conditions. In the current study, segmental (i.e. precapillary, capillary, and postcapillary) hemodynamics were studied in the rat lung using a standard isolated lung perfusion system at a flow rate of 6 ml/min ( ~5% normal cardiac output). Lungs received either gas ventilation or 5 or 10 ml/kg PLV. Segmental pressures and vascular resistances were determined, as was transcapillary fluid flux. The relationship between individual hemodynamic parameters and PLV dose was examined using linear regression, with n = 5 in each study group. PLV at both the 5 and 10 ml/kg dose produced no detectable changes in pulmonary blood flow or in transcapillary fluid flux (all R2 values < 0.20). Conclusion: In an isolated perfused lung model of low flow conditions, normal segmental hemodynamic behavior was preserved during liquid ventilation. These data support further investigation of this technique as an adjunct to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:12668304

  9. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9–11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28–73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further. PMID:26811913

  10. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  11. One-Lung Ventilation with Additional Ipsilateral Ventilation of Low Tidal Volume and High Frequency in Lung Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shiduan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To investigate the protective effects of additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency on lung functions in the patients receiving lobectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients receiving lung lobectomy were randomized into the conventional one-lung ventilation (CV) group (n=30) and the ipsilateral low tidal volume high frequency ventilation (LV) group (n=30). In the CV group, patients received only contralateral OLV. In the LV group, patients received contralateral ventilation and additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume of 1-2 ml/kg and high frequency of 40 times/min. Normal lung tissues were biopsied for the analysis of lung injury. Lung injury was scored by evaluating interstitial edema, alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar congestion. RESULTS At 30 min and 60 min after the initiation of one-lung ventilation and after surgery, patients in the LV group showed significantly higher ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen than those in the CV group (P<0.001). Lung injury was significantly less severe (2.7±0.7) in the LV group than in the CV group (3.1±0.7) (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS Additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency can decrease the risk of hypoxemia and alleviate lung injury in patients receiving lobectomy. PMID:27166086

  12. One-Lung Ventilation with Additional Ipsilateral Ventilation of Low Tidal Volume and High Frequency in Lung Lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shiduan

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the protective effects of additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency on lung functions in the patients receiving lobectomy. Material/Methods Sixty patients receiving lung lobectomy were randomized into the conventional one-lung ventilation (CV) group (n=30) and the ipsilateral low tidal volume high frequency ventilation (LV) group (n=30). In the CV group, patients received only contralateral OLV. In the LV group, patients received contralateral ventilation and additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume of 1–2 ml/kg and high frequency of 40 times/min. Normal lung tissues were biopsied for the analysis of lung injury. Lung injury was scored by evaluating interstitial edema, alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar congestion. Results At 30 min and 60 min after the initiation of one-lung ventilation and after surgery, patients in the LV group showed significantly higher ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen than those in the CV group (P<0.001). Lung injury was significantly less severe (2.7±0.7) in the LV group than in the CV group (3.1±0.7) (P=0.006). Conclusions Additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency can decrease the risk of hypoxemia and alleviate lung injury in patients receiving lobectomy. PMID:27166086

  13. The october 31 (Ml 5.4) and november 1 (Ml 5.3) Molise earthquakes (southern italy):first results from geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzino, L.; Cinti, D.; Barbieri, M.; Galli, G.; Voltattorni, N.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2003-04-01

    Two geochemical surveys have been performed in November and December 2002 in the Molise region (southern Italy) and surrounding areas struck by two moderate size earthquakes on October 31 (M_l 5.4) and on November 1 (M_l 5.3). The main goals of this study were: i) to highlight eventual variations either in the physico-chemical features or in the chemistry of thermo-mineral and cold springs (already sampled in 1997) discharging in an area located 50 km far from the epicentral one (Sannio-Matese, Campania region),; ii) to determine the chemical features of the groundwater discharging in the epicentral area, identifying the location and the extension of the various existing aquifers; iii) to collect information about eventual changes occurred in springs and wells (variations in flows, groundwater level in wells, etc.). Moreover, twice a week samplings have been carried out for two months at two important sulphurous springs (Larino spring, in the epicentral area and Telese thermo-mineral spring, in the Sannio area) in order to gather temporal chemical trend during the ongoing seismicity. We sampled a total of 35 sites (8 springs and wells in the Sannio-Matese area and 27 in the epicentral one) measuring in the field: temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, as well as radon, bicarbonate and H_2S contents. In laboratory, analyses of major, minor and trace elements have been performed, together with dissolved gas compositions. On 10 selected samples δ13C and 87/86Sr analyses are in progress. Data collected in the second survey show, for springs and wells located in the epicentral area, an evident pH and Eh increase (probably they returned to normal pre-earthquake values) together with some chemical variations; on the contrary, springs located in the Sannio-Matese area showed no variations. Local people observed sin-earthquake flow increases and variations in turbidity in two springs discharging in the epicentral area. All detected groundwater changes are discussed

  14. The october 31 (Ml 5.4) and november 1 (Ml 5.0) 2002 Molise earthquakes: first results from fluid geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzino, L.; Cinti, D.; Barbieri, M.; Galli, G.; Voltattorni, N.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2003-04-01

    Two geochemical surveys have been performed in November and December 2002 in the Molise region (southern Italy) and surrounding areas struck by two moderate size earthquakes on October 31 (M_l 5.4) and on November 1 (M_l 5.3). The main goals of this study were: i) to highlight eventual variations either in the physico-chemical features or in the chemistry of thermo-mineral and cold springs (already sampled in 1997) discharging in an area located 50 km far from the epicentral one (Sannio-Matese, Campania region),; ii) to determine the chemical features of the groundwater discharging in the epicentral area, identifying the location and the extension of the various existing aquifers; iii) to collect information about eventual changes occurred in springs and wells (variations in flows, groundwater level in wells, etc.). Moreover, twice a week samplings have been carried out for two months at two important sulphurous springs (Larino spring, in the epicentral area and Telese thermo-mineral spring, in the Sannio area) in order to gather temporal chemical trend during the ongoing seismicity. We sampled a total of 35 sites (8 springs and wells in the Sannio-Matese area and 27 in the epicentral one) measuring in the field: temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, as well as radon, bicarbonate and H_2S contents. In laboratory, analyses of major, minor and trace elements have been performed, together with dissolved gas compositions. On 10 selected samples δ13C and 87/86Sr analyses are in progress. Data collected in the second survey show, for springs and wells located in the epicentral area, an evident pH and Eh increase (probably they returned to normal pre-earthquake values) together with some chemical variations; on the contrary, springs located in the Sannio-Matese area showed no variations. Local people observed sin-earthquake flow increases and variations in turbidity in two springs discharging in the epicentral area. All detected groundwater changes are discussed

  15. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  16. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  17. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  18. Mission options for rendezvous with the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid - 1989 ML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadams, Jim V.

    1992-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Amor-class 1989 ML, the most accessible known asteroid for minimum-energy rendezvous missions, has expedited the search for frequent, low-cost Near-Earth Asteroid rendezvous and round-trip missions. This paper identifies trajectory characteristics and assesses mass performance for low Delta V ballistic rendezvous opportunities to 1989 ML during the period 1996-2010. This asteroid also offers occasional unique extended mission opportunities, such as the lowest known Delta V requirement for any asteroid sample return mission as well as pre-rendezvous asteroid flyby and post-rendezvous comet flyby opportunities requiring less than 5.25 km/sec total Delta V. This paper also briefly comments concerning mission opportunities for asteroid 1991 JW, which recently replaced other known asteroids as the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid for fast rendezvous and round-trip missions.

  19. ML Frame Synchronization for OFDM Systems Using a Known Pilot and Cyclic Prefixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Heon

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular air interface technology that is adopted as a standard modulation scheme for 4G communication systems owing to its excellent spectral efficiency. For OFDM systems, synchronization problems have received much attention along with peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. In addition to frequency offset estimation, frame synchronization is a challenging problem that must be solved to achieve optimal system performance. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) frame synchronizer for OFDM systems. The synchronizer exploits a synchronization word and cyclic prefixes together to improve the synchronization performance. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed frame synchronizer is better than that of conventional schemes. The proposed synchronizer can be used as a reference for evaluating the performance of other suboptimal frame synchronizers. We also modify the proposed frame synchronizer to reduce the implementation complexity and propose a near-ML synchronizer for time-varying fading channels.

  20. Design and implementation of CUAHSI WaterML and WaterOneFlow Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.; Maidment, D.

    2007-12-01

    WaterOneFlow is a term for a group of web services created by and for the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) community. CUAHSI web services facilitate the retrieval of hydrologic observations information from online data sources using the SOAP protocol. CUAHSI Water Markup Language (below referred to as WaterML) is an XML schema defining the format of messages returned by the WaterOneFlow web services. \

  1. Impact of deep freezing on the stability of 25 mg/ml vancomycin ophthalmic solutions.

    PubMed

    Sautou-Miranda, V; Libert, F; Grand-Boyer, A; Gellis, C; Chopineau, J

    2002-03-01

    For the treatment of certain eye infections, ophthalmic solutions 'laced' with 25 mg/ml vancomycin are sometimes prepared. Their physical and chemical stability and the maintenance of their sterility were studied after deep freezing at -20 +/- 2 degrees C and thawing, followed or not by refrigeration for 48 h at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. Physical and chemical analysis comprised visual inspection turbidity, determination of pH and osmolality, and assay of vancomycin by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. For microbiological analysis a 25 mg/ml vancomycin ophthalmic solution was filtered through two membranes and cultured on trypticase-soy and Sabouraud-glucose solid media. Any colonies were then counted. These physical, chemical and microbiological analyses demonstrated the stability of 25 mg/ml vancomycin ophthalmic solutions in 5% glucose deep frozen at -20 +/- 2 degrees C for 3 months. The vancomycin concentration varied by no more than 5% of the initial concentration, and no breakdown product was evidenced. Neither pH (mean=3.8 +/- 0.1) nor osmolality (mean=318.3 +/- 5.6 mOsm/kg) varied significantly, and remained compatible with intraocular administration. No particle or bacterial combination was found in the course of the study. The thawing procedure (at ambient temperature or under warm running water from a tap) did not modify the stability of the eye drops. Likewise, storage in a refrigerator for 48 h after thawing did not modify stability. The advantage of storing vancomycin 25 mg/ml ophthalmic solutions for 3 months in deep freeze is that a stock of chemically and microbiologically controlled preparations can be held ready for administration to patients, thereby allowing prompter dispensing, as the eye drops are not made up extemporaneously, while the improved control over production ensures that patients receive solutions of constant quality, as every batch prepared is systematically inspected. PMID:11839451

  2. ML264, A Novel Small-Molecule Compound That Potently Inhibits Growth of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Sabando, Ainara; Wang, Chao; He, Yuanjun; García-Barros, Mónica; Kim, Julie; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Bannister, Thomas D; Yang, Vincent W; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Western civilization. Studies have shown that colorectal cancer arises as a consequence of the modification of genes that regulate important cellular functions. Deregulation of the WNT and RAS/MAPK/PI3K signaling pathways has been shown to be important in the early stages of colorectal cancer development and progression. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the proliferating intestinal crypt epithelial cells. Previously, we showed that KLF5 is a mediator of RAS/MAPK and WNT signaling pathways under homeostatic conditions and that it promotes their tumorigenic functions during the development and progression of intestinal adenomas. Recently, using an ultrahigh-throughput screening approach we identified a number of novel small molecules that have the potential to provide therapeutic benefits for colorectal cancer by targeting KLF5 expression. In the current study, we show that an improved analogue of one of these screening hits, ML264, potently inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in vitro through modifications of the cell-cycle profile. Moreover, in an established xenograft mouse model of colon cancer, we demonstrate that ML264 efficiently inhibits growth of the tumor within 5 days of treatment. We show that this effect is caused by a significant reduction in proliferation and that ML264 potently inhibits the expression of KLF5 and EGR1, a transcriptional activator of KLF5. These findings demonstrate that ML264, or an analogue, may hold a promise as a novel therapeutic agent to curb the development and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:26621868

  3. Vasorelaxant effects of novel Kv7.4 channel enhancers ML213 and NS15370

    PubMed Central

    Jepps, T A; Bentzen, B H; Stott, J B; Povstyan, O V; Sivaloganathan, K; Dalby-Brown, W; Greenwood, I A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The KCNQ-encoded voltage-gated potassium channel family (Kv7.1-Kv7.5) are established regulators of smooth muscle contractility, where Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 predominate. Various Kv7.2–7.5 channel enhancers have been developed that have been shown to cause a vasorelaxation in both rodent and human blood vessels. Recently, two novel Kv7 channel enhancers have been identified, ML213 and NS15370, that show increased potency, particularly on Kv7.4 channels. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of these novel enhancers in different rat blood vessels and compare them with Kv7 enhancers (S-1, BMS204352, retigabine) described previously. We also sought to determine the binding sites of the new Kv7 enhancers. Key Results Both ML213 and NS15370 relaxed segments of rat thoracic aorta, renal artery and mesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner. In the mesenteric artery ML213 and NS15370 displayed EC50s that were far lower than other Kv7 enhancers tested. Current-clamp experiments revealed that both novel enhancers, at low concentrations, caused significant hyperpolarization in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. In addition, we determined that the stimulatory effect of these enhancers relied on a tryptophan residue located in the S5 domain, which is the same binding site for the other Kv7 enhancers tested in this study. Conclusions and Implications This study has identified and characterized ML213 and NS15370 as potent vasorelaxants in different blood vessels, thereby highlighting these new compounds as potential therapeutics for various smooth muscle disorders. PMID:24909207

  4. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for mass spectrometry data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications. PMID:20677327

  5. New probe to Ml strengths in GDR region for supernova neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Mochizuki, T.; Horikawa, K.; Amano, S.; Imazaki, K.; Li, D.; Izawa, Y.; Chiba, S.; Ogata, K.

    2015-04-01

    The Ml strength (or level density of 1+ states) is of importance for estimation of interaction strengths between neutrinos and nuclei for the study of the supernova neutrino- process. We have proposed a method using (γ, n) reactions with linear polarized laser Compton scattering γ-rays to measure Ml strength. In 1957, Agodi predicted theoretically angular distribution of neutrons emitted from states excited via dipole transitions with linearly polarized γ-ray beam at the polar angle of 8=90° can be described by a simple function, a + b cos(θ2), where θ is azimuthal angel. However, this theoretical prediction has not been verified over the wide mass region. We have measured neutron angular distributions with (polarized gamma, n) reactions on Au, NaI, and Cu. We have verified the Agodi's prediction for the first time over the wide mass region. This suggests that (polarized gamma, n) reactions may be useful tools to study Ml strength in giant resonance regions.

  6. ML-PMHT track detection threshold determination for K-distributed clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenecker, Steven; Willett, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2014-06-01

    Recentwork developed a novelmethod for determining tracking thresholds for theMaximumLikelihood ProbabilisticMulti- Hypothesis Tracker (ML-PMHT). Under certain "ideal" conditions, probability density functions (PDFs) for the peak points in the ML-PMHT log-likelihood ratio (LLR) due to just clutter measurements could be calculated. Analysis of these clutter-induced peak PDFs allowed for the calculation of tracking thresholds, which previously had to be donewith time-consumingMonte Carlo simulations. However, this work was done for a very specific case: the amplitudes of both target and cluttermeasurements followed Rayleigh distributions. The Rayleigh distribution is a very light-tailed distribution, and it can be overly optimistic in predicting that high-SNR measurements are target-originated. This work examines the case where the clutter amplitudes do not follow a Rayleigh distribution at all, but instead follow a K-distribution, which more accurately describes active acoustic clutter. This will provide a framework for determining accurate tracking thresholds for the ML-PMHT algorithm.

  7. The DaveMLTranslator: An Interface for DAVE-ML Aerodynamic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Melissa A.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It can take weeks or months to incorporate a new aerodynamic model into a vehicle simulation and validate the performance of the model. The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) has been proposed as a means to reduce the time required to accomplish this task by defining a standard format for typical components of a flight dynamic model. The purpose of this paper is to describe an object-oriented C++ implementation of a class that interfaces a vehicle subsystem model specified in DAVE-ML and a vehicle simulation. Using the DaveMLTranslator class, aerodynamic or other subsystem models can be automatically imported and verified at run-time, significantly reducing the elapsed time between receipt of a DAVE-ML model and its integration into a simulation environment. The translator performs variable initializations, data table lookups, and mathematical calculations for the aerodynamic build-up, and executes any embedded static check-cases for verification. The implementation is efficient, enabling real-time execution. Simple interface code for the model inputs and outputs is the only requirement to integrate the DaveMLTranslator as a vehicle aerodynamic model. The translator makes use of existing table-lookup utilities from the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++). The design and operation of the translator class is described and comparisons with existing, conventional, C++ aerodynamic models of the same vehicle are given.

  8. Corticosteroids prevent acute lung dysfunction caused by thoracic irradiation in unanesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Wickersham, N.; Malcolm, A.W.; Brigham, K.L.

    1988-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g intravenously every 6 h for four doses) and thoracic irradiation; control sheep received only irradiation. In irradiated control sheep, lung lymph flow increased from baseline (7.6 ml/h) to peak at 3 h (13.2), and lung lymph protein clearance increased from 5.1 to 9.7 ml/h. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased in the irradiated control sheep from 19 to 32.4 cm H/sub 2/O, whereas the lung lymph thromboxane concentration increased from 0.09 to 6.51 ng/ml at 3 h. Arterial oxygen tension in irradiated control sheep fell gradually from 86 mm Hg at baseline to 65 mm Hg at 8 h. Methylprednisolone administration significantly prevented the increase in lung lymph protein clearance, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and lung lymph thromboxane concentration. Methylprednisolone also prevented the fall in arterial oxygen tension after thoracic irradiation, but did not prevent a further decrease in lymphocytes in blood or lung lymph after radiation. We conclude that corticosteroid therapy prevents most of the acute physiologic changes caused by thoracic irradiation in awake sheep.

  9. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  10. Targeted lung denervation for moderate to severe COPD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Klooster, Karin; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Theron, Johan; Styen, Dorothy; Valipour, Arschang; Mayse, Martin; Bolliger, Chris T

    2015-01-01

    Background Parasympathetic pulmonary nerves release acetylcholine that induces smooth muscle constriction. Disruption of parasympathetic pulmonary nerves improves lung function and COPD symptoms. Aims To evaluate ‘targeted lung denervation’ (TLD), a novel bronchoscopic therapy based on ablation of parasympathetic pulmonary nerves surrounding the main bronchi, as a potential therapy for COPD. Methods This 1-year, prospective, multicentre study evaluated TLD in patients with COPD forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC <0.70; FEV1 30%–60% predicted). Patients underwent staged TLD at 20 watts (W) or 15 W following baseline assessment off bronchodilators. Assessments were repeated on tiotropium before treatment and off bronchodilators at 30, 90, 180, 270 and 365 days after TLD. The primary endpoint was freedom from documented and sustained worsening of COPD directly attributable to TLD to 1 year. Secondary endpoints included technical feasibility, change in pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life. Results Twenty-two patients were included (n=12 at 20 W, n=10 at 15 W). The procedures were technically feasible 93% of the time. Primary safety endpoint was achieved in 95%. Asymptomatic bronchial wall effects were observed in 3 patients at 20 W. The clinical safety profiles were similar between the two energy doses. At 1 year, changes from baseline in the 20 W dose compared to the 15 W dose were: FEV1 (+11.6%±32.3 vs +0.02%±15.1, p=0.324), submaximal cycle endurance (+6.8 min±12.8 vs 2.6 min±8.7, p=0.277), and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (−11.1 points ±9.1 vs −0.9 points ±8.6, p=0.044). Conclusions Bronchoscopic TLD, based on the concept of ablating parasympathetic pulmonary nerves, was feasible, safe, and well tolerated. Further investigation of this novel therapy is warranted. Trial registration number NCT01483534. PMID:25739911

  11. AB029. Clinical utility of a molecular diagnostic in evaluation of interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoping; Rosenbluth, Michael; Choi, Yoonha; Danese, Sherry; Bianchi, Pauline; Flaherty, Kevin; Martinez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background The accurate diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be challenging due to its overlapping features with other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). With the approval of pirfenidone and nintedanib for treatment of IPF, there is greater urgency to identify patients with IPF without requiring surgical lung biopsy (SLB). In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of a genomic classifier under development to identify usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), the pathology pattern associated with IPF, using bronchoscopically collected samples. Methods A national survey was conducted from March 17–20, 2015 among 76 pulmonologists from ILD centers and non-specialty clinics. The survey described a genomic test with high precision for detecting UIP pattern using bronchoscopically collected samples. Physicians were asked about diagnostic/treatment next steps on four ILD patient cases representing confident UIP, possible UIP, possible UIP vs. hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and connective tissue disease related ILD and how the genomic test would alter management. Results Physicians’ likelihood of using the genomic test varied with the method of sampling. Ninety-one percent of physicians reported they would likely use the test if it required bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), compared with 85% for transbronchial biopsy (TBB), and 63% for SLB. Across four clinical scenarios, a positive genomic test result significantly increased treatment with pirfenidone/nintedanib and reduced biopsies. The largest impact occurred in the possible UIP cases with an increase in treatment from 11% to 46% (P<0.001) and a decrease in biopsies from 59% to 26% (P<0.001). A positive test in the setting of confident UIP raised treatment recommendation from 47% to 70% (P<0.001) and decreased biopsies from 42% to 18% (P<0.001), suggesting its utility even in cases with high pre-test probability for UIP. A negative test result was less impactful on management than a

  12. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of different conditions, such as: Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Wegener granulomatosis Risks There is a possibility of ... fibrous Mesothelioma - malignant Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Viral pneumonia X-ray Update ...

  13. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  14. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  15. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  16. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors. PMID:12009087

  17. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  18. Occupational lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E

    1987-01-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed. PMID:3303381

  19. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  20. [Successful One-lung Ventilation with a Right-sided Double-lumen Tube in a Patient with a Right Upper Tracheal Bronchus, who Underwent Left Pneumonectomy for Left Hilar Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Izumi; Kohchiyama, Tsukasa; Hayashida, Masakazu; Satoh, Daizoh; Suzuki, Kenji; Inada, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung. The right-sided DLT was placed so as to fit its lateral opening of the bronchial lumen to normal upper branches (B2, B3), while sacrificing ventilation of S1 with an abnormal branch (B1). However, one-lung ventilation (OLV) of the right lung could not be achieved, since a gas leakage from the opened tracheal lumen occurred, most probably due to intra-lobar micro-airway communications between S1 and S2/S3. The DLT was withdrawn until the blue bronchial cuff occluded the orifice of the TB (B1). Although the upper half of the blue bronchial cuff appeared above the tracheal carina, OLV through the two bronchial lumen openings could be achieved due to a specific, slanted doughnut shape of the blue bronchial cuff and the location of the abnormal branch (B1) approximate to the carina. Left pneumonectomy using successful OLV was completed safely without hypoxemia or hypercapnea. Our experience indicates that management of OLV for patients with a thoracheal bronchus needs special considerations of the exact location of the TB and intra-lobar micro-airway communications, in addition to types of scheduled surgical procedures. PMID:27483653

  1. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer PMID:25398122

  2. Lung tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hoganson, David M; Bassett, Erik K; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Lung tissue engineering is an emerging field focused on the development of lung replacement devices and tissue to treat patients with end stage lung disease. Microfluidic based lung assist devices have been developed that have biomimetically designed vascular networks that achieve physiologic blood flow. Gas exchange in these devices occurs across a thin respiratory membrane. Designed for intrathoracic implantation as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy, these lung assist devices will allow ambulation and hospital discharge for patients with end stage lung disease. Decellularized lungs subsequently recellularized with epithelial and endothelial cells have been implanted in small animal models with demonstration of initial gas exchange. Further development of these tissues and scaling to large animal models will validate this approach and may be an organ source for lung transplantation. Initial clinical success has been achieved with decellularized tracheal implants using autologous stem cells. Development of microfluidic lung models using similar architecture to the lung assist device technology allows study of lung biology and diseases with manipulation of lung cells and respiratory membrane strain. PMID:24896347

  3. Efficacy and safety of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy with or without radial endobronchial ultrasound for peripheral lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ozgul, Guler; Cetinkaya, Erdogan; Ozgul, Mehmet Akif; Abul, Yasin; Gencoglu, Atayla; Kamiloglu, Emine; Gul, Sule; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a promising new technology to increase the diagnostic yield of peripheral lung and mediastinal lesions. Conventional flexible bronchoscopy has a limited yield in peripheral pulmonary lesions, even in experienced hands. Radial endobronchial ultrasound (r-EBUS) with its real-time imaging capability can help to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield and safety of ENB with or without r-EBUS for peripheral lung lesions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary medical center, and 56 consecutive patients who were thought to be the best candidates for bronchoscopic biopsies at a multidisciplinary meeting were enrolled. ENB was performed under conscious sedation by using an electromagnetic tracking system with multiplanar reconstruction of previously acquired computed tomography (CT) data. Sampling was performed by biopsy forceps, endobronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Results: Fifty-six patients (50 men and 6 women; mean age, 60 ± 9 years) were studied. While an electromagnetic navigation system was used in all patients, r-EBUS was used in 26 of 56 patients. The median diameter of the lesions was 30 mm (interquartile range: 23-44 mm). Mean distance of the lesions from the pleura was 14.9 ± 14.6 mm. Mean procedure time was 20 ± 11.5 min. Mean registration error was 5.8 ± 1.5 mm. Mean navigation error was 1.2 ± 0.5 mm. The diagnostic yield of the procedure was 71.4% for peripheral lesions (non-small cell lung cancer = 23, small cell lung cancer = 3, benign diseases = 14). Pneumothorax occurred in only 1 patient (1.7%). Conclusion: ENB with or without r-EBUS is a safe, efficient, and easily applied method for sampling of peripheral lung lesions, with high diagnostic yield independent of lesion size and location. PMID:27386477

  4. Factors Affecting the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Biopsy Using Endobronchial Ultrasonography with a Guide Sheath in Peripheral Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Okachi, Shotaro; Imai, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Iwano, Shingo; Ando, Masahiko; Hase, Tetsunari; Aso, Hiromichi; Morise, Masahiro; Wakahara, Keiko; Ito, Satoru; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) and virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) improves the diagnostic yield in patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Most previous reports on EBUS-GS-guided transbronchial biopsy (TBB) have included patients with benign and malignant diseases. We aimed to determine the factors that predicted a successful diagnosis by EBUS-GS-guided TBB diagnostic in patients with small peripheral lung cancer, with a focus on the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings before bronchoscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 173 consecutive patients with 175 small (≤30 mm) PPLs who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer between June 2010 and October 2013 at Nagoya University Hospital. All patients underwent EBUS-GS-guided TBB with VBN using a ZioStation computer workstation (Ziosoft, Osaka, Japan). We analyzed the patient characteristics, HRCT findings, diagnostic yield, and the diagnostic factors in small peripheral lung carcinoma. Results The EBUS probe position was within the PPL in 83 of the 175 lesions (47%) and 112 (64.0%) cases were successfully diagnosed by EBUS-GS-guided TBB. A univariate analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with a significantly higher diagnostic yield: CT bronchus sign positivity, a lesion of >20 mm in diameter, a solid nodule, and a probe position that was within the lesion. The following factors were not significant: the lesion location, the number of biopsies, and the lung cancer histology. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following factors significantly affected the diagnostic yield: CT bronchus sign positivity [odds ratio (OR) =2.479]; a probe position that was within the lesion (OR=2.542); and a solid nodule (OR=2.304). Conclusion The significant factors that were significantly associated with a successful diagnosis using EBUS-GS-guided TBB in small peripheral lung carcinoma were as follows: CT

  5. Primed stimulation of isolated perfused rabbit lung by endotoxin and platelet activating factor induces enhanced production of thromboxane and lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Salzer, W L; McCall, C E

    1990-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis often precedes the development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and bacterial endotoxin (LPS) produces a syndrome similar to ARDS when infused into experimental animals. We determined in isolated, buffer-perfused rabbit lungs, free of plasma and circulating blood cells that LPS synergized with platelet activating factor (PAF) to injure the lung. In lungs perfused for 2 h with LPS-free buffer (less than 100 pg/ml), stimulation with 1, 10, or 100 nM PAF produced transient pulmonary hypertension and minimal edema. Lungs perfused for 2 h with buffer containing 100 ng/ml of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS had slight elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and did not develop edema. In contrast, lungs exposed to 100 ng/ml of LPS for 2 h had marked increases in PAP and developed significant edema when stimulated with PAF. LPS treatment increased capillary filtration coefficient, suggesting that capillary leak contributed to pulmonary edema. LPS-primed, PAF-stimulated lungs had enhanced production of thromboxane B2 (TXB) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6KPF). Indomethacin completely inhibited PAF-stimulated production of TXB and 6KPF in control and LPS-primed preparations, did not inhibit the rise in PAP produced by PAF in control lungs, but blocked the exaggerated rise in PAP and edema seen in LPS-primed, PAF-stimulated lungs. The thromboxane synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben, and the thromboxane receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548, similarly inhibited LPS-primed pulmonary hypertension and edema after PAF-stimulation. These studies indicate that LPS primes the lung for enhanced injury in response to the physiologic mediator PAF by amplifying the synthesis and release of thromboxane in lung tissue. PMID:2318970

  6. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Swat, MJ; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, SM; Kristensen, NR; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, MK; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, AC; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, JN; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, HB; Parra-Guillen, ZP; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, IF; Yvon, F; Milligan, PA; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  7. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  8. ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeneclaey, Marc; Dejonghe, Geert

    1994-08-01

    In this contribution we point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low E(sub s)/N(sub o) limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2(pi) /N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error variance of this NDA ML synchronizer is known to converge to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) with increasing E(sub s)/N(sub o), we show that for other rotationally symmetric constellations (such as QAM) the tracking error variance is substantially larger than the CRB.

  9. Effects of temperature and glucose limitation on coal solubilization by Candida ML13

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B. )

    1991-04-01

    Biological processing has received considerable attention in recent years as a technology for the utilization of low-ranked coals. Several fungi and actinomycetes have been shown to liquefy highly oxidized coal in pure culture under aerobic conditions. This report describes the optimization of cultural conditions for coal solubilization by Candida sp. ML13, an organism originally isolated from a naturally weathered coal seam. Coal solubilization by surface cultures of Candida sp. has previously been demonstrated. The author describes here the elicitation of the activity in submerged cultures as well as the effect of carbohydrate concentration, carbon source, temperature, and agitation rate on coal solubilization by this organism.

  10. Use of LC-MS for the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals: example of [(18)F]ML10.

    PubMed

    Reiley, Richard R; Huiban, Mickael; Bennacef, Idriss; Passchier, Jan

    2013-05-30

    [(18)F]ML10 is a promising novel low molecular weight positron emission tomography probe for apoptosis. As part of the quality control to support clinical studies for cancer therapy monitoring in the GSK Clinical Imaging Centre, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of total ML10 and impurity content in the final product. Chromatographic separation of ML10 and its radiolabelling precursor and impurities was achieved. Mass curves were constructed from a concentration range of ML10 and known impurities and were linear. Quantification was achieved by comparison of the area under the curve for ML10 content (m/z = 205) and the mass curve. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.1-1 µg/ml. PMID:24285414

  11. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever in small non-human primates✩

    PubMed Central

    Lukashevich, Igor S.; Carrion, Ricardo; Salvato, Maria S.; Mansfield, Keith; Brasky, Kathleen; Zapata, Juan; Cairo, Cristiana; Goicochea, Marco; Hoosien, Gia E.; Ticer, Anysha; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Hammamieh, Rasha; Mayda, Maria; Jett, Marti; Patterson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    A single injection of ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever induces low, transient viremia, and low or moderate levels of ML29 replication in tissues of common marmosets depending on the dose of the vaccination. The vaccination elicits specific immune responses and completely protects marmosets against fatal disease by induction of sterilizing cell-mediated immunity. DNA array analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exposed to ML29 revealed that gene expression patterns in ML29-exposed PBMC and control, media-exposed PBMC, clustered together confirming safety profile of the ML29 in non-human primates. The ML29 reassortant is a promising vaccine candidate for Lassa fever. PMID:18692539

  12. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever in small non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, Igor S; Carrion, Ricardo; Salvato, Maria S; Mansfield, Keith; Brasky, Kathleen; Zapata, Juan; Cairo, Cristiana; Goicochea, Marco; Hoosien, Gia E; Ticer, Anysha; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Hammamieh, Rasha; Mayda, Maria; Jett, Marti; Patterson, Jean

    2008-09-26

    A single injection of ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever induces low, transient viremia, and low or moderate levels of ML29 replication in tissues of common marmosets depending on the dose of the vaccination. The vaccination elicits specific immune responses and completely protects marmosets against fatal disease by induction of sterilizing cell-mediated immunity. DNA array analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exposed to ML29 revealed that gene expression patterns in ML29-exposed PBMC and control, media-exposed PBMC, clustered together confirming safety profile of the ML29 in non-human primates. The ML29 reassortant is a promising vaccine candidate for Lassa fever. PMID:18692539

  13. Isolation of a novel LPS-induced component of the ML superfamily in Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Aiti; Bonura, Angela; Longo, Valeria; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parrinello, Daniela; Cammarata, Matteo; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    ML superfamily represents a group of proteins playing important roles in lipid metabolism and innate immune response. In this study, we report the identification of the first component of the ML superfamily in the invertebrate Ciona intestinalis by means of a subtractive hybridization strategy. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that this protein forms a specific clade with vertebrate components of the Niemann-Pick type C2 protein and, for this reason, it has been named Ci-NPC2. The putative Ci-NPC2 is a 150 amino acids long protein with a short signal peptide, seven cysteine residues, three putative lipid binding site and a three-dimensional model showing a characteristic β-strand structure. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the Ci-NPC2 protein is positively upregulated after LPS inoculum with a peak of expression 1 h after challenge. Finally, in-situ hybridization demonstrated that the Ci-NPC2 protein is preferentially expressed in hemocytes inside the vessel lumen. PMID:26159403

  14. CO Adsorption on Pd(111) at 0.5ML: a First Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand Gharehbagh, Zahra; Le, Duy; Rahman, Talat S.

    2015-03-01

    While the adlayer structures formed by CO molecules on Pd(111) are well-understood both experimentally and theoretically, for low and high coverages, it is still a matter of discussion for medium coverage (0.5ML). At this medium coverage, it is well-known that the c(4 × 2) phase is formed but the adsorption sites of CO molecules have been reported differently by various studies: at the bridge sites, at the hollow sites, or at both bridge and hollow sites. Using density functional theory calculations we studied the overlayer structure of CO at 0.5ML on Pd(111) with all possible highly symmetric adsorption sites leading to c(4 × 2) structures. We will show that, on the same surface, CO molecules adsorb either only on bridge or hollow sites and that there is no overlayer structure in which CO binds at both bridge and hollow sites. By means of ab initio thermodynamics simulation, we will also report the conditions (temperature, pressure) in which each overlayer structure exists. Work support in part by NSF Grant CHE-1310327.

  15. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid’s synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2. PMID:26460749

  16. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young's moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.

  17. Using SysML for MBSE analysis of the LSST system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Charles F.; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Delgado, Francisco; Hascall, Pat; Marshall, Stuart; Nordby, Martin; Schalk, Terry; Schumacher, German; Sebag, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is a complex hardware - software system of systems, making up a highly automated observatory in the form of an 8.4m wide-field telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data processing and archiving system. As a project, the LSST is using model based systems engineering (MBSE) methodology for developing the overall system architecture coded with the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). With SysML we use a recursive process to establish three-fold relationships between requirements, logical & physical structural component definitions, and overall behavior (activities and sequences) at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. Using this process we have analyzed and refined the LSST system design, ensuring the consistency and completeness of the full set of requirements and their match to associated system structure and behavior. As the recursion process proceeds to deeper levels we derive more detailed requirements and specifications, and ensure their traceability. We also expose, define, and specify critical system interfaces, physical and information flows, and clarify the logic and control flows governing system behavior. The resulting integrated model database is used to generate documentation and specifications and will evolve to support activities from construction through final integration, test, and commissioning, serving as a living representation of the LSST as designed and built. We discuss the methodology and present several examples of its application to specific systems engineering challenges in the LSST design.

  18. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  19. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  20. Xenogeneic lung transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Study of lung xenografts has proven useful to understand the remaining barriers to successful transplantation of other organ xenografts. In this chapter, the history and current status of lung xenotransplantation will be briefly reviewed and two different experimental models, the ex vivo porcine-to-human lung perfusion and the in vivo xenogeneic lung transplantation, will be presented. We will focus on the technical details of these lung xenograft models in sufficient detail, list the needed materials and mention analysis techniques to allow others to adopt them with minimal learning curve. PMID:22565996

  1. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  2. Perioperative lung injury.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative mechanical ventilation, using large tidal volumes without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can cause a sub-clinical lung injury and this injury becomes clinically important when any additional lung injury is added. Lung-protective ventilation strategies using more physiologic tidal volumes and appropriate levels of PEEP can decrease the extent of this injury. PMID:18494396

  3. Measurement of the filtration coefficient (Kfc) in the lung of Gallus domesticus and the effects of increased microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Weidner, W Jeffrey; Waddell, David S; Furlow, J David

    2006-08-01

    The filtration coefficient (Kfc) is a sensitive measure of microvascular hydraulic conductivity and has been reported for the alveolar lungs of many mammalian species, but not for the parabronchial avian lung. This study reports the Kfc in the isolated lungs of normal chickens and in the lungs of chickens given the edemogenic agents oleic acid (OA) or dimethyl amiloride (DMA). The control Kfc =0.04+/-0.01 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1). This parameter increased significantly following the administration of both OA (0.12+/-0.02 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1)) and DMA (0.07+/-0.01 ml min kPa(-1) g(-1)). As endothelial cadherins are thought to play a role in the dynamic response to acute lung injury, we utilized Western blot analysis to assess lung cadherin content and Northern blot analysis to assess pulmonary vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin expression following drug administration. Lung cadherin content decreases markedly following DMA, but not OA administration. VE cadherin expression increases as a result of DMA treatment, but is unchanged following OA. Our results suggest that the permeability characteristics of the avian lung are more closely consistent with those of the mammalian rather than the reptilian lung, and, that cadherins may play a significant role in the response to acute increases in avian pulmonary microvascular permeability. PMID:16538461

  4. Lung biological activity of American attapulgite

    SciTech Connect

    Begin, R.; Masse, S.; Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Geoffroy, M.; Martel, M.; Desmarais, Y.; Sebastien, P.

    1987-04-01

    Attapulgite is a fibrous mineral industrially consumed at the rate of over a million tons per year but the biological activity of the material is not fully known. To evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the fibrous materials, they exposed the tracheal lobe of 16 sheep to a single exposure of either 100 ml saline, 100 mg UICC asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, 100 mg short asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, or 100 mg attapulgite in 100 ml saline. The animals were studied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at Days 2, 12, 24, 40, and 60 and by autopsy at Day 60. In the saline-exposed sheep, BAL and lung histology did not change. In the UICC asbestos-exposed animals, they reproduced the BAL changes previously reported. In the short asbestos-exposed sheep, there were no significant BAL changes. In the attapulgite sheep, they found significant and sustained increases in total BAL cells, macrophages, neutrophils, fibronectin, lactate dehydrogenase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, but BAL cellularity returned to control levels by Day 60 whereas in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, it remained significantly above control. Lung histology demonstrated the characteristic peribronchiolar fibrosing alveolitis in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep and in all of the attapulgite-exposed sheep but three which had typical peribronchiolar alveolitis quite similar to that observed in UICC-exposed sheep, but of lower intensity.

  5. Autologous lung used as a substitute of oxygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass can preserve postoperative respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huimin; Kong, Xiang; Zhu, Demin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Haibo

    2007-01-01

    We substituted autologous lung for the artificial oxygenator to assess reduction of lung injury after conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Twelve piglets were randomly divided into two groups. Experimental animals (n = 6) underwent bilateral CPB with autologous lungs perfusion, whereas control animals (n = 6) underwent conventional CPB with artificial oxygenator. Bypass and aortic cross clamping time were 135 and 60 minutes, respectively, for each animal. Lung static compliance (Cstat), alveolus-artery oxygen difference (PA-aO2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-6, and wet to dry lung weight ratio (W/D) were measured. A single senior pathologist evaluated the lung specimens after experiments. Cstat of experimental group and control group decreased from 14.31 +/- 1.58 to 12.88 +/- 1.92 ml/cmH2O and from 14.80 +/- 2.32 to 10.48 +/- 1.66 ml/cmH2O, respectively; PA-aO2 increased from 15.71 +/- 1.35 to 62.30 +/- 24.29 mm Hg and from 15.23 +/- 2.87 to 77.85 +/- 11.45 mm Hg, respectively; serum concentration of TNF-alpha increased from 0.40 +/- 0.07 ng/ml to 0.56 +/- 0.15 and from 0.41 +/- 0.06 to 0.75 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively; and the w/d were 6.18 +/- 0.55 vs 6.84 +/- 0.30. Pathological examination also confirmed that structural changes of lung specimens were less in experimental group than in control group. Autologous lung may tolerate nonpulsatile perfusion and be used clinically as a substitute for the artificial oxygenator to reduce lung injury after CPB. PMID:17667230

  6. Inhibition of lung metastasis by adoptive immunotherapy using Iscador.

    PubMed

    Antony, S; Kuttan, R; Kuttan, G

    1999-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using spleen cells activated with Iscador was found to inhibit tumour growth significantly (P<0.001). Metastatic B16F10 tumour bearing animals treated with a single dose of spleen cells activated with Iscador (in vitro) showed 100% inhibition of tumour nodule formation on 21st day. Single injection of splenocytes isolated from mice treated with Iscador inhibited the tumour nodule formation by 93.8%. Animals treated with in vivo and in vitro activated spleen cells along with Iscador had an increase in life span of 119% and 81% respectively. Treatment of animals with low dose of Iscador after adoptive immunotherapy further augmented the life span. Animals which underwent adoptive immunotherapy showed significantly reduced lung collagen hydroxyproline (9.8 microg/mg protein) and serum sialic acid (24.61 micro/ml serum) levels compared to control tumour bearing animals with increased levels of lung hydroxyproline (26.95 microg/mg protein) and serum sialic acid levels (151.3 microg/ml serum). Serum gamma -glutamyl transpeptidase levels were found to be significantly reduced in the group of animals treated with Iscador and Iscador activated splenocytes (16.6+/-2.3 nmol P-nitroaniline released /ml serum) Group of animals treated with Iscador activated splenocytes alone also showed significantly reduced serum gamma - glutamyl transpeptidase levels (17.3+/-10 nmol P-nitroaniline released /ml serum) compared to control tumour bearing animals (91+/-12 nmol P-nitroaniline released /ml serum). PMID:10073677

  7. Effect of gravity and posture on lung mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, D; Kays, C; Bailliart, O; Capderou, A; Techoueyres, P; Lachaud, J L; Vaïda, P; Miserocchi, G

    2002-12-01

    The volume-pressure relationship of the lung was studied in six subjects on changing the gravity vector during parabolic flights and body posture. Lung recoil pressure decreased by approximately 2.7 cmH(2)O going from 1 to 0 vertical acceleration (G(z)), whereas it increased by approximately 3.5 cmH(2)O in 30 degrees tilted head-up and supine postures. No substantial change was found going from 1 to 1.8 G(z). Matching the changes in volume-pressure relationships of the lung and chest wall (previous data), results in a decrease in functional respiratory capacity of approximately 580 ml at 0 G(z) relative to 1 G(z) and of approximately 1,200 ml going to supine posture. Microgravity causes a decrease in lung and chest wall recoil pressures as it removes most of the distortion of lung parenchyma and thorax induced by changing gravity field and/or posture. Hypergravity does not greatly affect respiratory mechanics, suggesting that mechanical distortion is close to maximum already at 1 G(z). The end-expiratory volume during quiet breathing corresponds to the mechanical functional residual capacity in each condition. PMID:12391116

  8. First-principles study of oxygen and hydrogen adsorption on Pt(111) and PtML/Pd(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, J. L.; Ao, L.; Zu, X. T.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the adsorption of oxygen and hydrogen on Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces covered by monolayer (ML) of Pt(PtML/Pd(111)). The results have shown that the oxygen molecule tends to adsorb on fcc site on both surfaces at the coverage of 0.25 ML, which becomes degeneration with hcp site when the coverage increases to 1 ML. For both oxygen and hydrogen, the adsorption on PtML/Pd(111) surface are stronger than those on Pt(111) surface. The adsorption energy difference for oxygen on the two surfaces is ˜0.2 eV at the coverage of 1 ML, which increases to ˜0.6 eV with the coverage decreasing to 0.25 ML. The similar energy difference was also found for hydrogen adsorption. The density of states analysis have demonstrated the chemical interaction of adsorbed oxygen with both pure Pt(111) and PtML/Pd(111) surfaces with certain shift of O2p states to lower level compared to isolated oxygen. For hydrogen adsorption, the hybridization of H1s with Pt5d states were observed for both surfaces, indicating the covalent bonding component of H-Pt bond.

  9. Targeted delivery of liquid microvolumes into the lung

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; O’Neill, John D.; Dorrello, N. Valerio; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    The ability to deliver drugs to specific sites in the lung could radically improve therapeutic outcomes of a variety of lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, severe bronchopneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Using conventional methods for pulmonary drug administration, precise, localized delivery of exact doses of drugs to target regions remains challenging. Here we describe a more controlled delivery of soluble reagents (e.g., drugs, enzymes, and radionuclides) in microvolume liquid plugs to targeted branches of the pulmonary airway tree: upper airways, small airways (bronchioles), or the most distal alveoli. In this approach, a soluble liquid plug of very small volume (<1 mL) is instilled into the upper airways, and with programmed air ventilation of the lungs, the plug is pushed into a specific desired (more distal) airway to achieve deposition of liquid film onto the lung epithelium. The plug volume and ventilation conditions were determined by mathematical modeling of plug transport in a tubular geometry, and targeted liquid film deposition was demonstrated in rat lungs by three different in vivo imaging modalities. The experimental and modeling data suggest that instillation of microvolumes of liquid into a ventilated pulmonary airway could be an effective strategy to deliver exact doses of drugs to targeted pathologic regions of the lung, especially those inaccessible by bronchoscopy, to increase in situ efficacy of the drug and minimize systemic side effects. PMID:26324893

  10. Targeted delivery of liquid microvolumes into the lung.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; O'Neill, John D; Dorrello, N Valerio; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-09-15

    The ability to deliver drugs to specific sites in the lung could radically improve therapeutic outcomes of a variety of lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, severe bronchopneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Using conventional methods for pulmonary drug administration, precise, localized delivery of exact doses of drugs to target regions remains challenging. Here we describe a more controlled delivery of soluble reagents (e.g., drugs, enzymes, and radionuclides) in microvolume liquid plugs to targeted branches of the pulmonary airway tree: upper airways, small airways (bronchioles), or the most distal alveoli. In this approach, a soluble liquid plug of very small volume (<1 mL) is instilled into the upper airways, and with programmed air ventilation of the lungs, the plug is pushed into a specific desired (more distal) airway to achieve deposition of liquid film onto the lung epithelium. The plug volume and ventilation conditions were determined by mathematical modeling of plug transport in a tubular geometry, and targeted liquid film deposition was demonstrated in rat lungs by three different in vivo imaging modalities. The experimental and modeling data suggest that instillation of microvolumes of liquid into a ventilated pulmonary airway could be an effective strategy to deliver exact doses of drugs to targeted pathologic regions of the lung, especially those inaccessible by bronchoscopy, to increase in situ efficacy of the drug and minimize systemic side effects. PMID:26324893

  11. WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observations data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Peter; Walker, Gavin; Valentine, David; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Our ability to share and understand water information from various sources is currently limited by the use of incompatible information management and publication technologies. Water resource managers, hydro-power generators, meteorologists and other interested stakeholders all monitor water resources and store their data using a wide array of technologies. Standards are multi-party agreements that provide a common ground on which people can share information by minimising ambiguity and sharing definitions for domain concepts. They are most effective when surrounded by an active community who, along with taking part in defining such concepts, develop supporting tools that allow for easy transmission and interpretation of data sets. Existing standards for water observations only exist within organisations or countries; there are no internationally agreed upon standards for encoding such data. Groups such as the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and others, have developed standards for national exchange of water information, such as WaterML1.1 and the Water Data Transfer Format; other standards such as Xhydro have been developed at the sub national level. An initial analysis of existing standards (including WaterML1.1, WDTF, XHydro and the UK EA format) found sufficient commonality to suggest a role for an international standard. Such a standard would reduce the load on organisations developing their own standards. The commonalities exist in the way in which measurements and observations are made and described, such as time series data produced from automated sensors commonly used for hydrological monitoring. The Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), is capable of describing measurements made by sensors and humans in a common way, involving both remote and in-situ sensing. O&M is generic, in that it does not define the concepts for a

  12. Real-time combining of residual carrier array signals using ML weight estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Dolinar, Samuel J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time digital signal combining system for use with array feeds is proposed. The combining system attempts to compensate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss resulting from antenna deformations induced by gravitational and atmospheric effects. The combining weights are obtained directly from the observed residual carrier samples in each channel using a 'sliding-window' implementation of a maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimator. It is shown that with averaging times of about 0.1 s, combining loss for a seven-element array can be limited to about 0.1 dB in a realistic operational environment. This result suggests that the real-time combining system proposed here is capable of recovering virtually all of the signal power captured by the array feed, even in the presence of severe wind gusts and similar disturbances.

  13. Parallel and Scalable Big Data Analysis in the Earth Sciences with JuML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments of using a significantly increasing number of sensors with better resolutions in the wide variety of different earth observation projects continously contribute to the availability of 'big data' in the earth sciences. Not only the volume, velocity, and variety of the datasets pose increasing challenges for its analysis, but also the complexity of datasets (e.g. high number of dimensions in hyper-spectral images) requires data algorithms that are able to scale. This contribution will provide insights about the Juelich Machine learning Library (JuML) and its contents that have been actively used in several scientific use cases in the earth sciences. We discuss and categorize challenges related to 'big data' analysis and outline parallel algorithmic solutions driven by those use cases.

  14. Modeling Complex Cross-Systems Software Interfaces Using SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandutianu, Sanda; Morillo, Ron; Simpson, Kim; Liepack, Otfrid; Bonanne, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The complex flight and ground systems for NASA human space exploration are designed, built, operated and managed as separate programs and projects. However, each system relies on one or more of the other systems in order to accomplish specific mission objectives, creating a complex, tightly coupled architecture. Thus, there is a fundamental need to understand how each system interacts with the other. To determine if a model-based system engineering approach could be utilized to assist with understanding the complex system interactions, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) sponsored a task to develop an approach for performing cross-system behavior modeling. This paper presents the results of applying Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) principles using the System Modeling Language (SysML) to define cross-system behaviors and how they map to crosssystem software interfaces documented in system-level Interface Control Documents (ICDs).

  15. Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

  16. Sensor metadata blueprints and computer-aided editing for disciplined SensorML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliolato, Paolo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The need for continuous, accurate, and comprehensive environmental knowledge has led to an increase in sensor observation systems and networks. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative has been promoted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to foster interoperability among sensor systems. The provision of metadata according to the prescribed SensorML schema is a key component for achieving this and nevertheless availability of correct and exhaustive metadata cannot be taken for granted. On the one hand, it is awkward for users to provide sensor metadata because of the lack in user-oriented, dedicated tools. On the other, the specification of invariant information for a given sensor category or model (e.g., observed properties and units of measurement, manufacturer information, etc.), can be labor- and timeconsuming. Moreover, the provision of these details is error prone and subjective, i.e., may differ greatly across distinct descriptions for the same system. We provide a user-friendly, template-driven metadata authoring tool composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. This results in a form-based user interface that conceals the high complexity of the underlying format. This tool also allows for plugging in external data sources providing authoritative definitions for the aforementioned invariant information. Leveraging these functionalities, we compiled a set of SensorML profiles, that is, sensor metadata blueprints allowing end users to focus only on the metadata items that are related to their specific deployment. The natural extension of this scenario is the involvement of end users and sensor manufacturers in the crowd-sourced evolution of this collection of prototypes. We describe the components and workflow of our framework for computer-aided management of sensor metadata.

  17. Using SysML for verification and validation planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the tool, language, and methodology used for Verification and Validation Planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project. LSST has implemented a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach as a means of defining all systems engineering planning and definition activities that have historically been captured in paper documents. Specifically, LSST has adopted the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) standard and is utilizing a software tool called Enterprise Architect, developed by Sparx Systems. Much of the historical use of SysML has focused on the early phases of the project life cycle. Our approach is to extend the advantages of MBSE into later stages of the construction project. This paper details the methodology employed to use the tool to document the verification planning phases, including the extension of the language to accommodate the project's needs. The process includes defining the Verification Plan for each requirement, which in turn consists of a Verification Requirement, Success Criteria, Verification Method(s), Verification Level, and Verification Owner. Each Verification Method for each Requirement is defined as a Verification Activity and mapped into Verification Events, which are collections of activities that can be executed concurrently in an efficient and complementary way. Verification Event dependency and sequences are modeled using Activity Diagrams. The methodology employed also ties in to the Project Management Control System (PMCS), which utilizes Primavera P6 software, mapping each Verification Activity as a step in a planned activity. This approach leads to full traceability from initial Requirement to scheduled, costed, and resource loaded PMCS task-based activities, ensuring all requirements will be verified.

  18. Vitamin D and Lung Function Decline in Adults With Asthma: The HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Brumpton, Ben Michael; Langhammer, Arnulf; Henriksen, Anne Hildur; Camargo, Carlos Arturo; Chen, Yue; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2016-04-15

    We investigated whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with more lung function decline in adults with asthma and whether this association was modified by smoking status or inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use. We analyzed data on 395 adults with asthma from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-2008), Norway. Plasma 25(OH)D and lung function were measured at baseline, and lung function measurements were repeated at follow-up, approximately 11 years later. Linear regression was used to estimate lung function decline. Participants with low 25(OH)D (<50 nmol/L) had more decline in lung function measurements for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (388 mL), forced vital capacity (298 mL), and the FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio (3.7%) over the follow-up, compared with those with high 25(OH)D (≥50 nmol/L) who declined 314 mL, 246 mL, and 3.0%, respectively (P = 0.08, 0.30, and 0.23, respectively). The associations were stronger in never smokers and non-ICS users. In never smokers, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with more decline in FEV1 (445 vs. 222 mL) (P = 0.01). In non-ICS users, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with more decline in FEV1 (467 vs. 320 mL) (P = 0.02). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were weakly associated with more lung function decline in adults with asthma, and stronger associations were observed in never smokers and non-ICS users. PMID:26994061

  19. A comparison of conventional surfactant treatment and partial liquid ventilation on the lung volume of injured ventilated small lungs.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, Hans; Hartenstein, Sebastian; Koelsch, Uwe; Wauer, Roland R; Rüdiger, Mario; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2013-08-01

    As an alternative to surfactant therapy (ST), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been considered as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. The instilled PFC is much heavier than the instilled surfactant and the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLV, compared to ST, increases the end-expiratory volume of the lung (VL). Fifteen newborn piglets (age <12 h, mean weight 678 g) underwent saline lung lavage to achieve a surfactant depletion. Thereafter animals were randomized to PLV (n = 8), receiving PFC PF5080 (3M, Germany) at 30 mL kg(-1), and ST (n = 7) receiving 120 mg Curosurf®. Blood gases, hemodynamics and static compliance were measured initially (baseline), immediately after ALI, and after 240 min mechanical ventilation with either technique. Subsequently all piglets were killed; the lungs were removed in toto and frozen in liquid N2. After freeze-drying the lungs were cut into lung cubes (LCs) with edge lengths of 0.7 cm, to calculate VL. All LCs were weighed and the density of the dried lung tissue was calculated. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups PLV and ST (means ± SD) were noted in body weight (676 ± 16 g versus 679 ± 17 g; P = 0.974) or lung dry weight (1.64 ± 0.29 g versus 1.79 ± 0.48 g; P = 0.48). Oxygenation index and ventilatory efficacy index did not differ significantly between both groups at any time. VL (34.28 ± 6.13 mL versus 26.22 ± 8.1 mL; P < 0.05) and the density of the dried lung tissue (48.07 ± 5.02 mg mL(-1) versus 69.07 ± 5.30 mg mL(-1); P < 0.001), however, differed significantly between the PLV and ST groups. A 4 h PLV treatment of injured ventilated small lungs increased VL by 30% and decreased lung density by 31% compared to ST treatment, indicating greater lung distension after PLV compared to ST. PMID:23893018

  20. An uptake of cationized ferritin by alveolar type I cells in airway-instilled goat lung: distribution of anionic sites on the epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Atwal, O S; Viel, L; Minhas, K J

    1990-07-01

    The present study has investigated ultrastructural localization of anionic sites on the luminal surface of the alveolar epithelium of goat lung by direct airway instillation of cationized ferritin (CF) in the cranial lobe of the right lung through a bronchoscope. The cationic probe decorated preferentially the luminal plasmalemmal vesicles and plasmalemma proper of alveolar type I cell. This indicated the presence of highly charged anionic microdomains at these binding sites. The ligand was internalized in the free plasmalemmal vesicles of alveolar type I cell within 2 min. Heavy decoration of vesicles at 5 min of perfusion indicated that the amount of CF internalization increased with its concentration in the alveoli. It is suggested that exposure of alveolar surface to several gases of ruminal-origin induces changes in the surface charge of luminal plasmalemma of alveolar type I cells. The significance of these anionic plasmalemmal sites is discussed in relation to the adjustment of osmotic pressure gradient across the alveolar-capillary membrane of the ruminant lung. PMID:2390765

  1. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C.; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P.; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Silver, R. Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment. PMID:24795618

  2. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment. PMID:24795618

  3. Multiplex detection of lung cancer cells at the single-molecule level.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juan; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2014-11-14

    We develop a simple and sensitive method for multiplex detection of lung cancer cells at the single-molecule level, with a detection limit of 15 cells per mL for A549 cells and 4 cells per mL for H23 cells, without the involvement of any sequence-based amplification. This method holds great potential for further application in early clinical diagnosis, especially for the detection of rare tumor cells. PMID:25245541

  4. Lung transplantation at Duke

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alice L.; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation represents the gold-standard therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Utilization of this therapy continues to rise. The Lung Transplant Program at Duke University Medical Center was established in 1992, and since that time has grown to one of the highest volume centers in the world. The program to date has performed over 1,600 lung transplants. This report represents an up-to-date review of the practice and management strategies employed for safe and effective lung transplantation at our center. Specific attention is paid to the evaluation of candidacy for lung transplantation, donor selection, surgical approach, and postoperative management. These evidence-based strategies form the foundation of the clinical transplantation program at Duke. PMID:27076968

  5. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  6. Convective flow dominates aerosol delivery to the lung segments

    PubMed Central

    van Ertbruggen, C.; Prisk, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Most previous computational studies on aerosol transport in models of the central airways of the human lung have focused on deposition, rather than transport of particles through these airways to the subtended lung regions. Using a model of the bronchial tree extending from the trachea to the segmental bronchi (J Appl Physiol 98: 970–980, 2005), we predicted aerosol delivery to the lung segments. Transport of 0.5- to 10-μm-diameter particles was computed at various gravity levels (0–1.6 G) during steady inspiration (100–500 ml/s). For each condition, the normalized aerosol distribution among the lung segments was compared with the normalized flow distribution by calculating the ratio (Ri) of the number of particles exiting each segmental bronchus i to the flow. When Ri = 1, particle transport was directly proportional to segmental flow. Flow and particle characteristics were represented by the Stokes number (Stk) in the trachea. For Stk < 0.01, Ri values were close to 1 and were unaffected by gravity. For Stk > 0.01, Ri varied greatly among the different outlets (Ri = 0.30–1.93 in normal gravity for 10-μm particles at 500 ml/s) and was affected by gravity and inertia. These data suggest that, for Stk < 0.01, ventilation defines the delivery of aerosol to lung segments and that the use of aerosol tracers is a valid technique to visualize ventilation in different parts of the lung. At higher Stokes numbers, inertia, but not gravitational sedimentation, is the second major factor affecting the transport of large particles in the lung. PMID:21474695

  7. Multi-level continuous active source seismic monitoring (ML-CASSM): Application to shallow hydrofracture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Butler-Veytia, B.; Peterson, J.; Gasperikova, E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    . This technique, which we refer to as ML-CASSM, was deployed at a DNAPL contaminated site undergoing bioremediation through hydrofracture emplacement. ML-CASSM was used to image fracture propagation in two crosswell profiles located several meters from the initiation point. Since the entire fracturing process occurred over a 45 minute period, traditional timelapse acquisition methods would have been incapable of capturing the stages of fracture growth. With ML-CASSM, 12 complete datasets were acquired over the course of fracturing allowing estimates of fracture propagation through the two imaging planes. In addition to these datasets, hundreds of sequential surveys acquired before and after the fracturing procedure allowed estimation of system stability at baseline and the combination of fracture consolidation and pressure dissipation afterwards. The fracture zone was visible seismically as a localized area of reduced P-wave velocity and increased P-wave attenuation. In addition to changes in the primary arrival, diffracted events and scattering from the fracture were observed leaving open the possibility of fracture characterization using later components of the wavefield.

  8. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  9. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  11. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND M/L RATIOS IN NGC 5953/5954

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández Toledo, H. M.; Moreno, E.; García-Barreto, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this first paper, we combine a structural analysis of the near-IR surface brightness profiles and [N II] rotation curves for the galaxies in the pair NGC 5953/5954 to model the mass distribution in each member by using two independent axisymmetric analytical mass models: (1) a standard model given by the sum of a spherical bulge with the Sérsic law, a stellar exponential disk, and a cold dark matter halo represented by the improved fitting formula of Navarro et al.; and (2) a simple model given by the sum of a spherical bulge, a finite oblate spheroid representing the disk, and a spherical dark halo, all three mass components with simple density laws. In our surface brightness fits, a central luminous source is considered in both galaxies. We obtained K-band M/L ratios, Y {sub D}, Y {sub B}, for the disks and bulges, and total masses for each mass component in both galaxies. With the standard model we find in NGC 5953, (Y {sub D},Y {sub B}) = (0.29{sub -0.29}{sup +1}, 0.37 ± 0.03) M {sub ☉}/L {sub ☉}, and in NGC 5954, (Y {sub D},Y {sub B}) = (0.88 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.09) M {sub ☉}/L {sub ☉}. Corresponding values found with the simple model are (Y {sub D},Y {sub B}) = (1.41 ± 0.15, 0.29 ± 0.04) M {sub ☉}/L {sub ☉} and (Y {sub D},Y {sub B}) = (0.51 ± 0.05, 0.52{sub -0.12}{sup +0.23}) M {sub ☉}/L {sub ☉}. Our M/L estimates are compared with predictions from other methods in the literature, finding reasonable agreement. The dark halos estimated using the simple model have a small mass, of the order of 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, within the maximum distance in the rotation velocity data.

  12. ML-CIRRUS - the HALO mission on mid latitude cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Clouds are a major source of uncertainty in current climate predictions. In particular, the observation of cirrus cloud variability and the classification of cirrus cloud properties in distinct meteorological regimes are prone to substantial ambiguities. Here we present results of the ML-CIRRUS mission with the German atmospheric science community high altitude long range aircraft HALO. The first in-situ cloud mission with the new research aircraft combined a state-of-the-art clould instrumentation consisting of 9 wing station probes with a novel aerosol, trace gas and radiation instrumentation and a high spectral resolution LIDAR inside the cabin. Further, a newly designed counter flow virtual impactor system allowed for the detection of ice residuals. In addition, models were specifically developed to support flight planning by forecasts of the occurrence and properties of natural cirrus (CLAMS, ECMWF) and frontal cirrus (WCB-ETH), as well as of aircraft induced clouds (CoCiP). In March and April 2014, the HALO research aircraft performed 16 flights (88 flight hours) in mid-latitude cirrus clouds and contrail cirrus at longitudes from 15 deg W to 15 deg E and latitudes from 36 to 58 deg N. Cirrus clouds with an ice water content < 0.5 mg m-3 were encountered up to 14 km altitude over a wide range of temperatures down to 204 K. More than 22 hours of in-situ observations in cirrus clouds plus remote sensing with the radiation instruments and the LIDAR onboard HALO allow to derive statistically significant data sets on microphysical and optical properties of mid latitude cirrus clouds. The clouds were observed in different meteorological regimes including jet stream cirrus, lee wave cirrus and convective clouds - with a strong focus on frontal cirrus. Besides natural cirrus, aircraft induced contrail cirrus were probed during 4 flights and an interesting contrail cirrus outbreak situation was encountered over the Atlantic. Here we present an overview and first

  13. The Mass Distribution and M/L Ratios in NGC 5953/5954

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Toledo, H. M.; Moreno, E.; García-Barreto, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this first paper, we combine a structural analysis of the near-IR surface brightness profiles and [N II] rotation curves for the galaxies in the pair NGC 5953/5954 to model the mass distribution in each member by using two independent axisymmetric analytical mass models: (1) a standard model given by the sum of a spherical bulge with the Sérsic law, a stellar exponential disk, and a cold dark matter halo represented by the improved fitting formula of Navarro et al. and (2) a simple model given by the sum of a spherical bulge, a finite oblate spheroid representing the disk, and a spherical dark halo, all three mass components with simple density laws. In our surface brightness fits, a central luminous source is considered in both galaxies. We obtained K-band M/L ratios, Upsilon D , Upsilon B , for the disks and bulges, and total masses for each mass component in both galaxies. With the standard model we find in NGC 5953, (Upsilon D ,Upsilon B ) = (0.29_{-0.29}^{+1}, 0.37 ± 0.03) M ⊙/L ⊙, and in NGC 5954, (Upsilon D ,Upsilon B ) = (0.88 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.09) M ⊙/L ⊙. Corresponding values found with the simple model are (Upsilon D ,Upsilon B ) = (1.41 ± 0.15, 0.29 ± 0.04) M ⊙/L ⊙ and (Upsilon D ,Upsilon B ) = (0.51 ± 0.05, 0.52_{-0.12}^{+0.23}) M ⊙/L ⊙. Our M/L estimates are compared with predictions from other methods in the literature, finding reasonable agreement. The dark halos estimated using the simple model have a small mass, of the order of 107 M ⊙, within the maximum distance in the rotation velocity data. Based on data obtained at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México, operated by the Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM.

  14. The photometric evolution of dissolving star clusters. II. Realistic models. Colours and M/L ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, P.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Baumgardt, H.

    2009-08-01

    Context: Evolutionary synthesis models are the primary means of constructing spectrophotometric models of stellar populations, and deriving physical parameters from observations compared with these models. One of the basic assumptions of evolutionary synthesis models has been the time-independence of the stellar mass function, apart from the successive removal of high-mass stars by stellar evolution. However, dynamical simulations of star clusters in tidal fields have demonstrated that the mass function can be changed by the preferential removal of low-mass stars from clusters. Aims: We combine the results of dynamical simulations of star clusters in tidal fields with our evolutionary synthesis code GALEV. We extend the models to consider the total cluster disruption time as additional parameter. Methods: Following up on our earlier work, which was based on simplifying assumptions, we reanalyse the mass-function evolution found in N-body simulations of star clusters in tidal fields, parametrise it as a function of age and total disruption time of the cluster, and use this parametrisation to compute GALEV models as a function of age, metallicity, and total cluster disruption time. Results: We study the impact of cluster dissolution on colours (which generally become redder) and magnitudes (which become fainter) of star clusters, their mass-to-light ratios (which can deviate by a factor of ~2-4 from predictions of standard models without cluster dissolution), and quantify the effect of the altered integrated photometry on cluster age determination. In most cases, clusters appear to be older than they are, where the age difference can range from 20% to 200%. By comparing our model results with observed M/L ratios for old compact objects in the mass range 104.5-108 M_⊙, we find a strong discrepancy for objects more massive than 107 M_⊙, such that observed M/L ratios are higher than predicted by our models. This could be caused either by differences in the

  15. Feasibility of a photosynthetic artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Basu-Dutt, S; Fandino, M R; Salley, S O; Thompson, I M; Whittlesey, G C; Klein, M D

    1997-01-01

    The success of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for the treatment of acute respiratory failure has led to consideration of the development of a more portable, and perhaps even implantable, artificial lung. The authors suggest a bioregenerative life support system that includes a photo-synthetic organism that can remove CO2 and produce O2 in the presence of an energy source. To build a model of such a photosynthetic artificial lung, the photosynthetic capability of a high temperature strain of the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was maximized at a cell density of 25 million cells/ml to serve as the O2 producer and CO2 remover. The "patient" in this model was comprised of 1 L of medium or 350 ml of blood, interfaced with the photosynthetic system across a gas transfer membrane. The experiments demonstrated the ability of the plant cells to supply O2 and remove CO2 from the "patient" with a maximum rate of 0.55 mmoles/L/hr under the most favorable measured operating conditions. The projected rate of 1.0 mmoles/L/hr required for physiologic applications is not totally ab absurd idea, with a slightly modified set-up. Modifications may be in the form of regulating the photosynthetic pathway or genetically engineering a hybrid strain with enhanced O2 producing and suppressed photoinhibition capacity. PMID:9242940

  16. Genetic Ancestry Influences Asthma Susceptibility and Lung Function Among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Oh, Sam S.; Vora, Hita; Huntsman, Scott; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Donglei; Drake, Katherine A.; Conti, David V.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Lurmann, Fred; Islam, Talat S.; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A.; Ford, Jean G.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M.; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Gilliland, Frank D.; Gauderman, W. James; Kumar, Rajesh; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity varies among Latinos in the United States, with Puerto Ricans having the highest and Mexicans the lowest. Objective To determine whether genetic ancestry is associated with the odds of asthma among Latinos, and secondarily whether genetic ancestry is associated with lung function among Latino children. Methods We analyzed 5,493 Latinos with and without asthma from three independent studies. For each participant we estimated the proportion of African, European, and Native American ancestry using genome-wide data. We tested whether genetic ancestry was associated with the presence of asthma and lung function among subjects with and without asthma. Odds ratios (OR) and effect sizes were assessed for every 20% increase in each ancestry. Results Native American ancestry was associated with lower odds of asthma (OR=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.78, p=8.0×10−15), while African ancestry was associated with higher odds of asthma (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.14–1.72, p=0.001). These associations were robust to adjustment for covariates related to early life exposures, air pollution and socioeconomic status. Among children with asthma, African ancestry was associated with lower lung function, including both pre- and post-bronchodilator measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second (−77±19 ml, p=5.8×10−5 and −83±19 ml, p=1.1×10−5, respectively) and forced vital capacity (−100±21 ml, p=2.7×10−6 and −107±22 ml, p=1.0×10−6, respectively). Conclusion Differences in the proportions of genetic ancestry can partially explain disparities in asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos. PMID:25301036

  17. The Effects of Lung Protective Ventilation or Hypercapnic Acidosis on Gas Exchange and Lung Injury in Surfactant Deficient Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hummler, Helmut D.; Banke, Katharina; Wolfson, Marla R.; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Ebsen, Michael; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Fuchs, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background Permissive hypercapnia has been shown to reduce lung injury in subjects with surfactant deficiency. Experimental studies suggest that hypercapnic acidosis by itself rather than decreased tidal volume may be a key protective factor. Objectives To study the differential effects of a lung protective ventilatory strategy or hypercapnic acidosis on gas exchange, hemodynamics and lung injury in an animal model of surfactant deficiency. Methods 30 anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were mechanically ventilated (FiO2 = 0.8, PEEP = 7cmH2O) and randomized into three groups: Normoventilation-Normocapnia (NN)-group: tidal volume (Vt) = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 40 mmHg; Normoventilation-Hypercapnia (NH)-group: Vt = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg by increasing FiCO2; and a Hypoventilation-Hypercapnia (HH)-group: Vt = 4.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg. Plasma lactate and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured every 2 h. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h to perform bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), to measure lung wet-to-dry weight, lung tissue IL-8, and to obtain lung histology. Results PaO2 was significantly higher in the HH-group compared to the NN-group (p<0.05), with values of the NH-group between the HH- and NN-groups. Other markers of lung injury (wet-dry-weight, BAL-Protein, histology-score, plasma-IL-8 and lung tissue IL-8) resulted in significantly lower values for the HH-group compared to the NN-group and trends for the NH-group towards lower values compared to the NN-group. Lactate was significantly lower in both hypercapnia groups compared to the NN-group. Conclusion Whereas hypercapnic acidosis may have some beneficial effects, a significant effect on lung injury and systemic inflammatory response is dependent upon a lower tidal volume rather than resultant arterial CO2 tensions and pH alone. PMID:26840779

  18. Lung deposition of nebulised pentamidine in children.

    PubMed Central

    O'Doherty, M J; Thomas, S H; Gibb, D; Page, C J; Harrington, C; Duggan, C; Nunan, T O; Bateman, N T

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nebulised pentamidine is effective for preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The nebuliser dose required to produce equivalent lung concentrations of pentamidine in children is unknown. This study was performed to measure pulmonary pentamidine deposition in children and to relate this to age, ventilation pattern, and body size. METHODS: Nebulised pentamidine (50 mg in 6 ml saline) was administered to 12 children (including one with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis) and to six adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection using a Respirgard II nebuliser. Technetium-99m labeled colloidal human serum albumin was used as an indirect marker for pentamidine and deposition in the lungs was detected by a gamma camera. RESULTS: Absolute deposition of pentamidine was not related to age, height, weight, spirometry, or ventilation characteristics. Deposition, as a mean (SD) percentage of nebuliser output, was similar in children aged 8-11 years (5.5(2.4)%), teenagers aged 12-15 years (7.2(2.2)%) and adults (7.1(2.6)%). Aerosol concentration within the lungs (% nebuliser output deposited/predicted total lung capacity) was therefore higher in children (1.9(1.5)%/1) and teenagers (1.9(0.7)%/1) than in adults (1.0(0.7%)/1), and was negatively correlated with height (r = -0.69) and weight (r = -0.50). Deposition of aerosol in the region of the large central airways was particularly marked in children. Small reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after treatment did not differ significantly between adults and children and visual analogue scores of subjective adverse effects did not vary with age. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children probably require lower nebuliser pentamidine doses to produce lung pentamidine concentrations equivalent to those found to be effective for preventing P carinii pneumonia in adults using the Respirgard II nebuliser. PMID:8497819

  19. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  1. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  4. Fast nearly ML estimation of Doppler frequency in GNSS signal acquisition process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinhua; Falletti, Emanuela; Lo Presti, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains. PMID:23628761

  5. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  6. GroundWater Markup Language (GWML): Extending GeoSciML for Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.

    2007-12-01

    The emerging growth of OGC web services in the groundwater domain is likely to follow trends in other disciplines and result in a rich supply of groundwater data in heterogeneous and complex GML formats (Geography Markup Language), even within a single organization. The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has developed the Groundwater Markup Language (GWML) to overcome barriers to the use of the data in such environments. GWML is a common format for exchanging groundwater data. It extends two advanced GML standards, GeoSciML and Observations & Measurements, by adding entities such as hydrogeologic units (e.g. aquifers), properties (e.g. storativity), water wells, and water budget entities. Due to this firm grounding in OGC standards, GWML can be used with several OGC services such as WFS, WMS, WCS, and SOS, to enable exchange of a wide spectrum of groundwater data. The design, development and intended use of GWML will be discussed, including its relation to the other GML standards and its role as an integral part of GSC's emerging groundwater information system.

  7. Standardizing geologic data interchange: GeoSciML from the IUGS/CGI datamodel collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.; Duffy, T. R.; Johnson, B. R.; Laxton, J. L.; Richard, S. H.; Simons, B.

    2005-12-01

    GeoSciML is a harmonised information model and XML encoding for the exchange of geologic data. It is unique in its breadth of inputs and content, drawing from precursory national geoscience data model efforts in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan. The common suite of feature types is based on geological criteria (units, structures) artefacts of geological investigations (specimens, sections, boreholes, observations), along with supporting elements required as classifiers for the primary objects (material description, timescale, lexicons, etc). The data model design accommodates the short-term goal of representing information associated with geologic maps and boreholes, as well as being extensible in the long-term to other feature types. The initial version does not include portrayal and cartographic elements associated with a map itself. The model uses patterns designed for implementation as a GML Application Schema, which ensures compatibility with standard web-service interfaces from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The meta-model is based on features and properties, and leads to a rich information-oriented transfer encoding. The availability of standard patterns for mapping from UML provides a convenient bridge to existing conceptual models available from several sources. The project is being undertaken under the auspices of the IUGS Commission for Geoscience Information. As the development team is geographically scattered, a web-based collaborative environment has been essential to progress. The results are intended for widespread use, so project documentation, including the current state of the model and schema, is openly accessible.

  8. Virtual Construction of Space Habitats: Connecting Building Information Models (BIM) and SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polit-Casillas, Raul; Howe, A. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in design, construction and management of complex projects make use of Building Information Models (BIM) connecting different types of data to geometrical models. This information model allow different types of analysis beyond pure graphical representations. Space habitats, regardless their size, are also complex systems that require the synchronization of many types of information and disciplines beyond mass, volume, power or other basic volumetric parameters. For this, the state-of-the-art model based systems engineering languages and processes - for instance SysML - represent a solid way to tackle this problem from a programmatic point of view. Nevertheless integrating this with a powerful geometrical architectural design tool with BIM capabilities could represent a change in the workflow and paradigm of space habitats design applicable to other aerospace complex systems. This paper shows some general findings and overall conclusions based on the ongoing research to create a design protocol and method that practically connects a systems engineering approach with a BIM architectural and engineering design as a complete Model Based Engineering approach. Therefore, one hypothetical example is created and followed during the design process. In order to make it possible this research also tackles the application of IFC categories and parameters in the aerospace field starting with the application upon the space habitats design as way to understand the information flow between disciplines and tools. By building virtual space habitats we can potentially improve in the near future the way more complex designs are developed from very little detail from concept to manufacturing.

  9. Architecting the Human Space Flight Program with Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena M.; Fernandez, Michela Munoz; McVittie, Thomas I.; Sindiy, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of missions in NASA's Human Space Flight program focuses on the development and deployment of highly complex systems (e.g., Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Space Launch System, 21st Century Ground System) that will enable astronauts to venture beyond low Earth orbit and explore the moon, near-Earth asteroids, and beyond. Architecting these highly complex system-of-systems requires formal systems engineering techniques for managing the evolution of the technical features in the information exchange domain (e.g., data exchanges, communication networks, ground software) and also, formal correlation of the technical architecture to stakeholders' programmatic concerns (e.g., budget, schedule, risk) and design development (e.g., assumptions, constraints, trades, tracking of unknowns). This paper will describe how the authors have applied System Modeling Language (SysML) to implement model-based systems engineering for managing the description of the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) architecture and associated development activities and ultimately enables stakeholders to understand, reason, and answer questions about the EEIS under design for proposed lunar Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2).

  10. Fast Nearly ML Estimation of Doppler Frequency in GNSS Signal Acquisition Process

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinhua; Falletti, Emanuela; Presti, Letizia Lo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains. PMID:23628761

  11. Identification of SR3335 (ML176): a Synthetic RORα Selective Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Solt, Laura A.; Kumar, K. Ganesh; Nuhant, Philippe; Duckett, Derek R.; Cameron, Michael D.; Butler, Andrew A.; Roush, William R.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors (NRs) are still characterized as orphan receptors since ligands have not yet been identified for these proteins. The retinoic acid receptor-related receptors (RORs) have no well-defined physiological ligands. Here, we describe the identification of a selective RORα synthetic ligand, SR3335 (ML-176). SR3335 directly binds to RORα, but not other RORs, and functions as a selective partial inverse agonist of RORα in cell-based assays. Furthermore, SR3335 suppresses the expression of endogenous RORα target genes in HepG2 involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis including glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that SR3335 displays reasonable exposure following an i.p. injection into mice. We assess the ability of SR3335 to suppress gluconeogenesis in vivo using a diet induced obesity (DIO) mouse model where the mice where treated with 15 mg/kg b.i.d., i.p. for 6-days followed by a pyruvate tolerance test. SR3335 treated mice displayed lower plasma glucose levels following the pyruvate challenge consistent with suppression of gluconeogenesis. Thus, we have identified the first selective synthetic RORα inverse agonist and this compound can be utilized as a chemical tool to probe the function of this receptor both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, our data suggests that RORα inverse agonists may hold utility for suppression of elevated hepatic glucose production in type 2 diabetics. PMID:21090593

  12. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  13. AstroML: "better, faster, cheaper" towards state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Connolly, Andrew J.; Vanderplas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We present AstroML, a Python module for machine learning and data mining built on numpy, scipy, scikit-learn, matplotlib, and astropy, and distributed under an open license. AstroML contains a growing library of statistical and machine learning routines for analyzing astronomical data in Python, loaders for several open astronomical datasets (such as SDSS and other recent major surveys), and a large suite of examples of analyzing and visualizing astronomical datasets. AstroML is especially suitable for introducing undergraduate students to numerical research projects and for graduate students to rapidly undertake cutting-edge research. The long-term goal of astroML is to provide a community repository for fast Python implementations of common tools and routines used for statistical data analysis in astronomy and astrophysics (see http://www.astroml.org).

  14. Rare lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers that do not happen very often and are considered 'rare'. PMID:27066129

  15. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  16. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  17. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of N2 means cancer has spread to the middle part of the chest (called the mediastinum). A rating ... so that the surgeon can remove the cancerous part of the lung and/or lymph node ... biopsied are your lungs, bones, and brain. These types of biopsies can be done with ...

  18. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... when there is an abnormal condition near the surface of the lung, in the lung itself, or on the chest wall. Most often, it is done to rule out cancer. The biopsy is usually done after abnormalities appear on a chest x-ray or CT ...

  19. Immunosuppression for lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Choo Y.; Madsen, Joren C.; Rosengard, Bruce R.; Allan, James S.

    2010-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT As a result of advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapy, and postoperative management, lung transplantation has become an established therapeutic option for individuals with a variety of end-stage lung diseases. The current 1-year actuarial survival rate following lung transplantation is approaching 80%. However, the 5- year actuarial survival rate has remained virtually unchanged at approximately 50% over the last 15 years due to the processes of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection (1). Clinicians still rely on a vast array of immunosuppressive agents to suppress the process of graft rejection, but find themselves limited by an inescapable therapeutic paradox. Insufficient immunosuppression results in graft loss due to rejection, while excess immunosuppression results in increased morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections and malignancies. Indeed, graft rejection, infection, and malignancy are the three principal causes of mortality for the lung transplant recipient. One should also keep in mind that graft loss in a lung transplant recipient is usually a fatal event, since there is no practical means of long-term mechanical support, and since the prospects of re-transplantation are low, given the shortage of acceptable donor grafts. This chapter reviews the current state of immunosuppressive therapy for lung transplantation and suggests alternative paradigms for the management of future lung transplant recipients. PMID:19273152

  20. Immunity to the melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP; livin) in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yuen, Noah K; Zhan, Qian; Velazquez, Elsa F; Murphy, George F; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Hodi, F Stephen

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic targeting of melanoma antigens frequently focuses on the melanocyte differentiation or cancer-testis families. Antigen-loss variants can often result, as these antigens are not critical for tumor cell survival. Exploration of functionally relevant targets has been limited. The melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP; livin) is overexpressed in melanoma, contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance. Improved understanding of the significance of ML-IAP immune responses in patients has possible therapeutic applications. We found ML-IAP frequently expressed in melanoma metastases by immunohistochemistry. To assess spontaneous immunity to ML-IAP, an overlapping peptide library representing full-length protein was utilized to screen cellular responses in stage I-IV patients and healthy controls by ELISPOT. A broad array of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cellular responses against ML-IAP was observed with novel class I and class II epitopes identified. Specific HLA-A*0201 epitopes were analyzed further for frequency of reactivity. The generation of specific CD4(+) and cytotoxic T cells revealed potent functional capability including cytokine responsiveness to melanoma cell lines and tumor cell killing. In addition, recombinant ML-IAP protein used in an ELISA demonstrated high titer antibody responses in a subset of patients. Several melanoma patients who received CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab developed augmented humoral immune responses to ML-IAP as a function of treatment which was associated with beneficial clinical outcomes. High frequency immune responses in melanoma patients, associations with favorable treatment outcomes, and its essential role in melanoma pathogenesis support the development of ML-IAP as a disease marker and therapeutic target. PMID:22033581

  1. Human lung cancer-derived microparticles enhanced angiogenesis and growth of hepatoma cells in rodent lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Meng-Shen TongYen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human lung cancer-derived microparticles (LcD-MPs) played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Fischer 344 rats (F344, n=18) were equally categorized into group 1 [Sham Control (3.0 mL normal saline intravenous injection (IV))], group 2 [hepatoma cell line (2.0 x 106 cells, IV)], and group 3 [hepatoma cell line + LcD-MPs (3.0 x 106, IV)]. Animals were euthanized by day 28 after hepatoma cells transfusion. Our result showed that the gross pathology confirmed growth of hepatoma cell line in lung parenchyma. The size and weight of the lungs were significantly increased in group 2 and further elevated in group 3 than in group 1 (all p<0.001). Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the lung crowded score and number of small vessel exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the number of alveolar sacs showed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among the three groups (all p<0.0001). The cellular expressions of CD34+, CXCR4+, c-Kit+, CK19+, VEGF+ and vimentin+ cells in lung parenchyma exhibited an identical pattern compared to those of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and c-PARP), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), and tumor suppression (PTEN) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas that of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers were displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The MPs could enhance angiogenesis and accelerated hepatoma cell growth in rodent lung parenchyma. PMID:27186261

  2. Human lung cancer-derived microparticles enhanced angiogenesis and growth of hepatoma cells in rodent lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Meng-Shen TongYen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human lung cancer-derived microparticles (LcD-MPs) played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Fischer 344 rats (F344, n=18) were equally categorized into group 1 [Sham Control (3.0 mL normal saline intravenous injection (IV))], group 2 [hepatoma cell line (2.0 x 10(6) cells, IV)], and group 3 [hepatoma cell line + LcD-MPs (3.0 x 10(6), IV)]. Animals were euthanized by day 28 after hepatoma cells transfusion. Our result showed that the gross pathology confirmed growth of hepatoma cell line in lung parenchyma. The size and weight of the lungs were significantly increased in group 2 and further elevated in group 3 than in group 1 (all p<0.001). Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the lung crowded score and number of small vessel exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the number of alveolar sacs showed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among the three groups (all p<0.0001). The cellular expressions of CD34(+), CXCR4(+), c-Kit(+), CK19(+), VEGF(+) and vimentin+ cells in lung parenchyma exhibited an identical pattern compared to those of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and c-PARP), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), and tumor suppression (PTEN) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas that of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers were displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The MPs could enhance angiogenesis and accelerated hepatoma cell growth in rodent lung parenchyma. PMID:27186261

  3. A library of near-infrared integral field spectra of young M-L dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Rojo, P.; Allard, F.; Pinte, C.; Dumas, C.; Homeier, D.

    2014-02-01

    Context. At young ages, low surface gravity affects the atmospheric properties of ultracool dwarfs. The impact on medium-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra has only been slightly investigated at the M-L transition so far. Aims: We present a library of NIR (1.1-2.45 μm) medium-resolution (R ~ 1500-2000) integral field spectra of 15 young M6-L0 dwarfs. We aim at deriving updated NIR spectral type, luminosity, and physical parameters (Teff, log g, M, L/L⊙) for each source. This work also aims at testing the latest generation of BT-SETTL atmospheric models. Methods: We estimated spectral types using spectral indices and the spectra of young objects classified in the optical. We used the 2010 and 2012 releases of the BT-SETTL synthetic spectral grid and cross-checked the results with the DRIFT-PHOENIX models to derive the atmospheric properties of the sources. Results: We do not find significant differences between the spectra of young companions and those of young isolated brown dwarfs in the same spectral type range. We derive infrared spectral types L0 ± 1, L0 ± 1, M9.5 ± 0.5, M9.5 ± 0.5, M9.25 ± 0.25, M8+0.5-0.75, and M8.5 ± 0.5 for AB Pic b, Cha J110913-773444, USco CTIO 108B, GSC 08047-00232 B, DH Tau B, CT Cha b, and HR7329B, respectively. The BT-SETTL and DRIFT-PHOENIX models yield close Teff and log g estimates for each source. The models seem to show a 600+600-300 K drop in the effective temperature at the M-L transition. Assuming the former temperatures are correct, we then derive new mass estimates that confirm that DH Tau B, USco CTIO 108B, AB Pic b, KPNO Tau 4, OTS 44, and Cha1109 lie inside or at the boundary of the planetary mass range. We combine the empirical luminosities of the M9.5-L0 sources to the Teff to derive semi-empirical radii estimates that do not match "hot-start" evolutionary models predictions at 1-3 Myr. We use complementary data to demonstrate that atmospheric models are able to reproduce the combined optical and infrared

  4. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  5. Short-term hypoxic exposure at rest and during exercise reduces lung water in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Hulsebus, Minelle L; Breen, Jerome F; Hoffman, Eric A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2006-12-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise increase pulmonary arterial pressure, cause pulmonary capillary recruitment, and may influence the ability of the lungs to regulate fluid. To examine the influence of hypoxia, alone and combined with exercise, on lung fluid balance, we studied 25 healthy subjects after 17-h exposure to 12.5% inspired oxygen (barometric pressure = 732 mmHg) and sequentially after exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer with 12.5% inspired oxygen. We also studied subjects after a rapid saline infusion (30 ml/kg over 15 min) to demonstrate the sensitivity of our techniques to detect changes in lung water. Pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar-capillary conductance (D(M)) were determined by measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Lung tissue volume and density were assessed using computed tomography. Lung water was estimated by subtracting measures of Vc from computed tomography lung tissue volume. Pulmonary function [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF(50))] was also assessed. Saline infusion caused an increase in Vc (42%), tissue volume (9%), and lung water (11%), and a decrease in D(M) (11%) and pulmonary function (FVC = -12 +/- 9%, FEV(1) = -17 +/- 10%, FEF(50) = -20 +/- 13%). Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise resulted in increases in Vc (43 +/- 19 and 51 +/- 16%), D(M) (7 +/- 4 and 19 +/- 6%), and pulmonary function (FVC = 9 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 3%, FEV(1) = 5 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 3%, FEF(50) = 4 +/- 2 and 12 +/- 5%) and decreases in lung density and lung water (-84 +/- 24 and -103 +/- 20 ml vs. baseline). These data suggest that 17 h of hypoxic exposure at rest or with exercise resulted in a decrease in lung water in healthy humans. PMID:16902060

  6. Scalp psoriasis: topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion.

    PubMed

    Duweb, G A; Abuzariba, O; Rahim, M; al-Taweel, M; Abdulla, S A

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two patients aged between 6 and 61 years (mean: 33.5 years) with psoriasis of the scalp were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven patients (69%) were males and 15 (31%) were females. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion in the treatment of psoriasis of the scalp. The study was randomized with the twice-daily application of either calcipotriol solution or betamethasone valerate lotion for 6 weeks. Treatment evaluation was clinically based on signs of psoriasis (thickness, redness, scaliness) which were scored from 0 = absent to 4 = severest possible involvement and was performed at the start of treatment and at weeks 2 and 6 of treatment. The results showed a marked improvement and clearance at the end of treatment in 15 (72.8%) of the 24 patients in the calcipotriol group and in 13 of the 18 patients (72%) in the betamethasone group. The mean total sign score at baseline was 5.1 in the calcipotriol group and 5.4 in the betamethasone valerate group. At the end of treatment, this score was decreased to 2.1 and 1.49, respectively. No significant adverse effects were reported in either group except in two patients (8.3%) in the calcipotriol group who developed signs of irritation including itching and erythema. In conclusion, both drugs were effective and well tolerated in the treatment of scalp psoriasis but in some patients calcipotriol had to be given for more prolonged courses. PMID:11314240

  7. Macroseismic survey of the ML5.5, 2014 Orkney earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, V.; Zulu, B.; Manzunzu, B.; Mulabisana, T.; Pule, T.; Myendeki, S.; Gubela, W.

    2015-07-01

    On 5 August 2014 at 1222 hours (local time), an earthquake of local magnitude ML = 5.5 occurred in the Orkney area in the North West Province, South Africa. The earthquake shaking was felt widely in South Africa as far as Cape Town as well as in Maputo, Mozambique, and Gaborone in Botswana. One person was killed when a wall collapsed on him, and more than 600 houses were damaged. Following the earthquake, many people submitted reports to the Council for Geoscience (CGS) through an online questionnaire which recorded their experience, whilst others reported the event and its effects on social networks like Twitter and in newspapers. The CGS also sent out a team of scientists to further assess the effects of the event in the community by interviewing members of the public and completing additional questionnaires. A total of 866 observations were collected. Analysis of the collected macroseismic data produced 170 intensity data points which showed that a maximum intensity of VII was experienced in communities located in the epicentral area. The observed attenuation of intensity values was comparable to that observed on the French stable continental region especially in the area of 600-km radius from the epicentre. Airborne geophysical data were used to try and identify the fault along which the earthquake occurred. This was necessary as there was no surface expression of the earthquake and no previously identified fault near the epicentre. The interpretation of the data showed a fault located about 500 m from the epicentre appearing to form a boundary to the east of located aftershocks.

  8. MQUAKE multicast software early warning demonstrated for 31 October 2001 Anza Ml5.1 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, J. A.; Hansen, T.; Vernon, F. L.; Braun, H.

    2003-12-01

    MQUAKE distributes real-time multicast parametric information from individual sensors as well as a summarized location and magnitude based on the data recorded from sensors of the ANZA seismic network with the goal of providing event notification prior to arrival of the actual shock wave at the client's location. The program gathers detection and triggering information from an operational Antelope real-time data collection system and sends them to clients via multicast and unicast UDP packets. Multicast packets are preferred as they allow multiple people to receive event packets in the fastest time possible (however, a unicast mode is available since most IP networks do not support multicast). These packets are decrypted in a client software which then produces a list of triggers/events that will be used in future versions of the code to generate wavefront estimate plots and approximate maximum shock wave travel times based on the client's location and limited current information. This systems works in both a wired and wireless environment, such as HPWREN, the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network. A real-time example of this system was obtained during the Ml5.1 31 October 2001 earthquake that occurred directly under the ANZA seismic network, approximately 70 km away from an MQUAKE client. The MQUAKE program was able to deliver a warning of a significant "event" 10 seconds after the initial ground motion was recorded and about 4 seconds prior to ground motion reaching the client. An actual event location and magnitude approximation was received 71 seconds after the local ground shaking at the client's location (85 seconds after the event). Had the client been located along the coast of San Diego, they would have had additional warning time prior to the shaking. Clients in San Diego, the closest major metropolitan area to this event, could have received up to 12 seconds of early warning.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing

  10. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  11. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  12. Safety and feasibility of prolonged bronchoscopy involving diagnosis of lung cancer, systematic nodal staging, and fiducial marker placement in a high-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Kular, Harman; Mudambi, Lakshmi; Lazarus, Donald R.; Cornwell, Lorraine; Zhu, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is considered the standard treatment for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer. Bronchoscopy has shown to be effective in obtaining diagnosis of peripheral lung tumors, staging the mediastinum (with endobronchial ultrasound- EBUS-), and placing fiducial markers (FMs). However, the combination of these 3 procedures in a single bronchoscopy has not been studied. The aim of this study is to describe safety and feasibility of performing diagnosis, systematic nodal staging, and placement of FMs in a single bronchoscopic procedure. Methods Retrospective review of patients who underwent bronchoscopy with diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer, EBUS for nodal staging, and FM placement in a single procedure at Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center between January 2011 and July 2015. Results Twenty-one patients met our criteria, one having 2 synchronous tumors. 95% of patients had an ASA score of at least 3. Twenty-two tumors were diagnosed with a size of 2.72±1.06 cm. Distance from pleura was 1.33±1.42 cm. Median duration of bronchoscopy was 96 minutes (range, 75 to 136 minutes). Guided-bronchoscopy provided diagnosis of lung cancer in all cases. Fluoroscopy and RP-EBUS were utilized in 21 patients, “hybrid” scope in 14, and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in 3. A total of 100 lymph nodes (LN) were sampled with EBUS-TBNA, with 95% of the patients having at least 4 LN sampled. A total of 71 FM were placed for 22 tumors. All markers were retained and allowed for successful SBRT. There were no pneumothoraces and no major complications. Conclusions Although it results in lengthy procedures, a single bronchoscopy obtaining diagnosis of peripheral lung nodules, systematic nodal staging, and FM placement can be safely performed in high-risk patients. Our “all-in-one” strategy could potentially expedite treatment, decrease complications, and reduce costs. Further prospective studies are needed to

  13. Endotoxin suppresses surfactant synthesis in cultured rat lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Pulmonary complications secondary to postburn sepsis are a major cause of death in burned patients. Using an in vitro organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of E. coli endotoxin (LPS) on lung cell surfactant synthesis. Our results showed that E. coli endotoxin (1.0, 2.5, 10 micrograms LPS/ml) was capable of suppressing the incorporation of /sup 3/H-choline into de novo synthesized surfactant, lamellar bodies (LB), and common myelin figures (CMF) at 50%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. In a similar study, we were able to show that LPS also inhibited /sup 3/H-palmitate incorporation by cultured lung cells. LPS-induced suppression of surfactant synthesis was reversed by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that LPS may play a significant role in reducing surfactant synthesis by rat lung cells, and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-related respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in burn injury.

  14. Blood filling and flow in lungs during change in body position in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogodin, A. S.; Mazhbich, B. I.

    1980-01-01

    In the horizontal position (supine and lateral), in the upright position (head up and head down) and during change of the cat body position in space, quantitative responses of regional blood volume and blood flow in the lungs (ml/100 cu cm) revealed presence of the gradient in the gravitation direction. Blood volume and blood flow of different lung portions changed qualitatively and quantitatively in different ways. These changes occurred only in the direction producing the equality of regional hydrostatical and hemodynamic loads in the lungs at either horizontal level.

  15. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  16. Impact of Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction on Right Ventricular Myocardial Function

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Tuleta, Izabela; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) provides a minimally invasive therapy for patients with severe lung emphysema. As its impact on right ventricular (RtV) function is undefined, we examined the extent of RtV functional changes following ELVR, as assessed by use of speckle tracking-based RtV deformation analysis. Methods We enrolled 32 patients with severe emphysematous COPD scheduled for bronchoscopic LVR using endobronchial valves (Zephyr, PulmonX, Inc.), comprising 16 matched clinical responders and 16 non-responders. Echocardiography was conducted one day prior to ELVR and at an eight-week postprocedural interval. Results Patients were predominantly of late middle-age (65.8±8.7yrs), male (62.5%) and presented advanced COPD emphysema (means FEV1 and RV: 32.6% and 239.1% of predicted, respectively). After ELVR, RtV apical longitudinal strain improved significantly in the total study cohort (-7.96±7.02% vs. -13.35±11.48%, p=0.04), whereas there were no significant changes in other parameters of RtV function such as RtV global longitudinal strain, TAPSE or pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. In responding patients, 6MWT-improvement correlated with a decrease in NT-proBNP (Pearson´s r: -0.53, p=0.03). However, clinical non-responders did not exhibit any RtV functional improvement. Discussion ELVR beneficially impacts RtV functional parameters. Speckle tracking-based RtV apical longitudinal strain analysis allows early determination of RtV contractile gain and identification of clinical responsiveness. PMID:25856379

  17. Development and preliminary results of an in vivo Raman probe for early lung cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Our previous results from Raman spectroscopy studies on ex vivo lung tissue showed the technique had great potential to differentiate between samples with different pathologies. In this work, a fast dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system was developed to collect real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human lung spectra. The 785 nm excitation, and the collection of tissue emission were accomplished by using a reusable fiber optic catheter which passed down the instrument channel of a bronchoscope. Filters in two stages blocked laser emission other than 785 nm from reaching the tissue surface, and reduced fiber fluorescence and elastically scattered excitation light from being passed to the spectrometer. The spectrometer itself consisted of one of two holographic gratings with usable frequency ranges of: 700 to 2000 cm -1 and 1500 to 3400 cm -1. The dispersed light was detected by a cooled CCD array consisting of 400 by 1340 pixels. To increase the resolution of the system, while maximizing the throughput, a second fiber bundle, consisting of 54×100 μm diameter fibers connected the catheter to the spectrometer. The fibers in this second bundle were spread out to form a parabolic arc which replaced the conventional entrance slit. This geometry corrected for image aberrations, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding up to a 20-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated spectral resolution of the system was 9 cm -1 for both gratings. So far we have measured spectra from 20 patients and have seen clear differences between spectra from tumor and normal tissue.

  18. Killing of human lung cancer cells using a new ( sup 111 In)bleomycin complex ( sup 111 In)BLMC

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, D.Y.; Hamburger, A.W.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of a ({sup 111}In)bleomycin complex (({sup 111}In)BLMC) to kill five cell lines of human lung cancer (small cell lung cancer) was investigated. Cells were exposed to either 0.9% NaCl, ({sup 111}In)Cl3, BLM, ({sup 111}In)BLMC, nonradioactive InCl3, or In-BLMC for 60 minutes, plated in soft agarose, and assessed for colony formation. ({sup 111}In)BLMC (40-200 microCi carried by 15-25 micrograms BLM/ml) was more cytotoxic than BLM (15-25 micrograms BLM/ml) by a factor of 1.6-5.3 for five cell lines. The percent survival of N417 cells was 28.4 for ({sup 111}In)BLMC (40 microCi/15 micrograms BLM/ml) and 54.3 for BLM (15 micrograms/ml); 1.9 for ({sup 111}In)BLMC (200 microCi/25 micrograms BLM/ml), and 10.0 for BLM (25 micrograms/ml). {sup 111}InCl3 (200 microCi/ml) and nonradioactive InCl3 failed to inhibit colony formation. The new ({sup 111}In)BLMC may be useful for therapy of some lung cancer patients.

  19. Automatic publishing ISO 19115 metadata with PanMetaDocs using SensorML information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, Vivien; Ulbricht, Damian; Schroeder, Matthias; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. A challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. Geographic sensor information and services are described using the ISO 19115 metadata schema. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also published data through DataCite. The necessary metadata are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML to

  20. Identification of ML204, a Novel Potent Antagonist That Selectively Modulates Native TRPC4/C5 Ion Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa; Shi, Jie; Zhu, Yingmin; Kustov, Maksym; Tian, Jin-bin; Stevens, Amy; Wu, Meng; Xu, Jia; Long, Shunyou; Yang, Pu; Zholos, Alexander V.; Salovich, James M.; Weaver, C. David; Hopkins, Corey R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; McManus, Owen; Li, Min; Zhu, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels implicated in diverse physiological functions, including smooth muscle contractility and synaptic transmission. However, lack of potent selective pharmacological inhibitors for TRPC channels has limited delineation of the roles of these channels in physiological systems. Here we report the identification and characterization of ML204 as a novel, potent, and selective TRPC4 channel inhibitor. A high throughput fluorescent screen of 305,000 compounds of the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository was performed for inhibitors that blocked intracellular Ca2+ rise in response to stimulation of mouse TRPC4β by μ-opioid receptors. ML204 inhibited TRPC4β-mediated intracellular Ca2+ rise with an IC50 value of 0.96 μm and exhibited 19-fold selectivity against muscarinic receptor-coupled TRPC6 channel activation. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings, ML204 blocked TRPC4β currents activated through either μ-opioid receptor stimulation or intracellular dialysis of guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS), suggesting a direct interaction of ML204 with TRPC4 channels rather than any interference with the signal transduction pathways. Selectivity studies showed no appreciable block by 10–20 μm ML204 of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPA1, and TRPM8, as well as KCNQ2 and native voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. In isolated guinea pig ileal myocytes, ML204 blocked muscarinic cation currents activated by bath application of carbachol or intracellular infusion of GTPγS, demonstrating its effectiveness on native TRPC4 currents. Therefore, ML204 represents an excellent novel tool for investigation of TRPC4 channel function and may facilitate the development of therapeutics targeted to TRPC4. PMID:21795696

  1. [A case of arc welder's lung with ground-glass opacities and progressive massive fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tomohisa; Aoshima, Masahiro; Kurakawa, Eri; Jinho, Park; Kasuga, Ikuma; Minemura, Kazunari; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2005-05-01

    A 62-year-old man who had worked as a welder for 35 years was admitted with abnormal chest radiograph shadows. Chest CT scan showed ground-glass opacities (GGO) and nodular shadows (progressive massive fibrosis: PMF) with spiculation in both lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) findings of a nodule (left segment 8) revealed many iron particles in the alveoli and positive staining for Fe (Berlin blue stain). Moreover, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of a GGO (left segment 4) revealed many iron particles and positive staining for Fe (Berlin blue stain) in macrophages. Serum ferritin was extremely high (6.352 ng/ml) and ferritin in the BAL fluid was 210 ng/ml. Taking the clinical course and pathological findings together, pneumoconiosis (arc welder's lung) was diagnosed. The most common chest CT pattern in arc welder's lung is ill-defined micronodules diffusely distributed in the lung like hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Arc welder's lung rarely presents as PMF. We report a case of arc welder's lung accompanied with PMF. PMID:15969212

  2. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  3. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase lung liquid clearance in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Berthiaume, Y; Staub, N C; Matthay, M A

    1987-01-01

    We did experiments to determine whether beta-adrenergic agonists increase lung liquid clearance in anesthetized ventilated adult sheep and, if so, whether the increase is mediated by beta receptors and what mechanism is involved. We instilled 100 ml of autologous serum either alone or with a beta-adrenergic agonist (terbutaline, 10(-5) M, or epinephrine, 5.5 X 10(-6) M) into one lower lobe. After 4 h both terbutaline and epinephrine increased lung liquid clearance. The increase in lung liquid clearance was inhibited when propranolol (a beta blocker) or amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) was added to the terbutaline. Increased clearance was not explained by changes in pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary blood flow, or lung lymph flow. We conclude that beta-adrenergic agonists increase lung liquid clearance in anesthetized intact adult sheep. This increase is mediated through beta receptors and probably depends on increased active transport of sodium across the alveolar barrier. Images PMID:2879851

  4. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  5. Bioengineering Lungs for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2016-05-01

    Whole lung extracellular matrix scaffolds can be created by perfusion of cadaveric organs with decellularizing detergents, providing a platform for organ regeneration. Lung epithelial engineering must address both the proximal airway cells that function to metabolize toxins and aid mucociliary clearance and the distal pneumocytes that facilitate gas exchange. Engineered pulmonary vasculature must support in vivo blood perfusion with low resistance and intact barrier function and be antithrombotic. Repopulating the native lung matrix with sufficient cell numbers in appropriate anatomic locations is required to enable organ function. PMID:27112255

  6. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  7. Lung Disease and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Airflow limitation is a predictor of future risks of hypertension and cardiovascular events. COPD is now understood as a systemic inflammatory disease, with the focus on inflammation of the lungs. An association between inflammation and sympathetic overactivity has also been reported. In this article, we review the association between chronic lung disease and the risks of hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, the underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic approach to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in patients with lung diseases. PMID:26587450

  8. Activation of Relaxin Family Receptor 1 from Different Mammalian Species by Relaxin Peptide and Small-Molecule Agonist ML290

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zaohua; Myhr, Courtney; Bathgate, Ross A. D.; Ho, Brian A.; Bueno, Amaya; Hu, Xin; Xiao, Jingbo; Southall, Noel; Barnaeva, Elena; Agoulnik, Irina U.; Marugan, Juan J.; Ferrer, Marc; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2015-01-01

    Relaxin peptide (RLN), which signals through the relaxin family peptide 1 (RXFP1) GPCR receptor, has shown therapeutic effects in an acute heart failure clinical trial. We have identified a small-molecule agonist of human RXFP1, ML290; however, it does not activate the mouse receptor. To find a suitable animal model for ML290 testing and to gain mechanistic insights into the interaction of various ligands with RXFP1, we have cloned rhesus macaque, pig, rabbit, and guinea pig RXFP1s and analyzed their activation by RLN and ML290. HEK293T cells expressing macaque or pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin and ML290 treatment as measured by an increase of cAMP production. Guinea pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin but had very low response to ML290 treatment only at highest concentrations used. The rabbit RXFP1 amino acid sequence was the most divergent, with a number of unique substitutions within the ectodomain and the seven-transmembrane domain (7TM). Two splice variants of rabbit RXFP1 derived through alternative splicing of the fourth exon were identified. In contrast to the other species, rabbit RXFP1s were activated by ML290, but not with human, pig, mouse, or rabbit RLNs. Using FLAG-tagged constructs, we have shown that both rabbit RXFP1 variants are expressed on the cell surface. No binding of human Eu-labeled RLN to rabbit RXFP1 was detected, suggesting that in this species, RXFP1 might be non-functional. We used chimeric rabbit–human and guinea pig–human constructs to identify regions important for RLN or ML290 receptor activation. Chimeras with the human ectodomain and rabbit 7TM domain were activated by RLN, whereas substitution of part of the guinea pig 7TM domain with the human sequence only partially restored ML290 activation, confirming the allosteric mode of action for the two ligands. Our data demonstrate that macaque and pig models can be used for ML290 testing. PMID:26347712

  9. Activation of Relaxin Family Receptor 1 from Different Mammalian Species by Relaxin Peptide and Small-Molecule Agonist ML290.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zaohua; Myhr, Courtney; Bathgate, Ross A D; Ho, Brian A; Bueno, Amaya; Hu, Xin; Xiao, Jingbo; Southall, Noel; Barnaeva, Elena; Agoulnik, Irina U; Marugan, Juan J; Ferrer, Marc; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-01-01

    Relaxin peptide (RLN), which signals through the relaxin family peptide 1 (RXFP1) GPCR receptor, has shown therapeutic effects in an acute heart failure clinical trial. We have identified a small-molecule agonist of human RXFP1, ML290; however, it does not activate the mouse receptor. To find a suitable animal model for ML290 testing and to gain mechanistic insights into the interaction of various ligands with RXFP1, we have cloned rhesus macaque, pig, rabbit, and guinea pig RXFP1s and analyzed their activation by RLN and ML290. HEK293T cells expressing macaque or pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin and ML290 treatment as measured by an increase of cAMP production. Guinea pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin but had very low response to ML290 treatment only at highest concentrations used. The rabbit RXFP1 amino acid sequence was the most divergent, with a number of unique substitutions within the ectodomain and the seven-transmembrane domain (7TM). Two splice variants of rabbit RXFP1 derived through alternative splicing of the fourth exon were identified. In contrast to the other species, rabbit RXFP1s were activated by ML290, but not with human, pig, mouse, or rabbit RLNs. Using FLAG-tagged constructs, we have shown that both rabbit RXFP1 variants are expressed on the cell surface. No binding of human Eu-labeled RLN to rabbit RXFP1 was detected, suggesting that in this species, RXFP1 might be non-functional. We used chimeric rabbit-human and guinea pig-human constructs to identify regions important for RLN or ML290 receptor activation. Chimeras with the human ectodomain and rabbit 7TM domain were activated by RLN, whereas substitution of part of the guinea pig 7TM domain with the human sequence only partially restored ML290 activation, confirming the allosteric mode of action for the two ligands. Our data demonstrate that macaque and pig models can be used for ML290 testing. PMID:26347712

  10. Effects of surfactant/budesonide therapy on oxidative modifications in the lung in experimental meconium-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mikolka, P; Kopincova, J; Tomcikova Mikusiakova, L; Kosutova, P; Antosova, M; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2016-02-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a serious condition, which can be treated with exogenous surfactant and mechanical ventilation. However, meconium-induced inflammation, lung edema and oxidative damage may inactivate delivered surfactant and thereby reduce effectiveness of the therapy. As we presumed that addition of anti-inflammatory agent into the surfactant may alleviate inflammation and enhance efficiency of the therapy, this study was performed to evaluate effects of surfactant therapy enriched with budesonide versus surfactant-only therapy on markers of oxidative stress in experimental model of MAS. Meconium suspension (25 mg/ml, 4 ml/kg) was instilled into the trachea of young rabbits, whereas one group of animals received saline instead of meconium (C group, n = 6). In meconium-instilled animals, respiratory failure developed within 30 min. Then, meconium-instilled animals were divided into 3 groups according to therapy (n = 6 each): with surfactant therapy (M + S group), with surfactant + budesonide therapy (M + S + B), and without therapy (M group). Surfactant therapy consisted of two bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) with diluted surfactant (Curosurf, 5 mg phospholipids/ml, 10 ml/kg) followed by undiluted surfactant (100 mg phospholipids/kg), which was in M + S + B group enriched with budesonide (Pulmicort, 0.5 mg/ml). Animals were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 hours. At the end of experiment, blood sample was taken for differential white blood cell (WBC) count. After euthanizing animals, left lung was saline-lavaged and cell differential in BAL was determined. Oxidative damage, i.e. oxidation of lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes) and proteins (dityrosine and lysine-lipoperoxidation products) was estimated in lung homogenate and isolated mitochondria. Total antioxidant capacity was evaluated in lung homogenate and plasma. Meconium instillation increased transmigration of neutrophils and production of free

  11. Tolerability of Vidaza (azacitidine) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3 ml per injection.

    PubMed

    Ferruccio, Lauren F; Murray, Cindy; Yee, Karen W; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Ng, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    The azacitidine (Vidaza®) product monograph indicates that doses greater than 4 ml should be divided equally into two syringes and injected into different sites. Although 2 ml is a more commonly used maximum volume for subcutaneous injections, there is a lack of evidence to support the use of any given maximum volume with azacitidine. Applying the status quo of 2 ml to azacitidine results in patients receiving 3-4 injections per visit. This prospective study evaluated the frequency and type of injection site reactions when the maximum subcutaneous injection volume was increased from 2 to 3 ml per injection site. Among 30 patients, 309 doses were administered, and injection site reactions were noted in 92.9% of all doses, with the majority (82.2%) being grade 1; only 10.7% of doses resulted in grade 2 reactions, and there were no grade 3 or 4 reactions. There was no increase in frequency or severity of injection site reactions when the maximum volume was increased to 3 ml. The median number of injections that patients received per visit decreased from 3 to 2 after the volume was increased, and there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of pain. Decreasing the number of injections also facilitates ease of rotation of injection sites and decreases pharmacy preparation time. This is the first time that injection site reaction data relating to injection volume have been reported for azacitidine. PMID:26248754

  12. Cystic and nodular lung disease.

    PubMed

    Richards, J Caleb; Lynch, David A; Chung, Jonathan H

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse cystic and nodular lung diseases have characteristic imaging findings. The most common causes of cystic lung disease are lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Other less common cystic lung diseases include Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, and light chain deposition disease. Computed tomography is used to differentiate cystic lung disease from emphysema, honeycombing, cavities, and bronchiectasis, which mimic cystic lung disease. Diffuse nodular lung disease are categorized as centrilobular, perilymphatic, and random types. In diffuse nodular lung disease, a specific diagnosis is achieved through a combination of history, physical examination, and imaging findings. PMID:26024606

  13. Trans-bronchoscopy with implantation of 125I radioactive seeds in patients with pulmonary atelectasis induced by lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, MINGJIAN; PU, DELI; ZHANG, WEIDONG; LIAO, JIANGRONG; ZHANG, TAO; YANG, GUANG; LIU, ZHENYIN; SINGH, SRISTI; GAO, FEI; ZHANG, FUJUN

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy using trans-bronchoscope 125I radioactive seeds implantation in patients with pulmonary atelectasis induced by lung cancer, in terms of feasibility, safety, quality of life (QOL), and survival time. Between April 2008 and June 2011, 15 patients from two medical institutions that had obstructive pulmonary atelectasis caused by inoperable lung cancer were assigned to receive 125I implantation endoluminal brachytherapy by bronchoscopy. Subsequent to the implantation of 125I seeds, the outcomes were measured in terms of procedure success rate, reopening of atelectasis, complications associated with the procedure, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores and survival time. The surgical procedure was successfully performed in all 15 patients. No procedure-associated mortality occurred and the complications were mild and considered acceptable. Irritable cough and temporary increase of hemoptysis occurred in 11 (73.3%) and 10 (66.7%) patients respectively, and were the most common complications. The pulmonary atelectasis reopening rate subsequent to the procedure was 86.7, 76.9, 80.0, 75.0 and 50.0% at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. The KPS score significantly improved following the implantation of 125I seeds and the duration of improvement ranged between 3 and 27 months. The median and mean survival times were 15.6 and 16 months, respectively. Actuarial survival rates at 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure were 86.7, 66.7 and 13.3%, respectively. In patients with advanced lung cancer and those presenting with obstructive pulmonary atelectasis, treatment with intraluminal implantation of 125I seeds is a safe and effective therapy option with easy accessibility. PMID:26171002

  14. Overview of Clinical Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Jonathan C.; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2014-01-01

    Since the first successful lung transplant 30 years ago, lung transplantation has rapidly become an established standard of care to treat end-stage lung disease in selected patients. Advances in lung preservation, surgical technique, and immunosuppression regimens have resulted in the routine performance of lung transplantation around the world for an increasing number of patients, with wider indications. Despite this, donor shortages and chronic lung allograft dysfunction continue to prevent lung transplantation from reaching its full potential. With research into the underlying mechanisms of acute and chronic lung graft dysfunction and advances in personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to both the donor lung and the lung transplant recipient, there is increasing confidence that we will improve short- and long-term outcomes in the near future. PMID:24384816

  15. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  16. Abscess in the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscesses are streptococci and staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is a serious infection. Obstruction ... night sweats. In contrast, lung abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA can be fatal within days, ...

  17. 7. Immunologic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2008-02-01

    The lung is an extremely complex organ and participates in initial responses to inhaled antigens, infectious agents, and irritants or as a response to exposure through the oral, parenteral, or transdermal routes. There can be constriction of the airways or involvement or even destruction of the lung parenchyma, depending on the condition. This review focuses on selected aspects of the pulmonary innate and adaptive immune responses; the new condition World Trade Center cough, which can cause an asthma-like presentation and resemble reactive airways dysfunction syndrome; and the diagnosis and treatment of various immunologic lung conditions. Innate immune responses occur in the acute respiratory distress syndrome and in transfusion-related acute lung injury. Adaptive immune responses involve specialized mucosal and systemic immune responses, lymphocytes, and antibodies and can result in CD4+ TH1 and TH2 phenotypes, such as TH1 for tuberculosis and TH2 for asthma. PMID:18241689

  18. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the chest Working with or around asbestos, coal dust, cotton dust, and silica dust (called occupational ... routinely screened for lung disease. These jobs include coal mining, sand blasting, and working on a ship.

  19. Reflux and Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reflux and Lung Disease Proper Hydration Sodium Dangers Plant-Based Diets Why Breakfast Matters Patients & Visitors Giving For Professionals About Us Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make an Appointment Make a Donation ...

  20. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation in the lungs, most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... up very little gallium. What Abnormal Results Mean Sarcoidosis Other respiratory infections, most often pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia ...

  1. Platelets in Lung Biology

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis, which is the intricate process by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling. PMID:23043249

  2. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 65. Lake F, Proudman S. Rheumatoid arthritis and lung disease: from mechanisms to a practical approach. Semin Respir Crit Care Med . 2014;35:222-238. PMID: 24668537 www.ncbi.nlm.nih. ...

  3. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... substances increases the risk of lung cancer: Asbestos . Arsenic . Chromium. Nickel. Beryllium. Cadmium . Tar and soot. These ...

  4. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27101251

  5. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

  6. [Hypoxic lung failure].

    PubMed

    David, S; Wiesner, O

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxic lung failure is among the major indications for patients' referral to intensive care units either for surveillance or if necessary therapy. There are a vast number of pathophysiological causes of lung failure and the optimal treatment highly depends on the underlying pathology; therefore, no standard algorithm exists. So-called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a very severe manifestation of hypoxemic lung failure that is of particular relevance for intensivists and is therefore the focus of this review. In addition to fundamental pathophysiology of lung injury, the article also focuses on established and modern treatment strategies. Moreover, we will briefly highlight innovative concepts of ARDS treatment that might become relevant in the future. PMID:27084180

  7. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  8. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. Each lung houses about 300- ... growth. Without oxygen, the body's cells would die. Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced when carbon is ...

  9. What Are the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen from the air. They also help remove carbon dioxide (a waste gas that can be toxic) from ... The lungs' intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide is called gas exchange. Gas exchange is part ...

  10. Interfractional Positional Variability of Fiducial Markers and Primary Tumors in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer During Audiovisual Biofeedback Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, Nicholas O.; Shepherd, Wes; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate implanted markers as a surrogate for tumor-based setup during image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy with audiovisual biofeedback. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were implanted bronchoscopically with gold coils. Markers, tumor, and a reference bony structure (vertebra) were contoured for all 10 phases of the four-dimensional respiration-correlated fan-beam computed tomography and weekly four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography. Results: The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-tumor centroid displacements were 2/3, 2/2, and 3/3 mm in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) directions, respectively. The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/3, and 2/3 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The systematic/random tumor-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/4, and 4/4 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All displacements changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although marker-based image guidance may decrease the risk for geometric miss compared with bony anatomy-based positioning, the observed displacements between markers and tumor centroids indicate the need for repeated soft tissue imaging, particularly in situations with large tumor volume change and large initial marker-to-tumor centroid distance.

  11. A prospective study of decline in lung function in relation to welding emissions

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sigve W; Bonde, Jens Peter; Omland, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have reported reduced lung function among welders but limitations of exposure assessment and design preclude causal inference. The aim of this study was to investigate if long-term exposure to welding fume particulates accelerates the age-related decline in lung function. Methods Lung function was measured by spirometry in 1987 and 2004 among 68 steel welders and 32 non-welding production workers. The decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was analysed in relation to cumulated exposure to fume particulates among welders during the follow-up period. Results Among smokers the decline in FEV1 through follow-up period was in average 150 ml larger among welders than non-welders while the difference was negligible among non-smokers. The results did not reach statistical significance and within welders the decline in lung function was not related to the cumulated welding particulate exposure during follow-up period Conclusion Long-term exposure to welding emissions may accelerate the age-related decline of lung function but at exposure levels in the range of 1.5 to 6.5 mg/m3 the average annual excess loss of FEV1 is unlikely to exceed 25 ml in smokers and 10 ml in non-smokers. PMID:18302754

  12. Zanamivir Oral Delivery: Enhanced Plasma and Lung Bioavailability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Srinivasan; Im, Ho Taek; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Yong- Il; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon; Woo, Jong Soo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the oral bioavailability (BA) of zanamivir (ZMR) by increasing its intestinal permeability using permeation enhancers (PE). Four different classes of PEs (Labrasol®, sodium cholate, sodium caprate, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin) were investigated for their ability to enhance the permeation of ZMR across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The flux and Papp of ZMR in the presence of sodium caprate (SC) was significantly higher than other PEs in comparison to control, and was selected for further investigation. All concentrations of SC (10-200 mM) demonstrated enhanced flux of ZMR in comparison to control. The highest flux (13 folds higher than control) was achieved for the formulation with highest SC concentration (200 mM). The relative BA of ZMR formulation containing SC (PO-SC) in plasma at a dose of 10 mg/kg following oral administration in rats was 317.65% in comparison to control formulation (PO-C). Besides, the AUC0-24 h of ZMR in the lungs following oral administration of PO-SC was 125.22 ± 27.25 ng hr ml-1 with a Cmax of 156.00 ± 24.00 ng/ml reached at 0.50±0.00 h. But, there was no ZMR detected in the lungs following administration of control formulation (PO-C). The findings of this study indicated that the oral formulation PO-SC containing ZMR and SC was able to enhance the BA of ZMR in plasma to an appropriate amount that would make ZMR available in lungs at a concentration higher (>10 ng/ml) than the IC50 concentration of influenza virus (0.64-7.9 ng/ml) to exert its therapeutic effect. PMID:24009875

  13. Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shuhong; Zhang, Dong; Han, Jun; Zhao, Xiaojie; Cui, Yu; Song, Wei; Huo, Naxin; Liang, Yong; Xie, Jingzhong; Wang, Zhenzhong; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Yong-Xing; Lu, Ping; Zhang, De-Yun; Wang, Lili; Sun, Hua; Yang, Tsomin; Keeble-Gagnere, Gabriel; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ling, Hong-Qing; Luo, Mingcheng; Gu, Yongqiang; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90) via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172. PMID:24955773

  14. Fine Physical and Genetic Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene MlIW172 Originating from Wild Emmer (Triticum dicoccoides)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Zhao, Xiaojie; Cui, Yu; Song, Wei; Huo, Naxin; Liang, Yong; Xie, Jingzhong; Wang, Zhenzhong; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Yong-Xing; Lu, Ping; Zhang, De-Yun; Wang, Lili; Sun, Hua; Yang, Tsomin; Keeble-Gagnere, Gabriel; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ling, Hong-Qing; Luo, Mingcheng; Gu, Yongqiang; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90) via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172. PMID:24955773

  15. QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

    2008-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  16. [Blast lung injuries].

    PubMed

    Clapson, P; Pasquier, P; Perez, J-P; Debien, B

    2010-09-01

    In armed conflicts and during terrorist attacks, explosive devices are a major cause of mortality. The lung is one of the organs most sensitive to blasts. Thus, today it is important that every GP at least knows the basics and practices regarding treatment of blast victims. We suggest, following a review of the explosions and an assessment of the current threats, detailing the lung injuries brought about by the explosions and the main treatments currently recommended. PMID:20933166

  17. Lung epinephrine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. )

    1990-04-01

    We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

  18. Immunotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moundhri, M.; O'Brien, M.; Souberbielle, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    More research and new treatment options are needed in all stages of lung cancer. To this end immunotherapy needs a revival in view of recent improved technologies and greater understanding of the underlying biology. In this review we discuss mechanisms of tumour immunotherapy, non-specific, specific and adoptive, with particular reference to a direct therapeutic action on all subtypes of lung cancer. PMID:9703271

  19. Chemoprevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Keith, Robert L

    2009-04-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and the majority of diagnoses are made in former smokers. While avoidance of tobacco abuse and smoking cessation clearly will have the greatest impact on lung cancer development, effective chemoprevention could prove to be more effective than treatment of established disease. Chemoprevention is the use of dietary or pharmaceutical agents to reverse or inhibit the carcinogenic process and has been successfully applied to common malignancies other than lung. Despite previous studies in lung cancer chemoprevention failing to identify effective agents, our ability to determine higher risk populations and the understanding of lung tumor and pre-malignant biology continues to advance. Additional biomarkers of risk continue to be investigated and validated. The World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification for lung cancer now recognizes distinct histologic lesions that can be reproducibly graded as precursors of non-small cell lung cancer. For example, carcinogenesis in the bronchial epithelium starts with normal epithelium and progresses through hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ to invasive squamous cell cancer. Similar precursor lesions exist for adenocarcinoma, and these pre-malignant lesions are targeted by chemopreventive agents in current and future trials. At this time, chemopreventive agents can only be recommended as part of well-designed clinical trials, and multiple trials are currently in progress and additional trials are in the planning stages. This review will discuss the principles of chemoprevention, summarize the completed trials, and discuss ongoing and potential future trials with a focus on targeted pathways. PMID:19349487

  20. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  1. Comparison of the serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products with cytokeratin 19 fragment as biomarkers in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    So, Hee Jin; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Jin Kyung; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Kang, Sun Jung; Hong, Young Jun

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality. The identification of early diagnostic biomarkers improved outcomes for lung cancer patients. Serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) levels are elevated in numerous malignancies due to hemostatic alterations. The serum FDP levels were compared to the levels of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA 21-1), another well-established biomarker. The serum samples from 193 lung cancer patients, 84 healthy controls and 106 patients with benign respiratory diseases were obtained. The serum FDP level was measured using the DR-70 immunoassay and the CYFRA 21-1 level was measured by electrochemiluminescence using the Roche Analytics E170. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to assess the predictive sensitivity and specificity. The mean serum FDP level in lung cancer patients (35.01±229.02 μg/ml) was significantly higher compared to the 190 non-cancerous subjects (0.60±0.75 μg/ml; P=0.039). The mean serum CYFRA 21-1 level in lung cancer patients (4.50±6.67 ng/ml) was also significantly higher compared to the non-cancerous subjects (1.40±0.83 ng/ml; P<0.05). FDP exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 75%, respectively, at an optimal cut-off at 0.67 μg/ml. CYFRA 21-1 exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively, at a cut-off of 1.65 ng/ml. The serum FDP area under the curve (0.87) was slightly higher compared to CYFRA 21-1 (0.83). Therefore, it is apparent that serum FDP is comparable to CYFRA 21-1 as a lung cancer biomarker and can be used for clinical practice. PMID:25054020

  2. Spring active drain using bladder (50–60 ml) syringe (De Adotey’s drain)

    PubMed Central

    Igwe, Patrick Okechukwu; Dodiyi-Manuel, Amabra; Adotey, Jacob Molai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed active drainage system with a syringe is an accepted way to let out fluid in a surgical wound. We present a simple spring active (negative suction) drainage (SAD) system using locally improvised metallic spring and 60 ml (bladder syringe); SAD of Adotey, a newly designed compression–expansion spring mechanism which serves especially in situations where an active drainage system is of utmost importance. Conclusion De Adotey's drain is a 60 ml bladder syringe with spring mechanism which is used to provide a negative pressure as an active drain. PMID:26785081

  3. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the core framework used to implement a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) based systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language. It defines a set of principles built upon by the theoretical approach described in the InfoTech 2013 ISHM paper titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson. Using the SysML language, the principles in this paper describe the expansion of the SysML language as a baseline in order to: hierarchically describe a system, describe that system functionally within success space, and allocate detection mechanisms to success functions for system protection.

  4. Lung Parenchymal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Suki, Béla; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This article focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  5. Multiple cystic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Francisco, Flavia Angélica; Soares Souza, Arthur; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-12-01

    Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt-Hogg-Dubé); other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:26621970

  6. Lung parenchymal mechanics.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Stamenović, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This chapter focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  7. Lung cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    McLennan, G; Roder, D M

    1989-02-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death of cancer in Australian men and the third leading cause in Australian women. Efforts are being made to reduce the incidence of this disease by smoking-cessation programmes and improved industrial hygiene, and these measures need to be encouraged strongly by all sectors of the community. On a population basis, insufficient evidence is available to justify screening procedures for the early detection of lung cancer in "at-risk" groups. Cure is possible by surgical resection in early cases. Improvements in therapeutic results with traditional cancer treatments largely have reached a plateau, but a number of newer therapies, and combinations of standard therapies, currently are being evaluated. Of particular interest is concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy in localized non-small-cell lung cancer; laser "debulking" in conjunction with radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer, and biological response-modifying agents in non-small-cell and small-cell lung cancer. It is important that data be collected adequately to define epidemiological changes and to evaluate treatment results (including repeat bronchoscopy, to assess local control of tumour), and that the quality of life is recorded and reported in the evaluation process. Finally, phase-III studies in lung-cancer treatments require adequate numbers of subjects to enable meaningful conclusions to be achieve objectives within a reasonable study period. PMID:2469943

  8. Measures of body habitus are associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis: A population-based study☆

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Doug L.; Knox, Alan J.; Smyth, Alan R.; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body habitus differences may explain some of the variation in lung function between individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that measures of lean muscle mass and obesity are independently associated with lung function in CF. Methods Cross-sectional study design using UK CF registry data from 2096 clinically stable adults. Results Serum creatinine and BMI were positively and independently associated with FEV1 and FVC. One standard deviation increment in serum creatinine was associated with an FEV1 increase of 171 ml (95% confidence intervals CI: + 116 to + 227 ml) in males and 90 ml (95% CI: + 46 to + 133 ml) in females. Compared to the reference group of 20–24.9 kg/m2, those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2 had lower FEV1 with values of − 642 ml (95%CI: − 784 to − 500 ml) for males and − 468 ml (95%CI: − 564 to − 372 ml) for females. Conclusions Prospective studies and controlled trials are required to ascertain if these associations have therapeutic potential in modifying disease progression. PMID:22958983

  9. The effects of ambient NO[sub 2] on lung function in primary schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Frischer, T.; Studnicka, M.; Beer, E.; Neumann, M. )

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ambient NO2 on lung function was investigated in a sample of 423 schoolchildren. At each of four locations NO2 was monitored continuously. Over a 6-month period from January to June 1990 two surveys were performed and spirometry recorded each time for each child. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of NO2 for different time intervals preceding lung function testing. A decrease of NO2 between surveys was significantly associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC) at the second survey. For each microgram/m3 NO2 decrease the model predicted an increase in FVC of 1.5 ml [for the 2-hr mean (P < 0.05)] and 3.1 ml [for the 12-hr mean (P < 0.01)]. We conclude that even at NO2 levels below current air-quality standards children demonstrate significant changes in lung function.

  10. Bronchoscopes of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Yarmus, Lonny; Feller-Kopman, David

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, bronchoscopy has become an essential tool for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons, who for many years have employed bronchoscopy with such therapeutic modalities as laser therapy, electrocautery, cryotherapy, and stent placement. Over the past decade, advanced imaging techniques, such as autofluoresence bronchoscopy, electromagnetic navigation, narrow-band imaging, confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, and endobronchial ultrasound, have greatly expanded the diagnostic utility of bronchoscopy. This article reviews the technological advances in the field of diagnostic bronchoscopy. PMID:20172429

  11. P41. Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma in a lung cancer patient—case report

    PubMed Central

    Alevizopoulos, Nektarios; Laskarakis, Apostolos; Vagdatlis, Theodoros; Ntalapera, Vasiliki; Skoula, Anna; Tegos, Theodoros; Argirakos, Theodoros; Margariti, Charis; Vaslamatzis, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Background Scedosporium apiospermum is a rare opportunistic pathogen that may lead to life-threatening infections in immunosuppressive patients. We report a case of Scedosporium apiospermum infection in a lung cancer patient host. Methods and results A 72-year-old man was consecutively admitted in our department for his adjuvant chemotherapy post right upper lobectomy due to adenocarcinoma. He suddenly complained of cough and chest burning with dull presentation. The cough produced brown sputum but no blood. He attributed his cough to exposure to cold since he was a fisherman but denied any history of respiratory symptoms. He had no history of tuberculosis or contact with infected persons. He denied a history of severe lung infection, asthma, sinus disease, or overseas travel. His physical examination was notable with no abnormal signs, oxygen saturation of 98% on room air. In general, he was thin, although well in appearance, and not visibly short of breath. His lungs were clear to auscultation. Laboratory studies and urinalysis were normal. A chest radiograph showed a 3-cm by 2-cm mass with a surrounding cavity in the right upper lobe. A subsequent chest CT scan showed a 3-cm by 4-cm cavity in the right upper lobe, with surrounding infiltrates as mass within the cavity suspicious for a fungus ball. Since galactomannan antigen was found negative. Broncho-alveolar lavage material from right median lobe cultured S.apiospermum and patient started voriconazole therapy for 3 months with no toxicity noticed. His recent imaging and bronchoscopic evaluation was with no evidence of fungal infection. Conclusions This report presents the first imaging report of lung scedosporiosis. Prompt identification is critical because of its resistance to most antifungal drugs. Its histopathology features are indistinct and overlap with those of more commonly recognized hyalohyphomycetes such as Aspergillus. Cultures from infected tissue are generally required for correct identification

  12. Histamine action in paraquat-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lindenschmidt, R C; Selig, W M; Patterson, C E; Verburg, K M; Henry, D P; Forney, R B; Rhoades, R A

    1986-02-01

    We investigated direct histamine release and its effects in edema formation following paraquat (PQ) injury in a blood-free, perfused rat lung preparation. Under control conditions, perfusate histamine levels from the lung averaged 9.5 +/- 1.4 ng/ml. Lungs perfused with paraquat (1 mM) showed marked increases in pulmonary arterial pressure (133%), airway pressure (74%), alveolarcapillary protein flux (200%), and lung weight (38%). Prior to any detectable lung weight or pressure changes, PQ caused a 300% increase in perfusate histamine. Diphenhydramine (1.0 X 10(-5) M), a specific H1-histamine receptor antagonist, blocked the increased protein flux that followed PQ administration and significantly delayed edema. Furthermore, diphenhydramine attenuated the rise in PGF2 alpha. Conversely, histamine release was partially attenuated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, at 2.4 X 10(-5) M, the same level that we had previously shown to block an early rise in PGF2 alpha and the onset of edema after PQ. These data show that the increased alveolar-capillary protein flux that occurred with PQ injury was attenuated by an H1-receptor antagonist and suggest that histamine is a primary mediator in paraquat-induced injury and that histamine subsequently stimulates prostaglandin release. PMID:3456218

  13. Assessment of cytology based molecular analysis to guide targeted therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Qiu, Tian; Ling, Yun; Cao, Jian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Li, Lin; Ying, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the use of molecular testing on cytological specimens in selecting advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who are adequate for targeted treatment, a total of 137 NSCLC cases were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) platform combining amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) primers and TaqMan probes. Cytological specimens included 91 fine-needle aspirates, 5 fibreoptic bronchoscopic derived samples and 41 pleural effusions. Among 137 NSCLCs analyzed for ALK FISH, 16 (11.7%, of 137) were detected to harbor ALK rearrangement. FISH positive cases were all defined as adenocarcinoma (ADC) histologic subtype and the FNA samples showed the highest ALK positive rate (13.2%, 12/91). Of the 9 ALK FISH positive patients who received crizotinib treatment, 8 (88.9%) patients exhibited tumor regression. In addition, 60 (44.8%, of 134) cases were found to harbor EGFR mutations and 22 patients with EGFR sensitive mutations who received gefitinib or erlotinib treatment showed a median PFS of 16.0 months. Mutations of KRAS occurred in 8 (6.0%, of 134) cases and this was mutually exclusive from EGFR mutation. Our results demonstrated that ALK FISH and EGFR, KRAS mutational analysis on cytological specimens are sensitive methods for screening advanced stage NSCLC patients who are adequate for targeted treatment. PMID:26789109

  14. Paraneoplastic Choreoathetosis in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Anti-CRMP5/CV2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Dogu; Somnier, Finn; Lassen, Lisbeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of more or less monosymptomatic paraneoplastic choreoathetosis associated with anti-CRMP5/CV2 antibodies is rare. Typically, such autoantibodies are associated with a more classical syndrome – paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Frequently, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is the related neoplastic finding. Case Report We present a 71-year-old woman who developed visual symptoms with papilledema and chorea. Anti-CRMP5/CV2 antibodies were a feature of both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Although SCLC was suspected already at the time of the initial examinations, no signs of primary or metastatic tumors were revealed on chest X-ray, MRI or whole-body PET scan. EEG and bronchoscopy were also unremarkable. However, 6 months after the onset, a repeated PET scan and subsequent bronchoscopic biopsy revealed SCLC. In spite of chemotherapy, the SCLC progressed, and the patient died 14 months after the onset of the symptoms. Conclusion We report paraneoplastic choreoathetosis associated with anti-CRMP5/CV2 antibodies. Such published case histories are rare. Although expected, we did not find any reduced signal intensity at the basal ganglia on the T1-weighted or increased intensity on the T2-weighted MRI scans. PMID:26889151

  15. Live imaging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Looney, Mark R; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  16. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  17. Effect of ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl ethyl ketone on butanol oxidase activity in rat lung and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Tha ability of the rat liver to oxidize 2-butanol via a cytochrome P-450-mediated mixed-function oxidase reaction is well known. The purpose of this study was to examine this microsomal alcohol oxidizing system in rat lung and determine if it could be altered by treatments that inhibit or induce this activity. 2-Butanol was incubated with microsomal preparations from male rats, and methyl ethyl ketone production was measured by gas chromatography. The rate was six to eight times lower in lung than in liver. Administration of low doses of ethanol (0.5 ml/kg and 1.0 ml/kg) ip for 7 d did not alter activity in the liver but was inhibitory in the lung, as was a high dose of 3.0 ml/kg in the liver. Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 ml/kg, ip) decreased activity in both tissues, especially the lung. The effects of the two inhibitors were not additive. Methyl ethyl ketone induced 2-butanol oxidation in both tissues. The lung possesses butanol oxidase activity that is alterable by both inhibitors and inducers.

  18. FTIR characterization of animal lung cells: normal and precancerous modified e10 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezell, D. M.; Pereira, T. M.; Mennecier, G.; Bachmann, L.; Govone, A. B.; Dagli, M. L. Z.

    2012-06-01

    The chemical carcinogens from tobacco are related to over 90% of lung cancers around the world. The risk of death of this kind of cancer is high because the diagnosis usually is made only in advanced stages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new diagnostic methods for detecting the lung cancer in earlier stages. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) can offer high sensibility and accuracy to detect the minimal chemical changes into the biological sample. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences on infrared spectra between normal lung cells and precancerous lung cells transformed by NNK. Non-cancerous lung cell line e10 (ATCC) and NNK-transformed e10 cell lines were maintained in complete culture medium (1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F12 [DMEM/Ham's F12], supplemented with 100 ng/ml cholera enterotoxin, 10 lg/ml insulin, 0.5 lg/ml. hydrocortisol, 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor, and 5% horse serum. The cultures were maintained in alcohol 70%. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Nicolet 6700 spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 3 spectra recorded, 30 infrared spectra were obtained from each cell line. The second derivate of spectra indicates that there are displacement in 1646 cm-1 (amine I) and 1255 cm-1(DNA), allowing the possibility to differentiate the two king of cells, with accuracy of 89,9%. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal e10 lung cells from precancerous e10 transformed by NNK.

  19. The Performance of ML, GLS, and WLS Estimation in Structural Equation Modeling under Conditions of Misspecification and Nonnormality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Ulf Henning; Foss, Tron; Troye, Sigurd V.; Howell, Roy D.

    2000-01-01

    Used simulation to demonstrate how the choice of estimation method affects indexes of fit and parameter bias for different sample sizes when nested models vary in terms of specification error and the data demonstrate different levels of kurtosis. Discusses results for maximum likelihood (ML), generalized least squares (GLS), and weighted least…

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” ML, an Obligate Nutritional Symbiont of Maize Leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsing-Hua; Cho, Shu-Ting; Canale, Maria C.; Mugford, Sam T.; Lopes, João R. S.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” is a symbiont of sap-feeding insects in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The strain “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” ML is associated with the maize leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis), collected in Brazil, which is a disease vector that affects corn production. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:25635014