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Sample records for ml bronchoscopic lung

  1. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, Edward P; Wood, Douglas E; Utz, James P

    2008-05-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) produces physiological, symptomatic, and survival benefits in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Because it is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost, nonsurgical alternatives for achieving volume reduction have been developed. Three bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) approaches have shown promise and reached later-stage clinical trials. These include the following: (1) placement of endobronchial one-way valves designed to promote atelectasis by blocking inspiratory flow; (2) formation of airway bypass tracts using a radiofrequency catheter designed to facilitate emptying of damaged lung regions with long expiratory times; and (3) instillation of biological adhesives designed to collapse and remodel hyperinflated lung. The limited clinical data currently available suggest that all three techniques are reasonably safe. However, efficacy signals have been substantially smaller and less durable than those observed after LVRS. Studies to optimize patient selection, refine treatment strategies, characterize procedural safety, elucidate mechanisms of action, and characterize short- and longer-term effectiveness of these approaches are ongoing. Results will be available over the next few years and will determine whether BLVR represents a safe and effective alternative to LVRS. PMID:18453355

  2. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting. PMID:25940429

  3. Lung volume reduction for advanced emphysema: surgical and bronchoscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Sherry L; Westfall, Elizabeth; Dransfield, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death in the United States, affecting more than 24 million people. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; they improve symptoms and quality of life and reduce exacerbations. These and smoking cessation and long-term oxygen therapy for hypoxemic patients are the only medical treatments definitively demonstrated to reduce mortality. Surgical approaches include lung transplantation and lung volume reduction and the latter has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, quality of life, and survival in highly selected patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery results in clinical benefits. The procedure is associated with a short-term risk of mortality and a more significant risk of cardiac and pulmonary perioperative complications. Interest has been growing in the use of noninvasive, bronchoscopic methods to address the pathological hyperinflation that drives the dyspnea and exercise intolerance that is characteristic of emphysema. In this review, the mechanism by which lung volume reduction improves pulmonary function is outlined, along with the risks and benefits of the traditional surgical approach. In addition, the emerging bronchoscopic techniques for lung volume reduction are introduced and recent clinical trials examining their efficacy are summarized. PMID:22189668

  4. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Davis, K Rennis; Vadakkan, D Thomas; Krishnakumar, E V; Anas, A Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia. PMID:25814803

  5. Bronchoscopic culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs. ... Culture - bronchoscopic ... used to get a sample ( biopsy ) of lung tissue or fluid. The sample ... a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ...

  6. Bronchoscopic NdYAG laser treatment in lung cancer, 30 years on: an institutional review.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, K; Dixon, Kate

    2006-12-01

    We review our 21-year experience in bronchoscopic NdYAG laser for lung cancer and the relevant literature. Patients totaling 1,159 received 2,235 bronchoscopic treatments. The pre-requisite for laser therapy was the presence of >50% obstruction of the bronchial lumen. We use the rigid bronchoscope, with the patient under general anaesthetic and application of laser in its non-contact mode. Two patients (0.17%) died following the procedure, and 4.8% had non-fatal complications. Four to 6 weeks after treatment there was a 48% increase in bronchial calibre and an increase of 27% (mean) in forced vital capacity and 15% (mean) in forced expiratory volume in one second, respectively. These paralleled symptomatic relief and chest X-ray improvement. Literature review indicated results similar to ours in those centres with high volume activity. Thirty years on, bronchoscopic YAG laser therapy of lung cancer still has an important role in palliation of patients with inoperable lung cancer, particularly those requiring immediate relief of bronchial obstruction. PMID:17003957

  7. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  8. Anastomotic Airway Complications After Lung Transplant: Clinical, Bronchoscopic and CT Correlation.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Kyle; Trujillo, Camilo; Ford, Jonathan; Decker, Summer; Pelaez, Andres; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the normal appearance and common complications of the airway anastomosis in lung transplant patients with emphasis on computed tomography images with bronchoscopic correlation. The spectrum of complications will be presented as early (<1 mo after transplant) or late (>1 mo). Variations in surgical technique as well as presentation and management options for airway complications will also be discussed. PMID:27428022

  9. The Effects of Bronchoscope Diameter on the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy of Peripheral Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nakwon; Kim, Sang-Ha; Kwon, Woocheol; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Yong, Suk Joong; Shin, Kye Chul; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Yeun Seoung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is a valuable diagnostic tool for peripheral pulmonary lesions. The diagnostic yield of TBLB reportedly ranges from 41%-60%. Many studies demonstrated the various factors that influence the yield of TBLB, including size, location, and distance from the carina or pleura. However, no study has evaluated the effects of the bronchoscope diameter. We evaluated whether the bronchoscope diameter affected the diagnostic yield of TBLB. Methods We reviewed records from 178 patients who underwent TBLB using bronchoscopes of two different diameters (5.7 mm, thick outer diameter, Olympus BF-200; 4.9 mm, thin, BF-260). The fluoroscopic guidance rates, yield of TBLB and flexible bronchoscopy (FB) were compared between the two groups. Additionally, we compared the results of the procedures with respect to diagnosis, distance from the pleura, and size of the lesion. Results The results of fluoroscopic guidance, TBLB, and FB yield using thin diameter bronchoscope were significantly better than those obtained with a thick diameter bronchoscope (p=0.021, p=0.036, and p=0.010, respectively). Particularly, when the distance from the pleura was ≤ 10 mm, success rates for fluoroscopic guidance and FB with thin bronchoscope were higher (p=0.013 and p=0.033, respectively), as compared to with thick bronchoscope. Conclusion A thinner diameter bronchoscope increased the yield of bronchoscopy, and bronchial washing in conjunction with TBLB was useful in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary nodules. PMID:25580141

  10. Pulmonary Parenchymal Lymphoma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Cryoprobe Lung Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Dante; Batzlaff, Cassandra; Maldonado, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with progressively worsening lung infiltrates and respiratory failure. Extensive investigations including bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and conventional transbronchial forceps biopsies failed to establish the diagnosis. After transfer to our institution, he underwent repeat bronchoscopy with transbronchial cryobiopsy, which provided large, high-quality biopsy specimens establishing the diagnosis of parenchymal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:26496093

  11. Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  12. Surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  13. The Molecular Bronchoscope: A Tool for Measurement of Spatially Dependent CO2 Concentrations in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Luca; Couper, John H; Richmond, Graham; Hancock, Gus; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory physicians use bronchoscopy for visual assessment of the lungs' topography and collecting tissue samples for external analysis. We propose a novel bronchoscope tool that would enable spatially dependent measurements of the functioning of the lungs by determining local concentrations of carbon dioxide, which will be produced by healthy parts of the lung at rates that are higher than from portions where gas exchange is impaired. The gas analyzer is based on a compact laser absorption spectrometer making use of fiber optics for delivery and return of low intensity diode laser radiation to and from the measurement chamber at the distal end of a flexible conduit. The appropriate optical wavelength was chosen such that light is selectively absorbed only by gaseous CO2. The optical absorption takes place over a short path (8.8 mm) within a rigid, 12 mm long, perforated probe tip. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was adopted as the analytical technique to reduce the noise on the optical signal and yield measurements of relative CO2 concentration every 180 ms with a precision as low as 600 part-per-million by volume. The primary objective of such a device is to see if additional spatial information about the lungs functionality can be gathered, which will complement visual observation. PMID:27487178

  14. Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydarian, Mohammadreza; Choy, Stephen; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David; Coxson, Harvey O.; Lam, Stephen; Parraga, Grace

    2011-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects almost 600 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. COPD is an umbrella term for respiratory symptoms that accompany destruction of the lung parenchyma and/or remodeling of the airway wall, the sum of which result in decreased expiratory flow, dyspnea and gas trapping. Currently, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the main clinical method used for COPD imaging, providing excellent spatial resolution for quantitative tissue measurements although dose limitations and the fundamental spatial resolution of CT limit the measurement of airway dimensions beyond the 5th generation. To address this limitation, we are piloting the use of bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), by exploiting its superior spatial resolution of 5-15 micrometers for in vivo airway imaging. Currently, only manual segmentation of OCT airway lumen and wall have been reported but manual methods are time consuming and prone to observer variability. To expand the utility of bronchoscopic OCT, automatic and robust measurement methods are required. Therefore, our objective was to develop a fully automated method for segmenting OCT airway wall dimensions and here we explore several different methods of image-regeneration, voxel clustering and post-processing. Our resultant automated method used K-means or Fuzzy c-means to cluster pixel intensity and then a series of algorithms (i.e. cluster selection, artifact removal, de-noising) was applied to process the clustering results and segment airway wall dimensions. This approach provides a way to automatically and rapidly segment and reproducibly measure airway lumen and wall area.

  15. [Bronchoscopic treatments for COPD].

    PubMed

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Inoue, Takeo; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2016-05-01

    Several non-surgical and minimally invasive bronchoscopic interventions, such as bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques, have been developed to treat patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BLVR has been studied for treatment in severe COPD patients with emphysema. BLVR with one-way endobronchial valves is reported to be effective for patients with a heterogeneous emphysema distribution and without inter-lobar collateral ventilation. For the patients with collateral ventilation, and for the patients with homogeneous emphysema, BLVR with lung volume reduction coil has shown promising results. Targeted lung denervation(TLD) is a novel bronchoscopic intervention based on ablation of parasympathetic nerves surrounding the main bronchi. TLD seems to be effective for COPD with chronic bronchitis phenotype. This review gives a general overview of BLVR with one-way valve and lung volume reduction coil, and TLD. PMID:27254951

  16. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia successfully treated with bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shota; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hara, Shintaro; Kitaichi, Masanori; Kohno, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A 65-y-old Japanese man was referred to the respiratory medicine department because of abnormal radiologic findings. High-resolution chest computed tomography scans revealed a geographic distribution of ground-glass opacities and associated thickening of the interlobular septa (crazy-paving patterns) in both lower lobes. He had a habit of drinking 400-500 mL of milk and 400-800 mL of canned coffee with milk every day. A swallowing function test revealed liquid dysphagia. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology findings showed multiple lipid-laden macrophages. Taken together, these findings revealed exogenous lipoid pneumonia. We performed bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy 3 times in the left lung. After the treatment, the radiologic findings improved in both lungs. The patient has not experienced a recurrence of lipoid pneumonia in 2 y to date. In conclusion, a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia was successfully treated with bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy. PMID:25161297

  17. Efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei; Pan, Qingqing; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods All patients with bronchoscopic biopsy-proven lung adenocarcinoma at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to November 2011 were enrolled. Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was used to detect EGFR gene mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect ALK rearrangement. The correlation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) results with standard methods for EGFR mutation status and ALK rearrangement were checked. Results Bronchoscopic specimens were successfully used to detect EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement with success rates of 85.2% and 71.3%, respectively, in non-small cell lung cancer patients. EGFR analysis by ARMS yielded a positive result in 35.8% (33/92) and positive ALK rearrangement was detected by FISH in 7.8% (6/77) of cases. It was more likely to be unsuccessful in patients with tumor cells less than 100/high power field and the ratio tumor numbers in 0–10%. In EGFR-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity of E746-A750 deletions were 73.3% (11/15) and 93.3% (70/75), respectively, and those of L858R were 93.3% (14/15) and 93.2% (69/74), respectively. In ALK-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% (3/6) and 100% (71/71), respectively. Conclusions Small bronchoscopic specimens could achieve higher successful detection rates via EGFR mutation and ALK gene rearrangement. PMID:26557908

  18. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves for patients with heterogeneous emphysema and intact interlobar fissures (the BeLieVeR-HIFi trial): study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Davey, C; Zoumot, Z; Jordan, S; Carr, D H; Polkey, M I; Shah, P L; Hopkinson, N S

    2015-03-01

    Although lung volume reduction surgery improves survival in selected patients with emphysema, there has been ongoing interest in developing and evaluating bronchoscopic approaches to try to reduce lung volumes with less morbidity and mortality. The placement of endobronchial valves is one such technique, and although some patients have had a significant improvement, responses have been inconsistent because collateral ventilation prevents lobar atelectasis. We describe the protocol of a trial (ISRCTN04761234) aimed to show that a responder phenotype, patients with heterogeneous emphysema and intact interlobar fissures on CT scanning, can be identified prospectively, leading to a consistent benefit in clinical practice. PMID:24664535

  19. [Bronchoscopic treatment of emphysema].

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-04-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques for the management of emphysema have evolved from the success of surgical treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) involves the removal of 20% to 30% of each lung and targets the most emphysematous segments. Patients with heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema and a low baseline exercise capacity have been identified as a subgroup within COPD in whom mortality benefits can even be achieved, along with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Increased short-term mortality of approximately 5% and postoperative morbidity are the main limitations of LVRS. The extremely restrictive selection criteria for LVRS coupled with the relatively high mortality/morbidity have been the impetus for developing less invasive endoscopic modalities. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) researchers have pursued various approaches using a range of modalities, such as blockers, stents, valves, sealants, and implants. BLVR appears to be safer than LVRS in terms of mortality and morbidity. This safety profile presents an attractive alternative for patients with COPD who are fragile physiologically because of the severity of their lung disease and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. The current report aims to describe the various minimally invasive modalities available for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:22616152

  20. Novel bronchoscopic strategies for the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions: present techniques and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher; Akulian, Jason; Ortiz, Ricardo; Lee, Hans; Yarmus, Lonny

    2014-07-01

    The diagnosis of the peripheral lung lesion has been a long-standing clinical challenge--balancing accuracy with patient safety. With recent data revealing mortality benefits with lung cancer screening via low-dose computed tomography, now more than ever, clinicians will be challenged with the task of providing the means to provide a safe and minimally invasive method of obtaining accurate tissue diagnostics for the pulmonary nodule. In this review, we present available technologies to aid clinicians in attempts at minimally invasive techniques and the data supporting their use. In addition, we review novel tools under investigation that may further increase yield and provide additional benefit in obtaining an early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:24797257

  1. Tissue requirements in lung cancer diagnosis for tumor heterogeneity, mutational analysis and targeted therapies: initial experience with intra-operative Frozen Section Evaluation (FROSE) in bronchoscopic biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Iding, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advances in lung cancer treatment have changed the requirement for the amount and quality of biopsy specimens needed to characterize the tumor and select the best treatment. One adjunct to guide the bronchoscopist on the quality and quantity of specimens during bronchoscopic biopsies for the diagnosis of lung cancer is rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytological specimens. This technique has been shown to add to the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy when obtaining adequate specimens for molecular profiling in lung cancer. ROSE is not available at all medical centers. We describe our initial experience using intra-procedural Frozen Section Evaluation (FROSE) of bronchoscopic biopsy specimens as an alternative to ROSE. Methods A retrospective analysis of all interventional pulmonology cases using FROSE between February and July 2015 was performed. Results analyzed to evaluate the success in obtaining adequate specimens for molecular profiling. Results A total of 88 interventional pulmonology cases employing a frozen section in at least one site were identified. In 94.3% of cases, a definitive diagnosis of benign or malignant was made. The concordance of frozen section diagnoses of benign or malignant was 100% with final diagnoses. Thirteen of the eighty-eight cases were ultimately sent for molecular analysis. Of these, twelve of thirteen (92.3%) cases were adequate to perform all ordered molecular testing. In all cases there was sufficient tissue to perform EGFR and ALK testing. Conclusions In medical centers where ROSE may not be available, the use of FROSE by the local pathologist can be an effective technique to obtain adequate tissue and cytological samples for the diagnosis and molecular profiling of lung cancers. Further prospective study in bronchoscopic tissue sampling techniques to obtain the optimum quantity and quality of samples for molecular profiling of lung cancers for targeted treatments is needed. PMID:27606077

  2. A randomized trial to assess the utility of preintubation adult fiberoptic bronchoscope assessment in patients for thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nayana; Tarwade, Pritee; Shetmahajan, Madhavi; Pramesh, C. S.; Jiwnani, Sabita; Mahajan, Abhishek; Purandare, Nilendu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Confirmation of placement of Double lumen endobronchial tubes (DLETT) and bronchial blockers (BBs) with the pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is the most preferred practice worldwide. Most centers possess standard adult FOBs, some, particularly in developing countries might not have access to the pediatric-sized devices. We have evaluated the role of preintubation airway assessment using the former, measuring the distance from the incisors to the carina and from carina to the left and right upper lobe bronchus in deciding the depth of insertion of the lung isolation device. Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial consisting of 84 patients (all >18 years) undergoing thoracic surgery over a 12-month period. In the study group (n = 38), measurements obtained during FOB with the adult bronchoscope decided the depth of insertion of the lung isolation device. In the control group (n = 46), DLETTs and BBs were placed blindly followed by clinical confirmation by auscultation. Selection of the type and size of the lung isolation device was at the discretion of the anesthesiologist conducting the case. In all cases, pediatric FOB was used to confirm accurate placement of devices. Results: Of 84 patients (DLETT used in 76 patients; BB used in 8 patients), preintubation airway measurements significantly improved the success rate of optimal placement of lung isolation device from 25% (11/44) to 50% (18/36) (P = 0.04). Our incidence of failed device placement at initial insertion was 4.7% (4/84). Incidence of malposition was 10% (8/80) with 4 cases in each group. The incidence of suboptimal placement was lower in the study group at 38.9% (14/36) versus 65.9% (29/44). Conclusions: Preintubation airway measurements with the adult FOB reduces airway manipulations and improves the success rate of optimal placement of DLETT and BB. PMID:27052065

  3. Descriptive data on cancerous lung lesions detected by auto-fluorescence bronchoscope: A five-year study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Asmitananda; Gao, Lin; Ren, Hui; Yang, Tian; Chen, Tianjun; Chen, Mingwei

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) has been used for the identification and localization of intra-epithelial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions within the bronchus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the applicability of AFB for the detection and localization of precancerous and cancerous lesions, in addition to analyzing the morphologic presentation, their association to histological type and the variation between genders. METHODS: A five-year study involving 4983 patients, who underwent routine bronchoscopy [B] examination in a local tertiary teaching hospital, was done. The B examination was performed under intratracheal lidocaine, and samples were obtained using suitable approach. One thousand four hundred and eighty-five pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were included in the study. The following parameters were studied: Morphological presentation, biopsy sites, histology. Differences between the groups were analyzed using Chi square test. RESULT: One thousand four hundred and eighty-five patients who had hyperplasia or neoplastic lesions were further confirmed as lung cancer pathologically. Lung cancer was more commonly found in the right lung (51.58% vs. 42.82%). The lesion occurred more frequently in the upper lobe than the lower lobe (44.17% vs. 22.42%). Male patients with squamous cell carcinoma showed upper lobe involvement more commonly, while the left main bronchus was more commonly involved in female patients. Adenocarcinoma mostly involved lesion of the upper lobe. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the major proliferative types (80.15% and 76.16% respectively). CONCLUSION: AFB is efficient in the detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung lesions. The morphological presentation is associated to the histological type. There is variation in the presentation and histology of cancerous lung lesions between genders. PMID:22347346

  4. Integrated system for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Graham, Michael W.; Yu, Kun-Chang; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    Bronchoscopy is often performed for diagnosing lung cancer. The recent development of multidetector CT (MDCT) scanners and ultrathin bronchoscopes now enable the bronchoscopic biopsy and treatment of peripheral regions of interest (ROIs). Because the peripheral ROIs are often located several generations within the airway tree, careful planning is required prior to a procedure. The current practice for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures, however, is difficult, error-prone, and time-consuming. We propose a system for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures using patient-specific MDCT chest scans. The planning process begins with a semi-automatic segmentation of ROIs. The remaining system components are completely automatic, beginning with a new strategy for tracheobronchial airway-tree segmentation. The system then uses a new locally-adaptive approach for finding the interior airway-wall surfaces. From the polygonal airway-tree surfaces, a centerline-analysis method extracts the central axes of the airway tree. The system's route-planning component then analyzes the data generated in the previous stages to determine an appropriate path through the airway tree to the ROI. Finally, an automated report generator gives quantitative data about the route and both static and dynamic previews of the procedure. These previews consist of virtual bronchoscopic endoluminal renderings at bifurcations encountered along the route and renderings of the airway tree and ROI at the suggested biopsy location. The system is currently in use for a human lung-cancer patient pilot study involving the planning and subsequent live image-based guidance of suspect peripheral cancer nodules.

  5. Assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with bronchoscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Colby, Thomas V.; Tager, Andrew M.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of fibrotic lung disease, with a 3 year survival rate of 50%. Diagnostic certainty of IPF is essential to determine the most effective therapy for patients, but often requires surgery to resect lung tissue and look for microscopic honeycombing not seen on chest computed tomography (CT). Unfortunately, surgical lung resection has high risks of associated morbidity and mortality in this patient population. We aim to determine whether bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) can serve as a novel, low-risk paradigm for in vivo IPF diagnosis without surgery or tissue removal. OCT provides rapid 3D visualization of large tissue volumes with microscopic resolutions well beyond the capabilities of CT. We have designed bronchoscopic OCT catheters to effectively and safely access the peripheral lung, and conducted in vivo peripheral lung imaging in patients, including those with pulmonary fibrosis. We utilized these OCT catheters to perform bronchoscopic imaging in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary fibrosis to determine if bronchoscopic OCT could successfully visualize features of IPF through the peripheral airways. OCT was able to visualize characteristic features of IPF through the airway, including microscopic honeycombing (< 1 mm diameter) not visible by CT, dense peripheral fibrosis, and spatial disease heterogeneity. These findings support the potential of bronchoscopic OCT as a minimally-invasive method for in vivo IPF diagnosis. However, future clinical studies are needed to validate these findings.

  6. Planning and visualization methods for effective bronchoscopic target localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Taeprasarsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of lymph nodes is an important step in staging lung cancer. Lymph nodes, however, lie behind the airway walls and are near large vascular structures - all of these structures are hidden from the bronchoscope's field of view. Previously, we had presented a computer-based virtual bronchoscopic navigation system that provides reliable guidance for bronchoscopic sampling. While this system offers a major improvement over standard practice, bronchoscopists told us that target localization- lining up the bronchoscope before deploying a needle into the target - can still be challenging. We therefore address target localization in two distinct ways: (1) automatic computation of an optimal diagnostic sampling pose for safe, effective biopsies, and (2) a novel visualization of the target and surrounding major vasculature. The planning determines the final pose for the bronchoscope such that the needle, when extended from the tip, maximizes the tissue extracted. This automatically calculated local pose orientation is conveyed in endoluminal renderings by a 3D arrow. Additional visual cues convey obstacle locations and target depths-of-sample from arbitrary instantaneous viewing orientations. With the system, a physician can freely navigate in the virtual bronchoscopic world perceiving the depth-of-sample and possible obstacle locations at any endoluminal pose, not just one pre-determined optimal pose. We validated the system using mediastinal lymph nodes in eleven patients. The system successfully planned for 20 separate targets in human MDCT scans. In particular, given the patient and bronchoscope constraints, our method found that safe, effective biopsies were feasible in 16 of the 20 targets; the four remaining targets required more aggressive safety margins than a "typical" target. In all cases, planning computation took only a few seconds, while the visualizations updated in real time during bronchoscopic navigation.

  7. ML-18 is a non-peptide bombesin receptor subtype-3 antagonist which inhibits lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Mantey, Samuel A; Moreno, Paola; Nakamura, Taichi; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype (BRS)-3 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the bombesin (BB)-family of peptides. BRS-3 is an orphan GPCR and little is known of its physiological role due to the lack of specific agonists and antagonists. PD168368 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (R) whereas PD176252 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) R and NMBR but not BRS-3. Here nonpeptide analogs of PD176252 e.g. the S-enantiomer ML-18, and the R-enantiomer, EMY-98, were investigated as BRS-3 antagonists using lung cancer cells. ML-18 and EMY-98 inhibited specific (125)I-BA1 (DTyr-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-βAla-His-Phe-Nle-NH2)BB(6-14) binding to NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells stably transfected with BRS-3 with IC50 values of 4.8 and >100μM, respectively. In contrast, ML-18 bound with lower affinity to the GRPR and NMBR with IC50 values of 16 and >100μM, respectively. ML-18 (16μM), but not its enantiomer EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 10nM BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) in a reversible manner using lung cancer cells loaded with FURA2-AM. ML-18 (16μM), but not EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 100nM BA1 to cause tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells. ML-18 but not EMY-98 inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells. The results indicate that ML-18 is a nonpeptide BRS-3 antagonist that should serve as a template to improve potency and selectivity. PMID:25554218

  8. Endobronchial Ultrasound Bronchoscope Damage.

    PubMed

    Patil, Monali; Harris, Kassem; Krishnan, Amita; Alraiyes, Abdul H; Dhillon, Samjot S

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is an effective, safe, and cost-effective diagnostic bronchoscopy technique for the work-up of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Concern has been raised, however, about the high cost of convex-probe EBUS bronchoscope repairs. The damage is usually due to breakage of the insertion tube (the flexible part that is advanced into the airways), moisture invasion and damages to the working channel, image guide bundle, or umbilical cord. Understanding the root cause of EBUS scope damage is important for its prevention. We describe 2 unusual cases of EBUS scope damage. In the first case, the distal black rubber covering of the EBUS scope insertion tube was damaged due to friction with the edge of an endotracheal tube and in the second case, the EBUS scope insertion tube was angulating laterally instead of vertically during the flexion maneuver, probably due to scope manipulation while wedged tightly in a segmental bronchus. PMID:27077640

  9. Can Bronchoscopic Airway Anatomy Be an Indicator of Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara A.; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Bronchoscopic evaluations revealed that some children have double branching of bronchi (designated "doublets") in the lower lungs airways, rather than normal, single branching. Retrospective analyses revealed only one commonality in them: all subjects with doublets also had autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That is, 49 subjects exhibited…

  10. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xiongbiao

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. Methods: The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model was designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. Results: The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0–10 min{sup −1}. The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. Conclusions: An

  11. Bronchoscopic treatments for emphysema.

    PubMed

    Delage, A; Marquette, C-H

    2011-10-01

    In late stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema can worsen respiratory symptoms, not only via the loss of surface for gas exchange, but also via alterations in mechanical properties of the respiratory system (dynamic and static hyperinflation). Emphysematous lung volume reduction aims at improving respiratory mechanics and symptomatology in patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been shown to be effective in selected patient populations, but its morbidity and costs are quite elevated. Alternatives to LVRS do not remove emphysematous lung tissue per se, but rather consist of devices aiming to: 1) reduce the volume that affected lung parenchyma occupies (unidirectional endobronchial valves or plugs, parenchymal injection of bioactive scarring agents); 2) redistribute ventilatory flow (airway bypass systems). Preliminary studies of these devices have shown that they are relatively safe. These also show modest benefits in exercise capacity, although individual subjects can experience spectacular improvement. Current objective is to identify predictors of response to therapy with such devices. PMID:22099415

  12. Assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with bronchoscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Colby, Thomas V.; Tager, Andrew M.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of fibrotic lung disease, with a significantly worse prognosis than other forms of pulmonary fibrosis (3-year survival rate of 50%). Distinguishing IPF from other fibrotic diseases is essential to patient care because it stratifies prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. However, making the diagnosis often requires invasive, high-risk surgical procedures to look for microscopic features not seen on chest CT, such as characteristic cystic honeycombing in the peripheral lung. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides rapid 3D visualization of large tissue volumes with microscopic resolutions well beyond the capabilities of CT. We aim to determine whether bronchoscopic OCT can provide a low-risk, non-surgical method for IPF diagnosis. We have developed bronchoscopic OCT catheters that access the peripheral lung and conducted in vivo peripheral lung imaging in patients, including those with pulmonary fibrosis. We also conducted bronchoscopic OCT in ex vivo lung from pulmonary fibrosis patients, including IPF, to determine if OCT could successfully visualize features of IPF through the peripheral airways. Our results demonstrate that OCT is able to visualize characteristic features of IPF through the airway, including microscopic honeycombing (< 1 mm diameter) not visible by CT, dense peripheral fibrosis, and spatial disease heterogeneity. We also found that OCT has potential to distinguish mimickers of IPF honeycombing, such as traction bronchiectasis and emphysema, from true honeycombing. These findings support the potential of bronchoscopic OCT as a minimally-invasive method for in vivo IPF diagnosis. However, future clinical studies are needed to validate these findings.

  13. A novel external bronchoscope tracking model beyond electromagnetic localizers: dynamic phantom validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    Localization of a bronchoscope and estimation of its motion is a core component for constructing a bronchoscopic navigation system that can guide physicians to perform any bronchoscopic interventions such as the transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and the transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). To overcome the limitations of current methods, e.g., image registration (IR) and electromagnetic (EM) localizers, this study develops a new external tracking technique on the basis of an optical mouse (OM) sensor and IR augmented by sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampling (here called IR-SMC). We first construct an external tracking model by an OM sensor that is uded to directly measure the bronchoscope movement information including the insertion depth and the rotation of the viewing direction of the bronchoscope. To utilize OM sensor measurements, we employed IR with SMC sampling to determine the bronchoscopic camera motion parameters. The proposed method was validated on a dynamic phantom. Experimental results demonstrate that our constructed external tracking prototype is a perspective means to estimate the bronchoscope motion, compared to the start-of-the-art, especially for image-based methods, improving the tracking performance by 17.7% successfully processed video images.

  14. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 68‐year‐old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium‐sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure‐related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  15. Bronchoscopy guidance system based on bronchoscope-motion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Duane C.; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopy-guidance systems assist physicians during bronchoscope navigation. However, these systems require an attending technician and fail to continuously track the bronchoscope. We propose a real-time technicianfree bronchoscopy-guidance system that employs continuous tracking. For guidance, our system presents directions on virtual views that are generated from the bronchoscope's tracked location. The system achieves bronchoscope tracking using a strategy that is based on a recently proposed method for sensor-based bronchoscope-motion tracking.1 Furthermore, a graphical indicator notifies the physician when he/she has maneuvered the bronchoscope to an incorrect branch. Our proposed system uses the sensor data to generate virtual views through multiple candidate routes and employs image matching in a Bayesian framework to determine the most probable bronchoscope pose. Tests based on laboratory phantoms validate the potential of the system.

  16. Therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions for malignant airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dalar, Levent; Özdemir, Cengiz; Abul, Yasin; Karasulu, Levent; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Akbaş, Ayşegül; Altın, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is no definitive consensus about the factors affecting the choice of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of malignant airway obstruction. The present study defines the choice of the interventional bronchoscopic modality and analyzes the factors influencing survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction. Totally, over 7 years, 802 interventional rigid bronchoscopic procedures were applied in 547 patients having malignant airway obstruction. There was a significant association between the type of stent and the site of the lesion in the present study. Patients with tracheal involvement and/or involvement of the main bronchi had the worst prognosis. The sites of the lesion and endobronchial treatment modality were independent predictors of survival in the present study. The selection of different types of airway stents can be considered on the base of site of the lesion. Survival can be estimated based on the site of the lesion and endobronchial brochoscopic modality used. PMID:27281104

  17. [Removal of bronchial foreign bodies by suction with a bronchoscope].

    PubMed

    Mita, Y; Dobashi, K; Saitoh, R; Tsuchiya, S; Nakano, H; Watanabe, S; Makimoto, T; Ishihara, S; Mori, M

    1997-04-01

    We report two cases in which intrabronchial foreign bodies were removed with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. In both cases the foreign body was a seed of a small Japanese apricot. Atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia was seen on chest roentgenograms. The foreign bodies were associated with slight inflammation and polyps on the bronchial epithelium. The foreign bodies were removed by applying suction with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. This method may also be useful for removing other large, hard, uneven, and ball-like foreign bodies. PMID:9212671

  18. Real-time motion compensation for EM bronchoscope tracking with smooth output - ex-vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gergel, Ingmar; Menzel, Manuela; Hautmann, Hubert; Wegner, Ingmar; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Navab, Nassir

    2012-02-01

    Navigated bronchoscopy provides benefits for endoscopists and patients, but accurate tracking information is needed. We present a novel real-time approach for bronchoscope tracking combining electromagnetic (EM) tracking, airway segmentation, and a continuous model of output. We augment a previously published approach by including segmentation information in the tracking optimization instead of image similarity. Thus, the new approach is feasible in real-time. Since the true bronchoscope trajectory is continuous, the output is modeled using splines and the control points are optimized with respect to displacement from EM tracking measurements and spatial relation to segmented airways. Accuracy of the proposed method and its components is evaluated on a ventilated porcine ex-vivo lung with respect to ground truth data acquired from a human expert. We demonstrate the robustness of the output of the proposed method against added artificial noise in the input data. Smoothness in terms of inter-frame distance is shown to remain below 2 mm, even when up to 5 mm of Gaussian noise are added to the input. The approach is shown to be easily extensible to include other measures like image similarity.

  19. 3D MDCT-Based System for Planning Peripheral Bronchoscopic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Graham, Michael W.; Higgins, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of lung cancer often begins with the assessment of a suspect peripheral chest site. Such suspicious peripheral sites may be solitary pulmonary nodules or other abnormally appearing regions of interest (ROIs). The state-of-the-art process for assessing such peripheral ROIs involves off-line procedure planning using a three-dimensional (3D) multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scan followed by bronchoscopy with an ultrathin bronchoscope. We present an integrated computer-based system for planning peripheral bronchoscopic procedures. The system takes a 3D MDCT chest image as input and performs nearly all operations automatically. The only interaction required by the physician is the selection of ROI locations. The system is computationally efficient and fits smoothly within the clinical work flow. Integrated into the system and described in detail in the paper is a new surface-definition method, which is vital for effective analysis and planning to peripheral sites. Results demonstrate the efficacy of the system and its usage for the live guidance of ultrathin bronchoscopy to the periphery. PMID:19217089

  20. Bronchoscopic location of bronchopleural fistula with xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Lillington, G.A.; Stevens, R.P.; DeNardo, G.L.

    1982-04-01

    Successful application of the technique of transbronchoscopic endobronchial occlusion of a persistent bronchopleural fistula requires an accurate determination of the segmental location of the air leak. This was achieved by injections of small boluses of Xe-133 into a number of segmental bronchi through a fiber-optic bronchoscope. Following the instillation of Xe-133 into the segmental bronchus leading to the fistula, there was a marked increase in radioactivity in the intercostal drainage tube.

  1. Bronchoscopic diathermy resection and stent insertion: a cost effective treatment for tracheobronchial obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, M.; Kaplan, D.; Goldstraw, P.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Major airways obstruction is a distressing cause of morbidity and mortality. For disease that is extensive and recurrent, there is a need for a safe and cost effective technique for palliation. METHODS--The results of 29 patients with tracheobronchial obstruction (24 malignant and five benign) treated by diathermy resection alone or in combination with endobronchial stenting have been reviewed. RESULTS--The major site of obstruction was the trachea in 14, main carina in seven, right main bronchus in six, and left main bronchus in two patients. Fifteen had received other forms of treatment beforehand including external radiotherapy, endoscopic dilatation, and laser resection (Nd:YAG). Five patients required two or more treatment sessions for symptom recurrence. Ten patients also received additional treatment with a stent (nine) or insertion of gold grains (one). There were no intraoperative deaths or complications and the average length of stay was five days (range 2-14). Twenty eight patients reported immediate symptomatic relief, and objective improvement in the results of lung function tests was seen in eight patients whose condition was less acute and where preoperative lung function tests could be undertaken (average improvement in FEV1 of 53.1% and in FVC of 20.6%). CONCLUSIONS--Bronchoscopic diathermy resection is an effective and safe method for relieving the symptoms of tracheobronchial obstruction at appreciably less cost than laser resection. Images PMID:8296261

  2. Comparison of the glidescope®, flexible fibreoptic intubating bronchoscope, iPhone modified bronchoscope, and the Macintosh laryngoscope in normal and difficult airways: a manikin study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smart phone technology is becoming increasingly integrated into medical care. Our study compared an iPhone modified flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope as an intubation aid and clinical teaching tool with an unmodified bronchoscope, Glidescope® and Macintosh laryngoscope in a simulated normal and difficult airway scenario. Methods Sixty three anaesthesia providers, 21 consultant anaesthetists, 21 registrars and 21 anaesthetic nurses attempted to intubate a MegaCode Kelly™ manikin, comparing a normal and difficult airway scenario for each device. Primary endpoints were time to view the vocal cords (TVC), time to successful intubation (TSI) and number of failed intubations with each device. Secondary outcomes included participant rated device usability and preference for each scenario. Advantages and disadvantages of the iPhone modified bronchoscope were also discussed. Results There was no significant difference in TVC with the iPhone modified bronchoscope compared with the Macintosh blade (P = 1.0) or unmodified bronchoscope (P = 0.155). TVC was significantly shorter with the Glidescope compared with the Macintosh blade (P < 0.001), iPhone (P < 0.001) and unmodified bronchoscope (P = 0.011). The iPhone bronchoscope TSI was significantly longer than all other devices (P < 0.001). There was no difference between anaesthetic consultant or registrar TVC (P = 1.0) or TSI (P = 0.252), with both being less than the nurses (P < 0.001). Consultant anaesthetists and nurses had a higher intubation failure rate with the iPhone modified bronchoscope compared with the registrars. Although more difficult to use, similar proportions of consultants (14/21), registrars (15/21) and nurses (15/21) indicated that they would be prepared to use the iPhone modified bronchoscope in their clinical practice. The Glidescope was rated easiest to use (P < 0.001) and was the preferred device by all participants for the difficult airway scenario

  3. Multimodal 3D PET/CT system for bronchoscopic procedure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Higgins, William E.

    2013-02-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) / computed-tomography (CT) scanners give 3D multimodal data sets of the chest. Such data sets offer the potential for more complete and specific identification of suspect lesions and lymph nodes for lung-cancer assessment. This in turn enables better planning of staging bronchoscopies. The richness of the data, however, makes the visualization and planning process difficult. We present an integrated multimodal 3D PET/CT system that enables efficient region identification and bronchoscopic procedure planning. The system first invokes a series of automated 3D image-processing methods that construct a 3D chest model. Next, the user interacts with a set of interactive multimodal graphical tools that facilitate procedure planning for specific regions of interest (ROIs): 1) an interactive region candidate list that enables efficient ROI viewing in all tools; 2) a virtual PET-CT bronchoscopy rendering with SUV quantitative visualization to give a "fly through" endoluminal view of prospective ROIs; 3) transverse, sagittal, coronal multi-planar reformatted (MPR) views of the raw CT, PET, and fused CT-PET data; and 4) interactive multimodal volume/surface rendering to give a 3D perspective of the anatomy and candidate ROIs. In addition the ROI selection process is driven by a semi-automatic multimodal method for region identification. In this way, the system provides both global and local information to facilitate more specific ROI identification and procedure planning. We present results to illustrate the system's function and performance.

  4. The effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in acute respiratory distress syndrome: experimental evidence from a lung model.

    PubMed

    Nay, M-A; Mankikian, J; Auvet, A; Dequin, P-F; Guillon, A

    2016-02-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is essential for appropriate care during mechanical ventilation, but can significantly affect mechanical ventilation of the lungs, particularly for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We aimed to describe the consequences of bronchoscopy during lung-protective ventilation in a bench study, and thereby to determine the optimal diameter of the bronchoscope for avoiding disruption of the protective-ventilation strategy during the procedure. Immediately following the insertion of the bronchoscope into the tracheal tube, either minute ventilation decreased significantly, or positive end-expiratory pressure increased substantially, according to the setting of the inspiratory pressure limit. The increase in end-expiratory pressure led to an equivalent increase in the plateau pressure, and lung-protective ventilation was significantly altered during the procedure. We showed that a bronchoscope with an external diameter of 4 mm (or less) would allow safer bronchoscopic interventions in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:26559154

  5. Amplification of residual DNA sequences in sterile bronchoscopes leading to false-positive PCR results.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, K; Luke, S; McGurn, C; Snowden, N; Monti, C; Fry, W A

    1996-01-01

    PCR has been used successfully for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in uncultured patient samples. Its potential is hindered by the risk of false-positive results as a result of either amplicon carryover of cross-contamination between patient samples. In the present study, we investigated whether residual amplifiable human or M. tuberculosis DNA could remain in sterile bronchoscopes and potentially be a cause of false-positive PCR results in subsequent patient samples. Sterilized bronchoscopes were flushed with sterile saline, and the collected eluate was submitted for PCR amplification of IS6110 sequences and exon 8 of the human p53 gene. Of a total of 55 washes of sterile bronchoscopes from two institutions, 2 (3.6%) contained amplifiable M. tuberculosis DNA and 11 (20%) contained residual human DNA. These findings indicate that residual DNA can remain in sterilized bronchoscopes and can be a source of false-positive PCR results. PMID:8818888

  6. A model of respiratory airway motion for real-time tracking of an ultrathin bronchoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, Timothy D.; Haynor, David R.; Glenny, Robb W.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2007-03-01

    Deformable registration of chest CT scans taken of a subject at various phases of respiration provide a direct measure of the spatially varying displacements that occur in the lung due to breathing. This respiratory motion was studied as part of the development of a CT-based guidance system for a new electromagnetically tracked ultrathin bronchoscope. Fifteen scans of an anesthesized pig were acquired at five distinct lung pressures between full expiration to full inspiration. Deformation fields were computed by non-rigid registration using symmetric "demons" forces followed by Gaussian regularization in a multi-resolution framework. Variants of the registration scheme were tested including: initial histogram matching of input images, degree of field smoothing during regularization, and applying an adaptive smoothing method that weights elements of the smoothing kernel by the magnitude of the image gradient. Registration quality was quantified and compared using inverse and transitive consistency metrics. After optimizing the algorithm parameters, deformation fields were computed by registering each image in the set to a baseline image. Registration of the baseline image at full inspiration to an image at full expiration produced the maximum deformation. Two hypotheses were made: first, that each deformation could be modeled as a mathematical sub-multiple of the maximum deformation, and second, that the deformation scales linearly with respiratory pressure. The discrepancy between the deformation measured by image registration and that predicted by the linear model was 1.25 mm on average. At maximum deformation, this motion compensation constitutes an 87% reduction in respiration-induced localization error.

  7. On scale invariant features and sequential Monte Carlo sampling for bronchoscope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luó, Xióngbiao; Feuerstein, Marco; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Natori, Hiroshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an improved bronchoscope tracking method for bronchoscopic navigation using scale invariant features and sequential Monte Carlo sampling. Although image-based methods are widely discussed in the community of bronchoscope tracking, they are still limited to characteristic information such as bronchial bifurcations or folds and cannot automatically resume the tracking procedure after failures, which result usually from problematic bronchoscopic video frames or airway deformation. To overcome these problems, we propose a new approach that integrates scale invariant feature-based camera motion estimation into sequential Monte Carlo sampling to achieve an accurate and robust tracking. In our approach, sequential Monte Carlo sampling is employed to recursively estimate the posterior probability densities of the bronchoscope camera motion parameters according to the observation model based on scale invariant feature-based camera motion recovery. We evaluate our proposed method on patient datasets. Experimental results illustrate that our proposed method can track a bronchoscope more accurate and robust than current state-of-the-art method, particularly increasing the tracking performance by 38.7% without using an additional position sensor.

  8. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    PubMed

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented. PMID:26867305

  9. Bronchoscopy: Diagnostic and Therapeutic for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas L; Berkheim, David B

    2016-07-01

    The bronchoscope has gone through much advancement from its origin as a thin metal tube. It has become a highly sophisticated tool for clinicians. Both rigid and the flexible bronchoscopes are invaluable in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment of this disease process hinges on accurate diagnosis and lymph node staging. Technologies, such as endobronchial ultrasound, navigational bronchoscopy, and autofluorescence, have improved efficacy of endobronchial diagnosis and sample collection. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery and has a complication from a centrally located mass, the bronchoscope has been used to deliver palliative therapies. PMID:27261910

  10. Bronchoscopic debulking for endobronchial malignancy: Predictors of recanalization and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Scott Chih-Hsi; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Chun-Liang; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Liu, Chien-Ying; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Central airway obstruction related to endobronchial malignancy is one of the most difficult oncological complications and requires efficient palliative intervention. Methods Fifty-three consecutive patients with unresectable endobronchial malignancy receiving bronchoscopic cryotherapy as palliative treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Efficiency was evaluated by the improvement of performance status (PS), and the best achievement of tumor removal was assessed as complete or partial removal. Result Patients’ PS after cryotherapeutic tumor removal improved from the baseline PS (P = 0.006). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the compression part of the tumor (odds ratio [OR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23∼0.75, P = 0.004) and the thin tumor stalk (OR 87.86; 95% CI 2.31∼3337.37, P = 0.016) were independent predictors of complete tumor removal. Tumors larger than 9.3 cm, including compression and invasion parts, had the highest odds of being only partially removed (positive predictive value [PPV]: 88.2%, likelihood ratio [LR]+: 10.49); tumors smaller than 9.3 cm were likely to be completely removed (negative predictive value [NPV]: 80.6%, LR−: 0.34). After cryotherapy, re-obstruction was significantly associated with non-squamous cell carcinoma (65.7 vs. 16.7%, P = 0.001) and patients who had longer overall survival (11.7 vs. 1.5 months, P < 0.001). Odds of tumor re-obstruction increased 2.28-fold (PPV: 81.6%, LR+: 2.28) beyond two months; the odds decreased by 81% (NPV: 73.3%, LR−: 0.19) within two months. Conclusion Debulking of a tumor using cryotherapy is a useful palliative treatment for endobronchial obstruction secondary to a variety of malignancies. PMID:26557910

  11. Advances in bronchoscopy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Dexter, Elisabeth U.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques have seen significant advances in the last decade. The development and refinement of different types of endobronchial ultrasound and navigation systems have led to improved diagnostic yield and lung cancer staging capabilities. The complication rate of these minimally invasive procedures is extremely low as compared to traditional transthoracic needle biopsy and surgical sampling. These advances augment the safe array of methods utilized in the work up and management algorithms of lung cancer. PMID:23346012

  12. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration.

    PubMed

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications. PMID:23257641

  13. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  18. Observation-driven adaptive differential evolution and its application to accurate and smooth bronchoscope three-dimensional motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Wan, Ying; He, Xiangjian; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes an observation-driven adaptive differential evolution algorithm that fuses bronchoscopic video sequences, electromagnetic sensor measurements, and computed tomography images for accurate and smooth bronchoscope three-dimensional motion tracking. Currently an electromagnetic tracker with a position sensor fixed at the bronchoscope tip is commonly used to estimate bronchoscope movements. The large tracking error from directly using sensor measurements, which may be deteriorated heavily by patient respiratory motion and the magnetic field distortion of the tracker, limits clinical applications. How to effectively use sensor measurements for precise and stable bronchoscope electromagnetic tracking remains challenging. We here exploit an observation-driven adaptive differential evolution framework to address such a challenge and boost the tracking accuracy and smoothness. In our framework, two advantageous points are distinguished from other adaptive differential evolution methods: (1) the current observation including sensor measurements and bronchoscopic video images is used in the mutation equation and the fitness computation, respectively and (2) the mutation factor and the crossover rate are determined adaptively on the basis of the current image observation. The experimental results demonstrate that our framework provides much more accurate and smooth bronchoscope tracking than the state-of-the-art methods. Our approach reduces the tracking error from 3.96 to 2.89 mm, improves the tracking smoothness from 4.08 to 1.62 mm, and increases the visual quality from 0.707 to 0.741. PMID:25660001

  19. Lung volume reduction therapies for advanced emphysema: an update.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert L; Decamp, Malcolm M; Criner, Gerard J; Celli, Bartolome R

    2010-08-01

    Observational and randomized studies provide convincing evidence that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves symptoms, lung function, exercise tolerance, and life span in well-defined subsets of patients with emphysema. Yet, in the face of an estimated 3 million patients with emphysema in the United States, < 15 LVRS operations are performed monthly under the aegis of Medicare, in part because of misleading reporting in lay and medical publications suggesting that the operation is associated with prohibitive risks and offers minimal benefits. Thus, a treatment with proven potential for palliating and prolonging life may be underutilized. In an attempt to lower risks and cost, several bronchoscopic strategies (bronchoscopic emphysema treatment [BET]) to reduce lung volume have been introduced. The following three methods have been tested in some depth: (1) unidirectional valves that allow exit but bar entry of gas to collapse targeted hyperinflated portions of the lung and reduce overall volume; (2) biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) that involves intrabronchial administration of a biocompatible complex to collapse, inflame, scar, and shrink the targeted emphysematous lung; and (3) airway bypass tract (ABT) or creation of stented nonanatomic pathways between hyperinflated pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree to decompress and reduce the volume of oversized lung. The results of pilot and randomized pivotal clinical trials suggest that the bronchoscopic strategies are associated with lower mortality and morbidity but are also less efficient than LVRS. Most bronchoscopic approaches improve quality-of-life measures without supportive physiologic or exercise tolerance benefits. Although there is promise of limited therapeutic influence, the available information is not sufficient to recommend use of bronchoscopic strategies for treating emphysema. PMID:20682529

  20. Evaluation of primary lung cancer with indium 111 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (type ZCE-025) monoclonal antibody scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Morris, J.F.; Antonovic, R.; Ahmed, A.; Galey, W.T.; Duncan, C.; Krishnamurthy, G.T. )

    1990-02-01

    A study was undertaken to test whether indium 111 (111In)-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (type ZCE 025) monoclonal intact antibody (MoAb) would concentrate in primary lung cancer enabling its detection and localization by scintigraphy. The scintigraphic results were correlated with chest radiograph, computed tomograph (CT), bronchoscopy, surgical resection, and tumor CEA analysis. Twenty adult male patients with clinical suspicion of primary lung cancer were studied. Each subject was infused with 4 to 5 mCi of 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb, and planar and tomographic scintiphotos were obtained on days 3 and 6 or 7 postinfusion. The scintigraphy was true-positive in 12 of 16 patients with primary lung cancer, eight of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and four of seven with adenocarcinoma; it was true-negative in three of four patients with benign lung disease with an overall accuracy of 75%. In seven patients with confirmed primary lung cancer, but with negative bronchoscopic findings, the scintigraphy was true-positive in four. In 11 patients with definitely positive or suspicious malignancy by bronchoscopy the monoclonal scintigraphy was positive in eight. In true-positive cases, the location and size of the lesion by 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb imaging correlated well with CT findings and also tumor mass at surgery. Only one of 12 tumors stained positive for CEA had serum CEA levels greater than 10 ng/ml, indicating nonleakage of the tumor antigen into general circulation in early lung cancer. It is concluded that 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb planar and tomographic imaging shows potential to serve as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of primary lung cancer. The lung lesion is likely to be malignant if it concentrates 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb and benign if it does not.

  1. Outbreak of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections related to contaminated bronchoscope suction valves, Lyon, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Guy, Marine; Vanhems, Philippe; Dananché, Cédric; Perraud, Michel; Regard, Anne; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Bertrand, Xavier; Crozon-Clauzel, Jullien; Floccard, Bernard; Argaud, Laurent; Cassier, Pierre; Bénet, Thomas

    2016-07-14

    In April 2014, pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia co-infections potentially related to bronchoscopic procedures were identified in the intensive care units of a university hospital in Lyon, France. A retrospective cohort of 157 patients exposed to bronchoscopes from 1 December 2013 to 17 June 2014 was analysed. Environmental samples of suspected endoscopes were cultured. Bronchoscope disinfection was reviewed. Ten cases of pulmonary P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia co-infections were identified, including two patients with secondary pneumonia. Eight cases were linked to bronchoscope A1 and two to bronchoscope A2. Cultures deriving from suction valves were positive for P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia. Exposure to bronchoscopes A1 and A2 was independently coupled with increased risk of co-infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 84.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.3-771.6 and aOR = 11.8, 95% CI: 1.2-121.3). Isolates from suction valves and clinical samples presented identical pulsotypes. The audit detected deficiencies in endoscope disinfection. No further cases occurred after discontinuation of the implicated bronchoscopes and change in cleaning procedures. This outbreak of pulmonary P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia co-infections was caused by suction valve contamination of two bronchoscopes of the same manufacturer. Our findings underscore the need to test suction valves, in addition to bronchoscope channels, for routine detection of bacteria. PMID:27458712

  2. Bronchoscopic assessment of airway retention time of aerosolized xylitol

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Lakshmi; Neelakantan, Srividya; Launspach, Janice; Watt, Janet L; Allaman, Margaret M; Kearney, William R; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Zabner, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Background Human airway surface liquid (ASL) has abundant antimicrobial peptides whose potency increases as the salt concentration decreases. Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that has the ability to lower ASL salt concentration, potentially enhancing innate immunity. Xylitol was detected for 8 hours in the ASL after application in airway epithelium in vitro. We tested the airway retention time of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in healthy volunteers. Methods After a screening spirometry, volunteers received 10 ml of nebulized 5% xylitol. Bronchoscopy was done at 20 minutes (n = 6), 90 minutes (n = 6), and 3 hours (n = 5) after nebulization and ASL was collected using microsampling probes, followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Xylitol concentration was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and corrected for dilution using urea concentration. Results All subjects tolerated nebulization and bronchoscopy well. Mean ASL volume recovered from the probes was 49 ± 23 μl. The mean ASL xylitol concentration at 20, 90, and 180 minutes was 1.6 ± 1.9 μg/μl, 0.6 ± 0.6 μg/μl, and 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/μl, respectively. Corresponding BAL concentration corrected for dilution was consistently lower at all time points. The terminal half-life of aerosolized xylitol obtained by the probes was 45 minutes with a mean residence time of 65 minutes in ASL. Corresponding BAL values were 36 and 50 minutes, respectively. Conclusion After a single dose nebulization, xylitol was detected in ASL for 3 hours, which was shorter than our in vitro measurement. The microsampling probe performed superior to BAL when sampling bronchial ASL. PMID:16483382

  3. ML 3.1 developer's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML development was started in 1997 by Ray Tuminaro and Charles Tong. Currently, there are several full- and part-time developers. The kernel of ML is written in ANSI C, and there is a rich C++ interface for Trilinos users and developers. ML can be customized to run geometric and algebraic multigrid; it can solve a scalar or a vector equation (with constant number of equations per grid node), and it can solve a form of Maxwell's equations. For a general introduction to ML and its applications, we refer to the Users Guide [SHT04], and to the ML web site, http://software.sandia.gov/ml.

  4. Two cases of endobronchial aspergilloma with lung cancer: a review the literature of endobronchial aspergilloma with underlying malignant lesions of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shenghua; Jiang, Luning; Shan, Fenglian; Zhang, Xiulian; Song, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial aspergilloma is a rare disease entity with pulmonary involvement of aspergillus. Few cases of endobronchial aspergilloma associated with malignant lesions have been reported in the literature. We present 2 more cases of endobronchial aspergilloma with underlying lung cancer. And summarize the published literatures to investigate the clinical manifestations, bronchoscopic characters, imaging performances in patients with endobronchial aspergilloma with underlying malignant lesions of the lung. A review of the literature reveals 8 cases of endobronchial aspergilloma with coexisting lung malignant lesions upon presentation. The medical details of the patients including age, sex, clinical symptoms, radiological manifestations bronchoscopic characters, diagnosis and treatment are summarized. Endobronchial aspergilloma is usually incidentally detected in patients with underlying lung disease. With the increasing popularity of flexible bronchoscopy, it is being recognized as a necrotic mass causing bronchial obstruction. We should be paid more attention to prevent misdiagnosis of combined endobronchial aspergilloma and lung malignant diseases. PMID:26629257

  5. Impacted Sharp Oesophageal Foreign Bodies--A Novel Technique of Removal with the Paediatric Bronchoscope.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aparajita; Bajpai, Minu

    2016-04-01

    Sharp foreign bodies in the oesophagus may present as an entirely asymptomatic child with only radiological evidence but require emergent surgical management. Safety pins, razor blades and needles are a few of the commonly ingested sharp objects in developing countries. The open safety pin is a particularly interesting clinical problem, as the management depends on its location and orientation. Many methods and instruments have been used over the years to remove them from the upper digestive tract. We present a novel method using the rigid paediatric bronchoscope and alligator forceps for the extraction of this unusual foreign body from the oesophagus of a 6 year old girl. PMID:26851436

  6. Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in adults: experience with 62 patients from 1974-1998.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, A; Sorli, J; Music, E; Kecelj, P

    1999-10-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with therapeutic bronchoscopy for removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in the adult. Bronchoscopy records and collection of foreign bodies in the endoscopic department were retrospectively examined. Among 37,466 bronchoscopies performed between 1974-1998, 62 (0.2%) were performed for the removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Medical history was suggestive of foreign body aspiration in 33 patients and the chest radiograph was suggestive in 10 patients. The procedure was performed with the flexible bronchoscope in 42 patients (68%), rigid bronchoscope in 4 (6%), and with both in 16 (26%) patients. Foreign bodies were found in the right bronchial tree on 42 occasions, in the left on 20 and in the trachea once. In 39 patients, inflammatory granulations were found around the foreign body. The origins of the foreign bodies included: bone fragments (n=31), vegetable (n=10), broncholith (n=8), a part of dental prosthesis (n=7), endodontic needle (n=2), a metallic (n=2), or plastic (n=1) particle, a tracheostomy tube (n=1) and a match (n=1). In one patient, 2 foreign bodies were found. The foreign bodies were successfully removed in all but 2 patients (3%). The most useful instruments for removal were alligator forceps and the wire basket. Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial system are rare in adults. They can be successfully removed in the majority of patients under either flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:10573222

  7. Comparison of diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kanoksil, Wasana; Laungdamerongchai, Sarangrat

    2015-01-01

    Background There are many sampling techniques dedicated to radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) guided flexible bronchoscopy (FB). However, data regarding the diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques is limited. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic yields among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Methods A prospective study was conducted on 112 patients who were diagnosed with PPLs and underwent R-EBUS-guided FB between Oct 2012 and Sep 2014. Sampling techniques—including transbronchial biopsy (TBB), brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed fluid of brushing, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)—were evaluated for the diagnosis. Results The mean diameter of the PPLs was 23.5±9.5 mm. The final diagnoses included 76 malignancies and 36 benign lesions. The overall diagnostic yield of R-EBUS-guided bronchoscopy was 80.4%; TBB gave the highest yield among the 112 specimens: 70.5%, 34.8%, 62.5%, 50.0% and 42.0% for TBB, brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed brushing fluid, and BAL fluid (BALF), respectively (P<0.001). TBB provided high diagnostic yield irrespective of the size and etiology of the PPLs. The combination of TBB and brushing smear achieved the maximum diagnostic yield. Of 31 infectious PPLs, BALF culture gave additional microbiological information in 20 cases. Conclusions TBB provided the highest diagnostic yield; however, to achieve the highest diagnostic performance, TBB, brushing smear and BAL techniques should be performed together. PMID:25973236

  8. Transbronchial Dissemination of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Tomoya; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Bandoh, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung cancer with transbronchial dissemination in a 73-year-old man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple bronchial mucosal nodules that existed independently of one another. We reviewed 16 previous cases of endobronchial metastasis in lung cancer. All patients were men. Among the reports that described the smoking history, most patients were smokers (6/7), and the most frequent histological type of cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (11/17). Although hematogenous and lymphogenous routes have been reported as metastatic mechanisms, no previous cases involving transbronchial dissemination have been described. Transbronchial dissemination may be an alternative pathway of endobronchial metastasis. PMID:26672760

  9. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  10. Anesthesia for Advanced Bronchoscopic Procedures: State-of-the-Art Review.

    PubMed

    Goudra, Basavana G; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Farid, Nahla; Harris, Kassem

    2015-08-01

    The bronchoscopic procedures have seen a remarkable increase in both numbers and complexity. Although many anesthesia providers have kept pace with the challenge, the practice is varied and frequently suboptimal. Shared airway during bronchoscopy poses unique challenges. The available reviews have tried to address this lacuna; however, these have frequently dealt with the technical aspects of bronchoscopy than anesthetic challenges. The present review provides evidence-based management insights into anesthesia for bronchoscopy-both flexible and rigid. A systematic approach toward pre-procedural evaluation and risk stratification is presented. The possible anatomical and physiological factors that can influence the outcomes are discussed. Pharmacological principles guiding sedation levels and appropriate selection of sedatives form the crux of safe anesthetic management. The newer and safer drugs that can have potential role in anesthesia for bronchoscopy in the near future are discussed. Ventilatory strategies during bronchoscopy for prevention of hypoxia and hypercarbia are emphasized. PMID:25921014

  11. Bronchoscopic intubation during continuous nasal positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarevic, Igor; Berlin, David

    2015-03-01

    Endotracheal intubation is difficult in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure who deteriorate despite treatment with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Maintaining NIPPV during intubation may prevent alveolar derecruitment and deterioration in gas exchange. We report a case series of 10 nonconsecutive patients with NIPPV failure who were intubated via a flexible bronchoscope during nasal mask positive pressure ventilation. All 10 patients were intubated in the first attempt. Hypotension was the most frequent complication (33%). Mean decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation during the procedure was 4.7 ± 3.1. This method of intubation may extend the benefits of preoxygenation throughout the whole process of endotracheal intubation. It requires an experienced operator and partially cooperative patients. A prospective trial is necessary to determine the best intubation method for NIPPV failure. PMID:24243561

  12. Flexible bronchoscopic management of benign tracheal stenosis: long term follow-up of 115 patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of benign tracheal stenosis (BTS) varies with the type and extent of the disease and influenced by the patient's age and general health status, hence we sought to investigate the long-term outcome of patients with BTS that underwent minimally invasive bronchoscopic treatment. Methods Patients with symptomatic BTS were treated with flexible bronchoscopy therapeutic modalities that included the following: balloon dilatation, laser photo-resection, self-expanding metal stent placement, and High-dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy used in cases of refractory stent-related granulation tissue formation. Results A total of 115 patients with BTS and various cardiac and respiratory co-morbidities with a mean age of 61 (range 40-88) were treated between January 2001 and January 2009. The underlining etiologies for BTS were post - endotracheal intubation (N = 76) post-tracheostomy (N = 30), Wegener's granulomatosis (N = 2), sarcoidosis (N = 2), amyloidosis (N = 2) and idiopathic BTS (N = 3). The modalities used were: balloon dilatation and laser treatment (N = 98). Stent was placed in 33 patients of whom 28 also underwent brachytherapy. Complications were minor and mostly included granulation tissue formation. The overall success rate was 87%. Over a median follow-up of 51 months (range 10-100 months), 30 patients (26%) died, mostly due to exacerbation of their underlying conditions. Conclusions BTS in elderly patients with co-morbidities can be safely and effectively treated by flexible bronchoscopic treatment modalities. The use of HDR brachytherapy to treat granulation tissue formation following successful airway restoration is promising. PMID:20078894

  13. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer: a treatment option for patients ineligible for surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Thorpe, James Andrew Charles; Stringer, Mark; Oxtoby, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review the Yorkshire Laser Centre experience with bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer in subjects not eligible for surgery and to discuss diagnostic problems and the indications for PDT in such cases. Methods Of 200 patients undergoing bronchoscopic PDT, 21 had early central lung cancer and were entered into a prospective study. Patients underwent standard investigations including white light bronchoscopy in all and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in 12 of the most recent cases. Indications for bronchoscopic PDT were recurrence/metachronous endobronchial lesions following previous treatment with curative intent in 10 patients (11 lesions), ineligibility for surgery because of poor cardiorespiratory function in 8 patients (9 lesions) and declined consent to operation in 3 patients. PDT consisted of intravenous administration of Photofrin 2 mg/kg followed by bronchoscopic illumination 24–48 h later. Results 29 treatments were performed in 21 patients (23 lesions). There was no procedure‐related or 30 day mortality. One patient developed mild skin photosensitivity. All patients expressed satisfaction with the treatment and had a complete response of variable duration. Six patients died at 3–103 months (mean 39.3), three of which were not as a result of cancer. Fifteen patients were alive at 12–82 months. Conclusion Bronchoscopic PDT in early central lung cancer can achieve long disease‐free survival and should be considered as a treatment option in those ineligible for resection. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is a valuable complementary investigation for identification of synchronous lesions and accurate illumination in bronchoscopic PDT. PMID:17090572

  14. Use of endobronchial valves for native lung hyperinflation associated with respiratory failure in a single-lung transplant recipient for emphysema.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maria M; Johnson, Bruce A; McCurry, Kenneth R; Landreneau, Rodney J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    Emphysema is a common indication for adult pulmonary transplantation. Double-lung transplantation is increasingly the preferred approach because severe posttransplant native lung hyperinflation (NLH) following single-lung transplantation may compromise allograft lung function. We describe successful emergency use of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves (EBVs) [Zephyr; Emphasys Medical; Redwood, CA] in a single-lung transplant recipient who was critically ill with ventilator dependence from complications of NLH and at excessive risk for lung volume reduction surgery or pneumonectomy. Following placement of 17 valves in all segments of the native lung, atelectasis of the native lung was accompanied by volume expansion of the allograft. Immediately following valve placement, peak airway pressure decreased and alveolar ventilation increased. The patient was subsequently weaned from mechanical ventilation. This report suggests the need for clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of EBVs in single-lung transplant recipients with less critical functional impairment associated with NLH. PMID:17218578

  15. Real-time bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation using multiple sensor-driven alignment of CT images and electromagnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-09-01

    Bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation plays a key role in developing bronchoscopic navigation systems. Currently external tracking devices, particularly electromagnetic trackers with electromagnetic sensors, are increasingly introduced to navigate surgical tools in pre-clinical images. An unavoidable problem, which is to align the electromagnetic tracker to pre-clinical images, must be solved before navigation. This paper proposes a multiple sensor-driven registration method to establish this alignment without using any anatomical fiducials. Although current fiducially free registration methods work well, they limit to the initialization of optimization and manipulating the bronchoscope along the bronchial centerlines, which could be failed easily during clinical interventions. To address these limitations, we utilize measurements of multiple electromagnetic sensors to calculate bronchoscope geometric center positions that are usually closer to the bronchial centerlines than the sensor itself measured positions. We validated our method on a bronchial phantom. The experimental results demonstrate that our idea of using multiple sensors to determine bronchoscope geometric center positions for fiducial-free registration was very effective. Compared to currently available methods in bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation, our method reduced fiducial alignment error from at least 6.79 to 4.68-5.26 mm and significantly improved motion estimation or tracking accuracy from at least 5.42 to 3.78-4.53 mm. PMID:25002104

  16. Successful Treatment of Tracheal Invasion Caused by Thyroid Cancer Using Endotracheal Tube Balloon Inflation under Flexible Bronchoscopic Guidance.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang-Hee; Jung, Bock-Hyun; Kwon, Jun Sung; Lim, Jaemin

    2014-11-01

    Tracheal invasion is an uncommon complication of thyroid cancer, but it can cause respiratory failure. A rigid bronchoscope may be used to help relieve airway obstruction, but general anesthesia is usually required. Tracheal balloon dilatation and stent insertion can be performed without general anesthesia, but complete airway obstruction during balloon inflation may be dangerous in some patients. Additionally, placement of the stent adjacent to the vocal cords can be technically challenging. An 86-year-old female patient with tracheal invasion resulting from thyroid cancer was admitted to our hospital because of worsening dyspnea. Due to the patient's refusal of general anesthesia and the interventional radiologist's difficulty in completing endotracheal stenting, we performed endotracheal tube balloon dilatation and argon plasma coagulation. We have successfully treated tracheal obstruction in the patient with thyroid cancer by using endotracheal tube balloon inflation and a flexible bronchoscope without general anesthesia or airway obstruction during balloon inflation. PMID:25473409

  17. Glued lungs: Sticky and tricky

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Deepak; Nair, Vidya; Khanna, Arjun; Dogra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes. This case highlights a serious complication of intrabronchial cyanoacrylate gluing to control bleeding in hemoptysis, which might warrant its very cautious use in moderate hemoptysis although surgical modality is considered the definitive treatment in life-threatening hemoptysis. PMID:27625448

  18. Bronchoplastic procedures for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Naruke, T; Yoneyama, T; Ogata, T; Suemasu, K

    1977-06-01

    Twenty patients with lung cancer have undergone bronchoplastic procedures September, 1965, to June, 1976 in our hospital. Bronchoplastic procedures are considered to be indicated for early cases of hilar lung cancer rather than for somewhat advanced cases. Endoscopic examination and roentgenograms of the bronchial arteries are needed to delineate resectional lines of bronchus, the former for deciding the mucosal extent and the latter the intrabronchial extent of the tumor. The bronchoplastic procedures we adopted were free from the risks and dangers generally accompanying the operation, and there were no postoperative deaths. For the prevention of postoperative complications, careful attention to suture technique is needed, and postoperative bronchoscopic suction of intrabronchial secretions is absolutely necessary. These procedures assure good quality of life postoperatively and improvement in the survival rate by preserving pulmonary function, enhancing curability, and increasing the operative indications. These advantages warrant high evaluation of the operation. PMID:870767

  19. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  20. Exploration under the dome: Esophageal ultrasound with the ultrasound bronchoscope is indispensible

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Nikhil; Hulett, Cidney; Patolia, Setu; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective use of the convex curvilinear ultrasound bronchoscope in the esophagus (EUS-B) for fine needle aspiration biopsy of mediastinal structures is now well described. In contrast, there is little to no reporting, depending on the site of EUS-B for access to sub-diaphragmatic structures. Our practice has been accessing sub-diaphragmatic sites for years. This review documents our experience with EUS-B to biopsy liver, left adrenal glands, and coeliac lymph nodes. Methods: After Institutional Review Board's approval, all endosonographic procedures performed by interventional pulmonary between July 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed. Those including biopsy of sub-diaphragmatic sites were then selected for analysis. Results: Over the study interval, 45 sub-diaphragmatic biopsy procedures (25 left adrenal glands, 7 liver, and 13 celiac node) were performed with EUS-B. In all cases, cellular adequacy was present, and samples were large enough for immunohistochemistry and any relevant ancillary studies. Metastatic malignancy was documented in 58% of cases, 16% of cases contained benign diagnostic findings, and in 27% of cases, normal organ tissue was documented. There were no complications. Conclusions: Operators comfortable with the endobronchial ultrasound scope in both the airway and the esophagus can actively seek and successfully perform biopsy of sub-diaphragmatic abnormalities when present and can thereby add to the diagnostic value of the procedure. PMID:27503158

  1. Towards hybrid bronchoscope tracking under respiratory motion: evaluation on a dynamic motion phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Feuerstein, Marco; Sugiura, Takamasa; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a hybrid camera tracking method that uses electromagnetic (EM) tracking and intensitybased image registration and its evaluation on a dynamic motion phantom. As respiratory motion can significantly affect rigid registration of the EM tracking and CT coordinate systems, a standard tracking approach that initializes intensity-based image registration with absolute pose data acquired by EM tracking will fail when the initial camera pose is too far from the actual pose. We here propose two new schemes to address this problem. Both of these schemes intelligently combine absolute pose data from EM tracking with relative motion data combined from EM tracking and intensity-based image registration. These schemes significantly improve the overall camera tracking performance. We constructed a dynamic phantom simulating the respiratory motion of the airways to evaluate these schemes. Our experimental results demonstrate that these schemes can track a bronchoscope more accurately and robustly than our previously proposed method even when maximum simulated respiratory motion reaches 24 mm.

  2. Modelling biological modularity with CellML.

    PubMed

    Cooling, M T; Hunter, P; Crampin, E J

    2008-03-01

    In recent years advances in the construction of mathematical models of biological systems have yielded an array of valuable constructs. The authors seek to provide a 'leading practice' method for implementing modularised kinetic mass-action models in order to obtain a number of advantages in model construction, validation and derived insights. The authors advocate the consideration of 'accounting cycles' or 'chains' to define 'functional' components and the separate consideration of 'messenger' components for mobile or diffusive molecular species. From a conceptual modularisation the authors illustrate, with an example drawn from signal transduction, a component-based formulation in the model exchange format cellular modelling markup language (CellML) 1.1 - demonstrating loose coupling between functionally-focused reusable components. Finally, the authors discuss the dilemmas associated with modelling protein-to-protein interactions, and the vision for using future CellML enhancements to resolve potential duplications when combining independently developed models. PMID:18397118

  3. FieldML: concepts and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, G. Richard; Nielsen, Poul M.F.; Blackett, Shane A.; Bradley, Chris P.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The field modelling language FieldML is being developed as a standard for modelling and interchanging field descriptions in software, suitable for a wide range of computation techniques. It comprises a rich set of operators for defining generalized fields as functions of other fields, starting with basic domain fields including sets of discrete objects and coordinate systems. It is extensible by adding new operators and by their arbitrary combination in expressions, making it well suited for describing the inherent complexity of biological materials and organ systems. This paper describes the concepts behind FieldML, including a simple example of a spatially varying finite-element field. It outlines current implementations in established, open source computation and visualization software, both drawing on decades of bioengineering modelling software development experience. PMID:19380316

  4. CytometryML and other data formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    Cytology automation and research will be enhanced by the creation of a common data format. This data format would provide the pathology and research communities with a uniform way for annotating and exchanging images, flow cytometry, and associated data. This specification and/or standard will include descriptions of the acquisition device, staining, the binary representations of the image and list-mode data, the measurements derived from the image and/or the list-mode data, and descriptors for clinical/pathology and research. An international, vendor-supported, non-proprietary specification will allow pathologists, researchers, and companies to develop and use image capture/analysis software, as well as list-mode analysis software, without worrying about incompatibilities between proprietary vendor formats. Presently, efforts to create specifications and/or descriptions of these formats include the Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification; extensions to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM); Open Microscopy Environment (OME); Flowcyt, an extension to the present Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS); and CytometryML. The feasibility of creating a common data specification for digital microscopy and flow cytometry in a manner consistent with its use for medical devices and interoperability with both hospital information and picture archiving systems has been demonstrated by the creation of the CytometryML schemas. The feasibility of creating a software system for digital microscopy has been demonstrated by the OME. CytometryML consists of schemas that describe instruments and their measurements. These instruments include digital microscopes and flow cytometers. Optical components including the instruments' excitation and emission parts are described. The description of the measurements made by these instruments includes the tagged molecule, data acquisition subsystem, and the format of the list-mode and/or image data. Many

  5. Effects of leukotriene B4 in the human lung. Recruitment of neutrophils into the alveolar spaces without a change in protein permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T R; Pistorese, B P; Chi, E Y; Goodman, R B; Matthay, M A

    1989-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major product of human alveolar macrophages and has potent chemotactic activity for neutrophils (PMN) in vitro. To evaluate the effects of LTB4 in the normal human lung, we instilled LTB4 (5 X 10(-7)M, 10 ml) into a subsegment of the right middle lobe and 0.9% NaCl (10 ml) into a subsegment of the lingula using a fiberoptic bronchoscope in 12 healthy human volunteers. 4 h later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage of the same subsegments. Compared with the NaCl instillation, LTB4 caused a large increase in lavage total cells (NaCl = 6.8 +/- 1.0 X 10(6) vs. LTB4 = 26.4 +/- 5.0 X 10(6), P less than 0.01), most of which were PMN (NaCl = 12.2 +/- 4.6% vs. LTB4 = 55.7 +/- 6.0%, P less than 0.001). In contrast, there was only a small increase in lavage total protein, and the lavage total protein correlated weakly with lavage total cells and PMN. The production of superoxide anion by the lavage PMN in response to phorbol myristate acetate was similar to that of peripheral blood PMN. The migration of lavage PMN was normal toward the chemotactic peptide FMLP, but reduced toward LTB4 and zymosan-activated human serum. Morphometric analysis using transmission electron microscopy indicated a selective loss of small granules in the lung neutrophils as compared with peripheral blood neutrophils. The data indicate that in the normal human lung, LTB4 can recruit active PMN into the airspaces without causing a significant change in the protein permeability of the epithelial barrier. Images PMID:2553777

  6. CytometryML binary data standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2005-03-01

    CytometryML is a proposed new Analytical Cytology (Cytomics) data standard, which is based on a common set of XML schemas for encoding flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types (metadata). CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. The separation of the large binary data objects (list mode and image data) from the XML description of the metadata permits the metadata to be directly displayed, analyzed, and reported with standard commercial software packages; the direct use of XML languages; and direct interfacing with clinical information systems. The separation of the binary data into its own files simplifies parsing because all extraneous header data has been eliminated. The storage of images as two-dimensional arrays without any extraneous data, such as in the Adobe Photoshop RAW format, facilitates the development by scientists of their own analysis and visualization software. Adobe Photoshop provided the display infrastructure and the translation facility to interconvert between the image data from commercial formats and RAW format. Similarly, the storage and parsing of list mode binary data type with a group of parameters that are specified at compilation time is straight forward. However when the user is permitted at run-time to select a subset of the parameters and/or specify results of mathematical manipulations, the development of special software was required. The use of CytometryML will permit investigators to be able to create their own interoperable data analysis software and to employ commercially available software to disseminate their data.

  7. Aerosol delivery and safety of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease in young children with cystic fibrosis: a bronchoscopic study. Pulmozyme Pediatric Broncoscopy Study Group.

    PubMed

    Wagener, J S; Rock, M J; McCubbin, M M; Hamilton, S D; Johnson, C A; Ahrens, R C

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the delivery to the lungs and the short-term safety of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase, Pulmozyme) in children with cystic fibrosis younger than 5 years of age compared with older children. Patients between the ages of 3 months and 10 years had bronchoscopic examination with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after administration of an aerosol dose of 2.5 mg of rhDNase. After recovery from the procedure, patients were discharged home for an additional 13 days of rhDNase therapy. During this time adverse events were recorded to assess short-term safety. A total of 98 patients were enrolled, 65 (66%) aged 3 months to 5 years and 33 (34%) aged 5 years to 10 years. Deoxyribonuclease concentrations in BAL fluid were variable (interquartile range, 752 to 3943 micrograms/mL epithelial lining fluid [ELF]) and did not depend on patient age, weight, or height or differ when delivered through a mouthpiece or mask. The median value for the BAL DNA concentration in the younger group was 432 micrograms/mL ELF compared with 703 micrograms/mL ELF in the older patients. This study demonstrates the value of bronchoscopy and BAL for assessing nebulized medication delivery in young children and shows that aerosolized medications can be delivered to and are present in comparable amounts in the lower airways of younger and older children. Exposure to rhDNase appears to be safe over 2 weeks in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis. PMID:9787685

  8. Evaluation of Endotracheal Intubation with a Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope in Lateral Patient Positioning: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Wu; Lu, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Lei, Li-Pei; Fang, Xiang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an unmet need for a reliable method of airway management for patients in the lateral position. This prospective randomized controlled two-center study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of intubation using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in the lateral position during surgery. Methods: Seventy-two patients scheduled for elective nonobstetric surgery in the lateral decubitus position requiring tracheal intubation under general anesthesia at Lishui Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province and Jiaxing First Hospital of Zhejiang Province from April 1, 2015, to September 30, 2015, were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the supine position group (Group S, n = 38) and the lateral position group (Group L, n = 34). Experienced anesthetists performed tracheal intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope after general anesthesia. The time required for intubation, intubation success rates, and hemodynamic changes was recorded. Between-group differences were assessed using the Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Results: The median total time to tracheal intubation was significantly longer in Group S (140.0 [135.8, 150.0] s) compared to Group L (33.0 [24.0, 38.8] s) (P < 0.01). The first-attempt intubation success rate was significantly higher in Group L (97%) compared to Group S (16%). Hemodynamic changes immediately after intubation were more exaggerated in Group S compared to Group L (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Endotracheal intubation with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope may be an effective and timesaving technique for patients in the lateral position. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-IIR-16007814; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=13183. PMID:27569229

  9. Emphysema: coiling up the lungs, trick or treat?

    PubMed

    Bezzi, M; Mondoni, M; Sorino, C; Solidoro, P

    2015-08-01

    Lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is a minimally-invasive technique planned to achieve an improvement of exercise capacity and pulmonary function in subjects with advanced emphysema and hyperinflation. It has been proposed together with other bronchoscopic lung volume reduction approaches to reduce lung hyperinflation in emphysema as less invasive alternatives to LVRS and are currently under clinical investigation. Following the successful early experiences in previous pilot trials, recent studies allow further investigation into the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a multi-center setting in a larger group of patients. According to this studies we can state that LVR coil treatment results in significant clinical improvements in patients with severe emphysema, in multicenter analysis, with a good safety profile and sustained results for up to 1 year. The literature on endobronchial coils continues to look promising with an acceptable safety profile, and positive long-term follow-up data are certainly more and more available. However, further well-designed, blinded, placebo (or sham) controlled trials, and even randomized trials against LVRS (lung volume reduction surgery), are needed before routine clinical use can be recommended. This is true not only for endobronchial coils, but also for the whole field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. PMID:27427120

  10. Pulmonary infiltrates in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic approach using non-invasive and bronchoscopic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rano, A; Agusti, C; Jimenez, P; Angrill, J; Benito, N; Danes, C; Gonzalez, J; Rovira, M; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A; Torres, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent life threatening complication in immunocompromised patients, requiring early diagnosis and specific treatment. In the present study non-invasive and bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques were applied in patients with different non-HIV immunocompromised conditions to determine the aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates and to evaluate the impact of these methods on therapeutic decisions and outcome in this population.
METHODS—The non-invasive diagnostic methods included serological tests, blood antigen detection, and blood, nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), sputum and tracheobronchial aspirate (TBAS) cultures. Bronchoscopic techniques included fibrobronchial aspirate (FBAS), protected specimen brush (PSB), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Two hundred consecutive episodes of pulmonary infiltrates were prospectively evaluated during a 30 month period in 52 solid organ transplant recipients, 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 68 patients with haematological malignancies, and 27 patients requiring chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs.
RESULTS—An aetiological diagnosis was obtained in 162 (81%) of the 200 patients. The aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates was infectious in 125 (77%) and non-infectious in 37 (23%); 38 (19%) remained undiagnosed. The main infectious aetiologies were bacterial (48/125, 24%), fungal (33/125, 17%), and viral (20/125, 10%), and the most frequent pathogens were Aspergillus fumigatus (n=29), Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12). Among the non-infectious aetiologies, pulmonary oedema (16/37, 43%) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (10/37, 27%) were the most common causes. Non-invasive techniques led to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in 41% of the cases in which they were used; specifically, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 30/191 (16%); sputum cultures 27/88 (31%); NPW 9/50 (18

  11. Sealing of tracheoesophageal fistula using a Y stent through fiberoptic bronchoscope during general anesthesia under laryngeal mask airway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Yang, Pingliang; Zuo, Yunxia

    2014-01-01

    A 64-yr-old man was admitted because of repeated pneumonia. Both fiberoptic bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy revealed a large tracheoesophageal fistula (15 mm) in the right posterior trachea 1 cm beyond the carina. Coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy Y shaped stent was planned to seal this fistula under general anesthesia. We took advantage of laryngeal mask airway to insert the fiberoptic bronchoscope to guide the stent placement. Our method of sealing a large tracheoesophageal fistula with LMA under total intravenous anesthesia was successful. PMID:25664132

  12. Effect of Acute Hypercapnia on Outcomes and Predictive Risk Factors for Complications among Patients Receiving Bronchoscopic Interventions under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Zhang, Rujin; Yue, Yun; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute hypercapnia on surgery outcomes among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions under general anesthesia. Furthermore, independent predictive factors for surgery complications were analyzed. Method A total of 323 patients with airway stenosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. Each patient underwent interventional rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Arterial blood gas (ABG) was measured intraoperatively. In light of PaCO2 levels in ABG, patients were divided into three groups: Group C (control) (PaCO2:≤ 60 mmHg), Group M (moderate) (PaCO2:61–100 mmHg), and Group S (severe) (PaCO2: >100 mmHg). Parameters, including PaO2 levels and recovery delays, were compared across three groups. Complications among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions were evaluated as well. Independent predictive factors for surgery related complications were analyzed by multivariable regression method. Results Significant differences in weight (p=0.04), ASA IV (p=0.008), dyspnea index (p=0.003),COPD (p=0.02), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.002), severe stenosis severity (p=0.02), and stenosis locations among three groups were observed. Mild (PaCO2:~60 mmHg) to moderate (PaCO2:60–100 mmHg) hypercapnia was not associated with delayed recovery, whereas severe hypercapnia (PaCO2:>100 mmHg) was associated with delayed recovery, as well as declined PaO2 (p=0.00) and elevated blood glucose levels (p=0.00). The complications of bronchoscopic interventions included postoperative congestive heart failure (14 cases, 4.3%), tracheorrhagia (8 cases, 2.5%), delayed recovery (19 cases, 5.9%), and transfers to ICU after surgery (10 cases, 3.1%). The multivariable regression analysis showed that procedure duration (p=0.003), lobectomy (p=0.007), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.01), severe bronchial stenosis (p=0.01) and hypercapnia (p=0.02) were independent predictive factors for surgery related complications

  13. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  14. Fluorescence bronchoscopy for detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Doiron, D R; Profio, E; Vincent, R G; Dougherty, T J

    1979-07-01

    A system using the fluorescence bronchoscope has been designed for localization of small, early bronchogenic carcinoma by the fluorescence of previously injected hematoporphyrin derivative. The system included a 200W mercury vapor lamp and primary filter, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope with special violet-transmitting light conductor, secondary filter, and image intensifier tube. Tests indicated the system could detect a tumor only 100 micron thick at the expected concentration of hematoporphyrin derivative: 1 microgram/gm at 48 to 96 hours following intravenous injection at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. Examination of resected specimens (six of lung, one of esophagus) showed positive fluorescence in all cases, with fluorescence visible beyond the region visible under conventional white light examination. Fluorescence bronchoscopy has been performed on four patients thus far. Positive fluorescence was observed in all three cases where the tumor had been known to occur. Positive fluorescence was also observed in the patient with sputum positive for lung cancer, but negative x-ray film findings. However, additional examinations are required to demonstrate the smallest lesion that can be detected in vivo. PMID:446168

  15. [Treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax by electrocoagulation via a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a hysteroscope irrigation outer sheath as a thoracoscope].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, T; Nakamura, H

    1990-03-01

    Since 1981 in Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, the authors performed electro-coagulation therapy for air leakage from bullae (blebs) via a rigid thoracoscope in 31 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Among these patients, this treatment was unsuccessful in 14 patients (45.2%) because of 5 multiple or giant bullae and 9 cases in which it was impossible to visualize the bullae in the mediastinum or because of pleural adhesion. In order to widen the visual field and increase the mobility of the thoracoscope, we employed a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a hysteroscope outer sheath used for irrigation as a flexible thoracoscope. This method makes it possible to examine both mediastinal pleura and adhesive pleural space, and to electrocoagulate bullae which cannot be visualized by a rigid thoracoscope. It was possible to visualize the blebs in all 13 cases with spontaneous pneumothorax in which this examination was attempted. This therapeutic procedure causes the patients less pain and the hospitals more economical because no new thoracoscope is necessary. This method of thoracoscopic therapy of spontaneous pneumothorax using a fiberoptic bronchoscope is more successful, effective, economical and painless than by rigid thoracoscope and should be attempted before thoracotomy. PMID:2214384

  16. Lung donor selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  17. Lung donor selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  18. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  19. Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases: Diagnostic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai-Feng; Feng, Ruie; Cui, Han; Tian, Xinlun; Wang, Hanping; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Weihong; Lo, Bee Hong

    2016-06-01

    Diffuse cystic lung disease (DCLD) is a group of heterogeneous diseases that present as diffuse cystic changes in the lung on computed tomography of the chest. Most DCLD diseases are rare, although they might resemble common diseases such as emphysema and bronchiectasis. Main causes of DCLD include lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, amyloidosis, light-chain deposition disease, Sjögren syndrome, and primary or metastatic neoplasm. We discuss clinical factors that are helpful in the differential diagnosis of DCLDsuch as sex and age, symptoms and signs, extrapulmonary presentations, cigarette smoking, and family history. Investigations for DCLD include high-resolution computed tomography, biochemical and histopathological studies, genetic tests, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoscopic and video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsies. A proposed diagnostic algorithm would enhance ease of diagnosing most cases of DCLD. PMID:27231867

  20. Bronchial pleomorphic adenoma coexisting with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Akanabe, Kumi; Hamaguchi, Reo; Wakaki, Misa; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma usually occurs in the salivary glands but rarely in the trachea or bronchi. A 71-year-old man had abnormal shadows on a chest X-ray. Chest CT revealed one tumor in the right basal segment of the lung and another, in the left main bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the right tumor revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Right lower lobectomy and lymph node dissection were performed (pT2N0M0, stage IB). At the orifice of the left main bronchus, bronchoscopy identified a polypoid lesion nearly obstructing the airway. The lesion was resected with hot snare ablation. The histological examination revealed a mixture of epithelial and myxoid mesenchymal elements, characterized by ductal structures, squamous metaplasia, and cartilage tissue. The diagnosis was bronchial pleomorphic adenoma coexisting with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:21597416

  1. Fully Automated Pulmonary Lobar Segmentation: Influence of Different Prototype Software Programs onto Quantitative Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-ju; Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Dinkel, Julien; Hielscher, Thomas; Gompelmann, Daniela; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Surgical or bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques can be beneficial for heterogeneous emphysema. Post-processing software tools for lobar emphysema quantification are useful for patient and target lobe selection, treatment planning and post-interventional follow-up. We aimed to evaluate the inter-software variability of emphysema quantification using fully automated lobar segmentation prototypes. Material and Methods 66 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent CT for planning of BLVR were included. Emphysema quantification was performed using 2 modified versions of in-house software (without and with prototype advanced lung vessel segmentation; programs 1 [YACTA v.2.3.0.2] and 2 [YACTA v.2.4.3.1]), as well as 1 commercial program 3 [Pulmo3D VA30A_HF2] and 1 pre-commercial prototype 4 [CT COPD ISP ver7.0]). The following parameters were computed for each segmented anatomical lung lobe and the whole lung: lobar volume (LV), mean lobar density (MLD), 15th percentile of lobar density (15th), emphysema volume (EV) and emphysema index (EI). Bland-Altman analysis (limits of agreement, LoA) and linear random effects models were used for comparison between the software. Results Segmentation using programs 1, 3 and 4 was unsuccessful in 1 (1%), 7 (10%) and 5 (7%) patients, respectively. Program 2 could analyze all datasets. The 53 patients with successful segmentation by all 4 programs were included for further analysis. For LV, program 1 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 72 ml and the widest LoA of [-356, 499 ml] (p<0.05). Program 3 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 4% and the widest LoA of [-7, 14%] for EI (p<0.001). Conclusions Only a single software program was able to successfully analyze all scheduled data-sets. Although mean bias of LV and EV were relatively low in lobar quantification, ranges of disagreement were substantial in both of them. For longitudinal emphysema monitoring, not only scanning protocol but

  2. [Diagnosis and surgical treatment for small-sized peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Iyoda, A; Fujisawa, T; Moriya, Y

    2004-01-01

    Small-sized peripheral lung cancers have been detected more frequently as a result of recent developments in diagnostic imaging including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Although the diagnosis of small-sized peripheral lung cancers is difficult, it makes an adequate diagnosis possible using transbronchial fine needle aspiration cytology or a new thin-type bronchoscope. Surgical treatment using mini-thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery is effective for early stage small-sized peripheral lung cancers. Lesser resection of lung cancer may provide many benefits to patients, such as preserving vital lung tissue and providing the chance for further resection if a second primary lung cancer develops, however, lobectomy with systematic hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissection should remain the standard surgical treatment, and an intentional limited resection should be adopted for very limited patients with a definitive early stage because of recurrence rates. PMID:14733091

  3. The CellML 1.1 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Autumn; Hedley, Warren; Nelson, Melanie; Lloyd, Catherine; Halstead, Matt; Bullivant, David; Nickerson, David; Hunter, Peter; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This document specifies CellML 1.1, an XML-based language for describing and exchanging models of cellular and subcellular processes. MathML embedded in CellML documents is used to define the underlying mathematics of models. Models consist of a network of reusable components, each with variables and equations manipulating those variables. Models may import other models to create systems of increasing complexity. Metadata may be embedded in CellML documents using RDF. PMID:26528557

  4. Assessing Bacterial Populations in the Lung by Replicate Analysis of Samples from the Upper and Lower Respiratory Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Diamond, Joshua M.; Li, Hongzhe; Collman, Ronald G.; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2012-01-01

    Microbes of the human respiratory tract are important in health and disease, but accurate sampling of the lung presents challenges. Lung microbes are commonly sampled by bronchoscopy, but to acquire samples the bronchoscope must pass through the upper respiratory tract, which is rich in microbes. Here we present methods to identify authentic lung microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid that contains substantial oropharyngeal admixture. We studied clinical BAL samples from six selected subjects with potential heavy lung colonization. A single sample of BAL fluid was obtained from each subject along with contemporaneous oral wash (OW) to sample the oropharynx, and then DNA was extracted from three separate aliquots of each. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and products analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. By comparing replicates, we were able to specify the depth of sequencing needed to reach a 95% chance of identifying a bacterial lineage of a given proportion—for example, at a depth of 5,000 tags, OTUs of proportion 0.3% or greater would be called with 95% confidence. We next constructed a single-sided outlier test that allowed lung-enriched organisms to be quantified against a background of oropharyngeal admixture, and assessed improvements available with replicate sequence analysis. This allowed identification of lineages enriched in lung in some BAL specimens. Finally, using samples from healthy volunteers collected at multiple sites in the upper respiratory tract, we show that OW provides a reasonable but not perfect surrogate for bacteria carried into to the lung by a bronchoscope. These methods allow identification of microbes that can replicate in the lung despite the background due to oropharyngeal microbes derived from aspiration and bronchoscopic carry-over. PMID:22970118

  5. Endobronchial polyp derived from a myxosarcoma in the lung of a dog.

    PubMed

    Hill, Richard C; Ginn, Pamela E; Thompson, Margret S; Seguin, M Alexis; Miller, Daphne; Taylor, David P

    2008-01-01

    An endobronchial polyp was visible radiographically and bronchoscopically in an 11-year-old, mixed-breed dog with a persistent cough. The polyp was removed by traction. Initial histological examination suggested it was a myxomatous fibroma. The cough resolved but recurred with polyp regrowth. Two additional lung masses became visible radiographically. The polyp was removed twice more at 6-month intervals. Euthanasia was performed 15 months after first presentation when coughing recurred soon after the final bronchoscopy. Histological examination revealed that the mass was a myxomatous sarcoma. The lung contained two other unrelated tumors: a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and a carcinoma of unknown origin. PMID:18981198

  6. [Anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung with anomalous return of V6].

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Jotaro; Handa, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro

    2014-11-01

    The patient was 52-year-old woman. Her chief compliant was bloody sputum. The computed tomography revealed an anomalous artery from descending aorta running into left lung basal segment and anomalous left V6 return to superior pulmonary vein. The bronchoscopic examination showed normal bronchial branches. Under the diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung without sequestration, left lower lobectomy was performed. Microscopically, the pulmonary artery showed intimal thickening and alveolar collapse with interstitial fibrosis were seen. The postoperative course was uneventful and she discharged at 6th postoperative day. PMID:25391467

  7. jmzML, an open-source Java API for mzML, the PSI standard for MS data.

    PubMed

    Côté, Richard G; Reisinger, Florian; Martens, Lennart

    2010-04-01

    We here present jmzML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzML data standard. Based on the Java Architecture for XML Binding and XPath-based XML indexer random-access XML parser, jmzML can handle arbitrarily large files in minimal memory, allowing easy and efficient processing of mzML files using the Java programming language. jmzML also automatically resolves internal XML references on-the-fly. The library (which includes a viewer) can be downloaded from http://jmzml.googlecode.com. PMID:20127693

  8. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Transplant? A lung transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased lung ... a healthy lung from a deceased donor. Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to ...

  9. A heterochronic genetic change from an EGFR mutation to an ALK rearrangement in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Hayama, Manabu; Nishihara, Takashi; Nishida, Takuji; Tanaka, Ayako; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-05-01

    An 87-year-old man with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma was treated with gefitinib. At the beginning of treatment, surgically resected archived tumor tissue revealed a deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene, but no ALK gene rearrangement. After gefitinib treatment for 9 months, the disease progressed. Bronchoscopic rebiopsy was used to evaluate resistance mechanisms, and revealed lung adenocarcinoma with wild-type EGFR genes and a newly emerged ALK gene rearrangement. Treatment was switched to alectinib and a partial response was achieved within 4 weeks. This is a rare case of heterochronic genetic change to an ALK gene rearrangement in EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27162697

  10. A heterochronic genetic change from an EGFR mutation to an ALK rearrangement in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Motohiro; Hayama, Manabu; Nishihara, Takashi; Nishida, Takuji; Tanaka, Ayako; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    An 87-year-old man with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma was treated with gefitinib. At the beginning of treatment, surgically resected archived tumor tissue revealed a deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene, but no ALK gene rearrangement. After gefitinib treatment for 9 months, the disease progressed. Bronchoscopic rebiopsy was used to evaluate resistance mechanisms, and revealed lung adenocarcinoma with wild-type EGFR genes and a newly emerged ALK gene rearrangement. Treatment was switched to alectinib and a partial response was achieved within 4 weeks. This is a rare case of heterochronic genetic change to an ALK gene rearrangement in EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27162697

  11. jTraML: An Open Source Java API for TraML, the PSI Standard for Sharing SRM Transitions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We here present jTraML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative TraML data standard. The library provides fully functional classes for all elements specified in the TraML XSD document, as well as convenient methods to construct controlled vocabulary-based instances required to define SRM transitions. The use of jTraML is demonstrated via a two-way conversion tool between TraML documents and vendor specific files, facilitating the adoption process of this new community standard. The library is released as open source under the permissive Apache2 license and can be downloaded from http://jtraml.googlecode.com. TraML files can also be converted online at http://iomics.ugent.be/jtraml. PMID:21967198

  12. jTraML: an open source Java API for TraML, the PSI standard for sharing SRM transitions.

    PubMed

    Helsens, Kenny; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Deutsch, Eric; Moritz, Robert L; Martens, Lennart

    2011-11-01

    We here present jTraML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative TraML data standard. The library provides fully functional classes for all elements specified in the TraML XSD document, as well as convenient methods to construct controlled vocabulary-based instances required to define SRM transitions. The use of jTraML is demonstrated via a two-way conversion tool between TraML documents and vendor specific files, facilitating the adoption process of this new community standard. The library is released as open source under the permissive Apache2 license and can be downloaded from http://jtraml.googlecode.com . TraML files can also be converted online at http://iomics.ugent.be/jtraml . PMID:21967198

  13. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  14. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC: EXISTING ML NO. 3 LAUNCHER. Sheet A1 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  16. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  17. CellML metadata standards, associated tools and repositories

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Daniel A.; Britten, Randall; Cooling, Mike T.; Garny, Alan; Halstead, Matt D.B.; Hunter, Peter J.; Lawson, James; Lloyd, Catherine M.; Marsh, Justin; Miller, Andrew; Nickerson, David P.; Nielsen, Poul M.F.; Nomura, Taishin; Subramanium, Shankar; Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Yu, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    The development of standards for encoding mathematical models is an important component of model building and model sharing among scientists interested in understanding multi-scale physiological processes. CellML provides such a standard, particularly for models based on biophysical mechanisms, and a substantial number of models are now available in the CellML Model Repository. However, there is an urgent need to extend the current CellML metadata standard to provide biological and biophysical annotation of the models in order to facilitate model sharing, automated model reduction and connection to biological databases. This paper gives a broad overview of a number of new developments on CellML metadata and provides links to further methodological details available from the CellML website. PMID:19380315

  18. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nafe, Laura A.; Robertson, Ian D.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  19. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; Robertson, Ian D; Hawkins, Eleanor C

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  20. Real time ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy: Is it a better option than bronchoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Parli Raghavan; Vijay, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided percutaneous tracheostomy (USPCT) and bronchoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy (BPCT) and the incidence of complications in critically ill, obese patients. Methods Seventy four consecutive patients were included in a prospective study and randomly divided into USPCT and BPCT. Incidence of complications, ease and efficacy were compared in obese USPCT (n = 38)and BPCT (n = 36). Results are expressed as the median (25th–75th percentile) or number (percentage). Results The median times for tracheostomy were 12 min (9–14) in USPCT patients and 18 min (12–21.5) in BPCT (p = 0.05). The overall complication rate was higher in BPCT than USPCT patient group (75% vs. 321%, p < 0.05). Most complications were minor (hypotension, desaturation, tracheal cuff puncture and minor bleeding) and of higher number in the BPCT. Ultrasound-guided PCT was possible in all enrolled patients and there were no surgical conversions or deaths. Conclusions This study demonstrated that real US-guided PCT is a favourable alternative to BPCT with a low complication rate and ease, thus proving more efficacious. A US examination provides information on cervical anatomy, vasculature etc. and hence modifies and guides choice of the PCT puncture site. PMID:25859079

  1. Lung Cell Oxidant Injury

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, Norbert; Simon, Lawrence M.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidant damage of lung tissue during in vivo hyperoxic exposure appears to be amplified by neutrophils that release toxic amounts of oxygen metabolites. In our studies cloned lung epithelial cells (L2 cells), lung fibroblasts, and pulmonary artery endothelial cells were cultured under either ambient (Po2 ∼ 140 torr) or hyperoxic (Po2 ∼ 630 torr) conditions for 48 h (24 h for endothelial cells). After cultivation, phorbol myristate acetate- or opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophils were added to the cultivated monolayers for 4 h, and lung cell damage was quantitated using 51Cr release as an index. The data show that stimulated neutrophils are able to injure the three lung cell lines tested, with endothelial cells being highly susceptible to this injury and L2 cells being slightly more susceptible than lung fibroblasts. The studies also demonstrate that all three lung cell lines exposed to sustained hyperoxia are more susceptible to neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity than their time-matched air controls. Hydrogen peroxide was the main toxic oxygen metabolite because catalase (2,500 U/ml) completely protected the target cells. Equivalent quantities of hydrogen peroxide generated by glucose oxidase instead of by neutrophils gave a similar degree of target cell injury. Superoxide dismutase at high concentrations (250 μg/ml) provided some protection. Other systems that detoxify oxygen metabolites were without protective effect. These findings indicate that the increase in susceptibility of lung cells to neutrophil-mediated oxidant damage is a toxic effect of hyperoxia on lung cells. This specific manifestation of oxygen damage provides insight into the integration between primary mechanisms (oxygen exposure) and secondary mechanisms (release of oxygen metabolites by neutrophils) with respect to the cellular basis for pulmonary oxygen toxicity. PMID:6284800

  2. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  3. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  4. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  5. The jmzQuantML programming interface and validator for the mzQuantML data standard.

    PubMed

    Qi, Da; Krishna, Ritesh; Jones, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    The mzQuantML standard from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has recently been released, capturing quantitative data about peptides and proteins, following analysis of MS data. We present a Java application programming interface (API) for mzQuantML called jmzQuantML. The API provides robust bridges between Java classes and elements in mzQuantML files and allows random access to any part of the file. The API provides read and write capabilities, and is designed to be embedded in other software packages, enabling mzQuantML support to be added to proteomics software tools (http://code.google.com/p/jmzquantml/). The mzQuantML standard is designed around a multilevel validation system to ensure that files are structurally and semantically correct for different proteomics quantitative techniques. In this article, we also describe a Java software tool (http://code.google.com/p/mzquantml-validator/) for validating mzQuantML files, which is a formal part of the data standard. PMID:24453188

  6. The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Michael T; Hunter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 is a modular framework that describes how semantic annotations should be made about mathematical models encoded in the CellML (www.cellml.org) format, and their elements. In addition to the Core specification, there are several satellite specifications, each designed to cater for model annotation in a different context. Basic Model Information, Citation, License and Biological Annotation specifications are presented. PMID:26528558

  7. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  8. Lung cancer: chemoprevention and intermediate effect markers.

    PubMed

    Tockman, M S

    2001-01-01

    Even after smoking cessation, genetic damage in the airways epithelium may lead to focal progression of lung carcinogenesis. Some centres now report as many new lung cancer cases among former smokers as among current smokers. Chemoprevention is a potential approach to diminish the progression of pre-clinical genetic damage. The most intensively studied lung cancer chemoprevention agents are the retinoids, including vitamin A and its synthetic analogues and precursors. While effective in suppressing lung carcinogenesis in animal models, retinoids have failed to inhibit carcinogenesis in human chemoprevention trials with premalignant end-points (sputum atypia, bronchial metaplasia). In trials with lung cancer end-points, administration of retinoids either was ineffective or, in the case of beta-carotene, led to greater lung cancer incidence and mortality. In view of these findings, markers of specific retinoid effect (i.e., levels of RAR-beta) become less relevant. Other markers of genetic instability and proliferation may be useful for both early detection and potentially as intermediate-effect markers for new chemoprevention trials. Cytological atypia, bronchial metaplasia, protein (hnRNP A2/B1) overexpression, ras oncogene activation and tumour-suppressor gene deletion, genomic instability (loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite alterations), abnormal methylation, helical CT detection of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and fluorescent bronchoscopic detection of angiogenic squamous dysplasia offer great promise for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer far in advance of clinical presentation. These end-points can now be evaluated as monitors of response to chemoprevention as potential intermediate-effect markers. PMID:11220665

  9. [Therapy of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Reinmuth, N; Gröschel, A; Schumann, C; Sebastian, M; Wiewrodt, R; Reck, M

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for the leading cause of cancer deaths in Germany and is characterized by early metastasis formation. The majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will receive systemic therapy for treatment of their disease. Importantly together with the identification of targetable oncogenic alterations, systemic treatment of NSCLC has dramatically changed in recent years with the implementation of various new agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti angiogenic agents, and immune modulating drugs. However, these new therapeutic options also challenge the treating physician since molecular, histologic, and clinical factors need to be considered for the clinical decision-making. Moreover, supportive therapy including bronchoscopic therapy has evolved. The following therapy recommendations will summarize the up-to date treatment strategies for metastatic NSCLC. PMID:27603945

  10. [Lung Volume Reduction Surgery - State of the Art 2016].

    PubMed

    Caviezel, C; Franzen, D; Inci, I; Weder, W

    2016-09-01

    In a number of large case series in the mid-1990s, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was shown to reduce dyspnoea and improve pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema. The large randomised National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) confirmed this in the early 2000s and also demonstrated that selected patients live longer after surgery. Patient selection is crucial to the success of the procedure and should be performed at a specialised experienced centre with a multidisciplinary team approach on emphysema treatment. The upper-lobe predominant heterogeneous type of emphysema is the best indication, but there are other types of emphysema morphology that are also eligible for surgery, if ideally chosen. Nowadays there is also growing evidence for positive effects after different types of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with increasing quality. These methods add to the range of multimodal emphysema treatment. PMID:27607886

  11. From WaterML to TimeseriesML: Evolution and implications for cross-domain data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctur, D. K.; Taylor, P.; Lowe, D.; Tomkins, J.; Teng, W. L.; Ames, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    WaterML 2.0 part 1 was adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in 2012 as an international standard profile of the Observations and Measurements conceptual model, for exchange of water observations time series data. It is implemented by national data producers such as the US Geological Survey for surface water time series, the NOAA/National Weather Service for forecast time series, the French Geological Survey for groundwater level monitoring, and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for surface water observations. But WaterML 2.0 is not "just for water". The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has recognized its potential role as a common time series description that could work for multiple application domains such as meteorology, climate, oceanography, and others. Accordingly, the WMO requested the OGC to migrate the non-hydrology parts of WaterML 2.0 to a new standard to be called TimeseriesML. This would then be considered by WMO for adoption as an operational standard globally. What does this mean for the geosciences? How far can this time series description be applied? What about time series of satellite retrievals? What will happen to WaterML 2.0 (and applications that work with it) when TimeseriesML is finished? These are among the questions we address in this presentation.

  12. QuakeML 2.0: Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Kästli, Philipp; Heiniger, Lukas; Saul, Joachim; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Clinton, John

    2016-04-01

    QuakeML is a community-backed data model for seismic event parameter description. Its current version 1.2, released in 2013, has become the gold standard for parametric data dissemination at seismological data centers, and has been adopted as an FDSN standard. It is supported by several popular software products and data services, such as FDSN event web services, QuakePy, and SeisComP3. Work on the successor version 2.0 is under way since 2015. The scope of QuakeML has been expanded beyond event parameter description. Thanks to a modular architecture, many thematic packages have been added, which cover peak ground motion, site and station characterization, hydraulic parameters of borehole injection processes, and macroseismics. The first three packages can be considered near final and implementations of program codes and SQL databases are in productive use at various institutions. A public community review process has been initiated in order to turn them into community-approved standards. The most recent addition is a package for single station quake location, which allows a detailed probabilistic description of event parameters recorded at a single station. This package adds some information elements such as angle of incidence, frequency-dependent phase picks, and dispersion relations. The package containing common data types has been extended with a generic type for probability density functions. While on Earth, single station methods are niche applications, they are of prominent interest in planetary seismology, e.g., the NASA InSight mission to Mars. So far, QuakeML is lacking a description of seismic instrumentation (inventory). There are two existing standards of younger age (FDSN StationXML and SeisComP3 Inventory XML). We discuss their respective strengths, differences, and how they could be combined into an inventory package for QuakeML, thus allowing full interoperability with other QuakeML data types. QuakeML is accompanied by QuakePy, a Python package

  13. ML314: A Biased Neurotensin Receptor Ligand for Methamphetamine Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barak, Larry S; Bai, Yushi; Peterson, Sean; Evron, Tama; Urs, Nikhil M; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Hedrick, Michael P; Hershberger, Paul; Maloney, Patrick R; Chung, Thomas D Y; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Thomas, James B; Hanson, Glen R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Caron, Marc G

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine addiction will provide important societal benefits. Neurotensin receptor NTR1 and dopamine receptor distributions coincide in brain areas regulating methamphetamine-associated reward, and neurotensin peptides produce behaviors opposing psychostimulants. Therefore, undesirable methamphetamine-associated activities should be treatable with druggable NTR1 agonists, but no such FDA-approved therapeutics exist. We address this limitation with proof-of-concept data for ML314, a small-molecule, brain penetrant, β-arrestin biased, NTR1 agonist. ML314 attenuates amphetamine-like hyperlocomotion in dopamine transporter knockout mice, and in C57BL/6J mice it attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, potentiates the psychostimulant inhibitory effects of a ghrelin antagonist, and reduces methamphetamine-associated conditioned place preference. In rats, ML314 blocks methamphetamine self-administration. ML314 acts as an allosteric enhancer of endogenous neurotensin, unmasking stoichiometric numbers of hidden NTR1 binding sites in transfected-cell membranes or mouse striatal membranes, while additionally supporting NTR1 endocytosis in cells in the absence of NT peptide. These results indicate ML314 is a viable, preclinical lead for methamphetamine abuse treatment and support an allosteric model of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:27119457

  14. ML 3.1 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-10-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the Aztec 2.1 and AztecOO iterative package [16]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  15. ML 3.0 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Az = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the AZTEC 2.1 and AZTECOO iterative package [15]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and non-symmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  16. Forming Centaurus A's High M/L Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauda Bovill, Mia; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Ricotti, Massimo; Taylor, Matthew Alan

    2015-08-01

    Using a set of high resolution N-body simulations, we develop a formation model for the high M/L globular clusters recently found around Centaurus A. In our model, the high M/L clusters are not true globular clusters, but rather the stripped cores of dwarf galaxies which underwent an epoch of efficient, concentrated star formation, possibly before or during the epoch of reionization. Given the known stellar masses of these objects, their halos virialized with relatively high masses and high redshift, falling into the Centaurus A with > 109 Msolar. These criteria give us a distribution of surviving subhalos which is consistent with the number and three dimensional distribution of the high M/L clusters within 100 pc of Centaurus A.

  17. Advanced therapies for COPD—What’s on the horizon? Progress in lung volume reduction and lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity. Treatment options beyond conventional medical therapies are limited to a minority of patients. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) although effective in selected subgroups of patients is not commonly undertaken. Morbidity associated with the procedure has contributed to this low utilisation. In response to this, less invasive bronchoscopic lung volume techniques are being developed to attempt to mitigate some of the risks and costs associated with surgery. Of these, endobronchial valve therapy is the most comprehensively studied although the presence of collateral ventilation in a significant proportion of patients has compromised its widespread utility. Bronchial thermal vapour ablation and lung volume reduction (LVR) coils are not dependent on collateral ventilation. These techniques have shown promise in early clinical trials; ongoing work will establish whether they have a role in the management of advanced COPD. Lung transplantation, although effective in selected patients for palliation of symptoms and improving survival, is limited by donor organ availability and economic constraint. Reconditioning marginal organs previously declined for transplantation with ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is one potential strategy in improving the utilisation of donor organs. By increasing the donor pool, it is hoped lung transplantation might be more accessible for patients with advanced COPD into the future. PMID:25478204

  18. Advanced therapies for COPD-What's on the horizon? Progress in lung volume reduction and lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Michael A; Hopkins, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity. Treatment options beyond conventional medical therapies are limited to a minority of patients. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) although effective in selected subgroups of patients is not commonly undertaken. Morbidity associated with the procedure has contributed to this low utilisation. In response to this, less invasive bronchoscopic lung volume techniques are being developed to attempt to mitigate some of the risks and costs associated with surgery. Of these, endobronchial valve therapy is the most comprehensively studied although the presence of collateral ventilation in a significant proportion of patients has compromised its widespread utility. Bronchial thermal vapour ablation and lung volume reduction (LVR) coils are not dependent on collateral ventilation. These techniques have shown promise in early clinical trials; ongoing work will establish whether they have a role in the management of advanced COPD. Lung transplantation, although effective in selected patients for palliation of symptoms and improving survival, is limited by donor organ availability and economic constraint. Reconditioning marginal organs previously declined for transplantation with ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is one potential strategy in improving the utilisation of donor organs. By increasing the donor pool, it is hoped lung transplantation might be more accessible for patients with advanced COPD into the future. PMID:25478204

  19. Early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Early detection and surgical resection is essential for the treatment of lung cancer. Although the introduction of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) is considered to be one of the most promising clinical research developments, CT screening is used for detecting small peripheral lesions. Tumors arising in the central airways require other techniques for early detection. Centrally arising squamous cell carcinoma of the airway, especially in heavy smokers, is thought to develop through multiple stages from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia, followed by carcinoma in situ (CIS), progressing to invasive cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions defined as dysplasia and CIS before progressing to invasive cancer. Great efforts have been made to develop new mucosal imaging techniques. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques capable of detecting preinvasive lesions and currently available in clinical practice include autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), high magnification ronchovideoscope, and narrow band imaging (NBI). For a more precise evaluation of newly detected preinvasive lesions, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used. PMID:20172431

  20. AstroML: Python-powered Machine Learning for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Plas, Jake; Connolly, A. J.; Ivezic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    As astronomical data sets grow in size and complexity, automated machine learning and data mining methods are becoming an increasingly fundamental component of research in the field. The astroML project (http://astroML.org) provides a common repository for practical examples of the data mining and machine learning tools used and developed by astronomical researchers, written in Python. The astroML module contains a host of general-purpose data analysis and machine learning routines, loaders for openly-available astronomical datasets, and fast implementations of specific computational methods often used in astronomy and astrophysics. The associated website features hundreds of examples of these routines being used for analysis of real astronomical datasets, while the associated textbook provides a curriculum resource for graduate-level courses focusing on practical statistics, machine learning, and data mining approaches within Astronomical research. This poster will highlight several of the more powerful and unique examples of analysis performed with astroML, all of which can be reproduced in their entirety on any computer with the proper packages installed.

  1. DocML: A Digital Library of University Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Ioannis; Karakoidas, Vassileios; Chrissikopoulos, Vassileios

    2002-01-01

    Describes DocML, a Web-based digital library of university data that is used to build a system capable of preserving and managing student assignments. Topics include requirements for a digital library of university data; metadata and XML; three-tier architecture; user interface; searching; browsing; content delivery; and administrative issues.…

  2. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC VIEW: MLP NO. 1. Sheet A10 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  4. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  5. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  6. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... balloon-like tissues (blebs) that cause lung collapse ( pneumothorax ) Wedge resection, to remove part of a lobe ... Treat injuries that cause lung tissue to collapse ( pneumothorax or hemothorax ) Treat permanently collapsed lung tissue ( atelectasis ) ...

  7. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a total collapse, it is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, ...

  8. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  9. Magnetic Navigation System for Thoracoscopic Surgery: a Partial Lung Resection with Transbronchial Marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Terauchi, Kunihiko; Yanada, Masashi; Shimomura, Masanori; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    In order to detect and track a small magnet embedded in the vicinity of a target tumor during surgery, we have developed a magnetic navigation system based on three-dimensional measurements with micro-fluxgate magnetic sensors. In this paper, we present an image overlay method for superimposing the embedded magnetic marker through a bronchoscope. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system and its applicability in clinical use, we set up an in vivo experiment, in which surgeons used this system to perform thoracoscopic surgery on a pig with transbronchial marking and oblique-viewing, and we succeeded in a partial resection of the pig lung including the target area. Next, we tried a wedge resection for a lung tumor in a clinical case. We successfully performed the partial resection of the lung including the target area, which corresponded to the tumor lesion, under the guidance of the magnetic navigation system.

  10. Lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the nasopharynx following bronchoscopy intervention therapies: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the nasopharynx is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe the case of a patient with a mass in the nasopharynx found by bronchoscopy. Our patient was a 61-year-old man receiving multiple bronchoscopy intervention therapies for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which was histopathologically confirmed. The SCC metastasized to the nasopharynx following the bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The lesion was considered metastatic from lung cancer on the basis of clinical and histological clues. The exact mechanism of lung cancer metastasis to the nasopharynx in this case remains unclear because either implantation or hematogenous and lymphatic spread is possible. A thorough head and neck examination should be undertaken during bronchoscopic evaluation, especially in patients receiving bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The early detection of a silent nasopharyngeal metastasis is important to choosing from among the multiple treatment options available. PMID:24673971

  11. A rare case of lung carcinoma with mucoepidermoid histopathology: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David; Modi, Yashpal; Dorai, Bhuvaneswari; Guron, Gunwant

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung is exceedingly rare. Our case involves a 58-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath, dysphagia, and weight loss. He denied ever smoking. Chest x-ray revealed trapped lung, and CT demonstrated a right bronchial mass. Diagnosis of lung carcinoma was made by bronchoscopic FNA biopsy. EGFR mutation was negative. Staging workup demonstrated evidence of advanced disease. Performance status was good, and it was decided to start chemotherapy and radiation for palliation. Lung carcinomas often present as an obstructing hilar mass. There are different histological grades that affect progression and survival. Though uncommon, metastatic spread has been previously reported. Studies have investigated the possible role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in both EGFR-mutated and non-mutated cases. Unfortunately, there has been little consensus as to which therapies are most beneficial. PMID:25887880

  12. Modeling Off-Nominal Behavior in SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Donahue, Kenneth; Ingham, Michel; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew K.; Post, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Specification and development of fault management functionality in systems is performed in an ad hoc way - more of an art than a science. Improvements to system reliability, availability, safety and resilience will be limited without infusion of additional formality into the practice of fault management. Key to the formalization of fault management is a precise representation of off-nominal behavior. Using the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission for source material, we have modeled the off-nominal behavior of the SMAP system during its initial spin-up activity, using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In the course of developing these models, we have developed generic patterns for capturing off-nominal behavior in SysML. We show how these patterns provide useful ways of reasoning about the system (e.g., checking for completeness and effectiveness) and allow the automatic generation of typical artifacts (e.g., success trees and FMECAs) used in system analyses.

  13. Evaluation of alternative capping layers for EUVL mask ML blank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pei-yang; Spiller, Eberhard; Gullikson, Eric; Hill, Shannon

    2005-11-01

    The standard silicon (Si) capping layer used for extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL) multilayer (ML) mask blanks has some shortcomings, such as low oxidation resistance, low chemical resistance, low etch selectivity in either the SiO2 buffer layer etch to the capping layer or the absorber etch (e.g., TaN) to the capping layer. These performance and process issues with Si capped ML mask blank will reduce the mask lifetime and require tighter process control during EUVL mask fabrication. Alternative capping materials have been investigated for both EUVL optics and for mask applications.1-5 It has been initially demonstrated that Ru capping layers have high oxidation resistance and high mask process margin as compared to Si ML cap. In this paper, we will present a detailed evaluation of Ru and ion beam deposited (IBD) diamond-like-carbon (DLC) for EUVL mask application. Performance evaluations of the DLC mask blank capping layer and Ru capping layer were made in the area of reflectivity performance, shelf-life, and EUV exposure stability. It has been shown that EUV exposure induced capping layer change depends upon the exposure conditions. However, we found that as long as the induced relative change in the ML cap material are the same (e.g., the same amount of oxidation), regardless of exposure time and exposure conditions, the resulting reflectivity change is about the same. In the case of the two capping layer materials we evaluated, the capping surface reaction with active oxygen is the primary cause for the reflectivity degradation.

  14. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK A. Sheet A13 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 1 & 2. Sheet A15 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS I. Sheet A17 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS II. Sheet A18 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 3 & 4. Sheet A16 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK 0. Sheet A12 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK B. Sheet A14 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. IBM techexplorer and MathML: Interactive Multimodal Scientific Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Angel

    2001-06-01

    The World Wide Web provides a standard publishing platform for disseminating scientific and technical articles, books, journals, courseware, or even homework on the internet; however, the transition from paper to web-based interactive content has brought new opportunities for creating interactive content. Students, scientists, and engineers are now faced with the task of rendering the 2D presentational structure of mathematics, harnessing the wealth of scientific and technical software, and creating truly accessible scientific portals across international boundaries and markets. The recent emergence of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards such as the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), Language (XSL), and Aural CSS (ACSS) provide a foundation whereby mathematics can be displayed, enlivened, computed, and audio formatted. With interoperability ensured by standards, software applications can be easily brought together to create extensible and interactive scientific content. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the IBM techexplorer Hypermedia Browser, a web browser plug-in and ActiveX control aimed at bringing interactive mathematics to the masses across platforms and applications. We will demonstrate "live" mathematics where documents that contain MathML expressions can be edited and computed right inside your favorite web browser. This demonstration will be generalized as we show how MathML can be used to enliven even PowerPoint presentations. Finally, we will close the loop by demonstrating a novel approach to spoken mathematics based on MathML, DOM, XSL, ACSS, techexplorer, and IBM ViaVoice. By making use of techexplorer as the glue that binds the rendered content to the web browser, the back-end computation software, the Java applets that augment the exposition, and voice-rendering systems such as ViaVoice, authors can indeed create truly extensible and interactive scientific content. For more information see: [http

  2. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS IV. Sheet A20 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  4. Mass Spectrometer Output File Format mzML

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important technique for analyzing proteins and other biomolecular compounds in biological samples. Each of the vendors of these mass spectrometers uses a different proprietary binary output file format, which has hindered data sharing and the development of open source software for downstream analysis. The solution has been to develop, with the full participation of academic researchers as well as software and hardware vendors, an open XML-based format for encoding mass spectrometer output files, and then to write software to use this format for archiving, sharing, and processing. This chapter presents the various components and information available for this format, mzML. In addition to the XML schema that defines the file structure, a controlled vocabulary provides clear terms and definitions for the spectral metadata, and a semantic validation rules mapping file allows the mzML semantic validator to insure that an mzML document complies with one of several levels of requirements. Complete documentation and example files insure that the format may be uniformly implemented. At the time of release there already existed several implementations of the format and vendors have committed to supporting the format in their products. PMID:20013381

  5. 026. Papillary adenoma of the lung: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Baliaka, Aggeliki; Tryfon, Stavros; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Cheva, Angeliki; Papastergiou, Christos; Sakkas, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    Background Papillary adenoma of the lung is a rare neoplasm with only 24 cases reported in the current literature. It occurs in individuals range in age, from 7-60 years with a male predominance and is usually detected incidentally on chest radiographs. Objective The report of a rare case of pulmonary papillary adenoma. Methods A 70-year-old male presented to our Hospital with cough and expectoration. The chest radiological examination demonstrated a nodular shadow two cm in size at the upper lobe of the left lung. Bronchoscopic lung biopsy was performed and the tissue sample was sent for histological examination. Results Pathology examination revealed a lesion consisting of a papillary growth pattern of cuboidal to columnar, ciliated epithelial cells lining the surface of fibrovascular cores. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were noted, but nuclear atypia or mitosis were almost absent. The histological features were consistent with pulmonary papillary adenoma. Conclusions Papillary adenoma of the lung is a benign, circumscribed papillary neoplasm (WHO 2004). Its rarity and shared histologic features of other benign and malignant tumors, such as alveolar adenoma, papillary adenocarcinomas including metastatic thyroid carcinoma, bronchoalveolar carcinoma and papillary carcinoid tumor, demand special attention for diagnosis. In our case, the pathologic criteria, such as papillary growth pattern and cytologic features, were sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of papillary adenoma of the lung.

  6. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Biing-Ru; Chen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs). We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients. Methods In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008). Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007) and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013). Results A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001) and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001). The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001). In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001). Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period. Conclusions Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications. PMID:26545094

  7. Bronchoscopic diagnosis of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Baselski, V S; Wunderink, R G

    1994-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality but also by a relative inability to establish a specific etiologic agent on clinical grounds alone. With the recognized shortcomings of expectorated or aspirated secretions toward establishing an etiologic diagnosis, clinicians have increasingly used bronchoscopy to obtain diagnostic samples. A variety of specimen types may be obtained, including bronchial washes or brushes, protected specimen brushings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial biopsies. Bronchoscopy has been applied in three primary clinical settings, including the immunocompromised host, especially human immunodeficiency virus-infected and organ transplant patients; ventilator-associated pneumonia; and severe, nonresolving community- or hospital-acquired pneumonia in nonventilated patients. In each clinical setting, and for each specimen type, specific laboratory protocols are required to provide maximal information. These protocols should provide for the use of a variety of rapid microscopic and quantitative culture techniques and the use of a variety of specific stains and selective culture to detect unusual organism groups. PMID:7834604

  8. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  9. Effects of contrast material on computed tomographic measurements of lung volumes in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Bouhemad, Bélaid; Richecoeur, Jack; Lu, Qin; Malbouisson, Luiz M; Cluzel, Philippe; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Background Intravenous injection of contrast material is routinely performed in order to differentiate nonaerated lung parenchyma from pleural effusion in critically ill patients undergoing thoracic computed tomography (CT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of contrast material on CT measurement of lung volumes in 14 patients with acute lung injury. Method A spiral thoracic CT scan, consisting of contiguous axial sections of 10 mm thickness, was performed from the apex to the diaphragm at end-expiration both before and 30 s (group 1; n = 7) or 15 min (group 2; n = 7) after injection of 80 ml contrast material. Volumes of gas and tissue, and volumic distribution of CT attenuations were measured before and after injection using specially designed software (Lungview®; Institut National des Télécommunications, Evry, France). The maximal artifactual increase in lung tissue resulting from a hypothetical leakage within the lung of the 80 ml contrast material was calculated. Results Injection of contrast material significantly increased the apparent volume of lung tissue by 83 ± 57 ml in group 1 and 102 ± 80 ml in group 2, whereas the corresponding maximal artifactual increases in lung tissue were 42 ± 52 ml and 31 ± 18 ml. Conclusion Because systematic injection of contrast material increases the amount of extravascular lung water in patients with acute lung injury, it seems prudent to avoid this procedure in critically ill patients undergoing a thoracic CT scan and to reserve its use for specific indications. PMID:12617742

  10. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  11. MorphML: level 1 of the NeuroML standards for neuronal morphology data and model specification.

    PubMed

    Crook, Sharon; Gleeson, Padraig; Howell, Fred; Svitak, Joseph; Silver, R Angus

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative neuroanatomical data are important for the study of many areas of neuroscience, and the complexity of problems associated with neuronal structure requires that research from multiple groups across many disciplines be combined. However, existing neuron-tracing systems, simulation environments, and tools for the visualization and analysis of neuronal morphology data use a variety of data formats, making it difficult to exchange data in a readily usable way. The NeuroML project was initiated to address these issues, and here we describe an extensible markup language standard, MorphML, which defines a common data format for neuronal morphology data and associated metadata to facilitate data and model exchange, database creation, model publication, and data archiving. We describe the elements of the standard in detail and outline the mappings between this format and those used by a number of popular applications for reconstruction, simulation, and visualization of neuronal morphology. PMID:17873371

  12. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  13. QualityML: a dictionary for quality metadata encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninyerola, Miquel; Sevillano, Eva; Serral, Ivette; Pons, Xavier; Zabala, Alaitz; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The scenario of rapidly growing geodata catalogues requires tools focused on facilitate users the choice of products. Having quality fields populated in metadata allow the users to rank and then select the best fit-for-purpose products. In this direction, we have developed the QualityML (http://qualityml.geoviqua.org), a dictionary that contains hierarchically structured concepts to precisely define and relate quality levels: from quality classes to quality measurements. Generically, a quality element is the path that goes from the higher level (quality class) to the lowest levels (statistics or quality metrics). This path is used to encode quality of datasets in the corresponding metadata schemas. The benefits of having encoded quality, in the case of data producers, are related with improvements in their product discovery and better transmission of their characteristics. In the case of data users, particularly decision-makers, they would find quality and uncertainty measures to take the best decisions as well as perform dataset intercomparison. Also it allows other components (such as visualization, discovery, or comparison tools) to be quality-aware and interoperable. On one hand, the QualityML is a profile of the ISO geospatial metadata standards providing a set of rules for precisely documenting quality indicator parameters that is structured in 6 levels. On the other hand, QualityML includes semantics and vocabularies for the quality concepts. Whenever possible, if uses statistic expressions from the UncertML dictionary (http://www.uncertml.org) encoding. However it also extends UncertML to provide list of alternative metrics that are commonly used to quantify quality. A specific example, based on a temperature dataset, is shown below. The annual mean temperature map has been validated with independent in-situ measurements to obtain a global error of 0.5 ° C. Level 0: Quality class (e.g., Thematic accuracy) Level 1: Quality indicator (e.g., Quantitative

  14. [Technology on Partial Resection and Segmentectomy for Early-stage Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, lung cancer patients who cannot undergo lobectomy because of impaired pulmonary function, co-morbidity, and/or advanced age are increasing. And patients whose lung cancer is small in size, peripherally located, and assumed to be N0 disease are also increasing. Therefore, we have a greater opportunity to perform sublobar lung resection for these patients. For sublobar resection, several surgical technologies have been developed. Virtual-assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP) is bronchoscopic multiple dye-marking technique under support of 3-dimensional virtual images to provide geometric information on the lung surface. This technic is effective to show the location of hardly palpable small lung cancer for thoracoscopic partial lung resection and to visualize the intersegmental / intersubsegmental planes for segmentectomy. Selective segmental inflation technic is to inflate the segment which includes lung cancer in order to make an intersegmental plane, so-called inflation-deflation line, to be cut. Using this technic, we can recognize the real margin from the tumor edge to the resected plane under thoracoscopic approach. PMID:27440032

  15. Motion Planning for a Three-Stage Multilumen Transoral Lung Access System

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Alan; Torres, Luis G.; Feins, Richard H.; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and early-stage diagnosis is critical to survival. Biopsy is typically required for a definitive diagnosis, but current low-risk clinical options for lung biopsy cannot access all biopsy sites. We introduce a motion planner for a multilumen transoral lung access system, a new system that has the potential to perform safe biopsies anywhere in the lung, which could enable more effective early-stage diagnosis of lung cancer. The system consists of three stages in which a bronchoscope is deployed transorally to the lung, a concentric tube robot pierces through the bronchial tubes into the lung parenchyma, and a steerable needle deploys through a properly oriented concentric tube and steers through the lung parenchyma to the target site while avoiding anatomical obstacles such as significant blood vessels. A sampling-based motion planner computes actions for each stage of the system and considers the coupling of the stages in an efficient manner. We demonstrate the motion planner's fast performance and ability to compute plans with high clearance from obstacles in simulated anatomical scenarios. PMID:26942041

  16. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J.; Mirams, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush–Larsen and Generalized Rush–Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a ‘gold standard’ for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior. PMID:25610400

  17. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J; Mirams, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush-Larsen and Generalized Rush-Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a 'gold standard' for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior. PMID:25610400

  18. SysML: A Language for Space System Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, S.; Strangapede, A.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an ESA/ESTEC internal study, performed with the support of INTECS, about modeling languages to support Space System Engineering activities and processes, with special emphasis on system requirements identification and analysis. The study was focused on the assessment of dedicated UML profiles, their positioning alongside the system and software life cycles and associated methodologies. Requirements for a Space System Requirements Language were identified considering the ECSS-E-10 and ECSS-E_40 processes. The study has identified SysML as a very promising language, having as theoretical background the reference system processes defined by the ISO15288, as well as industrial practices.

  19. Impairment of bronchial mucociliary clearance in long-term survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantation. The Paris-Sud Lung Transplant Group.

    PubMed

    Herve, P; Silbert, D; Cerrina, J; Simonneau, G; Dartevelle, P

    1993-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate bronchial mucociliary clearance after heart/lung and double lung transplantation. Bronchial mucociliary clearance was measured using a noninvasive radioaerosol technique: 99mTc-labeled albumin was aerosolized using a spinning-top generator (mass median aerodynamic diameter, 7.5 mu; geometric standard deviation, 1.5 mu). Radioactivity counts were acquired during 60 min with a gamma camera. A region of interest was drawn over the right lung delineated by a 133Xe lung ventilation image. Bronchial mucociliary clearance was assessed as the percentage of decrease in radioactivity per hour calculated on time-activity curves fitted by a monoexponential model. To exclude patients with acute lung rejection, opportunistic lung infection, and obliterative bronchiolitis, all patients with transplants underwent pulmonary function tests and bronchoscopic examination before clearance measurement. Eight heart/lung and five double-lung nonsmoking transplant patients with normal lung histology were studied 19.3 +/- 4.0 mo after surgery and compared to nine normal nonsmokers. A similar proximal deposition of the aerosol was obtained in patients with transplants and normal subjects; skew values of distribution histograms of aerosol radioactivity counts were 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, and the ratios between central and peripheral 99mTc radioactivity counts were 2.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.3 +/- 0.2, respectively. No significant difference was observed in bronchial clearance values between patients with heart/lung and double-lung transplants (26.4 +/- 3.0 percent/h vs 35.9 +/- 3.5 percent/h). Conversely, bronchial clearance was significantly lower in transplant recipients (30.0 +/- 2.5 percent/h) than in normal controls (58.7 +/- 6.2 percent/h; p < 0.001). This decreased bronchial clearance can be expected to increase the risk of lung infection in long-term survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantation. PMID:8380268

  20. Efficacy of a New Blind Insertion Technique of Arndt Endobronchial Blocker for Lung Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peng; Ni, Juan; Zhou, Cheng; Yu, Hai; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to find other methods of blind insertion of Arndt endobronchial blocker (AEB) for lung isolation when a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is unavailable. We compared the effectiveness and safety of 3 insertion techniques of AEB: Gum elastic bougie (GEB)-, bougie combined with cricoid displacing (BCD)-, and fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB)-guided insertion. Seventy-eight patients undergoing esophageal procedure and requiring left thoracotomy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: GEB group, BCD group, and FOB group. We recorded the successful placement of AEBs at first attempt, placement time, malposition of AEBs in supine and lateral decubitus position, the bronchus injury score, and other complications. The successful placement of AEB for the first attempt was 22/26, 25/26, and 26/26 patients in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. The placement times in GEB and BCD groups were longer than those in the FOB group (P < 0.05). AEB malposition occurred in 1/26, 2/26, 1/26 patients after lateral decubitus position, and AEBs were repositioned in 5/26, 3/26, 1/26 patients by FOB due to poor lung isolation in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. There was no difference for the bronchus injury scores and other complications among 3 groups (P > 0.05). Bougie and cricoid displacing-guided blind insertion of AEB seems to be a novel method, which is an effective and safe alternative when FOB was unavailable. PMID:27175708

  1. Integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guibert, Nicolas; Mazieres, Julien; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Rouviere, Damien; Didier, Alain; Hermant, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Tracheal or bronchial proximal stenoses occur as complications in 20-30% of lung cancers, resulting in a dramatic alteration in quality of life and poor prognosis. Bronchoscopic management of these obstructions is based on what are known as "thermal" techniques for intraluminal stenosis and/or placement of tracheal or bronchial prostheses for extrinsic compressions, leading to rapid symptom palliation in the vast majority of patients. This invasive treatment should only be used in cases of symptomatic obstructions and in the presence of viable bronchial tree and downstream parenchyma. This review aims to clarify 1) the available methods for assessing the characteristics of stenoses before treatment, 2) the various techniques available including their preferred indications, outcomes and complications, and 3) the integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the multidisciplinary management of proximal bronchial cancers and its synergistic effects with the other specific treatments (surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy). PMID:26324799

  2. ML detection in hyperspectral imagery: a GMRF modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Susan M.; Moura, Jose M. F.

    1999-07-01

    The use of hyperspectral imagery for remote sensing detection applications has received attention recently due to the ability of the hyperspectral sensor to provide registered information in both space and frequency. In this paper we extend our work on the development of an efficient implementation of the Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector in which we use a 3D Gauss-Markov random field to model the clutter background in the hyperspectral data. We review the details of the optimal ML estimation approach for obtaining the Markov parameters and discuss a gradient based optimization scheme for obtaining these estimates. To improve the computational efficiency of the overall detection algorithm, we develop an estimation method based on some simple mathematical approximations that allows us to explicitly solve for the Markov parameters. In addition, we use a stochastic, rather than deterministic target model by implementing a single hypothesis test in place of the more traditional binary hypothesis paradigm. We compare the detection performance and the computational requirements of our updated model and detector implementation to the benchmark RX detection algorithm for hyperspectral imagery.

  3. CaML: Camera Markup Language for Network Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayles, Maxwell; Wu, Xiaojing; Boyd, Jeffrey E.

    2003-01-01

    As processor speeds increase and the cost of digital video technology falls, the use of video is expanding in a plethora of applications including video surveillance, human computer interaction, tele-instruction, and enhanced sports broadcasts. However, a major problem that now faces developers of video systems is the requirement to build the low-level video processing from the ground up for each application. This paper describes a camera system that acts not merely as a provider of pixels, but as a video information server. A video application interacts with the camera server using the Camera Markup Language (CaML, pronounced camel) proposed here. CaML is an XML-based (Extensible Markup Language) data format for exchanging video information with a server. It provides a layer of abstraction between the application and the pixels to simplify the development process and is well-suited to exchanging data over a network. Using a camera as a server on a network makes it a simple matter for a single application to use multiple cameras. Local- and wide-area networks (LANs and WANs) replace the need for conventional methods for routing video signals.

  4. No evidence for a role of Merkel cell polyomavirus in small cell lung cancer among Iranian subjects.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Shirin; Yousefi, Forough; Seifi, Sharareh; Khosravi, Adnan; Nadji, Seyed Alireza

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), as a new member of polyomaviruses, has recently been discovered as a possible etiologic factor for human cancer. It was first detected in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant lung tumor which shares histopathological and genetic features with MCC, as both are of neuroendocrine origin. In this study, we investigated the presence of MCPyV DNA in SCLC specimens by real-time PCR. Our null hypothesis was that MCPyV is an etiologic factor in SCLC, as previously seen in MCC. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were obtained from 50 patients, who underwent bronchoscopic biopsy and were diagnosed with SCLC between March 2010 and March 2012. Similarly, we obtained bronchoscopic biopsy specimens from 29 patients, who were diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All samples were obtained at a single center (Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran). Real-time PCR was done to detect the presence of MCPyV DNA. After excluding one specimen from the SCLC group due to loss of tumor tissue, we did not detect MCPyV DNA in samples from patients with either SCLC (the mean age 58.9 years, male/female ratio: 7.3/1) or NSCLC. Our results suggest that MCPyV does not play a role in the pathogenesis of SCLC, which is in accord with the results from other prior investigations. PMID:25238937

  5. Endotracheal tube intubation with the aid of a laryngeal mask airway, a fiberoptic bronchoscope, and a tube exchanger in a difficult airway patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joon Kyung; Kim, Hyung Gon; Kim, Jung Eun; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kang, Jong-Man

    2014-03-01

    A 28-year-old male patient with occipito-atlanto-axial instability underwent a cervical fusion with posterior technique. Post-operatively, the endotracheal tube (ETT) was removed, and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. After transfer, an upper airway obstruction developed and reintubations with a laryngoscope were attempted but failed. We inserted a #4 proseal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and passed a 5.0 mm ETT through the LMA with the aid of a fiberoptic bronchoscope. We passed a tube exchanger through the 5.0 mm ETT and exchanged it with a 7.5 mm ETT. This method may be a useful alternative for difficult tracheal intubations. PMID:24729847

  6. Segmentation and frequency domain ML pitch estimation of speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Salim A.

    The rate of oscillation of the vocal cords and its inverse value, the pitch period, are important speech features that are useful for speech analysis/synthesis, speech recognition, and speech coding. An automatic approach for the estimation of the pitch period in continuous speech is presented. The proposed approach considers the segmentation of the speech signal into homogeneous regions and the detection of segments that are generated by vocal cord oscillations prior to pitch estimation. The pitch period of voiced segments is estimated in the frequency domain using a maximum likelihood (ML) procedure. The estimated pitch period is chosen to maximize a likelihood function over the range of expected pitch periods. An efficient simplified realization of the generalized likelihood ratio segmentation method is also described.

  7. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A.; Olsen, Karen J.; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this “scientific meta-data” and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML—a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML. PMID:27134778

  8. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  9. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/20675678 . Kotloff RM, Keshavjee S. Lung transplantation. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst MD, et ... 58. Solomon M, Grasemann H, Keshavjee S. Pediatric lung transplantation. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2010; 57(2):375- ...

  10. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  11. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases that may require a lung transplant are: Cystic fibrosis Damage to the arteries of the lung because ... BC; Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee; ... Therapies Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: ...

  12. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  13. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Vazquez de Anda, G F; Lachmann, R A; Verbrugge, S J; Gommers, D; Haitsma, J J; Lachmann, B

    2001-07-01

    Disturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish lung function after ventilation-induced lung injury. Adult rats were exposed to high PIP without PEEP for 20 min. Thereafter, the animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first group was killed immediately after randomization and used as an untreated control. The second group received only sham treatment and ventilation, and three groups received treatment with perfluorocarbon (10 mL x kg(-1), 20 mL x kg(-1), and 20 ml x kg(-1) plus an additional 5 mL x kg(-1) after 1 h). The four groups were maintained on mechanical ventilation for a further 2-h observation period. Blood gases, lung mechanics, total protein concentration, minimal surface tension, and small/large surfactant aggregates ratio were determined. The results show that in ventilation-induced lung injury, partial liquid ventilation with different amounts of perflubron improves gas exchange and pulmonary function, when compared to a group of animals treated with standard respiratory care. These effects have been observed despite the presence of a high intra-alveolar protein concentration, especially in those groups treated with 10 and 20 mL of perflubron. The data suggest that replacement of perfluorocarbon, lost over time, is crucial to maintain the constant effects of partial liquid ventilation. PMID:11510811

  14. Lung cancer detection using a miniature sodium iodide detector and cobalt-57 bleomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Nevin, W.S.; Barber, H.B.; Donahue, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A small sodium iodide scintillation detector was designed for insertion through a fiberoptic bronchoscope to detect and localize sites of deposition of cobalt-57 bleomycin in lung cancer. The detector was used in 40 diagnostic studies of 34 patients; 21 of the patients had tumors. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of the detector to those of plain chest x-ray films and bronchoscopy in detecting tumors. Sensitivity and specificity for the detector were 68 percent and 80 percent, respectively; for bronchoscopy, 72 percent and 100 percent; and for roentgenograms, 80 percent and 53 percent. Sensitivity for the detector and bronchoscopy combined was 92 percent. The detector succeeded in locating nonvisible submucosal and extraluminal tumors, and may contribute to early diagnosis and more accurate staging of lung cancer.

  15. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  16. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  17. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  18. Lung vasculature imaging using speckle variance optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Lane, Pierre M.; McWilliams, Annette; Shaipanich, Tawimas; MacAulay, Calum E.; Yang, Victor X. D.; Lam, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Architectural changes in and remodeling of the bronchial and pulmonary vasculature are important pathways in diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. However, there is a lack of methods that can find and examine small bronchial vasculature in vivo. Structural lung airway imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has previously been shown to be of great utility in examining bronchial lesions during lung cancer screening under the guidance of autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Using a fiber optic endoscopic OCT probe, we acquire OCT images from in vivo human subjects. The side-looking, circumferentially-scanning probe is inserted down the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope and manually guided to the imaging location. Multiple images are collected with the probe spinning proximally at 100Hz. Due to friction, the distal end of the probe does not spin perfectly synchronous with the proximal end, resulting in non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD) of the images. First, we apply a correction algorithm to remove NURD. We then use a speckle variance algorithm to identify vasculature. The initial data show a vascaulture density in small human airways similar to what would be expected.

  19. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT): a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Charlie; Herth, Felix JF; Kovitz, Kevin L; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ernst, Armin; Goldin, Jonathan; Noppen, Marc; Criner, Gerard J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT) posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 45% of predicted, hyperinflation (total lung capacity measured by body plethysmography > 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted), and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC) score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema

  20. RIF RuleML Rosetta Ring: Round-Tripping the Dlex Subset of Datalog RuleML and RIF-Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Harold

    The RIF RuleML overlap area is of broad interest for Web rule interchange. Its kernel, Dlex, is defined syntactically and semantically as the common sublanguage of Datalog RuleML and RIF-Core restricted to positional arguments and non-conjunctive rule conclusions, and allowing equality plus externals in rule premises (only). Semantics-preserving mappings are then defined between the Dlex subset of the RIF Presentation Syntax and RIF/XML, RIF/XML and RuleML/XML, as well as RuleML/XML and the Prolog-like RuleML/POSL. These mappings are the basis for RIF RuleML feature comparison and translation. The slightly augmented mappings can be composed into a ('Rosetta') ring for round-tripping between all pairs of Dlex representations.

  1. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  2. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhurst, Tim; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) plays a key role in the evaluation of undiagnosed lung nodules, when primary lung cancer is strongly suspected, or when it has already been diagnosed by other techniques. Although technical factors may compromise characterization of small or highly mobile lesions, lesions without apparent FDG uptake can generally be safely observed, whereas FDG-avid lung nodules almost always need further evaluation. FDG-PET/CT is now the primary staging imaging modality for patients with lung cancer who are being considered for curative therapy with either surgery or definitive radiation therapy. PMID:25829084

  3. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-01

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml . PMID:24906114

  4. Randomised controlled trial comparing the Ambu® aScope™2 with a conventional fibreoptic bronchoscope in orotracheal intubation of anaesthetised adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Ng, I; Ang, J P; Koh, S M; Lee, K; Mezzavia, P; Morris, J; Loh, F; Segal, R

    2015-07-01

    Fibreoptic intubation remains an essential skill for anaesthetists to master. In addition to the reusable fibrescope, an alternative disposable videoscope is available (aScope(™)2, Ambu®, Ballerup, Denmark). A total of 60 anaesthetised adult patients were randomised to either having orotracheal intubation using the aScope 2 or a Karl Storz fibrescope. Intubations were performed by experienced operators who were familiar with both devices. The primary outcome was the Global Rating Scale score. Secondary outcomes included intubation success, number of intubation attempts and intubation time. Other subjective outcomes including practicality, useability and image quality were also recorded. There was no significant difference in the Global Rating Scale score, intubation success orintubation time between the aScope 2 or Karl Storz fibrescope. Global Rating Scale scores were three and two in the aScope 2 and Karl Storz groups respectively (P=0.14). All of the other subjective outcomes were similar between the two groups, except that operators found it easier to use the aScope 2 compared to the fibrescope. There was no significant difference in clinical performance between the aScope 2 and the Karl Storz fibreoptic bronchoscope. The aScope's practicality, disposability and recently improved version (aScope(™)3) potentially make it an acceptable alternative to the reusable fibrescope. PMID:26099760

  5. Non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria in hospital tap water and water used for haemodialysis and bronchoscope flushing: prevalence and distribution of antibiotic resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Sara; Quaranta, Gianluigi; De Meo, Concetta; Bruno, Stefania; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Carovillano, Serena; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2014-11-15

    This study provides a detailed description of the distribution of non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) collected in water sources (tap water and water used for haemodialysis and bronchoscope flushing) from different wards of a tertiary care hospital. The aim is to identify risk practices for patients or to alert clinicians to the possible contamination of environment and medical devices. The resistance profile of NFGNB environmental isolates has shown that more than half (55.56%) of the strains isolated were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested in different antimicrobial categories. In particular, 38.89% of these strains were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 16.67% were extensively drug resistant (XDR). The most prevalent bacterial species recovered in water samples were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Ralstonia pickettii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Analysis of antibiotic resistance rates has shown remarkable differences between Pseudomonadaceae (P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens) and emerging pathogens, such as S. maltophilia and R. pickettii. Multidrug resistance can be relatively common among nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa, which represent the large majority of clinical isolates; moreover, our findings highlight that the emergent antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens, such as R. pickettii and S. maltophilia, isolated from hospital environments could be potentially more dangerous than other more known waterborne pathogens, if not subjected to surveillance to direct the decontamination procedures. PMID:25173861

  6. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  7. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  8. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  9. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

    MedlinePlus

    Air around the lung; Air outside the lung; Pneumothorax dropped lung; Spontaneous pneumothorax ... Collapsed lung can be caused by an injury to the lung. Injuries can include a gunshot or knife wound ...

  10. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  11. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  12. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  13. Cisplatin loaded albumin mesospheres for lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2015-01-01

    The low solubility of cisplatin in aqueous solution limits the treatment effectiveness and the application of cisplatin in various kinds of drug-eluting devices. Although cisplatin has a high solubility in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the toxicity of cisplatin can be greatly reduced while dissolved in DMSO. In this study, the solid powder of cisplatin-loaded albumin mesospheres (CDDP/DMSO-AMS), in a size range of 1 to 10 µm, were post-loaded with cisplatin and showed high cisplatin content (16% w/w) and effective cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. Cisplatin were efficiently absorbed into the albumin mesospheres (AMS) in DMSO and, most importantly, the toxicity of cisplatin was remained at 100% after the loading process. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS was designed for the intratumoral injection through the bronchoscopic catheter or dry powder inhalation (DPI) due to its high stability in air or in solution. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed a fast cisplatin release within 24 hours. In the in vitro study, CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed high effectiveness on killing the lung cancer cells including the non-small cell lung cancer (NCL-H23 and A549), malignant mesothelioma (CRL-2081) and the mouse lung carcinoma (Lewis lung carcinoma) cell lines. The albumin based mesospheres provide an ideal loading matrix for cisplatin and other metal-based drugs due to the high swelling degree and fast uptake rate in the organic solvents with high polarity. In addition, to investigate the effects of polysaccharides, such as chitosan and chondroitin, on enhancing loading efficiency and lasting cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the polysaccharide-modified albumin mesospheres were synthesized and loaded with cisplatin in this study. PMID:25973300

  14. Cisplatin loaded albumin mesospheres for lung cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2015-01-01

    The low solubility of cisplatin in aqueous solution limits the treatment effectiveness and the application of cisplatin in various kinds of drug-eluting devices. Although cisplatin has a high solubility in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the toxicity of cisplatin can be greatly reduced while dissolved in DMSO. In this study, the solid powder of cisplatin-loaded albumin mesospheres (CDDP/DMSO-AMS), in a size range of 1 to 10 µm, were post-loaded with cisplatin and showed high cisplatin content (16% w/w) and effective cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. Cisplatin were efficiently absorbed into the albumin mesospheres (AMS) in DMSO and, most importantly, the toxicity of cisplatin was remained at 100% after the loading process. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS was designed for the intratumoral injection through the bronchoscopic catheter or dry powder inhalation (DPI) due to its high stability in air or in solution. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed a fast cisplatin release within 24 hours. In the in vitro study, CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed high effectiveness on killing the lung cancer cells including the non-small cell lung cancer (NCL-H23 and A549), malignant mesothelioma (CRL-2081) and the mouse lung carcinoma (Lewis lung carcinoma) cell lines. The albumin based mesospheres provide an ideal loading matrix for cisplatin and other metal-based drugs due to the high swelling degree and fast uptake rate in the organic solvents with high polarity. In addition, to investigate the effects of polysaccharides, such as chitosan and chondroitin, on enhancing loading efficiency and lasting cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the polysaccharide-modified albumin mesospheres were synthesized and loaded with cisplatin in this study. PMID:25973300

  15. Musashi1 as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Yu, Huina; Linnoila, R Ilona; Li, Laodong; Li, Dangyu; Mo, Biwen; Okano, Hideyuki; Penalva, Luiz O F; Glazer, Robert I

    2013-05-01

    Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. One approach to improving survival is the identification of biomarkers to detect early stage disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of the stem cell and progenitor cell marker, Musashi1 (Msi1), as a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Functional studies in A549 bronchioalveolar carcinoma and NCI-H520 squamous cell carcinoma cells revealed that Msi1 was enriched in spheroid cultures of tumor cells and in the CD133+ cell population. Downregulation of Msi1 by lentivirus-mediated expression of an Msi1 shRNA reduced spheroid colony proliferation. Growth inhibition was associated with reduced nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibition of the processing of intracellular Notch. In primary lung cancer, Msi1 protein expression was elevated in 86% of 202 tissue microarray specimens, and Msi1 mRNA was increased in 80% of 118 bronchoscopic biopsies, including metastatic disease, but was rarely detected in adjacent normal lung tissue and in non-malignant diseased tissue. Msi1 was expressed in a diffuse pattern in most tumor subtypes, except in squamous cell carcinomas, where it appeared in a focal pattern in 50% of specimens. Thus, Msi1 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for all lung cancer subtypes. PMID:23715514

  16. Musashi1 as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, R. Ilona; Li, Laodong; Li, Dangyu; Mo, Biwen; Okano, Hideyuki; Penalva, Luiz O. F.; Glazer, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. One approach to improving survival is the identification of biomarkers to detect early stage disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of the stem cell and progenitor cell marker, Musashi1 (Msi1), as a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Functional studies in A549 bronchioalveolar carcinoma and NCI-H520 squamous cell carcinoma cells revealed that Msi1 was enriched in spheroid cultures of tumor cells and in the CD133+ cell population. Downregulation of Msi1 by lentivirus-mediated expression of an Msi1 shRNA reduced spheroid colony proliferation. Growth inhibition was associated with reduced nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibition of the processing of intracellular Notch. In primary lung cancer, Msi1 protein expression was elevated in 86% of 202 tissue microarray specimens, and Msi1 mRNA was increased in 80% of 118 bronchoscopic biopsies, including metastatic disease, but was rarely detected in adjacent normal lung tissue and in non-malignant diseased tissue. Msi1 was expressed in a diffuse pattern in most tumor subtypes, except in squamous cell carcinomas, where it appeared in a focal pattern in 50% of specimens. Thus, Msi1 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for all lung cancer subtypes. PMID:23715514

  17. Decreased ERCC1 Expression After Platinum-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Podmaniczky, Eszter; Fábián, Katalin; Pápay, Judit; Puskás, Rita; Gyulai, Márton; Furák, József; Tiszlavicz, László; Losonczy, György; Tímár, József; Moldvay, Judit

    2015-04-01

    We have already demonstrated in a small cohort of 17 non-small cell lung cancer patients that ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) protein expression decreased after platinum-based treatment, however, certain clinicopathological parameters, such as histologic subtypes, ERCC1 expression scores, chemotherapeutic combinations, response rate, gender and smoking history were not analyzed. The aim of our present study was to extend the studied cohort and analyze those parameters. ERCC1 protein expression was examined in 46 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. 46 bronchoscopic biopsy samples (27 squamous cell carcinomas /SCC/ and 19 adenocarcinomas /ADC/) together with their corresponding surgical biopsies were studied. ERCC1 immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Staining scores were calculated by multiplying the percentage of positive tumor cells (0-100) by the staining intensity (0-3). 24/27 bronchoscopic SCC tissues expressed ERCC1. Thirteen of these cases became negative after neoadjuvant therapy and the expression differences between pre- and postchemotherapy samples were highly significant (p < 0.001). 11/19 bronchoscopic ADC tissues expressed ERCC1. Six of these cases became negative after neoadjuvant therapy and the expression differences were significant (p < 0.010). There was no newly expressed ERCC1 postoperatively. Comparison of staining score changes revealed more pronounced decrease in SCC (p = 0.032). We observed no correlation between initial ERCC1 level or ERCC1 decrease and overall survival, but we demonstrated correlations between decrease in ERCC1 expression and histologic subtypes of tumors and gender. We could confirm our previous data in a larger cohort that platinum-based chemotherapy affects the ERCC1 expression probably referring to an induction of tumor cell selection. PMID:25194563

  18. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration versus Standard Bronchoscopic Modalities for Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Xing; Chen, Ru-Xuan; Huang, Hui; Shao, Chi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yong-Zhe; Xu, Zuo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is an effective technique used to precisely detect enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The efficacy of EBUS-TBNA versus standard modalities for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains to be elucidated. In this meta-analysis, we compared the efficacies of these methods. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Cpvip, CNKI, and the bibliographies of the relevant references. We analyzed the data obtained with Revman 5.2 (Nordic Cochrane Center, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Stata 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Sixteen studies with a total of 1823 participants met the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted regarding the diagnostic yield of each approach. The ORs for EBUS-TBNA versus transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis ranged from 0.26 to 126.58, and the pooled OR was 5.89 (95% CI, 2.20–15.79, P = 0.0004). These findings indicated that EBUS-TBNA provided a much higher diagnostic yield than TBLB. The pooled OR for EBUS-TBNA + TBLB + endobronchial biopsy (EBB) versus TBNA + TBLB + EBB was 1.54 (95% CI, 0.61–3.93, P = 0.36), implying that there was no significant difference between their diagnostic yields. However, clinical heterogeneity was reflected in the nature of the studies and in the operative variables. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that EBUS-TBNA + TBLB + EBB could be used for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, if available. At medical centers without EBUS-TBNA, TBNA + TBLB + EBB could be used instead. PMID:27364799

  19. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  20. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to intubation: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope versus McCoy laryngoscope in presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilization for traumatic cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nitesh; Purohit, Shobha; Kalra, Poonam; Lall, Tarun; Khare, Avneesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intubation is known to cause an exaggerated hemodynamic response in the form of tachycardia, hypertension, and dysrhythmias. In cervical spine instability, intubation has to be performed using cervical immobilization to prevent exacerbation of spinal cord injuries. Application of rigid cervical collar may reduce cervical spine movements, but it hinders tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic responses to fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and McCoy laryngoscope in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with rigid cervical collar simulating cervical spine immobilization in the situation of cervical trauma. Methods: Thirty-two patients in the age range 20–50 years, of American Society of Anaesthesiologist I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups according to the technique used for intubation: Group A (flexible FOB) and Group B (McCoy laryngoscope). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, intraoperatively, immediately before and after induction, and immediately after intubation. Thereafter, every min for next 5 min. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison of categorical data was done by Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by the parametric test (unpaired t-test), and probability was considered to be significant if <0.05. Results: Due to intubation response, HR and blood pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) above preoperative values in McCoy group as compared to the fiberoptic group. Conclusion: We suggest that the flexible FOB is an effective and better method of intubation in a situation like traumatic cervical spine injury and provides stable hemodynamics. PMID:26712970

  1. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation may be the only intervention that can prolong survival and improve quality of life for those individuals with advanced lung disease who are acceptable candidates for the procedure. However, these candidates may be extremely ill and require ventilator and/or circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, and lung transplantation recipients are at risk of numerous post-transplant complications that include surgical complications, primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, opportunistic infection, and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which may be caused by chronic rejection. Many advances in pre- and post-transplant management have led to improved outcomes over the past decade. These include the creation of sound guidelines for candidate selection, improved surgical techniques, advances in donor lung preservation, an improving ability to suppress and treat allograft rejection, the development of prophylaxis protocols to decrease the incidence of opportunistic infection, more effective therapies for treating infectious complications, and the development of novel therapies to treat and manage CLAD. A major obstacle to prolonged survival beyond the early post-operative time period is the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), which is the most common form of CLAD. This manuscript discusses recent and evolving advances in the field of lung transplantation. PMID:23710330

  2. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, YOKO; KODAMA, KEN; MANIWA, TOMOHIRO; TAKEDA, MASASHI; KISHIMA, HIROKI

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement mostly occurs in the adenocarcinoma subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with squamous cell carcinoma harboring the ALK rearrangement are extremely rare. This is a case report of a squamous cell carcinoma patient with EML4-ALK rearrangement. An elderly man with a heavy smoking history presented with a mass lesion in the right main bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the tumor confirmed a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, and it was proven to harbor ALK rearrangement, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization, but not epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. The patient underwent radiation therapy, with a markedly favorable response. ALK-targeted treatment may be a viable option if disease progression occurs in such a case in the future. PMID:27330767

  3. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  4. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  5. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  8. Tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Ogino, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Koeda, Yorihiko; Ueda, Hironobu; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Aoki, Hidehiko; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2012-04-01

    We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22057370

  9. Position systématique de Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    1999-07-01

    The species Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999, described as a Jacanidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) is very different from the recent and fossil Jacanidae and corresponds to a Coraciidae (Aves: Coraciiformes). It is here placed in the extinct genus Geranopterus and becomes Geranopterus bohemicus ( Mlíkovsky, 1999).

  10. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... years. Their conditions are so severe that other treatments, such as medicines or breathing devices, no longer work. Lung transplants most often are used to treat people who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary ...

  11. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  12. CodonPhyML: Fast Maximum Likelihood Phylogeny Estimation under Codon Substitution Models

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Manuel; Zoller, Stefan; Anisimova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Markov models of codon substitution naturally incorporate the structure of the genetic code and the selection intensity at the protein level, providing a more realistic representation of protein-coding sequences compared with nucleotide or amino acid models. Thus, for protein-coding genes, phylogenetic inference is expected to be more accurate under codon models. So far, phylogeny reconstruction under codon models has been elusive due to computational difficulties of dealing with high dimension matrices. Here, we present a fast maximum likelihood (ML) package for phylogenetic inference, CodonPhyML offering hundreds of different codon models, the largest variety to date, for phylogeny inference by ML. CodonPhyML is tested on simulated and real data and is shown to offer excellent speed and convergence properties. In addition, CodonPhyML includes most recent fast methods for estimating phylogenetic branch supports and provides an integral framework for models selection, including amino acid and DNA models. PMID:23436912

  13. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  14. RiverML: Standardizing the Communication of River Model Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, S.; Maidment, D. R.; Arctur, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    RiverML is a proposed language for conveying a description of river channel and floodplain geometry and flow characteristics through the internet in a standardized way. A key goal of the RiverML project is to allow interoperability between all hydraulic and hydrologic models, whether they are industry standard software packages or custom-built research tools. By providing a common transfer format for common model inputs and outputs, RiverML can shorten the development time and enhance the immediate utility of innovative river modeling tools. RiverML will provide descriptions of cross sections and multiple flow lines, allowing the construction of wireframe representations. In addition, RiverML will support descriptions of network connectivity, properties such as roughness coefficients, and time series observations such as water surface elevation and flow rate. The language is constructed in a modular fashion such that the geometry information, network information, and time series observations can be communicated independently of each other, allowing an arbitrary suite of software packages to contribute to a coherently modeled scenario. Funding for the development of RiverML is provided through an NSF grant to CUAHSI HydroShare project, a web-based collaborative environment for sharing data & models. While RiverML is geared toward the transfer of data, HydroShare will serve as a repository for storing water-related data and models of any format, while providing enhanced functionality for standardized formats such as RiverML, WaterML, and shapefiles. RiverML is a joint effort between the CUAHSI HydroShare development team, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group, and an international community of data providers, data users, and software developers.

  15. Endobronchial radiation therapy (EBRT) in the management of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, M. III; Leidholdt, E.M. Jr.; Tatera, B.S.; Joseph, J. )

    1990-06-01

    Between October 1987 and November 1988, 19 endobronchial Iridium-192 line source placements were attempted in 17 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer. Approximately 30 Gy was delivered to the endobronchus using a low dose rate (LDR) afterloading technique delivering a mean dose of 70 cGy/hr at 5 mm. Improvement in subjective symptoms was noted in 67% of evaluable patients whereas objective responses defined by chest X ray and bronchoscopy were noted in 26% and 60%, respectively. No significant morbidity was observed. The radiation exposure to health care workers was low ranging from 10 to 40 mRem per treatment course with most of the staff receiving less than 10 mRem per treatment course (minimal detectable level 10 mRem). The results of this series are compared with selected series using low dose rate as well as intermediate dose rate (IDR) and high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial radiation therapy (EBRT). Based on bronchoscopic responses from the selected series reviewed, both HDR low total dose per treatment (range 7.5-10 Gy) and LDR high total dose per treatment (range 30-50 Gy) are effective in palliating the vast majority of patients with endobronchial lesions. Intermediate dose rate is also effective using fractions similar to high dose rate but total dose similar to low dose rate. The efficacy of endobronchial radiation therapy in the palliative setting suggest a possible role for endobronchial radiation therapy combined with external beam irradiation with or without chemotherapy in the initial management of localized lung cancer. Defining the optimal total dose, dose rate, and the exact role of endobronchial radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer will require large cooperative trials with standardization of techniques and definitions.

  16. Bronchoscopic interventions for severe COPD

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Robert F.; Parrish, Scott; Sarkar, Saiyad; Krimsky, William; Turner, J. Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes severe handicap among smokers. Most patients have to remain under continuous oxygen therapy at home. Moreover, respiratory infections are very common among these patients and vaccination is obligatory against influenza. Emphysema and bronchiectasis are observed with computed tomography (CT) and in several situations these parenchymal damages are responsible for pneumothorax in one case and pseudomonas aeroginosa infection. Novel mini-invasive techniques are used currently for emphysema treatments which are described extensively throughout our current work. PMID:25337396

  17. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  18. Discovery of ML326: the first sub-micromolar, selective M5 PAM

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Patirck R.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Lamasal, Atin; Vinson, Paige N.; Smith, Emery; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S.; Engers, Julie L.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Wood, Michael R.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    This letter describes the further chemical optimization of the M5 PAM MLPCN probes ML129 and ML172. A multi-dimensional iterative parallel synthesis effort quickly explored isatin replacements and a number of southern heterobiaryl variations with no improvement over ML129 and ML172. An HTS campaign identified several weak M5 PAMs (M5 EC50 >10 μM) with a structurally related isatin core that possessed a southern phenethyl ether linkage. While SAR within the HTS series was very shallow and unable to be optimized, grafting the phenethyl ether linkage onto the ML129/ML172 cores led to the first sub-micromolar M5 PAM, ML326 (VU0467903), (human and rat M5 EC50s of 409 nM and 480 nM, respectively) with excellent mAChR selectivity (M1-M4 EC50s <30 μM) and a robust 20-fold leftward shift of the ACh CRC. PMID:23562060

  19. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  20. The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

  1. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  2. Rare A2ML1 variants confer susceptibility to otitis media.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Chiong, Charlotte M; Reyes-Quintos, Ma Rina T; Tantoco, Ma Leah C; Wang, Xin; Acharya, Anushree; Abbe, Izoduwa; Giese, Arnaud P; Smith, Joshua D; Allen, E Kaitlynn; Li, Biao; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Garcia, Marieflor Cristy; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D V; Labra, Patrick John; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa I; Chan, Abner L; Wang, Gao T; Daly, Kathleen A; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Patel, Janak A; Riazuddin, Saima; Sale, Michele M; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ahmed, Zubair M; Abes, Generoso T; Leal, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    A duplication variant within the middle ear-specific gene A2ML1 cosegregates with otitis media in an indigenous Filipino pedigree (LOD score = 7.5 at reduced penetrance) and lies within a founder haplotype that is also shared by 3 otitis-prone European-American and Hispanic-American children but is absent in non-otitis-prone children and >62,000 next-generation sequences. We identified seven additional A2ML1 variants in six otitis-prone children. Collectively, our studies support a role for A2ML1 in the pathophysiology of otitis media. PMID:26121085

  3. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Israel L.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.; Mariani, Alessandro W.; Fernandes, Flávio G.; Unterpertinger, Fernando V.; Canzian, Mauro; Jatene, Fabio B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex® was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98). The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p = 0.035). The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H2O in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H2O in Group 2 (p = 0.816). The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p = 0.87). The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0), and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm2 and 137.50/mm2, respectively (p = 0.71). CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation. PMID:23018310

  4. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: NORAMET intercomparison of volume standards at 50 mL and 100 mL (SIM.M.FF-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, C.; Trujillo Juarez, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Bean, V.

    2003-01-01

    An intercomparison of volume standards, 50 mL and 100 mL pycnometers, was decided on at the NORAMET Technical Contacts Meeting of 8-9 June 1998. The participating laboratories were CENAM, NIST, and NRC. NRC acted as the pilot laboratory. The comparison was done between April 1999 and October 1999. The pycnometers were not protected against evaporation by a supplementary cap. Even with this handicap, the three laboratories agreed with one another very well. The difference between maximum and minimum reported volumes never exceeded 0.014%. This comparison was assigned the number SIM.M.FF-S1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the SIM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Executing medical logic modules expressed in ArdenML using Drools.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chai Young; Sward, Katherine A; Haug, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Arden Syntax is an HL7 standard language for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Despite nearly 2 decades of availability, Arden Syntax has not been widely used. This has been attributed to the lack of a generally available compiler to implement the logic, to Arden's complex syntax, to the challenges of mapping local data to data references in the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs), or, more globally, to the general absence of decision support in healthcare computing. An XML representation (ArdenML) may partially address the technical challenges. MLMs created in ArdenML can be converted into executable files using standard transforms written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) language. As an example, we have demonstrated an approach to executing MLMs written in ArdenML using the Drools business rule management system. Extensions to ArdenML make it possible to generate a user interface through which an MLM developer can test for logical errors. PMID:22180871

  6. 84. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM SWITCHBOARD FRONT ELEVATION (ML829/40FS) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - SWITCHBOARD - FRONT ELEVATION (ML-8-29/40-FS) August 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  7. 98. ARAIII. ML1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor pit by hoist. July 13, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4049. Photographer: Lowin. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 95. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1. Shows test and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1. Shows test and control buildings, berms, fencing. March 14, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-1666. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 34. GENERAL VIEW OF ML9. TOP OF 'MILK STOOL' HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. GENERAL VIEW OF ML-9. TOP OF 'MILK STOOL' HAS BEEN REMOVED (LEFT) AND MACHINE ROOM OF HAMMERHEAD CRANE IS VISIBLE ON GROUND AT RIGHT. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  10. Parameter identifiability of cardiac ionic models using a novel CellML least squares optimization tool.

    PubMed

    Hui, Ben B B; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H

    2007-01-01

    Published models of excitable cells can be used to fit to a range of action potential experimental data. CellML is a well-defined standard for publishing and exchanging such models, but currently there is a lack of software that utilizes CellML for parameter analysis. In this paper, we introduce a Java-based utility capable of performing model simulation, identifiability analysis, and parameter optimization of ionic cardiac cell models written in CellML. Identifiability analysis was performed in seven CellML models. Parameter identifiability was consistently improved by using the compensatory membrane current as opposed to the membrane voltage as the residual. as well as through the introduction of an additional stimulus set used in the fitting process. PMID:18003205